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Sample records for altitude nuclear explosion

  1. Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R

    2002-11-13

    In 1962, several satellites were lost following high altitude nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union. These satellite failures were caused by energetic electrons injected into the earth's radiation belts from the beta decay of bomb produced fission fragments and neutrons. It has been 40 years since the last high altitude nuclear test; there are now many more satellites in orbit, and it is important to understand their vulnerability to radiation belt pumping from nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space. This report presents the results of a calculation of the contribution of neutron beta decay to artificial belt pumping. For most high altitude nuclear explosions, neutrons are expected to make a smaller contribution than fission products to the total trapped electron inventory, and their contribution is usually neglected. However, the neutron contribution may dominate in cases where the fission product contribution is suppressed due to the altitude or geomagnetic latitude of the nuclear explosion, and for regions of the radiation belts with field lines far from the detonation point. In any case, an accurate model of belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions, and a self-consistent explanation of the 1962 data, require inclusion of the neutron contribution. One recent analysis of satellite measurements of electron flux from the 1962 tests found that a better fit to the data is obtained if the neutron contribution to the trapped electron inventory was larger than that of the fission products [l]. Belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions is a complicated process. Fission fragments are dispersed as part of the ionized bomb debris, which is constrained and guided by the earth's magnetic field. Those fission products that beta decay before being lost to the earth's atmosphere can contribute trapped energetic electrons to the earth's radiation belts. There has been a large effort to develop computer models for

  2. Possible ozone depletions following nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Turco, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The degree of depletion of the ozone layer ensuing after delivery of strategic nuclear warheads (5000 and 10,000 Mton) due to production of nitrogen oxides is theoretically assessed. Strong depletions are calculated for 16-km and 26-km altitudes, peaking 1-2 months after detonation and lasting for three years, while a significant depletion at 36 km would peak after one year. Assuming the explosions occur between 30 and 70 deg N, these effects should be much more pronounced in this region than over the Northern Hemisphere as a whole. It is concluded that Hampson's concern on this matter (1974) is well-founded.-

  3. The effect of energetic electron impact ionization on radiation ionization process of high-altitude nuclear explosion%高能电子碰撞电离对高空核爆炸辐射电离的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳建明; 马燕云; 邵福球; 邹德滨

    2012-01-01

    The X-ray ionizations and atmospheric temporal evolutions of different altitude nuclear explosions at different distances are numerically simulated. The effects of energetic electron impact ionization on radiation ionization process are analyzed in this paper. It is concluded that the energetic electron impact ionization process is important for radiation ionization, and in the case of 1 kt equivalent explosion at 80 km, the electron density at 1.5 km distance from explosion center increases two orders because of the energetic electron impact ionization. In 5 μs the spectral energy distribution of energetic electrons varies with time, and the number density of energetic electrons decaying with electron energy will present an approximately negative exponential distribution. The peak time of electron density and the influence area of ionization increase with explosion altitude increasing. The ionization effect for 1 kt equivalent explosion at 80 km has an important influence on micro-wave communication in a 100 km range.%利用数值模拟程序模拟了不同高度核爆炸下距离爆点不同位置处大气的x射线电离及演化过程,分析了高能电子碰撞电离过程对高空核爆炸电离效应的影响.结果表明:高能电子碰撞电离过程对高空核爆炸的电离结果产生了重要影响,在80km爆高1kt当量高空核爆炸条件下,在距离爆点1.5km处高能电子的碰撞电离效应使得电子的峰值数密度提高了约2个数量级;随着时间的增加,高能电子能谱逐渐向低能方向发展,在5μs后高能电子数密度随电子能量近似呈负指数分布;电子峰值时间与爆高有关,随着爆高的增加而增大,电离的影响区域也随着爆高的增加而增大.在80km爆高1kt当量情况下电离效应对近百千米范围内的微波通信具有严重影响.

  4. Nuclear Explosions 1945-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergkvist, Nils-Olov; Ferm, Ragnhild

    2000-07-01

    The main part of this report is a list of nuclear explosions conducted by the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, China, India and Pakistan in 1945-98. The list includes all known nuclear test explosions and is compiled from a variety of sources including officially published information from the USA, Russia and France. The details given for each explosion (date, origin time, location, yield, type, etc.) are often compiled from more than one source because the individual sources do not give complete information. The report includes a short background to nuclear testing and provides brief information on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and the verification regime now being established to verify compliance with the treaty. It also summarizes nuclear testing country by country. The list should be used with some caution because its compilation from a variety of sources means that some of the data could be incorrect. This report is the result of cooperation between the Defence Research Establishment (FOA) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

  5. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  6. Medusa: Nuclear explosive propulsion for interplanetary travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Johndale C.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the deleterious effects of galactic cosmic radiation, solar flares, zero gravity and psychological stress, there is strong motivation to develop high-specific-impulse and high-thrust spacecraft for rapid transport of astronauts between planets. A novel spacecraft design is presented using a large lightweight sail (spinnaker) driven by pressure pulses from a series of nuclear explosions. The spacecraft appears to be a singularly competent and economical vehicle for high-speed interplanetary travel. The mass of the spinnaker is theoretically independent of the size of its canopy or the length of its tethers. Consequently, the canopy can be made very large to minimize radiation damage from the nuclear explosions and the tethers can be made very long to mitigate radiation hazard to the crew. The pressure from the nuclear explosion imparts a large impulsive acceleration to the lightweight spinnaker, which must be translated to a small smooth acceleration of the space capsule either by using the elasticity of the tethers or a servo winch in the space capsule, or a combination of the two. If elasticity alone is used, the maximum acceleration suffered by the space capsule is inversely propotional to the tether length. The use of very long tethers allows the spacecraft to achieve high velocities without using an exceedingly large number of bombs, a feature unavailable to previous forms of nuclear-explosive propulsion. Should the political questions connected with an unconventional use of nuclear explosives be favorably resolved, the proposal will be a good candidate for propulsion in the Mars mission.

  7. Digitization of Nuclear Explosion Seismograms from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    17 4.2. Nuclear Explosions, Lop Nor Test Site, China ...................................................... 20 4.3 Earthquakes, Lop Nor...77 Appendix C. Digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions at the Lop Nor Test Site........87 Appendix D. Digitized...seismograms of earthquakes in the Lop Nor test site region....... 101 Appendix E. Digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site

  8. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  9. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  10. HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R

    2010-05-02

    Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions exist. Pipe ruptures at nuclear facilities were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, in nuclear facilities, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents an ignition source for hydrogen was questionable, but these accidents, demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein.

  11. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions; Phenomenologie generale des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [French] On donne une description essentiellement qualitative des phenomenes lies aux explosions nucleaires souterraines (explosion d'un seul engin, d'engins en ligne et explosions simultanees). Dans un premier chapitre sont decrits les phenomenes communs aux explosions contenues et aux explosions formant un cratere (formation et propagation d'une onde de choc provoquant la vaporisation, la fusion et la fracturation du milieu). Le deuxieme chapitre decrit les phenomenes lies aux tirs contenus (formation d'une cavite et d'une cheminee). Le troisieme chapitre est consacre a la phenomenologie des tirs formant un cratere et decrit notamment le mecanisme de formation et les differents types de crateres en fonction de la profondeur d'explosion et de la nature du terrain. Les phenomenes aeriens lies aux explosions formant un cratere: onde de pression aerienne et focalisation a grande distance, nuages de poussieres, sont egalement abordes. (auteurs)

  12. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program - Strategic Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A. [DOE/NNSA

    2004-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (NEM R&E) Program is dedicated to providing knowledge, technical expertise, and products to US agencies responsible for monitoring nuclear explosions in all environments and is successful in turning scientific breakthroughs into tools for use by operational monitoring agencies. To effectively address the rapidly evolving state of affairs, the NNSA NEM R&E program is structured around three program elements described within this strategic plan: Integration of New Monitoring Assets, Advanced Event Characterization, and Next-Generation Monitoring Systems. How the Program fits into the National effort and historical accomplishments are also addressed.

  13. Benefits of explosive cutting for nuclear-facility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.; Allen, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    The study discussed in this report was a cost/benefit analysis to determine: (1) whether explosive cutting is cost effective in comparison with alternative metal sectioning methods and (2) whether explosive cutting would reduce radiation exposure or provide other benefits. Two separate approaches were pursued. The first was to qualitatively assess cutting methods and factors involved in typical sectioning cases and then compare the results for the cutting methods. The second was to prepare estimates of work schedules and potential radiation exposures for candidate sectioning methods for two hypothetical, but typical, sectioning tasks. The analysis shows that explosive cutting would be cost effective and would also reduce radiation exposure when used for typical nuclear facility sectioning tasks. These results indicate that explosive cutting should be one of the principal cutting methods considered whenever steel or similar metal structures or equipment in a nuclear facility are to be sectioned for repair or decommissioning. 13 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)

  14. The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    2000-07-26

    During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

  15. 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    TR-14-18 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. March...the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database”, AFRL-VS-PS-TR- 2006-1079, Air Force Research Laboratory...Roth, B., “Blue Ribbon Panel and Support Work Assessing the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database

  16. Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research & Development - A Physics Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blom, Philip Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maccarthy, Jonathan K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marcillo, Omar Eduardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Euler, Garrett Gene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ford, Sean R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Pasyanos, Michael E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Orris, Gregory J. [Naval Research Laboratory; Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Sandia National Laboratory; Merchant, B. John [Sandia National Laboratory; Slinkard, Megan E. [Sandia National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    This document entitled “Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development – A Physics Perspective” reviews the accessible literature, as it relates to nuclear explosion monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT, 1996), for four research areas: source physics (understanding signal generation), signal propagation (accounting for changes through physical media), sensors (recording the signals), and signal analysis (processing the signal). Over 40 trends are addressed, such as moving from 1D to 3D earth models, from pick-based seismic event processing to full waveform processing, and from separate treatment of mechanical waves in different media to combined analyses. Highlighted in the document for each trend are the value and benefit to the monitoring mission, key papers that advanced the science, and promising research and development for the future.

  17. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring History and Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, W. L.; Zucca, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Within a year after the nuclear detonations over Hiroshima and Nagasaki the Baruch Plan was presented to the newly formed United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (June 14, 1946) to establish nuclear disarmament and international control over all nuclear activities. These controls would allow only the peaceful use of atomic energy. The plan was rejected through a Security Council veto primarily because of the resistance to unlimited inspections. Since that time there have been many multilateral, and bilateral agreements, and unilateral declarations to limit or eliminate nuclear detonations. Almost all of theses agreements (i.e. treaties) call for some type of monitoring. We will review a timeline showing the history of nuclear testing and the more important treaties. We will also describe testing operations, containment, phenomenology, and observations. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which has been signed by 179 countries (ratified by 144) established the International Monitoring System global verification regime which employs seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring techniques. The CTBT also includes on-site inspection to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty. The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Nuclear Security Agency's Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Program supports research by US National Laboratories, and universities and industry internationally to detect, locate, and identify nuclear detonations. This research program builds on the broad base of monitoring expertise developed over several decades. Annually the DOE and the US Department of Defense jointly solicit monitoring research proposals. Areas of research include: seismic regional characterization and wave propagation, seismic event detection and location, seismic identification and source characterization, hydroacoustic monitoring, radionuclide monitoring, infrasound monitoring, and

  18. Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethe, H. A.

    1950-01-31

    The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)

  19. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The Use of Nuclear Explosives To Disrupt or Divert Asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearborn, D S; Patenaude, S; Managan, R A

    2007-02-20

    Nuclear explosives are a mature technology with well-characterized effects. Proposed utilizations include a near asteroid burst to ablate surface material and nudge the body to a safer orbit, or a direct sub-surface burst to fragment the body. For this latter method, previous estimates suggest that for times as short as 1000 days, over 99.999% of the material is diverted, and no longer impacts the Earth, a huge mitigation factor. To better understand these possibilities, we have used a multidimensional radiation/hydrodynamics code to simulate sub-surface and above surface bursts on an inhomogeneous, 1 km diameter body with an average density of 2 g/cc. The body, or fragments (up to 750,000) are then tracked along 4 representative orbits to determine the level of mitigation achieved. While our code has been well tested in simulations on terrestrial structures, the greatest uncertainty in these results lies in the input. These results, particularly the effort to nudge a body into a different orbit, are dependant on NEO material properties, like the dissipation of unconsolidated material in a low gravity environment, as well as the details on an individual body's structure. This problem exists in simulating the effect of any mitigation technology. In addition to providing an greater understanding of the results of applying nuclear explosives to NEO-like bodies, these simulations suggest what must be learned about these bodies to improve the predictive capabilities. Finally, we will comment on some of the popular misinformation abounding about the utility of nuclear explosives.

  1. A Hydrogen Ignition Mechanism for Explosions in Nuclear Facility Piping Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, Robert A.

