Sample records for altitude polar orbiting

  1. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Olsen, Nils; Ritter, P.


    Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly...

  2. The small satellite NINA-MITA to study galactic and solar cosmic rays in low-altitude polar orbit (United States)

    Furano, G.; Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; de Pascale, M. P.; Iannucci, A.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Reali, E.; Sparvoli, R.; Bakaldin, A.; Galper, A.; Koldashov, M.; Korotkov, M.; Leonov, A.; Mikhailov, V.; Murashov, A.; Voronov, S.; Mazzenga, G.; Ricci, M.; Castellini, G.; Barbiellini, M.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Cirami, R.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, N.; Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; de Marzo, C.; Adriani, O.; Papini, P.; Piccardi, S.; Spillantini, P.

    The satellite MITA, carrying on board the scientific payload NINA-2, was launched on July the 15th, 2000 from the cosmodrome of Plesetsk (Russia) with a Cosmos-3M rocket. The satellite and the payload are currently operating within nominal parameters. NINA-2 is the first scientific payload for the technological flight of the Italian small satellite MITA. The detector used in this mission is identical to the one already flying on the Russian satellite Resurs-O1 n.4 in a 840-km sun-synchronous orbit, but makes use of the extensive computer and telemetry capabilities of MITA bus to improve the active data acquisition time. NINA physics objectives are to study cosmic nuclei from hydrogen to iron in the energy range between 10 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n during the years 2000-2003, that is the solar maximum period. The device is capable of charge identification up to iron with isotope sensitivity up to oxigen. The 87.3 degrees, 460 km altitude polar orbit allows investigations of cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin, so to study long and short term solar transient phenomena, and the study of the trapped radiation at higher geomagnetic cutoff.

  3. Dust observations at orbital altitudes surrounding Mars. (United States)

    Andersson, L; Weber, T D; Malaspina, D; Crary, F; Ergun, R E; Delory, G T; Fowler, C M; Morooka, M W; McEnulty, T; Eriksson, A I; Andrews, D J; Horanyi, M; Collette, A; Yelle, R; Jakosky, B M


    Dust is common close to the martian surface, but no known process can lift appreciable concentrations of particles to altitudes above ~150 kilometers. We present observations of dust at altitudes ranging from 150 to above 1000 kilometers by the Langmuir Probe and Wave instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Based on its distribution, we interpret this dust to be interplanetary in origin. A comparison with laboratory measurements indicates that the dust grain size ranges from 1 to 12 micrometers, assuming a typical grain velocity of ~18 kilometers per second. These direct observations of dust entering the martian atmosphere improve our understanding of the sources, sinks, and transport of interplanetary dust throughout the inner solar system and the associated impacts on Mars's atmosphere.

  4. Semianalytic Integration of High-Altitude Orbits under Lunisolar Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lara


    Full Text Available The long-term effect of lunisolar perturbations on high-altitude orbits is studied after a double averaging procedure that removes both the mean anomaly of the satellite and that of the moon. Lunisolar effects acting on high-altitude orbits are comparable in magnitude to the Earth’s oblateness perturbation. Hence, their accurate modeling does not allow for the usual truncation of the expansion of the third-body disturbing function up to the second degree. Using canonical perturbation theory, the averaging is carried out up to the order where second-order terms in the Earth oblateness coefficient are apparent. This truncation order forces to take into account up to the fifth degree in the expansion of the lunar disturbing function. The small values of the moon’s orbital eccentricity and inclination with respect to the ecliptic allow for some simplification. Nevertheless, as far as the averaging is carried out in closed form of the satellite’s orbit eccentricity, it is not restricted to low-eccentricity orbits.

  5. HCN ice in Titan's high-altitude southern polar cloud

    CERN Document Server

    de Kok, Remco J; Maltagliati, Luca; Irwin, Patrick G J; Vinatier, Sandrine


    Titan's middle atmosphere is currently experiencing a rapid change of season after northern spring arrived in 2009. A large cloud was observed for the first time above Titan's southern pole in May 2012, at an altitude of 300 km. This altitude previously showed a temperature maximum and condensation was not expected for any of Titan's atmospheric gases. Here we show that this cloud is composed of micron-sized hydrogen cyanide (HCN) ice particles. The presence of HCN particles at this altitude, together with new temperature determinations from mid-infrared observations, indicate a very dramatic cooling of Titan's atmosphere inside the winter polar vortex in early 2012. Such a cooling is completely contrary to previously measured high-altitude warming in the polar vortex, and temperatures are a hundred degrees colder than predicted by circulation models. Besides elucidating the nature of Titan's mysterious polar cloud, these results thus show that post-equinox cooling at the winter pole is much more efficient th...

  6. Polar Air Quality and Climate from a Molniya Orbit (United States)

    O'Neill, N.; McConnell, J. C.; Mullins, M.; Chesser, H.; Solheim, B.; Kaminski, J.; Strong, K.; Jones, D.; Drummond, J.; Martin, R.; McElroy, C. T.; Evans, W. F.; Giroux, J. G.; Soucy, M. A.; Buijs, H. L.; Moreau, L. M.; Buttner, G.; Rahnama, P.; Rowlands, N.; Hackett, J.; Bell, A.


    The Arctic is a region of rapid climate change with warming temperatures and depleting summer ice which may be exacerbated by transport of soot and other anthropogenic material from mid-latitudes. It is also the source of winter storms delivering cold air to lower latitudes. Currently data is available for these areas from polar orbiting satellites, but only intermittently at a given location as the satellites pass overhead. Data from geostationary satellites, useful at lower latitudes, is not available for the Arctic because viewing angles to high latitude locations from geostationary orbit are poor. We are proposing the use of a satellite in a Molniya orbit for the acquisition of data for high latitudes which is a quasi-stationary orbit close to apogee. This talk will describe a proposal to the Canadian Space Agency for a mission aimed at the acquisition of air quality and climate data in boreal polar regions and mid-latitudes. Molniya orbits (named after the Russian communications satellite series that first used them) are highly elliptical orbits with an inclination of approximately 63°. At this inclination, the Earth oblateness perturbation does not cause any change to the orbit's argument of perigee. Further, if the orbit semi-major axis is chosen appropriately, the orbit can be timed to have a period of half a day (typical Molniya orbits have an apogee altitude of about 39750 km and a perigee altitude of about 600 km). The result of these two constraints is that the satellite is at apogee over the same high latitude location on the Earth every two orbits. At the alternate apogees, it is over a location at the same latitude but 180° away in longitude. Either location provides viewing coverage of the entire Earth above 60°N, and reasonable viewing down to 50°N. Further, because the satellite is travelling slowly at apogee, the viewing geometry is maintained for approximately 2/3 of the orbit (8 hr out of every 12). The suite of instruments we are

  7. Imaging Mercury's polar deposits during MESSENGER's low-altitude campaign (United States)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Paige, David A.; Nair, Hari; Denevi, Brett W.; Blewett, David T.; Murchie, Scott L.; Deutsch, Ariel N.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.


    Images obtained during the low-altitude campaign in the final year of the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission provide the highest-spatial-resolution views of Mercury's polar deposits. Images for distinct areas of permanent shadow within 35 north polar craters were successfully captured during the campaign. All of these regions of permanent shadow were found to have low-reflectance surfaces with well-defined boundaries. Additionally, brightness variations across the deposits correlate with variations in the biannual maximum surface temperature across the permanently shadowed regions, supporting the conclusion that multiple volatile organic compounds are contained in Mercury's polar deposits, in addition to water ice. A recent large impact event or ongoing bombardment by micrometeoroids could deliver water as well as many volatile organic compounds to Mercury. Either scenario is consistent with the distinctive reflectance properties and well-defined boundaries of Mercury's polar deposits and the presence of volatiles in all available cold traps.

  8. Earth's external magnetic fields at low orbital altitudes (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.


    Under our Jun. 1987 proposal, Magnetic Signatures of Near-Earth Distributed Currents, we proposed to render operational a modeling procedure that had been previously developed to compute the magnetic effects of distributed currents flowing in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. After adaptation of the software to our computing environment we would apply the model to low altitude satellite orbits and would utilize the MAGSAT data suite to guide the analysis. During the first year, basic computer codes to run model systems of Birkeland and ionospheric currents and several graphical output routines were made operational on a VAX 780 in our research facility. Software performance was evaluated using an input matchstick ionospheric current array, field aligned currents were calculated and magnetic perturbations along hypothetical satellite orbits were calculated. The basic operation of the model was verified. Software routines to analyze and display MAGSAT satellite data in terms of deviations with respect to the earth's internal field were also made operational during the first year effort. The complete set of MAGSAT data to be used for evaluation of the models was received at the end of the first year. A detailed annual report in May 1989 described these first year activities completely. That first annual report is included by reference in this final report. This document summarizes our additional activities during the second year of effort and describes the modeling software, its operation, and includes as an attachment the deliverable computer software specified under the contract.

  9. NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) Radiometer Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) series offers the advantage of daily global coverage, by making nearly polar orbits 14 times per day...

  10. Correlated Observations of Epithermal Neutrons and Polar Illumination for Orbital Neutron Detectors (United States)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Malakhov, A.; Livengood, T.; Milikh, G. M.; Namkung, M.; Nandikotkur, G.; Neumann, G.; Smith, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. G.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J. I.


    We correlate Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter's (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer's (LPNS) orbital epithermal neutron maps of the Lunar high-latitudes with co-registered illumination maps derived from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) topography. Epithermal neutron count rate maps were derived from the LEND: 1) Collimated Sensor for Epithermal Neutrons, CSETNI-4 2) Uncollimated Sensor for Epithermal Neutrons, SETN and the Uncollimated Lunar Prospector: 3) Low-altitude and 4) High-altitude mapping phases. In this abstract we illustrate 1) and 3) and include 2) and 4) in our presentation. The correlative study provides unique perspectives on the regional epithermal neutron fluences from the Lunar polar regions under different detector and altitude configurations.

  11. Polar antiferromagnets produced with orbital order. (United States)

    Ogawa, Naoki; Ogimoto, Yasushi; Ida, Yoshiaki; Nomura, Yusuke; Arita, Ryotaro; Miyano, Kenjiro


    Polar states are realized in pseudocubic manganite films fabricated on high-index substrates, in which a Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion remains an active variable. Several types of orbital orders (OOs) were found to develop large optical second harmonics, signaling broken-inversion symmetry distinct from their bulk forms and films on (100) substrates. The observed symmetry lifting and first-principles calculation both indicate that the modified JT q2 mode drives Mn-site off centering, which can be controlled by a magnetic-field-induced phase transition via a coupling of OO and spin orders.

  12. Experimental effects of orbit on polarization loss in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjbar V.; Bai, M.; Huang, H.; Marusic, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Minty, M.


    We are performing several experiments during the RHIC ramp to better understand the impact of orbit errors on the polarization at our current working point. These will be conducted by exciting specified orbit harmonics during the final two large intrinsic resonance crossing in RHIC during the 250 GeV polarized proton ramp. The resultant polarization response will then be measured.

  13. China's FY-3 Polar Orbit Meteorological Satellite And Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen; Fang Meng; Sun Anlai


    @@ FY-3 is China's second generation of polar orbit meteorological satellite. FY-3A,the first of the FY-3 series,was launched on May 27,2008 from Taiyuan Satellite Launeh Center. After 5 months of in-orbit test,the satellite and its ground application system were put into trial operation on November 18,2008,marking the successful technical upgrading of China's polar-orbit meteorological satellite.

  14. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes (United States)

    Short, N. M.


    The paper discusses the application of remotely sensed data from orbital satellites to the exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels. Geological applications of Landsat data are described including map editing, lithologic identification, structural geology, and mineral exploration. Specific results in fuel exploration are reviewed and a series of related Landsat images is included.

  15. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  16. Hierarchical spin-orbital polarization of a giant Rashba system. (United States)

    Bawden, Lewis; Riley, Jonathan M; Kim, Choong H; Sankar, Raman; Monkman, Eric J; Shai, Daniel E; Wei, Haofei I; Lochocki, Edward B; Wells, Justin W; Meevasana, Worawat; Kim, Timur K; Hoesch, Moritz; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Fennie, Craig J; Shen, Kyle M; Chou, Fangcheng; King, Phil D C


    The Rashba effect is one of the most striking manifestations of spin-orbit coupling in solids and provides a cornerstone for the burgeoning field of semiconductor spintronics. It is typically assumed to manifest as a momentum-dependent splitting of a single initially spin-degenerate band into two branches with opposite spin polarization. Combining polarization-dependent and resonant angle-resolved photoemission measurements with density functional theory calculations, we show that the two "spin-split" branches of the model giant Rashba system BiTeI additionally develop disparate orbital textures, each of which is coupled to a distinct spin configuration. This necessitates a reinterpretation of spin splitting in Rashba-like systems and opens new possibilities for controlling spin polarization through the orbital sector.

  17. Orbital engineering in symmetry-breaking polar heterostructures. (United States)

    Disa, Ankit S; Kumah, Divine P; Malashevich, Andrei; Chen, Hanghui; Arena, Dario A; Specht, Eliot D; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, F J; Ahn, Charles H


    We experimentally demonstrate a novel approach to substantially modify orbital occupations and symmetries in electronically correlated oxides. In contrast to methods using strain or confinement, this orbital tuning is achieved by exploiting charge transfer and inversion symmetry breaking using atomically layered heterostructures. We illustrate the technique in the LaTiO_{3}-LaNiO_{3}-LaAlO_{3} system; a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio theory reveals electron transfer and concomitant polar fields, resulting in a ∼50% change in the occupation of Ni d orbitals. This change is sufficiently large to remove the orbital degeneracy of bulk LaNiO_{3} and creates an electronic configuration approaching a single-band Fermi surface. Furthermore, we theoretically show that such three-component heterostructuring is robust and tunable by choice of insulator in the heterostructure, providing a general method for engineering orbital configurations and designing novel electronic systems.

  18. Prototype detector development for measurement of high altitude Martian dust using a future orbiter platform (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Patel, Darshil; Chokhawala, Vimmi; Bogavelly, Anvesh


    Dust devils mostly occur during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer on Mars and play a key role in the background dust opacity. Due to continuous bombardment of micrometeorites, secondary ejecta come out from the Moons of the Mars and can easily escape. This phenomenon can contribute dust around the Moons and therefore, also around the Mars. Similar to the Moons of the Earth, the surfaces of the Martian Moons get charged and cause the dust levitation to occur, adding to the possible dust source. Also, interplanetary dust particles may be able to reach the Mars and contribute further. It is hypothesized that the high altitude Martian dust could be in the form of a ring or tori around the Mars. However, no such rings have been detected to the present day. Typically, width and height of the dust torus is ~5 Mars radii wide (~16950 km) in both the planes as reported in the literature. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, a langmuir probe cannot explain the source of such dust particles. It is a puzzling question to the space scientist how dust has reached to such high altitudes. A dedicated dust instrument on future Mars orbiter may be helpful to address such issues. To study origin, abundance, distribution and seasonal variation of Martian dust, a Mars Orbit Dust Experiment (MODEX) is proposed. In order to measure the Martian dust from a future orbiter, design of a prototype of an impact ionization dust detector has been initiated at PRL. This paper presents developmental aspects of the prototype dust detector and initial results. The further work is underway.

  19. Controlling the Eccentricity of Polar Lunar Orbits with Low-Thrust Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Winter


    Full Text Available It is well known that lunar satellites in polar orbits suffer a high increase on the eccentricity due to the gravitational perturbation of the Earth. That effect is a natural consequence of the Lidov-Kozai resonance. The final fate of such satellites is the collision with the Moon. Therefore, the control of the orbital eccentricity leads to the control of the satellite's lifetime. In the present work we study this problem and introduce an approach in order to keep the orbital eccentricity of the satellite at low values. The whole work was made considering two systems: the 3-body problem, Moon-Earth-satellite, and the 4-body problem, Moon-Earth-Sun-satellite. First, we simulated the systems considering a satellite with initial eccentricity equals to 0.0001 and a range of initial altitudes between 100 km and 5000 km. In such simulations we followed the evolution of the satellite's eccentricity. We also obtained an empirical expression for the length of time needed to occur the collision with the Moon as a function of the initial altitude. The results found for the 3-body model were not significantly different from those found for the 4-body model. Secondly, using low-thrust propulsion, we introduced a correction of the eccentricity every time it reached the value 0.05. These simulations were made considering a set of different thrust values, from 0.1 N up to 0.4 N which can be obtained by using Hall Plasma Thrusters. In each run we measured the length of time, needed to correct the eccentricity value (from e=0.04 to e=0.05. From these results we obtained empirical expressions of this time as a function of the initial altitude and as a function of the thrust value.

  20. Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states. (United States)

    Nagali, E; Sciarrino, F; De Martini, F; Piccirillo, B; Karimi, E; Marrucci, L; Santamato, E


    The orbital angular momentum of photons, being defined in an infinite-dimensional discrete Hilbert space, offers a promising resource for high-dimensional quantum information protocols in quantum optics. The biggest obstacle to its wider use is presently represented by the limited set of tools available for its control and manipulation. Here, we introduce and test experimentally a series of simple optical schemes for the coherent transfer of quantum information from the polarization to the orbital angular momentum of single photons and vice versa. All our schemes exploit a newly developed optical device, the so-called "q-plate", which enables the manipulation of the photon orbital angular momentum driven by the polarization degree of freedom. By stacking several q-plates in a suitable sequence, one can also have access to higher-order angular momentum subspaces. In particular, we demonstrate the control of the orbital angular momentum m degree of freedom within the subspaces of |m| = 2h and |m| = 4h per photon.

  1. Correlated electric field and low-energy electron measurements in the low-altitude polar cusp (United States)

    Kintner, P. M.; Ackerson, K. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Frank, L. A.


    Correlated electric field and low-energy electron measurements are presented for two passes of Hawkeye 1 through the south polar cusp at 2000-km altitude during local morning. In one case the electric field reversal coincides with the boundary of detectable 5.2keV electron intensities and the equatorward boundary of the cusp. In the other case the electric field reversal and the 5.2 keV electron trapping boundary coincide, but the equatorward edge of the cusp as determined from the presence of 180 eV electron intensities is 5 degrees invariant latitude equatorward of the electric field reversal. It is concluded that in the second case, electron intensities associated with the polar cusp populate closed dayside field lines, and hence the corresponding equatorward edge of these electron intensities is not always an indicator of the boundary between closed dayside field lines and polar cap field lines.

  2. High-resolution Ceres High Altitude Mapping Orbit atlas derived from Dawn Framing Camera images (United States)

    Roatsch, Th.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.


    The Dawn spacecraft Framing Camera (FC) acquired over 2400 clear filter images of Ceres with a resolution of about 140 m/pixel during the six cycles in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase between August 18 and October 21, 2015. We ortho-rectified the images from the first cycle and produced a global, high-resolution, controlled photomosaic of Ceres. This global mosaic is the basis for a high-resolution Ceres atlas that consists of 15 tiles mapped at a scale of 1:750,000. The nomenclature used in this atlas was proposed by the Dawn team and was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The full atlas is available to the public through the Dawn Geographical Information System (GIS) web page

  3. Spin-orbit controlled capacitance of a polar heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Kevin; Kopp, Thilo [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, EP VI, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Loder, Florian [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, EP VI and TP III, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)


    Oxide heterostructures with polar films display special electronic properties, such as the electronic reconstruction at their internal interfaces with the formation of two-dimensional metallic states. Moreover, the electrical field from the polar layers is inversion-symmetry breaking and may generate a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) in the interfacial electronic system. We investigate the capacitance of a heterostructure in which a strong RSOC at a metallic interface is controlled by the electric field of a surface electrode. Such a structure is for example given by a LaAlO{sub 3} film on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate which is gated by a top electrode. We find that due to a strong RSOC the capacitance can be larger than the classical geometric value.

  4. Orbital polarization and magnetization for independent particles in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz-Baldes, Hermann


    Formulas for the contribution of the conduction electrons to the polarization and magnetization are derived for disordered systems and within a one-particle framework. These results generalize known formulas for Bloch electrons and the presented proofs considerably simplify and strengthen prior justifications. The new formulas show that orbital polarization and magnetization are of geometric nature. This leads to quantization for a periodically driven Piezo effect as well as the derivative of the magnetization w.r.t. the chemical potential. It is also shown how the latter is connected to boundary currents in Chern insulators. The main technical tools in the proofs are an adaption of Nenciu's super-adiabatic theory to C$^*$-dynamical systems and Bellissard's Ito derivatives w.r.t. the magnetic field.

  5. Thermosphere variation at different altitudes over the northern polar cap during magnetic storms (United States)

    Huang, Yanshi; Wu, Qian; Huang, Cheryl Y.; Su, Yi-Jiun


    In this study, we report observations and simulation results of heated neutrals at various altitudes inside the polar cap during two magnetic storms in January 2005. The Poynting flux measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites show enhanced energy input in the polar cap during the storm main phase, which is underestimated in the TIE-GCM simulation. Neutral temperature measurements at 250 km from the ground-based Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) at Resolute Bay are presented, along with the neutral density observations at 360 km and 470 km from Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, respectively. These data have been analyzed to demonstrate the altitudinal dependence of neutral response to the storm energy input. By comparing the TIE-GCM simulation results and the observations, we demonstrate that Poynting fluxes as well as the thermosphere response were underestimated in the model. The simulated neutral temperature at Resolute Bay increases by approximately 260° and 280° K for the two events, respectively, much lower than the observed temperature enhancements of 750° and 900° K. Neutral density enhancements with more than 30% increase over the background density were also observed at polar latitudes, with no clear distinction between the auroral zone and polar cap. All measurements indicate enhancements at high latitudes poleward of 80° magnetic latitude (MLAT) implying that substantial heating can occur within the polar cap during storms.

  6. Spiraling Away from Vesta: Design of the Transfer from the Low to High Altitude Dawn Mapping Orbits (United States)

    Smith, John C.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Whiffen, Gregory J.


    Dawn has successfully completed its orbital mission at Vesta and is currently en route to an orbital rendezvous with Ceres in 2015. The longest duration and most complex portion of the Vesta departure trajectory was the transfer from the low to high altitude science orbit. This paper describes the design of this low-thrust trajectory optimized assuming a minimum-propellant mass objective. The transfer utilized solar-electric ion propulsion applied over 139 spacecraft revolutions about Vesta. Science drivers, operational constraints, and robustness to statistical uncertainties are addressed. The 45-day transfer trajectory was successfully implemented in early 2012.

  7. Operational high latitude surface irradiance products from polar orbiting satellites (United States)

    Godøy, Øystein


    It remains a challenge to find an adequate approach for operational estimation of surface incoming short- and longwave irradiance at high latitudes using polar orbiting meteorological satellite data. In this presentation validation results at a number of North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean high latitude stations are presented and discussed. The validation results have revealed that although the method works well and normally fulfil the operational requirements, there is room for improvement. A number of issues that can improve the estimates at high latitudes have been identified. These improvements are partly related to improved cloud classification using satellite data and partly related to improved handling of multiple reflections over bright surfaces (snow and sea ice), especially in broken cloud conditions. Furthermore, the availability of validation sites over open ocean and sea ice is a challenge.

  8. Orbital mapping of energy bands and the truncated spin polarization in three-dimensional Rashba semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qihang; Dessau, D S; Zunger, Alex


    Associated with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and inversion symmetry breaking, Rashba spin polarization opens a new avenue for spintronic applications that was previously limited to ordinary magnets. However, spin polarization effects in actual Rashba systems are far more complicated than what conventional single-orbital models would suggest. By studying via first-principles DFT and a multi-orbital k.p model a 3D bulk Rashba system (free of complications by surface effects) we find that the physical origin of the leading spin polarization effects is SOC-induced hybridization between spin and multiple orbitals, especially those with nonzero orbital angular momenta. In this framework we establish a general understanding of the orbital mapping, common to the surface of topological insulators and Rashba system. Consequently, the intrinsic mechanism of various spin polarization effects, which pertain to all Rashba systems even those with global inversion symmetry, is understood as a manifestation of the orbital textur...

  9. Characterization of cosmic rays and direction dependence in the Polar Region up to 88 km altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zábori Balázs


    Full Text Available Aims: The sounding rocket experiment REM-RED was developed to operate on board the REXUS-17 rocket in order to measure the intensity of cosmic rays. The experiment was launched from the ESRANGE Space Center (68 °N, 21 °E on the 17th of March 2015 at the beginning of the most intense geomagnetic storm within the preceding 10 years. The experiment provided the opportunity to measure the intensity of cosmic rays in the Polar Region up to an altitude of 88 km above sea level. Methods: The experiment employed Geiger-Müller (GM counters oriented with their axes perpendicular to each other in order to measure the cosmic ray intensity during the flight of the rocket. This measurement setup allowed performing direction-sensitive measurements as well. During the ascent phase the rocket was spinning and hence stabilized along its longitudinal axis looking close to the zenith direction. This phase of the flight was used for studying the direction dependence of the charged particle component of the cosmic rays. Results: In comparison with earlier, similar rocket experiments performed with GM tubes at lower geomagnetic latitudes, significantly higher cosmic radiation flux was measured above 50 km. A non-isotropic behavior was found below 50 km and described in detail for the first time in the Polar Region. This behavior is in good agreement with the results of the TECHDOSE experiment that used the same type of GM tubes on board the BEXUS-14 stratospheric balloon.

  10. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (United States)

    Bloom, H.

    The tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO) is responsible for managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS will replace the current military and civilian operational polar-orbiting ``weather'' satellites. The Northrop Grumman Space Technology - Raytheon team was competitively selected in 2002 as the Acquisition and Operations contractor team to develop, integrate, deploy, and operate NPOESS satellites to meet the tri-agency user requirements for NPOESS over the 10-year (2009-2018) operational life of the program. Beginning in 2009, NPOESS spacecraft will be launched into three orbital planes to provide significantly improved operational capabilities and benefits to satisfy critical civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving operational ``weather'' satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - atmosphere, ocean, land, and the space environment. In recent years, the operational weather forecasting and climate science communities have levied more rigorous requirements on space-based observations of the Earth's system that have significantly increased demands on performance of the instruments, spacecraft, and ground systems required to deliver NPOESS data, products, and information to end users. The ``end-to-end'' system consists of: the spacecraft; instruments and sensors on the spacecraft; launch support capabilities; the command, control, communications, and data routing infrastructure; and data processing hardware and software. NPOESS will observe significantly more phenomena simultaneously from space than its operational predecessors. NPOESS is expected to deliver large volumes of more accurate measurements at higher spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal resolution at much higher data

  11. Detection of Solid Tides on Europa Through Ground-Tracking of a Low-Altitude, Altimeter- Equipped Orbiter (United States)

    Casotto, S.; Padovan, S.; Bardella, M.


    The possibility of detecting a global liquid ocean beneath the icy crust of Europa without the use of landers or ice penetrators rests on the measurement of the Love numbers h2 and k2. These are respectively related to the radial deformation of the surface and the consequent tidally-induced variation of the gravitational field of this icy satellite. Depending on the rigidity of the icy crust, the response of the Europan surface to the tidal forces gives an indication of the depth of a possible subsurface ocean. Previous studies in this area have addressed the detection of tidal surface deformations through the analysis of the tidally induced orbital perturbations of a Europan orbiter. As a preliminary study in preparation for future missions to Europa, as in the LAPLACE proposal to the European Space Agency, the approach followed here is to introduce the presence of an onboard altimeter. In this study we then generate synthetic measurements taken from an altimeter-equipped, low-altitude orbiter, supplemented with Earth-based tracking of the orbiter. For simplicity, ground-tracking is simulated as a range data-type. Altimeter measurements are simulated using parameters based on available models for the interior of Europa derived from Galileo mission data. Reference orbits were obtained by numerical investigations of the dynamically unstable near-Europa environment. Orbits were found to be stable over periods of approximately one to three months at altitudes of 100 km and inclinations varying from 75 degrees to 105 degrees. The measurements are consequently simulated over a period of one to two months. Under the hypothesis that Europan gravity field information of sufficient accuracy has been obtained in the first phase of the mission, the simulations address the detection of the solid tide related Love parameters h2 and k2. Results of this sensitivity study will be presented for a variety of orbital configurations with the aim to help in the design of future Europa

  12. Multi-Body Capture to Low-altitude Circular Orbits at Europa (United States)

    Grebow, Daniel J.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Finlayson, Paul A.


    For capture to a 200-km circular orbit around Europa, millions of different points along the orbit are simulated in the Jupiter-Europa Restricted 3-Body Problem. The transfers exist as members of families of trajectories, where certain families consistently outperform the others. The trajectories are not sensitive to changes in inclination for the final circular orbit. The top performing trajectories appear to follow the invariant manifolds of L2 Lyapunov orbits for capture into a retrograde orbit, and in some cases saving up to 40% of the from the patched 2-body problem. Transfers are attached to the current nominal mission for NASA's Jupiter-Europa Orbiter, where the total cost is roughly 100 m/s less than the baseline mission.

  13. Interrogation of orbital structure by elliptically polarized intense femtosecond laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation and present investigations of the imprint of the orbital angular node in photoelectron momentum distributions of an aligned atomic p-type orbital following ionization by an intense elliptically polarized laser pulse of femtosecond...... duration. We investigate the role of light ellipticity and the alignment angle of the major polarization axis of the external field relative to the probed orbital by studying radial and angular momentum distributions, the latter at a fixed narrow interval of final momenta close to the peak...... of the photoelectron momentum distribution. In general only the angular distributions carry a clear signature of the orbital symmetry. Our study shows that circular polarization gives the most clear imprints of orbital nodes. These findings are insensitive to pulse duration....

  14. Orbital mapping of energy bands and the truncated spin polarization in three-dimensional Rashba semiconductors (United States)

    Liu, Qihang; Zhang, Xiuwen; Waugh, J. A.; Dessau, D. S.; Zunger, Alex


    Associated with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and inversion symmetry breaking, Rashba spin polarization opens an avenue for spintronic applications that was previously limited to ordinary magnets. However, spin-polarization effects in actual Rashba systems are far more complicated than what conventional single-orbital models would suggest. By studying via density functional theory and a multiorbital k .p model a three-dimensional bulk Rashba system (free of complications by surface effects), BiTeI, we find that the physical origin of the leading spin-polarization effects is SOC-induced hybridization between spin and multiple orbitals, especially those with nonzero orbital angular momenta. In this framework we establish a general understanding of the orbital mapping, common to the surface of topological insulators and the Rashba system. Consequently, the intrinsic mechanism of various spin-polarization effects—which pertain to all Rashba systems, even those with global inversion symmetry—is understood as a manifestation of the orbital textures. This finding suggests a route for designing high-spin-polarization materials by considering the atomic-orbital content.

  15. The conductance and polarization in quantum wires with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Da-zhi; CHEN Yu-guang


    The conductance and polarization are studied in one-dimensional ballistic quantum wire with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions.Two kinds of structures are considered in the present work,one with mixture of two interactions and the other with sequence structure of them.We find that the conductance and polarization are strongly affected by these two interactions.With both interactions we obtain a multi-peak contour of spin polarization and a dramatic oscillation pattern of spin conductance,which are due to the different combination of the two spin-orbit interactions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper reports the theoretical calculation of Breit, self-energy, and vacuum polarization corrections in the Ne like system using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method with the orbital polarization. The relations of these corrections with the atomic number and the orbital symmetries are shown and the calculated correction energies are compared with other calculated results. Our Breit correction energies are all smaller by leV as maximum than the other theoretical Breit correction energies and the differences reveal systematical relation with atomic number. It is found that the configuration interactions have great effect on Breit corrections while the orbital polarization has much smaller effect on Breit corrections. The self-energy and vacuum polarization obtained by our calculation are much different from that in previous literatures for some transitions.

  17. Relationship of O(+) Field-Aligned Flows and Densities to Convection Speed in the Polar Cap at 5000 km Altitude (United States)

    Stevenson, B. A.; Horwitz, J. L.; Creel, B.; Elliott, H. A.; Comfort, R. H.; Su, Y. J.; Moore, T. E.; Craven, P. D.


    Measurements of thermal O(+) ion number fluxes, densities, field-aligned velocities, and convective velocities from the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) on POLAR obtained near 5000 km altitude over the Southern hemisphere are examined. We find that the O(+) parallel velocities and densities are strongly related to the convection speeds. The polar cap densities decrease rapidly with convection speed, with a linear least square fit formula to bin averaged data giving the relationship log(N(sub (sub _)O(+))) = -0.33* V(sub (sub _)conv)) + 0.07, with a linear regression coefficient of r = -0.96. The parallel bulk flow velocities are on average slightly downward (0 - 2 km/s) for V(sub (sub _)conv) km/s, but tend to be upward (0 - 4 km/s) for average V(sub (sub _)conv) > 2.5 km/s. We interpret these relationships in terms of the Cleft Ion Fountain paradigm [e.g., Horwitz and Lockwood, 1985]. The densities decline with convection speed owing to increased spreading and resulting dilution from the restricted cleft source over the polar cap area with convection speed. The parallel velocities tend to be downward for low convection speeds because they fall earthward after initial cleft injection at shorter distances into the polar cap for low convection speeds. At the higher convection speeds, the initially-upward flows are transported further into the polar cap and thus occupy a larger area of the polar cap.

  18. The orbital motion, absolute mass and high-altitude winds of exoplanet HD 209458b. (United States)

    Snellen, Ignas A G; de Kok, Remco J; de Mooij, Ernst J W; Albrecht, Simon


    For extrasolar planets discovered using the radial velocity method, the spectral characterization of the host star leads to a mass estimate of the star and subsequently of the orbiting planet. If the orbital velocity of the planet could be determined, the masses of both star and planet could be calculated using Newton's law of gravity, just as in the case of stellar double-line eclipsing binaries. Here we report high-dispersion ground-based spectroscopy of a transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. We see a significant wavelength shift in absorption lines from carbon monoxide in the planet's atmosphere, which we conclude arises from a change in the radial component of the planet's orbital velocity. The masses of the star and planet are 1.00 +/- 0.22M(Sun) and 0.64 +/- 0.09M(Jup) respectively. A blueshift of the carbon monoxide signal of approximately 2 km s(-1) with respect to the systemic velocity of the host star suggests the presence of a strong wind flowing from the irradiated dayside to the non-irradiated nightside of the planet within the 0.01-0.1 mbar atmospheric pressure range probed by these observations. The strength of the carbon monoxide signal suggests a carbon monoxide mixing ratio of (1-3) x 10(-3) in this planet's upper atmosphere.

  19. Determining the spin-orbit coupling via spin-polarized spectroscopy of magnetic impurities (United States)

    Kaladzhyan, V.; Simon, P.; Bena, C.


    We study the spin-resolved spectral properties of the impurity states associated to the presence of magnetic impurities in two-dimensional as well as one-dimensional systems with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We focus on Shiba bound states in superconducting materials, as well as on impurity states in metallic systems. Using a combination of a numerical T -matrix approximation and a direct analytical calculation of the bound-state wave function, we compute the local density of states (LDOS) together with its Fourier transform (FT). We find that the FT of the spin-polarized LDOS, a quantity accessible via spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, allows to accurately extract the strength of the spin-orbit coupling. Also, we confirm that the presence of magnetic impurities is strictly necessary for such measurement, and that non-spin-polarized experiments cannot have access to the value of the spin-orbit coupling.

  20. Spin-polarized spin-orbit-split quantum-well states in a metal film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varykhalov, Andrei; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Gudat, Wolfgang; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Rader, Oliver [BESSY Berlin (Germany); Shikin, Alexander M. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)


    Elements with high atomic number Z lead to a large spin-orbit coupling. Such materials can be used to create spin-polarized electronic states without the presence of a ferromagnet or an external magnetic field if the solid exhibits an inversion asymmetry. We create large spin-orbit splittings using a tungsten crystal as substrate and break the structural inversion symmetry through deposition of a gold quantum film. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that quantum-well states forming in the gold film are spin-orbit split and spin polarized up to a thickness of at least 10 atomic layers. This is a considerable progress as compared to the current literature which reports spin-orbit split states at metal surfaces which are either pure or covered by at most a monoatomic layer of adsorbates.

  1. Lesions to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex selectively impair reasoning about emotional material. (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Lam, Elaine; Smith, Kathleen W; Goel, Amit; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan


    While it is widely accepted that lesions to orbital prefrontal cortex lead to emotion related disruptions and poor decision-making, there is very little patient data on this issue involving actual logical reasoning tasks. We tested patients with circumscribed, focal lesions largely confined to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex (BA 10 & 11) (N=17) on logical reasoning tasks involving neutral and emotional content, and compared their performance to that of an age and education-matched normal control group (N=22) and a posterior lesion control group (N=24). Our results revealed a significant group by content interaction driven by a selective impairment in the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex group compared to healthy normal controls and to the parietal patient group, in the emotional content reasoning trials. Subsequent analyses of congruent and incongruent reasoning trials indicated that this impairment was driven by the poor performance of patients with polar/orbital lesions in the incongruent trials. We conclude that the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in filtering emotionally charged content from the material before it is passed on to the reasoning system in lateral/dorsal regions of prefrontal cortex. Where unfiltered content is passed to the reasoning engine, either as a result of pathology (as in the case of our patients) or as a result of individual differences, reasoning performance suffers.

  2. Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion and Spin-Polarization Filtering in Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Grillo, Vincenzo; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.044801


    We propose the design of a space-variant Wien filter for electron beams that induces a spin half-turn and converts the corresponding spin angular momentum variation into orbital angular momentum of the beam itself by exploiting a geometrical phase arising in the spin manipulation. When applied to a spatially coherent input spin-polarized electron beam, such a device can generate an electron vortex beam, carrying orbital angular momentum. When applied to an unpolarized input beam, the proposed device, in combination with a suitable diffraction element, can act as a very effective spin-polarization filter. The same approach can also be applied to neutron or atom beams.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addison, B. C.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J. [Exoplanetary Science Group, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G.; Schmidt, B. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A., E-mail: [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States)


    We report the measurement of a spin-orbit misalignment for WASP-79b, a recently discovered, bloated hot Jupiter from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) survey. Data were obtained using the CYCLOPS2 optical-fiber bundle and its simultaneous calibration system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We have used the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect to determine the sky-projected spin-orbit angle to be {lambda}= -106{sup +19}{sub -13} {sup o}. This result indicates a significant misalignment between the spin axis of the host star and the orbital plane of the planet-the planet being in a nearly polar orbit. WASP-79 is consistent with other stars that have T{sub eff} > 6250 K and host hot Jupiters in spin-orbit misalignment.

  4. Packet routing algorithm for polar orbit LEO satellite constellation network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Broadband satellite networks are capable of providing global coverage and support various services. The networks constructed by Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite constellations have attracted great interests because of their short round-trip delays and wide bandwidths. A challenging problem is to develop a simple and efficient packet routing algorithm for the LEO satellite constellation network. This paper presents a SpiderWeb Topological Network (SWTN) and a distributed packet routing algorithm for the LEO satellite constellation network based on the SWTN. The algorithm gives the minimum propagation delay paths with low computational complexity and requires no routing tables, which is practical for on-board processing. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated through simulations.

  5. Positron-impact ionization of helium in the distorted-wave polarized-orbital method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, K.K.; Mazumdar, P.S.; Brajamani, S.


    The total cross sections for positron-impact ionization of helium are evaluated by using the distorted-wave polarized-orbital method taking into account the effects of screening and final-channel distortion. The present results are in fair agreement with other elaborate theoretical calculations and experimental results.

  6. Dynamical Piezoelectric and Magnetopiezoelectric Effects in Polar Metals from Berry Phases and Orbital Moments (United States)

    Varjas, Dániel; Grushin, Adolfo G.; Ilan, Roni; Moore, Joel E.


    The polarization of a material and its response to applied electric and magnetic fields are key solid-state properties with a long history in insulators, although a satisfactory theory required new concepts such as Berry-phase gauge fields. In metals, quantities such as static polarization and the magnetoelectric θ term cease to be well defined. In polar metals, there can be analogous dynamical current responses, which we study in a common theoretical framework. We find that current responses to dynamical strain in polar metals depend on both the first and second Chern forms, related to polarization and magnetoelectricity in insulators as well as the orbital magnetization on the Fermi surface. We provide realistic estimates that predict that the latter contribution will dominate, and we investigate the feasibility of experimental detection of this effect.

  7. Orbit and Attitude Control of Asymmetric Satellites in Polar Near-Circular Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao


    Full Text Available In this paper, the general problem about the orbit and attitude dynamic model is discussed. A feedback linearization control method is introduced for this model. Due to the asymmetric structure, the orbital properties of such satellites are the same as traditional symmetric ones, but the attitude properties are greatly different from the symmetric counterparts. With perturbations accumulate with time, the attitude angles increase periodically with time, but the orbital elements change much slower than the attitude angles. In the attitude dynamic model, chaos could appear. Traditional linear controllers can not compensate enough for asymmetric satellite when the mission is complex, especially in maneuver missions. Thus nonlinear control method is required to solve such problem in large scale. A feedback linearization method, one robust nonlinear control method, is introduced and applied to the asymmetric satellite in this paper. Some simulations are also given and the results show that feedback linearization controller not only stabilizes the system, but also exempt the chaos in the system.

  8. Martian Polar Region Impact Craters: Geometric Properties From Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Observations (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Frawley, J. J.; Matias, A.


    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has so far observed approximately 100 impact landforms in the north polar latitudes (>60 degrees N) of Mars. Correlation of the topography with Viking Orbiter images indicate that many of these are near-center profiles, and for some of the most northern craters, multiple data passes have been acquired. The northern high latitudes of Mars may contain substantial ground ice and be topped with seasonal frost (largely CO2 with some water), forming each winter. We have analyzed various diagnostic crater topologic parameters for this high-latitude crater population with the objective of characterizing impact features in north polar terrains, and we explore whether there is evidence of interaction with ground ice, frost, dune movement, or other polar processes. We find that there are substantial topographic variations from the characteristics of midlatitude craters in the polar craters that are not readily apparent from prior images. The transition from small simple craters to large complex craters is not well defined, as was observed in the midlatitude MOLA data (transition at 7-8 km). Additionally, there appear to be additional topographic complexities such as anomalously large central structures in many polar latitude impact features. It is not yet clear if these are due to target-induced differences in the formation of the crater or post-formation modifications from polar processes.

  9. Polarized Molecular Orbital Model Chemistry 3. The PMO Method Extended to Organic Chemistry (United States)

    Isegawa, Miho; Fiedler, Luke; Leverentz, Hannah R.; Wang, Yingjie; Nachimuthu, Santhanamoorthi; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G.


    The polarized molecular orbital (PMO) method, a neglect-of-diatomic-differential-overlap (NDDO) semiempirical molecular orbital method previously parameterized for systems composed of O and H, is here extended to carbon. We modified the formalism and optimized all the parameters in the PMO Hamiltonian by using a genetic algorithm and a database containing both electrostatic and energetic properties; the new parameter set is called PMO2. The quality of the resulting predictions is compared to results obtained by previous NDDO semiempirical molecular orbital methods, both including and excluding dispersion terms. We also compare the PMO2 properties to SCC-DFTB calculations. Within the class of semiempirical molecular orbital methods, the PMO2 method is found to be especially accurate for polarizabilities, atomization energies, proton transfer energies, noncovalent complexation energies, and chemical reaction barrier heights and to have good across-the-board accuracy for a range of other properties, including dipole moments, partial atomic charges, and molecular geometries. PMID:23704835

  10. Spinning and orbiting motion of particles in vortex beams with circular or radial polarizations. (United States)

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Zhang, Peng


    Focusing fields of optical vortex (OV) beams with circular or radial polarizations carry both spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM), and can realize non-axial spinning and orbiting motion of absorptive particles. Using the T-matrix method, we evaluate the optical forces and torques exerted on micro-sized particles induced by the OV beams. Numerical results demonstrate that the particle is trapped on the circle of intensity maxima, and experiences a transverse spin torque along azimuthal direction, a longitudinal spin torque, and an orbital torque, respectively. The direction of spinning motion is not only related to the sign of topological charge of the OV beam, but also to the polarization state. However, the topological charge controls the direction of orbiting motion individually. Optically induced rotations of particles with varying sizes and absorptivity are investigated in OV beams with different topological charges and polarization states. These results may be exploited in practical optical manipulation, especially for optically induced rotations of micro-particles.

  11. Spin-orbit-induced spin splittings in polar transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun


    The Rashba effect in quasi two-dimensional materials, such as noble metal surfaces and semiconductor heterostructures, has been investigated extensively, while interest in real two-dimensional systems has just emerged with the discovery of graphene. We present ab initio electronic structure, phonon, and molecular-dynamics calculations to study the structural stability and spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers MXY (M = Mo, W and X, Y = S, Se, Te). In contrast to the non-polar systems with X = Y, in the polar systems with X ≠ Y the Rashba splitting at the Γ-point for the uppermost valence band is caused by the broken mirror symmetry. An enhancement of the splitting can be achieved by increasing the spin-orbit coupling and/or the potential gradient. © Copyright EPLA, 2013.

  12. Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grison


    Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 RE cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.

  13. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect. (United States)

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang


    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved.

  14. A planet in a polar orbit of 1.4 solar-mass star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther E.W.


    Full Text Available Although more than a thousand transiting extrasolar planets have been discovered, only very few of them orbit stars that are more massive than the Sun. The discovery of such planets is interesting, because they have formed in disks that are more massive but had a shorter life time than those of solar-like stars. Studies of planets more massive than the Sun thus tell us how the properties of the proto-planetary disks effect the formation of planets. Another aspect that makes these planets interesting is that they have kept their original orbital inclinations. By studying them we can thus find out whether the orbital axes planets are initially aligned to the stars rotational axes, or not. Here we report on the discovery of a planet of a 1.4 solar-mass star with a period of 5.6 days in a polar orbit made by CoRoT. This new planet thus is one of the few known close-in planets orbiting a star that is substantially more massive than the Sun.

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates from surface to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit. (United States)

    El-Jaby, Samy; Richardson, Richard B


    Occupational exposures from ionizing radiation are currently regulated for airline travel (Earth orbit (∼300-400 km). Aircrew typically receive between 1 and 6 mSv of occupational dose annually, while aboard the International Space Station, the area radiation dose equivalent measured over just 168 days was 106 mSv at solar minimum conditions. It is anticipated that space tourism vehicles will reach suborbital altitudes of approximately 100 km and, therefore, the annual occupational dose to flight crew during repeated transits is expected to fall somewhere between those observed for aircrew and astronauts. Unfortunately, measurements of the radiation environment at the high altitudes reached by suborbital vehicles are sparse, and modelling efforts have been similarly limited. In this paper, preliminary MCNPX radiation transport code simulations are developed of the secondary neutron flux profile in air from surface altitudes up to low Earth orbit at solar minimum conditions and excluding the effects of spacecraft shielding. These secondary neutrons are produced by galactic cosmic radiation interacting with Earth's atmosphere and are among the sources of radiation that can pose a health risk. Associated estimates of the operational neutron ambient dose equivalent, used for radiation protection purposes, and the neutron effective dose equivalent that is typically used for estimates of stochastic health risks, are provided in air. Simulations show that the neutron radiation dose rates received at suborbital altitudes are comparable to those experienced by aircrew flying at 7 to 14 km. We also show that the total neutron dose rate tails off beyond the Pfotzer maximum on ascension from surface up to low Earth orbit.

  16. 不同高度范围月球卫星轨道受摄分析%Effects of Perturbations on Lunar Satellite Orbits at Different Altitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晶琅; 袁建平; 陈记争


    Aim. Lunar missions need comprehensive knowledge of the perturbation effects of: (1) deviation of moon from being spherical, (2) Earth, (3) sun; the introduction of the full paper points out that, since, to our knowledge, only fragmentary information exists in the open literature[2,3] , this paper intends to provide the comprehensive knowledge needed. We explain our research results in sections 1 and 2. Section 1 studies the magnitudes of changes in lunar non-spherical perturbation, earth perturbation and sun perturbation at different altitudes. Section 2 analyzes the effects of the three perturbations on the changes in orbital elements and perilune altitudes; it also simulares their effects on orbital elements at different altitudes; the simulation results, given in Figs. 2 through 5 and Tables 2 and 3, and their analysis show preliminarily that: ( 1 ) the higher the altitudes of lunar orbits, the greater are the changes in eccentricity, semi-major axis and perilune altitude caused by neglecting the earth perturbation, while the effects of lunar non-spherical perturbation decrease; (2) when the altitude is above 5300 kin, the effect of sun perturbation can not be ignored.%目前月球探测任务具有多样性,需要采用不同高度的月球卫星轨道,因此研究摄动力对不同高度月球卫星轨道的影响具有重要意义.文章首先分析了月球非球形摄动、地球引力摄动和太阳引力摄动三种摄动力大小随高度的变化规律.在此基础上,仿真计算了这三种摄动对不同高度月球卫星轨道的影响,得到了轨道要素和近月点高度在不同轨道高度范围内随这三种摄动力的变化规律.最后在近月点高度为百米级精度的条件下,给出了不同高度范围需要考虑的摄动力,为新型月球任务轨道设计和轨道控制提供参考.

  17. Controlling Rashba spin orbit coupling in polar two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Qun-Fang; Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Wang, Ji-Qing; Wan, Xian-gang; Duan, Chun-Gang; Chu, J H


    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) group of materials MXY (M=Mo, W, X(not equal to)Y=S, Se, Te) are two-dimensional polar semiconductors with Rashba spin orbit coupling (SOC). Setting WSeTe as an example and using density functional theory calculations, we investigate the influence of biaxial strain and electric field on Rashba SOC in MXY monolayer. The orbital analysis reveals that Rashba spin splitting around Gamma point occurs mainly through the SOC matrix elements between the W-dz2 and -dxz/yz orbitals, and those between the Se-pz and -px/y orbitals. We find the change of local electric field between Se and W atoms arising from the mirror symmetry breaking plays the critical role in forming the large Rashba SOC, and through a relatively small compressive/tensile strain (from -2% to 2%), a large tunability of Rashba SOC can be obtained due to the modified W-Se bonding interaction. In addition, we also explore the influence of electric field on Rashba SOC in WSeTe, which can impact the charge d...

  18. Density functional perturbational orbital theory of spin polarization in electronic systems. II. Transition metal dimer complexes. (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun


    We present a theoretical scheme for a semiquantitative analysis of electronic structures of magnetic transition metal dimer complexes within spin density functional theory (DFT). Based on the spin polarization perturbational orbital theory [D.-K. Seo, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 154105 (2006)], explicit spin-dependent expressions of the spin orbital energies and coefficients are derived, which allows to understand how spin orbitals form and change their energies and shapes when two magnetic sites are coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically. Upon employment of the concept of magnetic orbitals in the active-electron approximation, a general mathematical formula is obtained for the magnetic coupling constant J from the analytical expression for the electronic energy difference between low-spin broken-symmetry and high-spin states. The origin of the potential exchange and kinetic exchange terms based on the one-electron picture is also elucidated. In addition, we provide a general account of the DFT analysis of the magnetic exchange interactions in compounds for which the active-electron approximation is not appropriate.

  19. Space and time aliasing structure is monthly mean polar-orbiting satellite data (United States)

    Zeng, Lixin; Levy, Gad


    Monthly mean wind fields from the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS1) scatterometer are presented. A banded structure which resembles the satellite subtrack is clearly and consistently apparent in the isotachs as well as the u and v components of the routinely produced fields. The structure also appears in the means of data from other polar-orbiting satellites and instruments. An experiment is designed to trace the cause of the banded structure. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) gridded surface wind analyses are used as a control set. These analyses are also sampled with the ERS1 temporal-spatial samplig pattern to form a simulated scatterometer wind set. Both sets are used to create monthly averages. The banded structures appear in the monthly mean simulated data but do not appear in the control set. It is concluded that the source of the banded structure lies in the spatial and temporal sampling of the polar-orbiting satellite which results in undersampling. The problem involves multiple timescales and space scales, oversampling and under-sampling in space, aliasing in the time and space domains, and preferentially sampled variability. It is shown that commonly used spatial smoothers (or filters), while producing visually pleasing results, also significantly bias the true mean. A three-dimensional spatial-temporal interpolator is designed and used to determine the mean field. It is found to produce satisfactory monthly means from both simulated and real ERS1 data. The implications to climate studies involving polar-orbiting satellite data are discussed.

  20. Corrigendum to "Monte Carlo simulations of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates from surface to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit". (United States)

    El-Jaby, Samy


    A recent paper published in Life Sciences in Space Research (El-Jaby and Richardson, 2015) presented estimates of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates, in air, from surface altitudes up to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit. These estimates were based on MCNPX (LANL, 2011) (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) radiation transport simulations of galactic cosmic radiation passing through Earth's atmosphere. During a recent review of the input decks used for these simulations, a systematic error was discovered that is addressed here. After reassessment, the neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates estimated are found to be 10 to 15% different, though, the essence of the conclusions drawn remains unchanged.

  1. Statistics of a parallel Poynting vector in the auroral zone as a function of altitude using Polar EFI and MFE data and Astrid-2 EMMA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen


    Full Text Available We study the wave-related (AC and static (DC parallel Poynting vector (Poynting energy flux as a function of altitude in auroral field lines using Polar EFI and MFE data. The study is statistical and contains 5 years of data in the altitude range 5000–30000 km. We verify the low altitude part of the results by comparison with earlier Astrid-2 EMMA Poynting vector statistics at 1000 km altitude. The EMMA data are also used to statistically compensate the Polar results for the missing zonal electric field component. We compare the Poynting vector with previous statistical DMSP satellite data concerning the electron precipitation power. We find that the AC Poynting vector (Alfvén-wave related Poynting vector is statistically not sufficient to power auroral electron precipitation, although it may, for Kp>2, power 25–50% of it. The statistical AC Poynting vector also has a stepwise transition at R=4 RE, so that its amplitude increases with increasing altitude. We suggest that this corresponds to Alfvén waves being in Landau resonance with electrons, so that wave-induced electron acceleration takes place at this altitude range, which was earlier named the Alfvén Resonosphere (ARS. The DC Poynting vector is ~3 times larger than electron precipitation and corresponds mainly to ionospheric Joule heating. In the morning sector (02:00–06:00 MLT we find that the DC Poynting vector has a nontrivial altitude profile such that it decreases by a factor of ~2 when moving upward from 3 to 4 RE radial distance. In other nightside MLT sectors the altitude profile is more uniform. The morning sector nontrivial altitude profile may be due to divergence of the perpendicular Poynting vector field at R=3–4 RE.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (Wave-particle interactions

  2. Revisiting the proposed planetary system orbiting the eclipsing polar HU Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenmyer, Robert A; Marshall, J P; Butters, O W; Tinney, C G


    It has recently been proposed, on the basis of eclipse-timing data, that the eclipsing polar cataclysmic variable HU Aquarii is host to at least two giant planets. However, that result has been called into question based upon the dynamical stability of the proposed planets. In this work, we present a detailed re-analysis of all eclipse timing data available for the HU Aquarii system, making use of standard techniques used to fit orbits to radial-velocity data. We find that the eclipse timings can be used to obtain a two-planet solution that does not require the presence of additional bodies within the system. We then perform a highly detailed dynamical analysis of the proposed planetary system. We show that the improved orbital parameters we have derived correspond to planets that are dynamically unstable on unfeasibly short timescales (of order 10^4 years or less). Given these results, we discuss briefly how the observed signal might in fact be the result of the intrinsic properties of the eclipsing polar, r...

  3. Observations of the north polar region of Mars from the Mars orbiter laser altimeter (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Afzal, R. S.; Aharonson, O.; Fishbaugh, K.; Ford, P. G.; Frey, H. V.; Garvin, J. B.; Head, J. W.; Ivanov, A. B.; Johnson, C. L.; Muhleman, D. O.; Neumann, G. A.; Pettengill, G. H.; Phillips, R. J.; Sun, X.; Zwally, H. J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Duxbury, T. C.


    Elevations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) have been used to construct a precise topographic map of the martian north polar region. The northern ice cap has a maximum elevation of 3 kilometers above its surroundings but lies within a 5-kilometer-deep hemispheric depression that is contiguous with the area into which most outflow channels emptied. Polar cap topography displays evidence of modification by ablation, flow, and wind and is consistent with a primarily H2O composition. Correlation of topography with images suggests that the cap was more spatially extensive in the past. The cap volume of 1.2 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(6) cubic kilometers is about half that of the Greenland ice cap. Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of CO2 that condensed out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamical structure likely caused by the interaction of propagating wave fronts with surface topography.

  4. Spin inverter and polarizer curved nanowire driven by Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (United States)

    Baldo, C.; Villagonzalo, C.


    We propose in theory a curved nanowire structure that can both serve as a spin inverter and a spin polarizer driven by a periodic Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a uniform Dresselhaus SOC. The curved section of the U-shaped quasi-one dimensional nanowire with an arc of radius R and circumferential length πR is divided into segments of equal length initially having only its inherent homogeneous Dresselhaus SOC. Then a Rashba-type SOC is applied at every alternating segment. By tuning the Rashba SOC strength and the incident electron energy, this device can flip the spin at the output of an incoming spin-polarized electron. On the other hand, this same device acts as a spin filter for an unpolarized input for which an outgoing electron with a non-zero polarization can be achieved without the application of an external magnetic field. Moreover, the potential modulation caused by the periodic Rashba SOC enables this device to function as an attenuator for a certain range of incident electron energies that can make the probability current density drop to 10-4 of its otherwise magnitude in other regimes.

  5. Detection of a planetary system orbiting the eclipsing polar HU Aqr

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, S -B; Liao, W -P; Li, L -J; Zhu, L -Y; Dai, Z -B; He, J -J; Zhao, E -G; Zhang, J; Li, K


    Using the precise times of mid-egress of the eclipsing polar HU Aqr, we discovered that this polar is orbited by two or more giant planets. The two planets detected so far have masses of at least 5.9 and 4.5\\,M_{Jup}. Their respective distances from the polar are 3.6 AU and 5.4 AU with periods of 6.54 and 11.96 years, respectively. The observed rate of period decrease derived from the downward parabolic change in O-C curve is a factor 15 larger than the value expected for gravitational radiation. This indicates that it may be only a part of a long-period cyclic variation, revealing the presence of one more planet. It is interesting to note that the two detected circumbinary planets follow the Titus-Bode law of solar planets with n=5 and 6. We estimate that another 10 years of observations will reveal the presence of the predicted third planet.

  6. Sunlight effects on the 3D polar current system determined from low Earth orbit measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laundal, Karl M.; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils


    Interaction between the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere is associated with large-scale currents in the ionosphere at polar latitudes that flow along magnetic field lines (Birkeland currents) and horizontally. These current systems are tightly linked, but their global behaviors are rarely...... analyzed together. In this paper, we present estimates of the average global Birkeland currents and horizontal ionospheric currents from the same set of magnetic field measurements. The magnetic field measurements, from the low Earth orbiting Swarm and CHAMP satellites, are used to co-estimate poloidal...... and toroidal parts of the magnetic disturbance field, represented in magnetic apex coordinates. The use of apex coordinates reduces effects of longitudinal and hemispheric variations in the Earth’s main field. We present global currents from both hemispheres during different sunlight conditions. The results...

  7. Spin-orbit-induced longitudinal spin-polarized currents in nonmagnetic solids (United States)

    Wimmer, S.; Seemann, M.; Chadova, K.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.


    For certain nonmagnetic solids with low symmetry the occurrence of spin-polarized longitudinal currents is predicted. These arise due to an interplay of spin-orbit interaction and the particular crystal symmetry. This result is derived using a group-theoretical scheme that allows investigating the symmetry properties of any linear response tensor relevant to the field of spintronics. For the spin conductivity tensor it is shown that only the magnetic Laue group has to be considered in this context. Within the introduced general scheme also the spin Hall and additional related transverse effects emerge without making reference to the two-current model. Numerical studies confirm these findings and demonstrate for (Au1-xPtx)4Sc that the longitudinal spin conductivity may be on the same order of magnitude as the conventional transverse one. The presented formalism only relies on the magnetic space group and therefore is universally applicable to any type of magnetic order.

  8. Sunlight effects on the 3D polar current system determined from low Earth orbit measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Laundal, Karl M; Olsen, Nils


    Interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere is associated with large-scale currents in the ionosphere at polar latitudes that flow along magnetic field lines (Birkeland currents) and horizontally. These current systems are tightly linked, but their global behaviors are rarely analyzed together. In this paper, we present estimates of the average global Birkeland currents and horizontal ionospheric currents from the same set of magnetic field measurements. The magnetic field measurements, from the low Earth orbiting $\\textit{Swarm}$ and CHAMP satellites, are used to co-estimate poloidal and toroidal parts of the magnetic disturbance field, represented in magnetic apex coordinates. The use of apex coordinates reduces effects of longitudinal and hemispheric variations in the Earth's main field. We present global currents from both hemispheres during different sunlight conditions. The results show that the Birkeland currents vary with the conductivity, which depends most strongly on solar EUV ...

  9. Detecting Canopy Water Status Using Shortwave Infrared Reflectance Data From Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fensholt, Rasmus; Huber Gharib, Silvia; Proud, Simon Richard;


    Various canopy water status estimates have been developed from recent advances in Earth Observation (EO) technology. A promising methodology is based on the sensitivity of shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance to variations in leaf water content. This study explores the potential of SWIR-based ca......Various canopy water status estimates have been developed from recent advances in Earth Observation (EO) technology. A promising methodology is based on the sensitivity of shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance to variations in leaf water content. This study explores the potential of SWIR......-based canopy water status detection from geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data as compared to polar orbiting environmental satellite (POES)-based moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The EO-based SWIR water stress index...

  10. Target element dependent spin–orbit coupling in polarized {sup 4}He{sup +} ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T.T., E-mail: [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sakai, O. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ichinokura, S. [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hirahara, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Hasegawa, S. [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)


    We studied low-energy (1.57 keV) electron-spin polarized {sup 4}He{sup +} ion scattering on various 5d transition metal targets. The scattered ion intensity generally differed between the incident He{sup +} ions with up and down spins. This spin dependent ion scattering is attributed to the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) that acts transiently on the He{sup +} 1s electron spin in the He{sup +}-target binary collision. We observed that the amplitude of the spin dependence in ion scattering, i.e., the spin asymmetry, differs between 5d transition metal targets. This target element dependence of the spin asymmetry is discussed in terms of re-ionization of He{sup 0}, which originates from the neutralization of the He{sup +} ion during the He{sup +}-target collision. Since the re-ionization is spin independent process, it degrades the effective spin polarization of the He{sup +} ion beam. This explains smaller spin asymmetry with the target on which He{sup 0} is re-ionized with higher rate.

  11. Deterministic Spin-Orbit Torque Switching of a Perpendicularly Polarized Magnet Using Wedge Shape of the Magnet (United States)

    Bhowmik, Debanjan; Salahuddin, Sayeef


    Spin-orbit torque provides an efficient way to switch magnets for low power memory applications by reducing the current density needed to switch the magnetization. Perpendicularly polarized magnets are preferred for high density data storage applications because of their high thermal stability in scaled dimensions. However, spin-orbit torque cannot switch a perpendicularly polarized magnet deterministically from up to down and down to up in the absence of an external magnetic field because spin-orbit torque alone cannot break the symmetry of the system. This poses a severe challenge to the applicability of spin-orbit torque for memory devices. In this paper, we show through micromagnetic simulations that when spin-orbit torque is applied on a magnet with a wedge shape, the moments of the magnet are aligned in-plane. On removal of the spin-orbit torque the moments deterministically evolve to vertically upward or downward direction because the anisotropy axis of the magnet is tilted away from the vertical direction owing to the wedge shape of the magnet. Thus, spin-orbit torque driven deterministic switching of the magnet in the absence of an external magnetic field is possible.

  12. Orbital angular momentum generation and mode transformation with high efficiency using forked polarization gratings. (United States)

    Li, Yanming; Kim, Jihwan; Escuti, Michael J


    We present a novel optical element that efficiently generates orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light and transforms light between OAM modes based on a polarization grating with a fork-shaped singularity. This forked polarization grating (FPG) is composed of liquid crystalline materials, and can be made either static or switchable with high diffraction efficiency (i.e., 100% theoretically) into a single order. By spatially varying the Pancharatnam-Berry phase, FPGs shape the wavefront and thus control the OAM mode. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that a charge l(g) FPG creates helical modes with OAM charge ±l(g) when a gaussian beam is input, and more generally, transforms the incident helical mode with OAM charge l(in) into output modes with OAM charge l(in)±l(g). We also show for the first time that this conversion into a single mode can be very efficient (i.e., ∼95% experimentally) at visible wavelengths, and the relative power between the two possible output modes is polarization-controllable from 0% to ∼100%. We developed a fabrication method that substantially improves FPG quality and efficiency over prior work. We also successfully fabricated switchable FPGs, which can be electrically switched between an OAM generating/transforming state and a transmissive state. Our experimental results showed >92% conversion efficiency for both configurations at 633 nm. These holographically fabricated elements are compact (i.e., thin glass plates), lightweight, and easily optimized for nearly any wavelength from ultraviolet to infrared, for a wide range of OAM charge, and for large or small clear apertures. They are ideal elements for enhanced control of OAM, e.g., in optical trapping and high-capacity information.

  13. Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Environmental Data Records: Algorithm Status and Product Maturity (United States)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Feeley, J.; Zhou, L.; Gottshall, E.


    The Joint Polar Satellite System's (JPSS) Data Processing Segment generates a number of environmental data products from measurements by sensors on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that launched on October 28, 2011. The JPSS Environmental Data Record (EDR) Algorithm Development and Validation teams have been carrying out detailed evaluation of the products. This work is stabilizing the EDR products and proposing the implementation of product improvements and major algorithm changes. Building on validation stages established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for their Earth Observing System program and adapted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation, the JPSS program defined program-specific algorithm maturity stages. The JPSS definitions provide the rigor and comprehensiveness necessary for algorithm validation while serving the compliance needs for product requirements verification. Based on specific algorithm readiness levels, the JPSS EDR product teams established a schedule of anticipated dates for the algorithms to achieve Beta, Provisional and Validated Stage 1, 2 and 3 statuses. These schedules account for the products' dependencies on the maturity of input Sensor Data Records (SDRs), Intermediate Products, and upstream EDRs. Declaring EDR product maturity is the result of a specific review of artifacts that document that the products meet a series of criteria defined for each maturity stage. During 2012, after the SDR products achieved Beta maturity, a number of fundamental EDRs also achieved Beta status. They are now or will shortly become available to the public through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). In the presentation, we will provide an overview of the latest EDR algorithm updates and the maturity schedule going forward.

  14. Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization of current-carrying orbitals of prealigned linear molecules in strong circularly polarized laser fields (United States)

    Liu, Kunlong; Barth, Ingo


    We derive the analytical formula of the ratio of the ionization rates of degenerate valence π± orbitals of prealigned linear molecules in strong circularly polarized (CP) laser fields. Interestingly, our theory shows that the ionization ratio for molecular orbitals with opposite azimuthal quantum numbers ±|m | (e.g., π±) is identical to that for atomic orbitals with the same ±|m | (e.g., p±). In general, the electron counter-rotating to the CP laser field tunnels more easily, not only for atoms but also for linear molecules. Our theoretical predictions are then verified by numerically solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the ionization of the prealigned nitric oxide (NO) molecule in strong CP laser fields. Due to the spin-orbital coupling in the electronic ground state of NO and the sensitivity of ionization to the sense of electron rotation, the ionization of NO in CP fields can produce spin-polarized photoelectrons with high controllability of spin polarization up to 100 % .

  15. $\\beta$ Pictoris' inner disk in polarized light and new orbital parameters for $\\beta$ Pictoris b

    CERN Document Server

    Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Pueyo, Laurent; Kalas, Paul; Dawson, Rebekah I; Wang, Jason; Perrin, Marshall; Moon, Dae-Sik; Macintosh, Bruce; Ammons, S Mark; Barman, Travis; Cardwell, Andrew; Chen, Christine H; Chiang, Eugene; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Cotten, Tara; De Rosa, Robert J; Draper, Zachary H; Dunn, Jennifer; Duchêne, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Follette, Katherine B; Goodsell, Stephen J; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Ingraham, Patrick; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E; Long, Douglas; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S; Marois, Christian; Morzinski, Katie M; Nielsen, Eric L; Palmer, David W; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Poyneer, Lisa; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Schneider, Adam C; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Vasisht, Gautam; Vega, David; Wallace, J Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J; Wolff, Schuyler G


    We present $H$-band observations of $\\beta$ Pic with the Gemini Planet Imager's (GPI's) polarimetry mode that reveal the debris disk between ~0.3" (~6 AU) and ~1.7" (~33 AU), while simultaneously detecting $\\beta$ Pic $b$. The polarized disk image was fit with a dust density model combined with a Henyey-Greenstein scattering phase function. The best fit model indicates a disk inclined to the line of sight ($\\phi=85.27{\\deg}^{+0.26}_{-0.19}$) with a position angle $\\theta_{PA}=30.35{\\deg}^{+0.29}_{-0.28}$ (slightly offset from the main outer disk, $\\theta_{PA}\\approx29{\\deg}$), that extends from an inner disk radius of $23.6^{+0.9}_{-0.6}$ AU to well outside GPI's field of view. In addition, we present an updated orbit for $\\beta$ Pic $b$ based on new astrometric measurements taken in GPI's spectroscopic mode spanning 14 months. The planet has a semi-major axis of $a=9.2^{+1.5}_{-0.4}$AU, with an eccentricity $e\\leq 0.26$. The position angle of the ascending node is $\\Omega=31.75{\\deg}\\pm0.15$, offset from bot...

  16. Spin Polarization and Andreev Conductance through a Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Quantum Wire with Spin-Orbit Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-Xian


    Spin-dependent Andreev reflection and spin polarization through a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wire coupled to normal metallic and superconductor electrodes are investigated using scattering theory. When the spin-orbit coupling is considered, more Andreev conductance steps appear at the same Fermi energy. Magnetic semiconductor quantum wire separates the spin-up and spin-down electrons. The Fermi energy, at which different-spin-state electrons begin to separate, becomes lower due to the effect of the spin-orbit interaction. The spin filter effect can be measured more easily by investigating the Andreev conductance than by investigating the normal conductance.

  17. Dual-polarization and dual-mode orbital angular momentum radio vortex beam generated by using reflective metasurface (United States)

    Yu, Shixing; Li, Long; Shi, Guangming


    A metasurface, which is composed of printed cross-dipole elements with different arm lengths, is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex waves of dual polarizations and dual modes in the radio frequency domain simultaneously. The prototype of a practical metasurface is fabricated and measured to validate the results of theoretical analysis and design at 5.8 GHz. Numerical and experimental results verify that vortex waves with dual OAM modes and dual polarizations can be flexibly generated by using a reflective metasurface. The proposed method paves a way to generate diverse OAM vortex waves for radio frequency and microwave wireless communication applications.

  18. Toward a Unified View of the Moon's Polar Volatiles from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (United States)

    Hayne, Paul


    Although the scientific basis for the possibility of water and other volatiles in the cold traps of the lunar polar regions was developed in the 1960's and '70's [1,2], only recently have the data become available to test the theories in detail. Furthermore, comparisons with other planetary bodies, particularly Mercury, have revealed surprising differences that may point to inconsistencies or holes in our understanding of the basic processes involving volatiles on airless bodies [3]. Addressing these gaps in understanding is critical to the future exploration of the Moon, for which water is an important scientific and engineering resource [4]. Launched in 2009, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been acquiring data from lunar orbit for more than six years. All seven of the remote sensing instruments on the payload have now contributed significantly to advancing understanding of volatiles on the Moon. Here we present results from these investigations, and discuss attempts to synthesize the disparate information to create a self-consistent model for lunar volatiles. In addition to the LRO data, we must take into account results from earlier missions [5,6], ground-based telescopes [7], and sample analyses [8]. The results from these inter-comparisons show that water is likely available in useful quantities, but key additional measurements may be required to resolve remaining uncertainties. [1] Watson, K., Murray, B. C., & Brown, H. (1961), J. Geophys. Res., 66(9), 3033-3045. [2] Arnold, J. R. (1979), J. Geophys. Res. (1978-2012), 84(B10), 5659-5668. [3] Paige, D. A., Siegler, M. A., Harmon, J. K., Neumann, G. A., Mazarico, E. M., Smith, D. E., ... & Solomon, S. C. (2013), Science, 339(6117), 300-303. [4] Hayne, P. O., et al. (2014), Keck Inst. Space Studies Report. [5] Nozette, S., Lichtenberg, C. L., Spudis, P., Bonner, R., Ort, W., Malaret, E., ... & Shoemaker, E. M. (1996), Science, 274(5292), 1495-1498. [6] Pieters, C. M., Goswami, J. N., Clark, R. N

  19. Out-of-plane spin polarization of edge currents in Chern insulator with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Wei; Hsiao, Chin-Lun; Hu, Chong-Der


    We investigate the change in the non-zero Chern number and out-of-plane spin polarization of the edge currents in a honeycomb lattice with the Haldane-Rashba interaction. This interaction breaks the time-reversal symmetry due to the Haldane phase caused by a current loop at the site-I and site-II atoms, and also accounts for the Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction. The Rashba spin-orbit interaction increases the number of Dirac points and the band-touching phenomenon can be generated by tuning the on-site potential in the non-zero Haldane phase. By using the Pontryagin winding number and numerical Berry curvature methods, we find that the Chern number pattern is {+2, -1, 0} and {-2, +1, 0} for the positive and negative Haldane phase, respectively. A non-zero Chern number is called a Chern-insulating phase. We discovered that changes in both the Haldane phase and on-site potential leads to a change in the orientation of the bulk spin polarization of site-I and site-II atoms. Interestingly, in a ribbon with a zigzag edge, which naturally has site-I atoms at one outer edge and site-II atoms at the opposite outer edge, the spin polarization of the edge states approximately obeys the properties of bulk spin polarization regardless of the change in the Chern number. In addition, even when the Chern number changes from  +2 to  -1 (or  -2 to  +1), by tuning the strength of the on-site potential, the sign of the spin polarization of the edge states persists. This approximate bulk-edge correspondence of the spin polarization in the Haldane-Rashba system would play an important role in spintronics, because it enables us to control the orientation of the spin polarization in a single Chern-insulating phase.

  20. Altitude Registration of Limb-Scattered Radiation (United States)

    Moy, Leslie; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jaross, Glen; Loughman, Robert; Kramarova, Natalya; Chen, Zhong; Taha, Ghassan; Chen, Grace; Xu, Philippe


    One of the largest constraints to the retrieval of accurate ozone profiles from UV backscatter limb sounding sensors is altitude registration. Two methods, the Rayleigh scattering attitude sensing (RSAS) and absolute radiance residual method (ARRM), are able to determine altitude registration to the accuracy necessary for long-term ozone monitoring. The methods compare model calculations of radiances to measured radiances and are independent of onboard tracking devices. RSAS determines absolute altitude errors, but, because the method is susceptible to aerosol interference, it is limited to latitudes and time periods with minimal aerosol contamination. ARRM, a new technique introduced in this paper, can be applied across all seasons and altitudes. However, it is only appropriate for relative altitude error estimates. The application of RSAS to Limb Profiler (LP) measurements from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite indicates tangent height (TH) errors greater than 1 km with an absolute accuracy of +/-200 m. Results using ARRM indicate a approx. 300 to 400m intra-orbital TH change varying seasonally +/-100 m, likely due to either errors in the spacecraft pointing or in the geopotential height (GPH) data that we use in our analysis. ARRM shows a change of approx. 200m over 5 years with a relative accuracy (a long-term accuracy) of 100m outside the polar regions.

  1. Spin polarized bound states in the continuum in open Aharonov-Bohm rings with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (United States)

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N.; Sadreev, Almas F.


    We consider the trapping of electrons with a definite spin polarization by bound states in the continuum (BSC) in the open Aharonov-Bohm rings in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). Neglecting the Zeeman term we show the existence of BSCs in the one-dimensional ring when the eigenstates of the closed ring are doubly degenerate. With account of the Zeeman term BSCs occur only at the points of threefold degeneracy. The BSCs are found in the parametric space of flux and RSOI strength in close pairs with opposite spin polarization. Thereby the spin polarization of electrons transmitted through the ring can be altered by minor variation of magnetic or electric field at the vicinity of these pairs. Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional open ring show similar results for the BSCs. Encircling the BSC points in the parametric space of the flux and the RSOI constant gives rise to a geometric phase.

  2. Formation of the Martian Polar Layered Terrains: Quantifying Polar Water Ice and Dust Surface Deposition during Current and Past Orbital Epochs with the NASA Ames GCM (United States)

    Emmett, Jeremy; Murphy, Jim


    Structural and compositional variability in the layering sequences comprising Mars' polar layered terrains (PLT's) is likely explained by orbital-forced climatic variations in the sedimentary cycles of water ice and dust from which they formed [1]. The PLT's therefore contain a direct, extensive record of the recent climate history of Mars encoded in their structure and stratigraphy, but deciphering this record requires understanding the depositional history of their dust and water ice constituents. 3D Mars atmosphere modeling enables direct simulation of atmospheric dynamics, aerosol transport and quantification of surface accumulation for a range of past and present orbital configurations. By quantifying the net yearly polar deposition rates of water ice and dust under Mars' current and past orbital configurations characteristic of the last several millions of years, and integrating these into the present with a time-stepping model, the formation history of the north and south PLT's will be investigated, further constraining their age and composition, and, if reproducible, revealing the processes responsible for prominent features and stratigraphy observed within the deposits. Simulating the formation of the deposits by quantifying net deposition rates during past orbital epochs and integrating these into the present, effectively 'rebuilding' the terrains, could aid in understanding deeper stratigraphic trends, correlating between geographically-separated deposits, explaining the presence and shapes of large-scale polar features, and correlating stratigraphy with geological time. Quantification of the magnitude and geographical distribution of surface aerosol accumulation will build on the work of previous GCM-based investigations [3]. Construction and analysis of hypothetical stratigraphic sequences in the PLT's will draw from previous climate-controlled stratigraphy methodologies [2,4], but will utilize GCM-derived net deposition rates to model orbital

  3. In-situ measurement of smoke particles in the wintertime polar mesosphere between 80 and 85 km altitude (United States)

    Amyx, K.; Sternovsky, Z.; Knappmiller, S.; Robertson, S.; Horanyi, M.; Gumbel, J.


    The MAGIC sounding rocket, launched in January 2005 into the polar mesosphere, carried two detectors for charged aerosol particles. The detectors are graphite patch collectors mounted flush with the skin of the payload and are connected to sensitive electrometers. The measured signal is the net current deposited on the detectors by heavy aerosol particles. The collection of electrons and ions is prevented by magnetic shielding and a small positive bias, respectively. Both instruments detected a layer of heavy aerosol particles between 80 and 85 km with a number density approximately 103 cm-3. Aerodynamic flow simulations imply that the collected particles are larger than ˜1 nm in radius. The particles are detected as a net positive charge deposited on the graphite collectors. It is suggested that the measured positive polarity is due to the electrification of the smoke particles upon impact on the graphite collectors.

  4. Land Surface Temperature- Comparing Data from Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Satellites (United States)

    Comyn-Platt, E.; Remedios, J. J.; Good, E. J.; Ghent, D.; Saunders, R.


    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a vital parameter in Earth climate science, driving long-wave radiation exchanges that control the surface energy budget and carbon fluxes, which are important factors in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and the monitoring of climate change. Satellites offer a convenient way to observe LST consistently and regularly over large areas. A comparison between LST retrieved from a Geostationary Instrument, the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI), and a Polar Orbiting Instrument, the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) is presented. Both sensors offer differing benefits. AATSR offers superior precision and spatial resolution with global coverage but given its sun-synchronous platform only observes at two local times, ~10am and ~10pm. SEVIRI provides the high-temporal resolution (every 15 minutes) required for observing diurnal variability of surface temperatures but given its geostationary platform has a poorer resolution, 3km at nadir, which declines at higher latitudes. A number of retrieval methods are applied to the raw satellite data: First order coefficient based algorithms provided on an operational basis by the LandSAF (for SEVIRI) and the University of Leicester (for AATSR); Second order coefficient based algorithms put forward by the University of Valencia; and an optimal estimation method using the 1DVar software provided by the NWP SAF. Optimal estimation is an iterative technique based upon inverse theory, thus is very useful for expanding into data assimilation systems. The retrievals are assessed and compared on both a fine scale using in-situ data from recognised validation sites and on a broad scale using two 100x100 regions such that biases can be better understood. Overall, the importance of LST lies in monitoring daily temperature extremes, e.g. for estimating permafrost thawing depth or risk of crop damage due to frost, hence the ideal dataset would use a combination of observations

  5. Application of altitude control techniques for low altitude earth satellites (United States)

    Nickerson, K. G.; Herder, R. W.; Glass, A. B.; Cooley, J. L.


    The applications sensors of many low altitude earth satellites designed for recording surface or atmospheric data require near zero orbital eccentricities for maximum usefulness. Coverage patterns and altitude profiles require specified values of orbit semimajor axis. Certain initial combinations of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and argument of perigee can produce a so called 'frozen orbit' and minimum altitude variation which enhances sensor coverage. This paper develops information on frozen orbits and minimum altitude variation for all inclinations, generalizing previous results. In the altitude regions where most of these satellites function (between 200 and 1000 kilometers) strong atmospheric drag effects influence the evolution of the initial orbits. Active orbital maneuver control techniques to correct evolution of orbit parameters while minimizing the frequency of maneuvers are presented. The paper presents the application of theoretical techniques for control of near frozen orbits and expands upon the methods useful for simultaneously targeting several inplane orbital parameters. The applications of these techniques are illustrated by performance results from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-3 and -5) missions and in preflight maneuver analysis and plans for the Seasat Oceanographic Satellite.

  6. Asynchronous Polar BY Cam: the Spin-orbital Synchronization and Variation of Accretion Geometry on the 8-year Time Scale (United States)

    Pavlenko, E.; Andreev, M.; Babina, Y.; Malanushenko, V.


    Attempts to estimate the time of a spin-orbital synchronization for asynchronous polar BY Cam have been made many times since 1994 year. However the estimates obtained did not coincide in a wide region, varying from 150 years (Piirola et al. 1994) up to >3500 years (Kafka et al. 2005). We have undertaken photometric observations of BY Cam over 8.1 years (2004 - 2012) and collected an array of data covering 998 hours during 178 nights. Analyzing the data, we have obtained the most reliable estimate of the spin-orbital time synchronization, Ts = 250±20 years, which agrees very well with both Ts = 150- 290 yrs for asynchronous polar V1500 Cyg (Pavlenko & Pelt 1991); (Stockman et al. 1988) and the theoretically predicted Ts < 1000 yr for asynchronous polars as a whole (Andronov 1987). We also found that the accretion stream switches between two dipole magnetic poles and the equatorial magnetic poles during a synodic ˜ 15-d cycle; the number of switching and their phases can be kept during neighbor cycles but varies on a scale of years. Probably this may depend on the phase of the long-term ˜ 1500 day periodicity (Andreev et al. 2012).

  7. Research Update: Orbital polarization in LaNiO{sub 3}-based heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disa, Ankit S., E-mail:; Walker, F. J. [Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena and Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Ahn, Charles H. [Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena and Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Physics and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)


    The relative energies and occupancies of valence orbital states can dramatically influence collective electronic and magnetic phenomena in correlated transition metal oxide systems. We review the current state of research on the modification and control of these orbital properties in rare-earth nickelates, especially LaNiO{sub 3}, a model degenerate d orbital system where significant recent progress has been made. Theoretical and experimental results on thin films and heterostructures are described, including the influence of electronic correlation effects. We highlight the latest approaches to achieving non-degenerate bands and discuss the outlook and applicability of this body of knowledge to other correlated metal oxide systems.

  8. Kepler-63b: A Giant Planet in a Polar Orbit around a Young Sun-like Star

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard; Johnson, John Asher; Torres, Guillermo; Albrecht, Simon; Campante, Tiago L; Chaplin, William J; Davies, Guy R; Lund, Mikkel L; Carter, Joshua A; Dawson, Rebekah I; Buchhave, Lars A; Everett, Mark E; Fischer, Debra A; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald L; Horch, Elliott P; Howell, Steve B; Latham, David W


    We present the discovery and characterization of a giant planet orbiting the young Sun-like star Kepler-63 (KOI-63, $m_{\\rm Kp} = 11.6$, $T_{\\rm eff} = 5576$ K, $M_\\star = 0.98\\, M_\\odot$). The planet transits every 9.43 days, with apparent depth variations and brightening anomalies caused by large starspots. The planet's radius is $6.1 \\pm 0.2 R_{\\earth}$, based on the transit light curve and the estimated stellar parameters. The planet's mass could not be measured with the existing radial-velocity data, due to the high level of stellar activity, but if we assume a circular orbit we can place a rough upper bound of $120 M_{\\earth}$ (3$\\sigma$). The host star has a high obliquity ($\\psi$ = $104^{\\circ}$), based on the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and an analysis of starspot-crossing events. This result is valuable because almost all previous obliquity measurements are for stars with more massive planets and shorter-period orbits. In addition, the polar orbit of the planet combined with an analysis of spot-cross...

  9. Field-assisted spin-polarized electron transport through a single quantum well with spin-orbit coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Xiu-Huan; Zhang Cun-Xi; Wang Rui; Zhou Yun-Qing; Kong Ling-Min


    We have investigated theoretically the field-driven electron transport through a single-quantum-well semiconductor heterostructure with spin-orbit coupling.The splitting of the asymmetric Fano-type resonance peaks due to the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is found to be highly sensitive to the direction of the incident electron.The splitting of the Fano-type resonance induces the spin-polarization dependent electron current.The location and the line shape of the Fano-type resonance can be controlled by adjusting the energy and the direction of the incident electron,the oscillation frequency,and the amplitude of the external field.These interesting features may be used to devise tunable spin filters and realize pure spin transmission currents.

  10. Early On-Orbit Performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite (United States)

    Cao, Changyong; DeLuccia, Frank J.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Weng, Fuzhong


    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of the key environmental remote-sensing instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership spacecraft, which was successfully launched on October 28, 2011 from the Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Following a series of spacecraft and sensor activation operations, the VIIRS nadir door was opened on November 21, 2011. The first VIIRS image acquired signifies a new generation of operational moderate resolution-imaging capabilities following the legacy of the advanced very high-resolution radiometer series on NOAA satellites and Terra and Aqua Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for NASA's Earth Observing system. VIIRS provides significant enhancements to the operational environmental monitoring and numerical weather forecasting, with 22 imaging and radiometric bands covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 12.5 microns, providing the sensor data records for 23 environmental data records including aerosol, cloud properties, fire, albedo, snow and ice, vegetation, sea surface temperature, ocean color, and nigh-time visible-light-related applications. Preliminary results from the on-orbit verification in the postlaunch check-out and intensive calibration and validation have shown that VIIRS is performing well and producing high-quality images. This paper provides an overview of the onorbit performance of VIIRS, the calibration/validation (cal/val) activities and methodologies used. It presents an assessment of the sensor initial on-orbit calibration and performance based on the efforts from the VIIRS-SDR team. Known anomalies, issues, and future calibration efforts, including the long-term monitoring, and intercalibration are also discussed.

  11. HAT-P-7: A Retrograde or Polar Orbit, and a Second Planet

    CERN Document Server

    Winn, Joshua N; Albrecht, Simon; Howard, Andrew W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Crossfield, Ian J; Holman, Matthew J


    We show that the exoplanet HAT-P-7b has an extremely tilted orbit, with a true angle of at least 86 degrees with respect to its parent star's equatorial plane, and a strong possibility of retrograde motion. We also report evidence for a second planet in a more distant orbit. The evidence for the unparalleled orbit and the additional planet is based on precise observations of the star's apparent radial velocity. The anomalous radial velocity due to rotation (the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect) was found to be a blueshift during the first half of the transit and a redshift during the second half, an inversion of the usual effect, implying that the angle between the sky-projected orbital and stellar angular momentum vectors is 182.5 +/- 9.4 deg. The second planet is implicated by excess radial-velocity variation of the host star over 2 yr. Possibly, the second planet tilted the orbit of the inner planet through a close encounter or the Kozai effect.

  12. HAT-P-7: A Retrograde or Polar Orbit, and a Third Body (United States)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Johnson, John Asher; Albrecht, Simon; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Crossfield, Ian J.; Holman, Matthew J.


    We showed that the exoplanet HAT-P-7b has an extremely tilted orbit, with a true angle of at least 86 degrees with respect to its parent star's equatorial plane, and a strong possibility of retrograde motion. We also report evidence for an additional planet or companion star. The Rossiter-McLaughlin effect was found to be a blueshift during the first half of the transit and a redshift during the second half, an inversion of the usual pattern, implying that the angle between the sky-projected orbital and stellar angular momentum vectors is 182.5 plus or minus 9.4 degrees. The third body is implicated by excess RV variation of the host star over 2 yr. Some possible explanations for the tilted orbit of HAT-P-7b are a close encounter with another planet, the Kozai effect, and resonant capture by an inward-migrating outer planet.

  13. Spin current and polarization in impure two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit coupling. (United States)

    Mishchenko, E G; Shytov, A V; Halperin, B I


    We derive the transport equations for two-dimensional electron systems with Rashba spin-orbit interaction and short-range spin-independent disorder. In the limit of slow spatial variations, we obtain coupled diffusion equations for the electron density and spin. Using these equations we calculate electric-field induced spin accumulation and spin current in a finite-size sample for an arbitrary ratio between spin-orbit energy splitting Delta and elastic scattering rate tau(-1). We demonstrate that the spin-Hall conductivity vanishes in an infinite system independent of this ratio.

  14. Linear response of heat conductivity of normal-superfluid interface of a polarized Fermi gas to orbital magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimian, N., E-mail: [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrafarin, M., E-mail: [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afzali, R., E-mail: [Physics Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 15418 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Using perturbed Bogoliubov equations, we study the linear response to a weak orbital magnetic field of the heat conductivity of the normal-superfluid interface of a polarized Fermi gas at sufficiently low temperature. We consider the various scattering regions of the BCS regime and analytically obtain the transmission coefficients and the heat conductivity across the interface in an arbitrary weak orbital field. For a definite choice of the field, we consider various values of the scattering length in the BCS range and numerically obtain the allowed values of the average and species-imbalance chemical potentials. Thus, taking Andreev reflection into account, we describe how the heat conductivity is affected by the field and the species imbalance. In particular, we show that the additional heat conductivity due to the orbital field increases with the species imbalance, which is more noticeable at higher temperatures. Our results indicate how the heat conductivity may be controlled, which is relevant to sensitive magnetic field sensors/regulators at the interface.

  15. The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars (United States)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Michaels, Timothy I.; Byrne, Shane; Sun, Wenbo; Titus, Timothy N.; Colaprete, Anthony; Wolff, Michael J.; Videen, Gorden; Grund, Christian J.


    We present the scientific case to build a multiple-wavelength, active, near-infrared (NIR) instrument to measure the reflected intensity and polarization characteristics of backscattered radiation from planetary surfaces and atmospheres. We focus on the ability of such an instrument to enhance, perhaps revolutionize, our understanding of climate, volatiles and astrobiological potential of modern-day Mars.

  16. POLAR-ORBITING ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITES: Status, Plans, and Future Data Management Challenges (United States)


    tropical storms, volcanic ash,3 and icebergs), and to provide quality assurance for weather prediction models. The following figures present some polar...Source: NOAA. Page 9 GAO-02-684T Figure 6: POES Image of Volcanic Ash Cloud from Mt. Etna, Sicily , in 2001 Source: NOAA. Page 10 GAO-02-684T Figure 7

  17. Analyzing perturbation characteristic and orbital maintenance strategy for super low altitude satellite%超低轨道卫星摄动特性分析及轨道维持方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温生林; 闫野; 易腾


    针对超低轨道卫星长时间在轨飞行的轨道维持问题,分析了超低轨道平均偏心率矢量变化特性,提出了一种超低轨道维持的控制方法。分析了 J2、J3摄动以及大气阻力摄动作用下超低轨道卫星偏心率矢量的变化特性;基于能量守恒原理设计了超低轨道高度维持的控制策略;通过仿真算例验证了控制策略的有效性。结果表明:在地球非球形引力摄动、大气阻力摄动和速度脉冲作用下超低轨道平均偏心率的变化是稳定的,所设计的轨道维持方法不仅能够实现超低轨道高度维持,确保平均偏心率矢量收敛至平衡位置,且用于轨道维持的燃料消耗合理,能够满足长时间的超低轨道飞行要求。%Aiming at the orbital maintenance problem of super low altitude satellite for the long duration of the flight,the variation characteristics of the average eccentricity vector were analyzed and an orbital maintenance method was presented.Firstly,the change of average eccentricity vector characteristic of super low altitude satellite under the J2 ,J3 zonal terms and the atmospheric drag was analyzed.Then an orbital maintenance strategy based on energy conservation principle was proposed.Finally,the effectiveness of orbital maintenance strategy was validated by simulation examples.Simulation results show that the changes of average eccentricity is stable under the perturbation of the earth non-spherical gravity,the atmospheric drag and the impulsive maneuver,and the proposed orbital maintenance method can effectively achieve super low altitude maintenance and make the average eccentricity vector converge to equilibrium point.Besides,the fuel consumption for orbital maintenance is reasonable and the long duration flight in super low orbit can be achieved.

  18. Remotely sensed soil temperatures beneath snow-free skin-surface using thermal observations from tandem polar-orbiting satellites: An analytical three-time-scale model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Wenfeng; Zhou, Ji; Ju, Weimin


    -surface. This study shows that thermal remote sensing can be used to estimate soil temperatures. Our results provide insights into thermal observations collected with tandem polar-orbiting satellites when used toward obtaining soil temperatures under clear-sky conditions without the use of any ground......, including the daily-averaged temperature, thermal inertia, upward surface flux factor, and day-to-day change rate. Thus, under clear-sky conditions, the four thermal measurements in a diurnal cycle recorded with tandem polar-orbiting satellites are sufficient for reconstructing the DTC of both land surface...... and soil temperatures. Polar-orbiting satellite data from MODIS are used to show the model's capability. The results demonstrate that soil temperatures with a spatial resolution of 1km under snow-free conditions can be generated at any time of a clear-sky day. Validation is performed by using a comparison...

  19. Towards More Consistent Retrievals of Ice Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties from Polar Orbiting Sensors (United States)

    Baum, B. A.; Heymsfield, A.; Yang, P.


    Differences exist in the ice cloud optical thickness and effective particle size products provided by teams working with data from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of the Earth Reflectance), Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR), and CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization). The issue is in large part due to the assumed ice cloud single-scattering properties that each team uses in their retrievals. To gain insight into this problem, we are developing ice cloud single-scattering properties consistently from solar through far-infrared wavelengths by merging ice cloud microphysical data from in situ measurements with the very latest light scattering calculations for ice habits that include droxtals, solid/hollow columns, plates, solid/hollow bullet rosettes, aggregates of columns, and small/large aggregates of plates. The in-situ measurements are from a variety of field campaigns, including ARM-IOP, CRYSTAL-FACE, ACTIVE, SCOUT, MidCiX, pre-AVE, TC-4, and MACPEX. Among other advances, the light scattering calculations include the full phase matrix (i.e., polarization), incorporate a new treatment of forward scattering, and three levels of surface roughness from smooth to severely roughened. This talk will focus on improvements to our methodology for building both spectral and narrowband bulk scattering optical models appropriate for satellite imagers and hyperspectral infrared sensors. The new models provide a basis for investigating retrieval differences in the products from the sensor teams. We will discuss recent work towards improving the consistency of ice cloud microphysical/optical property retrievals between solar, polarimetric, and infrared retrieval approaches. It will be demonstrated that severely roughened ice particles correspond best in comparisons to polarization measurements. Further discussion will provide insight as to the

  20. Effects of geometry and linearly polarized cavity photons on charge and spin currents in a quantum ring with spin-orbit interactions (United States)

    Arnold, Thorsten; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar


    We calculate the persistent charge and spin polarization current inside a finite-width quantum ring of realistic geometry as a function of the strength of the Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction. The time evolution in the transient regime of the two-dimensional (2D) quantum ring connected to electrically biased semi-infinite leads is governed by a time-convolutionless non-Markovian generalized master equation. The electrons are correlated via Coulomb interaction. In addition, the ring is embedded in a photon cavity with a single mode of linearly polarized photon field, which is polarized either perpendicular or parallel to the charge transport direction. To analyze carefully the physical effects, we compare to the analytical results of the toy model of a one-dimensional (1D) ring of non-interacting electrons with spin-orbit coupling. We find a pronounced charge current dip associated with many-electron level crossings at the Aharonov-Casher phase ΔΦ = π, which can be disguised by linearly polarized light. Qualitative agreement is found for the spin polarization currents of the 1D and 2D ring. Quantitatively, however, the spin polarization currents are weaker in the more realistic 2D ring, especially for weak spin-orbit interaction, but can be considerably enhanced with the aid of a linearly polarized electromagnetic field. Specific spin polarization current symmetries relating the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction case to the Rashba one are found to hold for the 2D ring, which is embedded in the photon cavity.

  1. Bonding, Backbonding, and Spin-Polarized Molecular Orbitals:Basis for Magnetism and Semiconducting Transport in V[TCNE]x~;;2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, Jeffrey B; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Lincoln, Derek M; Edelstein, Ruth Shima; Epstein, Arthur J


    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) at the V L2,3 and C and N K edges reveal bonding/backbonding interactions in films of the 400 K magnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]x~;;2. In V spectra, dxy-like orbitals are modeled assuming V2+ in an octahedral ligand field, while dz2 and dx2-y2 orbitals involved in strong covalent bonding cannot be modeled by atomic calculations. C and N MCD, and differences in XAS from neutral TCNE molecules, reveal spin-polarized molecular orbitals in V[TCNE]x~;;2 associated with backbonding interactions that yield its novel properties.

  2. A Dual Polarization, Active, Microstrip Antenna for an Orbital Imaging Radar System Operating at L-Band (United States)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.; Huang, John


    A highly successful Earth orbiting synthetic antenna aperture radar (SAR) system, known as the SIR-C mission, was carried into orbit in 1994 on a U.S. Shuttle (Space Transportation System) mission. The radar system was mounted in the cargo bay with no need to fold, or in any other way reduce the size of the antennas for launch. Weight and size were not limited for the L-Band, C-Band, and X-Band radar systems of the SIR-C radar imaging mission; the set of antennas weighed 10,500 kg, the L-Band antenna having the major share of the weight. This paper treats designing an L-Band antenna functionally similar to that used for SIR-C, but at a fraction of the cost and at a weight in the order of 250 kg. Further, the antenna must be folded to fit into the small payload shroud of low cost booster rocket systems. Over 31 square meters of antenna area is required. This low weight, foldable, electronic scanning antenna is for the proposed LightSAR radar system which is to be placed in Earth orbit on a small, dedicated space craft at the lowest possible cost for an efficient L- Band radar imaging system. This LightSAR spacecraft radar is to be continuously available for at least five operational years, and have the ability to map or repeat-map any area on earth within a few days of any request. A microstrip patch array, with microstrip transmission lines heavily employed in the aperture and in the corporate feed network, was chosen as the low cost approach for this active dual-polarization, 80 MHz (6.4%) bandwidth antenna design.

  3. Spin polarization, orbital occupation and band gap opening in vanadium dioxide: The effect of screened Hartree-Fock exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao


    The metal-insulator transition of VO2 so far has evaded an accurate description by density functional theory. The screened hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria and Ernzerhof leads to reasonable solutions for both the low-temperature monoclinic and high-temperature rutile phases only if spin polarization is excluded from the calculations. We explore whether a satisfactory agreement with experiment can be achieved by tuning the fraction of Hartree Fock exchange (α) in the density functional. It is found that two branches of locally stable solutions exist for the rutile phase for 12.5%≤α≤20%. One is metallic and has the correct stability as compared to the monoclinic phase, the other is insulating with lower energy than the metallic branch. We discuss these observations based on the V 3d orbital occupations and conclude that α=10% is the best possible choice for spin-polarized VO2 calculations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Charge transfer and polarization for chloride ions bound in ClC transport proteins: natural bond orbital and energy decomposition analyses. (United States)

    Church, Jonathan; Pezeshki, Soroosh; Davis, Christal; Lin, Hai


    ClC transport proteins show a distinct "broken-helix" architecture, in which certain α-helices are oriented with their N-terminal ends pointed toward the binding sites where the chloride ions are held extensively by the backbone amide nitrogen atoms from the helices. To understand the effectiveness of such binding structures, we carried out natural bond orbital analysis and energy decomposition analysis employing truncated active-site model systems for the bound chloride ions along the translocation pore of the EcClC proteins. Our results indicated that the chloride ions are stabilized in such a binding environment by electrostatic, polarization, and charge-transfer interactions with the backbone and a few side chains. Up to ~25% of the formal charges of the chloride ions were found smeared out to the surroundings primarily via charge transfer from the chloride's lone pair n(Cl) orbitals to the protein's antibonding σ*(N-H) or σ*(O-H) orbitals; those σ* orbitals are localized at the polar N-H and O-H bonds in the chloride's first solvation shells formed by the backbone amide groups and the side chains of residues Ser107, Arg147, Glu148, and Tyr445. Polarizations by the chloride ions were dominated by the redistribution of charge densities among the π orbitals and lone pair orbitals of the protein atoms, in particular the atoms of the backbone peptide links and of the side chains of Arg147, Glu148, and Tyr445. The substantial amounts of electron density involved in charge transfer and in polarization were consistent with the large energetic contributions by the two processes revealed by the energy decomposition analysis. The significant polarization and charge-transfer effects may have impacts on the mechanisms and dynamics of the chloride transport by the ClC proteins.

  5. Giant Optical Polarization Rotation Induced by Spin-Orbit Coupling in Polarons (United States)

    Casals, Blai; Cichelero, Rafael; García Fernández, Pablo; Junquera, Javier; Pesquera, David; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Infante, Ingrid C.; Sánchez, Florencio; Fontcuberta, Josep; Herranz, Gervasi


    We have uncovered a giant gyrotropic magneto-optical response for doped ferromagnetic manganite La2 /3Ca1 /3MnO3 around the near room-temperature paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition. At odds with current wisdom, where this response is usually assumed to be fundamentally fixed by the electronic band structure, we point to the presence of small polarons as the driving force for this unexpected phenomenon. We explain the observed properties by the intricate interplay of mobility, Jahn-Teller effect, and spin-orbit coupling of small polarons. As magnetic polarons are ubiquitously inherent to many strongly correlated systems, our results provide an original, general pathway towards the generation of magnetic-responsive gigantic gyrotropic responses that may open novel avenues for magnetoelectric coupling beyond the conventional modulation of magnetization.