    2013-09-18

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  2. SUBJECTIVE ASSESSMENTS OF RADIATION RISK ON THE TERRITORIES ADJACENT TO THE PLACES OF PEACEFUL NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Arkhangelskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains results of public opinion assessment of the radiation hazard due to consequences of two accidental peaceful nuclear explosions: Globus-1 in the Ivanovo region and Dnepr-1, Dnepr-2 in the Murmansk region. Results of query poll reveal that population knows about peaceful nuclear explosions that were done many years ago near their settlement. Radiation hazard and territory contamination due to these events is estimated by population as rather high. This public opinion is reflected in the information about consequences of peaceful nuclear explosions presented in the Internet and local printed mass media, especially due to consequences of accidental peaceful nuclear explosion Globus-1.

  3. Earthquake and nuclear explosion location using the global seismic network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    The relocation of nuclear explosions, aftershock sequence and regional seismicity is addressed by using joint hypocenter determination, Lomnitz' distance domain location, and origin time and earthquake depth determination with local observations. Distance domain and joint hypocenter location are used for a stepwise relocation of nuclear explosions in the USSR. The resulting origin times are 2.5 seconds earlier than those obtained by ISC. Local travel times from the relocated explosions are compared to Jeffreys-Bullen tables. P times are found to be faster at 9-30/sup 0/ distances, the largest deviation being around 10 seconds at 13-18/sup 0/. At these distances S travel times also are faster by approximately 20 seconds. The 1977 Sumba earthquake sequence is relocated by iterative joint hypocenter determination of events with most station reports. Simultaneously determined station corrections are utilized for the relocation of smaller aftershocks. The relocated hypocenters indicate that the aftershocks were initially concentrated along the deep trench. Origin times and depths are recalculated for intermediate depth and deep earthquakes using local observations in and around the Japanese Islands. It is found that origin time and depth differ systematically from ISC values for intermediate depth events. Origin times obtained for events below the crust down to 100 km depth are earlier, whereas no general bias seem to exist for origin times of events in the 100-400 km depth range. The recalculated depths for earthquakes shallower than 100 km are shallower than ISC depths. The depth estimates for earthquakes deeper than 100 km were increased by the recalculations.

  4. A Safer Nuclear Enterprise - Application to Nuclear Explosive Safety (NES)(U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Tommy J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-05

    Activities and infrastructure that support nuclear weapons are facing significant challenges. Despite an admirable record and firm commitment to make safety a primary criterion in weapons design, production, handling, and deployment - there is growing apprehension about terrorist acquiring weapons or nuclear material. At the NES Workshop in May 2012, Scott Sagan, who is a proponent of the normal accident cycle, presented. Whether a proponent of the normal accident cycle or High Reliability Organizations - we have to be diligent about our safety record. Constant vigilance is necessary to maintain our admirable safety record and commitment to Nuclear Explosive Safety.

  5. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  6. DTRA's Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.; Dainty, A.; Phillips, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has a Program in Basic Research and Development for Nuclear Explosion Technology within the Nuclear Treaties Branch of the Arms Control Technology Division. While the funding justification is Arms Control Treaties (i.e., Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, CTBT), the results are made available for any user. Funding for the Program has averaged around \\10m per year recently. By Congressional mandate, the program has disbursed money through competitive, peer-reviewed, Program Research and Development Announcements (PRDAs); there is usually (but not always) a PRDA each year. Typical awards have been for about three years at ~\\100,000 per year, currently there are over 60 contracts in place. In addition to the "typical" awards, there was an initiative 2000 to fund seismic location calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT; there are three three-year contracts of ~\\$1,000,000 per year to perform such calibration for Eurasia, and North Africa and the Middle East. Scientifically, four technological areas have been funded, corresponding to the four technologies in the IMS: seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide, with the lion's share of the funding going to the seismic area. The scientific focus of the Program for all four technologies is detection of signals, locating their origin, and trying to determine of they are unambiguously natural in origin ("event screening"). Location has been a particular and continuing focus within the Program.

  7. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  8. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-05-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock. In order to learn more about the response of hard rock to underground nuclear explosions, we have attempted to model the PILEDRIVER event. PILEDRIVER was fired on June 2, 1966 in the granite stock of Area 15 at the Nevada Test Site. The working point was at a depth of 462.7 m and the yield was determined to be 61 kt. Numerous surface, sub-surface and free-field measurements were made and analyzed by SRI. An attempt was made to determine the contribution of spall to the teleseismic signal, but proved unsuccessful because most of the data from below-shot-level gauges was lost. Nonetheless, there is quite a bit of good quality data from a variety of locations. We have been able to obtain relatively good agreement with the experimental PILEDRIVER waveforms. In order to do so, we had to model the granodiorite as being considerably weaker than ``good quality`` granite, and it had to undergo considerable weakening due to shock damage as well. In addition, the near-surface layers had to be modeled as being weak and compressible and as have a much lower sound speed than the material at depth. The is consistent with a fractured and jointed material at depth, and a weathered material near the surface.

  9. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock. In order to learn more about the response of hard rock to underground nuclear explosions, we have attempted to model the PILEDRIVER event. PILEDRIVER was fired on June 2, 1966 in the granite stock of Area 15 at the Nevada Test Site. The working point was at a depth of 462.7 m and the yield was determined to be 61 kt. Numerous surface, sub-surface and free-field measurements were made and analyzed by SRI. An attempt was made to determine the contribution of spall to the teleseismic signal, but proved unsuccessful because most of the data from below-shot-level gauges was lost. Nonetheless, there is quite a bit of good quality data from a variety of locations. We have been able to obtain relatively good agreement with the experimental PILEDRIVER waveforms. In order to do so, we had to model the granodiorite as being considerably weaker than good quality'' granite, and it had to undergo considerable weakening due to shock damage as well. In addition, the near-surface layers had to be modeled as being weak and compressible and as have a much lower sound speed than the material at depth. The is consistent with a fractured and jointed material at depth, and a weathered material near the surface.

  10. Improvement of Ground Truth Classification of Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.; Bergman, E.

    2016-12-01

    From the 1960's through the late 1980's, the Soviet Union conducted 122 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions across its territory. These PNEs are now very important to the seismological community as so-called Ground Truth (GT) events. The PNE locations are widely distributed, thus GT0-1 locations, meaning that true location is known to within 1 km or better, are used as calibration events for developing seismic velocity models, model validation, seismic discrimination, etc. The nuclear monitoring/verification community generally utilizes published lists of PNE locations as known or verified GT events, though in reality there are errors and some PNEs are poorly located. We have determined or validated GT0-1 locations for 85 of the Soviet PNEs. Some PNEs published as GT1 or better also have larger errors. Our locations were determined using an integrated approach encompassing published open literature, analysis of satellite imagery and regional seismic data. We have visited and verified 10 PNE sites across Kazakhstan and Ukraine, allowing GPS coordinates to be obtained in the field.

  11. Generation of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields during large- scale chemical and nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V. [Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Dynamics of the Geospheres; Dubinya, V.A.; Karaseva, V.A.; Soloviev, S.P.; Surkov, V.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We discuss the main parameters of the electric field in the surface layer of the atmosphere and the results of the investigations of the natural electric field variations. Experimental investigations of the electromagnetic field for explosions in air are presented. Electromagnetic signals generated by underground nuclear and chemical explosions are discussed and explosions for 1976--1991 are listed. Long term anomalies of the earth`s electromagnetic field in the vicinity of underground explosions were also investigated. Study of the phenomenon of the irreversible shock magnetization showed that in the zone nearest to the explosion the quasistatic magnetic field decreases in inverse proportion to the distance.

  12. Discrimination between nuclear explosions and earthquakes based on consideration of tectonic ambient shear stress values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of fracture mechanics earthquake rupture model, the relations between source parameters and t0, the value of tectonic ambient shear stress in the place where the earthquake occurs, have been derived. Thus, we can calculate a large number of values of tectonic ambient shear stress or values of background stress in the place where the earthquake occurs. If nuclear explosions are treated as earthquakes in the calculation, we find that t0 values of nuclear explosions have about 20 MPa, which is obviously higher than average t0 values of earthquakes with the same magnitude. This result can be used to discriminate nuclear explosions from earthquakes.

  13. PUBLIC OPINION ON THE PEACEFUL NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS IN THE PERM TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zelentsova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of public opinion on radiation hazard due to consequences of peaceful nuclear explosions “Taiga” in the Perm Territory is being done on the basis of results of polls done among the population opinion leading representative social groups. Respondents know about the peaceful nuclear explosions conducted near the place of their residence many years ago. Radiation hazard for health and level of territory contamination due to these explosions are estimated by them as sufficiently high. Rumors are the first main source of information about explosions for the population of the Perm Territory. Articles on the consequences of explosions published in the mass media are sporadic and contain unbiased information together with unverified information about serious consequences of explosions for the population health. 

  14. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of remotely sensed data from orbital satellites to the exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels. Geological applications of Landsat data are described including map editing, lithologic identification, structural geology, and mineral exploration. Specific results in fuel exploration are reviewed and a series of related Landsat images is included.

  15. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of remotely sensed data from orbital satellites to the exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels. Geological applications of Landsat data are described including map editing, lithologic identification, structural geology, and mineral exploration. Specific results in fuel exploration are reviewed and a series of related Landsat images is included.

  16. GPS detection and monitoring of underground nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota; von Frese, Ralph; Morton, Yu; Gaya-Pique, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies by Park et al. (2011) revealed that an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) induces the acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and generate the traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID). GPS technique allows for the ionospheric disturbance observation with high accuracy, which, in turn, enables detection of the TID induced by the UNE. This study suggests the detection and verification method of the TID using GPS observations. TID waves can be identified from the continuous data span of the total electron content (TEC) along the ray path between the GPS satellites and the observing stations. Since the TID is a high frequency and low amplitude signal, it should be properly isolated from the raw TEC observation. In this study, we applied the numerical derivative method, referred to as the numerical third order horizontal 3-point derivative method. The detected TID-like signals can be verified by its array signature under the assumption that the TID induced from a point source tends to propagate with the constant speed. Moreover, the location of the point source can be computed using the array pattern of TID observations from multiple GPS stations. In this study, two UNEs conducted by the U.S. in 1992 and two UNEs conducted by North Korea in 2006 and 2009 were investigated. The propagation speed of the U.S. UNEs was about 573 m/s and 740 m/s, respectively, while the recent North Korean UNEs propagation speed was less than 300 m/s. This result can be explained by the explosion yields and the depth of the UNEs: the depth of the US UNEs were about 0.3 km with the explosion yield of up to 20 kiloton, while the North Korean UNEs were at about 1 km depth with the yield of less than a few kilotons. In addition, we observed that the TID waves from these four UNE events were highly correlative, and distinguished from waveforms due to other types of events, such as an earthquake. As a case study, we selected the recent Tohoku earthquake of 2011, and

  17. Merging Infrasound and Electromagnetic Signals as a Means for Nuclear Explosion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Joseph; Lipshtat, Azi; Kesar, Amit S.; Pistinner, Shlomo; Ben Horin, Yochai

    2016-04-01

    The infrasound monitoring network of the CTBT consists of 60 stations. These stations are capable of detecting atmospheric events, and may provide approximate location within time scale of a few hours. However, the nature of these events cannot be deduced from the infrasound signal. More than two decades ago it was proposed to use the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) as a means of discriminating nuclear explosion from other atmospheric events. An EMP is a unique signature of nuclear explosion and is not detected from chemical ones. Nevertheless, it was decided to exclude the EMP technology from the official CTBT verification regime, mainly because of the risk of high false alarm rate, due to lightning electromagnetic pulses [1]. Here we present a method of integrating the information retrieved from the infrasound system with the EMP signal which enables us to discriminate between lightning discharges and nuclear explosions. Furthermore, we show how spectral and other characteristics of the electromagnetic signal emitted from a nuclear explosion are distinguished from those of lightning discharge. We estimate the false alarm probability of detecting a lightning discharge from a given area of the infrasound event, and identifying it as a signature of a nuclear explosion. We show that this probability is very low and conclude that the combination of infrasound monitoring and EMP spectral analysis may produce a reliable method for identifying nuclear explosions. [1] R. Johnson, Unfinished Business: The Negotiation of the CTBT and the End of Nuclear Testing, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 2009.

  18. Noble Gas Migration Experiment to Support the Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Khris B.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Woods, Vincent T.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Lowrey, Justin D.; Lukins, Craig D.; Suarez, Reynold; Humble, Paul H.; Ellefson, Mark D.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Zhong, Lirong; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Emer, Dudley; Biegalski, S.

    2016-03-01

    A Noble Gas Migration Experiment (NGME) funded by the National Center for Nuclear Security and conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory and National Security Technology provided critical on-site inspection (OSI) information related to the detection of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) event using noble gas signatures.

  19. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Explosives Detection Using Magnetic and Nuclear Resonance Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Fraissard, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) a highly promising new technique for bulk explosives detection: relatively inexpensive, more compact than NMR, but with considerable selectivity. Since the NQR frequency is insensitive to long-range variations in composition, mixing explosives with other materials, such as the plasticizers in plastic explosives, makes no difference. The NQR signal strength varies linearly with the amount of explosive, and is independent of its distribution within the volume monitored. NQR spots explosive types in configurations missed by the X-ray imaging method. But if NQR is so good, why it is not used everywhere? Its main limitation is the low signal-to-noise ratio, particularly with the radio-frequency interference that exists in a field environment, NQR polarization being much weaker than that from an external magnetic field. The distinctive signatures are there, but are difficult to extract from the noise. In addition, the high selectivity is partly a disadvantage, as it is hard to bui...

  20. Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear explosions. Final technical report, June 9, 1994--October 9, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, A.A.

    1995-04-01

    It was found that in the first approximation the mechanical effect of underground nuclear explosion is analogous to the effect of chemical explosion. Really qualitative analysis shows that accompanying mechanical effects of nuclear and chemical explosions are the same: in the both cases explosion consequences are characterized by formation of the camouplet cavity (crater after explosion near free surface), destruction of the rock massif near explosion centre, creation of the stress wave, which forms seismoexplosive effect a long distance from explosion epicentre. Qualitative likeness of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions is the base of modelling the mechanical effects of the underground nuclear explosion. In this paper we`ll compare two explosions: nuclear (15-04-84) and chemical (27.06.95) with large power. These explosions were realized at the same geological conditions at Degelen test area, which is a part of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. In the case of the nuclear explosion, the charge was disposed in the face of the deep horizontal gallery. The charge of the chemical explosion was a semisphere from explosives at the rock massif surface. In the both case rock massif behavior after explosions was investigated at underground conditions (in the case of chemical explosion -- in the long underground excavation from explosion epicentre). Mechanical effects from the nuclear and chemical explosions were investigated with the same methods. The changes in geological medium after a large-scale explosive actions will be analyzed in detail too. Investigations of the influence of tectonic energy on the mechanical effects after underground nuclear, explosions represents the main interest. In this paper we`ll discuss this question on the data from underground nuclear explosion, realized 08.09.89 in the deep well at the Balapan test area, at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

  1. Shell and explosive hydrogen burning. Nuclear reaction rates for hydrogen burning in RGB, AGB and Novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeltzig, A. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Bruno, C.G.; Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Cavanna, F.; Ferraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova (Italy); INFN, Genova (Italy); Cristallo, S. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, INAF, Teramo (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Depalo, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); DeBoer, R.J.; Wiescher, M. [University of Notre Dame, Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Notre Dame, Indiana (United States); Di Leva, A.; Imbriani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Marigo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Terrasi, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica Seconda Universita di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    The nucleosynthesis of light elements, from helium up to silicon, mainly occurs in Red Giant and Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and Novae. The relative abundances of the synthesized nuclides critically depend on the rates of the nuclear processes involved, often through non-trivial reaction chains, combined with complex mixing mechanisms. In this paper, we summarize the contributions made by LUNA experiments in furthering our understanding of nuclear reaction rates necessary for modeling nucleosynthesis in AGB stars and Novae explosions. (orig.)

  2. Fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions. 1982 Asilomar Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.B.; Alger, R.S. (eds.)

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a Federal Emergency Management Agency-sponsored Conference on fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions (with passing attention to earthquakes and other nonnuclear mishaps). This conference, the fifth of an annual series (formally called Blast/Fire Interaction Conferences), was held during the week of April 25, 1982, again at Asilomar, California.

  3. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  4. Simulation Study of Near-Surface Coupling of Nuclear Devices vs. Equivalent High-Explosive Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Kevin B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, Otis R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benjamin, Russ [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlop, William H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-29

    A computational study was performed to examine the differences in near-surface ground-waves and air-blast waves generated by high-explosive energy sources and those generated by much higher energy - density low - yield nuclear sources. The study examined the effect of explosive-source emplacement (i.e., height-of-burst, HOB, or depth-of-burial, DOB) over a range from depths of -35m to heights of 20m, for explosions with an explosive yield of 1-kt . The chemical explosive was modeled by a JWL equation-of-state model for a ~14m diameter sphere of ANFO (~1,200,000kg – 1 k t equivalent yield ), and the high-energy-density source was modeled as a one tonne (1000 kg) plasma of ‘Iron-gas’ (utilizing LLNL’s tabular equation-of-state database, LEOS) in a 2m diameter sphere, with a total internal-energy content equivalent to 1 k t . A consistent equivalent-yield coupling-factor approach was developed to compare the behavior of the two sources. The results indicate that the equivalent-yield coupling-factor for air-blasts from 1 k t ANFO explosions varies monotonically and continuously from a nearly perfec t reflected wave off of the ground surface for a HOB ≈ 20m, to a coupling factor of nearly zero at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear air - blast coupling curve, on the other hand, remained nearly equal to a perfectly reflected wave all the way down to HOB’s very near zero, and then quickly dropped to a value near zero for explosions with a DOB ≈ -10m. The near - surface ground - wave traveling horizontally out from the explosive source region to distances of 100’s of meters exhibited equivalent - yield coupling - factors t hat varied nearly linearly with HOB/DOB for the simulated ANFO explosive source, going from a value near zero at HOB ≈ 5m to nearly one at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear-source generated near-surface ground wave coupling-factor remained near zero for almost all HOB’s greater than zero, and then appeared to vary nearly - linearly with depth

  5. Nuclear subsurface explosion modeling and hydrodynamic fragmentation simulation of hazardous asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Pavithra Dhanuka

    Disruption and fragmentation of an asteroid using nuclear explosive devices (NEDs) is a highly complex yet a practical solution to mitigating the impact threat of asteroids with short warning time. A Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) concept, developed at the Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC), consists of a primary vehicle that acts as kinetic impactor and a secondary vehicle that houses NEDs. The kinetic impactor (lead vehicle) strikes the asteroid creating a crater. The secondary vehicle will immediately enter the crater and detonate its nuclear payload creating a blast wave powerful enough to fragment the asteroid. The nuclear subsurface explosion modeling and hydrodynamic simulation has been a challenging research goal that paves the way an array of mission critical information. A mesh-free hydrodynamic simulation method, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) was utilized to obtain both qualitative and quantitative solutions for explosion efficiency. Commercial fluid dynamics packages such as AUTODYN along with the in-house GPU accelerated SPH algorithms were used to validate and optimize high-energy explosion dynamics for a variety of test cases. Energy coupling from the NED to the target body was also examined to determine the effectiveness of nuclear subsurface explosions. Success of a disruption mission also depends on the survivability of the nuclear payload when the secondary vehicle approaches the newly formed crater at a velocity of 10 km/s or higher. The vehicle may come into contact with debris ejecting the crater which required the conceptual development of a Whipple shield. As the vehicle closes on the crater, its skin may also experience extreme temperatures due to heat radiated from the crater bottom. In order to address this thermal problem, a simple metallic thermal shield design was implemented utilizing a radiative heat transfer algorithm and nodal solutions obtained from hydrodynamic simulations.

  6. Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Datasets for Seismic Research and Nuclear Test Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, S. B.; Morozov, I. B.; Morozova, E. A.; Richards, P. G.; Solodilov, L. N.

    2001-12-01

    Within the next four years, IRIS databases will receive from the University of Wyoming and GEON recordings from nine ultra-long range Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) projects conducted between 1970-1989 in the former Soviet Union: QUARTZ, CRATON, KIMBERLITE, METEORITE, RIFT, RUBY, BATHOLIT, BAZALT, and AGATE. Jointly sponsored by the Department of Defense and National Science Foundation, this effort will bring the unique recordings of 22 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs) and hundreds of crustal-scale chemical shots to the broad seismological and monitoring research communities. A grid of reversed PNE profiles (plus fan recording for RUBY) covers the East European Platform, the Ural Mountains, the West Siberian Platform, the Siberian craton, and the Baikal Rift. Dense, 3-component, short-period recordings along these profiles provide a valuable source of seismic information for seismic calibration of these vast aseismic regions. DSS recordings offer unique opportunities to study propagation effects of body waves and regional seismic phases, to examine their correlation with geologic and tectonic features, to develop unusually well constrained models of the structure of the crust and upper mantle to 600-700 km depth, and to explore the variability of explosion discriminants such as spectral ratios of P- and S-waves. Though the data principally concern properties of the crust and upper mantle, some of the profiles also show strong reflections from the core-mantle boundary. We summarize the recent findings from the analysis of PNE datasets in Northern Eurasia. These results include (1) unusually detailed velocity and attenuation structure of the crust and uppermost mantle, (2) characterization of crustal attenuation through coda measurements, (3) constraints on seismic scattering from within the crust and uppermost mantle, (4) detailed imaging of the crustal basement using receiver functions, (5) continuous observations of the regional phases from the PNEs within 0

  7. Detection of explosives, shielded nuclear materials and other hazardous substances in cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Vakhtin, Dmitry; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Kalinin, Valery

    2006-05-01

    Nanosecond Neutron Analysis / Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) has been used to create devices for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. Explosives and other hazardous materials are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays form reactions of fast neutrons with the materials inside the container. Depending on the dimensions of the inspected containers, the detecting system consists of one or several detection modules, each of which contains a small neutron generator with built-in position sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. Array of several detectors of fast neutrons is used to detect neutrons from spontaneous and induced fission of nuclear materials. These neutrons can penetrate thick layers of lead shielding, which can be used to conceal gamma-radioactivity from nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 code was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Capability of the device to detect 1 kg of explosive imitator inside container filled with suitcases and other baggage items has been confirmed experimentally. First experiments with heavily shielded nuclear materials have been carried out.

  8. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  9. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  10. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  11. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  12. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F [Editor

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  13. Estimation Source Parameters of Large-Scale Chemical Surface Explosions and Recent Underground Nuclear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.; Kim, S.; Hofstetter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale surface explosions were conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR), Negev desert: 82 tons of strong HE explosives in August 2009, and 10&100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. The main goal was to provide strong controlled sources in different wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations. Numerous dense observations of blast waves were provided by high-pressure, acoustic and seismic sensors at near-source ( 2000 tons) ANFO surface shots at White Sands Military Range (WSMR) were analyzed for SS time delay. The Secondary Shocks were revealed on the records in the range 1.5-60 km and showed consistency with the SMR data, thus extending the charge and distance range for the developed SS delay relationship. Obtained results suggest that measured SS delays can provide important information about an explosion source character, and can be used as a new simple cost-effective yield estimator for explosions with known type of explosives. The new results are compared with analogous available data of surface nuclear explosions. Special distinctions in air-blast waves are revealed and analyzed, resulting from the different source phenomenology (energy release). Two underground nuclear explosions conducted by North Korea in 2009 and 2013 were recorded by several stations of Israel Seismic Network. Pronounced minima (spectral nulls) at 1.2-1.3 Hz were revealed in the spectra of teleseismic P-waves. For a ground-truth explosion with a shallow source depth (relatively to an earthquake), this phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of the interference between the down-going P-wave energy and the pP phase reflected from the Earth's surface. A similar effect was observed before at ISN stations for the Pakistan explosion (28.05.98) at a different frequency 1.7 Hz indicating the source- and not site-effect. Based on the null frequency dependency on the near-surface acoustic velocity and the source depth, the depth of

  14. Possibility of Systematic Study of Supernova Explosions by Nuclear Imaging Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Mizumura, Yoshitaka; Takada, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    An all-sky monitor with nuclear imaging spectroscopy is a promising tool for the systematic study of supernova explosions. In particular, progenitor scenarios of type-Ia supernovae, which are not yet well understood, can be resolved using light curves in the nuclear gamma-ray band. Here we report an expected result of an all-sky monitor with imaging spectroscopy using electron-tracking Compton camera, which will enable us to observe nuclear gamma-ray lines from type-Ia supernovae.

  15. Tracing airborne particles after Japan's nuclear plant explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Hisashi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2011-11-01

    The powerful Tohoku earthquake and consequent tsunami that occurred off the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 devastated dozens of coastal cities and towns, causing the loss of more than 15,000 lives and leaving close to 4000 people still missing. Although nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, located on the Pacific coast, stopped their operation automatically upon the occurrence of the Mw 9.0 quake [Showstack, 2011], the cooling system for nuclear fuel broke down. From 12 to 16 March, vapor and hydrogen blasts destroyed the buildings that had contained the reactors, resulting in the release into the atmosphere of radioactive materials such as sulfur-35, iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137, which collectively can cause harmful health effects such as tissue damage and increased risk of cancer (particularly in children), depending on dose. Most of those materials emitted from the power plant rained out onto the grounds within its vicinity and forced tens of thousands within a 20-kilometer radius to evacuate (residents to the northwest of the site within about 40 kilometers also were moved from their homes). Some of the radioactive materials were transported and then detected at such distant locations as North America and Europe, although the level of radiation dose was sufficiently low not to affect human health in any significant manner.