  6. WASP-121 b: a hot Jupiter in a polar orbit and close to tidal disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Delrez, L; Almenara, J -M; Anderson, D R; Collier-Cameron, A; Díaz, R F; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; Van Grootel, V; West, R G


    We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey, in close collaboration with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes, of WASP-121 b, a new remarkable short-period transiting hot Jupiter, whose planetary nature has been statistically validated by the PASTIS software. The planet has a mass of $1.183_{-0.062}^{+0.064}$ $M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a radius of 1.865 $\\pm$ 0.044 $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, and transits every $1.2749255_{-0.0000025}^{+0.0000020}$ days an active F6-type main-sequence star ($V$=10.4, $1.353_{-0.079}^{+0.080}$ $M_{\\odot}$, 1.458 $\\pm$ 0.030 $R_{\\odot}$, $T_{\\mathrm{eff}}$ = 6460 $\\pm$ 140 K). A notable property of WASP-121 b is that its orbital semi-major axis is only $\\sim$1.15 times larger than its Roche limit, which suggests that the planet might be close to tidal disruption. Furthermore, its large size and extreme irradiation ($\\sim$$7.1\\:10^{9}$ erg $\\mathrm{s}^{-1} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$) make it an excellent target for atmospheric studies via secondary eclipse observations. Using the TRAPPIST telescope,...

  7. Altitude headache. (United States)

    Lopez, J Ivan; Holdridge, Ashley; Mendizabal, Jorge E


    High altitude headache (HAH) has been defined by the International Headache Society as a headache that appears within 24 hours after ascent to 2,500 m or higher [1••]. The headache can appear in isolation or as part of acute mountain sickness (AMS), which has more dramatic symptoms than the headache alone. If symptoms are ignored, more serious conditions such as high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), or even death may ensue. While there is no definitive understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism, it is speculated that HAH occurs from the combination of hypoxemia-induced intracranial vasodilation and subsequent cerebral edema. There are a number of preventive measures that can be adopted prior to ascending, including acclimatization and various medications. A variety of pharmacological interventions are also available to clinicians to treat this extremely widespread condition.

  8. Long orbital period pre-polars containing an early K-type donor stars. Bottleneck accretion mechanism in action

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, G; Zharikov, S; Reichart, D E; Haislip, J B; Ivarsen, K M; LaCluyze, A P; Moore, J P; Miroshnichenko, A S


    We studied two objects identified as a Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche lobe filling ZAMS secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with 20.82 h orbital period, an object that shows low luminosity state, when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K- star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shut-offs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 h binary system. They both have early K-type stars as a donor star. We argue, that similar to the shorter period pre-polars containing M-dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar ...

  9. Ionization of oriented targets by intense circularly polarized laser pulses: Imprints of orbital angular nodes in the two-dimensional momentum distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Christian; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a few-cycle circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulse that interacts with an oriented target exemplified by an argon atom, initially in a 3px or 3py state. The photoelectron momentum distributions show distinct signatures......, we show that ionization by a circularly polarized pulse completely maps out the angular nodal structure of the initial state, thus providing a potential tool for studying orbital symmetry in individual systems or during chemical reactions....

  10. Subband Structure of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Formed at the Polar Surface of the Strong Spin-Orbit Perovskite KTaO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, P.D.C.


    We demonstrate the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the (100) surface of the 5d transition-metal oxide KTaO{sub 3}. From angle-resolved photoemission, we find that quantum confinement lifts the orbital degeneracy of the bulk band structure and leads to a 2DEG composed of ladders of subband states of both light and heavy carriers. Despite the strong spin-orbit coupling, we find no experimental signatures of a Rashba spin splitting, which has important implications for the interpretation of transport measurements in both KTaO{sub 3}- and SrTiO{sub 3}-based 2DEGs. The polar nature of the KTaO{sub 3}(100) surface appears to help mediate formation of the 2DEG as compared to non-polar SrTiO{sub 3}(100).

  11. Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter model payload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langlais, B.; Leblanc, F.; Fouchet, T.


    Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter was proposed as an answer to the Cosmic Vision Call of Opportunity as a M-class mission. The MEMO mission is designed to study the strong interconnections between the planetary interior, atmosphere and solar conditions essential to understand planetary...... and continuously monitored. The challenging scientific objectives of the MEMO mission proposal are fulfilled with the appropriate scientific instruments and orbit strategy. MEMO is composed of a main platform, placed on a elliptical (130 x 1,000 km), non polar (77A degrees inclination) orbit, and of an independent......, higher apoapsis (10,000 km) and low periapsis (300 km) micro-satellite. These orbital parameters are designed so that the scientific return of MEMO is maximized, in terms of measurement altitude, local time, season and geographical coverage. MEMO carry several suites of instruments, made...

  12. Estimation and Validation of Land Surface Temperatures from Chinese Second-Generation Polar-Orbit FY-3A VIRR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Hui Tang


    Full Text Available This work estimated and validated the land surface temperature (LST from thermal-infrared Channels 4 (10.8 µm and 5 (12.0 µm of the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR onboard the second-generation Chinese polar-orbiting FengYun-3A (FY-3A meteorological satellite. The LST, mean emissivity and atmospheric water vapor content (WVC were divided into several tractable sub-ranges with little overlap to improve the fitting accuracy. The experimental results showed that the root mean square errors (RMSEs were proportional to the viewing zenith angles (VZAs and WVC. The RMSEs were below 1.0 K for VZA sub-ranges less than 30° or for VZA sub-ranges less than 60° and WVC less than 3.5 g/cm2, provided that the land surface emissivities were known. A preliminary validation using independently simulated data showed that the estimated LSTs were quite consistent with the actual inputs, with a maximum RMSE below 1 K for all VZAs. An inter-comparison using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-derived LST product MOD11_L2 showed that the minimum RMSE was 1.68 K for grass, and the maximum RMSE was 3.59 K for barren or sparsely vegetated surfaces. In situ measurements at the Hailar field site in northeastern China from October, 2013, to September, 2014, were used to validate the proposed method. The result showed that the RMSE between the LSTs calculated from the ground measurements and derived from the VIRR data was 1.82 K.

  13. Study of the transfer between libration point orbits and lunar orbits in Earth-Moon system (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.; Yuan, Jianping


    This paper is devoted to the study of the transfer problem from a libration point orbit of the Earth-Moon system to an orbit around the Moon. The transfer procedure analysed has two legs: the first one is an orbit of the unstable manifold of the libration orbit and the second one is a transfer orbit between a certain point on the manifold and the final lunar orbit. There are only two manoeuvres involved in the method and they are applied at the beginning and at the end of the second leg. Although the numerical results given in this paper correspond to transfers between halo orbits around the L_1 point (of several amplitudes) and lunar polar orbits with altitudes varying between 100 and 500 km, the procedure we develop can be applied to any kind of lunar orbits, libration orbits around the L_1 or L_2 points of the Earth-Moon system, or to other similar cases with different values of the mass ratio.

  14. Comparison of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the NOAA Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) Program, (United States)


    Space Segment..... ..... o. . . . .... . . .. . .. VI-53 VII. ANALYSES OF ORBITAL REQUIREMENTS ........ .o.... VII-l A. Timeliness and Geographic situ platforms, and deter- mination of geographic location of those platforms, such as oceanic buoys, ships automatic stations, aircraft, and...Readout Stations (CRSs). The maximum access period is approximately 15 minutes of each orbit. During this contact time, the C segement must: " Command the

  15. Utilization of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band for Arctic Ship Tracking and Fisheries Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Straka


    Full Text Available Maritime ships operating on-board illumination at night appear as point sources of light to highly sensitive low-light imagers on-board environmental satellites. Unlike city lights or lights from offshore gas platforms, whose locations remain stationary from one night to the next, lights from ships typically are ephemeral. Fishing boat lights are most prevalent near coastal cities and along the thermal gradients in the open ocean. Maritime commercial ships also operate lights that can be detected from space. Such observations have been made in a limited way via U.S. Department of Defense satellites since the late 1960s. However, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP satellite, which carries a new Day/Night Band (DNB radiometer, offers a vastly improved ability for users to observe commercial shipping in remote areas such as the Arctic. Owing to S-NPP’s polar orbit and the DNB’s wide swath (~3040 km, the same location in Polar Regions can be observed for several successive passes via overlapping swaths—offering a limited ability to track ship motion. Here, we demonstrate the DNB’s improved ability to monitor ships from space. Imagery from the DNB is compared with the heritage low-light sensor, the Operational Linescan System (OLS on board the Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP satellites, and is evaluated in the context of tracking individual ships in the Polar Regions under both moonlit and moonless conditions. In a statistical sense, we show how DNB observations of ship lights in the East China Sea can be correlated with seasonal fishing activity, while also revealing compelling structures related to regional fishery agreements established between various nations.

  16. Pure spin polarized transport based on Rashba spin-orbit interaction through the Aharonov-Bohm interferometer embodied four-quantum-dot ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Li-Jun; Han Yu


    The spin-polarized linear conductance spectrum and current-voltage characteristics in a four-quantum-dot ring embodied into Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer are investigated theoretically by considering a local Rashba spin-orbit interaction.It shows that the spin-polarized linear conductance and the corresponding spin polarization are each a function of magnetic flux phase at zero bias voltage with a period of 2π,and that Hubbard U cannot influence the electron transport properties in this case.When adjusting appropriately the structural parameter of inter-dot coupling and dot-lead coupling strength,the electronic spin polarization can reach a maximum value.Furthermore,by adjusting the bias voltages applied to the leads,the spin-up and spin-down currents move in opposite directions and pure spin current exists in the configuration space in appropriate situations.Based on the numerical results,such a model can be applied to the design of a spin filter device.

  17. High-Altitude Illness (United States)

    ... also called HAPE), which affects the lungsHigh-altitude cerebral edema (also called HACE), which affects the brainThese illnesses ... HAPE, high altitude, high altitude sickness, high-altitude cerebral edema, high-altitude pulmonary edema, hypobaropathy, mountain sickness, nifedipine, ...

  18. The science case for a modern, multi-wavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian J; Byrne, Shane; Sun, Wenbo; Titus, Timothy N; Colaprete, Anthony; Wolff, Michael J; Videen, Gorden


    We present the scientific case to build a multiple-wavelength, active, near-infrared (NIR) instrument to measure the reflected intensity and polarization characteristics of backscattered radiation from planetary surfaces and atmospheres. We focus on the ability of such an instrument to enhance, perhaps revolutionize, our understanding of climate, volatiles and astrobiological potential of modern-day Mars.

  19. High resolution spectroscopy from low altitude satellites. [gamma ray astronomy (United States)

    Nakano, G. H.; Imhof, W. L.


    The P 78 1 satellite to be placed in a synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 550-660 km will carry two identical high resolution spectrometers each consisting of a single (approximately 85 cc) intrinsic germanium IGE detector. The payload also includes a pair of phoswitch scintillators, an array of CdTe detectors and several particle detectors, all of which are mounted on the wheel of the satellite. The intrinsic high purity IGE detectors receive cooling from two Stirling cycle refrigerators and facilitate the assembly of large and complex detector arrays planned for the next generation of high sensitivity instruments such as those planned for the gamma ray observatory. The major subsystems of the spectrometer are discussed as well as its capabilities.

  20. Upper atomosphere and Thermal control of the Super Low Altitude Test Satellite



    The Super Low Altitude Test Satellite (SLATS) is an engineering test satellite currently under development in JAXA in an attempt to open a new frontier of space utilization on extremely low earth orbits. The altitude of SLATS orbit is around200km altitude. In this altitude, rarefied aerodynamics and high-density atomic oxygen effect on the thermal design of SLATS. The thermal control of SLATS was introduced in this paper. And, the equilibrium temperature on the bumper of SLATS was estimated w...

  1. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Observations with the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND): Neutron Suppression Regions (NSR) and Polar Hydrogen (United States)

    Chin, G.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Golovin, D. V.; Evans, L. G.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T.; Milikh, G. M.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. B.; Shevchenko, V.; Shvetsov, V.; Smith, D.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.; Zuber, M.


    Orbital detection of neutrons has become the dominant remote sensing technique for detecting and inferring H concentrations and its spatial distribution beneath planetary surfaces [Lawrence et al, (2010) Icarus, 205, pp. 195-209, Mitrofanov et al (2007) Science 297(5578), 78-81]. Indications for the presence of localized and relatively high water content was provided by LRO and LCROSS. LEND identified Cabeus, as the most promising LCROSS impact site [Mitrofanov I. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483], and instruments onboard LRO and LCROSS have measured signatures of water, H2 and other volatiles in the impact plume [Colaprete A. et al. (2010) Science, 339,463, Gladstone R. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 472].

  2. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 2A: Descriptions of geostationary and high-altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations (United States)

    Hills, H. K. (Editor); Littlefield, R. G. (Editor); Schofield, N. J. (Editor); Vetts, J. I. (Editor)


    Data from Earth-orbiting spacecraft at geostationary and higher altitudes was cataloged. Three lunar-orbiting spacecraft and some others whose apogees did not attain the geostationary altitude are included.

  3. Low altitude dose measurements from APEX, CRRES and DMSP. (United States)

    Mullen, E G; Gussenhoven, M S; Bell, J T; Madden, D; Holeman, E; Delorey, D


    Dosimeter data taken on the APEX (1994-1996), CRRES (1990-1991) and DMSP (1984-1987) satellites have been used to study the low altitude (down to 350 km) radiation environment. Of special concern has been the inner edge of the inner radiation belt due to its steep gradient. We have constructed dose models of the inner edge of the belt from all three spacecraft and put them into a personal computer utility, called APEXRAD, that calculates dose for user-selected orbits. The variation of dose for low altitude, circular orbits is given as a function of altitude, inclination and particle type. Dose-depth curves show that shielding greater than approximately 1/4 in Al is largely ineffectual for low altitude orbits. The contribution of outer zone electrons to low altitude dose is shown to be important only for thin shields and to have significant variation with magnetic activity and solar cycle.

  4. Adaptation to High Altitude



    Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude native...

  5. Illuminating the Capabilities of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Miller


    Full Text Available Daytime measurements of reflected sunlight in the visible spectrum have been a staple of Earth-viewing radiometers since the advent of the environmental satellite platform. At night, these same optical-spectrum sensors have traditionally been limited to thermal infrared emission, which contains relatively poor information content for many important weather and climate parameters. These deficiencies have limited our ability to characterize the full diurnal behavior and processes of parameters relevant to improved monitoring, understanding and modeling of weather and climate processes. Visible-spectrum light information does exist during the nighttime hours, originating from a wide variety of sources, but its detection requires specialized technology. Such measurements have existed, in a limited way, on USA Department of Defense satellites, but the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP satellite, which carries a new Day/Night Band (DNB radiometer, offers the first quantitative measurements of nocturnal visible and near-infrared light. Here, we demonstrate the expanded potential for nocturnal low-light visible applications enabled by the DNB. Via a combination of terrestrial and extraterrestrial light sources, such observations are always available—expanding many current existing applications while enabling entirely new capabilities. These novel low-light measurements open doors to a wealth of new interdisciplinary research topics while lighting a pathway toward the optimized design of follow-on satellite based low light visible sensors.

  6. Spin-helical Dirac states in graphene induced by polar-substrate surfaces with giant spin-orbit interaction: a new platform for spintronics. (United States)

    Eremeev, S V; Nechaev, I A; Echenique, P M; Chulkov, E V


    Spintronics, or spin electronics, is aimed at efficient control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in electron systems. To comply with demands of nowaday spintronics, the studies of electron systems hosting giant spin-orbit-split electron states have become one of the most important problems providing us with a basis for desirable spintronics devices. In construction of such devices, it is also tempting to involve graphene, which has attracted great attention because of its unique and remarkable electronic properties and was recognized as a viable replacement for silicon in electronics. In this case, a challenging goal is to lift spin degeneracy of graphene Dirac states. Here, we propose a novel pathway to achieve this goal by means of coupling of graphene and polar-substrate surface states with giant Rashba-type spin-splitting. We theoretically demonstrate it by constructing the graphene@BiTeCl system, which appears to possess spin-helical graphene Dirac states caused by the strong interaction of Dirac and Rashba electrons. We anticipate that our findings will stimulate rapid growth in theoretical and experimental investigations of graphene Dirac states with real spin-momentum locking, which can revolutionize the graphene spintronics and become a reliable base for prospective spintronics applications.

  7. Adaptation to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Nayar


    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  8. Improving Tidal Measurements about Europa Using the Properties of Unstable Periodic Orbits (United States)

    Boone, Dylan; Scheeres, D. J.


    The NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter mission requires a circular, near-polar orbit to measure Europa's Love numbers, geophysical coefficients which give insight into whether a liquid ocean exists. This type of orbit about planetary satellites is known to be unstable. The effects of Jupiter's tidal gravity are seen in changes in Europa's gravity field and surface deformation, which are sensed through doppler tracking over time and altimetry measurements respectively. These two measurement types separately determine the h and k Love numbers, a combination of which bounds how thick the ice shell of Europa is and whether liquid water is present. This work shows how the properties of an unstable periodic orbit about Europa generate preferred measurement directions in the orbit determination process for estimating science parameters. We generate an error covariance over seven days for the orbiter state and science parameters and then disperse the orbit initial conditions in a Monte Carlo simulation according to this covariance. The dispersed orbits are shown to have a bias toward longer lifetimes and we discuss this as an effect of the stable and unstable manifolds of the periodic orbit. The stable manifold represents contraction forward in time and the unstable manifold represents expansion forward in time. However, using an epoch formulation of a square-root information filter, measurements aligned with the unstable manifold mapped back in time add more information to the orbit determination process than measurements aligned with the stable manifold. This corresponds to a contraction in the uncertainty of the estimate of the desired parameters, including the Love numbers. Low altitude, near-polar periodic orbits with these characteristics are discussed along with the estimation results for the Love numbers, orbiter state, and orbit lifetime. These results are applicable to other measurements and planetary satellites since the mathematical model is the same.

  9. Stability of orbits around planetary satellites considering a disturbing body in an elliptical orbit: Applications to Europa and Ganymede (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho

    Europa and Ganymede are two of the four Jupiter’s moons which compose the Galilean satellite. These ones are planetary satellites of greater interest at the present moment among the scientific community. There are some missions being planned to visit them and and the Jovian system. One of them is the cooperation between NASA and ESA for the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). In this mission are planned the insertion of the spacecrafts JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) and JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Europa and Ganymede’s orbit. Thus, there is a great necessity for having a better comprehension of the dynamics of the orbits around this planetary satellite. This comprehension is essential for the success of this type of mission. In this context, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around these planetary satellites. An emphasis is given in polar orbits. These orbits can be useful in the planning of aerospace activities to be conducted around this planetary satellite, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of an artificial satellite around Europa and Ganymede under the influence of the third-body perturbation (the gravitational attraction of Jupiter) and the polygenic perturbations. These last ones occur due to forces such as the non-uniform distribution of mass (J2 and J3) of the main (central) body. A simplified dynamic model for polygenic perturbations is used. A new model for the third-body disturbance is presented considering it in an elliptical orbit. The Lagrange planetary equations, which compose a system of nonlinear differential equations, are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite around Ganymede. The equations showed here are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in inclination and eccentricity.

  10. Towards high temporal and moderate spatial resolutions in the remote sensing retrieval of evapotranspiration by combining geostationary and polar orbit satellite data (United States)

    Barrios, José Miguel; Ghilain, Nicolas; Arboleda, Alirio; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise


    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the water flux going from the surface into the atmosphere as result of soil and surface water evaporation and plant transpiration. It constitutes a key component of the water cycle and its quantification is of crucial importance for a number of applications like water management, climatic modelling, agriculture monitoring and planning, etc. Estimating ET is not an easy task; specially if large areas are envisaged and various spatio-temporal patterns of ET are present as result of heterogeneity in land cover, land use and climatic conditions. In this respect, spaceborne remote sensing (RS) provides the only alternative to continuously measure surface parameters related to ET over large areas. The Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) of Belgium, in the framework of EUMETSAT's "Land Surface Analysis-Satellite Application Facility" (LSA-SAF), has developed a model for the estimation of ET. The model is forced by RS data, numerical weather predictions and land cover information. The RS forcing is derived from measurements by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. This ET model is operational and delivers ET estimations over the whole field of view of the MSG satellite (Europe, Africa and Eastern South America) ( every 30 minutes. The spatial resolution of MSG is 3 x 3 km at subsatellite point and about 4 x 5 km in continental Europe. The spatial resolution of this product may constrain its full exploitation as the interest of potential users (farmers and natural resources scientists) may lie on smaller spatial units. This study aimed at testing methodological alternatives to combine RS imagery (geostationary and polar orbit satellites) for the estimation of ET such that the spatial resolution of the final product is improved. In particular, the study consisted in the implementation of two approaches for combining the current ET estimations with

  11. Feasibility demonstration for calibrating Suomi-National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite day/night band using Dome C and Greenland under moon light (United States)

    Qiu, Shi; Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Uprety, Sirish


    The day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. DNB covers almost seven orders of magnitude in its dynamic range from full sunlight to half-moon. To achieve this large dynamic range, it uses four charge-coupled device arrays in three gain stages. The low gain stage (LGS) gain is calibrated using the solar diffuser. In operations, the medium and high gain stage values are determined by multiplying the gain ratios between the medium gain stage, and LGS, and high gain stage (HGS) and LGS, respectively. This paper focuses on independently verifying the radiometric accuracy and stability of DNB HGS using DNB observations of ground vicarious calibration sites under lunar illumination at night. Dome C in Antarctica in the southern hemisphere and Greenland in the northern hemisphere are chosen as the vicarious calibration sites. Nadir observations of these high latitude regions by VIIRS are selected during perpetual night season, i.e., from April to August for Dome C and from November to January for Greenland over the years 2012 to 2013. Additional selection criteria, such as lunar phase being more than half-moon and no influence of straylight effects, are also applied in data selection. The lunar spectral irradiance model, as a function of Sun-Earth-Moon distances and lunar phase, is used to determine the top-of-atmosphere reflectance at the vicarious site. The vicariously derived long-term reflectance from DNB observations agrees with the reflectance derived from Hyperion observations. The vicarious trending of DNB radiometric performance using DOME-C and Greenland under moon light shows that the DNB HGS radiometric variability (relative accuracy to lunar irradiance model and Hyperion observation) is within 8%. Residual variability is also discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira


    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  13. Characteristics of anomalous Hall effect in spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gases in the presence of both intrinsic, extrinsic, and external electric-field induced spin-orbit couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Song; Yan Yu-Zhen; Hu Liang-Bin


    The various competing contributions to the anomalous Hall effect in spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gases in the presence of both intrinsic,extrinsic and external electric-field induced spin-orbit coupling were investigated theoretically.Based on a unified semiclassical theoretical approach,it is shown that the total anomalous Hall conductivity can be expressed as the sum of three distinct contributions in the presence of these competing spin-orbit interactions,namely an intrinsic contribution determined by the Berry curvature in the momentum space,an extrinsic contribution determined by the modified Bloch band group velocity and an extrinsic contribution determined by spin-orbit-dependent impurity scattering.The characteristics of these competing contributions are discussed in detail in the paper.

  14. Fourier Series Approximations to J2-Bounded Equatorial Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available The current paper offers a comprehensive dynamical analysis and Fourier series approximations of J2-bounded equatorial orbits. The initial conditions of heterogeneous families of J2-perturbed equatorial orbits are determined first. Then the characteristics of two types of J2-bounded orbits, namely, pseudo-elliptic orbit and critical circular orbit, are studied. Due to the ambiguity of the closed-form solutions which comprise the elliptic integrals and Jacobian elliptic functions, showing little physical insight into the problem, a new scheme, termed Fourier series expansion, is adopted for approximation herein. Based on least-squares fitting to the coefficients, the solutions are expressed with arbitrary high-order Fourier series, since the radius and the flight time vary periodically as a function of the polar angle. As a consequence, the solutions can be written in terms of elementary functions such as cosines, rather than complex mathematical functions. Simulations enhance the proposed approximation method, showing bounded and negligible deviations. The approximation results show a promising prospect in preliminary orbits design, determination, and transfers for low-altitude spacecrafts.

  15. Observations of a Unique Type of ULF Wave by Low-Altitude Space Technology 5 Satellites (United States)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Slavin, J. A.


    We report a unique type of ULF waves observed by low-altitude Space Technology 5 (ST-5) constellation mission. ST-5 is a three-microsatellite constellation deployed into a 300 x 4500 km dawn-dusk and Sun-synchronous polar orbit with 105.6deg inclination angle. Because of the Earth's rotation and the dipole tilt effect, the spacecraft's dawn-dusk orbit track can reach as low as subauroral latitudes during the course of a day. Whenever the spacecraft traverse the dayside closed field line region at subauroral latitudes, they frequently observe strong transverse oscillations at 30-200 mHz, or in the Pc2-3 frequency range. These Pc2-3 waves appear as wave packets with durations in the order of 5-10 min. As the maximum separations of the ST-5 spacecraft are in the order of 10 min, the three ST-5 satellites often observe very similar wave packets, implying these wave oscillations occur in a localized region. The coordinated ground-based magnetic observations at the spacecraft footprints, however, do not see waves in the Pc2-3 band; instead, the waves appear to be the common Pc4-5 waves associated with field line resonances. We suggest that these unique Pc2-3 waves seen by ST-5 are in fact the Doppler-shifted Pc4-5 waves as a result of rapid traverse of the spacecraft across the resonant field lines azimuthally at low altitudes. The observations with the unique spacecraft dawn-dusk orbits at proper altitudes and magnetic latitudes reveal the azimuthal characteristics of field line resonances.

  16. Estimation of high altitude Martian dust parameters (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Bhalodi, Pinali


    Dust devils are known to occur near the Martian surface mostly during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer and they play vital role in deciding background dust opacity in the atmosphere. The second source of high altitude Martian dust could be due to the secondary ejecta caused by impacts on Martian Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Also, the surfaces of the Moons are charged positively due to ultraviolet rays from the Sun and negatively due to space plasma currents. Such surface charging may cause fine grains to be levitated, which can easily escape the Moons. It is expected that the escaping dust form dust rings within the orbits of the Moons and therefore also around the Mars. One more possible source of high altitude Martian dust is interplanetary in nature. Due to continuous supply of the dust from various sources and also due to a kind of feedback mechanism existing between the ring or tori and the sources, the dust rings or tori can sustain over a period of time. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, it is mystery how dust has reached to such high altitudes. Estimation of dust parameters before-hand is necessary to design an instrument for the detection of high altitude Martian dust from a future orbiter. In this work, we have studied the dust supply rate responsible primarily for the formation of dust ring or tori, the life time of dust particles around the Mars, the dust number density as well as the effect of solar radiation pressure and Martian oblateness on dust dynamics. The results presented in this paper may be useful to space scientists for understanding the scenario and designing an orbiter based instrument to measure the dust surrounding the Mars for solving the mystery. The further work is underway.

  17. Family of Orbiters (United States)


    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time. All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet. Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  18. The ESA Polar Platform: A work-horse for future Earth Observation Missions (United States)

    Reibaldi, G. G.; Cendral, J. L.


    In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Long Term Plan, the Earth Observation Missions play a very important role in contributing to a better knowledge and monitoring of the Earth Environment. Within the range of future Earth Observation missions, the low altitude sun synchronous polar orbit is of special interest because it offers a repeated coverage of the complete surface of the Earth. For this type of mission, a large number of instruments having different technology and application objectives have been developed or are under development in Europe. To cope with those needs, ESA has initiated the development of the Polar Platform as part of its infrastructure to become the work-horse of future Earth Observation Missions in the Polar orbits. This spacecraft bus, through its design modularity, can cope with a wide range of payload complements and instrument requirements so that the future development emphasis in Europe can be placed on payload and observations rather than repeated satellite developments. The Polar Platform design makes maximum use of the SPOT and ERS programmes experience and design in order to reduce development risk and minimize costs. The modular design can cope with different payload accommodation, power and mass requirements as well as different orbit altitudes. The development is well advanced and is now well into the detailed design and development programme, with components and long lead hardware procurement already initiated. The development of the payload complement for the first mission has been initiated in parallel via the POEM-1 Programme. The Polar Platform will also make use of the other ESA's future infrastructure, such as the Ariane 5 Launcher as well as the Data Relay Satellite System in order to ensure global coverage of observations. The launch of the first ESA Polar Platform Mission carrying the POEM-1 Mission is planned for mid-1988. The performance requirements, design and status of development of the Polar Platform

  19. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin


    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  20. LLOFX earth orbit to lunar orbit delta V estimation program user and technical documentation (United States)


    The LLOFX computer program calculates in-plane trajectories from an Earth-orbiting space station to Lunar orbit in such a way that the journey requires only two delta V burns (one to leave Earth circular orbit and one to circularize into Lunar orbit). The program requires the user to supply the Space Station altitude and Lunar orbit altitude (in km above the surface), and the desired time of flight for the transfer (in hours). It then determines and displays the trans-Lunar injection (TLI) delta V required to achieve the transfer, the Lunar orbit insertion (LOI) delta V required to circularize the orbit around the Moon, the actual time of flight, and whether the transfer orbit is elliptical or hyperbolic. Return information is also displayed. Finally, a plot of the transfer orbit is displayed.

  1. Altitude and endurance training. (United States)

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E


    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  2. Responses in the polar and equatorial ionosphere to the March 2015 St. Patrick Day storm (United States)

    Hairston, Marc; Coley, W. R.; Stoneback, Russell


    The St. Patrick Day storm of 2015 (17 March 2015) occurred at a unique time when there were multiple spacecraft observing the Earth's ionosphere between 350 and 885 km. Observations of the plasma flows and densities from the five operational polar-orbiting DMSP spacecraft combined with those from the equatorial-orbiting C/NOFS spacecraft provided a comprehensive global record of the both the polar and equatorial ionosphere regions' responses to the storm. This paper presents an overview of the data from this suite of spacecraft focusing on the following aspects: (1) the polar cap ionosphere's reaction to the storm, (2) the change in the penetration electric field in the midlatitude region as a function of time and the solar local time during the storm, (3) the equatorial ionosphere's response of the meridional (vertical) flows to the penetration electric field and the disturbance dynamo during the storm, and (4) the creation of a predawn ionospheric bubble system near the equator during the storm's main phase that was observed at low altitudes by C/NOFS and later at high altitudes by several DMSP. Examining these phenomenon enable us to trace the dynamic flow of energy from the solar wind input in the polar ionosphere all the way to the equatorial ionosphere.

  3. WFPC2 Polarization Calibration (United States)

    Biretta, J.; McMaster, M.


    We derive a detailed calibration for WFPC2 polarization data which is accurate to about 1.5%. We begin by computing polarizer flats, and show how they are applied to data. A physical model for the polarization effects of the WFPC2 optics is then created using Mueller matricies. This model includes corrections for the instrumental polarization (diattenuation and phase retardance) of the pick-off mirror, as well as the high cross-polarization transmission of the polarizer filter. We compare this model against the on-orbit observations of polarization calibrators, and show it predicts relative counts in the different polarizer/aperture settings to 1.5% RMS accuracy. We then show how this model can be used to calibrate GO data, and present two WWW tools which allow observers to easily calibrate their data. Detailed examples are given illustrationg the calibration and display of WFPC2 polarization data. In closing we describe future plans and possible improvements.

  4. Low altitude remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez Calero, D.; Peyaud, A.; Van der Wal, D.; van 't Hof, J.; Hakkesteegt, H.; Vink, R.; Bovenkamp, E.G.P.; van Antwerpen, G.; Meynart, R.; Neeck, S.P.; Shimoda, H.; Habib, S.


    In 2007 TNO started to fly some sensors on an unmanned helicopter platform. These sensors included RGB, B/W and thermal infrared cameras. In 2008 a spectrometer was added. The goal for 2010 is to be able to offer a low altitude flying platform including several sensors. Development of these sensors

  5. SELENE: The Moon-Orbiting Observatory Mission (United States)

    Mizutani, H.; Kato, M.; Sasaki, S.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Takizawa, Y.

    The Moon-orbiting SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) mission is prepared in Japan for lunar science and technology development. The launch target has been changed from 2005 to 2006 because of the launch failure of H2A rocket in 2003. The spacecraft consists of a main orbiting satellite at about 100 km altitude in the polar orbit and two sub-satellites in the elliptical orbits. The scientific objectives of the mission are; 1) study of the origin and evolution of the Moon, 2) in-situ measurement of the lunar environment, and 3) observation of the solar-terrestrial plasma environment. SELENE carries the instruments for scientific investigation, including mapping of lunar topography and surface composition, measurement of the gravity and magnetic fields, and observation of lunar and solar-terrestrial plasma environment. The total mass of scientific payload is about 300 kg. The mission period will be 1 year. If extra fuel is available, the mission will be extended in a lower orbit around 50 km. The elemental abundances are measured by x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers. Alpha particles from the radon gas and polonium are detected by an alpha particle spectrometer. The mineralogical abundance is characterized by a multi-band imager. The mineralogical composition is identified by a spectral profiler which is a continuous spectral analyzer. The surface topographic data are obtained by a high resolution terrain camera and a laser altimeter. The inside structure up to 5 km below the lunar surface is observed by the radar sounder experiment using a 5 MHz radio wave. A magnetometer and an electron reflectometer provides data on the lunar surface magnetic field. Doppler tracking of the orbiter via the sub-satellite when the orbiter is in the far side is used to determine the gravity field of the far side. Radio sources on the two sub-satellites are used to conduct differential VLBI observation from the ground stations. The lunar environment of high energy particles

  6. Polar Satcom System and Related Method (United States)

    Mitchell, James P. (Inventor)


    A system and method for communication relay via a repeater platform satellite vehicle to a near surface station in the Polar Region is disclosed. A preferred embodiment receives a plurality of positioning and content data from a plurality of constellations of Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) Satellite Vehicles (SAT). Additionally, the system receives a plurality of position, time and altitude data from constellations of available repeater platform (RP) SATs. The system receives a request for content from a near surface station located in an area lacking adequate line-of-sight to the GEO based signal. The system aligns antenna elements onboard the desired RP SATs to amplify and relay the GEO based signal toward the near surface station and vice versa. Additionally, the system commands directional antenna elements onboard the station to send and receive the relayed signal making the GEO based content available to the near surface station.

  7. High Altitude Cerebral Edema (United States)


    Saussure offered a monetary prize for the first ascent up Mt. Blanc, the highest peak in Europe, in the hopes that this might encourage guides to... Saussure found himself on the summit where he wrote: "I was constantly forced to interrupt my work and devote myself entirely to breathing...the kind... Saussure HB: cited in Houston CS, Going High. The Story of Man and Altitude. Burlington, Vt., Charles S. Houston, M.D., 1980, p., 32. 9. Delamare JP

  8. Orbital cellulitis (United States)

    ... hemolytic streptococci may also cause orbital cellulitis. Orbital cellulitis infections in children may get worse very quickly and ... in the space around the eye. An orbital cellulitis infection can get worse very quickly. A person with ...

  9. Spin-helical Dirac states in graphene induced by polar-substrate surfaces with giant spin-orbit interaction: a new platform for spintronics


    Eremeev, S. V.; I. A. Nechaev; Echenique, P. M.; Chulkov, E.V.


    Spintronics, or spin electronics, is aimed at efficient control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in electron systems. To comply with demands of nowaday spintronics, the studies of electron systems hosting giant spin-orbit-split electron states have become one of the most important problems providing us with a basis for desirable spintronics devices. In construction of such devices, it is also tempting to involve graphene, which has attracted great attention because of its unique an...

  10. Polar Diving (United States)


    3 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers exposed by erosion in a trough within the north polar residual cap of Mars, diving beneath a younger covering of polar materials. The layers have, since the Mariner 9 mission in 1972, been interpreted to be composed of a combination of dust and ice in unknown proportions. In this scene, a layer of solid carbon dioxide, which was deposited during the previous autumn and winter, blankets the trough as well as the adjacent terrain. Throughout northern spring, the carbon dioxide will be removed; by summer, the layers will be frost-free. Location near: 81.4oN, 352.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  11. How well do we know the polar hydrogen distribution on the Moon?

    CERN Document Server

    Teodoro, L F A; Elphic, R C; Feldman, W C; Lawrence, D J


    A detailed comparison is made of results from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) and the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector Collimated Sensors for EpiThermal Neutrons (LEND CSETN). Using the autocorrelation function and power spectrum of the polar count rate maps produced by these experiments, it is shown that the LEND CSETN has a footprint that is at least as big as would be expected for an omni-directional detector at an orbital altitude of 50 km. The collimated flux into the field of view of the collimator is negligible. Arguments put forward asserting otherwise are considered and found wanting for various reasons. The maps of lunar polar hydrogen with the highest contrast, i.e. spatial resolution, are those resulting from pixon image reconstructions of the LPNS data. These typically provide weight percentages of water equivalent hydrogen that are accurate to 30% within the polar craters.

  12. Brain Food at High Altitude. (United States)

    Jain, Vishal


    Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts. This pathophysiological condition is known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) which leads to oxidative stress and further causes cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Hypoxia causes neurodegeneration in different brain regions; however, the hippocampus is found to be more prone in comparison to other brain regions. As the hippocampus is affected most, therefore, spatial memory is impaired most during such condition. This chapter will give a brief review of the damaging effect of high altitude on cognition and also throw light on possible herbal interventions at high altitude, which can improve cognitive performance as well as provide protection against the deteriorating effect of hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude.

  13. Numerical investigation of mapping orbits about Jupiter's icy moons (United States)

    Aiello, John


    A proposed mission that would orbit Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa will require low altitude, high inclination orbits for gravity and surface mapping. This paper explores the dynamics of these orbits by direct propagation against an ephemeris model. Initial conditions within the context of a mapping mission's likely requirements are considered. The results complement the analytical studies and reveal additional dependencies.

  14. Earth Orbiting Support Systems for commercial low Earth orbit data relay: Assessing architectures through tradespace exploration (United States)

    Palermo, Gianluca; Golkar, Alessandro; Gaudenzi, Paolo


    As small satellites and Sun Synchronous Earth Observation systems are assuming an increased role in nowadays space activities, including commercial investments, it is of interest to assess how infrastructures could be developed to support the development of such systems and other spacecraft that could benefit from having a data relay service in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), as opposed to traditional Geostationary relays. This paper presents a tradespace exploration study of the architecture of such LEO commercial satellite data relay systems, here defined as Earth Orbiting Support Systems (EOSS). The paper proposes a methodology to formulate architectural decisions for EOSS constellations, and enumerate the corresponding tradespace of feasible architectures. Evaluation metrics are proposed to measure benefits and costs of architectures; lastly, a multicriteria Pareto criterion is used to downselect optimal architectures for subsequent analysis. The methodology is applied to two case studies for a set of 30 and 100 customer-spacecraft respectively, representing potential markets for LEO services in Exploration, Earth Observation, Science, and CubeSats. Pareto analysis shows how increased performance of the constellation is always achieved by an increased node size, as measured by the gain of the communications antenna mounted on EOSS spacecraft. On the other hand, nonlinear trends in optimal orbital altitude, number of satellites per plane, and number of orbital planes, are found in both cases. An upward trend in individual node memory capacity is found, although never exceeding 256 Gbits of onboard memory for both cases that have been considered, assuming the availability of a polar ground station for EOSS data downlink. System architects can use the proposed methodology to identify optimal EOSS constellations for a given service pricing strategy and customer target, thus identifying alternatives for selection by decision makers.

  15. HAMP – the microwave package on the High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft HALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mech


    Full Text Available An advanced package of microwave remote sensing instrumentation has been developed for the operation on the new German High Altitude LOng range research aircraft (HALO. The HALO Microwave Package, HAMP, consists of two nadir looking instruments: a cloud radar at 36 GHz and a suite of passive microwave radiometers with 26 frequencies in different bands between 22.24 and 183.31 ± 12.5 GHz. We present a description of HAMP's instrumentation together with an illustration of its potential. To demonstrate this potential synthetic measurements for the implemented passive microwave frequencies and the cloud radar based on cloud resolving and radiative transfer model calculations were performed. These illustrate the advantage of HAMP's chosen frequency coverage, which allows for improved detection of hydrometeors both via the emission and scattering of radiation. Regression algorithms compare HAMP retrieval with standard satellite instruments from polar orbiters and show its advantages particularly for the lower atmosphere with a reduced root mean square error by 5 and 15% for temperature and humidity, respectively. HAMP's main advantage is the high spatial resolution of about 1 km which is illustrated by first measurements from test flights. Together these qualities make it an exciting tool for gaining better understanding of cloud processes, testing retrieval algorithms, defining future satellite instrument specifications, and validating platforms after they have been placed in orbit.

  16. Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude. (United States)

    Hooper, T; Mellor, A


    The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed.

  17. High Altitude Dermatology (United States)

    Singh, Lt. Col. G K


    Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs) and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA) every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc.), cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc.) nail changes (koilonychias), airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma) are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place. PMID:28216727

  18. High altitude dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G K Singh


    Full Text Available Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc., cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc. nail changes (koilonychias, airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place.

  19. Modelling circumplanetary ejecta clouds at low altitudes: a probabilistic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, Apostolos A


    A model is presented of a ballistic, collisionless, steady state population of ejecta launched at randomly distributed times and velocities and moving under constant gravity above the surface of an airless planetary body. Within a probabilistic framework, closed form solutions are derived for the probability density functions of the altitude distribution of particles, the distribution of their speeds in a rest frame both at the surface and at altitude and with respect to a moving platform such as an orbiting spacecraft. These expressions are validated against numerically-generated synthetic populations of ejecta under lunar surface gravity. The model is applied to the cases where the ejection speed distribution is (a) uniform (b) a power law. For the latter law, it is found that the effective scale height of the ejecta envelope directly depends on the exponent of the power law and increases with altitude. The same holds for the speed distribution of particles near the surface. Ejection model parameters can, t...

  20. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits (United States)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.


    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  1. On the Survival of High-Altitude Open Clusters within the Milky Way Galaxy Tides

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Medina, L A; Peimbert, A; Moreno, E


    It is a common assumption that high-altitude open clusters live longer compared with clusters moving close to the Galactic plane. This is because at high altitudes, open clusters are far from the disruptive effects of in-plane substructures, such as spiral arms, molecular clouds and the bar. However, an important aspect to consider in this scenario is that orbits of high-altitude open clusters will eventually cross the Galactic plane, where the vertical tidal field of the disk is strong. In this work we simulate the interaction of open clusters with the tidal field of a detailed Milky Way Galactic model at different average altitudes and galactocentric radii. We find that the life expectancy of clusters decreases as the maximum orbital altitude increases and reaches a minimum at altitudes of approximately 600 pc. Clusters near the Galactic plane live longer because they do not experience strong vertical tidal shocks from the Galactic disk; then, for orbital altitudes higher than 600 pc, clusters start again t...

  2. 极轨道LEO卫星通信系统区分服务路由机制%Differentiated service-oriented routing mechanisms for polar-orbit LEO satellite communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶元; 元昌安; 朱军; 傅雷扬; 邵星; 王汝传


    针对极轨道星座低轨(LEO,Low Earth Orbit)卫星通信系统路由存在的切换处理和差异化服务能力不足问题,提出了一种分布式与源路由相结合的区分服务路由机制.利用网络拓扑变化特征、地面热点区域模型与星际链路拥塞状态等局部信息分布式转发尽力交付业务,在此基础上综合星地、星际链路可用时长和业务特点设计源路由算法转发时延、带宽敏感业务.仿真结果表明,该机制的切换处理与区分服务能力有明显提升,信令开销、端到端时延、丢包率和时延抖动优于传统方法.%Exiting routing schemes for Polar-orbit LEO ( Low Earth Orbit) satellite communication systems have some drawbacks in handover handling and differentiated service. Novel differentiated service-oriented routing mechanisms are proposed combining distributed routing with source routing method. Best-effort delivery traffic is distributedly forwarded considering topological change characteristic, hot spot model on the earth's surface and inter-satellite-link congestion. Moreover, delay-and bandwidth-sensitivity traffic are transmitted employing source routing based on traffic characteristic and the duration of user-data-link and inter-satellite-link. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanisms perform better in terms of handling handover and providing differentiated service, and have lower signaling overhead, end-to-end delay, packet loss ratio and delay jitter when compared to other routing schemes.

  3. Development of the High Altitude Student Platform (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.; Besse, S.; Calongne, A.; Dominique, A.; Ellison, S. B.; Gould, R.; Granger, D.; Olano, D.; Smith, D.; Stewart, M.; Wefel, J. P.


    The High Altitude Student Platform (HASP) was originally conceived to provide student groups with access to the near-space environment for flight durations and experiment capabilities intermediate between what is possible with small sounding balloons and low Earth orbit rocket launches. HASP is designed to carry up to twelve student payloads to an altitude of about 36 km with flight durations of 15 20 h using a small zero-pressure polyethylene film balloon. This provides a flight capability that can be used to flight-test compact satellites, prototypes and other small payloads designed and built by students. HASP includes a standard mechanical, power and communication interface for the student payload to simplify integration and allows the payloads to be fully exercised. Over the last two years a partnership between the NASA Balloon Program Office (BPO), Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF), Louisiana State University (LSU), the Louisiana Board of Regents (BoR), and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSPACE) has led to the development, construction and, finally, the first flight of HASP with a complement of eight student payloads on September 4, 2006. Here we discuss the primary as-built HASP systems and features, the student payload interface, HASP performance during the first flight and plans for continuing HASP flights. The HASP project maintains a website at where flight application, interface documentation and status information can be obtained.

  4. Altitude transitions in energy climbs (United States)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.


    The aircraft energy-climb trajectory for configurations with a sharp transonic drag rise is well known to possess two branches in the altitude/Mach-number plane. Transition in altitude between the two branches occurs instantaneously, a 'corner' in the minimum-time solution obtained with the energy-state model. If the initial and final values of altitude do not lie on the energy-climb trajectory, then additional jumps (crude approximations to dives and zooms) are required at the initial and terminal points. With a singular-perturbation approach, a 'boundary-layer' correction is obtained for each altitude jump, the transonic jump being a so-called 'internal' boundary layer, different in character from the initial and terminal layers. The determination of this internal boundary layer is examined and some computational results for an example presented.

  5. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  6. A3 Altitude Test Facility (United States)

    Dulreix, Lionel J.


    This slide presentation shows drawings, diagrams and photographs of the A3 Altitude Test Facility. It includes a review of the A3 Facility requirements, and drawings of the various sections of the facility including Engine Deck and Superstructure, Test Cell and Thrust Takeout, Structure and Altitude Support Systems, Chemical Steam generators, and the subscale diffuser. There are also pictures of the construction site, and the facility under construction. A Diagram of the A3 Steam system schematic is also shown

  7. A Wide Field Auroral Imager (WFAI for low Earth orbit missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Bannister


    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the solar wind interaction with Earth's coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system requires an ability to observe the charged particle environment and auroral activity from the same platform, generating particle and photon image data which are matched in time and location. While unambiguous identification of the particles giving rise to the aurora requires a Low Earth Orbit satellite, obtaining adequate spatial coverage of aurorae with the relatively limited field of view of current space bourne auroral imaging systems requires much higher orbits. A goal for future satellite missions, therefore, is the development of compact, wide field-of-view optics permitting high spatial and temporal resolution ultraviolet imaging of the aurora from small spacecraft in low polar orbit. Microchannel plate optics offer a method of achieving the required performance. We describe a new, compact instrument design which can observe a wide field-of-view with the required spatial resolution. We report the focusing of 121.6 nm radiation using a spherically-slumped, square-pore microchannel plate with a focal length of 32 mm and an F number of 0.7. Measurements are compared with detailed ray-trace simulations of imaging performance. The angular resolution is 2.7±0.2° for the prototype, corresponding to a footprint ~33 km in diameter for an aurora altitude of 110 km and a spacecraft altitude of 800 km. In preliminary analysis, a more recent optic has demonstrated a full width at half maximum of 5.0±0.3 arcminutes, corresponding to a footprint of ~1 km from the same spacecraft altitude. We further report the imaging properties of a convex microchannel plate detector with planar resistive anode readout; this detector, whose active surface has a radius of curvature of only 100 mm, is shown to meet the spatial resolution and sensitivity requirements of the new wide field auroral imager (WFAI.

  8. Helioseismology with Solar Orbiter

    CERN Document Server

    Löptien, Björn; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper; Appourchaux, Thierry; Rodríguez, Julián Blanco; Cally, Paul S; Dominguez-Tagle, Carlos; Gandorfer, Achim; Hill, Frank; Hirzberger, Johann; Scherrer, Philip H; Solanki, Sami K


    The Solar Orbiter mission, to be launched in July 2017, will carry a suite of remote sensing and in-situ instruments, including the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). PHI will deliver high-cadence images of the Sun in intensity and Doppler velocity suitable for carrying out novel helioseismic studies. The orbit of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft will reach a solar latitude of up to 21 deg (up to 34 deg by the end of the extended mission) and thus will enable the first local helioseismology studies of the polar regions. Here we consider an array of science objectives to be addressed by helioseismology within the baseline telemetry allocation (51 Gbit per orbit, current baseline) and within the science observing windows (baseline 3 x 10 days per orbit). A particularly important objective is the measurement of large-scale flows at high latitudes (rotation and meridional flow), which are largely unknown but play an important role in flux transport dynamos. The full range of Earth-Sun-spacecraft angles provi...

  9. Mapping the Space Radiation Environment in LEO Orbit by the SATRAM Timepix Payload On Board the Proba-V Satellite (United States)

    Granja, Carlos; Polansky, Stepan; Sospisil, Stanislav; Owens, Alan; Mellab, Karim


    The compact spacecraft payload SATRAM is operating in LEO orbit since 2013 on board the Proba-V satellite from ESA and provides high-resolution wide-range radiation monitoring of the satellite environment. Equipped with the pixel detector Timepix, the technology demonstration payload determines the composition (particle types) and spectral characterization (stopping power) of the mixed radiation field with quantum imaging sensitivity, charged particle tracking, energy loss and directionality capability. With a polar orbit (sun synchronous, 98° inclination) and altitude of 820 km the space radiation field is continuously sampled over the entire planet every few days. Results are given in the form of spatial- and time- correlated maps of dose rate and particle flux. Comparison is made between quiescent and geomagnetic storm activity periods.