  16. Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, N. Jill [Editor

    2002-09-17

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration, held 17-19 September, 2002 in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  17. Measurements of Argon-39 at the U20az underground nuclear explosion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J I; Aalseth, C E; Alexander, T R; Back, H O; Bellgraph, B J; Bowyer, T W; Chipman, V; Cooper, M W; Day, A R; Drellack, S; Foxe, M P; Fritz, B G; Hayes, J C; Humble, P; Keillor, M E; Kirkham, R R; Krogstad, E J; Lowrey, J D; Mace, E K; Mayer, M F; Milbrath, B D; Misner, A; Morley, S M; Panisko, M E; Olsen, K B; Ripplinger, M D; Seifert, A; Suarez, R

    2017-07-26

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory reports on the detection of (39)Ar at the location of an underground nuclear explosion on the Nevada Nuclear Security Site. The presence of (39)Ar was not anticipated at the outset of the experimental campaign but results from this work demonstrated that it is present, along with (37)Ar and (85)Kr in the subsurface at the site of an underground nuclear explosion. Our analysis showed that by using state-of-the-art technology optimized for radioargon measurements, it was difficult to distinguish (39)Ar from the fission product (85)Kr. Proportional counters are currently used for high-sensitivity measurement of (37)Ar and (39)Ar. Physical and chemical separation processes are used to separate argon from air or soil gas, yielding pure argon with contaminant gases reduced to the parts-per-million level or below. However, even with purification at these levels, the beta decay signature of (85)Kr can be mistaken for that of (39)Ar, and the presence of either isotope increases the measurement background level for the measurement of (37)Ar. Measured values for the (39)Ar measured at the site ranged from 36,000 milli- Becquerel/standard-cubic-meter-of-air (mBq/SCM) for shallow bore holes to 997,000 mBq/SCM from the rubble chimney from the underground nuclear explosion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Francesca C [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Hanson, Stephanie [Editor; Mark, Carol [Editor; Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor

    2004-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, held 21-23 September, 2004 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Francesca C. [Editor; Mendius, E. Louise [Editor

    2003-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Comparison of Relative Radionuclide Ratios in Debris from the Third and the Fifth Chinese Nuclear Test Explosions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil

    1967-01-01

    Of the five first Chinese nuclear test explosions, No. 3 and No. 5 detonated on May 9, 1966, and December 28, 1966, respectively, have been the most powerful. According to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission1 both explosions were in the lower end of the intermediate range, that is, they corresponde...

  3. Seismic Source Characteristics of Nuclear and Chemical Explosions in Granite from Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heming; Rodgers, Arthur J.; Lomov, Ilya N.; Vorobiev, Oleg Y.

    2014-03-01

    Seismic source characteristics of low-yield (0.5-5 kt) underground explosions are inferred from hydrodynamic simulations using a granite material model on high-performance (parallel) computers. We use a non-linear rheological model for granite calibrated to historical near-field nuclear test data. Equivalent elastic P-wave source spectra are derived from the simulated hydrodynamic response using reduced velocity potentials. Source spectra and parameters are compared with the models of M ueller and M urphy (Bull Seism Soc Am 61:1675-1692, 1971, hereafter MM71) and D enny and J ohnson (Explosion source phenomenology, pp 1-24, 1991, hereafter DJ91). The source spectra inferred from the simulations of different yields at normal scaled depth-of-burial (SDOB) match the MM71 spectra reasonably well. For normally buried nuclear explosions, seismic moments are larger for the hydrodynamic simulations than MM71 (by 25 %) and for DJ91 (by over a factor of 2), however, the scaling of moment with yield across this low-yield range is consistent for our calculations and the two models. Spectra from our simulations show higher corner frequencies at the lower end of the 0.5-5.0 kt yield range and stronger variation with yield than the MM71 and DJ91 models predict. The spectra from our simulations have additional energy above the corner frequency, probably related to non-linear near-source effects, but at high frequencies the spectral slopes agree with the f -2 predictions of MM71. Simulations of nuclear explosions for a range of SDOB from 0.5 to 3.9 show stronger variations in the seismic moment than predicted by the MM71 and DJ91 models. Chemical explosions are found to generate higher moments by a factor of about two compared to nuclear explosions of the same yield in granite and at normal depth-of-burial, broadly consistent with comparisons of nuclear and chemical shots at the US Nevada Test Site (D enny, Proceeding of symposium on the non-proliferation experiment, Rockville

  4. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  5. Development of Software to Digitize Historic Hardcopy Seismograms from Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    and teleseismic observations of the NTS events JORUM and HANDLEY, Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 71: 56–67. Lay, T. (1991). The teleseismic manifestation...Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 86. Mitchell, B. J. and M. Landisman (1969). Electromagnetic seismograph constants by least-squares inversion, Bull. Seism ...Helmberger, G.R. Engen (1983). Evidence of tectonic release from underground nuclear explosions in long-period P waves, Bull. Seism . Soc. Am. 73: 593–613

  6. The science case for 37Ar as a monitor for underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Derek A.; Orrell, John L.; Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hayes, James C.

    2010-06-04

    A new calculation of the production of 37Ar from nuclear explosion neutron interactions on 40Ca in a suite of common sub-surface materials (rock, etc) is presented. Even in mineral structures that are relatively low in Ca, the resulting 37Ar signature is large enough for detection in cases of venting or gaseous diffusion driven by barometric pumping. Field and laboratory detection strategies and projected sensitivities are presented.

  7. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapon explosive tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to calculate the maximum time available for detection of the OSI-relevant radionuclides. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site - now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 × 10(-11) to 1 × 10(-9) of the atmospheric release (per m(2)), and has been used in this paper to evaluate an OSI and the OSI-relevant radionuclides at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the OSI-relevant radionuclides by 99.7% within 2 years of detonation, such that detection throughout the hypothesized inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulsed spectrometer for nuclear quadrupole resonance for remote detection of nitrogen in explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anferov, V. P.; Mozjoukhine, G. V.; Fisher, R.

    2000-04-01

    We describe a pulsed spectrometer for detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance on the nuclei of nitrogen N-14 with fast Fourier transform. The use of a multipulse sequence, four channel system for data registration and processing permits detection of the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signal in the presence of strong interference and the piezo effect. Using this spectrometer we registered the NQR signal from an explosive sample of 150 g (92% RDX) at a distance of 22 cm, and the time of detection was 81 s.

  9. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

    1993-02-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  10. Categorisation of nuclear explosions from legitimate radioxenon sources with atmospheric transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppner, M.; Postelt, F.; Kalinowski, M.; Plastino, W.

    2012-04-01

    Radioxenon is produced during nuclear explosions and due to its high fission ratio during the reaction and its noble gas character the isotopes can be detected remote from the location of the explosion. Therefore it is used by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization (CTBTO) as an indicator for the nuclear character of an explosion and is monitored with the International Monitoring System (IMS). The concentration of radioxenon in the air is continuously measured by multiple stations worldwide and is in need of an automatic categorization scheme in order to highlight signals of interest and to sort out signals that can be explained by legitimate sources. The dispersion and transport of radioxenon emissions through the atmosphere can be simulated with atmospheric transport modelling. Many legitimate sources of radioxenon exist: Nuclear power plants and isotope production facilities are mainly responsible for the worldwide background. The characterisation of this background is an important prerequisite to discriminate nuclear explosion signals against the background. It has been discovered that the few existing isotope production facilities are the major contributors to the background, each with emission strengths in the order of magnitude or more than all nuclear power plants together. Therefore, especially the characterization of these few, but strong, emitters can improve the quality of the signal prediction. Since the location of such an emitter is usually known the source-receptor sensitivity matrices can be utilized together with measured radioxenon concentrations from IMS stations in order to deduct information about the time dependent emissions from the strong emitter. An automatic method to determine an approximated, time dependent source term of an emitter with known location has been developed and is presented. This is a potentially valid tool for the categorization of radioxenon samples, because it can be used to assess whether the measured

  11. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry

    2009-12-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types—based on BGO, NaI and LaBr3 crystals is presented.

  12. Application of the Wavelet Packet Method in Discrimination Between Nuclear Explosion and Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xuanhui; Shen Ping; Liu Xiqiang; Zheng Zhizhen

    2004-01-01

    Although the CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty) was passed in 1996, it is still necessary to develop new and highly efficient methods (Wu Zhongliang, Chen Yuntai, et al.,1993; Xu Shaoxie, et al. 1994; Richard L. Garwin, 1994) to monitor possible events. Many discrimination criteria (Xu Shaoxie, et al., 1994; Institute of Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1976; Richard L. Garwin, 1994) have been put forward since the 1950s. The results show that each of the existing criteria has its own limitation, but the seismological method is an important and efficient method in the discrimination between nuclear explosion and earthquake. Especially in recent years, because of the little and little equivalent as well as the increasing hiding steps used in the test, a number of more efficient seismological methods have been worked out. In this paper, a new discrimination method, the Wavelet Packet Component Ratio (WPCR) method, is put forward. This method makes full use of the difference in variation with time between the spectra of nuclear explosions and earthquakes. Its discrimination efficiency is rather high.

  13. ISSUES OF INFORMING THE GENERAL PUBLIC ABOUT CONSEQUENCES OF PEACEFUL NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Arkhangelskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the results of a study of the local public attitude to the problem of peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE which were carried out in the Ivanovo, Murmansk and Perm regions and in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia in the last century. An estimate of the mass media information regarding consequences of the PNEs is given. The study shows that the local citizens are ready to deal with reliable sources of objective information about consequences of the PNEs. The recommendations on information of the general public about PNE are presented.

  14. Medical preparedness for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) events: gaps and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Diana; Waruszynski, Barbara; Mazurik, Laurie; Szymczak, Ann-Marie; Redmond, Erin; Lichacz, Fred

    2010-11-01

    The Workshop on Medical Preparedness for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) events: national scan was held on 20 and 21 May 2010 at the Diefenbunker Museum in Ottawa, Canada. The purpose of the workshop was to provide the CBRNE Research and Technology Initiative with a Canadian national profile of existing capabilities and anticipated gaps in casualty management consistent with the community emergency response requirements. The workshop was organised to enable extensive round-table discussions and provide a summary of key gaps and recommendations for emergency response planners.

  15. Defence Research and Development Canada: Suffield research on nuclear methods for detection of buried bulk explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2011-06-01

    Defence R&D Canada - Suffield has conducted research and development on nuclear methods for detection of bulk explosives since 1994. Initial efforts were directed at confirmation of the presence of bulk explosives in land mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In close collaboration with a few key Canadian companies, methods suitable for vehicle-mounted or fixed position applications and those suitable for person- or small robotportable roles have been studied. Vehicle-mounted systems mainly employ detection of characteristic radiation, whereas person-portable systems use imaging of back scattered radiation intensity distributions. Two key design tenets have been reduction of personnel shielding by the use of teleoperation and custom design of sensors to address the particular problem, rather than adapting an existing sensor to a problem. This is shown in a number of recent research examples. Among vehicle-mounted systems, recent research to improve the thermal neutron analysis (TNA) sensors, which were put into service with the Canadian Forces in 2002, are discussed. Research on fast neutron analysis (FNA) and associated particle imaging (API), which can augment or replace TNA, depending on the application, are described. Monoenergetic gamma ray induced photoneutron spectroscopy is a novel method which has a number of potential advantages and disadvantages over TNA and FNA. Sources, detectors and geometries have been identified and modelling studies have suggested feasibility. Among person-portable systems, research on neutron backscatter imaging and X-ray coded aperture backscatter imaging are discussed.

  16. 低空强爆炸中火球的一维数值模拟研究%Numerical Simulation of Fireball in Strong Explosion at Low Altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫凯; 刘钰; 田宙

    2015-01-01

    对海平面环境下当量为1 Mt TNT的强爆炸进行一维辐射流体力学数值计算,得到了较为完整的火球扩张过程数值模拟结果。数值给出了火球不同发展阶段物质参数和辐射参数的空间分布,该结果与实际强爆炸中一些经验公式的计算结果吻合较好。给出了火球阵面和辐射功率随时间的变化关系,较合理地解释了低空强爆炸火球二次极大现象。%A one‐dimensional radiation hydrodynamics numerical computation was pres‐ented for a strong explosion at sea level ,of which the equivalent is 1 Mt TNT .The spatial distributions of material and radiation parameters in strong explosion , w hich reflect a integrate process of fireball evolution ,were given in terms of the simulation . The calculation results agree well with those of some empirical formulas .The results of optical observables‐radiation power versus time and fireball radius versus time were de‐scribed ,and the second maximum phenomenon of the fireball at low altitude was given .