  10. Geomagnetic disturbances imprints in ground and satellite altitude observatories (United States)

    Yahiat, Yasmina; Lamara, Souad; Zaourar, Naima; Hamoudi, Mohamed


    The temporal evolution of the geomagnetic field and its variations have been repeatedly studied from both ground observatories and near-earth orbiting platforms. With the advent of the space ageand the launches of geomagnetic low altitude orbits satellites, a global coverage has been achieved. Since Magsat mission, more satellites were put into orbit and some of them are still collecting data enhancing the spatial and temporal descriptions of the field. Our study uses new data gathered by the latest SWARM satellite mission launched on November, 22nd 2013. It consists of a constellation of three identical satellites carrying on board high resolution and accuracy scientific equipment. Data from this constellation will allow better understanding the multiscale behavior of the geomagnetic field. Our goal is to analyze and interpret the geomagnetic data collected by this Swarm mission, for a given period and try to separate the external disturbances from internal contributions. We consider in the study the variation of the horizontal component H, for different virtual geomagnetic observatories at the satellite altitude. The analysis of data by Swarm orbital segments shows clearly the external disturbances of the magnetic field like that occurring on 27th of August 2014. This perturbation is shown on geomagnetic indexes and is related to a coronal mass ejection (CME). These results from virtual observatories are confirmed, by the equivalent analysis using ground observatories data for the same geographic positions and same epochs. Key words: Geomagnetic field, external field, geomagnetic index, SWARM mission, virtual observatories.

  11. Asteroid airburst altitude vs. strength (United States)

    Robertson, Darrel; Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan


    Small NEO asteroids (<Ø140m) may not be a threat on a national or global level but can still cause a significant amount of local damage as demonstrated by the Chelyabinsk event where there was over $33 million worth of damage (1 billion roubles) and 1500 were injured, mostly due to broken glass. The ground damage from a small asteroid depends strongly on the altitude at which they "burst" where most of the energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The ability to accurately predict ground damage is useful in determining appropriate evacuation or shelter plans and emergency management.Strong asteroids, such as a monolithic boulder, fail and create peak energy deposition close to the altitude at which ram dynamic pressure exceeds the material cohesive strength. Weaker asteroids, such as a rubble pile, structurally fail at higher altitude, but it requires the increased aerodynamic pressure at lower altitude to disrupt and disperse the rubble. Consequently the resulting airbursts have a peak energy deposition at similar altitudes.In this study hydrocode simulations of the entry and break-up of small asteroids were performed to examine the effect of strength, size, composition, entry angle, and speed on the resulting airburst. This presentation will show movies of the simulations, the results of peak burst height, and the comparison to semi-analytical models.

  12. Polar Warming Drivers (United States)

    McDunn, T. L.; Bougher, S. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.


    Polar warming is a dynamically induced temperature enhancement over mid-to-high latitudes that results in a reversed (poleward) meridional temperature gradient. This phenomenon was recently characterized over the 40-90 km altitude region [1] based on nearly three martian years of Mars Climate Sounder observations [2, 3]. Here we investigate which forcing mechanisms affect the magnitude and distribution of the observed polar warming by conducting simulations with the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting General Circulation Model [4, 5]. We present simulations confirming the influence topography [6] and dust loading [e.g., 7] have upon polar warming. We then present simulations illustrating the modulating influence gravity wave momentum deposition exerts upon polar warming, consistent with previous modeling studies [e.g., 8]. The results of this investigation suggest the magnitude and distribution of polar warming in the martian middle atmosphere is modified by gravity wave activity and that the characteristics of the gravity waves that most significantly affect polar warming vary with season. References: [1] McDunn, et al., 2012 (JGR), [2]Kleinböhl, et al., 2009 (JGR), [3] Kleinböhl, et al., 2011 (JQSRT), [4] Richardson, et al., 2007 (JGR), [5] Mischna, et al., 2011 (Planet. Space Sci.), [6] Richardson and Wilson, 2002 (Nature), [7] Haberle, et al., 1982 (Icarus), [8] Barnes, 1990 (JGR).

  13. Altitude Stress During Participation of Medical Congress


    Kim, Soon Bae; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sang Jun; Cho, Su Hee; Suh, Dae Chul


    Medical congresses often held in highlands. We reviewed several medical issues associated with altitude stress especially while physicians have participated medical congress held in high altitude. Altitude stress, also known as an acute mountain sickness (AMS), is caused by acute exposure to low oxygen level at high altitude which is defined as elevations at or above 1,200 m and AMS commonly occurs above 2,500 m. Altitude stress with various symptoms including insomnia can also be experienced...

  14. Nonlinear filtering for autonomous navigation of spacecraft in highly elliptical orbit (United States)

    Vigneron, Adam C.; de Ruiter, Anton H. J.; Burlton, Bruce V.; Soh, Warren K. H.


    In support of Canada's proposed Polar Communication and Weather mission, this study examined the accuracy to which GPS-based autonomous navigation might be realized for spacecraft in a Molniya orbit. A navigation algorithm based on the Extended Kalman Filter was demonstrated to achieve a three-dimensional root-mean-square accuracy of 58.9 m over a Molniya orbit with 500 km and 40,000 km perigee and apogee altitudes, respectively. Despite the inclusion of biased and non-white error models in the generated GPS pseudorange measurements - a first for navigation studies in this orbital regime - algorithms based on the Unscented Kalman Filter and the Cubature Kalman Filter were not found to improve this result; their benefits were eclipsed due to the accurate pseudorange measurements which were available during periods of highly nonlinear dynamics. This study revealed receiver clock bias error to be a significant source of navigation solution error. For reasons of geometry, the navigation algorithm is not able to differentiate between this error and a radial position error. A novel dual-mode dynamic clock model was proposed and implemented as a means to minimize receiver clock bias error over the entire orbital regime.

  15. Martian magnetism with orbiting sub-millimeter sensor: simulated retrieval system (United States)

    Larsson, Richard; Milz, Mathias; Eriksson, Patrick; Mendrok, Jana; Kasai, Yasuko; Buehler, Stefan Alexander; Diéval, Catherine; Brain, David; Hartogh, Paul


    A Mars-orbiting sub-millimeter sensor can be used to retrieve the magnetic field at low altitudes over large areas of significant planetary crustal magnetism of the surface of Mars from measurements of circularly polarized radiation emitted by the 368 GHz ground-state molecular oxygen absorption line. We design a full retrieval system for one example orbit to show the expected accuracies on the magnetic field components that one realization of such a Mars satellite mission could achieve. For one set of measurements around a tangent profile, we find that the two horizontal components of the magnetic field can be measured at about 200 nT error with a vertical resolution of around 4 km from 6 up to 70 km in tangent altitude. The error is similar regardless of the true strength of the magnetic field, and it can be reduced by repeated measurements over the same area. The method and some of its potential pitfalls are described and discussed.

  16. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.


    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  17. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.


    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  18. Linear Magnetoelectric Effect by Orbital Magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaramucci, A.; Bousquet, E.; Fechner, M.; Mostovoy, M.; Spaldin, N. A.


    We use symmetry analysis and first-principles calculations to show that the linear magnetoelectric effect can originate from the response of orbital magnetic moments to the polar distortions induced by an applied electric field. Using LiFePO4 as a model compound we show that spin-orbit coupling part

  19. Monitoring Polar Environmental Change Using FORMOSAT-2 Satellite (United States)

    Huang, C.; Liu, C.; Chang, L.; Wang, S.; Yan, K.; Wu, F.; Wu, A.


    Polar ice loss to the sea currently account for virtually all of the sea-level rise that is not attributable to ocean warming. Huge section of the Ayles Ice Shelf broke off into the Arctic Ocean. Permafrost soil is losing its permanence across the Northern Hemisphere, altering ecosystems and damaging roads and buildings across Alaska, Canada, and Russia. Global warming change the polar environment significantly, especially in recent year. The National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan successfully launched FORMOSAT-2 on 20 May 2004. The orbit is designed to be high-altitude,. Sun-synchronous, and daily-revisit. With high agility in attitude control, FORMOSAT-2 can cover the polar areas up to +/- 90 deg latitude. More than 72 Area of interests in Alaska, Canada, Greenland area and Ice land have imaged periodically in 2006 and 2007. The images have 2m resolution in panchromatic band and 8m in multispectral bands, with size of about 24 x 100 km or large. The ability of FORMOSAT-2 daily revisit has been extended to monitor the change of topography for the glacier and ice shelf daily, weekly and monthly. By using the FORMOSAT-2 stereo pair, we can determine the elevation profile (DEM) across the glacier surface. In this paper, we will present the mapping and topography of Greenland glaciers and ice land including Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier, Greenland, Belcher Glacier, Canada and Ayles ice island. We will demonstrate the DEM extract ability from FORMOSAT-2 polar stereo images( up to 82 deg latitude), and compared with the DEM of the popular SRTM, ASTER which can be acquired to 79 deg latitude. It is expected that FORMOSAT-2 polar images will be continuously collected for years and contribute to the research of global environmental change.

  20. Development of Aptitude at Altitude (United States)

    Hogan, Alexandra M.; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Botti, Ana Baya; Bucks, Romola; Holloway, John W.; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Webster, Rebecca J.; Baldeweg, Torsten; Kirkham, Fenella J.


    Millions of people currently live at altitudes in excess of 2500 metres, where oxygen supply is limited, but very little is known about the development of brain and behavioural function under such hypoxic conditions. We describe the physiological, cognitive and behavioural profile of a large cohort of infants (6-12 months), children (6-10 years)…

  1. The latest views of Venus as observed by the Japanese Orbiter "Akatsuki" (United States)

    Satoh, Takehiko; Akatsuki Project Team


    Akatsuki, also known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) of Japan, was launched on 21 May 2010 from Tanegashima Space Center, Kagoshima, Japan. After 6 months of cruising to Venus, an attempt was made to insert Akatsuki in Venus orbit (VOI) on 7 December 2010. However, due to the clogged check valve in a pressurizing system of fuel line, the thrust to decelerate the spacecraft was not enough to allow it captured by the gravitational pull of Venus. After this failure, Akatsuki became an artificial planet around the sun with an orbital period of ~200 days. We waited for 5 earth years (or 9 Akatsuki years), and the second attempt (VOI-R1) was made on the same day, 7 December 2015. It was a great surprise to the world that a "once failed" spacecraft made a successful orbital insertion after many years of time. The orbital period around Venus is slightly shorter than 11 days, with the apoapsis altitude of ~0.37 million km.After Venus Express (VEX), which was in Venus orbit for 8 years, Akatsuki still keeps a unique position and is expected to make a great contribution to the Venus science due primarily to its orbit. In contrast to the polar orbits of Pioneer Venus or VEX, Akatsuki is in a near-equatorial plane and revolves westward, the same direction as the super rotating atmosphere. This orbit allows the spacecraft in a "partial" synchronization with the atmospheric motion when Akatsuki is near the planet. When at greater distances, the atmosphere moves faster than Akatsuki's orbital motion so the spacecraft maps the full longitude range of Venus in several days. This meteorological-satellite-like concept makes Akatsuki the most unique planetary orbiter in the history. To sense the various levels of the atmosphere, to draw 3-dimentional picture of dynamics, Akatsuki is equipped with 5 on-board cameras, UVI (283 and 365 nm wavelength), IR1 (0.90, 0.97, and 1.01 μm), IR2 (1.65, 1.735, 2.02, 2.26, and 2.32 μm), LIR (8-12 μm), and LAC (a special high-speed sensor at

  2. Gamma rays in L-B coordinates at CORONAS-I altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Myagkova


    Full Text Available We present here observations of gamma rays in the energy range between 3.0 and 8.3 MeV gathered by the SONG instrument aboard low-altitude polar-orbiting satellite CORONAS-I throughout the period March-June 1994. We concentrate on the emissions related to the trapped particles and organize CORONAS-I measurements in the magnetic L–B coordinate system. The spatial distribution of the average gamma-ray counts reveals that the most intense fluxes were observed under the inner radiation belt, at L<2, and that they are exclusively confined into the region of stably trapped particles, where daughter gamma rays could result from the interactions within the spacecraft and instrumental matter. In the outer radiation zone (L~4, the enhanced gamma radiation, also detected outside the stably trapping region, shows pronounced longitudinal variations. The observed eastward increase in the gamma-ray count rate suggests quasi-traped energetic (megavolt electrons as a source of the gamma rays both in the upper atmosphere and in the satellite matter, most likely, through the bremsstrahlung process in the studied energy domain. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Energetic particles, precipitating; Energetic particles, trapped; Magnetosphereionosphere interactions

  3. Orbital angular momentum microlaser (United States)

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang


    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.

  4. Inflammation of the Orbit (United States)

    ... Boomers Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James Garrity, MD, Mayo ... Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors of the Orbit ...

  5. Iridium: Global OTH data communications for high altitude scientific ballooning (United States)

    Denney, A.

    beneficial points provided by the Iridium platform include pure global accessibility (as well as polar), cost effectiveness because it is available as a COTS (Commercially Off The Shelf) technology, reliability in that the equipment must operate in extreme conditions (near space), integration and development time into current systems must be minimized. As a bonus Motorola and NAL Research Corporation are developing SBD (Short Burst Data) into the Iridium network. This may lead the way to a global IP (Internet Protocol) node based ballooning platform. The Iridium satellite data modems employ the Iridium Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite network. The scope of this paper is to introduce an OTH communications alternative, albeit not necessarily a primary one, to existing ballooning platforms using COTS based emerging technologies. Design aspects, characteristics, actual flight testing statistics, principles of the Iridium modems and communication paths are described including payload and support instrumentation interfacing. Not limited to high altitude ballooning, the Iridium communications platform opens a new era in remote commanding and data retrieval.

  6. The Gravity Field of Mercury After the Messenger Low-Altitude Campaign (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gary A.; Solomon, Sean C.


    The final year of the MESSENGER mission was designed to take advantage of the remaining propellant onboard to provide a series of lowaltitude observation campaigns and acquire novel scientific data about the innermost planet. The lower periapsis altitude greatly enhances the sensitivity to the short-wavelength gravity field, but only when the spacecraft is in view of Earth. After more than 3 years in orbit around Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft was tracked for the first time below 200-km altitude on 5 May 2014 by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). Between August and October, periapsis passages down to 25-km altitude were routinely tracked. These periods considerably improved the quality of the data coverage. Before the end of its mission, MESSENGER will fly at very low altitudes for extended periods of time. Given the orbital geometry, however the periapses will not be visible from Earth and so no new tracking data will be available for altitudes lower than 75 km. Nevertheless, the continuous tracking of MESSENGER in the northern hemisphere will help improve the uniformity of the spatial coverage at altitudes lower than 150 km, which will further improve the overall quality of the Mercury gravity field.

  7. Cosmic Microwave Background Science at Commercial Airline Altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Feeney, Stephen M; Peiris, Hiranya V; Verde, Licia; Errard, Josquin


    Obtaining high-sensitivity measurements of degree-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is the most direct path to detecting primordial gravitational waves. Robustly recovering any primordial signal from the dominant foreground emission will require high-fidelity observations at multiple frequencies, with excellent control of systematics. We explore the potential for a new platform for CMB observations, the Airlander 10 hybrid air vehicle, to perform this task. We show that the Airlander 10 platform, operating at commercial airline altitudes, is well-suited to mapping frequencies above 220 GHz, which are critical for cleaning CMB maps of dust emission. Optimizing the distribution of detectors across frequencies, we forecast the ability of Airlander 10 to clean foregrounds of varying complexity as a function of altitude, demonstrating its complementarity with both existing (Planck) and ongoing (C-BASS) foreground observations. This novel platform could play a key role in defining our ultimate vi...

  8. Cold Stress at High Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Majumdar


    Full Text Available The problem of cold at high altitudes has been analysed from a purely physical standpoint. It has been shown that Siple's Wind-Chill Index is not reliable because (i it does not make use of the well established principles governing the physical processes of heat transfer by convection and radiation, and (ii it assumes that the mean radiant temperature of the surroundings is the same as the ambient dry bulb temperature. A Cold Stress Index has been proposed which is likely to be a more reliable guide for assessing the climatic hazards of high altitude environments. The Index can be quickly estimated with the help of two nomograms devised for the purpose.

  9. Stochastic Analysis of Orbital Lifetimes of Spacecraft (United States)

    Sasamoto, Washito; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David


    A document discusses (1) a Monte-Carlo-based methodology for probabilistic prediction and analysis of orbital lifetimes of spacecraft and (2) Orbital Lifetime Monte Carlo (OLMC)--a Fortran computer program, consisting of a previously developed long-term orbit-propagator integrated with a Monte Carlo engine. OLMC enables modeling of variances of key physical parameters that affect orbital lifetimes through the use of probability distributions. These parameters include altitude, speed, and flight-path angle at insertion into orbit; solar flux; and launch delays. The products of OLMC are predicted lifetimes (durations above specified minimum altitudes) for the number of user-specified cases. Histograms generated from such predictions can be used to determine the probabilities that spacecraft will satisfy lifetime requirements. The document discusses uncertainties that affect modeling of orbital lifetimes. Issues of repeatability, smoothness of distributions, and code run time are considered for the purpose of establishing values of code-specific parameters and number of Monte Carlo runs. Results from test cases are interpreted as demonstrating that solar-flux predictions are primary sources of variations in predicted lifetimes. Therefore, it is concluded, multiple sets of predictions should be utilized to fully characterize the lifetime range of a spacecraft.

  10. Lunar Orbit Stability for Small Satellite Mission Design (United States)

    Dono, Andres


    The irregular nature of the lunar gravity field will severely affect the orbit lifetime and behavior of future lunar small satellite missions. These spacecraft need stable orbits that do not require large deltaV budgets for station-keeping maneuvers. The initial classical elements of any lunar orbit are critical to address its stability and to comply with mission requirements. This publication identifies stable regions according to different initial conditions at the time of lunar orbit insertion (LOI). High fidelity numerical simulations with two different gravity models were performed. We focus in low altitude orbits where the dominant force in orbit propagation is the existence of unevenly distributed lunar mass concentrations. These orbits follow a periodic oscillation in some of the classical elements that is particularly useful for mission design. A set of orbital maintenance strategies for various mission concepts is presented.

  11. Computational mission analysis and conceptual system design for super low altitude satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Xu; Jinlong Wang; Nan Zhou


    This paper deals with system engineering and design methodology for super low altitude satel ites in the view of the com-putational mission analysis. Due to the slight advance of imaging instruments, such as the focus of camera and the image element of charge coupled device (CCD), it is an innovative and economical way to improve the camera’s resolution to enforce the satel ite to fly on the lower altitude orbit. DFH-3, the mature satel ite bus de-veloped by Chinese Academy of Space Technology, is employed to define the mass and power budgets for the computational mis-sion analysis and the detailed engineering design for super low altitude satel ites. An effective iterative algorithm is proposed to solve the ergodic representation of feasible mass and power bud-gets at the flight altitude under constraints. Besides, boundaries of mass or power exist for every altitude, where the upper boundary is derived from the maximum power, while the minimum thrust force holds the lower boundary before the power reaching the initial value. What’s more, an analytical algorithm is employed to numerical y investigate the coverage percentage over the altitude, so that the nominal altitude could be selected from al the feasi-ble altitudes based on both the mass and power budgets and the repetitive ground traces. The local time at the descending node is chosen for the nominal sun-synchronous orbit based on the average evaluation function. After determining the key orbital ele-ments based on the computational mission analysis, the detailed engineering design on the configuration and other subsystems, like power, telemetry telecontrol and communication (TT&C), and attitude determination and control system (ADCS), is performed based on the benchmark bus, besides, some improvements to the bus are also implemented to accommodate the flight at a super low altitude. Two operation strategies, drag-free closed-loop mode and on/off open-loop mode, are presented to maintain the satel

  12. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination (United States)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You


    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  13. Atmospheric Drag Perturbation in an Autonomous Orbit Determination for Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE shen-fang; JIN Sheng-zhen; NING Shu-nian; SUN Cai-hong


    In this paper, an autonomous orbit determination method for satellite using a large field of view star sensor is presented. The simulation of orbit under atmospheric drag perturbation are given with expanded Kalman filtering.The large field of view star sensor has the same precision as star sensor and a sufficient filed of view. Therefore ,the refraction stars can be observed more accurately in real time. The geometric relation between the refracted starlight and the earth can be determined by tangent altitude of the refraction starlight. And then the earth enter can be determined in satellite body frame. The simulation shows that the precision of the mean square deviation of satellite's position and velocity is 5m and 0.01m/s respectively. The calculated decrement of the semi-major axis in one day is close to the theoretical result, and the absolute error is in the range of decimeter when the altitude of orbit is 750 km. The simulateion of orbit of different initial semi-major axis shows that the higher the altitude of orbit is, the smaller the decrement of the semi-major axis is, and when the altitude of orbit is 1700 km the decimeter of the semi-major axis is 10-7km.

  14. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁科; 侯自新


    Vogan conjectured that the parabolic induction of orbit data is independent of the choice of the parabolic subgroup. In this paper we first give the parabolic induction of orbit covers, whose relationship with geometric orbit datum is also induced. Hence we show a geometric interpretation of orbit data and finally prove the conjugation for geometric orbit datum using geometric method.

  15. Decompression to altitude: assumptions, experimental evidence, and future directions. (United States)

    Foster, Philip P; Butler, Bruce D


    Although differences exist, hypobaric and hyperbaric exposures share common physiological, biochemical, and clinical features, and their comparison may provide further insight into the mechanisms of decompression stress. Although altitude decompression illness (DCI) has been experienced by high-altitude Air Force pilots and is common in ground-based experiments simulating decompression profiles of extravehicular activities (EVAs) or astronauts' space walks, no case has been reported during actual EVAs in the non-weight-bearing microgravity environment of orbital space missions. We are uncertain whether gravity influences decompression outcomes via nitrogen tissue washout or via alterations related to skeletal muscle activity. However, robust experimental evidence demonstrated the role of skeletal muscle exercise, activities, and/or movement in bubble formation and DCI occurrence. Dualism of effects of exercise, positive or negative, on bubble formation and DCI is a striking feature in hypobaric exposure. Therefore, the discussion and the structure of this review are centered on those highlighted unresolved topics about the relationship between muscle activity, decompression, and microgravity. This article also provides, in the context of altitude decompression, an overview of the role of denitrogenation, metabolic gases, gas micronuclei, stabilization of bubbles, biochemical pathways activated by bubbles, nitric oxide, oxygen, anthropometric or physiological variables, Doppler-detectable bubbles, and potential arterialization of bubbles. These findings and uncertainties will produce further physiological challenges to solve in order to line up for the programmed human return to the Moon, the preparation for human exploration of Mars, and the EVAs implementation in a non-zero gravity environment.

  16. A presentation of base heating data obtained from the 25-O space shuttle model at high altitude (United States)

    Hendershot, K. C.


    During development of the 25-O space shuttle model, several test firings were made in a vacuum chamber at simulated altitude conditions in order to verify satisfactory ignition and operation of the model in a high altitude environment. In conjunction with these firings, heating rate and pressure measurements were obtained at several locations in the orbiter base region on a piggy-back basis. Data obtained during these experiments are summarized, the 25-O space shuttle model is described.

  17. Altitude Stress During Participation of Medical Congress. (United States)

    Kim, Soon Bae; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sang Jun; Cho, Su Hee; Suh, Dae Chul


    Medical congresses often held in highlands. We reviewed several medical issues associated with altitude stress especially while physicians have participated medical congress held in high altitude. Altitude stress, also known as an acute mountain sickness (AMS), is caused by acute exposure to low oxygen level at high altitude which is defined as elevations at or above 1,200 m and AMS commonly occurs above 2,500 m. Altitude stress with various symptoms including insomnia can also be experienced in airplane. AMS and drunken state share many common features in symptoms, neurologic manifestations and even show multiple microbleeds in corpus callosum and white matter on MRI. Children are more susceptible to altitude stress than adults. Gradual ascent is the best method for the prevention of altitude stress. Adequate nutrition (mainly carbohydrates) and hydration are recommended. Consumption of alcohol can exacerbate the altitude-induced impairments in judgment and the visual senses and promote psychomotor dysfunction. For prevention or treatment of altitude stress, acetazolamide, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, dexamethasone and erythropoietin are helpful. Altitude stress can be experienced relatively often during participation of medical congress. It is necessary to remind the harmful effect of AMS because it can cause serious permanent organ damage even though the symptoms are negligible in most cases.

  18. An Evaluation of Semianalytical Satellite Theory against Long Arcs of Real Data for Highly Eccentric Orbits. (United States)


    made several valuable sugges- tions that were helpful in interpreting the semimajor axis comparisons. Mr. Leo Early was a saving source of information...orbit types: (1) low Earth orbits, ( LEO ) below 5000 km; (2) geosynchronous orbits (GEO), at 35,700 km altitude; (3) Molniya orbits, about 500 km by 40,000...of the more extensive analytical theory of Lane and Cranford which used the solution of Brouwer for its gravitational model and a power density

  19. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (United States)

    Morgan, T.; Chin, G.


    NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) plans to launch in October 2008 with a companion secondary impactor mission, LCROSS, as the inaugural missions for the Exploration System Mission Directorate. LRO is a pathfinder whose objective is to obtain the needed information to prepare for eventual human return to the Moon. LRO will undertake at least one baseline year of operation with additional extended mission phase sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits; Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only

  20. Orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.


    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  1. Imaging of Orbital Infections


    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi


    Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only...

  2. Intercomparison of polar ozone profiles by IASI/MetOp sounder with 2010 Concordiasi ozonesonde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gazeaux


    Full Text Available Validation of ozone profiles measured from a nadir looking satellite instrument over Antarctica is a challenging task due to differences in their height sensitivity with ozonesonde measurements. In this paper we compare the ozone observations provided by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI instrument onboard the polar-orbiting satellite MetOp with ozone profiles collected between August and October 2010 at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the Concordiasi campaign. This campaign was aimed at satellite data validation and up to 20 zero-pressure sounding balloons carrying ozonesondes were launched during this period when the MetOp satellite was passing above McMurdo. This makes the dataset relevant for comparison, especially because those balloons covered the entire altitude range of IASI profiles. The validation methodology and the collocation criteria differ according to the availability of Global Positioning System auxiliary data with each Electro-Chemical Cell ozonesonde observation. We show that the relative mean difference depends on the altitude range investigated. The analysis shows a good agreement in the troposphere (below 10 km and middle stratosphere (25–40 km, where the differences are lower than 10%. However a significant positive bias of about 10–26% is estimated in the lower stratosphere at 10–25 km, depending on altitude. The positive bias in the 10–25 km range is consistent with previously reported studies comparing in-situ data with thermal infrared satellite measurements. This study allows a better characterization of the IASI products over the polar region when ozone depletion/recovery is occurring.

  3. Polar Views of Planet Earth. (United States)

    Brochu, Michel


    In August, 1981, National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched Dynamics Explorer 1 into polar orbit equipped with three cameras built to view the Northern Lights. The cameras can photograph aurora borealis' faint light without being blinded by the earth's bright dayside. Photographs taken by the satellite are provided. (JN)

  4. Ion Polarization Scheme for MEIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratenko, A M; Filatov, Yu N; Derbenev, Ya S; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Zhang, Y


    The choice of a figure 8 shape for the booster and collider rings of MEIC opens wide possibilities for preservation of the ion polarization during beam acceleration as well as for control of the polarization at the collider's interaction points. As in the case of accelerators with Siberian snakes, the spin tune is energy independent but is equal to zero instead of one half. The figure-8 topology eliminates the effect of arcs on the spin motion. There appears a unique opportunity to control the polarization of any particle species including deuterons, using longitudinal fields of small integrated strength (weak solenoids). Contrary to existing schemes, using weak solenoids in figure-8 colliders, one can control the polarization at the interaction points without essentially any effect on the beam's orbital characteristics. A universal scheme for control of the polarization using weak solenoids provides an elegant solution to the problem of ion acceleration completely eliminating resonant beam depolarization. It...

  5. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,


    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar s

  6. 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database (United States)


    TR-14-18 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. March...the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database”, AFRL-VS-PS-TR- 2006-1079, Air Force Research Laboratory...Roth, B., “Blue Ribbon Panel and Support Work Assessing the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database

  7. Economy of Adaptation to High Altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Paul Richalet


    @@ The international meeting that will be held in Xining and Lhasa in August 2004 will be a wonderful occasion to share facts and concepts dealing with adaptation to high altitude. Life at high altitude is a challenge for thousands of animal species and millions of humans residing or visiting high altitude regions of the world. To try to understand the physiological mechanisms involved in the adaptation processes to high altitude hypoxia, it is convenient to start by defining what is "extreme" from a biological point of view.

  8. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been proven...

  9. GPS World, Innovation: Autonomous Navigation at High Earth Orbits (United States)

    Bamford, William; Winternitz, Luke; Hay, Curtis


    Calculating a spacecraft's precise location at high orbital altitudes-22,000 miles (35,800 km) and beyond-is an important and challenging problem. New and exciting opportunities become possible if satellites are able to autonomously determine their own orbits. First, the repetitive task of periodically collecting range measurements from terrestrial antennas to high altitude spacecraft becomes less important-this lessens competition for control facilities and saves money by reducing operational costs. Also, autonomous navigation at high orbital altitudes introduces the possibility of autonomous station keeping. For example, if a geostationary satellite begins to drift outside of its designated slot it can make orbit adjustments without requiring commands from the ground. Finally, precise onboard orbit determination opens the door to satellites flying in formation-an emerging concept for many scientific space applications. The realization of these benefits is not a trivial task. While the navigation signals broadcast by GPS satellites are well suited for orbit and attitude determination at lower altitudes, acquiring and using these signals at geostationary (GEO) and highly elliptical orbits is much more difficult. The light blue trace describes the GPS orbit at approximately 12,550 miles (20,200 km) altitude. GPS satellites were designed to provide navigation signals to terrestrial users-consequently the antenna array points directly toward the earth. GEO and HE0 orbits, however, are well above the operational GPS constellation, making signal reception at these altitudes more challenging. The nominal beamwidth of a Block II/IIA GPS satellite antenna array is approximately 42.6 degrees. At GEO and HE0 altitudes, most of these primary beam transmissions are blocked by the Earth, leaving only a narrow region of nominal signal visibility near opposing limbs of the earth. This region is highlighted in gray. If GPS receivers at GEO and HE0 orbits were designed to use these

  10. Earth Observing Satellite Orbit Design Via Particle Swarm Optimization (United States)


    Earth Observing Satellite Orbit Design Via Particle Swarm Optimization Sharon Vtipil ∗ and John G. Warner ∗ US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...number of passes per day given a satellite’s orbital altitude and inclination. These are used along with particle swarm optimization to determine optimal...well suited to use within a meta-heuristic optimization method such as the Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO). This method seeks to find the optimal set

  11. Experiment LEND of the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter for high-resolution mapping of neutron emission of the Moon. (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I G; Sanin, A B; Golovin, D V; Litvak, M L; Konovalov, A A; Kozyrev, A S; Malakhov, A V; Mokrousov, M I; Tretyakov, V I; Troshin, V S; Uvarov, V N; Varenikov, A B; Vostrukhin, A A; Shevchenko, V V; Shvetsov, V N; Krylov, A R; Timoshenko, G N; Bobrovnitsky, Y I; Tomilina, T M; Grebennikov, A S; Kazakov, L L; Sagdeev, R Z; Milikh, G N; Bartels, A; Chin, G; Floyd, S; Garvin, J; Keller, J; McClanahan, T; Trombka, J; Boynton, W; Harshman, K; Starr, R; Evans, L


    The scientific objectives of neutron mapping of the Moon are presented as 3 investigation tasks of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. Two tasks focus on mapping hydrogen content over the entire Moon and on testing the presence of water-ice deposits at the bottom of permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles. The third task corresponds to the determination of neutron contribution to the total radiation dose at an altitude of 50 km above the Moon. We show that the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) will be capable of carrying out all 3 investigations. The design concept of LEND is presented together with results of numerical simulations of the instrument's sensitivity for hydrogen detection. The sensitivity of LEND is shown to be characterized by a hydrogen detection limit of about 100 ppm for a polar reference area with a radius of 5 km. If the presence of ice deposits in polar "cold traps" is confirmed, a unique record of many millions of years of lunar history would be obtained, by which the history of lunar impacts could be discerned from the layers of water ice and dust. Future applications of a LEND-type instrument for Mars orbital observations are also discussed.

  12. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.


    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  13. Polar Cap Retreat (United States)


    13 August 2004 This red wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of the retreating seasonal south polar cap in the most recent spring in late 2003. Bright areas are covered with frost, dark areas are those from which the solid carbon dioxide has sublimed away. The center of this image is located near 76.5oS, 28.2oW. The scene is large; it covers an area about 250 km (155 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  14. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wojcieszak


    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass pol

  15. Polar Codes (United States)


    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  16. The structure of high altitude O+ energization and outflow: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Carlson


    Full Text Available Multi-spacecraft observations from the CIS ion spectrometers on board the Cluster spacecraft have been used to study the structure of high-altitude oxygen ion energization and outflow. A case study taken from 12 April 2004 is discussed in more detail. In this case the spacecraft crossed the polar cap, mantle and high-altitude cusp region at altitudes between 4RE and 8RE and 2 of the spacecraft provided data. The oxygen ions were seen as a beam with narrow energy distribution, and increasing field-aligned velocity and temperature at higher altitude further in the upstream flow direction. The peak O+ energy was typically just above the highest energy of observed protons. The observed energies reached the upper limit of the CIS ion spectrometer, i.e. 38keV. Moment data from the spacecraft have been cross-correlated to determine cross-correlation coefficients, as well as the phase delay between the spacecraft. Structures in ion density, temperature and field-aligned flow appear to drift with the observed field-perpendicular drift. This, together with a velocity dispersion analysis, indicates that much of the structure can be explained by transverse heating well below the spacecraft. However, temperature isotropy and the particle flux as a function of field-aligned velocity are inconsistent with a single altitude Maxwellian source. Heating over extended altitude intervals, possibly all the way up to the observation point, seem consistent with the observations.

  17. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  18. Recolliding orbits in an intense laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Kamor, Adam; Chandre, Cristel; UZer, Turgay


    We show that a family of key periodic orbits drive the recollision process in a strong circulary polarized laser field. These orbits, coined recolliding periodic orbits, exist for a wide range of parameters and their relative influence changes as the laser and atomic parameters are varied. We find the necessary conditions for recollision-driven nonsequential double ionization to occur. The outlined mechanism is universal in that it applies equally well beyond atoms: The internal structure of the target species plays a minor role in the recollision process.

  19. Diving at altitude: from definition to practice. (United States)

    Egi, S Murat; Pieri, Massimo; Marroni, Alessandro


    Diving above sea level has different motivations for recreational, military, commercial and scientific activities. Despite the apparently wide practice of inland diving, there are three major discrepancies about diving at altitude: threshold elevation that requires changes in sea level procedures; upper altitude limit of the applicability of these modifications; and independent validation of altitude adaptation methods of decompression algorithms. The first problem is solved by converting the normal fluctuation in barometric pressure to an altitude equivalent. Based on the barometric variations recorded from a meteorological center, it is possible to suggest 600 meters as a threshold for classifying a dive as an "altitude" dive. The second problem is solved by proposing the threshold altitude of aviation (2,400 meters) to classify "high" altitude dives. The DAN (Divers Alert Network) Europe diving database (DB) is analyzed to solve the third problem. The database consists of 65,050 dives collected from different dive computers. A total of 1,467 dives were found to be classified as altitude dives. However, by checking the elevation according to the logged geographical coordinates, 1,284 dives were disqualified because the altitude setting had been used as a conservative setting by the dive computer despite the fact that the dive was made at sea level. Furthermore, according to the description put forward in this manuscript, 72 dives were disqualified because the surface level elevation is lower than 600 meters. The number of field data (111 dives) is still very low to use for the validation of any particular method of altitude adaptation concerning decompression algorithms.

  20. Sleep at high altitude: guesses and facts. (United States)

    Bloch, Konrad E; Buenzli, Jana C; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia


    Lowlanders commonly report a poor sleep quality during the first few nights after arriving at high altitude. Polysomnographic studies reveal that reductions in slow wave sleep are the most consistent altitude-induced changes in sleep structure identified by visual scoring. Quantitative spectral analyses of the sleep electroencephalogram have confirmed an altitude-related reduction in the low-frequency power (0.8-4.6 Hz). Although some studies suggest an increase in arousals from sleep at high altitude, this is not a consistent finding. Whether sleep instability at high altitude is triggered by periodic breathing or vice versa is still uncertain. Overnight changes in slow wave-derived encephalographic measures of neuronal synchronization in healthy subjects were less pronounced at moderately high (2,590 m) compared with low altitude (490 m), and this was associated with a decline in sleep-related memory consolidation. Correspondingly, exacerbation of breathing and sleep disturbances experienced by lowlanders with obstructive sleep apnea during a stay at 2,590 m was associated with poor performance in driving simulator tests. These findings suggest that altitude-related alterations in sleep may adversely affect daytime performance. Despite recent advances in our understanding of sleep at altitude, further research is required to better establish the role of gender and age in alterations of sleep at different altitudes, to determine the influence of acclimatization and of altitude-related illness, and to uncover the characteristics of sleep in highlanders that may serve as a study paradigm of sleep in patients exposed to chronic hypoxia due to cardiorespiratory disease.

  1. Developmental functional adaptation to high altitude: review. (United States)

    Frisancho, A Roberto


    Various approaches have been used to understand the origins of the functional traits that characterize the Andean high-altitude native. Based on the conceptual framework of developmental functional adaptation which postulates that environmental influences during the period of growth and development have long lasting effects that may be expressed during adulthood, we initiated a series of studies addressed at determining the pattern of physical growth and the contribution of growth and development to the attainment of full functional adaptation to high-altitude of low and high altitude natives living under rural and urban conditions. Current research indicate that: (a) the pattern of growth at high altitude due to limited nutritional resources, physical growth in body size is delayed but growth in lung volumes is accelerated because of hypoxic stress); (b) low-altitude male and female urban natives can attain a full functional adaptation to high altitude by exposure to high-altitude hypoxia during the period of growth and development; (c) both experimental studies on animals and comparative human studies indicate that exposure to high altitude during the period of growth and development results in the attainment of a large residual lung volume; (d) this developmentally acquired enlarged residual lung volume and its associated increase in alveolar area when combined with the increased tissue capillarization and moderate increase in red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration contributes to the successful functional adaptation of the Andean high-altitude native to hypoxia; and (e) any specific genetic traits that are related to the successful functional adaptation of Andean high-altitude natives have yet to be identified.

  2. Saturn's Polar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Sayanagi, Kunio M; Dyudina, Ulyana A; Fletcher, Leigh N; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; West, Robert A


    This book chapter, Saturn's Polar Atmosphere, is to be published by Cambridge University Press as part of a multi-volume work edited by Kevin Baines, Michael Flasar, Norbert Krupp, and Thomas Stallard, entitled "Saturn in the 21st Century." This chapter reviews the state of our knowledge about Saturn's polar atmosphere that has been revealed through Earth- and space-based observation as well as theoretical and numerical modeling. In particular, the Cassini mission to Saturn, which has been in orbit around the ringed planet since 2004, has revolutionized our understanding of the planet. The current review updates a previous review by Del Genio et al (2009; Saturn Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics, Chapter 7 of "Saturn from Cassini-Huygens"), written after Cassini's primary mission phase that ended in 2008, by focusing on the north polar region of Saturn and comparing it to the southern high latitudes. Two prominent features in the northern high latitudes are the northern hexagon and the north polar vortex; we...

  3. Updates in Orbital Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nila; F.Moeloek


    Orbital anatomy, the clinical features of orbital tumors, the recent development of the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors were described. The incidence of orbital tumors in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in the past years were introduced. The principle of management of orbital tumors and their prognosis were discussed.

  4. Magnus Effect on a Spinning Satellite in Low Earth Orbit (United States)

    Ramjatan, Sahadeo; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Yew, Alvin Garwai


    A spinning body in a flow field generates an aerodynamic lift or Magnus effect that displaces the body in a direction normal to the freestream flow. Earth orbiting satellites with substantial body rotation in appreciable atmospheric densities may generate a Magnus force to perturb orbital dynamics. We investigate the feasibility of using this effect for spacecraft at a perigee of 80km using the Systems Tool Kit (STK). Results show that for a satellite of reasonable properties, the Magnus effect doubles the amount of time in orbit. Orbital decay was greatly mitigated for satellites spinning at 10000 and 15000RPM. This study demonstrates that the Magnus effect has the potential to sustain a spacecraft's orbit at a low perigee altitude and could also serve as an orbital maneuver capability.

  5. Small Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A; Rubens, W


    We study both the "large" and "small" U-duality charge orbits of extremal black holes appearing in D = 5 and D = 4 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds. We exploit a formalism based on cubic Jordan algebras and their associated Freudenthal triple systems, in order to derive the minimal charge representatives, their stabilizers and the associated "moduli spaces". After recalling N = 8 maximal supergravity, we consider N = 2 and N = 4 theories coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets, as well as N = 2 magic, STU, ST^2 and T^3 models. While the STU model may be considered as part of the general N = 2 sequence, albeit with an additional triality symmetry, the ST^2 and T^3 models demand a separate treatment, since their representative Jordan algebras are Euclidean or only admit non-zero elements of rank 3, respectively. Finally, we also consider minimally coupled N = 2, matter coupled N = 3, and "pure" N = 5 theories.

  6. GPS-derived orbits for the GOCE satellite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, H.; Jäggi, A.; Meyer, U.; Visser, P.N.A.M.; Van den IJssel, J.A.A.; Van Helleputte, T.; Heinze, M.; Hugentobler, U.


    The first ESA (European Space Agency) Earth explorer core mission GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) was launched on 17 March 2009 into a sun-synchronous dusk–dawn orbit with an exceptionally low initial altitude of about 280 km. The onboard 12-channel dual-frequency GP

  7. MU radar measurements of orbital debris (United States)

    Sato, Toru; Kayama, Hidetoshi; Furusawa, Akira; Kimura, Iwane


    Distributions of orbital debris versus height and scattering cross section are determined from a series of observations made with a high-power VHF Doppler radar (MU radar) of Japan. An automated data processing algorithm has been developed to discriminate echoes of orbiting objects from those of undesired signals such as meteor trail echoes or lightning atmospherics. Although the results are preliminary, they showed good agreement with those from NORAD tracking radar observations using a much higher frequency. It is found that the collision frequency of a Space Station of 1 km x 1 km size at an altitude of 500 km with orbiting debris is expected to be as high as once per two years.

  8. Analysis of high altitude clouds in the martian atmosphere based on Mars Climate Sounder observations (United States)

    Puspitarini, L.; Määttänen, A.; Fouchet, T.; Kleinboehl, A.; Kass, D. M.; Schofield, J. T.


    High altitude clouds have been observed in the Martian atmosphere. However, their properties still remain to be characterized. Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is an instrument that measures radiances in the thermal infrared, both in limb and nadir views. It allows us to retrieve vertical profiles of radiance, temperature and aerosols. Using the MCS data and radiative transfer model coupled with an automated inversion routine, we can investigate the chemical composition of the high altitude clouds. We will present the first results on the properties of the clouds. CO2 ice is the best candidate to be the main component of some high altitude clouds due to the most similar spectral variation compared to water ice or dust, in agreement with previous studies. Using cloud composition of contaminated CO2 ice (dust core surrounded by CO2 ice) might improve the fitting result, but further study is needed.

  9. Effect of altitude on some blood factors and its stability after leaving the altitude. (United States)

    Hematy, Yones; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Razavi, Akram; Doudi, Monir


    The underlying mechanisms of altitude training are still a matter of controversial discussion. The aim of this study was to compare the hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count and volume between normal and high altitude situations and their persistence after returning back from higher altitudes. The study population included male students of Ardal Branch, Islamic Azad University. Twelve apparently healthy individual with high level of physical activity, mean age of 22.6 ± 1.50 years were selected through purposive and available sampling method. In this study, blood samples were collected at different time and altitudes in order to compare the changes of Red Blood Cell (RBC), Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Mean Cell Volume (MCV). The first blood sampling was conducted at the altitude of 1830 m. The subsequent blood samplings were conducted 48 and 72 h after reaching the altitude of 4000 m and 24, 48 and 72 h after returning back to the altitude of 1830 m. The statistical method used in this study was repeated measurement ANOVA. Red Blood Cell (RBC) changes between onset of climbing to 1830 m and 24, 48 and 2 h after sojourn at 1830 m height (after returning from 4000 m altitude) was significant. Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) showed no significant change in any of the altitudes. MCHC changes between onset of moving toward altitude 1830 meters and 24, 48 and 72 h after sojourn at 1830 m height (after returning from 4000 m altitude) was also significant in addition, MCHC showed a significant difference between 24 h staying at 1830 m altitude with 48 and 72 h staying at 4000 m altitude. Mean Cell Volume (MCV) showed no significant difference between 48 and 72 h staying at 4000 m altitude and also between 24, 48 and 72 h staying at 1830 m altitude; however, there was a significant difference between onset of moving toward 1830 m altitude with 24, 48 and 72 h staying at 1830 m altitude and also 48 and 72 h staying at

  10. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi


    Full Text Available Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only because of the threatened vision loss associated with orbital cellulitis but also because of the potential for central nervous system complications including cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, and death. "nOrbital imaging should be obtained in all patients suspected of having orbital cellulitis. CT is preferred to MR imaging, as the orbital tissues have high con-trast and the bone can be well visualized. Orbital CT scanning allows localization of the disease process to the preseptal area, the extraconal or intraconal fat, or the subperiosteal space. Axial CT views allow evaluation of the medial orbit and ethmoid sinuses, whereas coronal scans image the orbital roof and floor and the frontal and maxillary sinuses. If direct coronal imaging is not possible, reconstruction of thin axial cuts may help the assessment of the orbital roof and floor. Potential sources of orbital cellulitis such as sinusitis, dental infection, and facial cellulitis are often detectable on CT imaging. "nIn this presentation, the imaging considerations of the orbital infections; including imaging differentiation criteria of all types of orbital infections are reviewed.

  11. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess


    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu


    Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may al...

  12. Launch in orbit of the NINA-2 apparatus aboard the satellite MITA (United States)

    Casolino, M.; NINA-2 Collaboration


    The satellite MITA was launched on July the 15th , 2000 from the cosmodrome of Plesetsk (Russia) with a Cosmos-3M rocket. MITA carries the payload NINA-2 for the study of solar and galactic cosmic rays. The detector used in this mission is identical to the one already flying on the Russian satellite Resurs-O1 n.4 in a 840 km sunsynchronous orbit, but makes use of the extensive computer and telemetry capabilities of MITA bus to improve the active data acquisition time. The scientific objectives of NINA are the study of cosmic nuclei from hydrogen to iron in the energy range between 10 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n during solar maximum period. The device is capable of charge identification up to iron with isotope sensitivity up to oxigen. The 87.3 degrees, 460 km altitude polar orbit allows investigations of cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin as well as the trapped component. In this work we present preliminary results concerning particle identification capabilities and nuclear differential spectra for helium, carbon and oxygen in the energy range between 10 and 50 MeV/n.

  13. Bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.


    Fries, P D; Char, D. H.


    Simultaneous bilateral orbital lesions are rare. The differential diagnosis includes orbital pseudotumour, metastasis, leukaemia, lymphoma, Wegener's granulomatosis, and neurofibromatosis. We report what we believe to be the first case of bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

  14. The laryngeal mask airway at altitude. (United States)

    Wilson, Grant D; Sittig, Steven E; Schears, Gregory J


    The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is an accepted adjunct for airway management in emergency patients. There are a number of case reports describing its use in transport medicine for infant to adult patients, including during flight. Although studies of the effect altitude has on air-filled tracheal tubes exists, we were unable to find documentation of the effect of altitude on laryngeal mask airways. Our objective was to assess the effect of altitude on the LMA in both fixed wing and rotary wing models. We performed an in vitro study of the effect of altitude on the LMA cuff. Infant and adult airway trainer mannequins with properly sized and inserted LMA-Classic laryngeal mask airways were monitored for cuff pressure changes while flown at altitudes commonly encountered during air medical transport. Both models demonstrated that LMA cuff pressures may exceed manufacturer recommended levels for safe use even at the relatively low altitudes experienced during rotor wing flight. Properly inserted and inflated laryngeal mask airways at ground level may result in overinflated LMA cuffs when flown to altitudes commonly used for rotor and fixed wing medical transport unless monitored and corrected.

  15. High degree gravitational sensitivity from Mars orbiters for the GMM-1 gravity model (United States)

    Lerch, F. J.; Smith, D. E.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Chinn, D. S.


    Orbital sensitivity of the gravity field for high degree terms (greater than 30) is analyzed on satellites employed in a Goddard Mars Model GMM-1, complete in spherical harmonics through degree and order 50. The model is obtained from S-band Doppler data on Mariner 9 (M9), Viking Orbiter 1 (VO1), and Viking Orbiter 2 (VO2) spacecraft, which were tracked by the NASA Deep Space Network on seven different highly eccentric orbits. The main sensitivity of the high degree terms is obtained from the VO1 and VO2 low orbits (300 km periapsis altitude), where significant spectral sensitivity is seen for all degrees out through degree 50. The velocity perturbations show a dominant effect at periapsis and significant effects out beyond the semi-latus rectum covering over 180 degrees of the orbital groundtrack for the low altitude orbits. Because of the wideband of periapsis motion covering nearly 180 degrees in w and +39 degrees in latitude coverage, the VO1 300 km periapsis altitude orbit with inclination of 39 degrees gave the dominant sensitivity in the GMM-1 solution for the high degree terms. Although the VO2 low periapsis orbit has a smaller band of periapsis mapping coverage, it strongly complements the VO1 orbit sensitivity for the GMM-1 solution with Doppler tracking coverage over a different inclination of 80 degrees.

  16. Pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Schultheiss

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify the pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure using the state of the art Compact Integrated Pupillograph (CIP and to investigate a potential correlation of altered pupil reaction with severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS. This work is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO study. METHODS: Parameters of pupil dynamics (initial diameter, amplitude, relative amplitude, latency, constriction velocity were quantified in 14 healthy volunteers at baseline (341 m and high altitude (4559 m over several days using the CIP. Scores of AMS, peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed for respective correlations with pupil dynamics. For statistical analysis JMP was used and data are shown in terms of intra-individual normalized values (value during exposure/value at baseline and the 95% confidence interval for each time point. RESULTS: During high altitude exposure the initial diameter size was significantly reduced (p<0.05. In contrast, the amplitude, the relative amplitude and the contraction velocity of the light reaction were significantly increased (p<0.05 on all days measured at high altitude. The latency did not show any significant differences at high altitude compared to baseline recordings. Changes in pupil parameters did not correlate with scores of AMS. CONCLUSIONS: Key parameters of the pupillary light reaction are significantly altered at high altitude. We hypothesize that high altitude hypoxia itself as well as known side effects of high altitude exposure such as fatigue or exhaustion after ascent may account for an altered pupillogram. Interestingly, none of these changes are related to AMS.

  17. Pupillary Light Reaction during High Altitude Exposure (United States)

    Schatz, Andreas; Wilhelm, Barbara; Peters, Tobias; Fischer, M. Dominik; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian; Willmann, Gabriel


    Purpose This study aimed to quantify the pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure using the state of the art Compact Integrated Pupillograph (CIP) and to investigate a potential correlation of altered pupil reaction with severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methods Parameters of pupil dynamics (initial diameter, amplitude, relative amplitude, latency, constriction velocity) were quantified in 14 healthy volunteers at baseline (341 m) and high altitude (4559 m) over several days using the CIP. Scores of AMS, peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed for respective correlations with pupil dynamics. For statistical analysis JMP was used and data are shown in terms of intra-individual normalized values (value during exposure/value at baseline) and the 95% confidence interval for each time point. Results During high altitude exposure the initial diameter size was significantly reduced (p<0.05). In contrast, the amplitude, the relative amplitude and the contraction velocity of the light reaction were significantly increased (p<0.05) on all days measured at high altitude. The latency did not show any significant differences at high altitude compared to baseline recordings. Changes in pupil parameters did not correlate with scores of AMS. Conclusions Key parameters of the pupillary light reaction are significantly altered at high altitude. We hypothesize that high altitude hypoxia itself as well as known side effects of high altitude exposure such as fatigue or exhaustion after ascent may account for an altered pupillogram. Interestingly, none of these changes are related to AMS. PMID:24503770

  18. Polarizing cues. (United States)

    Nicholson, Stephen P


    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.

  19. Mesoscopic Rings with Spin-Orbit Interactions (United States)

    Berche, Bertrand; Chatelain, Christophe; Medina, Ernesto


    A didactic description of charge and spin equilibrium currents on mesoscopic rings in the presence of spin-orbit interaction is presented. Emphasis is made on the non-trivial construction of the correct Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions and the symmetries of the ground-state properties. Spin…

  20. Planetographic clustering of low-altitude impulsive electric signals in the night ionosphere of Venus (United States)

    Russel, C. T.; Von Dornum, M.; Scarf, F. L.


    This paper presents maps of the locations of electromagnetic signals, presumably caused by lightning, which were observed at 730 Hz during the first three nighttime observing seasons of Pioneer Venus Orbiter when the spacecraft reached altitudes low enough to detect the signals. The maps show that there are specific 'active regions' of enhanced signal occurrence, and that at least some of these active regions appear to remain fixed in planetographic coordinates from year to year.

  1. Polarized emission from of an off-centred dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Pétri, J


    Radio polarization measurements of pulsed emission from pulsars offer a valuable insight into the basic geometry of the neutron star: inclination angle between the magnetic and rotation axis and inclination of the line of sight. So far, all studies about radio polarization focused on the standard rotating vector model with the underlying assumption of a centred dipole. In this letter, we extend this model to the most general off-centred dipole configuration and give an exact closed analytic expression for the phase-resolved polarization angle. It is shown that contrary to the rotating vector model, for an off-centred dipole, the polarization angle also depends on the emission altitude. Although the fitting parameter space increases from two to six (position of the dipole, altitude and shift of the zero phase), statistical analysis should remain tractable. Observations revealing an evolution of the polarization angle with frequency would undeniably furnish a strong hint for the presence of a decentred magnetic...

  2. A gloss of Chronic Hypoxia in normal and diseased individuals at high altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zubieta-Castillo,G.; Zubieta-Calleja,G.R.; Zubieta-Calleja L.


    @@ Introduction Millenary populations that live at high altitude in different continents like Asia (1) and South America (8), have endured biological adaptation in very adverse environmental conditions, of which to our understanding, paradoxically, chronic hypoxia is the most tolerable. Patients with pulmonary diseases at high altitude tolerate tissue hypoxia with an arterial tension (PaO2) even as low as 30 mmHg. Current scientific knowledge has made progress in many areas, clarifying many doubts, however due to preconception and lack of broad social studies chronic hypoxia is still not fully understood. Beings that inhabit different areas of the planet earth have lived under a variety of different hostile conditions: intense cold in the polar regions,intense heat in Africa and in the Middle East desserts,great pressure in the depth of the oceans, intense darkness of the caves and naturally the hypoxia of extreme altitudes.

  3. DKIST Polarization Modeling and Performance Predictions (United States)

    Harrington, David


    Calibrating the Mueller matrices of large aperture telescopes and associated coude instrumentation requires astronomical sources and several modeling assumptions to predict the behavior of the system polarization with field of view, altitude, azimuth and wavelength. The Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) polarimetric instrumentation requires very high accuracy calibration of a complex coude path with an off-axis f/2 primary mirror, time dependent optical configurations and substantial field of view. Polarization predictions across a diversity of optical configurations, tracking scenarios, slit geometries and vendor coating formulations are critical to both construction and contined operations efforts. Recent daytime sky based polarization calibrations of the 4m AEOS telescope and HiVIS spectropolarimeter on Haleakala have provided system Mueller matrices over full telescope articulation for a 15-reflection coude system. AEOS and HiVIS are a DKIST analog with a many-fold coude optical feed and similar mirror coatings creating 100% polarization cross-talk with altitude, azimuth and wavelength. Polarization modeling predictions using Zemax have successfully matched the altitude-azimuth-wavelength dependence on HiVIS with the few percent amplitude limitations of several instrument artifacts. Polarization predictions for coude beam paths depend greatly on modeling the angle-of-incidence dependences in powered optics and the mirror coating formulations. A 6 month HiVIS daytime sky calibration plan has been analyzed for accuracy under a wide range of sky conditions and data analysis algorithms. Predictions of polarimetric performance for the DKIST first-light instrumentation suite have been created under a range of configurations. These new modeling tools and polarization predictions have substantial impact for the design, fabrication and calibration process in the presence of manufacturing issues, science use-case requirements and ultimate system calibration

  4. Mars orbiter redirected in bid to find Beagle

    CERN Multimedia


    "Mission controllers in Darmstadt, Germany, have successfully redirected Europe's Mars Express orbiter into a polar orbit, putting it on course for a last-ditch attempt to contact Beagle 2, the lander that has been missing since Christmas day when it should have touched down on the red planet" (1/2 page).

  5. Altitude Dependence of Nightside Martian Suprathermal Electron Depletions as Revealed by MAVEN Observations (United States)

    Steckiewicz, M.; Mazelle, C. X.; Garnier, P.; Andre, N.; Penou, E.; Beth, A.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Toublanc, D.; Mitchell, D. L.; McFadden, J. P.; Luhmann, J. G.; Lillis, R. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Andersson, L.; Halekas, J. S.; Jakosky, B. M.


    The MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution) spacecraft is providing new detailed observations of the Martian ionosphere thanks to its unique orbital coverage and its sophisticated instrument suite. From November 16 2014 to February 28 2015 its periapsis sampled the nightside Northern latitudes of Mars from 30° to 75° down to 125 km altitude above regions with and without significant crustal magnetic sources. On almost each periapsis in the nightside ionosphere suprathermal electron depletions were detected. A simple but robust criterion based on data recorded by the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) was implemented in order to detect all these electron depletions. This resulted in a dataset of 1742 depletions identified on 457 orbits among the 494 orbits where data were available during the time period under study. A statistical analysis reveals that the main ion and electron populations within the depletions are surprisingly constant in time and altitude. Absorption by CO2 is the main loss process for suprathermal electrons and electrons strongly peaked around 6 eV are resulting from this interaction. The observation of depletions appears however highly dependent on altitude. Depletions are mainly located above strong crustal magnetic sources above 170 km whereas the depletions observed for the first time below 170 km are globally scattered onto the Martian surface with no particular dependence on crustal fields. These results will be supplemented with new MAVEN data obtained above the southern hemisphere and will be contrasted with similar observations obtained from previous missions.

  6. Direct mapping of spin and orbital entangled wave functions under interband spin-orbit coupling of giant Rashba spin-split surface states (United States)

    Noguchi, Ryo; Kuroda, Kenta; Yaji, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Sakano, M.; Harasawa, A.; Kondo, Takeshi; Komori, F.; Shin, S.


    We use spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SARPES) combined with a polarization-variable laser and investigate the spin-orbit coupling effect under interband hybridization of Rashba spin-split states for the surface alloys Bi/Ag(111) and Bi/Cu(111). In addition to the conventional band mapping of photoemission for Rashba spin splitting, the different orbital and spin parts of the surface wave function are directly imaged into energy-momentum space. It is unambiguously revealed that the interband spin-orbit coupling modifies the spin and orbital character of the Rashba surface states leading to the enriched spin-orbital entanglement and the pronounced momentum dependence of the spin polarization. The hybridization thus strongly deviates the spin and orbital characters from the standard Rashba model. The complex spin texture under interband spin-orbit hybridization proposed by first-principles calculation is experimentally unraveled by SARPES with a combination of p - and s -polarized light.

  7. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  8. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety (United States)

    ... the remaining 5% representing a combination of fat, carbohydrates and minerals. The leaner the meat, the higher ... altitudes, extra-large eggs give added moisture and structure to baked goods and desserts. Smaller eggs will ...

  9. Orbit Determination Toolbox (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Berry, Kevin; Gregpru. Late; Speckman, Keith; Hur-Diaz, Sun; Surka, Derek; Gaylor, Dave


    The Orbit Determination Toolbox is an orbit determination (OD) analysis tool based on MATLAB and Java that provides a flexible way to do early mission analysis. The toolbox is primarily intended for advanced mission analysis such as might be performed in concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, or rapid design center environments. The emphasis is on flexibility, but it has enough fidelity to produce credible results. Insight into all flight dynamics source code is provided. MATLAB is the primary user interface and is used for piecing together measurement and dynamic models. The Java Astrodynamics Toolbox is used as an engine for things that might be slow or inefficient in MATLAB, such as high-fidelity trajectory propagation, lunar and planetary ephemeris look-ups, precession, nutation, polar motion calculations, ephemeris file parsing, and the like. The primary analysis functions are sequential filter/smoother and batch least-squares commands that incorporate Monte-Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, measurement processing, and plotting capabilities at the generic level. These functions have a user interface that is based on that of the MATLAB ODE suite. To perform a specific analysis, users write MATLAB functions that implement truth and design system models. The user provides his or her models as inputs to the filter commands. The software provides a capability to publish and subscribe to a software bus that is compliant with the NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) standards, to exchange data with other flight dynamics tools to simplify the flight dynamics design cycle. Using the publish and subscribe approach allows for analysts in a rapid design center environment to seamlessly incorporate changes in spacecraft and mission design into navigation analysis and vice versa.

  10. Solar Cell Short Circuit Current Errors and Uncertainties During High Altitude Calibrations (United States)

    Snyder, David D.


    High altitude balloon based facilities can make solar cell calibration measurements above 99.5% of the atmosphere to use for adjusting laboratory solar simulators. While close to on-orbit illumination, the small attenuation to the spectra may result in under measurements of solar cell parameters. Variations of stratospheric weather, may produce flight-to-flight measurement variations. To support the NSCAP effort, this work quantifies some of the effects on solar cell short circuit current (Isc) measurements on triple junction sub-cells. This work looks at several types of high altitude methods, direct high altitude meas urements near 120 kft, and lower stratospheric Langley plots from aircraft. It also looks at Langley extrapolation from altitudes above most of the ozone, for potential small balloon payloads. A convolution of the sub-cell spectral response with the standard solar spectrum modified by several absorption processes is used to determine the relative change from AMO, lscllsc(AMO). Rayleigh scattering, molecular scatterin g from uniformly mixed gases, Ozone, and water vapor, are included in this analysis. A range of atmosph eric pressures are examined, from 0. 05 to 0.25 Atm to cover the range of atmospheric altitudes where solar cell calibrations a reperformed. Generally these errors and uncertainties are less than 0.2%

  11. Guidance and adaptive-robust attitude & orbit control of a small information satellite (United States)

    Somov, Ye.; Butyrin, S.; Somov, S.; Somova, T.; Testoyedov, N.; Rayevsky, V.; Titov, G.; Yakimov, Ye.; Ovchinnikov, A.; Mathylenko, M.


    We consider a small information satellite which may be placed on an orbit with altitude from 600 up to 1000 km. The satellite attitude and orbit control system contains a strap-down inertial navigation system, cluster of four reaction wheels, magnetic driver and a correcting engine unit with eight electro-reaction engines. We study problems on design of algorithms for spatial guidance, in-flight identification and adaptive-robust control of the satellite motion on sun-synchronous orbit.

  12. Python Engine Installed in Altitude Wind Tunnel (United States)


    An engine mechanic checks instrumentation prior to an investigation of engine operating characteristics and thrust control of a large turboprop engine with counter-rotating propellers under high-altitude flight conditions in the 20-foot-dianieter test section of the Altitude Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Cleveland, Ohio, now known as the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  13. Early history of high-altitude physiology. (United States)

    West, John B


    High-altitude physiology can be said to have begun in 1644 when Torricelli described the first mercury barometer and wrote the immortal words "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air." Interestingly, the notion of atmospheric pressure had eluded his teacher, the great Galileo. Blaise Pascal was responsible for describing the fall in pressure with increasing altitude, and Otto von Guericke gave a dramatic demonstration of the enormous force that could be developed by atmospheric pressure. Robert Boyle learned of Guericke's experiment and, with Robert Hooke, constructed the first air pump that allowed small animals to be exposed to a low pressure. Hooke also constructed a small low-pressure chamber and exposed himself to a simulated altitude of about 2400 meters. With the advent of ballooning, humans were rapidly exposed to very low pressures, sometimes with tragic results. For example, the French balloon, Zénith, rose to over 8000 m, and two of the three aeronauts succumbed to the hypoxia. Paul Bert was the first person to clearly state that the deleterious effects of high altitude were caused by the low partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and later research was accelerated by high-altitude stations and expeditions to high altitude.

  14. Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect. (United States)

    Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee


    We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae.

  15. Arbitrary optical wavefront shaping via spin-to-orbit coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Larocque, Hugo; Bouchard, Frédéric; Fickler, Robert; Upham, Jeremy; Boyd, Robert W; Karimi, Ebrahim


    Converting spin angular momentum to orbital angular momentum has been shown to be a practical and efficient method for generating optical beams carrying orbital angular momentum and possessing a space-varying polarized field. Here, we present novel liquid crystal devices for tailoring the wavefront of optical beams through the Pancharatnam-Berry phase concept. We demonstrate the versatility of these devices by generating an extensive range of optical beams such as beams carrying $\\pm200$ units of orbital angular momentum along with Bessel, Airy and Ince-Gauss beams. We characterize both the phase and the polarization properties of the generated beams, confirming our devices' performance.

  16. Generation and detection of orbital angular momentum via metasurface. (United States)

    Jin, Jinjin; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Xiaohu; Gao, Hui; Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Gao, Ping; Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Xiangang


    Beams carrying orbital angular momentum possess a significant potential for modern optical technologies ranging from classical and quantum communication to optical manipulation. In this paper, we theoretically design and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact array of elliptical nanoholes, which could convert the circularly polarized light into the cross-polarized vortex beam. To measure the topological charges of orbital angular momentum in a simple manner, another elliptical nanoholes array is designed to generate reference beam as a reference light. This approach may provide a new way for the generation and detection of orbital angular momentum in a compact device.

  17. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen. (United States)

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J


    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  18. Resonant Orbital Dynamics in LEO Region: Space Debris in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Sampaio


    Full Text Available The increasing number of objects orbiting the earth justifies the great attention and interest in the observation, spacecraft protection, and collision avoidance. These studies involve different disturbances and resonances in the orbital motions of these objects distributed by the distinct altitudes. In this work, objects in resonant orbital motions are studied in low earth orbits. Using the two-line elements (TLE of the NORAD, resonant angles and resonant periods associated with real motions are described, providing more accurate information to develop an analytical model that describes a certain resonance. The time behaviors of the semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination of some space debris are studied. Possible irregular motions are observed by the frequency analysis and by the presence of different resonant angles describing the orbital dynamics of these objects.

  19. Entanglement of Vector-Polarization States of Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Ling-Jun; Si, Yu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Zhou-Xiang; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian


    Photons may have homogeneous polarization and may carry quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM). Photon entanglement has been realized in various degrees of freedom such as polarization and OAM. Using a pair of orthogonally polarized states carrying opposite-handedness quantized OAMs could create "quantized" vector polarization states with space-variant polarization structures. It is thus possible to extend the polarization degree of freedom from two dimensional space to indefinite dimensional discrete Hilbert space. We present a class of vector-polarization entangled Bell states, which use the spatial modes of the vector fields with space-variant polarization structure. We propose a scheme of creating the vector-polarization entangled Bell states using a Sagnac interferometer. We also design an analyzer for identifying the vector-polarization entangled Bell states. Such a class of entanglement is important for quantum information science and technology, and fundamental issues of quantum theory, due to its a...

  20. A multi-satellite study of accelerated ionospheric ion beams above the polar cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maggiolo


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of nearly field-aligned outflowing ion beams observed on the Cluster satellites over the polar cap. Data are taken at geocentric radial distances of the order of 5–9 RE. The distinction is made between ion beams originating from the polar cusp/cleft and beams accelerated almost along the magnetic field line passing by the spacecraft. Polar cusp beams are characterized by nearly field-aligned proton and oxygen ions with an energy ratio EO+ / EH+, of the order of 3 to 4, due to the ion energy repartition inside the source and to the latitudinal extension of the source. Rapid variations in the outflowing ion energy are linked with pulses/modifications of the convection electric field. Cluster data allow one to show that these perturbations of the convection velocity and the associated ion structures propagate at the convection velocity.

    In contrast, polar cap local ion beams are characterized by field-aligned proton and oxygen ions with similar energies. These beams show the typical inverted V structures usually observed in the auroral zone and are associated with a quasi-static converging electric field indicative of a field-aligned electric field. The field-aligned potential drop fits well the ion energy profile. The simultaneous observation of precipitating electrons and upflowing ions of similar energies at the Cluster orbit indicates that the spacecraft are crossing the mid-altitude part of the acceleration region. In the polar cap, the parallel electric field can thus extend to altitudes higher than 5 Earth radii. A detailed analysis of the distribution functions shows that the ions are heated during their parallel acceleration and that energy is exchanged between H+ and O+. Furthermore, intense electrostatic waves are observed simultaneously. These observations could be due to an ion-ion two-stream instability.

  1. Spin-orbit interactions of light

    CERN Document Server

    Bliokh, K Y; Nori, F; Zayats, A V


    Light carries spin and orbital angular momentum. These dynamical properties are determined by the polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of light. Modern nano-optics, photonics, and plasmonics, tend to explore subwavelength scales and additional degrees of freedom of structured, i.e., spatially-inhomogeneous, optical fields. In such fields, spin and orbital properties become strongly coupled with each other. We overview the fundamental origins and important applications of the main spin-orbit interaction phenomena in optics. These include: spin-Hall effects in inhomogeneous media and at optical interfaces, spin-dependent effects in nonparaxial (focused or scattered) fields, spin-controlled shaping of light using anisotropic structured interfaces (metasurfaces), as well as robust spin-directional coupling via evanescent near fields. We show that spin-orbit interactions are inherent in all basic optical processes, and they play a crucial role at subwavelength scales and structures in modern optics.

  2. Nitric oxide in adaptation to altitude. (United States)

    Beall, Cynthia M; Laskowski, Daniel; Erzurum, Serpil C


    This review summarizes published information on the levels of nitric oxide gas (NO) in the lungs and NO-derived liquid-phase molecules in the acclimatization of visitors newly arrived at altitudes of 2500 m or more and adaptation of populations whose ancestors arrived thousands of years ago. Studies of acutely exposed visitors to high altitude focus on the first 24-48 h with just a few extending to days or weeks. Among healthy visitors, NO levels in the lung, plasma, and/or red blood cells fell within 2h, but then returned toward baseline or slightly higher by 48 h and increased above baseline by 5 days. Among visitors ill with high-altitude pulmonary edema at the time of the study or in the past, NO levels were lower than those of their healthy counterparts. As for highland populations, Tibetans had NO levels in the lung, plasma, and red blood cells that were at least double and in some cases orders of magnitude greater than other populations regardless of altitude. Red blood cell-associated nitrogen oxides were more than 200 times higher. Other highland populations had generally higher levels although not to the degree shown by Tibetans. Overall, responses of those acclimatized and those presumed to be adapted are in the same direction, although the Tibetans have much larger responses. Missing are long-term data on lowlanders at altitude showing how similar they become to the Tibetan phenotype. Also missing are data on Tibetans at low altitude to see the extent to which their phenotype is a response to the immediate environment or expressed constitutively. The mechanisms causing the visitors' and the Tibetans' high levels of NO and NO-derived molecules at altitude remain unknown. Limited data suggest processes including hypoxic upregulation of NO synthase gene expression, hemoglobin-NO reactions, and genetic variation. Gains in understanding will require integrating appropriate methods and measurement techniques with indicators of adaptive function under hypoxic

  3. Polarized Campuses. (United States)

    Parr, Susan Resneck


    On college campuses, the climate is polarized because of intolerance and discrimination, censorship, factionalism, and anger among students and faculty. As a result, the campus is in danger of becoming dominated by political issues and discouraging the exchange of ideas characteristic of a true liberal arts education. (MSE)

  4. Responses of the autonomic nervous system in altitude adapted and high altitude pulmonary oedema subjects (United States)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Sen Gupta, J.; Nayar, H. S.


    Studies were carried out to ascertain the role of sympatho-parasympathetic responses in the process of adaptation to altitude. The assessment of status of autonomic balance was carried out in a group of 20 young male subjects by recording their resting heart rate, blood pressure, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, extremity temperatures, pupillary diameter, cold pressor response, oxygen consumption, cardioacceleration during orthostasis and urinary excretion of catecholamines; in a thermoneutral laboratory. The same parameters were repeated on day 3 and at weekly intervals for a period of 3 weeks, after exposing them to 3,500 m; and also after return to sea level. At altitude, similar studies were carried out in a group of 10 acclimatized lowlanders, 10 high altitude natives and 6 patients who had recently recovered from high altitude pulmonary oedema. In another phase, similar studies were done in two groups of subjects, one representing 15 subjects who had stayed at altitude (3,500 4,000 m) without any ill effects and the other comprising of 10 subjects who had either suffered from high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) or acute mountain sickness (AMS). The results revealed sympathetic overactivity on acute induction to altitude which showed gradual recovery on prolonged stay, the high altitude natives had preponderance to parasympathetic system. Sympathetic preponderance may not be an essential etiological factor for the causation of maladaptation syndromes.

  5. Correlation effects and orbital magnetism of Co clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Di Marco, L Peters I; Şaşıoğlu, E; Altun, A; Rossen, S; Friedrich, C; Blügel, S; Katsnelson, M I; Kirilyuk, A; Eriksson, O


    Recent experiments on isolated Co clusters have shown huge orbital magnetic moments in comparison with their bulk and surface counterparts. These clusters hence provide the unique possibility to study the evolution of the orbital magnetic moment with respect to the cluster size and how competing interactions contribute to the quenching of orbital magnetism. We investigate here different theoretical methods to calculate the spin and orbital moments of Co clusters, and assess the performances of the methods in comparison with experiments. It is shown that density functional theory in conventional local density or generalized gradient approximations, or even with a hybrid functional, severely underestimates the orbital moment. As natural extensions/corrections we considered the orbital polarization correction, the LDA+U approximation as well as the LDA+DMFT method. Our theory shows that of the considered methods, only the LDA+DMFT method provides orbital moments in agreement with experiment, thus emphasizing the...

  6. Polarization in free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Polarization of electromagnetic radiation is required very often in numerous scientific and industrial applications: studying of crystals, molecules and intermolecular interaction high-temperature superconductivity, semiconductors and their transitions, polymers and liquid crystals. Using polarized radiation allows to obtain important data (otherwise inaccessible) in astrophysics, meteorology and oceanology. It is promising in chemistry and biology for selective influence on definite parts of molecules in chain synthesis reactions, precise control of various processes at cell and subcell levels, genetic engineering etc. Though polarization methods are well elaborated in optics, they can fail in far-infrared, vacuum-ultraviolet and X-ray regions because of lack of suitable non-absorbing materials and damaging of optical elements at high specific power levels. Therefore, it is of some interest to analyse polarization of untreated FEL radiation obtained with various types of undulators, with and without axial magnetic field. The polarization is studied using solutions for electron orbits in various cases: plane or helical undulator with or without axial magnetic field, two plane undulators, a combination of right- and left-handed helical undulators with equal periods, but different field amplitudes. Some examples of how a desired polarization (elliptical circular or linear) can be obtained or changed quickly, which is necessary in many experiments, are given.

  7. Can High Altitude Influence Cytokines and Sleep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Aquino Lemos


    Full Text Available The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2 induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.

  8. Polarized Spinoptics and Symplectic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duval, Christian


    We recall the groundwork of spinoptics based on the coadjoint orbits, of given color and spin, of the group of isometries of Euclidean three-space; this model has originally been put forward by Souriau in his treatise "Structure des Syst\\'emes Dynamiques", whose manuscript was initially entitled "Physique symplectique". We then set up a model of polarized spinoptics, namely an extension of geometrical optics accounting for elliptically polarized light rays in terms of a certain fibre bundle associated with the bundle of Euclidean frames of a given Riemannian three-manifold. The characteristic foliation of a natural presymplectic two-form introduced on this bundle via the Ansatz of minimal coupling is determined, yielding a set of differential equations governing the trajectory of light, as well as the evolution of polarization in this Riemannian manifold. Those equations, when specialized to the Fermat metric (for a slowly varying refractive index), enable us to recover, and justify, a set of differential equ...

  9. Pulmonary Embolism Masquerading as High Altitude Pulmonary Edema at High Altitude. (United States)

    Pandey, Prativa; Lohani, Benu; Murphy, Holly


    Pandey, Prativa, Benu Lohani, and Holly Murphy. Pulmonary embolism masquerading as high altitude pulmonary edema at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:353-358, 2016.-Pulmonary embolism (PE) at high altitude is a rare entity that can masquerade as or occur in conjunction with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and can complicate the diagnosis and management. When HAPE cases do not improve rapidly with descent, other diagnoses, including PE, ought to be considered. From 2013 to 2015, we identified eight cases of PE among 303 patients with initial diagnosis of HAPE. Upon further evaluation, five had deep vein thrombosis (DVT). One woman had a contraceptive ring and seven patients had no known thrombotic risks. PE can coexist with or mimic HAPE and should be considered in patients presenting with shortness of breath from high altitude regardless of thrombotic risk.

  10. North Polar Cap (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  11. Sleep of Andean high altitude natives. (United States)

    Coote, J H; Stone, B M; Tsang, G


    The structure of sleep in lowland visitors to altitudes greater than 4000 m is grossly disturbed. There are no data on sleep in long-term residents of high altitudes. This paper describes an electroencephalographic study of sleep in high altitude dwellers who were born in and are permanent residents of Cerro de Pasco in the Peruvian Andes, situated at 4330 m. Eight healthy male volunteers aged between 18 and 69 years were studied. Sleep was measured on three consecutive nights for each subject. Electroencephalographs, submental electromyographs and electro-oculograms were recorded. Only data from the third night were used in the analysis. The sleep patterns of these subjects resembled the normal sleep patterns described by others in lowlanders at sea level. There were significant amounts of slow wave sleep in the younger subjects and rapid eye movement sleep seemed unimpaired.

  12. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu


    Full Text Available Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may also be observed. Prompt intravenous antibiotic treatment should be started, and surgical drainage may be performed if patient shows failure to improve in 48 hours despite optimal management. Without treatment, the clinical course may progress to subperiosteal or orbital abscess, and even to cavernous sinus thrombosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 52-6

  13. The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) on the Mars Climate Orbiter (United States)

    Malin, M. C.; Calvin, W.; Clancy, R. T.; Haberle, R. M.; James, P. B.; Lee, S. W.; Thomas, P. C.; Caplinger, M. A.


    The Mars Color Imager, or MARCI, experiment on the Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) consists of two cameras with unique optics and identical focal plane assemblies (FPAs), Data Acquisition System (DAS) electronics, and power supplies. Each camera is characterized by small physical size and mass (~6 × 6 × 12 cm, including baffle; case downlink data rate. Under better downlink conditions the WA will provide kilometer-scale global maps of atmospheric phenomena such as clouds, hazes, dust storms, and the polar hood. Limb observations will provide additional detail on atmospheric structure at 13 scale-height resolution. The Medium Angle (MA) camera is designed to study selected areas of Mars at regional scale. From 400 km altitude its 6° FOV, which covers ~40 km at 40 m/pixel, will permit all locations on the planet except the poles to be accessible for image acquisitions every two mapping cycles (roughly 52 sols). Eight spectral channels between 425 and 1000 nm provide the ability to discriminate both atmospheric and surface features on the basis of composition. The primary science objectives of MARCI are to (1) observe Martian atmospheric processes at synoptic scales and mesoscales, (2) study details of the interaction of the atmosphere with the surface at a variety of scales in both space and time, and (3) examine surface features characteristic of the evolution of the Martian climate over time. MARCI will directly address two of the three high-level goals of the Mars Surveyor Program: Climate and Resources. Life, the third goal, will be addressed indirectly through the environmental factors associated with the other two goals.

  14. POLARBEAR-2: an instrument for CMB polarization measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Y; Akiba, Y; Aleman, C; Arnold, K; Baccigalupi, C; Barch, B; Barron, D; Bender, A; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Cukierman, A; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Ducout, A; Dunner, R; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feeney, S; Feng, C; Fuller, G; Gilbert, A J; Goeckner-Wald, N; Groh, J; Hall, G; Halverson, N; Hamada, T; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Hill, C; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howe, L; Irie, F; Jaehnig, G; Jaffe, A; Jeongh, O; Katayama, N; Kaufman, J P; Kazemzadeh, K; Keating, B G; Kermish, Z; Keskital, R; Kisner, T; Kusaka, A; Jeune, M Le; Lee, A T; Leon, D; Linder, E V; Lowry, L; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Miller, N; Mizukami, K; Montgomery, J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Puglisi, G; Raum, C R; Rebeiz, G M; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K M; Segaw, Y; Sherwin, B D; Shirley, I; Siritanasak, P; Stebor, N; Suzuki, R Stompor A; Tajima, O; Takada, S; Takatori, S; Teply, G P; Tikhomirol, A; Tomaru, T; Whitehorn, N; Zahn, A; Zahn, O


    POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2) is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment that will be located in the Atacama highland in Chile at an altitude of 5200 m. Its science goals are to measure the CMB polarization signals originating from both primordial gravitational waves and weak lensing. PB-2 is designed to measure the tensor to scalar ratio, r, with precision {\\sigma}(r) < 0.01, and the sum of neutrino masses, {\\Sigma}m{\

  15. Local orbitals in electron scattering calculations* (United States)

    Winstead, Carl L.; McKoy, Vincent


    We examine the use of local orbitals to improve the scaling of calculations that incorporate target polarization in a description of low-energy electron-molecule scattering. After discussing the improved scaling that results, we consider the results of a test calculation that treats scattering from a two-molecule system using both local and delocalized orbitals. Initial results are promising. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  16. Impact on Spin Tune From Horizontal Orbital Angle Between Snakes and Orbital Angle Between Spin Rotators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai,M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.


    To keep the spin tune in the spin depolarizing resonance free region is required for accelerating polarized protons to high energy. In RHIC, two snakes are located at the opposite side of each accelerator. They are configured to yield a spin tune of 1/2. Two pairs of spin rotators are located at either side of two detectors in each ring in RHIC to provide longitudinal polarization for the experiments. Since the spin rotation from vertical to longitudinal is localized between the two rotators, the spin rotators do not change the spin tune. However, due to the imperfection of the orbits around the snakes and rotators, the spin tune can be shifted. This note presents the impact of the horizontal orbital angle between the two snakes on the spin tune, as well as the effect of the vertical orbital angle between two rotators at either side of the collision point on the spin tune.

  17. Structure of Mercury's Global Magnetic Field Determined from MESSENGER Orbital Observations (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Johnson, C. L.; Korth, H.; Purucker, M. E.; Winslow, R. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Solomon, S. C.; McNutt, R. L.; Raines, J. M.; Zurbuchen, T.


    On 18 March 2011, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into a near-polar orbit about Mercury with a periapsis altitude of 200 km, an inclination of 82.5°, an apoapsis altitude of 15,300 km, and nominal orbit period of 12 hours. Magnetometer (MAG) data acquired since 23 March provide multiple circuits in solar local time and planetary longitude and yield extensive coverage of the planetary magnetic field sufficient to resolve the dominant magnetic fields of internal and external origin. Plasma pressures exceeding the magnetic pressure are commonly found within ±30° latitude of the equator and complicate solutions for the planetary field that use conventional spherical harmonic analysis. However, because the planetary field constrains the locations of external currents (e.g., the magnetopause and tail currents) to be symmetric about the magnetic equator, the location of that equator can be identified from the geometry of the magnetic field without the need to correct for local plasma pressures and external currents. We identify Mercury's magnetic equator from the orbital positions at which the cylindrical radial magnetic field component vanishes and find that the magnetic equator is offset north of the geographic equator by 484 ± 11 km. With this offset for the dipole we then analyze the tilt, position, and intensity of the best-fit dipole moment and find that the global planetary field is best represented as a southward-directed dipole, centered on the spin axis, tilted from that axis by less than 2.5°, and having a moment of 195 ± 10 nT-RM3, where RM is Mercury's radius. Mercury's axially symmetric but equatorially asymmetric field may imply lateral variations in heat flow at the planet's core-mantle boundary. This solution provides the basis for defining Mercury-solar-magnetospheric coordinates used to order observations of Mercury's magnetosphere, constructing a model for the magnetopause and

  18. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif


    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  19. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  20. Orbital rotation without orbital angular momentum: mechanical action of the spin part of the internal energy flow in light beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya; Maksimyak, P. P.


    The internal energy flow in a light beam can be divided into the "orbital" and "spin" parts, associated with the spatial and polarization degrees of freedom of light. In contrast to the orbital one, experimental observation of the spin flow seems problematic because it is converted into an orbital...... flow upon tight focusing of the beam, usually applied for energy flow detection by means of the mechanical action upon probe particles. We propose a two-beam interference technique that results in an appreciable level of spin flow in moderately focused beams and detection of the orbital motion of probe...

  1. Traumatic transconjunctival orbital emphysema.


    Stroh, E M; Finger, P T


    Orbital emphysema can be produced by trans-conjunctival migration of air from a high pressure airgun. In an industrial accident an 8 mm conjunctival laceration was produced in the superior fornix which acted as a portal of entry for air into the subconjunctival, subcutaneous, and retrobulbar spaces. Computed tomography revealed no evidence of orbital fracture and showed that traumatic orbital emphysema occurred without a broken orbital bone.

  2. Variability in low altitude astronomical refraction as a function of altitude. (United States)

    Sampson, Russell D; Lozowski, Edward P; Fathi-Nejad, Arsha


    Low altitude astronomical refraction (LAAR) of the setting Sun was measured over a sea horizon from a coastal location in Barbados, West Indies. The altitude of the upper limb of the Sun and the apparent horizon were determined using a digital video camera (Canon XL2) and a digital SLR camera (Canon EOS 5D). A total of 14 sunsets were measured between 2005 and 2007. From these measurements LAAR variability was estimated at 14 standard altitudes of the refracted Sun between 0 degrees .01 and 4 degrees .5. The relative variability decreases with increasing altitude from +/- 0.0195 of mean refraction at an altitude of 0 degrees .01 to +/- 0.0142 at 4 degrees .5. If extrapolated to an altitude of 15 degrees , a linear fit to the data produces a relative variability of +/- 0.0038 and an absolute variability of +/- 0(").45. Statistical analysis of the relative variability in LAAR appears to support the decreasing trend. However, error propagation analysis further suggests that the observed values of refraction may exceed the accuracy of the measurement system at altitudes higher than 2 degrees .

  3. Lunar gravitational field estimation and the effects of mismodeling upon lunar satellite orbit prediction. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Davis, John H.


    Lunar spherical harmonic gravity coefficients are estimated from simulated observations of a near-circular low altitude polar orbiter disturbed by lunar mascons. Lunar gravity sensing missions using earth-based nearside observations with and without satellite-based far-side observations are simulated and least squares maximum likelihood estimates are developed for spherical harmonic expansion fit models. Simulations and parameter estimations are performed by a modified version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Planetary Ephemeris Program. Two different lunar spacecraft mission phases are simulated to evaluate the estimated fit models. Results for predicting state covariances one orbit ahead are presented along with the state errors resulting from the mismodeled gravity field. The position errors from planning a lunar landing maneuver with a mismodeled gravity field are also presented. These simulations clearly demonstrate the need to include observations of satellite motion over the far side in estimating the lunar gravity field. The simulations also illustrate that the eighth degree and order expansions used in the simulated fits were unable to adequately model lunar mascons.

  4. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin


    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  5. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme (United States)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.


    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  6. A space weather index for the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Matthias M.


    Full Text Available The additional dose contribution to the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes during Solar Particle Events (SPEs has been a matter of concern for many years. After the Halloween storms in 2003 several airlines began to implement mitigation measures such as rerouting and lowering flight altitudes in response to alerts on the NOAA S-scale regarding solar radiation storms. These alerts are based on the integral proton flux above 10 MeV measured aboard the corresponding GOES-satellite which is operated outside the Earth’s atmosphere in a geosynchronous orbit. This integral proton flux has, however, been proved to be an insufficient parameter to apply to the radiation field at aviation altitudes without an accompanying analysis of the shape of the energy spectrum. Consequently, false alarms and corresponding disproportionate reactions ensued. Since mitigating measures can be quite cost-intensive, there has been a demand for appropriate space weather information among responsible airline managers for about a decade. Against this background, we propose the introduction of a new Space Weather index D, based on dose rates at aviation altitudes produced by solar protons during solar radiation storms, as the relevant parameter for the assessment of corresponding radiation exposure. The Space Weather index D is a natural number given by a graduated table of ranges of dose rates in ascending order which is derived by an equation depending on the dose rate of solar protons.

  7. Altitude, Orthocenter of a Triangle and Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland


    Full Text Available We introduce the altitudes of a triangle (the cevians perpendicular to the opposite sides. Using the generalized Ceva’s Theorem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the orthocenter of a triangle [7]. Finally, we formalize in Mizar [1] some formulas [2] to calculate distance using triangulation.

  8. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training. (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef


    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  9. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalczyk


    Full Text Available The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH, “live high, train low” (LH-TL or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT. Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  10. Measurement of Aircraft Speed and Altitude (United States)


    Albert W. Hall, Thomas M. Moul, Virgil S. Ritchie, and Robert T. Taylor who, as members of a technical review covinittee, made many valuable...Terry J.; and Webb, Lainie D.: Calibrations and Comparisons of Pressuie-Type Airspeed-Altitude Systems of the X-15 Airplane From Subsonic to High

  11. High-altitude physiology: lessons from Tibet (United States)

    Wagner, Peter D.; Simonson, Tatum S.; Wei, Guan; Wagner, Harrieth; Wuren, Tanna; Yan, Ma; Qin, Ga; Ge, Rili


    Polycythemia is a universal lowlander response to altitude; healthy Andean high-altitude natives also have elevated [Hb]. While this may enhance O2 transport to tissues, studies have shown that acute isovolumic changes in [Hb] do not affect exercise capacity. Many high-altitude Tibetans have evolved sea-level values of [Hb], providing a natural opportunity to study this issue. In 21 young healthy male Tibetans with [Hb] between 15 and 23 g/dl, we measured VO2MAX and O2 transport capacity at 4200m. VO2MAX was higher when [Hb] was lower (Pcardiac output and muscle O2 diffusional conductance, but neither ventilation nor the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (AaPO2) varied with [Hb]. In contrast, Andean high altitude natives remain polycythemic with larger lungs and higher lung diffusing capacity, a smaller exercising AaPO2, and lower ventilation. The challenges now are (1) to understand the different adaptive pathways used by Andeans and Tibetans, and (2) to determine in Tibetans whether, during evolution, reduced [Hb] appeared first, causing compensatory cardiac and muscle adaptations, or if enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport capacity appeared first, permitting secondary reduction in [Hb]. For (2), further research is necessary to determine the basis of enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport, and identify molecular targets of evolution in heart and muscle. Putative mutations can then be timed and compared to appearance of those affecting [Hb].

  12. Altitude Preexposure Recommendations for Inducing Acclimatization (United States)


    acetazolamide ( Kronenberg and Cain, 1968). Acute exposure to high altitude increases heart rate and cardiac output to maintain systemic oxygen delivery...emphasizing the regulation of breathing. Physiologist. 11:37–57. Kronenberg R.S., and Cain S.M. (1968). Hastening respiratory acclimatization to

  13. Breathing and sleep at high altitude. (United States)

    Ainslie, Philip N; Lucas, Samuel J E; Burgess, Keith R


    We provide an updated review on the current understanding of breathing and sleep at high altitude in humans. We conclude that: (1) progressive changes in pH initiated by the respiratory alkalosis do not underlie early (48 h), complex cellular and neurochemical re-organization occurs both in the peripheral chemoreceptors as well as within the central nervous system. The latter is likely influenced by central acid-base changes secondary to the extent of the initial respiratory responses to initial exposure to high altitude; (3) sleep at high altitude is disturbed by various factors, but principally by periodic breathing; (4) the extent of periodic breathing during sleep at altitude intensifies with duration and severity of exposure; (5) complex interactions between hypoxic-induced enhancement in peripheral and central chemoreflexes and cerebral blood flow--leading to higher loop gain and breathing instability--underpin this development of periodic breathing during sleep; (6) because periodic breathing may elevate rather than reduce mean SaO2 during sleep, this may represent an adaptive rather than maladaptive response; (7) although oral acetazolamide is an effective means to reduce periodic breathing by 50-80%, recent studies using positive airway pressure devices to increase dead space, hyponotics and theophylline are emerging but appear less practical and effective compared to acetazolamide. Finally, we suggest avenues for future research, and discuss implications for understanding sleep pathology.

  14. Fundamentals of the route theory for satellite constellation design for Earth discontinuous coverage. Part 4: Compound satellite structures on orbits with synchronized nodal regression (United States)

    Razoumny, Yury N.


    Basing on the theory results considered in the previous papers of the series for traditional one-tiered constellation formed on the orbits with the same values of altitudes and inclinations for all the satellites of the constellation, the method for constellation design using compound satellite structures on orbits with different altitudes and inclinations and synchronized nodal regression is developed. Compound, multi-tiered, satellite structures (constellations) are based on orbits with different values of altitude and inclination providing nodal regression synchronization. It is shown that using compound satellite constellations for Earth periodic coverage makes it possible to sufficiently improve the Earth coverage, as compared to the traditional constellations based on the orbits with common altitude and inclination for all the satellites of the constellation, and, as a consequence, to get new opportunities for the satellite constellation design for different types of prospective space systems regarding increasing the quality of observations or minimization of the number of the satellites required.

  15. PALOMA: A Magnetic CV between Polars and Intermediate Polars (United States)

    Joshi, Arti; Pandey, J. C.; Singh, K. P.; Agrawal, P. C.


    We present analyses of archival X-ray data obtained from the XMM-Newton satellite and optical photometric data obtained from 1 m class telescopes of ARIES, Nainital of a magnetic cataclysmic variable (MCV) Paloma. Two persistent periods at 156 ± 1 minutes and 130 ± 1 minutes are present in the X-ray data, which we interpret as the orbital and spin periods, respectively. These periods are similar to those obtained from the previous as well as new optical photometric observations. The soft-X-ray excess seen in the X-ray spectrum of Paloma and the averaged X-ray spectra are well fitted by two-temperature plasma models with temperatures of {0.10}-0.01+0.02 and {13.0}-0.5+0.5 keV with an Fe Kα line and an absorbing column density of 4.6 × 1022 cm‑2. This material partially covers 60 ± 2% of the X-ray source. We also present the orbital and spin-phase-resolved spectroscopy of Paloma in the 0.3{--}10.0 {keV} energy band and find that the X-ray spectral parameters show orbital and spin-phase dependencies. New results obtained from optical and X-ray studies of Paloma indicate that it belongs to a class of a few magnetic CVs that seem to have the characteristics of both the polars and the intermediate polars.

  16. Is High Altitude Pulmonary Edema Relevant to Hawai‘i? (United States)


    High altitude clinical syndromes have been described in the medical literature but may be under recognized in the state of Hawai‘i. As tourism increases, high altitude injuries may follow given the easy access to high altitude attractions. Visitors and clinicians should be aware of the dangers associated with the rapid ascent to high altitudes in the perceived comfort of a vehicle. This paper will review the basic pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of the most serious of the high altitude clinical syndromes, high altitude pulmonary edema. PMID:25478294

  17. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations (United States)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos


    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  18. High altitude pulmonary edema among "Amarnath Yatris"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz A Koul


    Full Text Available Background: Annual pilgrimage (Yatra to the cave shrine of Shri Amarnath Ji′ is a holy ritual among the Hindu devotees of Lord Shiva. Located in the Himalayan Mountain Range (altitude 13,000 ft in south Kashmir, the shrine is visited by thousands of devotees and altitude sickness is reportedly common. Materials and Methods: More than 600,000 pilgrims visited the cave shrine in 2011 and 2012 with 239 recorded deaths. Thirty one patients with suspected altitude sickness were referred from medical centers en-route the cave to Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary-care center in capital Srinagar (5,000 ft. The clinical features and the response to treatment were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients (all lowlanders, 19 male; age 18-60 years, median 41 had presented with acute onset breathlessness of 1-4 days (median 1.9 d starting within 12-24 h of a rapid ascent; accompanied by cough (68%, headache (8%, dizziness and nausea (65%. Sixteen patients had associated encephalopathy. Clinical features on admission included tachypnea ( n = 31, tachycardia ( n = 23, bilateral chest rales ( n = 29, cyanosis ( n = 22 and grade 2-4 encephalopathy. Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 24 cases and bilateral infiltrates on radiologic imaging in 29. Ten patients had evidence of high-altitude cerebral edema. All patients were managed with oxygen, steroids, nifedipine, sildenafil and other supportive measures including invasive ventilation ( n = 3. Three patients died due to multiorgan dysfunction. Conclusions: Altitude sickness is common among Amaranath Yatris from the plains and appropriate educational strategies should be invoked for prevention and prompt treatment.

  19. Can aneroid sphygmomanometers be used at altitude? (United States)

    Kametas, N A; McAuliffe, F; Krampl, E; Nicolaides, K H; Shennan, A H


    Mercury-independent devices are increasingly being used in clinical practice as mercury will soon be removed from clinical use as a result of environmental, health and safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a portable aneroid device in an adult population at high altitude by following the part of the protocol of the British Hypertension Society regarding comparison between device and observer. We examined 10 subjects in Cerro de Pasco, Peru, which is situated 4370 m above sea level. The aneroid device was initially calibrated at both high altitude and at sea level to ensure optimal function. Validation of the device was undertaken at high altitude by connecting it in parallel to two mercury sphygmomanometers. Eleven sequential same-arm measurements were taken from each subject by two trained observers, alternating between mercury sphygmomanometry and the aneroid device. Simultaneous mercury readings were also recorded for additional analysis. During calibration, all 60 comparisons between the aneroid and mercury sphygmomanometers were within 3 mm Hg both at sea level and at high altitude. At validation, the device achieved an A grade for both systolic and diastolic pressures and also fulfilled the requirements of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. The mean and standard deviation for systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively, were -1.32 (4.3) mm Hg and 3.7 (4.7) mm Hg in sequential analysis and -0.7 (2.6) mm Hg and -3.3 (2.7) mm Hg in simultaneous analysis. We conclude that the Riester-Exacta portable aneroid device can be recommended for use in an adult population at high altitude.

  20. Polar Ring Galaxies and Warps (United States)

    Combes, F.

    Polar ring galaxies, where matter is in equilibrium in perpendicular orbits around spiral galaxies, are ideal objects to probe the 3D shapes of dark matter halos. The conditions to constrain the halos are that the perpendicular system does not strongly perturb the host galaxy, or that it is possible to derive back its initial shape, knowing the formation scenario of the polar ring. The formation mechanisms are reviewed: mergers, tidal accretion, or gas accretion from cosmic filaments. The Tully-Fisher diagram for polar rings reveals that the velocity in the polar plane is higher than in the host plane, which can only be explained if the dark matter is oblate and flattened along the polar plane. Only a few individual systems have been studied in details, and 3D shapes of their haloes determined by several methods. The high frequency of warps could be explained by spontaneous bending instability, if the disks are sufficiently self-gravitating, which can put constraints on the dark matter flattening.

  1. Polar ring galaxies and warps

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F


    Polar ring galaxies, where matter is in equilibrium in perpendicular orbits around spiral galaxies, are ideal objects to probe the 3D shapes of dark matter halos. The conditions to constrain the halos are that the perpendicular system does not strongly perturb the host galaxy, or that it is possible to derive back its initial shape, knowing the formation scenario of the polar ring. The formation mechanisms are reviewed: mergers, tidal accretion, or gas accretion from cosmic filaments. The Tully-Fisher diagram for polar rings reveals that the velocity in the polar plane is higher than in the host plane, which can only be explained if the dark matter is oblate and flattened along the polar plane. Only a few individual systems have been studied in details, and 3D shapes of their haloes determined by several methods. The high frequency of warps could be explained by spontaneous bending instability, if the disks are sufficiently self-gravitating, which can put constraints on the dark matter flattening.

  2. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph


    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  3. Painless orbital myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul T Chakor


    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital inflammation is the third most common orbital disease, following Graves orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative diseases. We present a 11 year old girl with 15 days history of painless diplopia. There was no history of fluctuation of symptoms, drooping of eye lids or diminished vision. She had near total restricted extra-ocular movements and mild proptosis of the right eye. There was no conjunctival injection, chemosis, or bulb pain. There was no eyelid retraction or lid lag. Rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was raised with eosinophilia. Antinuclear antibodies were positive. Liver, renal and thyroid functions were normal. Antithyroid, double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and acetylcholine receptor antibodies were negative. Repetitive nerve stimulation was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the orbit was typical of orbital myositis. The patient responded to oral steroids. Orbital myositis can present as painless diplopia. MRI of orbit is diagnostic in orbital myositis.

  4. Effect of Polarization in (e, 2e) Ionization of Argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-Ying; ZHOU Ya-Jun


    @@ The triple differential cross section of the Ar 2p orbital in a highly asymmetric geometry is calculated by using a modified distorted wave Born approximation method. A short-range polarization potential via density-functional theory is included in our calculations. It is shown that polarization potential is particularly important for calculations of the triple differential cross section.

  5. International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program polar mission (United States)

    Sanford, R.; Sizemore, K. O.


    The polar spacecraft will be launched from Western Test Ranges (WTR) into a 2 earth radii by 9 earth radii polar orbit, with apogee near the North Pole. Information is presented on the following topics: Deep Space Network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and ranging.

  6. Reaching High Altitudes on Mars with an Inflatable Hypersonic Drag Balloon (Ballute)

    CERN Document Server

    Griebel, Hannes


    The concept of probing the atmosphere of planet Mars by means of a hypersonic drag balloon, a device known as a “ballute”, is a novel approach to planetary science. In this concept, the probe deploys an inflatable drag body out in space and may then enter the atmosphere either once or several times until it slowly descends towards the ground, taking continuous atmospheric and other readings across a large altitude and ground range. Hannes Griebel discusses the theory behind such a mission along with experience gained during its practical implementation, such as mission design, manufacturing, packing and deployment techniques as well as ground and flight tests. The author also studies other ballute applications, specifically emergency low Earth orbit recovery and delivering payloads to high altitude landing sites on Mars.

  7. Polarized Proton Collisions at 205GeV at RHIC (United States)

    Bai, M.; Roser, T.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Alessi, J.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bravar, A.; Brennan, J. M.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Courant, E.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Gill, R.; Glenn, J.; Haeberli, W.; Huang, H.; Jinnouchi, O.; Kewisch, J.; Luccio, A.; Luo, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Okada, H.; Pilat, F.; Mackay, W. W.; Makdisi, Y.; Montag, C.; Ptitsyn, V.; Satogata, T.; Stephenson, E.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Wise, T.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S. Y.