  17. Evaluation of the electromagnetic effects due to direct lighting to nuclear explosive areas at Pantex. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the effort to quantify the electromagnetic environments in the nuclear explosive areas at Pantex due to direct lightning. The fundamental measure of the threat to nuclear safety is assumed to be the maximum voltage between any two points in an assembly area, which is then available for producing arcing or for driving current into critical subsystems of a nuclear weapon. This maximum voltage has been computed with simple analytical models and with three-dimensional finite-difference computer codes.

  18. Dispersion of Rayleigh waves produced by nuclear explosions. Crustal structure of western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PAYO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the nuclear explosion fired near Novaya-Zemlya
    island from September 1961 to J a n u a r y 1963 (21 in total have been recorded
    on the seismographs of Toledo Observatory. The study of these records,
    mainly concerning the dispersion of Rayleigh waves, has been the purpose
    of this paper.
    A crust-mantle s t r u c t u r e for t h e Zemlya-Toledo p a t h has been determined
    by means of group velocity curves and especially by the phase velocity
    ones obtained from Rayleigh waves of explosions. This structure supposes
    a crust of about 40 kms thick with an upper sedimentary layer with a
    thickness of about 5,5 kms and a shear velocity of 2,3 km/sec.
    The average shear velocity in the granitic and basaltic layers jointly,
    is about 3,65 km/sec, permitting a small ambiguity at the position of the
    Conrad discontinuity between them.
    A velocity of 4,5 km/sec has been assigned for the underlying crust
    material, but a better agreement with the data recorded is obtained by
    taking 0.28 for the Poisson ratio value.
    Dispersion of Rayleigh waves of these explosions has been compared
    to the Rayleigh dispersion of some earthquakes of Eurasia, three of them
    with epicentral distances similar to those of the explosions and other four
    with the same azimuth in respect to that of Toledo-Zemlya, but more
    distants.
    The results do not show any notable difference either in dispersion
    between explosion and earthquakes or in structure of the path considered.
    The phase velocity between Toledo and Malaga Observatories supports
    t h e same above structure for this short path.
    The velocity of Lg waves, which clearly appears on the record of the
    explosions, confirms this admitted structure, which serves to deduce t h e more
    probable transmission mechanism for these channel waves.
    Also atmospheric pressure waves have been recorded on the three

  19. Point kinetic model of the early phase of a spherically symmetric nuclear explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A concise point kinetic model of the explosion of a prompt supercritical sphere driven by a nuclear fission chain reaction is presented. The findings are in good agreement with the data available for Trinity, the first detonation of a nuclear weapon conducted by the United States Army as part of the Manhattan project. Results are presented for an implosion device containing pure plutonium-239, although the model can be easily applied to, e.g., uranium-235. The fizzle probability and corresponding yield of a fission bomb containing plutonium recovered from reactor fuel and therefore containing significant amounts of spontaneously fissioning plutonium-240 which can induce a predetonation of the device is illustrated by adding a corresponding source term in the presented model. Related questions whether a bomb could be made by developing countries or terrorist organizations can be tackled this way. Although the information needed to answer such questions is in the public domain, it is difficult to extract a cons...

  20. An Overview of the Los Alamos Program on Asteroid Mitigation by a Nuclear Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R.; Gisler, G. R.; Plesko, C. S.; Ferguson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is standing up a new program to address the mitigation of a potentially hazardous objects (PHO) by using nuclear explosives. A series of efforts at Los Alamos have been working this problem for the last few years in an informal fashion. We now have a funded program to dedicate time to this important mission. The goal of our project is to study the effectiveness of using a nuclear explosive to mitigate (alter orbit or destroy) an PHO on an Earth crossing path. We are also pursuing studies of impact hazards should the international leadership decide not to organize a mission for active mitigation of a PHO. Such impact hazards are characterized as local, regional or global. Impact hazards include: a direct hit in an urban area (potentially catastrophic but highly unlikely); the generation a significant tsunami from an ocean impact close to a coastline and regional and global effects from medium to large impactors. Previous studies at Los Alamos have looked at 2D and 3D simulations in the deep ocean from large bolides, as well as impacts that have global consequences. More recent work has included radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of momentum transfer (and enhancement) from a low energy (10 kt) stand-off source, as well as surface and subsurface high energy explosions (100 kt - 10 Mt) for example PHOs. The current program will carefully look at two main aspects of using a standoff nuclear source: 1) a computational study for the optimum height-of-burst (HOB) of a stand-off burst using our best energy coupling techniques for both neutrons and x-rays; and 2) as a function of the nuclear energy produced and the HOB what is the optimum energy field: neutrons or x-rays. This team is also working with NNSA and NASA Goddard to compare numerical results for these complicated simulations on a well defined series of test problems involving both kinetic impactors and stand-off nuclear energy sources. Results will be shown by the co-authors on

  1. Calculation of isodose curves from initial neutron radiation of a hypothetical nuclear explosion using Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Marcos P.C.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Andrade, Edson R., E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: daltongirao@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Corrdenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Egenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear explosions are usually described in terms of its total yield and associated shock wave, thermal radiation and nuclear radiation effects. The nuclear radiation produced in such events has several components, consisting mainly of alpha and beta particles, neutrinos, X-rays, neutrons and gamma rays. For practical purposes, the radiation from a nuclear explosion is divided into {sup i}nitial nuclear radiation{sup ,} referring to what is issued within one minute after the detonation, and 'residual nuclear radiation' covering everything else. The initial nuclear radiation can also be split between 'instantaneous or 'prompt' radiation, which involves neutrons and gamma rays from fission and from interactions between neutrons and nuclei of surrounding materials, and 'delayed' radiation, comprising emissions from the decay of fission products and from interactions of neutrons with nuclei of the air. This work aims at presenting isodose curves calculations at ground level by Monte Carlo simulation, allowing risk assessment and consequences modeling in radiation protection context. The isodose curves are related to neutrons produced by the prompt nuclear radiation from a hypothetical nuclear explosion with a total yield of 20 KT. Neutron fluency and emission spectrum were based on data available in the literature. Doses were calculated in the form of ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons H*(10){sub n}{sup -}. (author)

  2. Comparison of chemical and nuclear explosions: Numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, J.R.; Bos, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper the authors discuss numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), which was an underground explosion conducted in September 1993 in the volcanic tuff of the Nevada Test Site. The NPE source consisted of 1.29 {times} 10{sup 6} kg of ANFO-emulsion blasting agent, with the approximate energy of 1.1 kt, emplaced 389 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa. The authors compare detailed numerical simulations of the NPE with data collected from that experiment, and with calculations of an equally energetic nuclear explosion in identical geology. Calculated waveforms, at ranges out to approximately 1 km, agree moderately well in the time domain with free-field data, and are in qualitative agreement with free-surface records. Comparison of computed waveforms for equally energetic chemical and nuclear sources reveals relatively minor differences beyond the immediate near-source region, with the chemical source having an {approximately}25% greater seismic moment but otherwise indistinguishable (close-in) seismic source properties. 41 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

  4. Preliminary study of first motion from nuclear explosions recorded on seismograms in the first zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, J.H.; Mangan, G.B.

    1963-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recorded more than 300 seismograms from more than 50 underground nuclear explosions. Most were recorded at distances of less than 1,000 km. These seismograms have been studied to obtain travel times and amplitudes which have been presented in reports on crustal structure and in a new series of nuclear shot reports. This report describes preliminary studies of first motion of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions. Visual inspection of all seismograms was made in an attempt to identify the direction of first motion, and to estimate the probability of recording detectable first motion at various distances for various charge sizes and in different geologic environments. In this study, a characteristic pattern of the first phase became apparent on seismograms where first motion was clearly recorded. When an interpreter became familiar with this pattern, he was frequently able to identify the polarity of the first arrival even though the direction of first motion could not be seen clearly on the seismogram. In addition, it was sometimes possible to recognize this pattern for secondary arrivals of larger amplitude. These qualitative visual observations suggest that it might be possible to define a simple criterion that could be used in a digital computer to identify polarity, not only of the first phase, but of secondary phases as well. A short segment of recordings near the first motion on 56 seismograms was digitized on an optical digitizer. Spectral analyses of these digitized recordings were made to determine the range of frequencies present, and studies were made with various simple digital filters to explore the nature of polarity as a function of frequency. These studies have not yet led to conclusive results, partly because of inaccuracies resulting from optical digitization. The work is continuing, using an electronic digitizer that will allow study of a much larger sample of more accurately digitized data.

  5. Associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe: Detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    Continued research and development of the APSTNG shows the potential for practical field use of this technology for detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials. The APSTNG (associated-particle sealed-tube generator) inspects the item to be examined using penetrating 14-MeV neutrons generated by the deuterium-tritium reaction inside a compact accelerator tube. An alpha detector built into the sealed tube detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron emitted in a cone encompassing the volume to be inspected. Penetrating high-energy gamma-rays from the resulting neutron reactions identify specific nuclides inside the volume. Flight-times determined from the detection times of gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and allow a coarse 3-D image to be obtained of nuclides identified in the prompt spectrum. The generator and detectors can be on the same side of the inspected object, on opposite sides, or with intermediate orientations. Thus, spaces behind walls and other confined regions can be inspected. Signals from container walls can be discriminated against using the flight-time technique. No collimators or shielding are required, the neutron generator is relatively small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. The use of 14-MeV neutrons yields a much higher cross-section for detecting nitrogen than that for systems based on thermal-neutron reactions alone, and the broad range of elements with significant 14-MeV neutron cross-sections extends explosives detection to other elements including low-nitrogen compounds, and allows detection of many other substances. Proof-of-concept experiments have been successfully performed for conventional explosives, chemical warfare agents, cocaine, and fissionable materials.

  6. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David

    2017-08-01

    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  7. Impact hazard mitigation: understanding the effects of nuclear explosive outputs on comets and asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Ralph R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlon, Leann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The NASA 2007 white paper ''Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives'' affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g ., Ryan (2000) Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with

  8. PUBLIC ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE PEACEFUL NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS CONDUCTED IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Arkhangelskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a brief summary on radiation situation in the region of the peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE «Crystal» and «Kraton-3» as well as original assessments of public attitude towards the PNEs and the countermeasures that had been done at the sites of these explosions in the past. Results of the public-opinion poll, which has been conducted in the settlements of Aikhal, Udachny, Malgajar, Zharkhan and Malykhay in 2010, are presented. For the data collection, specially designed anonymous questionnaire was used. Totally 144 adult respondents participated in the survey. About 19% of the respondents had visited the sites of PNE with different aims and in different periods. The majority (70-80% of the respondents believes that the PNEs, which were carried out in Yakutia in the last century, are the main source of radioactive contamination in the area of their settlements. Only a half of the respondents consider that some countermeasures have been applied at the sites of these PNEs.

  9. Maximum reasonable radioxenon releases from medical isotope production facilities and their effect on monitoring nuclear explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Theodore W; Kephart, Rosara; Eslinger, Paul W; Friese, Judah I; Miley, Harry S; Saey, Paul R J

    2013-01-01

    Fission gases such as (133)Xe are used extensively for monitoring the world for signs of nuclear testing in systems such as the International Monitoring System (IMS). These gases are also produced by nuclear reactors and by fission production of (99)Mo for medical use. Recently, medical isotope production facilities have been identified as the major contributor to the background of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) in the atmosphere (Stocki et al., 2005; Saey, 2009). These releases pose a potential future problem for monitoring nuclear explosions if not addressed. As a starting point, a maximum acceptable daily xenon emission rate was calculated, that is both scientifically defendable as not adversely affecting the IMS, but also consistent with what is possible to achieve in an operational environment. This study concludes that an emission of 5 × 10(9) Bq/day from a medical isotope production facility would be both an acceptable upper limit from the perspective of minimal impact to monitoring stations, but also appears to be an achievable limit for large isotope producers.

  10. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapons tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables and data quality objectives expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte Underground Nuclear Test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to assess an OSI. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site – now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 x 10-11 to 1 x 10-9 of the atmospheric release (per m2), and has been used to evaluate a hypothetical OSI at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the 17 OSI relevant radionuclides by 99.7%, such that detection throughout the inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest.

  11. Waveform cross correlation for seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions. Part II: Synthetic master events

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Waveform cross correlation is an efficient tool for detection and characterization of seismic signals. The efficiency critically depends on the availability of master events. For the purposes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, cross correlation can globally reduce the threshold monitoring by 0.3 to 0.4 magnitude units. In seismically active regions, the optimal choice of master events is straightforward. There are two approaches to populate the global grid in aseismic areas: the replication of real masters and synthetic seismograms calculated for seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System. Synthetic templates depend on the accuracy of shape and amplitude predictions controlled by focal depth and mechanism, source function, velocity structure and attenuation along the master/station path. As in Part I, we test three focal mechanisms (explosion, thrust fault, and actual Harvard CMT solution for one of the April 11, 2012 Sumatera aftershocks) and two velocity structures (ak135 and CRUST 2.0...

  12. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  13. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  14. The effect of friction on simulated containment of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, A.V.

    1990-11-01

    The strength of the residual stress field is used as an important indicator in assessing the containment of underground nuclear explosions. Containment analysis using the COTTAGE geology shows considerable cracking in the hard Paleozoic layer, just below the cavity. The coefficient of friction is the ratio of total shear stress applied to a closed fracture surface to normal applied compressive total stress. Without any friction, the Paleozoic residual stress field is weakest. As the friction coefficient is increased from 0 to 0.5, the Paleozoic residual stress field is strengthened. A further increase of the friction coefficient from 0.5 to 0.8 shows strengthened where cracks are closed and weakening where cracks remain open. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  16. 高海拔地区丙酮空气混合气爆炸极限计算及分析%Acetone Explosion Limit Calculation in High Altitude and Affecting Factors Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丕锐

    2011-01-01

    Acetone Explosion limit is one of most important parameters in cigarette tow production. Oxygen concentration is different with different altitude; By comparison the difference between calculation resuits and experimental values, analyses on affecting factors of explosion limit are made. And corrective measures are proposed in tow production in higher altitude area.%烟用醋酸纤维丝束生产中,丙酮作为溶剂,其爆炸极限是控制的重要参数之一。对高海拨地区丙酮爆炸的极限做了计算分析,提出了保证安全生产的措施。

  17. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions; Degats dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines sur les habitations et les equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, F.; Guerrini, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [French] Les degats sur diverses structures, constructions, habitations, equipements mecaniques et materiels electriques provoques par des explosions nucleaires souterraines dans le granite sont decrits. On a indique pour chaque type de materiel ou de construction, les distances limites correspondant a un degre de gravite de dommage observe. Ces distances ont ete reliees a un parametre caracterisant le mouvement du milieu, permettant ainsi de generaliser les resultats obtenus dans le granite, a differents milieux. Le probleme de la prevision des degats en zone lointaine a ete aborde. (auteurs)

  18. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Staggs, K.; Wapman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4{double_prime} thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler`s equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 {mu}m DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. ON INFLUENCE OF THE UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS CRYSTAL AND KRATON-3 ON RADIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN THE NEAREST SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Ramzaev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of radiological investigations (in 2001-2002 conducted near sites of the underground nuclear explosions Crystal and Kraton-3 in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia are presented. The sum of the current effective internal doses from 137Cs and 90Sr (from consumption of natural products and the external dose from 137Cs deposition was about 21 μSv y-1 for adult residents of the urban settlements Aihal and Udachny. Intake of 137Cs and 90Sr (originating from global fallout with reindeer meat contributes ~87% to the internal dose determined. At present, the consequences of the underground nuclear explosions, conducted in the 1970s, have no influence on the technogenic exposure of the local population.

  20. A Fast Pulsed Neutron Source for Time-of-Flight Detection of Nuclear Materials and Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; James, Colt; Madden, Robert; Hennig, Wolfgang; Breus, Dimitry; Asztalos, Stephen; Sabourov, Konstantin; Lane, Stephen

    2011-12-01

    AASC has built a fast pulsed neutron source based on the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The more current version stores only 100 J but fires at ˜10-50 Hz and emits ˜106n/pulse at a peak current of 100 kA. Both sources emit 2.45±0.1 MeV (DD) neutron pulses of ˜25-40 ns width. Such fast, quasi-monoenergetic pulses allow time-of-flight detection of characteristic emissions from nuclear materials or high explosives. A test is described in which iron targets were placed at different distances from the point neutron source. Detectors such as Stilbene and LaBr3 were used to capture inelastically induced, 847 keV gammas from the iron target. Shielding of the source and detectors eliminated most (but not all) of the source neutrons from the detectors. Gated detection, pulse shape analysis and time-of-flight discrimination enable separation of gamma and neutron signatures and localization of the target. A Monte Carlo simulation allows evaluation of the potential of such a fast pulsed source for a field-portable detection system. The high rep-rate source occupies two 200 liter drums and uses a cooled DPF Head that is <500 cm3 in volume.

  1. A Fast Pulsed Neutron Source for Time-of-Flight Detection of Nuclear Materials and Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; James, Colt; Madden, Robert [Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation, 3077 Teagarden Street, San Leandro, CA 94577 (United States); Hennig, Wolfgang; Breus, Dimitry; Asztalos, Stephen; Sabourov, Konstantin [XIA LLC, 31057 Genstar Road, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States); Lane, Stephen [NSF Center for Biophotonics and School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA, 95817 (United States)

    2011-12-13

    AASC has built a fast pulsed neutron source based on the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The more current version stores only 100 J but fires at {approx}10-50 Hz and emits {approx}10{sup 6}n/pulse at a peak current of 100 kA. Both sources emit 2.45{+-}0.1 MeV(DD) neutron pulses of {approx}25-40 ns width. Such fast, quasi-monoenergetic pulses allow time-of-flight detection of characteristic emissions from nuclear materials or high explosives. A test is described in which iron targets were placed at different distances from the point neutron source. Detectors such as Stilbene and LaBr3 were used to capture inelastically induced, 847 keV gammas from the iron target. Shielding of the source and detectors eliminated most (but not all) of the source neutrons from the detectors. Gated detection, pulse shape analysis and time-of-flight discrimination enable separation of gamma and neutron signatures and localization of the target. A Monte Carlo simulation allows evaluation of the potential of such a fast pulsed source for a field-portable detection system. The high rep-rate source occupies two 200 liter drums and uses a cooled DPF Head that is <500 cm{sup 3} in volume.

  2. Traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 2009 North Korean underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, L. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Geodesy and Geomatics

    2015-04-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) can induce acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and initiate traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). In this paper, we employ a multi-step and multi-order numerical difference method with dual-frequency GPS data to detect ionospheric disturbances triggered by the North Korean UNE on 25 May 2009. Several International GNSS Service (IGS) stations with different distances (400 to 1200 km) from the epicenter were chosen for the experiment. The results show that there are two types of disturbances in the ionospheric disturbance series: high-frequency TIDs with periods of approximately 1 to 2 min and low-frequency waves with period spectrums of 2 to 5 min. The observed TIDs are situated around the epicenter of the UNE, and show similar features, indicating the origin of the observed disturbances is the UNE event. According to the amplitudes, periods and average propagation velocities, the high-frequency and low-frequency TIDs can be attributed to the acoustic waves in the lower ionosphere and higher ionosphere, respectively. (orig.)

  3. Ionospheric observations of Underground Nuclear Explosions (UNE) using GPS and the Very Large Array

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jihye; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A; von Frese, Ralph R B; Wilson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Observations from GPS receivers and the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope recorded traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs), detonated in September 1992. The slant TEC (STEC) data derived from GPS observations were processed for all ray paths to isolate TIDs. For the TIDs from the Hunters Trophy test on 18 September 1992 and the Divider test on 23 September 1992, the propagated mean velocities of the TIDs were about 573m/s and 740m/s with standard deviations of 85m/s and 135 m/s, respectively. For the VLA observations, the spectral analysis produced three-dimensional fluctuation spectral cubes for the Hunters Trophy event. The arrival time of the TID at the VLA implied a propagation speed of 570-710 m/s. This study suggests the global availability of GNSS tracking networks and new low-frequency (VHF) radio telescopes may offer a method of UNE detection and characterization, which could complement the International Monitoring System (IMS).

  4. Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Seismogram Analysis: Constraining the Velocity Structure of Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, K. M.; Eriksen, Z. T.; Mackey, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs), detonated by the former Soviet Union, are seismologically significant because they are so-called Ground Truth events, where the depth and geographic coordinates of energy release (detonation) are precisely known. Seismograms from about 20 regional stations for seven PNEs in eastern Siberia (Neva-1, Neva 2-1 and Neva 2-2 in Yakutia, and Rift-3, Batholith-1, Meteorite-5 and Kraton-3 in the Baikal region) were digitized from analog records, allowing modern processing techniques to be applied to the waveforms. Pn (P1 & P2), P*, Pg, Sn, Sg, and eU (unknown) phases were identified to investigate seismic velocities. Regional average velocities, dominated by paths within the Siberian Craton, are: Pn = 8.28 km/s, P* = 7.32 km/s, Pg = 6.20 km/s, Sn = 4.67 km/s, and Sg = 3.55 km/s. Travel paths located within the Siberian Craton are consistent with fast Pn and Sn travel-time residuals observed near the Laptev Sea. Additional PNE seismograms are being digitized to further differentiate path effects and to understand regional phase identification and velocities.

  5. Characteristics of regional seismic waves from the 2006 and 2009 North Korean nuclear explosion tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, S.; Hong, T.

    2009-12-01

    Two North Korean nuclear explosion (UNE) tests were conducted in 2006 and 2009. The events are the first UNEs in the 21st century. The UNEs were well recorded by dense regional seismic networks in Korea, Japan and China. The UNEs provide unique regional seismic waveforms with high signal-to-noise ratios. However, the continental crust in the Korean Peninsula changes abruptly into a transitional structure between continental and oceanic crusts across the eastern shore. The complex geological and tectonic structures around the Korean Peninsula cause significant variations in regional waveforms. One outstanding question is whether typical seismic features are still observed in the North Korean UNE records. Another question is whether conventional discrimination techniques can be applicable for the North Korean UNEs. P/S amplitude ratios are widely applied for seismic discrimination. In this study, we describe the features of regional waveforms of the North Korean UNEs. We investigate the composition of regional shear energy by analyzing three-component seismograms for various frequency bands. The shear-energy contents are compared with those of comparable natural earthquakes. We find that Pn/Lg amplitude ratios are 3-4 times larger than those of earthquakes. The UNEs records show that the Pn/Lg amplitude ratios on the vertical components are lower than those on the horizontal components in the frequencies around 1 Hz.

  6. Natural ³⁷Ar concentrations in soil air: implications for monitoring underground nuclear explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmann, Robin A; Purtschert, Roland

    2011-10-15

    For on-site inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) measurement of the noble gas ³⁷Ar is considered an important technique. ³⁷Ar is produced underground by neutron activation of Calcium by the reaction ⁴⁰Ca(n,α)³⁷Ar. The naturally occurring equilibrium ³⁷Ar concentration balance in soil air is a function of an exponentially decreasing production rate from cosmic ray neutrons with increasing soil depth, diffusive transport in the soil air, and radioactive decay (T(1/2): 35 days). In this paper for the first time, measurements of natural ³⁷Ar activities in soil air are presented. The highest activities of ~100 mBq m⁻³ air are 2 orders of magnitude larger than in the atmosphere and are found in 1.5-2.5 m depth. At depths > 8 m ³⁷Ar activities are < 20 mBq m⁻³ air. After identifying the main ³⁷Ar production and gas transport factors the expected global activity range distribution of ³⁷Ar in shallow subsoil (0.7 m below the surface) was estimated. In high altitude soils, with large amounts of Calcium and with low gas permeability, ³⁷Ar activities may reach values up to 1 Bq m⁻³.

  7. Use of quantitative hazard analysis to evaluate risk associated with US Department of Energy Nuclear Explosive Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.R.; O`Brien, D.A.; Martinez, J.; LeDoux, M.

    1996-03-01

    Quantitative hazard assessments (QHAs) are being used to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Process (SS-21), Nuclear Explosive Safety Studies (NESS), and Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) initiatives. The QHAs are used to identify hazards associated with DOE nuclear explosive operations. In 1994, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Pantex Plant participated in a joint effort to demonstrate the utility of performing hazard assessments (HAs) concurrently with process design and development efforts. Early identification of high risk operations allow for process modifications before final process design is completed. This demonstration effort, which used an integrated design process (SS-21), resulted in the redesign of the dismantlement process for the B61 center case. The SS-21 program integrates environment, safety, and health (ES&H) and nuclear explosive safety requirements. QHAs are used to identify accidents that have the potential for worker injury or public health or environmental impact. The HA is to evaluate the likelihood of accident sequences that have the potential for worker or public injury or environmental damage; identify safety critical tooling and procedural steps; identify operational safety controls; identify safety-class/significant systems, structures and components; identify dominant accident sequences; demonstrate that the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design-basis accident envelops process-specific accidents; and support future change control activities.

  8. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, B.A. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Walck, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes.