    The Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has been providing collisions of polarized protons at a beam energy of 100 GeV since 2001. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV. However, the intrinsic spin resonances beyond 100 GeV are about a factor of 2 stronger than those below 100 GeV making it important to examine the impact of these strong intrinsic spin resonances on polarization survival and the tolerance for vertical orbit distortions. Polarized protons were first accelerated to the record energy of 205 GeV in RHIC with a significant polarization measured at top energy in 2005. This Letter presents the results and discusses the sensitivity of the polarization survival to orbit distortions.

  8. Comparison of the space radiation environment at Foton M3 satellite altitudes and on aircraft altitudes for minimum of solar activity (United States)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Dachev, Tsvetan; Spurny, Frantisek; Tomov, Borislav; Dimitrov, Plamen; Matviichuk, Yury; Bankov, Nikolay

    The space radiation environments at Foton M3 and aircraft altitudes were measured by using of practically equal silicon detector based on a deposited energy spectrometers in the fall of 2007. The aircraft measurements were performed on commercial flights of CSA airlines, while the Foton M3 measurements were inside of the ESA Biopan 6 experiment. Foton M3 orbit was close to circular between 260 and 289 km altitude and about 63° inclination. The relatively high inclination and small shielding of the detector (0.81 g/cm2 ) allow us to observe doses by electrons in the outer radiation belt as high as 2.3 mGy/hour. The comparison of the total GCR deposited doses for the Foton M3 time interval, which coincides with the absolute cycle 23 minimum of the solar activity is about 15% higher than the measured during the Foton M2 satellite doses in 2005. Comparisons of the latitudinal profiles for ISS in 2001, Foton 2 and 3 satellites and aircrafts show that the ratio of doses is as 1:2:3. Aircraft measurements are characterised through average values of exposure during frequent, statistically well based measurements on the routes Prague - New York. Dose absorbed in Si-detector per flight on these routes was about 8% higher in 2007 than in 2005. Different comparisons with the existing models for the radiation environment on aircraft and spacecraft altitudes are presented in the paper also and discussed.

  9. The potential for ozone depletion in the Arctic polar stratosphere (United States)

    Brune, W. H.; Anderson, J. G.; Toohey, D. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Poole, L. R.


    The nature of the Arctic polar stratosphere is observed to be similar in many respects to that of the Antarctic polar stratosphere, where an ozone hole has been identified. Most of the available chlorine (CHl and ClONO2) was converted by reactions on polar stratospheric clouds to reactive ClO and Cl2O2 thoroughout the Arctic polar vortex before midwinter. Reactive nitrogen was converted to HNO3, and some, with spatial inhomogeneity, fell out of the stratosphere. These chemical changes ensured characteristic ozone losses of 10 to 15 percent at altitudes inside the polar vortex where polar stratospheric clouds had occurred. These local losses can translate into 5 to 8 percent losses in the vertical column abundance of ozone. As the amount of stratospheric chlorine inevitably increases by 50 percent over the next two decades, ozone losses recognizable as an ozone hole may well appear.

  10. Europa Planetary Protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter (United States)

    Bernard, Douglas E.; Abelson, Robert D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William J.; Newlin, Laura E.


    NASA's Juno mission launched in 2011 and will explore the Jupiter system starting in 2016. Juno's suite of instruments is designed to investigate the atmosphere, gravitational fields, magnetic fields, and auroral regions. Its low perijove polar orbit will allow it to explore portions of the Jovian environment never before visited. While the Juno mission is not orbiting or flying close to Europa or the other Galilean satellites, planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design.The science mission is designed to conclude with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction in the event of impact with an icy body.

  11. Extensive MRO CRISM Observations of 1.27 micron O2 Airglow in Mars Polar Night and Their Comparison to MRO MCS Temperature Profiles and LMD GCM Simulations (United States)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; Wolff, Michael J.; Smith, Michael Doyle; Lefevre, Franck; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Forget, Francois; Murchie, Scott L.; Seelos, Frank P.; Seelos, Kim D.; Nair, Hari A.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Humm, David; Kass, David M.; Kleinbahl, Armin; Heavens, Nicholas


    The Martian polar night distribution of 1.27 micron (0-0) band emission from O2 singlet delta [O2(1Delta(sub g))] is determined from an extensive set of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectral Mapping (CRISM) limb scans observed over a wide range of Mars seasons, high latitudes, local times, and longitudes between 2009 and 2011. This polar nightglow reflects meridional transport and winter polar descent of atomic oxygen produced from CO2 photodissociation. A distinct peak in 1.27 micron nightglow appears prominently over 70-90NS latitudes at 40-60 km altitudes, as retrieved for over 100 vertical profiles of O2(1Delta(sub g)) 1.27 micron volume emission rates (VER). We also present the first detection of much (x80+/-20) weaker 1.58 micron (0-1) band emission from Mars O2(1Delta(sub g)). Co-located polar night CRISM O2(1Delta(sub g)) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) (McCleese et al., 2008) temperature profiles are compared to the same profiles as simulated by the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) general circulation/photochemical model (e.g., Lefèvre et al., 2004). Both standard and interactive aerosol LMD simulations (Madeleine et al., 2011a) underproduce CRISM O2(1Delta(sub g)) total emission rates by 40%, due to inadequate transport of atomic oxygen to the winter polar emission regions. Incorporation of interactive cloud radiative forcing on the global circulation leads to distinct but insufficient improvements in modeled polar O2(1Delta(sub g)) and temperatures. The observed and modeled anti-correlations between temperatures and 1.27 mm band VER reflect the temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for O2(1Delta(sub g)) formation, as provided in Roble (1995).

  12. Pulmonary embolism in young natives of high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singhal


    Full Text Available Thrombotic events are relatively common in high altitude areas and known to occur in young soldiers working at high altitude without usual risk factors associated with thrombosis at sea-level. However, till now, cases with thrombotic events were reported only in lowlanders staying at high altitude. These two cases of pulmonary embolism demonstrate that thrombotic events can occur in highlanders after a prolonged stay at the extreme altitude.

  13. Polar Shapelets

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, R; Massey, Richard; Refregier, Alexandre


    The shapelets method for astronomical image analysis is based around the decomposition of localised objects into a series of orthogonal components with particularly convenient mathematical properties. We extend the "Cartesian shapelet" formalism from earlier work, and construct "polar shapelet" basis functions that separate an image into components with explicit rotational symmetries. This provides a more compact representation of typical galaxy shapes, and its physical interpretation is frequently more intuitive. Linear coordinate transformations can be simply expressed using this basis set, and shape measures (including object photometry, astrometry and galaxy morphology estimators) take a naturally elegant form. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of astronomical survey images, and we test shapelet techniques with real data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We present a practical method to automatically optimise the quality of an arbitrary shapelet decomposition in the presence of noise, pixellisat...

  14. [Effect of altitude on iron absorption]. (United States)

    Pizarro, F; Zavaleta, N; Hertrampf, E; Berlanga, R; Camborda, L; Olivares, M


    Iron bioavailability was evaluated in people living in high altitudes. Absorption was estimated from a reference dose of ferrous ascorbate and from a standard diet of wheat flour, using extrinsic tag radioisotope technique of 55Fe and 59Fe. Twenty four volunteers, healthy women, with ages ranging from 28 to 45 years, participated. Of those, eleven lived at 3450 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) in Huancayo city-Peru (study group), and 13 lived in Santiago de Chile at 630 m.a.s.l. (control group). Iron absorption from reference dose of ferrous ascorbate was 32.0% and 31.1% in the study and control groups respectively. The geometric mean of iron absorption from the standard diet, corrected to 40% of absorption of reference dose, was 9.0% and 6.9% in the study and control groups respectively (NS). The results suggest that altitude does not produce a high iron absorption in highlander residents.

  15. HAWC - The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Detector (United States)

    Tepe, Andreas; HAWC Collaboration


    The high altitude water Cherenkov observatory (HAWC) is an instrument for the detection of high energy cosmic gamma-rays. Its predecessor Milagro has successfully proven that the water Cherenkov technology for gamma-ray astronomy is a useful technique. HAWC is currently under construction at Sierra Negra in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m and will include several improvements compared to Milagro. Two complementary DAQ systems of the HAWC detector allow for the observation of a large fraction of the sky with a very high duty cycle and independent of environmental conditions. HAWC will observe the gamma-ray sky from about 100 GeV up to 100 TeV. Also the cosmic ray flux anisotropy on different angular length scales is object of HAWC science. Because of HAWC's large effective area and field of view, we describe its prospects to observe gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as an example for transient sources.

  16. 14 CFR 135.93 - Autopilot: Minimum altitudes for use. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Autopilot: Minimum altitudes for use. 135... Operations § 135.93 Autopilot: Minimum altitudes for use. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section, no person may use an autopilot at an altitude above the terrain which is...

  17. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.


    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  18. The Exoplanet Orbit Database

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Han, Eunkyu; Feng, Ying; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W; Valenti, Jeff A; Anderson, Jay; Piskunov, Nikolai


    We present a database of well determined orbital parameters of exoplanets. This database comprises spectroscopic orbital elements measured for 421 planets orbiting 357 stars from radial velocity and transit measurements as reported in the literature. We have also compiled fundamental transit parameters, stellar parameters, and the method used for the planets discovery. This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets with robust, well measured orbital parameters reported in peer-reviewed articles. The database is available in a searchable, filterable, and sortable form on the Web at through the Exoplanets Data Explorer Table, and the data can be plotted and explored through the Exoplanets Data Explorer Plotter. We use the Data Explorer to generate publication-ready plots giving three examples of the signatures of exoplanet migration and dynamical evolution: We illustrate the character of the apparent correlation between mass and period in exoplanet orbits, the selection different biase...

  19. Neutral Barium Cloud Evolution at Different Altitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 徐荣栏


    Considering the joint effects of diffusion, collision, oxidation and photoionization, we study the evolution of the barium cloud at different altitudes in the space plasma active experiment. The results present the variation of the loss rate, number density distribution and brightness of the barium cloud over the range from 120 to 260km.This can be divided into oxidation, oxidation plus photoionization and photoionization regions.

  20. Performance of portable ventilators at altitude (United States)


    including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations...D.R.J.). This study was presented as a poster at the Military Health System Research Symposium, August 12Y15, 2013, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Address...BirdVSO2 and theLTV- 1000 at ranges of altitudes from sea level to 9,800 ft using lung models of adult respiratory distress syndrome and severe asthma

  1. Endotracheal Tube Cuff Management at Altitude (United States)


    model study of endotracheal intubation including mechanical ventilation and four methods of cuff pressure management during ascent and descent...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2014-0007 Endotracheal Tube Cuff Management at Altitude SSgt Tyler J. Britton, RRT1; Richard D. Branson, RRT2...REPORT TYPE Special Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) June 2012 – December 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Endotracheal Tube Cuff Management

  2. Orbital inflammation: Corticosteroids first. (United States)

    Dagi Glass, Lora R; Freitag, Suzanne K


    Orbital inflammation is common, and may affect all ages and both genders. By combining a thorough history and physical examination, targeted ancillary laboratory testing and imaging, a presumptive diagnosis can often be made. Nearly all orbital inflammatory pathology can be empirically treated with corticosteroids, thus obviating the need for histopathologic diagnosis prior to initiation of therapy. In addition, corticosteroids may be effective in treating concurrent systemic disease. Unless orbital inflammation responds atypically or incompletely, patients can be spared biopsy.

  3. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis


    Emine Akçay; Gamze Dereli Can; Nurullah Çağıl


    Preseptal cellulitis (PC) is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC) is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites) or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epid...

  4. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (United States)

    Mostafa, Miguel; HAWC Collaboration


    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a continuously operated, wide field of view experiment comprised of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs) to study transient and steady emission of TeV gamma and cosmic rays. Each 200000 l WCD is instrumented with 4 PMTs providing charge and timing information. The array covers ~22000 m2 at an altitude of 4100 m a.s.l. inside the Pico de Orizaba national park in Mexico. The high altitude, large active area, and optical isolation of the PMTs allows us to reliably estimate the energy and determine the arrival direction of gamma and cosmic rays with significant sensitivity over energies from several hundred GeV to a hundred TeV. Continuously observing 2 / 3 of the sky every 24 h, HAWC plays a significant role as a survey instrument for multi-wavelength studies. The performance of HAWC makes possible the detection of both transient and steady emissions, the study of diffuse emission and the measurement of the spectra of gamma-ray sources at TeV energies. HAWC is also sensitive to the emission from GRBs above 100 GeV. I will highlight the results from the first year of operation of the full HAWC array, and describe the ongoing site work to expand the array by a factor of 4 to explore the high energy range.

  5. High Energy Emission from the Polar Cap The Slot Gap Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Muslimov, A G


    The characteristics of the high-energy emission from polar cap accelerators will be discussed. Particles accelerated in the "slot gap" near the polar cap rim will reach altitudes of several stellar radii before initiating pair cascades, producing a wide hollow cone of emission in young pulsars and some millisecond pulsars. Model X-ray and gamma-ray spectra and pulse profiles, based on Monte-Carlo simulations of polar cap pair cascades, will be presented.

  6. A Future Polarized Drell-Yan Experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinjan, David William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The topic is treated in a series of slides under the following headings: Motivation (Nucleon Spin Puzzle, Quark Orbital Momentum and the Sivers Function, Accessing Sivers via Polarized Drell-Yan (p+p↑ → μ+μ-)); Transition of Seaquest (E906 → E1039) (Building a Polarized proton Target, Status of Polarized Target); and Outlook. The nucleon spin puzzle: when the quark and gluon contributions to the proton spin are evaluated, nearly 50% of the measured spin is missing; lattice QCD calculations indicate as much as 50% may come from quark orbital angular momentum. Sea quarks should carry orbital angular momentum (O.A.M.). The E1039 Polarized Target Drell-Yan Experiment provides opportunity to study possible Sea Quark O.A.M. Data taking is expected to begin in the spring of 2017.

  7. Massive photometry of low-altitude artificial satellites on Mini-Mega-TORTORA (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Katkova, E.; Beskin, G.; Biryukov, A.; Bondar, S.; Davydov, E.; Ivanov, E.; Perkov, A.; Sasyuk, V.


    The nine-channel Mini-Mega-TORTORA (MMT-9) optical wide-field monitoring system with high temporal resolution system is in operation since June 2014. The system has 0.1 s temporal resolution and effective detection limit around 10 mag (calibrated to V filter) for fast-moving objects on this timescale. In addition to its primary scientific operation, the system detects 200-500 tracks of satellites every night, both on low-altitude and high ellipticity orbits. Using these data we created and support the public database of photometric characteristics for these satellites, available online.

  8. Average thermospheric wind patterns over the polar regions, as observed by CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr


    Full Text Available Measurements of the CHAMP accelerometer are utilized to investigate the average thermospheric wind distribution in the polar regions at altitudes around 400 km. This study puts special emphasis on the seasonal differences in the wind patterns. For this purpose 131 days centered on the June solstice of 2003 are considered. Within that period CHAMP's orbit is precessing once through all local times. The cross-track wind estimates of all 2030 passes are used to construct mean wind vectors for 918 equal-area cells. These bin averages are presented in corrected geomagnetic coordinates. Both hemispheres are considered simultaneously providing summer and winter responses for the same prevailing geophysical conditions. The period under study is characterized by high magnetic activity (Kp=4− but moderate solar flux level (F10.7=124. Our analysis reveals clear wind features in the summer (Northern Hemisphere. Over the polar cap there is a fast day-to-night flow with mean speeds surpassing 600 m/s in the dawn sector. At auroral latitudes we find strong westward zonal winds on the dawn side. On the dusk side, however, an anti-cyclonic vortex is forming. The dawn/dusk asymmetry is attributed to the combined action of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Along the auroral oval the sunward streaming plasma causes a stagnation of the day-to-night wind. This effect is particularly clear on the dusk side. On the dawn side it is evident only from midnight to 06:00 MLT. The winter (Southern Hemisphere reveals similar wind features, but they are less well ordered. The mean day-to-night wind over the polar cap is weaker by about 35%. Otherwise, the seasonal differences are mainly confined to the dayside (06:00–18:00 MLT. In addition, the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic pole in the south also causes hemispheric differences of the thermospheric wind distribution.

  9. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Ke(


    [1]Vogan, D. , Dixmier algebras, sheets and representation theory (in Actes du colloque en I' honneur de Jacques Dixmier),Progress in Math. 92, Boston: Birkhauser Verlag, 1990, 333-397.[2]McGovern, W., Dixmier Algebras and Orbit Method, Operator Algebras, Unitary Representations and Invariant Theory,Boston: Birkhauser, 1990, 397-416.[3]Liang, K. , Parabolic inductions of nilpotent geometric orbit datum, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese) , 1996, 41 (23):2116-2118.[4]Vogan, D., Representations of Real Reductive Lie Groups, Boston-Basel-Stuttgart: Birkhauser, 1981.[5]Lustig, G., Spaltenstein, N., Induced unipotent class, J. London Math. Soc., 1997, 19. 41-52.[6]Collingwood, D. H. , McGovern, W. M. , Nilpotent Orbits in Semisimple Lie Algebras, New York: Van Nostremt Reinhold,1993.

  10. Spin-orbit scattering visualized in quasiparticle interference (United States)

    Kohsaka, Y.; Machida, T.; Iwaya, K.; Kanou, M.; Hanaguri, T.; Sasagawa, T.


    In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, electron scattering off impurities depends on both spin and orbital angular momentum of electrons—spin-orbit scattering. Although some transport properties are subject to spin-orbit scattering, experimental techniques directly accessible to this effect are limited. Here we show that a signature of spin-orbit scattering manifests itself in quasiparticle interference (QPI) imaged by spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. The experimental data of a polar semiconductor BiTeI are well reproduced by numerical simulations with the T -matrix formalism that include not only scalar scattering normally adopted but also spin-orbit scattering stronger than scalar scattering. To accelerate the simulations, we extend the standard efficient method of QPI calculation for momentum-independent scattering to be applicable even for spin-orbit scattering. We further identify a selection rule that makes spin-orbit scattering visible in the QPI pattern. These results demonstrate that spin-orbit scattering can exert predominant influence on QPI patterns and thus suggest that QPI measurement is available to detect spin-orbit scattering.

  11. ARTEMIS orbit raising inflight experience with ion propulsion (United States)

    Killinger, Rainer; Kukies, Ralf; Surauer, Michael; Tomasetto, Angeo; van Holtz, Leo


    To demonstrate and promote North/South station keeping (inclination control) using ion propulsion, ESA on July 12, 2001 onboard Ariane 510 launched its most advanced telecommunication satellite: ARTEMIS. Due to a launcher failure the satellite was injected into a useless too low elliptic orbit. The ARTEMIS mission was salvaged by an Alenia Spazio / Astrium / ESA team at Telespazio (Fucino) using in novel modes to operate the on-board chemical and ion propulsion systems provided by Astrium. Using the chemical propulsion_ system provided by Astrium GmbH - Lampoldshausen - the inital orbit, having an apogee of half the targeted altitude. was quickly upgraded to a safe circular parking orbit at 31000 km altitude. The Liquid Apogee Engine was fired in total 8 times to achieve apogee as well as perigee raising. The final orbit raising to geostationary altitude is being performed by means of the ion propulsion system (IPP) applied in a newly designed spacecraft attitude control mode. Alenia Spazio and Astrium, in close cooperation, quickly redesigned all control and data handling software modules affected since the original spacecraft configuration was designed for inclination control only and not to generate thrust with the ion engines in a direction tangential to the orbit. The flexibility of the IPP system consisting of 4 thruster assemblies, provided in its totality by Astrium including the 2 alignment mechanisms for precision thrust direction control, had proven invaluable. To demonstrate the technologies available in Europe and to enhanced reliability, Astrium implemented two different technologies: a Kaufmann type system (EITA) provided by Astrium Ltd. - Portsmouth; and a Radiofrequency Ion Thruster Assembly (RITA) provided by Astrium GmbH - Ottobrunn. Two ion engines of different technology were mounted side by side on one ITAM (Ion Thruster Alignment Mechanism) provided by Austrian Aerospace. Artemis, after EURECA launched on 31 July 1992 and retrieved on 1 July

  12. UoGAS - A Get Away Special Satellite with Orbit-Raising Capability


    Lorenz, Ralph


    The low cost of satellite deployment from Shuttle GAS canister makes it an attractive launch option. However, the low deployment altitude severely constrains lifetime so the UoGAS (University of Surrey Get Away Special) spacecraft will incorporate a propulsion system. Lifetime extension methods are considered and a start-of-mission orbit-raising manoeuvre is selected. An orbit dynamics simulation method (taking into account the atmospheric drag) is discussed and results presented. Mission pro...

  13. Globally Polarized Quark-gluon Plasma in Non-central A+ACollisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zuo-tang; Wang, Xin-Nian


    Produced partons have large local relative orbital angular momentum along the direction opposite to the reaction plane in the early stage of non-central heavy-ion collisions. Parton scattering is shown to polarize quarks along the same direction due to spin-orbital coupling.Such global quark polarization will lead to many observable consequences,such as left-right asymmetry of hadron spectra, global transverse polarization of thermal photons, dileptons and hadrons. Hadrons from the decay of polarized resonances will have azimuthal asymmetry similar to the elliptic flow. Global hyperon polarization is predicted with indifferent hadronization scenarios and can be easily tested.

  14. Fine orbit tuning to increase the accuracy of the gravity-field modelling (United States)

    Bezdek, A.; Klokocnik, J.; Kostelecky, J.; Floberghagen, R.; Sebera, J.


    Fine orbit tuning will be presented as a tool to enhance the accuracy of the gravity-field parameters based on the data from satellite missions around the Earth or other planetary bodies. A slight variation in the satellite altitude of a few hundred metres or kilometres may dramatically change the pattern and density of the groundtracks, thus leading to a significant difference in the quality of the derived gravity-field parameters. This aspect is important not only to missions dedicated to the gravity-field mapping, but it can be applied to any planetary mission, whose orbital data may yield useful information on the particular gravity field. The geometry of satellite groundtracks is closely connected with the term orbital resonance or repeat orbit, which was intensively studied by the satellite geodesy community since the 1970s. In a systematic way, fine orbit tuning was first applied to altimetry missions for oceanographic purposes in the early 1990s, when it became clear that small changes in the satellite altitude might substantially influence the utility of the data from the onboard instruments. The monthly geopotential solutions from the GRACE mission (in orbit since 2002) displayed apparently worse precision in August-September 2004, which was later found to be caused by a sparser groundtrack pattern due to the passage of the GRACE satellites through the 61/4 orbit resonance. The lessons learned from GRACE were applied by ESA to its gravity field mission GOCE (in orbit since 2009). Here, the situation is different, as the GOCE onboard thrusters are capable of maintaining the satellite at a constant altitude. In order to fully use the measurement potential of the first space gradiometer ever flown, in the GOCE mission planning the influence of orbit geometry was taken into account, and a minimum 2-month repeat period for the orbit was specified. We analysed several orbital configurations of GOCE, as possible candidates for the gravity mapping phases. We

  15. Tether de-orbiting of satellites at end of mission (United States)

    Sanmartin, Juan R.; Sánchez-Torres, Antonio


    The accumulation of space debris around the Earth has become critical for Space security. The BETs project, financed by the European Commission through its FP7-Space program, is focusing on preventing generation of new debris by de-orbiting satellites at end of mission. The de-orbiting system considered, involving an electrodynamic bare tape-tether, uses no propellant and no power supply, while generating power for on-board use during de-orbiting. As an example, preliminary results are here presented on a specific orbit/satellite case: 1300 km altitude and 65 degrees inclination, and 500 kg mass. Design tether dimensions are 8 km length, 1.5 cm width, and 0.05 mm thickness; subsystem masses are limited to twice tether mass. Simple calculations, using orbit-averaging, solar mid-cycle phase, and ionospheric and geomagnetic field models, yield 2.6 months time for de-orbiting down to 200 km, with a probability of about 1 percent of debris cutting the tape. References: Sanmartin, J.R., Lorenzini, E.C., and Martinez-Sanchez, M., Electrodynamic Tether Applications and Constraints, J. Space. Rockets 47, 442-456, 2010. Sanmartin, J.R. et al., A universal system to de-orbit satellites at end of life, Journal of Space Technology and Science, to appear.

  16. The EJSM Jupiter-Ganymede Orbiter (United States)

    Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Stankov, A.; Greeley, R.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Fujimoto, M.


    The Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), currently subject of a joint study by NASA, ESA and JAXA, would combine a fleet of three satellites in order to investigate in depth many questions related to the Jupiter System. These investigations are essential for our understanding of the emergence and evolution of habitable worlds, not only within the Solar System, but also for extrasolar planet investigations. Scientific targets of EJSM focus on Europa and Ganymede as a key pair of Galilean satellites, to address the questions on their habitability, formation, and internal structure, as well as the coupling with the whole Jovian system: Jupiter's atmosphere and interior, magnetosphere and magnetodisk.. In combination with a Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO that would be provided by NASA) and a Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO that would be provided by JAXA), ESA is studying a Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The mission scenario includes a launch in 2020 with a transfer time to Jupiter of ~6 years. After the orbit insertion around Jupiter, a first phase (~2 years) will be devoted to Jupiter system and Callisto studies, with multiple flybys of Callisto planned at low altitude (~200 km), followed by a Ganymede orbit insertion and extensive study of Ganymede (~1 year). In depth comparative study of inner (Io and Europe) and outer (Ganymede and Callisto) satellites with combined payload of JEO and JGO will address the question of the geologic relative evolution of the satellites. On JGO, the transport phenomena in the magnetosphere of Jupiter will be studied in combination with JMO, and the Ganymede magnetosphere will be observed in situ. Jupiter atmosphere investigations on JGO will focus on coupling phenomena between troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere, the stratospheric composition and the question of thermospheric heating.

  17. High altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) in an Indian pilgrim. (United States)

    Panthi, Sagar; Basnyat, Buddha


    Increasing number of Hindu pilgrims visit the Himalayas where some of them suffer from high altitude illness including the life threatening forms, high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral oedema. Compared to tourists and trekkers, pilgrims are usually ignorant about altitude illness. This is a case of a pilgrim who suffered from HAPE on his trip to Kailash-Mansarovar and is brought to a tertiary level hospital in Kathmandu. This report emphasises on how to treat a patient with HAPE, a disease which is increasingly being seen in the high altitude pilgrim population.

  18. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    Growing interest in utilizing circular polarization prompted the design of bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, covering the 30-1500 eV spectral region, to include vertical aperturing capabilities for optimizing the collection of circular polarization above and below the orbit plane. After commissioning and early use of the beamline, a multilayer polarimeter was used to characterize the polarization state of the beam as a function of vertical aperture position. This report partially summarizes the polarimetry measurements and compares results with theoretical calculations intended to simulate experimental conditions.

  19. Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tanré


    Full Text Available The aerosol remote sensing from space has started in the 1980's using observations provided by geostationary satellites or by polar orbiting platforms not specifically designed for observing aerosols. As a result, the number of retrieved parameters was limited and retrievals in the visible restricted over ocean. Over land, because of the important surface contribution, the aerosol detection was performed in the UV (or in the dark blue where most of the earth surfaces are dark enough but with overlap of multiple aerosols parameters, content, altitude and absorption. Instruments dedicated to aerosol monitoring are recently available and the POLDER instrument on board the PARASOL mission is one of them. By measuring the wavelength, angular and polarization properties of the radiance at the top of the atmosphere, in coordination with the other A-Train instruments, PARASOL can better quantify aerosol optical depths (AOD and improve the derivation of the radiative and physical properties. The instrument, the inversion schemes and the list of aerosol parameters are described. Examples of retrieved aerosol parameters are provided as well as innovative approaches and further inversion techniques.

  20. Congenital orbital encephalocele, orbital dystopia, and exophthalmos. (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon


    We present here an exceedingly rare variant of a nonmidline basal encephalocele of the spheno-orbital type, and this was accompanied with orbital dystopia in a 56-year-old man. On examination, his left eye was located more inferolaterally than his right eye, and the patient said this had been this way since his birth. The protrusion of his left eye was aggravated when he is tired. His naked visual acuity was 0.7/0.3, and the ocular pressure was 14/12 mm Hg. The exophthalmometry was 10/14 to 16 mm. His eyeball motion was not restricted, yet diplopia was present in all directions. The distance from the midline to the medial canthus was 20/15 mm. The distance from the midline to the midpupillary line was 35/22 mm. The vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure was 12/9 mm. The height difference of the upper eyelid margin was 11 mm, and the height difference of the lower eyelid margin was 8 mm. Facial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed left sphenoid wing hypoplasia and herniation of the left anterior temporal pole and dura mater into the orbit, and this resulted into left exophthalmos and encephalomalacia in the left anterior temporal pole. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the second case of basal encephalocele and orbital dystopia.

  1. Reticulohistiocytoma of the Orbit (United States)

    Weissman, Heather M.; Hayek, Brent R.; Grossniklaus, Hans E.


    Reticulohistiocytoma is a rare, benign histiocytic proliferation of the skin or soft tissue. While ocular involvement has been documented in the past, there have been no previously reported cases of reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit. In this report, the authors describe a reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit in a middle-aged woman. PMID:24807799

  2. Orbital Thermal Control of the Mercury Capsule (United States)

    Weston, Kenneth C.


    The approach to orbital thermal control of the Project Mercury capsule environment is relatively unsophisticated compared with that for many unmanned satellites. This is made possible by the relatively short orbital flight of about 4 1/2 hours and by the presence of the astronaut who is able to monitor the capsule systems and compensate for undesirable thermal conditions. The general external features of the Mercury configuration as it appears in the orbital phase of flight are shown. The conical afterbody is a double-wall structure. The inner wall serves as a pressure vessel for the manned compartment, and the outer wall, of shingle type construction, acts as a radiating shield during reentry. Surface treatment of the shingles calls for a stably oxidized surface to minimize reentry temperatures. The shingles are supported by insulated stringers attached to the inner skin. Areas between stringers are insulated by blankets of Thermoflex insulation. This insulation is especially effective at high altitude due to the reduction of its thermal conductivity with decreasing pressure. As a result of the design of the afterbody for the severe reentry conditions, the heat balance on the manned compartment indicates the necessity for moderate internal cooling to compensate for the heat generation due to human and electrical sources. This cooling is achieved by the controlled vaporization of water in the cabin and astronaut-suit heat exchangers.

  3. Orbital List Ephemerides Design of LEO Navigation Augmentation Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG Shanchuan


    Full Text Available A set of reliable LEO (low earth orbit broadcast ephemerides is required to be designed specifically if LEOs, with current GEOs, are also utilized as navigation augmentation satellites. The classical nine state parameters-based GLONASS-type broadcast ephemerides model can only represent precisely the 30-minute orbital motions of the medium and high earth orbiters. To directly deal with LEOs, a modified 21-parameter broadcast ephemerides model is proposed. First, the short-term variations of the main perturbation forces of LEOs are analyzed. Then a set of simple quadratic polynomials and harmonic functions is adopted to compensate mathematically atmospheric drag perturbation and other effects. A thoroughly simulation for the LEOs of altitude 500~1200 km is given to demonstrate the impact of the numbers of ephemerides parameters, the length of the fitting arcs and the sample rates on the fitting precision. The results of 20-minute fitting arc (approximately 1/5 of orbital period show that the average RMS of the fitting user range error (FURE is less than 0.05 m for LEOs higher than 700 km and within 0.03 m for LEOs of altitude 1000 km.

  4. Orbital Plots Using Gnuplot (United States)

    Moore, Brian G.


    The plotting program Gnuplot is freely available, general purpose, easy to use, and available on a variety of platforms. Complex three-dimensional surfaces, including the familiar angular parts of the hydrogen atom orbitals, are easily represented using Gnuplot. Contour plots allow viewing the radial and angular variation of the probability density in an orbital. Examples are given of how Gnuplot is used in an undergraduate physical chemistry class to view familiar atomic orbitals in new ways or to generate views of orbital functions that the student may have not seen before. Gnuplot may also be easily integrated into the environment of a Web page; an example of this is discussed (and is available at The plotting commands are entered with a form and a CGI script is used to run Gnuplot and display the result back to the browser.

  5. PLANECHG: Earth orbit to lunar orbit delta V estimation program. User and technical documentation (United States)


    The PLANECNG computer program calculates velocities for Earth-to-Mooon and Moon-to-Earth trajectories. The flight to be analyzed originates in a circular orbit of any inclination and altitude about one of the bodies, and culminates in a circular orbit of any inclination and altitude about the other body. An intermedate delta V and plane change occurs at the Lunar Sphere of Influence (SOI), the region where the vehicle is near its lowest velocity in the trajectory, and therefore where it is able to make the plane change with the lowest delta V. A given flight may penetrate the SOI at a number of points. Each point has associated with it a unique set of delta V's and total velocity. The program displays the velocities, in matrix form, for a representative set of SOI penetration points. An SOI point is identified by projecting Lunar latitude and longitude onto the SOI. The points recorded for a given flight are defined by the user, who provides a starting longitude and latitude, and an increment for each. A matrix is built with 10 longitudes forming the columns and 19 latitudes forming the rows. This matrix is presented in six reports, each containing different velocity or node information in the body of the matrix.

  6. Polarization in Thermal Emission from Hot Jupiters: Preliminary Studies (United States)

    Kopparla, Pushkar; Natraj, Vijay; Yung, Yuk; Spurr, Robert


    Scattering of thermal emission from a deep, hot region by high altitude atmospheric particles induces polarization in the scattered light. However, symmetries on a spherical planet with a uniform spatial distribution of scattering particles usually result in zero net polarization. If the symmetry is broken, either by rotation induced oblateness or by spatially inhomogeneous cloud or haze particle distributions, polarization may become observable. Additionally, variation of temperatures across the planetary disc could also contribute to asymmetries, giving us a new way to measure the day-night temperature contrast on hot exoplanets. We perform modeling studies using a multiple scattering, radiative transfer model for polarized light to understand how to distinguish between various symmetry breaking phenomena and map an observed polarization to a specific atmospheric state. The models can be used to predict the most suitable candidates for observation, and once observations are available, to retrieve various parameters of interest.

  7. Reconfigurable thz polarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention provides a polarizer. The polarizer comprises a first membrane having a first polarization region comprising a first plurality of membrane perforations; a second membrane having a second polarization region comprising a second plurality of membrane perforations; and a support...... with one or more membrane perforations in the second plurality of perforations in a direction normal to the first polarization region or normal to the second polarization region, resulting in corresponding one or more openings in said direction....

  8. Global Trends in Glacial Cirque Floor Altitudes and Their Relationships with Climate, Equilibrium Line Altitudes, and Mountain Range Heights (United States)

    Mitchell, S. G.; Humphries, E.


    Glacial erosion at the base of cirque headwalls and the creation of threshold slopes above cirque floors may contribute to the 'glacial buzzsaw' effect in limiting the altitude of some mountain ranges. Since glacial extent and therefore glacial erosion rate depends on the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of a region, the altitude of cirque formation should be a function of the ELA. Several regional studies have shown that cirque floors form at an altitude approximating average Quaternary ELAs in some mountain ranges, but a global correlation has not yet been demonstrated. We examined the correlation between cirque altitudes and global ELA trends by compiling existing and new cirque altitude and morphometry data from > 30 mountain ranges at a wide range of latitudes. Where available, we calculate or present the average cirque altitude, relief, and latitude. We compared these altitudes to both the global East Pacific ELA and local ELAs where available. For the locations analyzed, the majority of average cirque altitudes fall between the Eastern Pacific modern and LGM ELAs, and mountain range height is typically limited to cirque formation is dependent upon the ELA, and that cirques likely form as a result of average, rather than extreme, glacial conditions. Furthermore, the correlation between cirque altitude and ELA, along with the restricted window of relief, implies that cirque formation is a factor in limiting peak altitude in ranges that rise above the ELA.

  9. Effects of Geopotential and Atmospheric Drag Effects on Frozen Orbits Using Nonsingular Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristiane Pinto Mesquita Pardal


    Full Text Available The concept of frozen orbit has been applied in space missions mainly for orbital tracking and control purposes. This type of orbit is important for orbit design because it is characterized by keeping the argument of perigee and eccentricity constant on average, so that, for a given latitude, the satellite always passes at the same altitude, benefiting the users through this regularity. Here, the system of nonlinear differential equations describing the motion is studied, and the effects of geopotential and atmospheric drag perturbations on frozen orbits are taken into account. Explicit analytical expressions for secular and long period perturbations terms are obtained for the eccentricity and the argument of perigee. The classical equations of Brouwer and Brouwer and Hori theories are used. Nonsingular variables approach is used, which allows obtaining more precise previsions for CBERS (China Brazil Earth Resources Satellite satellites family and similar satellites (SPOT, Landsat, ERS, and IRS orbital evolution.

  10. Modeling the Exo-Brake and the Development of Strategies for De-Orbit Drag Modulation (United States)

    Murbach, M. S.; Papadopoulos, P.; Glass, C.; Dwyer-Cianciolo, A.; Powell, R. W.; Dutta, S.; Guarneros-Luna, A.; Tanner, F. A.; Dono, A.


    The Exo-Brake is a simple, non-propulsive means of de-orbiting small payloads from orbital platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS). Two de-orbiting experiments with fixed surface area Exo-Brakes have been successfully conducted in the last two years on the TechEdSat-3 and -4 nano-satellite missions. The development of the free molecular flow aerodynamic data-base is presented in terms of angle of attack, projected front surface area variation, and altitude. Altitudes are considered ranging from the 400km ISS jettison altitude to 90km. Trajectory tools are then used to predict de-orbit/entry corridors with the inclusion of the key atmospheric and geomagnetic uncertainties. Control system strategies are discussed which will be applied to the next two planned TechEdSat-5 and -6 nano-satellite missions - thus increasing the targeting accuracy at the Von Karman altitude through the proposed drag modulation technique.

  11. Regression of altitude-produced cardiac hypertrophy. (United States)

    Sizemore, D. A.; Mcintyre, T. W.; Van Liere, E. J.; Wilson , M. F.


    The rate of regression of cardiac hypertrophy with time has been determined in adult male albino rats. The hypertrophy was induced by intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude. The percentage hypertrophy was much greater (46%) in the right ventricle than in the left (16%). The regression could be adequately fitted to a single exponential function with a half-time of 6.73 plus or minus 0.71 days (90% CI). There was no significant difference in the rates of regression for the two ventricles.

  12. High altitude balloon experiments at IIA (United States)

    Nayak, Akshata; Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    Recent advances in balloon experiments as well as in electronics have made it possible to fly scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but we will also try scientific exploration of the phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts. We present the results of the initial experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote, and describe our plans for the future.

  13. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration (United States)

    Short, N. M.


    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  14. Global variations in regolith properties on asteroid Vesta from Dawn's low-altitude mapping orbit (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W.; Beck, Andrew W.; Coman, Ecaterina I.; Thomson, Bradley J.; Ammannito, Eleonora; Blewett, David T.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; de Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Li, Jian-Yang; Marchi, Simone; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Petro, Noah E.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.


    We investigate the depth, variability, and history of regolith on asteroid Vesta using data from the Dawn spacecraft. High-resolution (15-20 m pixel-1) Framing Camera images are used to assess the presence of morphologic indicators of a shallow regolith, including the presence of blocks in crater ejecta, spur-and-gully-type features in crater walls, and the retention of small (chondrite material. The presence of a thick regolith in this area supports the idea that this is an ancient terrain that has accumulated a larger component of exogenic debris. We find evidence for the gardening of crater ejecta toward more howarditic compositions, consistent with regolith mixing being the dominant form of "weathering" on Vesta.

  15. Orbital and spin variability of the Intermediate Polar BG CMi

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y G; Park, S S; Jeon, Y B


    Results of a CCD study of the variability of the cataclysmic variable BG CMi obtained at the Korean 1.8m telescope in 2002-2005 are presented. The "multi-comparison star" method had been applied for better accuracy estimates. The linear ephemeris based on 19 mean maxima for 2002--2005 is HJD 2453105.31448(6)+0.01057257716(198)(E-764707). The period differs from that predicted by the quadratic ephemeris by Pych et al. (1996) leading to a possible cycle miscount. The statistically optimal ephemeris is a fourth-order polynomial, as a quadratic or even a cubic ephemeris leads to unaceptably large residuals: Min.HJD=$ 2445020.28095(28)+0.0105729609(57)E -1.58(32)\\cdot10^{-13}E^2-5.81(64)\\cdot10^{-19}E^3+4.92(41)\\cdot10^{-25}E^4.$ Thus the rate of the spin-up of the white dwarf is decreasing. An alternative explanation is that the spin-up has been stopped during recent years. The deviations between the amplutudes of the spin variability in V and R, as well as between phases are not statistically significant. Howeve...

  16. Aerosol Scattering Phase Function Retrieval From Polar Orbiting Satellites (United States)


    instrument of the AERONET is the CIMEL Electronique 318A spectral radiometer (Figure 6) is a solar powered weather hardy robotically pointed sun and sky... CIMEL Spectral Radiometer (from Holbren, 2004) 12 1Noldova , N 47 00󈧄", E 28 48,57"% Alt 205 Yn, PI : Brent_Holben. brenttý Level

  17. Ascent schedules, acute altitude illness, and altitude acclimatization: Observations on the Yushu Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tianyi; Hou Shike; Li Shuzhi; Li Wenxiang; Gen Deng


    During the Yushu Earthquake on April 14,2010,a large number of rescuers from sea level or lowlands ascended to the quake areas very rapidly or rapidly less than 24 h.However,Yushu Earthquake is the highest quake in the world at altitudes between 3750 m and 4878 m where is a serious hypoxic environment.A high incidence of acute altitude illness was found in the unacclimatized rescuers; the mountain rescue operation changed as "rescue the rescuers".Lesson from the Yushu Earthquake is that the occurrence of acute altitude illness may be closely related to the ascent schedules.This prompted us to study the relationship between ascent rate and the incidence and severity of acute altitude illness; five different groups were compared.The first group was 42 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to quake area very rapidly within 8 h at 4000 m; the second group was 48 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to 4000 m rapidly less than 18 h; the third group was 66 acclimatized medical workers from 2261 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 12 h; the fourth group was 56 Tibetan medical workers from 2800 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 8 h; the fifth group was 50 male sea level workers who ascended to 4000 m gradually over a period of 4 d.The results showed that the sea level rescuers ascended to 4000 m very rapidly or rapidly had the highest incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with the greatest AMS scores and the lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) ; the sea level workers ascended to 4000 m gradually had moderate incidence of AMS with moderate AMS scores and SaO2 values; whereas the acclimatized and adapted rescuers had the lowest incidence of AMS,lowest AMS scores and higher SaO2; especially none AMS occurred in Tibetan rescuers.AMS score is inversely related to the ascent rate (r=-0.24,p<0.001).Additionally,acute altitude illness is significantly influenced by altitude acclimatization.The ascent rate is inversely related to

  18. Orbit Stabilization of Nanosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An algorithm is developed to control a pulsed {Delta}V thruster on a small satellite to allow it to fly in formation with a host satellite undergoing time dependent atmospheric drag deceleration. The algorithm uses four short thrusts per orbit to correct for differences in the average radii of the satellites due to differences in drag and one thrust to symmetrize the orbits. The radial difference between the orbits is the only input to the algorithm. The algorithm automatically stabilizes the orbits after ejection and includes provisions to allow azimuthal positional changes by modifying the drag compensation pulses. The algorithm gives radial and azimuthal deadbands of 50 cm and 3 m for a radial measurement accuracy of {+-} 5 cm and {+-} 60% period variation in the drag coefficient of the host. Approaches to further reduce the deadbands are described. The methodology of establishing a stable orbit after ejection is illustrated in an appendix. The results show the optimum ejection angle to minimize stabilization thrust is upward at 86{sup o} from the orbital velocity. At this angle the stabilization velocity that must be supplied by the thruster is half the ejection velocity. An ejection velocity of 0.02 m/sat 86{sup o} gives an azimuthal separation after ejection and orbit stabilization of 187 m. A description of liquid based gas thrusters suitable for the satellite control is included in an appendix.

  19. Preparation for football competition at moderate to high altitude. (United States)

    Gore, C J; McSharry, P E; Hewitt, A J; Saunders, P U


    Analysis of approximately 100 years of home-and-away South American World Cup matches illustrate that football competition at moderate/high altitude (>2000 m) favors the home team, although this is more than compensated by the likelihood of sea-level teams winning at home against the same opponents who have descended from altitude. Nevertheless, the home team advantage at altitudes above approximately 2000 m may reflect that traditionally, teams from sea level or low altitude have not spent 1-2 weeks acclimatizing at altitude. Despite large differences between individuals, in the first few days at high altitude (e.g. La Paz, 3600 m) some players experience symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) such as headache and disrupted sleep, and their maximum aerobic power (VO2max) is approximately 25% reduced while their ventilation, heart rate and blood lactate during submaximal exercise are elevated. Simulated altitude for a few weeks before competition at altitude can be used to attain partial ventilatory acclimation and ameliorated symptoms of AMS. The variety of simulated altitude exposures usually created with enriched nitrogen mixtures of air include resting or exercising for a few hours per day or sleeping approximately 8 h/night in hypoxia. Preparation for competition at moderate/high altitude by training at altitude is probably superior to simulated exposure; however, the optimal duration at moderate/high altitude is unclear. Preparing for 1-2 weeks at moderate/high altitude is a reasonable compromise between the benefits associated with overcoming AMS and partial restoration of VO2max vs the likelihood of detraining.

  20. Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang


    Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read\\' and `write\\' in memory devices can be significantly improved. Hence, the manipulation of electron spin in electronic devices becomes more and more appealing for the advancement of microelectronics. In spin-based devices, the manipulation of ferromagnetic order parameter using electrical currents is a very useful means for current-driven operation. Nowadays, most of magnetic memory devices are based on the so-called spin transfer torque, which stems from the spin angular momentum transfer between a spin-polarized current and the magnetic order parameter. Recently, a novel spin torque effect, exploiting spin-orbit coupling in non-centrosymmetric magnets, has attracted a massive amount of attention. This thesis addresses the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport and torques in non-centrosymmetric magnetic semiconductors. We start with the theoretical study of spin orbit torque in three dimensional ferromagnetic GaMnAs. Using the Kubo formula, we calculate both the current-driven field-like torque and anti-damping-like torque. We compare the numerical results with the analytical expressions in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described. Subsequently we study spin-orbit torques in two dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. This thesis then addresses the influence of the quantum spin Hall

  1. Bell's measure and implementing quantum Fourier transform with orbital angular momentum of classical light. (United States)

    Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong


    We perform Bell's measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell's inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally.

  2. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias


    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  3. Polarized proton beam for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    RHIC has provided polarized proton collisions from 31 GeV to 255 GeV in the past decade. To preserve polarization through numerous depolarizing resonances through the whole accelerator chain, harmonic orbit correction, partial snakes, horizontal tune jump system and full snakes have been used. In addition, close attentions have been paid to betatron tune control, orbit control and beam line alignment. The polarization of 60% at 255 GeV has been delivered to experiments with 1.8×1011 bunch intensity. For the eRHIC era, the beam brightness has to be maintained to reach the desired luminosity. Since we only have one hadron ring in the eRHIC era, existing spin rotator and snakes can be converted to six snake configuration for one hadron ring. With properly arranged six snakes, the polarization can be maintained at 70% at 250 GeV. This paper summarizes the effort and plan to reach high polarization with small emittance for eRHIC.

  4. AltitudeOmics: The Basic Biology of Human Acclimatization to High Altitude. Addendum (United States)


    150 34 Figure Legends Figure 1. Altitude hypoxia-induced plasma adenosine levels and soluble CD73 activity correlate to increased erythrocyte...Dietitian for the US Army Special Forces, Navy Special Warfare Development Group, Colorado Avalanche National Hockey League Club, and NCAA Division I


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. González


    Full Text Available El volcán Sierra Negra en Puebla, México fue seleccionado para albergar a HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov, un observatorio de gran apertura (2Pi sr, único en el mundo, capaz de observar contínuamente el cielo a energías de 0.1 a 100 TeV. HAWC consiste en un arreglo a una altitud de 4100 m sobre el nivel del mar de 300 contenedores de 7.3 m de diámetro y 5 m de altura llenos de agua pura y sensores de luz que observan partículas sumamente energ´eticas provenientes de los eventos más violentos del universo y será 15 veces más sensible que su antecesor Milagro. Las aportaciones científicas de Milagro han demostrado las capacidades únicas de este tipo de observatorios. En este trabajo se presentará HAWC y se discutirá brevemente su caso científico y capacidades.

  6. Orbital surveys of solar stimulated luminescence (United States)

    Hemphill, W. R.; Theisen, A. F.; Tyson, R. M.; Granata, J. S.

    The Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLD) is an electro-optical device for imaging natural and manmade materials which have been stimulated to luminesce by the sun. An airborne FLD has been used to detect geochemically stressed vegetation, drought-stressed agricultural crops, industrial and residential pollution effluents, marine oil seeps, phosphate rock, uranium-bearing sandstone, and bioluminescent ocean plankton. Three-dimensional perspective plots of excitation and emission spectra, measured with a laboratory spectrometer, graphically depict similarities and differences in luminescence properties between sample materials. The laboratory data also include luminescence intensities at six Fraunhofer lines in the visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Both the airborne and laboratory data suggest the feasibility of delineating and monitoring at least some of these luminescing materials from orbital altitude, such as a test flight aboard the Space Shuttle using an improved third-generation FLD.

  7. Classifying spaces of degenerating polarized Hodge structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Kazuya


    In 1970, Phillip Griffiths envisioned that points at infinity could be added to the classifying space D of polarized Hodge structures. In this book, Kazuya Kato and Sampei Usui realize this dream by creating a logarithmic Hodge theory. They use the logarithmic structures begun by Fontaine-Illusie to revive nilpotent orbits as a logarithmic Hodge structure. The book focuses on two principal topics. First, Kato and Usui construct the fine moduli space of polarized logarithmic Hodge structures with additional structures. Even for a Hermitian symmetric domain D, the present theory is a refinem

  8. Satellite de-orbiting via controlled solar radiation pressure (United States)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Sanchez, Diogo Merguizo; de Almeida Prado, Antonio Fernando Bertachini; Smirnov, Georgi


    The goal of the present research was to study the use of solar radiation pressure to place a satellite in an orbit that makes it to re-enter the atmosphere of the Earth. This phase of the mission is usual, since the orbital space around the Earth is crowded and all satellites have to be discarded after the end of their lifetimes. The technique proposed here is based on a device that can increase and decrease the area-to-mass ratio of the satellite when it is intended to reduce its altitude until a re-entry point is reached. Equations that predict the evolution of the eccentricity and semi-major axis of the orbit of the satellite are derived and can be used to allow the evaluation of the time required for the decay of the satellite. Numerical simulations are made, and they show the time required for the decay as a function of the area-to-mass ratio and the evolution of the most important orbital elements. The results show maps that indicate regions of fast decays as a function of the area-to-mass ratio and the initial inclination of the orbit of the satellite. They also confirmed the applicability of the equations derived here. The numerical results showed the role played by the evection and the Sun-synchronous resonances in the de-orbiting time.