  9. A preliminary study on the use of {sup 10}Be in forensic radioecology of nuclear explosion sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, N.E. [Institute of Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 Japan (Japan)], E-mail: whiteh@paradise.net.nz; Endo, S. [Institute of Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 Japan (Japan)], E-mail: endos@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, K. [Institute of Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 Japan (Japan)], E-mail: tanakak@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Takatsuji, T. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: takatsuj@net.nagasaki-u.ac.jp; Hoshi, M. [Institute of Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 Japan (Japan)], E-mail: mhoshi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Fukutani, S. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)], E-mail: fukutani@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ditchburn, R.G. [National Isotope Centre, GNS-Science, P.O. Box 31-312, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)], E-mail: r.ditchburn@gns.cri.nz; Zondervan, A. [National Isotope Centre, GNS-Science, P.O. Box 31-312, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)], E-mail: a.zondervan@gns.cri.nz

    2008-02-15

    Cosmogenic {sup 10}Be, known for use in dating studies, unexpectedly is also produced in nuclear explosions with an atom yield almost comparable to (e.g.) {sup 137}Cs. There are major production routes via {sup 13}C(n, {alpha}){sup 10}Be, from carbon dioxide in the air and the organic explosives, possibly from other bomb components and to a minor extent from the direct fission reaction. Although the detailed bomb components are speculative, carbon was certainly present in the explosives and an order of magnitude calculation is possible. The (n, {alpha}) cross-section was determined by irradiating graphite in a nuclear reactor, and the resulting {sup 10}Be estimated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) giving a cross-section of 34.5 {+-} 0.7 mb (6-9.3 MeV), within error of previous work. {sup 10}Be should have applications in forensic radioecology. Historical environmental samples from Hiroshima, and Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) showed two to threefold {sup 10}Be excesses compared with the background cosmogenic levels. A sample from Lake Chagan (a Soviet nuclear cratering experiment) contained more {sup 10}Be than previously reported soils. {sup 10}Be may be useful for measuring the fast neutron dose near the Hiroshima bomb hypocenter at neutron energies double those previously available.

  10. Change Detection for Remote Monitoring of Underground Nuclear Testing: Comparison with Seismic and Associated Explosion Source Phenomenological Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jahnke, G.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    of anthropogenic changes associated with underground nuclear activities, whether declared or clandestine, presents a difficult challenge, since it is necessary to discriminate subtle, often weak signals of interest on a background of irrelevant or uninteresting changes. In this contribution we focus on the use...... detection (MAD) algorithm proposed by Nielsen et. al. (1998). The multispectral data are pre-processed by orthorectification, illumination angle correction and image registration. The technique is applied to historical underground nuclear explosions detonated at the NTS between 1984 and 1992. The detected...

  11. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2008-06-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100

  12. Homogenized moment tensor and the effect of near-field heterogeneities on nonisotropic radiation in nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Gaël.; Capdeville, Yann; Guillot, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effect of small-scale heterogeneities close to a seismic explosive source, at intermediate periods (20-50 s), with an emphasis on the resulting nonisotropic far-field radiation. First, using a direct numerical approach, we show that small-scale elastic heterogeneities located in the near-field of an explosive source, generate unexpected phases (i.e., long period S waves). We then demonstrate that the nonperiodic homogenization theory applied to 2-D and 3-D elastic models, with various pattern of small-scale heterogeneities near the source, leads to accurate waveforms at a reduced computational cost compared to direct modeling. Further, it gives an interpretation of how nearby small-scale features interact with the source at low frequencies, through an explicit correction to the seismic moment tensor. In 2-D simulations, we find a deviatoric contribution to the moment tensor, as high as 21% for near-source heterogeneities showing a 25% contrast of elastic values (relative to a homogeneous background medium). In 3-D this nonisotropic contribution reaches 27%. Second, we analyze intermediate-periods regional seismic waveforms associated with some underground nuclear explosions conducted at the Nevada National Security Site and invert for the full moment tensor, in order to quantify the relative contribution of the isotropic and deviatoric components of the tensor. The average value of the deviatoric part is about 35%. We conclude that the interactions between an explosive source and small-scale local heterogeneities of moderate amplitude may lead to a deviatoric contribution to the seismic moment, close to what is observed using regional data from nuclear test explosions.

  13. Long-Term Consequences of Radioactive Fallout From Conflicts Involving Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S. L.; Bouville, A.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation will summarize past exposures of the public to radioactive fallout from nuclear testing and extrapolate to the possible fallout-related consequences from detonation of multiple warheads that might accompany international conflicts. Long-term consequences could be of three distinct types: (1) the abandonment of living areas that might be heavily contaminated; (2) the necessity to curtail use of particular agricultural products and foods, and (3) life-shortening due to increased rates of cancer and possibly some non-cancer diseases among the exposed populations. While the actual health and economic impact on the surviving public after such conflicts could vary tremendously depending on the number and sizes of explosions (fission yields), height of detonations, and the public's proximity to explosion sites, it is clear that multiple detonations would disperse radioactive products over large geographic areas. Our understanding of radioactive fallout is based on studies carried out for more than five decades on weapons testing fallout that originated from sites worldwide including Nevada, the Soviet Union, four locations in the Pacific, and elsewhere. Those studies have led to an understanding of the composition of radioactive fallout, of its radioactive qualities, and of its capacity to contaminate ground and agricultural products, as well as dwellings and workplaces located from a few km to tens of thousands of km from the explosion site. Though the most severe individual health consequences from exposure to fallout would most likely develop relatively close to the detonation sites (within a few hundred km), wide geographic distribution of fallout, well beyond the borders of the nations involved in the conflict, would affect much larger populations and would likely cause elevated cancer rates and cancer-related deaths among them for many decades following. While acute radiation symptoms (and even death) can result from very high short-term exposures

  14. Proceedings of the Workshop on High Altitude Data Assimilation and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-24

    Radar   (OTHR)   applications.       • The   nominal   lifetime   of   existing   operational  DMSP   platforms   is   5...high-­‐yield   conventional   explosives,   underground   nuclear   testing).   High-­‐altitude   data   assimilation   is

  15. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak

  16. Electron and nuclear dynamics of molecular clusters in ultraintense laser fields. IV. Coulomb explosion of molecular heteroclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Isidore; Jortner, Joshua

    2004-11-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical and computational study of the temporal dynamics and energetics of Coulomb explosion of (CD4)(n) and (CH4)(n) (n=55-4213) molecular heteroclusters in ultraintense (I=10(16)-10(19) W cm(-2)) laser fields, addressing the manifestation of electron dynamics, together with nuclear energetic and kinematic effects on the heterocluster Coulomb instability. The manifestations of the coupling between electron and nuclear dynamics were explored by molecular dynamics simulations for these heteroclusters coupled to Gaussian laser fields (pulse width tau=25 fs), elucidating outer ionization dynamics, nanoplasma screening effects (being significant for Icharges and masses. Nonuniform heterocluster Coulomb explosion (eta >1) manifests an overrun effect of the light ions relative to the heavy ions, exhibiting the expansion of two spatially separated subclusters, with the light ions forming the outer subcluster at the outer edge of the spatial distribution. Important features of the energetics of heterocluster Coulomb explosion originate from energetic triggering effects of the driving of the light ions by the heavy ions (C(4+) for I=10(17)-10(18) W cm(-2) and C(6+) for I=10(19) W cm(-2)), as well as for kinematic effects. Based on the CVI assumption, scaling laws for the cluster size (radius R(0)) dependence of the energetics of uniform Coulomb explosion of heteroclusters (eta=1) were derived, with the size dependence of the average (E(j,av)) and maximal (E(j,M)) ion energies being E(j,av)=aR(0) (2) and E(j,M)=(5a/3)R(0) (2), as well as for the ion energy distributions P(E(j)) proportional to E(j) (1/2); E(j)1) result in an isotope effect, predicting the enhancement (by 9%-11%) of E(H,av) for Coulomb explosion of (C(4+)H(4) (+))(eta) (eta=3) relative to E(D,av) for Coulomb explosion of (C(4+)D(4) (+))(eta) (eta=1.5), with the isotope effect being determined by the ratio of the kinematic parameters for the pair of Coulomb exploding clusters

  17. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground nuclear explosion events – A case study for Baneberry site

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Singh; S K Sikka; Anil Kakodkar

    2014-02-01

    Seismic signals due to any underground nuclear explosion events are known to be influenced by the local geology of the test site and the yield level. In this paper, transient three-dimensional finite element code SHOCK-3D developed for the simulation of underground nuclear explosion events has been used to obtain synthetic acceleration signals for Baneberry site (Nevada) single and composite rock media. At this site an underground nuclear test of 10 kT conducted on 18th December 1970 at source depth of 278 m resulted into venting as reported by Terhune et al with 2D simulation results and later by us through 3D simulation in Ranjan et al. First, the reasons of the venting for this event are summarized. After the successful validation of the 3D numerical model for Baneberry site rock media, parametric studies are carried out for 1 and 8 kT yields at 100 m depth (Scaled Depths of Burst SDOB ∼ 100 and 50 m/kT1/3, respectively) for homogeneous and composite Paleozoic and Tuff media of Baneberry site. It is demonstrated that the near source local geological formations and associated nonlinear effects significantly influence the seismic signals. With this study the seismic decoupling of the source by an order of magnitude has been illustrated. Finally, it is concluded that the seismic signals alone, in the absence of in-depth information of the local geology of the specific test site, are not appropriate measures of the source strength.

  18. Traveltimes and amplitudes from nuclear explosions; Nevada Test Site to Ordway, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryall, Alan; Stuart, David J.

    1963-01-01

    This paper treats the results of a study of seismic waves generated by eight nuclear explosions and recorded at 31 locations between the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Ordway, Colorado. The line of recording stations crosses the eastern part of the Basin and Range Province, the Colorado Plateau, the southern Rocky Mountains, and extends into the Great Plains. In the eastern Basin and Range Province and the western margin of the Colorado Plateau (0 ≤ Δ ≤ 385 km ), the time-distance curves for Pg and Pn can be expressed, respectively, as T1 = 0.8 + Δ/6.0. T3 = 5.8 + Δ/7.6. A third phase, tentatively identified as P*, is represented by the equation T2 = 3.8 + Δ/6.5. Using the crustal structure and Pn velocity (7.9 km/ sec) found for the NTS region by other authors, these relations indicate that the thickness of the crust increases from about 25 km at NTS to about 42 km in the western part of the Colorado Plateau Province. East of this boundary the velocity of P in the upper mantle increases to 8.0 km/sec; depth to the Mohorovicic discontinuity is approximately constant over the range 435 ≤ Δ ≤ 645 km. Beyond 850 km, first arrivals indicate an apparent velocity of about 8.4 km/sec. Amplitudes of Pn attenuate according to the equation A = Ao Δ-1/2(Δ -d)-3/2 e-0.0022Δ over the distance range 150 ≤ Δ ≤ 850 km. This relation yields a value of Q, for Pn of about 520. The amplitudes of Pg attenuates extremely rapidly, and beyond about 130 km this phase cannot be identified with certainty. An extension of the Pg traveltime branch at large distances could be associated with waves reflected beyond the critical angle, from the base of the crust. This phase, called ?P after Mohorovicic, appears to attenuate as A = Ao e-0.076Δ Δ-1/2. The value of Q indicated by this equation is about 200.

  19. Motion of the Debris from a High-Altitude Nuclear Explosion: Simulations Including Collisionless Shock and Charge Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In-Cell (PIC) method. PIC codes are used when the assumption of a Maxwellian velocity distribution is inadequate to describe the plasma.7 At the...an electric field, non -uniformity (i.e., curvature and gradient) of the magnetic field and the time variability of the magnetic field.29 Charged...There are no non -conservative forces, so the particle does not gain or lose energy. The portion of the velocity that is perpendicular to the

  20. The Prospect of using Three-Dimensional Earth Models To Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring and Ground Motion Hazard Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoun, T; Harris, D; Lay, T; Myers, S C; Pasyanos, M E; Richards, P; Rodgers, A J; Walter, W R; Zucca, J J

    2008-02-11

    The last ten years have brought rapid growth in the development and use of three-dimensional (3D) seismic models of earth structure at crustal, regional and global scales. In order to explore the potential for 3D seismic models to contribute to important societal applications, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a 'Workshop on Multi-Resolution 3D Earth Models to Predict Key Observables in Seismic Monitoring and Related Fields' on June 6 and 7, 2007 in Berkeley, California. The workshop brought together academic, government and industry leaders in the research programs developing 3D seismic models and methods for the nuclear explosion monitoring and seismic ground motion hazard communities. The workshop was designed to assess the current state of work in 3D seismology and to discuss a path forward for determining if and how 3D earth models and techniques can be used to achieve measurable increases in our capabilities for monitoring underground nuclear explosions and characterizing seismic ground motion hazards. This paper highlights some of the presentations, issues, and discussions at the workshop and proposes a path by which to begin quantifying the potential contribution of progressively refined 3D seismic models in critical applied arenas.