  9. Final-state interaction and recoil polarization in (e,e'p) reactions: comparison with the polarized target case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, J.E. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)]. E-mail:; Caballero, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, Sevilla 41080 (Spain); Donnelly, T.W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kazemi Tabatabaei, F. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)


    A study of the total cross section for polarized proton knockout in (e,e'p->) reactions is carried out for the closed-shell nucleus {sup 40}Ca. The dependence of FSI effects on polarization observables viewed as functions of the nucleon polarization angles is analyzed and interpreted within the basis of a semi-classical model for the orbit of the struck nucleon and trajectory of the ejected nucleon. A comparison with the case of a {sup 39}K polarized target and unpolarized protons is performed.

  10. Mapping enzymatic catalysis using the effective fragment molecular orbital method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Fedorov, Dmitri G.; Jensen, Jan Halborg


    We extend the Effective Fragment Molecular Orbital (EFMO) method to the frozen domain approach where only the geometry of an active part is optimized, while the many-body polarization effects are considered for the whole system. The new approach efficiently mapped out the entire reaction path of ...

  11. Suppression of spin-orbit effects in 1D system


    Entin, M. V.; Magarill, L. I.


    We report the absence of spin effects such as spin-galvanic effect, spin polarization and spin current under static electric field and inter-spin-subband absorption in 1D system with spin-orbit interaction of arbitrary form. It was also shown that the accounting for the direct interaction of electron spin with magnetic field violates this statement.

  12. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub


    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  13. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan


    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  14. Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Field from Low-Altitude Measurements by MESSENGER. (United States)

    Johnson, C. L.; Phillips, R. J.; Purucker, M. E.; Anderson, B. J.; Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Fan, K. A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Hauck, S. A., II; Head, J. W., III; Korth, H.; James, P. B.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Philpott, L. C.; Siegler, M. A.; Strauss, B. E.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Solomon, S. C.


    Magnetized rocks can record the history of a planet's magnetic field, a key constraint for understanding interior evolution. From orbital vector magnetic field measurements of Mercury taken by the MESSENGER spacecraft at altitudes below 150 km, we have detected fields indicative of crustal magnetization. Fields from non-crustal sources, which dominate the observations even at low altitudes, were estimated and subtracted from the observations using both magnetospheric models and signal filtering. The resulting high-pass filtered fields have amplitudes of a few to 20 nT. The first low-altitude signals were detected over the Suisei Planitia region and were confirmed by upward continuation to be of crustal origin. At least some contribution from thermoremanent magnetization is required to account for these signals, and we infer a lower bound on the average age of magnetization of 3.7-3.9 Ga on the basis of correlation of crustal magnetic fields with volcanic units of that age range. Ancient field strengths that range from those similar to Mercury's present dipole field to Earth-like values are consistent with the magnetic field observations and with the low iron content of Mercury's crust derived from MESSENGER elemental composition data. Here, we extend these initial results with observations obtained at spacecraft altitudes below 60 km at all body-fixed longitudes from ~40°N to ~75°N. The strongest crustal fields occur in the region 120°E to 210°E, and weaker signals characterize the northern volcanic plains. We test the hypothesis that the longest-wavelength crustal field signals in this region reflect magnetization contrasts between the Caloris basin and the surrounding intercrater plains and circum-Caloris plains. We report the spatial distribution of observed crustal fields, together with magnetization models derived from them and the implications of these models, particularly for the depth distribution of sources compatible with the observations.

  15. Antisymmetric Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk


    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of antisymmetric orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Antisymmetric orbit functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ are antisymmetrized exponential functions. Antisymmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. These functions are closely related to irreducible characters of a compact semisimple Lie group $G$ of rank $n$. Up to a sign, values of antisymmetric orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain $F$ of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space $E_n$. Antisymmetric orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in $E_n$, vanishing on the boundary of the fundamental domain $F$. Antisymmetric orbit functions determine a so-called antisymmetrized Fourier transform which is closely related to expansions of central functions in characters of irreducible representations of the group $G$. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of $F$ (the discrete antisymmetric orbit function transform. Symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential, sine and cosine discrete transforms are given.

  16. Shift control method for the local time at descending node based on sun-synchronous orbit satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yong'an; Feng Zuren; Sun Linyan; Tan Wei


    This article analyzes the shift factors of the descending node local time for sun-synchronous satellites and proposes a shift control method to keep the local time shift within an allowance range. It is found that the satellite orbit design and the orbit injection deviation are the causes for the initial shift velocity, whereas the atmospheric drag and the sun gravitational perturbation produce the shift acceleration. To deal with these shift factors, a shift control method is put forward, through such methods as orbit variation design, orbit altitude, and inclination keeping control. The simulation experiment and practical application have proved the effectiveness of this control method.

  17. Application of numerical methods to extend capabilities for optimal rocket guidance: report on reentry guidance of shuttle orbiter (United States)


    Analytical models are presented for optimal trajectories and reentry guidance of the space shuttle orbiter. Major emphasis is placed on the development of a "footprint', which refers to a set of reachable destination positions attainable by the shuttle at a specified terminal altitude. An unconstrained reentry footprint was calculated for a shuttle vehicle which enters the earth's atmosphere at 93 km initial altitude after a deboost from a near earth orbit. The method of computation is briefly described, and graphs are presented which illustrate the footprint and the variation of state and control variables along it. The effects of constraints and of variations in initial state upon the footprint are discussed.

  18. Is TW Pictoris really an intermediate polar?

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, A J


    We present the results of a long ROSAT HRI observation of the candidate intermediate polar TW Pic. The power spectrum shows no sign of either the previously proposed white dwarf spin period or the proposed binary orbital period (1.996 hr and 6.06 hr respectively). The limits to the X-ray modulation are less than 0.3% in each case. In the absence of a coherent X-ray pulsation, the credentials of TW Pic for membership of the intermediate polar subclass must be suspect. We further suggest that the true orbital period of the binary may be the shorter of the two previously suggested, and that the longer period may represent a quasi-periodic phenomenon associated with the accretion disc.

  19. Neurophysiological Problems in Snow Bound High Altitude Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Selvamurthy


    Full Text Available A series of studies have been conducted to evaluate the neurophysiological responses in young healthy soldiers during acclimatization at 3,500m altitude in Western Himalayas. The responses of autonomic nervous system, electroencephalogram hypothalamic thermoregulatory efficiency, orthostatic tolerance, sleep profile and effects of sleep deprivation have been studied in fresh inductees during three to five weeks of acclimatization at high altitude and compared with those of one year acclimatized lowlanders and high altitude natives. Physiological significance of these neurophysiological responses in the process of altitude adaptation is discussed in the light of current knowledge in the field.

  20. The effect of high altitude on nasal nitric oxide levels. (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Cingi, Cemal; Tekeli, Hakan; Hummel, Thomas


    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels change in relation to high altitude in a natural setting where the weather conditions were favorable. The present study included 41 healthy volunteers without a history of acute rhinosinusitis within 3 weeks and nasal polyposis. The study group consisted of 31 males (76 %) and 10 females (24 %) and the mean age of the study population was 38 ± 10 years. The volunteers encamped for 2 days in a mountain village at an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level (masl) and proceeded to highlands at an altitude of 2,200 masl throughout the day. The measurements of nNO were done randomly, either first at the mountain village or at sea level. Each participant had nNO values both at sea level and at high altitude at the end of the study. The nNO values of sea level and high altitude were compared to investigate the effect of high altitude on nNO levels. The mean of average nNO measurements at the high altitude was 74.2 ± 41 parts-per-billion (ppb) and the mean of the measurements at sea level was 93.4 ± 45 ppb. The change in nNO depending on the altitude level was statistically significant (p high altitude even if the weather conditions were favorable, such as temperature, humidity, and wind.

  1. Mesoscopic rings with spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berche, Bertrand; Chatelain, Christophe; Medina, Ernesto, E-mail: berche@lpm.u-nancy.f [Statistical Physics Group, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS No 7198, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)


    A didactic description of charge and spin equilibrium currents on mesoscopic rings in the presence of spin-orbit interaction is presented. Emphasis is made on the non-trivial construction of the correct Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions and the symmetries of the ground-state properties. Spin currents are derived following an intuitive definition, and then a more thorough derivation is built upon the canonical Lagrangian formulation that emphasizes the SU(2) gauge structure of the transport problem of spin-1/2 fermions in spin-orbit active media. The quantization conditions that follow from the constraint of single-valued Pauli spinors are also discussed. The targeted students are those of a graduate condensed matter physics course.

  2. NMS Flows on Three-Dimensional Manifolds with One Saddle Periodic Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The simplest NMS flow is a polar flow formed by an attractive periodic orbit and a repulsive periodic orbit as limit sets. In this paper we show that the only orientable, simple, compact,3-dimensional manifolds without boundary that admit an NMS flow with none or one saddle periodic orbit are lens spaces.We also see that when a fattened round handle is a connected sum of tori, the corresponding flow is also a trivial connected sum of flows.

  3. Image Stacking Method Application for Low Earth Orbit Faint Objects (United States)

    Tagawa, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Oda, H.; Kitazawa, Y.; Hanada, T.


    telescopes conduct chasing observation for the estimated apparent trajectory and stack the images based on the relative apparent motion search for true object. Therefore accuracy evaluation for initial orbit estimation result means to verify that apparent motions of true object are able to being searched. The current image stacking method applied for geostationary orbit based on assumptions that apparent motion can be treated as straight lines. Thus the linearity and uniformity assessment of the apparent motion in ground-based tracking observation using initial orbit estimation result is required. This paper introduces the apparent motion prediction result with reasonably assumed orbit estimation errors. The ground observatories are assumed to be located around the polar regions. Then this paper discusses image stacking feasibility for the apparent motion based on space-based orbit estimation result.

  4. [Orbital complications of sinusitis]. (United States)

    Šuchaň, M; Horňák, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempaská, S; Koštialová, T; Kovaľ, J


    Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal

  5. Automatic trajectory planning for low-thrust active removal mission in low-earth orbit (United States)

    Di Carlo, Marilena; Romero Martin, Juan Manuel; Vasile, Massimiliano


    In this paper two strategies are proposed to de-orbit up to 10 non-cooperative objects per year from the region within 800 and 1400 km altitude in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The underlying idea is to use a single servicing spacecraft to de-orbit several objects applying two different approaches. The first strategy is analogous to the Traveling Salesman Problem: the servicing spacecraft rendezvous with multiple objects in order to physically attach a de-orbiting kit that reduces the perigee of the orbit. The second strategy is analogous to the Vehicle Routing Problem: the servicing spacecraft rendezvous and docks with an object, spirals it down to a lower altitude orbit, undocks, and then spirals up to the next target. In order to maximise the number of de-orbited objects with minimum propellant consumption, an optimal sequence of targets is identified using a bio-inspired incremental automatic planning and scheduling discrete optimisation algorithm. The optimisation of the resulting sequence is realised using a direct transcription method based on an asymptotic analytical solution of the perturbed Keplerian motion. The analytical model takes into account the perturbations deriving from the J2 gravitational effect and the atmospheric drag.

  6. Sleep apneas and high altitude newcomers. (United States)

    Goldenberg, F; Richalet, J P; Onnen, I; Antezana, A M


    Sleep and respiration data from two French medical high altitude expeditions (Annapurna 4,800 m and Mt Sajama 6,542 m) are presented. Difficulties in maintaining sleep and a SWS decrease were found with periodic breathing (PB) during both non-REM and REM sleep. Extent of PB varied considerably among subjects and was not correlated to the number of arousals but to the intercurrent wakefulness duration. There was a positive correlation between the time spent in PB and the individual hypoxic ventilatory drive. The relation between PB, nocturnal desaturation, and mountain sickness intensity are discussed. Acclimatization decreased the latency toward PB and improved sleep. Hypnotic benzodiazepine intake (loprazolam 1 mg) did not worsen either SWS depression or apneas and allowed normal sleep reappearance after acclimatization.

  7. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight (United States)

    Venkataramani, K.


    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  8. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites


    Ho-Nien Shou


    This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS) configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP). The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan t...

  9. An analysis of the orbital Evolution of a solar sail around Mercury (United States)

    Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Prado, Antonio; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Treasaco, Eva


    Solar sails are a new concept of spacecraft propulsion that uses solar radiation pressure to generate acceleration: this way the sail experiences a small but unlimited and continuous acceleration. This work presents a method for finding initial conditions for frozen orbits for a solar sail around Mercury Frozen orbits are those whose orbital elements remain constant on average. Thus, at a given latitude, the satellite always passes at the same altitude. The orbital dynamics of the solar sail is governed by the potential attraction of the main body and the Sun. Besides the J2, J3 and C22 of Mercury gravity field, the dynamical model also includes the eccentricity and inclination of the orbit of the third body (Sun) and the solar acceleration pressure. In order to remove short-period terms of the dynamical system, a double averaging technique is applied to the disturbig potential. This algorithm is a two-fold process which firstly averages over the period of the satellite and secondly averages with respect to the period of the third body. The double-averaged potential is introduced in the Lagrange Planetary equations. Thus, frozen orbits are characterized by a surface depending on three variables: the orbital semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination. These surfaces determine orbits ranging in altitude from 300 to 1000 km, which include the altitude values considered in future scientific missions around Mercury such as BepiColombo. Finally, this work delves into the influence on the dynamics of the spacecraft for different values of the sail area-to-mass ratio, which is a parameter related to the efficiency of the solar sail Sponsored by CNPq - Brazil. The author is grateful to CNPq- Brazil for contract 306953/2014-5.

  10. Numerical Algorithms for Precise and Efficient Orbit Propagation and Positioning (United States)

    Bradley, Ben K.

    orbit propagation, yielding savings in computation time and memory. Orbit propagation and position transformation simulations are analyzed to generate a complete set of recommendations for performing the ITRS/GCRS transformation for a wide range of needs, encompassing real-time on-board satellite operations and precise post-processing applications. In addition, a complete derivation of the ITRS/GCRS frame transformation time-derivative is detailed for use in velocity transformations between the GCRS and ITRS and is applied to orbit propagation in the rotating ITRS. EOP interpolation methods and ocean tide corrections are shown to impact the ITRS/GCRS transformation accuracy at the level of 5 cm and 20 cm on the surface of the Earth and at the Global Positioning System (GPS) altitude, respectively. The precession-nutation and EOP simplifications yield maximum propagation errors of approximately 2 cm and 1 m after 15 minutes and 6 hours in low-Earth orbit (LEO), respectively, while reducing computation time and memory usage. Finally, for orbit propagation in the ITRS, a simplified scheme is demonstrated that yields propagation errors under 5 cm after 15 minutes in LEO. This approach is beneficial for orbit determination based on GPS measurements. We conclude with a summary of recommendations on EOP usage and bias-precession-nutation implementations for achieving a wide range of transformation and propagation accuracies at several altitudes. This comprehensive set of recommendations allows satellite operators, astrodynamicists, and scientists to make informed decisions when choosing the best implementation for their application, balancing accuracy and computational complexity.

  11. Effects of ascent to high altitude on human antimycobacterial immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Eisen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis infection, disease and mortality are all less common at high than low altitude and ascent to high altitude was historically recommended for treatment. The immunological and mycobacterial mechanisms underlying the association between altitude and tuberculosis are unclear. We studied the effects of altitude on mycobacteria and antimycobacterial immunity.Antimycobacterial immunity was assayed in 15 healthy adults residing at low altitude before and after they ascended to 3400 meters; and in 47 long-term high-altitude residents. Antimycobacterial immunity was assessed as the extent to which participants' whole blood supported or restricted growth of genetically modified luminescent Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG mycobacteria during 96 hours incubation. We developed a simplified whole blood assay that could be used by a technician in a low-technology setting. We used this to compare mycobacterial growth in participants' whole blood versus positive-control culture broth and versus negative-control plasma.Measurements of mycobacterial luminescence predicted the number of mycobacterial colonies cultured six weeks later. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood at similar rates to positive-control culture broth whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.002 of mycobacterial growth to be 4-times less than in culture broth. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood 25-times more than negative-control plasma whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.01 of mycobacterial growth to be only 6-times more than in plasma. There was no evidence of differences in antimycobacterial immunity at high altitude between people who had recently ascended to high altitude versus long-term high-altitude residents.An assay of luminescent mycobacterial growth in whole blood was adapted and found to be feasible in low-resource settings. This demonstrated that ascent to or residence at high altitude was

  12. Polarization in exoplanetary systems caused by transits, grazing transits, and starspots

    CERN Document Server

    Kostogryz, N M; Berdyugina, S V


    We present results of numerical simulations of flux and linear polarization variations in transiting exoplanetary systems, caused by the host star disk symmetry breaking. We consider different configurations of planetary transits depending on orbital parameters. Starspot contribution to the polarized signal is also estimated. Applying the method to known systems and simulating observational conditions, a number of targets is selected where transit polarization effects could be detected. We investigate several principal benefits of the transit polarimetry, particularly, for determining orbital spatial orientation and distinguishing between grazing and near-grazing planets. Simulations show that polarization parameters are also sensitive to starspots, and they can be used to determine spot positions and sizes.

  13. Electron correlation by polarization of interacting densities

    CERN Document Server

    Whitten, Jerry L


    Coulomb interactions that occur in electronic structure calculations are correlated by allowing basis function components of the interacting densities to polarize, thereby reducing the magnitude of the interaction. Exchange integrals of molecular orbitals are not correlated. The modified Coulomb interactions are used in single-determinant or configuration interaction calculations. The objective is to account for dynamical correlation effects without explicitly introducing higher spherical harmonic functions into the molecular orbital basis. Molecular orbital densities are decomposed into a distribution of spherical components that conserve the charge and each of the interacting components is considered as a two-electron wavefunction embedded in the system acted on by an average field Hamiltonian plus . A method of avoiding redundancy is described. Applications to atoms, negative ions and molecules representing different types of bonding and spin states are discussed.

  14. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia (United States)


    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  15. Metasurface polarization splitter

    CERN Document Server

    Slovick, Brian A; Yu, Zhi Gang; Kravchenckou, Ivan I; Briggs, Dayrl P; Moitra, Parikshit; Krishnamurthy, Srini; Valentine, Jason


    Polarization beam splitters, devices that separate the two orthogonal polarizations of light into different propagation directions, are one of the most ubiquitous optical elements. However, traditionally polarization splitters rely on bulky optical materials, while emerging optoelectronic and photonic circuits require compact, chip-scale polarization splitters. Here we show that a subwavelength rectangular lattice of cylindrical silicon Mie resonators functions as a polarization splitter, efficiently reflecting one polarization while transmitting the other. We show that the polarization splitting arises from the anisotropic permittivity and permeability of the metasurface due to the two-fold rotational symmetry of the rectangular unit cell. The high polarization efficiency, low loss, and low profile make these metasurface polarization splitters ideally suited for monolithic integration with optoelectronic and photonic circuits.

  16. Climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale recorded by the Guliya ice core in Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚檀栋; 徐柏青; 蒲健辰


    Based on ice core records in the Tibetan Plateau and Greenland, the features and possible causes of climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale were discussed. Orbital time scale climatic change recorded in ice core from the Tibetan Plateau is typically ahead of that from polar regions, which indicates that climatic change in the Tibetan Plateau might be earlier than polar regions. The solar radiation change is a major factor that dominates the climatic change on orbital time scale. However, climatic events on sub-orbital time scale occurred later in the Tibetan Plateau than in the Arctic Region, indicating a different mechanism. For example, the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events took place earlier in Greenland ice core record than in Guliya ice core record. It is reasonable to propose the hypothesis that these climatic events were affected possibly by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Therefore, ice sheet is critically important to climatic change on sub-orbital time scale in some ice ages.

  17. How Thick is the North Polar Ice Cap on Mars? (United States)


    This map shows the thickness of the north polar layered deposits on Mars as measured by the Shallow Radar instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The Shallow Radar instrument was provided by the Italian Space Agency. Its operations are led by the University of Rome and its data are analyzed by a joint U.S.-Italian science team. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington

  18. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.


    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  19. Orbits for sixteen binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Z.


    Full Text Available In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361−2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB,WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB,WDS 08017−0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277−0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 = STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.

  20. Spin polarization of electrons with Rashba double-refraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaglia, V Marigliano; Bercioux, D; Cataudella, V; De Filippis, G; Perroni, C A [Coherentia-INFM and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche Universita degli Studi Federico II, Naples, I-80126 (Italy)


    We demonstrate how the Rashba spin-orbit coupling in semiconductor heterostructures can produce and control a spin-polarized current without ferromagnetic leads. The key idea is to use spin-double refraction of an electronic beam with a nonzero incidence angle. A region where the spin-orbit coupling is present separates the source and the drain without spin-orbit coupling. We show how the transmission and the beam spin polarization critically depend on the incidence angle. The transmission halves when the incidence angle is greater than a limit angle and a significant spin polarization appears. On increasing the spin-orbit coupling one can obtain the modulation of the intensity and of the spin polarization of the output electronic current when the input current is unpolarized. Our analysis shows the possibility of realizing a spin-field-effect transistor based on the propagation of only one mode with the region with spin-orbit coupling, whereas the original Datta and Das device (1990 Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 665) uses the spin precession that originates from the interference between two modes with orthogonal spin.

  1. Optimal aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change using collocation and nonlinear programming (United States)

    Shi, Yun. Y.; Nelson, R. L.; Young, D. H.


    The fuel optimal control problem arising in the non-planar orbital transfer employing aeroassisted technology is addressed. The mission involves the transfer from high energy orbit (HEO) to low energy orbit (LEO) with orbital plane change. The basic strategy here is to employ a combination of propulsive maneuvers in space and aerodynamic maneuvers in the atmosphere. The basic sequence of events for the aeroassisted HEO to LEO transfer consists of three phases. In the first phase, the orbital transfer begins with a deorbit impulse at HEO which injects the vehicle into an elliptic transfer orbit with perigee inside the atmosphere. In the second phase, the vehicle is optimally controlled by lift and bank angle modulations to perform the desired orbital plane change and to satisfy heating constraints. Because of the energy loss during the turn, an impulse is required to initiate the third phase to boost the vehicle back to the desired LEO orbital altitude. The third impulse is then used to circularize the orbit at LEO. The problem is solved by a direct optimization technique which uses piecewise polynomial representation for the state and control variables and collocation to satisfy the differential equations. This technique converts the optimal control problem into a nonlinear programming problem which is solved numerically. Solutions were obtained for cases with and without heat constraints and for cases of different orbital inclination changes. The method appears to be more powerful and robust than other optimization methods. In addition, the method can handle complex dynamical constraints.

  2. Observations in the Saturn system during approach and orbital insertion, with Cassini's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) (United States)

    Brown, R.H.; Baines, K.H.; Bellucci, G.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.; Baugh, N.; Griffith, C.A.; Hansen, G.B.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Momary, T.W.; Showalter, M.R.


    The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer observed Phoebe, Iapetus, Titan and Saturn's rings during Cassini's approach and orbital insertion. Phoebe's surface contains water ice, CO2, and ferrous iron. lapetus contains CO2 and organic materials. Titan's atmosphere shows methane fluorescence, and night-side atmospheric emission that may be CO2 and CH3D. As determined from cloud motions, the winds at altitude 25-30 km in the south polar region of Titan appear to be moving in a prograde direction at velocity ???1 m s-1. Circular albedo features on Titan's surface, seen at 2.02 ??m, may be palimpsests remaining from the rheological adjustment of ancient impact craters. As such, their long-term persistence is of special interest in view of the expected precipitation of liquids and solids from the atmosphere. Saturn's rings have changed little in their radial structure since the Voyager flybys in the early 1980s. Spectral absorption bands tentatively attributed to Fe2+ suggest that iron-bearing silicates are a source of contamination of the C ring and the Cassini Division. ?? ESO 2006.

  3. LROC - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Eliason, E.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; McEwen, A.; Malin, M. C.; Ravine, M. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E. P.


    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) went into lunar orbit on 23 June 2009. The LRO Camera (LROC) acquired its first lunar images on June 30 and commenced full scale testing and commissioning on July 10. The LROC consists of two narrow-angle cameras (NACs) that provide 0.5 m scale panchromatic images over a combined 5 km swath, and a wide-angle camera (WAC) to provide images at a scale of 100 m per pixel in five visible wavelength bands (415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm) and 400 m per pixel in two ultraviolet bands (321 nm and 360 nm) from the nominal 50 km orbit. Early operations were designed to test the performance of the cameras under all nominal operating conditions and provided a baseline for future calibrations. Test sequences included off-nadir slews to image stars and the Earth, 90° yaw sequences to collect flat field calibration data, night imaging for background characterization, and systematic mapping to test performance. LRO initially was placed into a terminator orbit resulting in images acquired under low signal conditions. Over the next three months the incidence angle at the spacecraft’s equator crossing gradually decreased towards high noon, providing a range of illumination conditions. Several hundred south polar images were collected in support of impact site selection for the LCROSS mission; details can be seen in many of the shadows. Commissioning phase images not only proved the instruments’ overall performance was nominal, but also that many geologic features of the lunar surface are well preserved at the meter-scale. Of particular note is the variety of impact-induced morphologies preserved in a near pristine state in and around kilometer-scale and larger young Copernican age impact craters that include: abundant evidence of impact melt of a variety of rheological properties, including coherent flows with surface textures and planimetric properties reflecting supersolidus (e.g., liquid melt) emplacement, blocks delicately perched on

  4. Do observations reveal accretion discs in intermediate polars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellier, C. (University Coll., London (UK). Mullard Space Science Lab.)


    It has been proposed that intermediate polars do not accrete through discs and that they may not possess discs. Observations of eclipses and emission lines provide strong evidence that discs are present in many intermediate polars, although it is less clear whether the accretion flows through these discs. An analysis of the EXOSAT database shows that many systems have orbital and beat period modulations which are small compared to the spin-pulses, suggesting disc accretion. There are, though, exceptions, notably TX Col where dominant orbital and beat period modulations indicate discless accretion. (author).

  5. Polarized Raman optical activity of menthol and related molecules (United States)

    Barron, L. D.; Hecht, L.; Blyth, S. M.


    Polarized and depolarized Raman optical activity spectra of menthol, menthyl chloride, neomenthol and neothiomenthol from 800 to 1500 cm -1 are reported. Despite axial symmetry in all the bonds, the presence of the heteroatoms O or S seems to induce large deviations from the expected ratio of 2:1 between the polarized and depolarized Raman optical activity intensities, but Cl does not. These deviations might originate in large electric quadrupole contributions induced by excited state interactions involving O or S Rydberg p orbitals and valence orbitals on other parts of the molecule. Such interactions appear to undermine the bond polarizability theory of Raman intensities.

  6. Towards an analytical theory of the third-body problem for highly elliptical orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Lion, Guillaume; Deleflie, Florent


    When dealing with satellites orbiting a central body on a highly elliptical orbit, it is necessary to consider the effect of gravitational perturbations due to external bodies. Indeed, these perturbations can become very important as soon as the altitude of the satellite becomes high, which is the case around the apocentre of this type of orbit. For several reasons, the traditional tools of celestial mechanics are not well adapted to the particular dynamic of highly elliptical orbits. On the one hand, analytical solutions are quite generally expanded into power series of the eccentricity and therefore limited to quasi-circular orbits [17, 25]. On the other hand, the time-dependency due to the motion of the third-body is often neglected. We propose several tools to overcome these limitations. Firstly, we have expanded the disturbing function into a finite polynomial using Fourier expansions of elliptic motion functions in multiple of the satellite's eccentric anomaly (instead of the mean anomaly) and involving...

  7. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  8. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla


    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  9. 14 CFR 93.307 - Minimum flight altitudes. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight altitudes. 93.307 Section 93...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.307 Minimum flight altitudes. Except in an emergency, or...

  10. Quadrant to Measure the Sun's Altitude (United States)

    Windsor, A Morgan, Jr.


    The changing altitude of the Sun (either over the course of a day or longer periods) is a phenomenon that students do not normally appreciate. However, the altitude of the Sun affects many topics in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, meteorology, navigation, or horology, such as the basis for seasons, determination of latitude and longitude, or…

  11. Cold induced peripheral vasodilation at high altitudes- a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Ruiten, H.J.A. van


    A significant reduction in cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) is observed at high altitudes. No agreement is found in the literature about acclimatization effects on CIVD. Two studies were performed to investigate the effect of altitude acclimatization on CIVD. In the first study 13 male subjects imme

  12. Deceleration Orbit Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, M.


    During the accelerator studies period of 12/90-1/91 much study time was dedicated to improving the E760 deceleration ramps. 4 general goals were in mind: (1) Reduce the relative orbit deviations from the nominal reference orbit as much as possible. This reduces the potential error in the orbit length calculation - which is the primary source of error in the beam energy calculation. (2) Maximize the transverse apertures. This minimizes beam loss during deceleration and during accidental beam blow-ups. (3) Measure and correct lattice parameters. Knowledge of {gamma}{sub T}, {eta}, Q{sub h}, Q{sub v}, and the dispersion in the straight sections allows for a more accurate energy calculation and reliable SYNCH calculations. (4) Minimize the coupling. This allows one to discern between horizontal and vertical tunes.

  13. Vertical orbital dystopia. (United States)

    Tan, S T; Ashworth, G; Czypionka, S; Poole, M D; Briggs, M


    Many pathologic processes may lead to vertical orbital dystopia. We reviewed 47 consecutive cases seen over a 13-year period. Twenty-nine patients underwent eye leveling procedures to improve cosmesis, 2 of these by camouflage procedures and 27 by orbital translocation. Ten patients had 16 secondary operations. There was one death, serious complications occurred in 3 patients, and nuisance complications occurred in 20 others. Seven patients developed diplopia postoperatively, and in 6 patients it was troublesome. In these, it resolved fully in 2 patients, improved to be of no consequence in 2, and in the remaining 2 troublesome symptoms persisted requiring inferior oblique muscle recession in 1. Binocular vision was never restored when not present preoperatively, and in 3 patients temporary loss occurred. There was an overall modest but significant improvement in appearance after surgery. It is concluded that vertical orbital translocation is rewarding and worthwhile.

  14. AIUB Efforts to Survey, Track, and Characterize Small-Size Objects at High Altitudes (United States)

    Schildknecht, T.; Früh, C.; Herzog, J.; Hinze, A.; Vananti, A.


    Since more than a decade the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) is investigating the small-size space debris environment in high-altitude orbit regions. Originally the efforts concentrated on statistical optical surveys with the primary goal to derive fluxes as input data for statistical environment models. It became, however, obvious that important characteristics of the debris population could not be determined by this technique. The sparse surveys did not yield orbital elements for the debris objects, and it was very difficult to assess the total number of objects for a given region. One essential task of the space debris research is to find and understand the sources of debris, which in turn will enable to devise efficient mitigation measures - a prerequisite for the sustainable use of outer space. In order to understand the nature and eventually the origin of small-size debris objects, observations allowing to derive orbital parameters and physical characteristics like size, shape and material are required. This paper discusses the AIUB activities to build-up and maintain an orbit catalogue of small-size debris. AIUB uses its dedicated 0.3m robotic telescope ZimSMART-2 to constantly survey the GEO, the GTO and the MEO region. The data from this telescope is fused with observations from AIUB's 1-meter ZIMLAT telescope and ESA's 1-meter telescope in Tenerife and shared with international partners. The resulting catalogue of orbital elements enables physical characterization of the debris objects trough photometry, light curve and reflectance spectroscopy observations.

  15. Twilight Limb Observations of the Martian North Polar Hood by MAVEN IUVS (United States)

    Lo, Daniel; Yelle, Roger; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Jain, Sonal Kumar; Stewart, Ian; Deighan, Justin; Stiepen, Arnaud; Evans, Scott; Stevens, Michael H.; Chaffin, Michael S.; Crismani, Matteo; McClintock, William; Clarke, John T.; Holsclaw, Gregory; Lefevre, Franck; Jacosky, Bruce


    In northern winter, a broad distribution of ice aerosols appears in the north polar atmosphere of Mars, commonly referred to as the North Polar Hood (NPH). The NPH is thought to be formed as a result of condensation from lowered temperatures associated with both seasonal and diurnal variations in solar heating. The spatial extent and density of the NPH is highly variable, with a maximum latitudinal extent spanning 30-80°N, and a maximum density at 10-30 km altitude.The NPH has been extensively observed by both ground-based telescopes and instruments in orbit around Mars. However, the majority of these observations are nadir-pointing. This observation geometry has two significant limitations. Firstly, they poorly probe the vertical structure of the NPH. Secondly, column densities are determined by monitoring the intensity of various spectral features associated with the ice composing the NPH, against a strong background with similar features from the frost that has condensed on the surface in the winter season, resulting in low sensitivities. Limb observations removes both limitations, allowing us to study the vertical distribution of the aerosols that make up the NPH at high sensitivities.We present new limb observations of the NPH by IUVS (Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph) on the MAVEN (Mars Atmospheric and Volatile Evolution) spacecraft. These observations represent the first ultraviolet limb observations of the NPH, opening a new window for understanding the structure and composition of the NPH. The observations are also of the twilight limb, with sunlight being scattered from the dayside into the nightside over large solar zenith angles. This illumination geometry allows us to avoid the high dayside intensities that would drown out the signal from the thinner sections of the NPH. We determine the latitudinal extent of the NPH to be 30-60°N. We also find that an exponential altitude distribution of aerosols is able to reproduce the observed intensities, with a

  16. Uncertainty Requirement Analysis for the Orbit, Attitude, and Burn Performance of the 1st Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver (United States)

    Song, Young-Joo; Bae, Jonghee; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bang-Yeop


    In this study, the uncertainty requirements for orbit, attitude, and burn performance were estimated and analyzed for the execution of the 1st lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver of the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) mission. During the early design phase of the system, associate analysis is an essential design factor as the 1st LOI maneuver is the largest burn that utilizes the onboard propulsion system; the success of the lunar capture is directly affected by the performance achieved. For the analysis, the spacecraft is assumed to have already approached the periselene with a hyperbolic arrival trajectory around the moon. In addition, diverse arrival conditions and mission constraints were considered, such as varying periselene approach velocity, altitude, and orbital period of the capture orbit after execution of the 1st LOI maneuver. The current analysis assumed an impulsive LOI maneuver, and two-body equations of motion were adapted to simplify the problem for a preliminary analysis. Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the statistical analysis to analyze diverse uncertainties that might arise at the moment when the maneuver is executed. As a result, three major requirements were analyzed and estimated for the early design phase. First, the minimum requirements were estimated for the burn performance to be captured around the moon. Second, the requirements for orbit, attitude, and maneuver burn performances were simultaneously estimated and analyzed to maintain the 1st elliptical orbit achieved around the moon within the specified orbital period. Finally, the dispersion requirements on the B-plane aiming at target points to meet the target insertion goal were analyzed and can be utilized as reference target guidelines for a mid-course correction (MCC) maneuver during the transfer. More detailed system requirements for the KPLO mission, particularly for the spacecraft bus itself and for the flight dynamics subsystem at the ground control center

  17. Understanding controls on cirque floor altitudes: Insights from Kamchatka (United States)

    Barr, Iestyn D.; Spagnolo, Matteo


    Glacial cirques reflect former regions of glacier initiation, and are therefore used as indicators of past climate. One specific way in which palaeoclimatic information is obtained from cirques is by analysing their elevations, on the assumption that cirque floor altitudes are a proxy for climatically controlled equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) during former periods of small scale (cirque-type) glaciation. However, specific controls on cirque altitudes are rarely assessed, and the validity of using cirque floor altitudes as a source of palaeoclimatic information remains open to question. In order to address this, here we analyse the distribution of 3520 ice-free cirques on the Kamchatka Peninsula (eastern Russia), and assess various controls on their floor altitudes. In addition, we analyse controls on the mid-altitudes of 503 modern glaciers, currently identifiable on the peninsula, and make comparisons with the cirque altitude data. The main study findings are that cirque floor altitudes increase steeply inland from the Pacific, suggesting that moisture availability (i.e., proximity to the coastline) played a key role in regulating the altitudes at which former (cirque-forming) glaciers were able to initiate. Other factors, such as latitude, aspect, topography, geology, and neo-tectonics seem to have played a limited (but not insignificant) role in regulating cirque floor altitudes, though south-facing cirques are typically higher than their north-facing equivalents, potentially reflecting the impact of prevailing wind directions (from the SSE) and/or variations in solar radiation on the altitudes at which former glaciers were able to initiate. Trends in glacier and cirque altitudes across the peninsula are typically comparable (i.e., values typically rise from both the north and south, inland from the Pacific coastline, and where glaciers/cirques are south-facing), yet the relationship with latitude is stronger for modern glaciers, and the relationship with

  18. Polarization phenomena in hyperon-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, S; Iseri, Y; Yamamoto, Y


    We investigate polarization observables in hyperon-nucleon scattering by decomposing scattering amplitudes into spin-space tensors, where each component describes scattering by corresponding spin-dependent interactions, so that contributions of the interactions in the observables are individually identified. In this way, for elastic scattering we find some linear combinations of the observables sensitive to particular spin-dependent interactions such as symmetric spin-orbit (LS) interactions and antisymmetric LS ones. These will be useful to criticize theoretical predictions of the interactions when the relevant observables are measured. We treat vector analyzing powers, depolarizations, and coefficients of polarization transfers and spin correlations, a part of which is numerically examined in $\\Sigma^{+} p$ scattering as an example. Total cross sections are studied for polarized beams and targets as well as for unpolarized ones to investigate spin dependence of imaginary parts of forward scattering amplitud...

  19. Experimental observation of polarization-dependent optical vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Srisuphaphon, S; Photia, T; Temnuch, W; Chiangga, S; Deachapunya, S


    We report the experimental demonstration of the induced polarization-dependent optical vortex beams. We use the Talbot configuration as a method to probe this effect. In particular, our simple experiment shows the direct measurement of this observation. Our experiment can exhibit clearly the combination between the polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of light. This implementation might be useful for further studies in the quantum system or quantum information.

  20. Optical orbital angular momentum (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.


    We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069775

  1. Optical orbital angular momentum (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.


    We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  2. A Comparison of Catastrophic On-Orbit Collisions (United States)

    Stansbery, G.; Matney, M.; Liou, J.; Whitlock, D.

    Orbital debris environment models, such as NASA's LEGEND model, show that accidental collisions between satellites will begin to be the dominant cause for future debris population growth within the foreseeable future. The collisional breakup models employed are obviously a critical component of the environment models. The Chinese Anti-Satellite (ASAT) test which destroyed the Fengyun-1C weather satellite provided a rare, but not unique, chance to compare the breakup models against an actual on-orbit collision. Measurements from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN), for debris larger than 10-cm, and from Haystack, for debris larger than 1-cm, show that the number of fragments created from Fengyun significantly exceeds model predictions using the NASA Standard Collision Breakup Model. However, it may not be appropriate to alter the model to match this one, individual case. At least three other on-orbit collisions have occurred which have produced significant numbers of debris fragments. In September 1985, the U.S. conducted an ASAT test against the Solwind P-78 spacecraft at an altitude of approximately 525 km. A year later, in September 1986, the Delta 180 payload was struck by its Delta II rocket body in a planned collision at 220 km altitude. And, in February 2008, the USA-193 satellite was destroyed by a ship launched missile in order to eliminate risk to humans on the ground from an on-board tank of frozen hydrazine. Although no Haystack data was available in 1985-6 and very few debris pieces were cataloged from Delta 180 due to its low altitude, measurements were collected sensors in the days after each test. This paper will examine the available data from each test and compare and contrast the results with model predictions and with the results from the more recent Fengyun ASAT test.

  3. On-Orbit Asset Management System, September 1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Declining budgets have prompted the need to decrease launch cost, increase satellite lifetime, and accomplish more with each satellite. This study evaluates an OOAMS system for its ability to lengthen lifetime of on-orbit assets, decrease the number of satellites required to perform a mission, increase responsiveness, and provide increased mission capability/tactical advantage. Lifetime analysis suggest that the larger satellite systems (NASA and military communication systems, surveillance satellites and earth observing satellites) would benefit most from a nuclear bimodal OOAMS. Evaluation of satellite constellations indicate that a modest reduction in the number of satellites could be realized using OOAMS if the thermal restart capability was at least ten. An OOAMS could improve the responsiveness (launching of new assets) using on-orbit reconstitution of assets. A top level utility assessment was done to address system cost issues relating to funding profiles, first unit cost, and break-even analysis. From mission capture and orbital lifetime criteria, the recommended minimum orbital altitude is 900 km. The on-orbit thermal restart capability should be increased from five to ten. Analysis of total impulse vs propellant consumed for selected missions suggests that total impulse be increased from 40 million to 48 million Newton-seconds.

  4. Dawn Arrives at Ceres: Results of the Survey Orbit (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Nathues, A.; Hoffman, M.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Prettyman, T. H.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; McSween, H. Y.; Pieters, C. M.; Jaumann, R.; Toplis, M. J.; Joy, S. P.; Polanskey, C. A.; Rayman, M. D.


    In September 2012 the Dawn spacecraft left Vesta the second most massive body in the asteroid main belt and set sail for Ceres the most massive. On March 6, 2015 Dawn settled into orbit around Ceres becoming the first spacecraft to orbit separately two distant solar orbiting bodies and establishing a new era in space exploration. Unlike Vesta, Ceres has remained hidden from our geochemical eyes into the origin of the asteroid belt, the analysis of meteorites. Ceres has no known associated meteorites nor a family of asteroids. The observations at Ceres return totally new information. Dawn is equipped with a framing camera with one clear and seven color filters, a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer, a gamma ray and neutron spectrometer and radiometric tracking for gravity determination. The approach trajectory is shown in Figure 1. A distant pass over the daylight surface was followed by a distant looping orbit over the dark side. Then in late April Dawn settled into a high altitude orbit known as Rotational Characterization (RC3). On the approach to RC3 the spacecraft found a pair of bright spots on the surface at about 240ºE longitude and 20ºN latitude shown in Figure 2. These two spots were not resolved at the distances flown during approach.

  5. Trajectory Design from GTO to Near-Equatorial Lunar Orbit for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) Spacecraft (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Yang Yang, Fan; Perez, Andres Dono; Galal, Ken F.; Faber, Nicolas T.; Mitchell, Scott; Landin, Brett; Burns, Jack O.


    The trajectory design for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) mission concept involves launching the DARE spacecraft into a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) as a secondary payload. From GTO, the spacecraft then transfers to a lunar orbit that is stable (i.e., no station-keeping maneuvers are required with minimum perilune altitude always above 40 km) and allows for more than 1,000 cumulative hours for science measurements in the radio-quiet region located on the lunar farside.

  6. Increased oxidative stress following acute and chronic high altitude exposure. (United States)

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Simoni, Jan; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Swenson, Erik R; Wesson, Donald E; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Johnson, Richard J; Hurtado, Abdias


    The generation of reactive oxygen species is typically associated with hyperoxia and ischemia reperfusion. Recent evidence has suggested that increased oxidative stress may occur with hypoxia. We hypothesized that oxidative stress would be increased in subjects exposed to high altitude hypoxia. We studied 28 control subjects living in Lima, Peru (sea level), at baseline and following 48 h exposure to high altitude (4300 m). To assess the effects of chronic altitude exposure, we studied 25 adult males resident in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m). We also studied 27 subjects living in Cerro de Pasco who develop excessive erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 65%) and chronic mountain sickness. Acute high altitude exposure led to increased urinary F(2)-isoprostane, 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.31 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 2.15 +/- 1.1, p = 0.001) and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.37 +/- 0.09, p = 0.002), with a trend to increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 63.8 +/- 27, p = NS). High altitude residents had significantly elevated levels of urinary 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.3 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 4.1 +/- 3.4, p = 0.007), plasma TBARS (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 85 +/- 28, p = 0.008), and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.55 +/- 0.19, p < 0.0001) compared to sea level. High altitude residents with excessive erythrocytosis had higher levels of oxidative stress compared to high altitude residents with normal hematological adaptation. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased following both acute exposure to high altitude without exercise and with chronic residence at high altitude.

  7. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper;


    It is demonstrated that a set of local orthonormal Hartree–Fock (HF) molecular orbitals can be obtained for both the occupied and virtual orbital spaces by minimizing powers of the orbital variance using the trust-region algorithm. For a power exponent equal to one, the Boys localization function...... is obtained. For increasing power exponents, the penalty for delocalized orbitals is increased and smaller maximum orbital spreads are encountered. Calculations on superbenzene, C60, and a fragment of the titin protein show that for a power exponent equal to one, delocalized outlier orbitals may...

  8. A Translational Polarization Rotator

    CERN Document Server

    Chuss, David T; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah


    We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident linear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.

  9. NESDIS VIIRS Polar Winds (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains the Level 3 Polar Winds Northern and Southern Hemisphere datasets. The Level 3 Polar Winds data from VIIRS for the Arctic and Antarctic from 65...

  10. Geostationary orbit Earth science platform concepts for global change monitoring (United States)

    Farmer, Jeffery T.; Campbell, Thomas G.; Davis, William T.; Garn, Paul A.; King, Charles B.; Jackson, Cheryl C.


    Functionality of a geostationary spacecraft to support Earth science regional process research is identified. Most regional process studies require high spatial and temporal resolution. These high temporal resolutions are on the order of 30 minutes and may be achievable with instruments positioned in a geostationary orbit. A complement of typical existing or near term instruments are identified to take advantage of this altitude. This set of instruments is listed, and the requirements these instruments impose on a spacecraft are discussed. A brief description of the geostationary spacecraft concepts which support these instruments is presented.

  11. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy


    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  12. Impact of Ionosphere on GPS-based Precise Orbit Determination of Low Earth Orbiters (United States)

    Arnold, D.; Jaeggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Meyer, U.; Schaer, S.


    Deficiencies in geodetic products derived from the orbital trajectories of Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites determined by GPS-based Precise Orbit Determination (POD) were identified in recent years. The precise orbits of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission are, e.g., severely affected by an increased position noise level over the geomagnetic poles and spurious signatures along the Earth's geomagnetic equator (see Fig. 1, which shows the carrier phase residuals of a reduced-dynamic orbit determination for GOCE in m). Such degradations may directly map into the gravity fields recovered from the orbits. They are related to a disturbed GPS signal propagation through the Earth's ionosphere and indicate that the GPS observation model and/or the data pre-processing need to be improved. While GOCE was the first mission where severe ionosphere-related problems became obvious, the GPS-based LEO POD of satellites of the more recent missions Swarm and Sentinel-1A turn out to be affected, as well. We characterize the stochastic and systematic behavior of the ionosphere by analyzing GPS data collected by the POD antennas of various LEO satellites covering a broad altitude range (e.g., GRACE, GOCE and Swarm) and for periods covering significant parts of an entire solar cycle, which probe substantially different ionosphere conditions. The information may provide the basis for improvements of data pre-processing to cope with the ionosphere-induced problems of LEO POD. The performance of cycle slip detection can, e.g., be degraded by large changes of ionospheric refraction from one measurement epoch to the next. Geographically resolved information on the stochastic properties of the ionosphere above the LEOs provide more realistic threshold values for cycle slip detection algorithms. Removing GPS data showing large ionospheric variations is a crude method to mitigate the ionosphere-induced artifacts in orbit and gravity field products

  13. Inertial effect on spin–orbit coupling and spin transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, B., E-mail:; Chowdhury, Debashree, E-mail:


    We theoretically study the renormalization of inertial effects on the spin dependent transport of conduction electrons in a semiconductor by taking into account the interband mixing on the basis of k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} perturbation theory. In our analysis, for the generation of spin current we have used the extended Drude model where the spin–orbit coupling plays an important role. We predict enhancement of the spin current resulting from the renormalized spin–orbit coupling effective in our model in cubic and non-cubic crystals. Attention has been paid to clarify the importance of gauge fields in the spin transport of this inertial system. A theoretical proposition of a perfect spin filter has been done through the Aharonov–Casher like phase corresponding to this inertial system. For a time dependent acceleration, effect of k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} perturbation on the spin current and spin polarization has also been addressed. Furthermore, achievement of a tunable source of polarized spin current through the non uniformity of the inertial spin–orbit coupling strength has also been discussed. -- Highlights: •Study of the renormalization of inertial spin dependent transport of electrons. •Enhancement of the spin current due to the renormalized spin–orbit coupling. •A theoretical proposition of a perfect spin filter. •For a time dependent acceleration, spin current, spin polarization is addressed.

  14. Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R


    In 1962, several satellites were lost following high altitude nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union. These satellite failures were caused by energetic electrons injected into the earth's radiation belts from the beta decay of bomb produced fission fragments and neutrons. It has been 40 years since the last high altitude nuclear test; there are now many more satellites in orbit, and it is important to understand their vulnerability to radiation belt pumping from nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space. This report presents the results of a calculation of the contribution of neutron beta decay to artificial belt pumping. For most high altitude nuclear explosions, neutrons are expected to make a smaller contribution than fission products to the total trapped electron inventory, and their contribution is usually neglected. However, the neutron contribution may dominate in cases where the fission product contribution is suppressed due to the altitude or geomagnetic latitude of the nuclear explosion, and for regions of the radiation belts with field lines far from the detonation point. In any case, an accurate model of belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions, and a self-consistent explanation of the 1962 data, require inclusion of the neutron contribution. One recent analysis of satellite measurements of electron flux from the 1962 tests found that a better fit to the data is obtained if the neutron contribution to the trapped electron inventory was larger than that of the fission products [l]. Belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions is a complicated process. Fission fragments are dispersed as part of the ionized bomb debris, which is constrained and guided by the earth's magnetic field. Those fission products that beta decay before being lost to the earth's atmosphere can contribute trapped energetic electrons to the earth's radiation belts. There has been a large effort to develop computer models for

  15. Sedna Orbit Animation (United States)


    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  16. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (United States)

    Mostafá, Miguel A.


    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a large field of view, continuously operated, TeV γ-ray experiment under construction at 4,100 m a.s.l. in Mexico. The HAWC observatory will have an order of magnitude better sensitivity, angular resolution, and background rejection than its predecessor, the Milagro experiment. The improved performance will allow us to detect both the transient and steady emissions, to study the Galactic diffuse emission at TeV energies, and to measure or constrain the TeV spectra of GeV γ-ray sources. In addition, HAWC will be the only ground-based instrument capable of detecting prompt emission from γ-ray bursts above 50 GeV. The HAWC observatory will consist of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each with four photomultiplier tubes. This array is currently under construction on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near the city of Puebla, Mexico. The first 30 WCDs (forming an array approximately the size of Milagro) were deployed in Summer 2012, and 100 WCDs will be taking data by May, 2013. We present in this paper the motivation for constructing the HAWC observatory, the status of the deployment, and the first results from the constantly growing array.

  17. The high-altitude water Cherenkov Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Miguel A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)


    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a large field of view, continuously operated, TeV γ -ray experiment under construction at 4,100ma.s.l. in Mexico. The HAWC observatory will have an order of magnitude better sensitivity, angular resolution, and background rejection than its predecessor, the Milagro experiment. The improved performance will allow to detect both the transient and steady emissions, to study the Galactic diffuse emission at TeV energies, and to measure or constrain the TeV spectra of GeV γ -ray sources. In addition, HAWC will be the only ground-based instrument capable of detecting prompt emission from γ -ray bursts above 50 GeV. The HAWC observatory will consist of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each with four photomultiplier tubes. This array is currently under construction on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near the city of Puebla, Mexico. The first 30 WCDs (forming an array approximately the size of Milagro) were deployed in Summer 2012, and 100 WCDs will be taking data by May, 2013. We present in this paper the motivation for constructing the HAWC observatory, the status of the deployment, and the first results from the constantly growing array. (author)

  18. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory (United States)

    Springer, Wayne


    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a continuously operated, wide field of view detector based upon a water Cherenkov technology developed by the Milagro experiment. HAWC observes, at an elevation of 4100 m on Sierra Negra Mountain in Mexico, extensive air showers initiated by gamma and cosmic rays. The completed detector will consist of 300 closely spaced water tanks each instrumented with four photomultiplier tubes that provide timing and charge information used to reconstruct energy and arrival direction. HAWC has been optimized to observe transient and steady emission from point as well as diffuse sources of gamma rays in the energy range from several hundred GeV to several hundred TeV. Studies in solar physics as well as the properties of cosmic rays will also be performed. HAWC has been making observations at various stages of deployment since completion of 10% of the array in summer 2012. A discussion of the detector design, science capabilities, current construction/commissioning status, and first results will be presented...

  19. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    CERN Document Server



    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a large field of view, continuously operated, TeV gamma-ray experiment under construction at 4,100 m a.s.l. in Mexico. The HAWC observatory will have an order of magnitude better sensitivity, angular resolution, and background rejection than its predecessor, the Milagro experiment. The improved performance will allow us to detect both transient and steady emissions, to study the Galactic diffuse emission at TeV energies, and to measure or constrain the TeV spectra of GeV gamma-ray sources. In addition, HAWC will be the only ground-based instrument capable of detecting prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts above 50 GeV. The HAWC observatory will consist of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each with four photomultiplier tubes. This array is currently under construction on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near the city of Puebla, Mexico. The first thirty WCDs (forming an array approximately the size of Milagro) were deployed in Summer...

  20. Quadrantids 2008 and 2009: Detection of Dust in the Atmosphere by Polarization Twilight Sky Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S


    The paper contains the results of the polarization measurements of twilight sky background during the wintertime including the epoch of Quadrantids activity in January 2008 and 2009 in Crimea (Ukraine). Analysis of the twilight sky polarization behavior had shown the barely detectable depolarization effect at the scattering altitudes above 90 km right after the Quadrantids maximum. This effect can be related with the meteoric dust in the upper atmosphere of the Earth.

  1. Graphing Polar Curves (United States)

    Lawes, Jonathan F.


    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  2. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takashi [Department of Engineering Physics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Polarization of radiation emitted from a plasma reflects the anisotropic properties of the plasma, especially the angular anisotropic distribution of electron velocities. Polarization has been observed on impurity ion lines from the WT-3 tokamak and the GAMMA-10 tandem mirror machines. The soft x-ray laser line from the neonlike germanium was also found polarized. (author)

  3. Polarity at Many Levels (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.


    An attempt is made to find how polarity arises and is maintained, which is a central issue in development. It is a fundamental attribute of living things and cellular polarity is also important in the development of multicellular organisms and controversial new work indicates that polarization in mammals may occur much earlier than previously…

  4. [Orbital decompression for Graves' ophthalmopathy]. (United States)

    Boulétreau, P; Breton, P; Freidel, M


    Graves' ophthalmopathy is a complex orbital condition with a controversial pathogenesis. It is the clinical expression of a discordance between the inextensible orbit and hypertrophic muscular and fatty elements within the orbit responding to immunological stimulation. The relationship between the orbital and its content can be improved by surgical expansion which increases the useful volume of the orbit. This procedure can be combined with lipectomy to decrease the volume of the orbital contents. We briefly recall the history of surgical decompression techniques and present our experience with Graves' ophthalmopathy patients.

  5. Geosynchronous Earth Orbit/Low Earth Orbit Space Object Inspection and Debris Disposal: A Preliminary Analysis Using a Carrier Satellite With Deployable Small Satellites


    Crockett, Derick A.


    Detailed observations of geosynchronous satellites from earth are very limited. To better inspect these high altitude satellites, the use of small, refuelable satellites is proposed. The small satellites are stationed on a carrier platform in an orbit near the population of geosynchronous satellites. A carrier platform equipped with deployable, refuelable SmallSats is a viable option to inspect geosynchronous satellites. The propellant requirement to transfer to a targeted geosynchronous sate...

  6. Interpretations of de-orbit, deactivation, and shutdown guidelines applicable to GEO satellites (United States)

    Honda, L.; Perkins, J.; Sun, Sheng

    As the population of space debris in orbit around the Earth grows, the probability for catastrophic collisions increases. Many agencies such as the IADC, FCC, and UN have proposed space debris mitigation guidelines or recommendations. For example, a minimum increase in perigee altitude of 235km + (1000 Cr A / m) where Cr is the solar radiation pressure coefficient, A/m is the aspect area to dry mass ratio, and 235 km is the sum of the upper altitude of the geostationary orbit (GEO) protected region (200 km) and the maximum descent of a re-orbited spacecraft due to lunar-solar & geopotential perturbations (35 km) with an eccentricity less than or equal to 0.003. While this particular recommendation is reasonably straightforward, the assumptions an operator chooses may change the result by 25 km. Other recommendations are more ambiguous. For example, once the space vehicle has been de-orbited to the required altitude, all on-board stored energy sources must be discharged by venting propellants and pressurants, discharging batteries and disabling the ability to charge them, and performing other appropriate measures. “ Vented” is not usually defined. In addition, the broadcasting capability of the spacecraft must be disabled. Boeing and its customers are working together to devise de-orbit and deactivation sequences that meet the spirit of the recommendations. This paper derives and proposes a generic minimum deorbit altitude, appropriate depletion and venting pressures based on tank design, propellant and pressurant type, and an acceptable shutdown procedure and final configuration that avoid interference with those still in the GEO belt well into the future. The goal of this paper is to open a dialogue with the global community to establish reasonable guidelines that are straightforward, safe, and achievable before an absolute requirement is set.

  7. Aging, High Altitude, and Blood Pressure: A Complex Relationship. (United States)

    Parati, Gianfranco; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Torlasco, Camilla; Salvi, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Bilo, Grzegorz


    Parati, Gianfranco, Juan Eugenio Ochoa, Camilla Torlasco, Paolo Salvi, Carolina Lombardi, and Grzegorz Bilo. Aging, high altitude, and blood pressure: A complex relationship. High Alt Biol Med 16:97-109, 2015.--Both aging and high altitude exposure may induce important changes in BP regulation, leading to significant increases in BP levels. By inducing atherosclerotic changes, stiffening of large arteries, renal dysfunction, and arterial baroreflex impairment, advancing age may induce progressive increases in systolic BP levels, promoting development and progression of arterial hypertension. It is also known, although mainly from studies in young or middle-aged subjects, that exposure to high altitude may influence different mechanisms involved in BP regulation (i.e., neural central and reflex control of sympathetic activity), leading to important increases in BP levels. The evidence is less clear, however, on whether and to what extent advancing age may influence the BP response to acute or chronic high altitude exposure. This is a question not only of scientific interest but also of practical relevance given the consistent number of elderly individuals who are exposed for short time periods (either for leisure or work) or live permanently at high altitude, in whom arterial hypertension is frequently observed. This article will review the evidence available on the relationship between aging and blood pressure levels at high altitude, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this complex association, as well as some questions of practical interest regarding antihypertensive treatment in elderly subjects, and the effects of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure response during high altitude exposure.

  8. Travel to High Altitude Following Solid Organ Transplantation. (United States)

    Luks, Andrew M


    Luks, Andrew M. Clinician's corner: travel to high altitude following solid organ transplantation. High Alt Med Biol. 17:147-156, 2016.-As they regain active lifestyles following successful organ transplantation, transplant recipients may travel to high altitude for a variety of activities, including skiing, climbing, and trekking. This review is intended to provide information for medical providers who may encounter transplant patients seeking advice before planned high altitude travel or care for medical issues that develop during the actual sojourn. There is currently limited information in the literature about outcomes during high-altitude travel following solid organ transplantation, but the available evidence suggests that the physiologic responses to hypobaric hypoxia are comparable to those seen in nontransplanted individuals and well-selected transplant recipients with no evidence of organ rejection can tolerate ascents as high as 6200 m. All transplant recipients planning high-altitude travel should undergo pretravel assessment and counseling with an emphasis on the recognition, prevention, and treatment of altitude illness, as well as the importance of preventing infection and limiting sun exposure. Transplant recipients can use the standard medications for altitude illness prophylaxis and treatment, but the choice and dose of medication should take into account the patient's preexisting medication regimen and current renal function. With careful attention to these and other details, the healthy transplant recipient can safely experience the rewards of traveling in the mountains.

  9. Polarized QPOs from the INTEGRAL polar IGRJ14536-5522 (=Swift J1453.4-5524)

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Stephen B; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni; O'Connor, James; Fourie, Piet; Evans, Geoff; Sass, Craig; Crause, Lisa; Still, Martin; Butters, O W; Norton, A J; Mukai, Koji


    We report optical spectroscopy and high speed photometry and polarimetry of the INTEGRAL source IGRJ14536-5522 (=Swift J1453.4-5524). The photometry, polarimetry and spectroscopy are modulated on an orbital period of 3.1564(1) hours. Orbital circularly polarized modulations are seen from 0 to -18 per cent, unambiguously identifying IGRJ14536-5522 as a polar. Some of the high speed photometric data show modulations that are consistent with quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) on the order of 5-6 minutes. Furthermore, for the first time, we detect the (5-6) minute QPOs in the circular polarimetry. We discuss the possible origins of these QPOs. We also include details of HIPPO, a new high-speed photo-polarimeter used for some of our observations.

  10. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Toprak


    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  11. Orbit correction algorithm for SSRF fast orbit feedback system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming; YIN Chongxian; LIU Dekang


    A fast orbit feedback system is designed at SSRF to suppress beam orbit disturbance within sub-micron in the bandwidth up to 100 Hz.The SVD (Singular value decomposition) algorithm is applied to calculate the inverse response matrix in global orbit correction.The number of singular eigenvalues will influence orbit noise suppression and corrector strengths.The method to choose singular eigenvalue rejection threshold is studied in this paper,and the simulation and experiment results are also presented.

  12. Comparison of Low Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Earth Orbits (United States)

    Drummond, J. E.


    The technological, environmental, social, and political ramifications of low Earth orbits as compared to geosynchronous Earth orbits for the solar power satellite (SPS) are assessed. The capital cost of the transmitting facilities is dependent on the areas of the antenna and rectenna relative to the requirement of high efficiency power transmission. The salient features of a low orbit Earth orbits are discussed in terms of cost reduction efforts.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA response to high altitude: a new perspective on high-altitude adaptation. (United States)

    Luo, Yongjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi


    Mitochondria are the energy metabolism centers of the cell. More than 95% of cellular energy is produced by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Hypoxia affects a wide range of energy generation and consumption processes in animals. The most important mechanisms limiting ATP consumption increase the efficiency of ATP production and accommodate the reduced production of ATP by the body. All of these mechanisms relate to changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial function can be affected by variations in mitochondrial DNA, including polymorphisms, content changes, and deletions. These variations play an important role in acclimatization or adaptation to hypoxia. In this paper, the association between mitochondrial genome sequences and high-altitude adaptation is reviewed.

  14. Spin-Orbit Splitting in Semiconductor Quantum Dots with a Two-Dimensional Ring Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun-Sheng; LIU Zheng


    We present a theoretical study of the energy levels with two-dimensional ring confining potential in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction.The features of some low-lying states in various strengths of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction are investigated.The Rashba spin-orbit splitting can also be influenced by the width of the potential barrier.The computed results show that the spin-polarized electronic states can be more easily achieved in a weakly confined dot when the confinement strength for the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is larger than a critical value.

  15. Plasma Flowfields Around Low Earth Orbit Objects: Aerodynamics to Underpin Orbit Predictions (United States)

    Capon, Christopher; Boyce, Russell; Brown, Melrose


    Interactions between orbiting bodies and the charged space environment are complex. The large variation in passive body parameters e.g. size, geometry and materials, makes the plasma-body interaction in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a region rich in fundamental physical phenomena. The aerodynamic interaction of LEO orbiting bodies with the neutral environment constitutes the largest non-conservative force on the body. However in general, study of the LEO plasma-body interaction has not been concerned with external flow physics, but rather with the effects on surface charging. The impact of ionospheric flow physics on the forces on space debris (and active objects) is not well understood. The work presented here investigates the contribution that plasma-body interactions have on the flow structure and hence on the total atmospheric force vector experienced by a polar orbiting LEO body. This work applies a hybrid Particle-in-Cell (PIC) - Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code, pdFoam, to self-consistently model the electrostatic flowfield about a cylinder with a uniform, fixed surface potential. Flow conditions are representative of the mean conditions experienced by the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) based on the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-86). The electron distribution function is represented by a non-linear Boltzmann electron fluid and ion gas-surface interactions are assumed to be that of a neutralising, conducting, thermally accommodating solid wall with diffuse reflections. The variation in flowfield and aerodynamic properties with surface potential at a fixed flow condition is investigated, and insight into the relative contributions of charged and neutral species to the flow physics experienced by a LEO orbiting body is provided. This in turn is intended to help improve the fidelity of physics-based orbit predictions for space debris and other near-Earth space objects.

  16. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.


    . The alteration at the muscle level at altitude is minor and so is the effect on the metabolism, although it is debated whether a possible reduction in blood lactate accumulation occurs during exercise at altitude. Transient acute mountain sickness (headache, anorexia, and nausea) is present in 10-30% of subjects...... ascent (average ascent rate 300 m/day above 2000 m a.s.l.), primarily in order to sleep and feel well, and minimize the risk of mountain sickness. A new classification of altitude levels based on the effects on performance and well-being is proposed and an overview given over the various modalities using...

  17. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.


    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  18. Determining polar ionospheric electrojet currents from Swarm satellite constellation magnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Cecilie Drost; Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris


    We determine the strength and location of the ionospheric currents responsible for the polar electrojets from magnetic data collected by the Swarm satellite constellation on an orbit-by-orbit basis. The ionospheric currents are modelled using a simple, yet robust, method by a series of line curre...

  19. Spin-sensitive atom mirror via spin-orbit interaction (United States)

    Zhou, Lu; Zheng, Ren-Fei; Zhang, Weiping


    Based on the spin-orbit coupling recently implemented in a neutral cold-atom gas, we propose a scheme to realize spin-dependent scattering of cold atoms. In particular we consider a matter wave packet of cold-atom gas impinging upon a step potential created by the optical light field, inside of which the atoms are subject to spin-orbit interaction. We show that the proposed system can act as a spin polarizer or spin-selective atom mirror for the incident atomic beam. The principle and the operating parameter regime of the system are carefully discussed.

  20. Polarity inversion in polar-nonpolar-polar heterostructures. (United States)

    Cho, S; Youn, S J; Kim, Y; DiVenere, A; Wong, G K; Freeman, A J; Ketterson, J B


    We have observed an epilayer-thickness-dependent polarity inversion for the growth of CdTe on Sb(Bi)/CdTe(111)B. For films with Sb(Bi) thicknesses of less than 40 A (15 A), the CdTe layer shows a B (Te-terminated) face, but it switches to an A (Cd-terminated) face for thicker layers. On the other hand, a CdTe layer grown on Bi(Sb)/CdTe(111)A always shows the A face regardless of Sb or Bi layer thicknesses. In order to address the observations we have performed ab initio calculations, which suggest that the polarity of a polar material on a nonpolar one results from the binding energy difference between the two possible surface configurations.

  1. Oxidative stress and the high altitude environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak


    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been considerable interest in mountain sports, including mountaineering, owing to the general availability of climbing clothing and equipment as well trainings and professional literature. This raised a new question for the environmental and mountain medicine: Is mountaineering harmful to health? Potential hazards include the conditions existing in the alpine environment, i.e. lower atmospheric pressure leading to the development of hypobaric hypoxia, extreme physical effort, increased UV radiation, lack of access to fresh food, and mental stress. A reasonable measure of harmfulness of these factors is to determine the increase in the level of oxidative stress. Alpine environment can stimulate the antioxidant enzyme system but under specific circumstances it may exceed its capabilities with simultaneous consumption of low-molecular antioxidants resulting in increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This situation is referred to as oxidative stress. Rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of reactive oxygen species leads to a number of adverse changes, resulting in the above-average damage to the lipid structures of cell membranes (peroxidation, proteins (denaturation, and nucleic acids. Such situation within the human body cannot take place without resultant systemic consequences. This explains the malaise of people returning from high altitude and a marked decrease in their physical fitness. In addition, a theory is put forward that the increase in the level of oxidative stress is one of the factors responsible for the onset of acute mountain sickness (AMS. However, such statement requires further investigation because the currently available literature is inconclusive. This article presents the causes and effects of development of oxidative stress in the high mountains.

  2. Analysis of propagation delays of compressional Pi 2 waves between geosynchronous altitude and low latitudes (United States)

    Imajo, Shun; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Uozumi, Teiji; Kawano, Hideaki; Abe, Shuji; Ikeda, Akihiro; Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Obara, Takahiro; Marshall, Richard; Akulichev, Victor A.; Mahrous, Ayman; Liedloff, Adam; Yoshikawa, Akimasa


    The propagation of compressional Pi 2 waves in the inner magnetosphere is investigated by analyzing the onset delay times between the ground and the geosynchronous altitude. We use the compressional component (northward) of magnetic data from low-latitude stations and the geosynchronous satellite ETS-VIII (GMLat. = -10.8°, GMLon. = 217.5°). The onset delays are determined by a cross-correlation analysis, and we analyzed the events with high waveform correlations (correlation coefficient greater than 0.75). Some of these high-correlation events have the properties of propagating waves; Pi 2 waveforms at the ground stations and the satellite were synchronized with each other when the data were shifted by onset delays. The results of the statistical analysis show that 87% of the Pi 2 onsets at a ground station (Kuju, GMLat. = 26.13°, GMLon. = 202.96°) were delayed from the Pi 2 onsets at ETS-VIII, and the average of the delay times was 29 sec. This clearly shows Pi 2 onsets (initial perturbations of Pi 2) propagated from the geosynchronous altitude to the low-latitude ground. The delay times tended to be larger around the midnight sector than around the dawn and dusk sectors. These results are consistent with two-dimensional propagation of fast waves estimated by the model of Uozumi et al. (J Geophys Res 114:A11207, 2009). The delay times are nearly identical to the travel time of fast waves from geosynchronous altitude to the low-latitude ground, and the local time variation of the delay shows the azimuthal propagation along the geosynchronous orbit. We conclude that the initial compressional perturbations of Pi 2 waves propagate radially and longitudinally as a fast wave in the inner magnetosphere.

  3. The high altitude student platform (HASP) for student-built payloads (United States)

    Guzik, T. Gregory; Wefel, John P.

    An outstanding issue with aerospace workforce development is what should be done at the university level to attract and prepare undergraduates for an aerospace career. One approach adopted by many institutions is to lead students through the design and development of small payloads (less than about 500 grams) that can be carried up to high altitude (around 30 km) by a latex sounding balloon. This approach has been very successful in helping students to integrate their content knowledge with practical skills and to understand the end-to-end process of aerospace project development. Sounding balloons, however, are usually constrained in flight duration (˜30 min above 24 km) and payload weight, limiting the kinds investigations that are possible. Student built picosatellites, such as CubeSats, can be placed in low Earth orbit removing the flight duration constraint, but the delays between satellite development and launch can be years. Here, we present the inexpensive high altitude student platform (HASP) that is designed to carry at least eight student payloads at a time to an altitude of about 36 km with flight durations of 15 20 h using a small zero-pressure polyethylene film balloon. This platform provides a flight capability greater than sounding balloons and can be used to flight-test compact satellites, prototypes and other small payloads designed and built by students. The HASP includes a standard mechanical, power and communication interface for the student payload to simplify integration and allows the payloads to be fully exercised. HASP is lightweight, has simple mission requirements providing flexibility in the launch schedule, will provide a flight test opportunity at the end of each academic year.

  4. Ultra Violet Imager on Venus Climate Orbiter (United States)

    Yamada, M.; Watanabe, S.; Okano, S.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.; Iwagami, N.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Titov, D.

    We are developing a Ultra Violet Imager UVI which is one of the 5 cameras onboard the Venus Climate Orbiter VCO The VCO is the first planetary meteorological spacecraft and the cameras measuring different wavelength reveal atmospheric dynamics by cooperating with each other The Venus atmosphere has broad absorption of solar radiation between 200nm and 500nm The UVI is designed to measure the ultraviolet scattering lights at 283nm and 365nm wavelengths from cloud tops of sim 70km altitude The field of view is 0 015° with 1024x1024 SiCCD The spatial resolution is sim 15km at apoapsis of 13 Rv SO 2 at the cloud top absorbs the radiation in the region between 200nm and 320nm but the absorption above 320nm is due to unknown absorber Identification of the absorber is important for the energy balance and dynamics of the Venus atmosphere Tracking the cloud motion is used to investigate the dynamics of cloud winds and wave phenomena The typical size of the features is sim 100km and contrast is typically 5--10 The superrotation of the Venus cloud at sim 70km altitude has the zonal velocity of sim 100m s Therefore the imaging of clouds by the UVI will make clear the spatial and vertical distribution of the ultraviolet absorbers at the cloud tops identification of unknown absorber dynamics of cloud and vertical distribution of haze above the cloud Now we are testing the method to raise signal to noise ratio by use of an electrical breadboard model We will report the results of those tests

  5. Topics in orbit equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Kechris, Alexander S


    This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

  6. Simple compactifications and polar decomposition of homogeneous real spherical spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Friedrich; Krötz, Bernhard; Sayag, Eitan;


    Let Z be an algebraic homogeneous space Z = G/H attached to real reductive Lie group G. We assume that Z is real spherical, i.e., minimal parabolic subgroups have open orbits on Z. For such spaces, we investigate their large scale geometry and provide a polar decomposition. This is obtained from...

  7. Light-induced spin polarizations in quantum rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joibari, F.K.; Blanter, Y.M.; Bauer, G.E.W.


    Nonresonant circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation can exert torques on magnetizations by the inverse Faraday effect (IFE). Here, we discuss the enhancement of IFE by spin-orbit interactions. We illustrate the principle by studying a simple generic model system, i.e., the quasi-one-dimension

  8. Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Disturbances Due to Geomagnetic Storms at ISS Altitudes (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Neergaard Parker, Linda


    Spacecraft charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is dominated by interaction of the US high voltage solar arrays with the F2-region ionosphere plasma environment. ISS solar array charging is enhanced in a high electron density environment due to the increased thermal electron currents to the edges of the solar cells. High electron temperature environments suppress charging due to formation of barrier potentials on the charged solar cell cover glass that restrict the charging currents to the cell edge [Mandell et al., 2003]. Environments responsible for strong solar array charging are therefore characterized by high electron densities and low electron temperatures. In support of the ISS space environmental effects engineering community, we are working to understand a number of features of solar array charging and to determine how well future charging behavior can be predicted from in-situ plasma density and temperature measurements. One aspect of this work is a need to characterize the magnitude of electron density and temperature variations that occur at ISS orbital altitudes (approximately 400 km) over time scales of days, the latitudes over which significant variations occur, and the time periods over which the disturbances persist once they start. This presentation provides examples of mid-latitude electron density and temperature disturbances at altitudes relevant to ISS using data sets and tools developed for our ISS plasma environment study. "Mid-latitude" is defined as the extra-tropical region between approx. 30 degrees to approx. 60 degrees magnetic latitude sampled by ISS over its 51.6 degree inclination orbit. We focus on geomagnetic storm periods because storms are well known drivers for disturbances in the ionospheric plasma environment.

  9. Martian clouds observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera


    Wang, Huiqun; Ingersoll, Andrew P.


    We have made daily global maps that cover both polar and equatorial regions of Mars for Ls 135°–360° and 0°–111° using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red and blue wide-angle swaths taken from May 1999 to January 2001. We study the seasonal distribution of condensate clouds and dust clouds during roughly 1 Martian year using these daily global maps. We present the development and decay of the tropical cloud belt and the polar hoods, the spatial and temporal distributi...

  10. Orbiter OMS and RCS technology (United States)

    Boudreaux, R. A.


    Orbiter Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) tankage has proved to be highly successful in shuttle flights on-orbit propellant transfer tests were done. Tank qualification tests along with flight demonstrations were carried out future uses of storable propellants are cited.

  11. Chaos Behaviour of Molecular Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Tang; SUN Fu-Yan; SHEN Shu-Lan


    Based on H(u)ckel's molecular orbit theory,the chaos and;bifurcation behaviour of a molecular orbit modelled by a nonlinear dynamic system is studied.The relationship between molecular orbit and its energy level in the nonlinear dynamic system is obtained.

  12. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Akçay


    Full Text Available Preseptal cellulitis (PC is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epidermidis, Haempphilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and S. pyogenes. The method for the diagnosis of OS and PS is computed tomography. Using effective antibiotics is a mainstay for the treatment of PC and OC. There is an agreement that surgical drainage should be performed in cases of complete ophthalmoplegia or significant visual impairment or large abscesses formation. This infections are also at a greater risk of acute visual loss, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, cerebritis, endophthalmitis, and brain abscess in children. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to control the infection. Diagnosis, treatment, management and complications of PC and OC are summarized in this manuscript. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2014; 4(3: 123-127

  13. Diffraction and polarization effects in Earth radiation budget measurements. (United States)

    Mahan, J R; Barki, A R; Priestley, K J


    Thermal radiation emitted and reflected from the Earth and viewed from near-Earth orbit may be characterized by its spectral distribution, its degree of coherence, and its state of polarization. The current generation of broadband Earth radiation budget instruments has been designed to minimize the effect of diffraction and polarization on science products. We used Monte Carlo ray-trace (MCRT) models that treat individual rays as quasi-monochromatic, polarized entities to explore the possibility of improving the performance of such instruments by including measures of diffraction and polarization during calibration and operation. We have demonstrated that diffraction and polarization sensitivity associated with typical Earth radiation budget instrument design features has a negligible effect on measurements.

  14. Interaction between subdaily Earth rotation parameters and GPS orbits (United States)

    Panafidina, Natalia; Seitz, Manuela; Hugentobler, Urs


    In processing GPS observations the geodetic parameters like station coordinates and ERPs (Earth rotation parameters) are estimated w.r.t. the celestial reference system realized by the satellite orbits. The interactions/correlations between estimated GPS orbis and other parameters may lead to numerical problems with the solution and introduce systematic errors in the computed values: the well known correlations comprise 1) the correlation between the orbital parameters determining the orientation of the orbital plane in inertial space and the nutation and 2) in the case of estimating ERPs with subdaily resolution the correlation between retrograde diurnal polar motion and nutation (and so the respective orbital elements). In this contribution we study the interaction between the GPS orbits and subdaily model for the ERPs. Existing subdaily ERP model recommended by the IERS comprises ~100 terms in polar motion and ~70 terms in Universal Time at diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periods. We use a long time series of daily normal equation systems (NEQ) obtaine from GPS observations from 1994 till 2007 where the ERPs with 1-hour resolution are transformed into tidal terms and the influence of the tidal terms with different frequencies on the estimated orbital parameters is considered. We found that although there is no algebraic correlation in the NEQ between the individual orbital parameters and the tidal terms, the changes in the amplitudes of tidal terms with periods close to 24 hours can be better accmodated by systematic changes in the orbital parameters than for tidal terms with other periods. Since the variation in Earth rotation with the period of siderial day (23.93h, tide K1) in terrestrial frame has in inertial space the same period as the period of revolution of GPS satellites, the K1 tidal term in polar motion is seen by the satellites as a permanent shift. The tidal terms with close periods (from ~24.13h to ~23.80h) are seen as a slow rotation of the

  15. Synthesizing radar maps of polar regions with a Doppler-only method. (United States)

    Roulston, M S; Muhleman, D O


    A method for producing a radar-reflectivity map of the polar regions of the Moon or a planet from polar orbit with only the frequency shift of the reflected signals is described and simulated. A Radon transform of the reflectivity is obtained during multiple passes over the pole. Inversion of this Radon transform enables a map of radar reflectivity to be synthesized.

  16. NHAP = National High-Altitude Aerial Photography: 1980 - 1989 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National High Altitude Photography (NHAP) program, which was operated from 1980-1989, was coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey as an interagency project to...

  17. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Transonic Performance Flight Demonstration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Altitude compensating nozzles continue to be of interest for use on future launch vehicle boosters and upper stages because of their higher mission average Isp and...

  18. Altitude and latitude dependence of the equatorial electrojet (United States)

    Singh, A.; Cole, K. D.


    A self-consistent and high-resolution dynamo model is used to investigate the effects of day-to-day or seasonal variation of altitude and latitude profiles of the E-plasma density in the equatorial ionosphere on equatorial electrojet (EEJ) structure. Variations in the E-layer peak altitude and amplitude are shown to significantly affect EEJ structure. The results indicate that, for any shape, the EEJ peak appears at or below the E-layer peak altitude. Distinct double peaks occur in the EEJ structure if the E-layer peak is above 105 km or if the gradient is large. The effect of the latitudinal variation of the integrated conductivities of ionospheric field lines upon the amplitude and altitude of the EEJ peak is discussed.

  19. Investigation of Correction Method of the Spacecraft Low Altitude Ranging

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jing-Lei; Wu, Shi-Tong; Huang, Wei


    gamma ray altitude control system is an important equipment for deep space exploration and sample return mission, its main purpose is a low altitude measurement of the spacecraft based on Compton Effect at the moment when it lands on extraterrestrial celestial or sampling returns to the Earth land, and an ignition altitude correction of the spacecraft retrograde landing rocket at different landing speeds. This paper presents an ignition altitude correction method of the spacecraft at different landing speeds, based on the number of particles gamma ray reflected field gradient graded. Through the establishment of a theoretical model, its algorithm feasibility is proved by a mathematical derivation and verified by an experiment, and also the adaptability of the algorithm under different parameters is described. The method provides a certain value for landing control of the deep space exploration spacecraft landing the planet surface.

  20. Children's exercise capacity at high altitude in Tibet. (United States)

    Bianba; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Ouzhuluobu; Bjertness, Espen


    Maximal oxygen uptake (exercise capacity) is a vital parameter in the evaluation of adaptation to high altitude, providing an index of the integrated function of the oxygen transport system. Previous studies of maximal oxygen uptake in population at high altitude have mainly focused on adults and adolescents, though data on children are uncommon. Maximal oxygen uptake can be measured directly, using an oxygen analyser, or indirectly through the development of equations for estimation from the maximal power output (W(max)). Such estimations and studies of the physiological aspects of children's capacity to work and live at different altitudes in Tibet ancestry were not reported previously, although differences similar to those seen in adults may be expected to occur. The present paper summarized the findings of studies on exercise capacity among children living at high altitude in Tibet.

  1. Travelling to new heights: practical high altitude medicine. (United States)

    Plant, Tracie; Aref-Adib, Golnar


    Over 40 million people travel to high altitude for both work and pleasure each year, and all of them are at risk of the acute effects of hypoxia. This article reviews the prevention, diagnostic features and treatments of these illnesses.

  2. How can acute mountain sickness be quantified at moderate altitude?


    Roeggla, G; Roeggla, M; Podolsky, A.; Wagner, A; Laggner, A N


    Reports of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at moderate altitude show a wide variability, possibly because of different investigation methods. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of investigation methods on AMS incidence. Hackett's established AMS score (a structured interview and physical examination), the new Lake Louise AMS score (a self-reported questionnaire) and oxygen saturation were determined in 99 alpinists after ascent to 2.94 km altitude. AMS incidence was 8% in Hacket...

  3. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant? (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J


    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  4. Birth weight and altitude: a study in Peruvian communities. (United States)

    Mortola, J P; Frappell, P B; Aguero, L; Armstrong, K


    We tested the hypothesis that at high altitude birth weight decreases once a critical barometric pressure (Pb) is reached. Birth weight data covering the 1-year period from November 1997 to October 1998 were collected in Peru from the data files of 15 community and mining centers between sea level and 4575 m altitude. These centers are scattered along the main road that joins Lima (on the Pacific shore) to Cerro de Pasco (4330 m) and surroundings. Above approximately 2000 m (ie, at Pb below approximately 590 mm Hg, inspired O(2) partial pressure of approximately 114 mm Hg) and up to approximately 4500 m altitude birth weight declined at an average of 65 g for every additional 500 m altitude (or 105 g for every additional 50 mm Hg drop in Pb). This pattern did not differ between sexes. Averages and modal distributions of the birth weight from 2 hospitals in Cerro de Pasco (4330 m) serving different social groups were similar. Body length at birth was similar at various altitudes, with the exception of the 2 highest locations above 4500 m, where it was slightly reduced. From these data, together with additional data collected in the North of Peru (Chacas, 3360 m) and with results from other ethnic groups previously published, we conclude that the drop in birth weight at altitude is (1) apparent once the critical Pb of approximately 590 mm Hg is reached, corresponding to an altitude of approximately 2000 m, (2) proportional to the increase in altitude between approximately 2000 m and 4500 m, and (3) independent from socioeconomic factors.

  5. Functions and Design Scheme of Tibet High Altitude Test Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yongqing; Guo Jian; Yin Yu; Mao Yan; Li Guangfan; Fan Jianbin; Lu Jiayu; Su Zhiyi; Li Peng; Li Qingfeng; Liao Weiming; Zhou Jun


    @@ The functional orientation of the Tibet High Altitude Test Base, subordinated to the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC), is to serve power transmission projects in high altitude areas, especially to provide technical support for southwestern hydropower delivery projects by UHVDC transmission and Qinghai-Tibet grid interconnection project. This paper presents the matters concerned during siting and planning, functions,design scheme, the main performances and parameters of the test facilities, as well as the tests and research tasks already carried out.

  6. The Changing Polar Moon (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.; Hurley, D.


    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and LCROSS have provided an avalanche of new data regarding the lunar poles: LCROSS directly detected water vapor and other volatiles in its impact plume; LRO LAMP has detected surface frost using UV ratios; LEND has refined understanding of the distribution of hydrogen; LOLA and LAMP have showed that the spectral properties of permanently shadowed regions (PSR) are anomalous and may be due to unusual surface texture or altered space weathering; Diviner shows both where the coldest portions of the poles exist, and its quantitative results show where temperatures are low enough to preserve water ice at depth, well outside the PSRs. Yet while we are data rich, our understanding of the lunar poles is maddeningly poor. Our poverty of understanding is made even more baffling by the MESSENGER results from Mercury. At Mercury's poles the distribution of volatiles is dictated by temperature: where subsurface temperatures inferred from topography are consistent with long term preservation of water ice, radar anomalies indicating thick ice are present; where surface temperatures are consistent with preservation of surface frost, high reflectance anomalies indicating surface frost are revealed by laser reflectance. The distribution of water ice on Mercury is well understood. In contrast, temperature is only a weak indicator of the presence of volatiles at the lunar poles; there is little ability to predict the location and abundance of hydrogen or water. The difference may in the age of the volatile deposits on the two planets. Turn the clock forward a few billion years on Mercury and the deposits may appear more lunar. Surface lag deposits may have long ago succumbed to impact gardening, as has much of the shallow buried ice. Ice retained could be patchy, and confined to the coldest places that may tend to preserve it more effectively, even when finely comminuted. Lunar polar volatiles, a possible relic of an ancient, Mercury

  7. Soldier at High Altitude: Problem & Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S Purkayastha


    Full Text Available Due to military and j trategic reasons, a large body of troops is being regularly dcployed in the snowbound areas through ut the Himalayan regions to guard Ihe Ironliers. Thc mountain environment at high 'allitude (HA consisls of several faclors alien lo plain dwellers, which evoke a series of physiological responses in human system. Some of the sea' level residents on induction to HA suffer from several unloward symploms of HA" ailmenls varying from mild-lo-severe degrees. Suddenexposure to HA is detrimental to physical and mental  performance of the low landers and  certain cases, may even lead to dreaded condition like high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO. These may make a man Jisturbed physically and mentally. So, there is a need lo prevent such hazards v(hich ispossible if the individual is aware of the problems and prevenlive measures ofHA ailments in advance, before going to HA for a safe and happy living there. Hence, a noble effort has been made to provide guidelines to create awareness about physical and physiological problems of life at HA and themethods of protection against its ill-effects for the soldiers, mountaineers and sojourners conducting scientific trials it HA. In th.:s revieJ, an attempt has been made to describe vital aspects of HA in a popular way, st~ing with its concept and various environmental factors which exert considerableettects on human body functions, heallh and performance on exposure to such environment, on the b¥is of a series of studies coitlucted at Ithe Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences, Delhi, oVer the years. The most important featurelof HA (3,000 m and above is hypoxia or deficiency ofoxygej1 in the body. Olher cnvironmental tactors are: scverc cold, high velocity wind, low rclalivc humidily, high solar radiatior, increased ultraviolet radialion and difficult terrain. These faclors are responsible for various HA cWtdc old syndromes, viz., acute mountain sickness, HAPO, dehydration,4

  8. Azimuth-Variant Signal Processing in High-Altitude Platform Passive SAR with Spaceborne/Airborne Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaizong Shao


    Full Text Available High-altitude platforms (HAP or near-space vehicle offers several advantages over current low earth orbit (LEO satellite and airplane, because HAP is not constrained by orbital mechanics and fuel consumption. These advantages provide potential for some specific remote sensing applications that require persistent monitoring or fast-revisiting frequency. This paper investigates the azimuth-variant signal processing in HAP-borne bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BiSAR with spaceborne or airborne transmitter for high-resolution remote sensing. The system configuration, azimuth-variant Doppler characteristics and two-dimensional echo spectrum are analyzed. Conceptual system simulation results are also provided. Since the azimuth-variant BiSAR geometry brings a challenge for developing high precision data processing algorithms, we propose an image formation algorithm using equivalent velocity and nonlinear chirp scaling (NCS to address the azimuth-variant signal processing problem. The proposed algorithm is verified by numerical simulation results.

  9. Effects of altitude on the climbing performance of Monarch butterflies (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Kwon; Sridhar, Madhu; Landrum, David; Aono, Hikaru


    Millions of Monarchs annually travel up to 4,000km, the longest migration distance among insects. They fly and overwinter at high altitudes. However, the aerodynamic mechanism enabling the long-range flight of Monarch butterflies is unknown. To study the effects of altitude on the aerodynamic performance of Monarch butterflies, a unique combination of a motion tracking system and a variable pressure chamber that allows controlling the density is used. The condition inside the chamber is systematically varied to simulate high altitude conditions up to 3,000 m. An optical tracking technique is used to characterize the climbing trajectories of freely flying Monarch butterflies. Customized reflective markers are designed to minimize the effects of marker addition. Flapping amplitude and frequency as well as climbing trajectories are measured. Lift acting on the butterfly is also determined by considering the force balance. Results show that the average flight speed and the Reynolds number, in general, decreased with the altitude, whereas, interestingly, the lift coefficient increased with the altitude. More detailed measurements and analyses will be performed in the future to explain the lift enhancement by flying at higher altitudes. This work is partly supported by NSF Grant CBET-1335572 and in part by CK's startup fund provided by UAH.

  10. Shilajit: A panacea for high-altitude problems. (United States)

    Meena, Harsahay; Pandey, H K; Arya, M C; Ahmed, Zakwan


    High altitude problems like hypoxia, acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema, pulmonary edema, insomnia, tiredness, lethargy, lack of appetite, body pain, dementia, and depression may occur when a person or a soldier residing in a lower altitude ascends to high-altitude areas. These problems arise due to low atmospheric pressure, severe cold, high intensity of solar radiation, high wind velocity, and very high fluctuation of day and night temperatures in these regions. These problems may escalate rapidly and may sometimes become life-threatening. Shilajit is a herbomineral drug which is pale-brown to blackish-brown, is composed of a gummy exudate that oozes from the rocks of the Himalayas in the summer months. It contains humus, organic plant materials, and fulvic acid as the main carrier molecules. It actively takes part in the transportation of nutrients into deep tissues and helps to overcome tiredness, lethargy, and chronic fatigue. Shilajit improves the ability to handle high altitudinal stresses and stimulates the immune system. Thus, Shilajit can be given as a supplement to people ascending to high-altitude areas so that it can act as a "health rejuvenator" and help to overcome high-altitude related problems.

  11. Modeling Orbital Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Experiments at Carbonaceous Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Lucy F; Evans, Larry G; Parsons, Ann M; Zolensky, Michael E; Boynton, William V


    To evaluate the feasibility of measuring differences in bulk composition among carbonaceous meteorite parent bodies from an asteroid or comet orbiter, we present the results of a performance simulation of an orbital gamma-ray spectroscopy ("GRS") experiment in a Dawn-like orbit around spherical model asteroids with a range of carbonaceous compositions. The orbital altitude was held equal to the asteroid radius for 4.5 months. Both the asteroid gamma-ray spectrum and the spacecraft background flux were calculated using the MCNPX Monte-Carlo code. GRS is sensitive to depths below the optical surface (to ~20--50 cm depth depending on material density). This technique can therefore measure underlying compositions beneath a sulfur-depleted (e.g., Nittler et al. 2001) or desiccated surface layer. We find that 3\\sigma\\ uncertainties of under 1 wt% are achievable for H, C, O, Si, S, Fe, and Cl for five carbonaceous meteorite compositions using the heritage Mars Odyssey GRS design in a spacecraft- deck-mounted configu...

  12. Modeling orbital gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments at carbonaceous asteroids (United States)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Starr, Richard D.; Evans, Larry G.; Parsons, Ann M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Boynton, William V.


    To evaluate the feasibility of measuring differences in bulk composition among carbonaceous meteorite parent bodies from an asteroid or comet orbiter, we present the results of a performance simulation of an orbital gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS) experiment in a Dawn-like orbit around spherical model asteroids with a range of carbonaceous compositions. The orbital altitude was held equal to the asteroid radius for 4.5 months. Both the asteroid gamma-ray spectrum and the spacecraft background flux were calculated using the MCNPX Monte-Carlo code. GRS is sensitive to depths below the optical surface (to ≈20-50 cm depth depending on material density). This technique can therefore measure underlying compositions beneath a sulfur-depleted (e.g., Nittler et al.) or desiccated surface layer. We find that 3σ uncertainties of under 1 wt% are achievable for H, C, O, Si, S, Fe, and Cl for five carbonaceous meteorite compositions using the heritage Mars Odyssey GRS design in a spacecraft-deck-mounted configuration at the Odyssey end-of-mission energy resolution, FWHM = 5.7 keV at 1332 keV. The calculated compositional uncertainties are smaller than the compositional differences between carbonaceous chondrite subclasses.

  13. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Commissioning Phase Orbit Determination Error Analysis (United States)

    Chung, Lauren R.; Novak, Stefan; Long, Anne; Gramling, Cheryl


    The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission commissioning phase starts in a 185 km altitude x 12 Earth radii (RE) injection orbit and lasts until the Phase 1 mission orbits and orientation to the Earth-Sun li ne are achieved. During a limited time period in the early part of co mmissioning, five maneuvers are performed to raise the perigee radius to 1.2 R E, with a maneuver every other apogee. The current baseline is for the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility to p rovide MMS orbit determination support during the early commissioning phase using all available two-way range and Doppler tracking from bo th the Deep Space Network and Space Network. This paper summarizes th e results from a linear covariance analysis to determine the type and amount of tracking data required to accurately estimate the spacecraf t state, plan each perigee raising maneuver, and support thruster cal ibration during this phase. The primary focus of this study is the na vigation accuracy required to plan the first and the final perigee ra ising maneuvers. Absolute and relative position and velocity error hi stories are generated for all cases and summarized in terms of the ma ximum root-sum-square consider and measurement noise error contributi ons over the definitive and predictive arcs and at discrete times inc luding the maneuver planning and execution times. Details of the meth odology, orbital characteristics, maneuver timeline, error models, and error sensitivities are provided.

  14. Tomographic retrieval of water vapour and temperature around polar mesospheric clouds using Odin-SMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Christensen


    Full Text Available A special observation mode of the Odin satellite provides the first simultaneous measurements of water vapour, temperature and polar mesospheric cloud (PMC brightness over a large geographical area while still resolving both horizontal and vertical structures in the clouds and background atmosphere. The observation mode has been activated during June, July and August of 2010, 2011 and 2014, and for latitudes between 50 and 82° N. This paper focuses on the water vapour and temperature measurements carried out with Odin's sub-millimetre radiometer (SMR. The tomographic retrieval approach used provides water vapour and temperature between 75–90 km with a vertical resolution of about 2.5 km and a horizontal resolution of about 200 km. The precision of the measurements is estimated to 0.5 ppm for water vapour and 3 K for temperature. Due to limited information about the pressure at the measured altitudes, the results have large uncertainties (> 3 ppm in the retrieved water vapour. These errors, however, influence mainly the mean atmosphere retrieved for each orbit, and variations around this mean are still reliably captured by the measurements. SMR measurements are performed using two different mixer chains, denoted as frequency mode 19 and 13. Systematic differences between the two frontends have been noted. A first comparison with the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment instrument (SOFIE on-board the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM satellite and the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE-FTS on-board SCISAT indicates that the measurements using the frequency mode 19 have a significant low bias in both temperature (> 20 K and water vapour (> 1 ppm, while the measurements using frequency mode 13 agree with the other instruments considering estimated errors. PMC brightness data are provided by the OSIRIS, Odin's other sensor. Combined SMR and OSIRIS data for some example orbits are considered. For these

  15. Optical Nanoprobing via Spin-Orbit Interaction of Light (United States)

    Rodríguez-Herrera, Oscar G.; Lara, David; Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Ostrovskaya, Elena A.; Dainty, Chris


    We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that high-numerical-aperture (NA) optical microscopy is accompanied by strong spin-orbit interaction of light, which translates fine information about the specimen to the polarization degrees of freedom of light. An 80 nm gold nanoparticle scattering the light in the focus of a high-NA objective generates angular momentum conversion, which is seen as a nonuniform polarization distribution at the exit pupil. We demonstrate remarkable sensitivity of the effect to the position of the nanoparticle: Its subwavelength displacement produces the giant spin-Hall effect, i.e., macroseparation of spins in the outgoing light. This brings forth a far-field optical nanoprobing technique based on the spin-orbit interaction of light.

  16. Laser induced electron diffraction: a tool for molecular orbital imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Michel; Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman


    We explore the laser-induced ionization dynamics of N2 and CO2 molecules subjected to a few-cycle, linearly polarized, 800\\,nm laser pulse using effective two-dimensional single active electron time-dependent quantum simulations. We show that the electron recollision process taking place after an initial tunnel ionization stage results in quantum interference patterns in the energy resolved photo-electron signals. If the molecule is initially aligned perpendicular to the field polarization, the position and relative heights of the associated fringes can be related to the molecular geometrical and orbital structure, using a simple inversion algorithm which takes into account the symmetry of the initial molecular orbital from which the ionized electron is produced. We show that it is possible to extract inter-atomic distances in the molecule from an averaged photon-electron signal with an accuracy of a few percents.

  17. Higher and colder: The success and failure of boundaries in high altitude and Antarctic research stations. (United States)

    Heggie, Vanessa


    This article offers a series of case studies of field stations and field laboratories based at high altitudes in the Alps, Himalayas and Antarctica, which have been used by Western scientists (largely physiologists and physicists) from circa 1820 to present. It rejects the common frame for work on such spaces that polarizes a set of generalizations about practices undertaken in 'the field' versus 'the laboratory'. Field sites are revealed as places that can be used to highlight common and crucial features of modern experimental science that are exposed by, but not uniquely the properties of, fieldwork. This includes heterogeneity of population and practice, diverse afterlives, the manner in which spaces of science construct individual and group expertise, and the extensive support and funding structures needed for modern scientific work.

  18. The impact of high altitude aircraft on the ozone layer in the stratosphere (United States)

    Tie, Xue XI; Brasseur, Guy; Lin, Xing; Friedlingstein, P.; Granier, Claire; Rasch, Philip


    The paper discusses the potential effects on the ozone layer of gases released by the engines of proposed high altitude supersonic aircraft. The major problem arises from the emissions of nitrogen oxides which have the potential to destroy significant quantities of ozone in the stratosphere. The magnitude of the perturbation is highly dependent on the cruise altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the depletion of ozone is substantially reduced when heterogeneous conversion of nitrogen oxides into nitric acid on sulfate aerosol particles is taken into account in the calculation. The sensitivity of the aerosol load on stratospheric ozone is investigated. First, the model indicates that the aerosol load induced by the SO2 released by aircraft is increased by about 10-20% above the background aerosols at mid-high latitude of the Northern Hemisphere at 15 km for the NASA emission scenario A (the NASA emission scenarios are explained in Tables I to III). This increase in aerosol has small effects on stratospheric ozone. Second, when the aerosol load is increased following a volcanic eruption similar to the eruption of El Chichon (Mexico, April 1982), the ozone column in spring increases by as much as 9% in response to the injection of NOx from the aircraft with the NASA emission scenario A. Finally, the modeled suggests that significant ozone depletion could result from the formation of additional polar stratospheric clouds produced by the injection of H2O and HNO3 by the aircraft engines.

  19. Sensitivity of Stratospheric Geoengineering with Black Carbon to Aerosol Size and Altitude of Injection (United States)

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Shindell, Drew T.; Miller, Mark A.


    Simulations of stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon (BC) aerosols using a general circulation model with fixed sea surface temperatures show that the climate effects strongly depend on aerosol size and altitude of injection. 1 Tg BC/a injected into the lower stratosphere would cause little surface cooling for large radii but a large amount of surface cooling for small radii and stratospheric warming of over 60 C. With the exception of small particles, increasing the altitude of injection increases surface cooling and stratospheric warming. Stratospheric warming causes global ozone loss by up to 50% in the small radius case. The Antarctic shows less ozone loss due to reduction of polar stratospheric clouds, but strong circumpolar winds would enhance the Arctic ozone hole. Using diesel fuel to produce the aerosols is likely prohibitively expensive and infeasible. Although studying an absorbing aerosol is a useful counterpart to previous studies involving sulfate aerosols, black carbon geoengineering likely carries too many risks to make it a viable option for deployment.

  20. Static and dynamic stability analysis of the space shuttle vehicle-orbiter (United States)

    Chyu, W. J.; Cavin, R. K.; Erickson, L. L.


    The longitudinal static and dynamic stability of a Space Shuttle Vehicle-Orbiter (SSV Orbiter) model is analyzed using the FLEXSTAB computer program. Nonlinear effects are accounted for by application of a correction technique in the FLEXSTAB system; the technique incorporates experimental force and pressure data into the linear aerodynamic theory. A flexible Orbiter model is treated in the static stability analysis for the flight conditions of Mach number 0.9 for rectilinear flight (1 g) and for a pull-up maneuver (2.5 g) at an altitude of 15.24 km. Static stability parameters and structural deformations of the Orbiter are calculated at trim conditions for the dynamic stability analysis, and the characteristics of damping in pitch are investigated for a Mach number range of 0.3 to 1.2. The calculated results for both the static and dynamic stabilities are compared with the available experimental data.