  1. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Tur, Y S

    2012-11-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on "Degelen" site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water-atmosphere, tunnel air-atmosphere, soil water-atmosphere, vegetation-atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area "Degelen". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of One-Sided Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Remote Detection of Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Si:znal-to-Noise Ratic 0:’ -:.-e NMR Exceri."ent", Journal o_ magnetji c Resonance 2 4, :4. 1. Hu.;chnson, ed. , The ARRL Handbook f4or tne Radio...6. 3. M. Dobratz, ed., LLNL Exzlos -4-ves Handbook -- Prc,_ert_-es o~Chemical E’xolosives and Explosives Simulants, ner: cfCalifornia Technical

  3. Fire and the Related Effects of Nuclear Explosions. 1982 Asilomar Conference,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Formers," F. Fendell (TRW) * 25641 "Secondary Fire Analysis," C. Wilton (SSI) • 2564D "Assessment of Combined Effects of Blast and Fire on Personnel...34Firestorm Modeling," F. Fendell (TRW) Discussion Groups reconvened in afternoon. The evening session included (1) a film on fire and explosion hazards due...P.O. Box 239 Washington, D.C. 20036 Los Altos, CA 94022 Frank Fendell James W. Kerr TRW (RI/1138) Federal Emergency Management Agency One Space Park

  4. Application of Advanced Methods for Identification and Detection of Nuclear Explosions from the Asian Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    enhancement and identification. The MARS code now accepts from one up to three components of seismic data and applies a series of narrow band... seismic event data to determine its effectiveness as a discriminant between earthquakes and underground explosions. In Section III we discuss the results...remove signal distortion due to instrumental factors, and to perform polarization filtering on multicomponent data . Improvements have also been imple

  5. Investigation of neutronic performance of a peaceful nuclear explosive reactor (PACER) evaluating UF4 and ThF4 nuclides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selahaddin Orhan Akansu; Nafiz Kahraman

    2004-08-01

    In this study, neutronic behaviour of a peaceful nuclear explosion reactor (PACER) producing approx 1.2 GWe power from fusion explosions is analysed considering ThF4 and UF4 as fissile zones. UF4 and ThF4 are put in to the system adjacent to the inner-side of the flibe coolant zone positions (distance between explosive region and fuel zone, DR = 50, 100, 200, 400, 500 and 700 cm). Flibe percentages are taken to be 25, 50, 75 and 100%. It is found that optimum combinations of fissile zone thickness, coolant zone position and coolant percentages are 10 cm, 200 cm and 25% flibe for UF4 and 10 cm, 50 cm and 25% flibe for ThF4. The behaviour of fuels mentioned above has been observed over a period of 30 years at discrete time intervals, $\\Delta t = 30$ days. In the case of UF4; values at DR = 200 cm reach 5.35, 5.22, 4.88, and 4.88 from 3.12, 2.98, 2.83 and 2.83, for 25, 50, 75, 100% flibe respectively. For ThF4 at DR = 50 cm, values reach from 1.61, 1.54, 1.50 and 1.46 to 1.93, 2.00, 2.04 and 1.99 for 25, 50, 75, 100% flibe respectively. Cumulative fissile fuel breeding (CFFE) values reach up to 5.5 from 0.7 at DR = 200 and 25% case for UF4, and up to 6.36% from 0%, at DR = 50 and 25% flibe, for ThF4, at the end of the operation period.

  6. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  7. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  8. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  9. Nonlinear Methodologies for Identifying Seismic Event and Nuclear Explosion Using Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and Naive Bayes Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjun Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrimination of seismic event and nuclear explosion is a complex and nonlinear system. The nonlinear methodologies including Random Forests (RF, Support Vector Machines (SVM, and Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC were applied to discriminant seismic events. Twenty earthquakes and twenty-seven explosions with nine ratios of the energies contained within predetermined “velocity windows” and calculated distance are used in discriminators. Based on the one out cross-validation, ROC curve, calculated accuracy of training and test samples, and discriminating performances of RF, SVM, and NBC were discussed and compared. The result of RF method clearly shows the best predictive power with a maximum area of 0.975 under the ROC among RF, SVM, and NBC. The discriminant accuracies of RF, SVM, and NBC for test samples are 92.86%, 85.71%, and 92.86%, respectively. It has been demonstrated that the presented RF model can not only identify seismic event automatically with high accuracy, but also can sort the discriminant indicators according to calculated values of weights.

  10. Detecting remotely triggered microseismicity around Changbaishan Volcano following nuclear explosions in North Korea and large distant earthquakes around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoming; Li, Chenyu; Peng, Zhigang; Li, Xuemei; Wu, Jing

    2017-05-01

    We conduct a systematic survey on locally triggered earthquakes by large distant earthquakes in Changbaishan Volcano, an active intraplate volcano on the border between China and North Korea. We examine waveforms of distant earthquakes recorded at broadband station Changbaishan (CBS) near the volcano with estimated dynamic stresses over 5 kPa between 2000 and 2016. Out of 26 selected distant earthquakes, three of them show positive evidence of triggering during large-amplitude surface waves. The earthquakes that had positive or possible evidences of triggering generated larger long-period surface waves, indicating that they are more efficient in triggering microseismicity. In addition, since 2006 North Korea has conducted five underground nuclear explosion (UNE) tests only 140 km away from Changbaishan Volcano. By systematically examining waveforms of these UNEs recorded at station CBS, we find that none of them have triggered microearthquakes in Changbaishan Volcano.

  11. Use of canines for explosives detection in the personnel access control function at a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Results of experiments in the use of canines for explosive detection are discussed. Results of the experiments show that the tests identified the training and environmental problems associated with the use of macrosmatic animals in this environment. There may be more problems discovered in subsequent programs, but it is felt that the major problems were identified. The encouraging thing is that the identified problems are solvable by fairly straightforward adjustments in the training and environmental areas. It appears that canines in the personnal search application can achieve a better than 95% probability of detection, with a false alarm rate of less that 5% and an average per person search time of 20 seconds.

  12. Effects of thoracic explosive injury on blood gas and acid base balance in rabbits at high altitude%高原家兔胸部爆炸伤对血气及酸碱平衡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠东; 李素芝; 王洪亚; 吴前进; 肖嘉芳; 易映红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of arterial blood gas and acid base balance in rabbits suffered from thoracic explosive injury at high altitude. Methods 24 rabbits were randomly divided into high - altitude injured group ( group A ), highaltitude control group ( group B ) and plain injured group ( group C ). In group A and C, a detonator was placed above the 5th right intercostal space of rabbit and exploded to cause the thoracic injury. In group B, animals were anesthetized and cannulated without thoracic injury. Blood samples were respectively collected before injury and at 1,3,6 h after injury for arterial blood gas analysis.Results After injury,each injured group showed persistent metabolic acidosis and lower blood gas parameters than those before injury ( P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ). There were significant differences in each blood gas parameter between group A and C ( P < 0.05 or P <0.01 ). Conclusion Decreased blood gas parameters and persistent metabolic acidosis are the most characteristic changes in rabbits suffered from thoracic explosive injury at high altitude. These changes are of significant value in the early treatment of such injury.%目的 研究高原家兔胸部爆炸伤后动脉血气分析及酸碱平衡的变化特点.方法 将家兔随机分为高原致伤组、高原对照组和平原致伤组,分别于伤前和伤后1、3、6 h采集动脉血进行血气分析.结果 伤后各致伤组均表现为持续性的代谢性酸中毒,与伤前比较血气指标值明显下降(P<0.05或P<0.01),伤后各时点高原致伤组与平原致伤组血气指标比较均有显著差异(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 伤后高原致伤组的血气指标降低以及持续性代谢性酸中毒是高原胸部爆炸伤的最主要特征性改变,对于及早救治具有重要意义.

  13. Thermodynamic study on complex parts of the sphere and ellipsoid of a nuclear explosive device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhi Gou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Because the heat release of plutonium material, the composite structure is heated and the stress and strain of the composite structure will increase, which will affect the thermodynamic properties of the structure. The thermodynamic analysis of complex structures, which are composed of concentric structures of plutonium, beryllium, tungsten, explosives, and steel, was carried out. The results showed that when the structure is spherical, the temperature is higher than that of the ellipsoid structure. Stress of the elliptical structure is greater than the spherical structure. This study showed that the more flat the shell is, the greater the stress concentration point occurs at the long axis, and the maximum stress occurs at the beryllium layer. These conclusions provide theoretical support for the plutonium composite component testing.

  14. Steam explosions-induced containment failure studies for Swiss nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuchuat, O.; Schmocker, U. [Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, Villigen (Switzerland); Esmaili, H.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1998-01-01

    The assessment of the consequences of both in-vessel and ex-vessel energetic fuel-coolant interaction for Beznau (a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor with a large, dry containment), Goesgen (a Siemens/KWU pressurized water reactor with a large, dry containment) and Leibstadt (a General Electric boiling water reactor-6 with a free standing steel, MARK-III containment) nuclear power plants is presented in this paper. The Conditional Containment Failure Probability of the steel containment of these Swiss nuclear power plants is determined based on different probabilistic approaches. (author)

  15. Ultrafast nuclear dynamics in halomethanes studied with time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging and channel-selective Fourier spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Y.; Kaderiya, B.; Pearson, W. L.; Ziaee, F.; Kanaka Raju, P.; Zohrabi, M.; Jensen, K.; Rajput, J.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Rolles, D.; Rudenko, A.

    2016-05-01

    Halomethanes have recently attracted considerable attention since they often serve as prototype systems for laser-controlled chemistry (e.g., selective bond breaking or concerted elimination reactions), and are important molecules in atmospheric chemistry. Here we combine a femtosecond laser pump-probe setup with coincident 3D ion momentum imaging apparatus to study strong-field induced nuclear dynamics in methane and several of its halogenated derivatives (CH3 I, CH2 I2, CH2 ICl). We apply a time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging technique to map the nuclear motion on both, bound and continuum potential surfaces, disentangle different fragmentation pathways and, for halogenated molecules, observe clear signatures of vibrational wave packets in neutral or ionized states. Channel-selective and kinetic-energy resolved Fourier analysis of these data allows for unique identification of different electronic states and vibrational modes responsible for a particular structure. Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. DOE. K. R. P. and W. L. P. supported by NSF Award No. IIA-143049. K.J. supported by the NSF-REU Grant No. PHYS-1461251.

  16. A Dual-Purpose Ion-Accelerator for Nuclear-Reaction-Based Explosives-and SNM-Detection in Massive Cargo

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, M B; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Böttger, R; Brandis, M; Bromberger, B; Feldman, G; Friedman, E; Heflinger, D; Lauck, R; Löb, S; Maier-Komor, P; Mardor, I; Mor, I; Speidel, K -H; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M

    2010-01-01

    A dual-purpose ion-accelerator concept, capable of serving as radiation source in a versatile, nuclear-reaction-based cargo inspection system, is presented. The system will automatically and reliably detect small, operationally-relevant quantities of concealed explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM). It will be cost-effective, employing largely-common hardware, but different reactions/DAQ-modes. Typical expected throughput is 10-20 aviation containers/hr. PACS: 25.20.Dc; 25.40.Ny; 27.20.+n; 29.27.Fh; 79.77.+g; 89.20.Bb; 89.20.Dd Keywords: Cargo inspection; Nuclear-reaction-based methods; Explosives detection; SNM detection

  17. The Las Vegas Valley Seismic Response Project: Ground Motions in Las Vegas Valley from Nuclear Explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; McCallen, D

    2005-03-18

    Between 2001-2004 the Las Vegas Seismic Response Project has sought to understand the response of Las Vegas Valley (LVV) to seismic excitation. In this study, the author report the findings of this project with an emphasis on ground motions in LVV from nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These ground motions are used to understand building structural response and damage as well as human perception. Historical nuclear explosion observations are augmented with earthquake recordings from a temporary deployment of seismometers to improve spatial coverage of LVV. The nuclear explosions were conducted between 1968 and 1989 and were recorded at various sites within Las Vegas. The data from past nuclear tests were used to constrain ground motions in LVV and to gain a predictive capability of ground motions for possible future nuclear tests at NTS. Analysis of ground motion data includes peak ground motions (accelerations and velocities) and amplification of basin sites relative to hard rock sites (site response). Site response was measured with the Standard Spectral Ratios (SSR) technique relative to hard rock reference sites on the periphery of LVV. The site response curves indicate a strong basin amplification of up to a factor of ten at frequencies between 0.5-2 Hz. Amplifications are strongest in the central and northern portions of LVV, where the basin is deeper than 1 km based on the reported basin depths of Langenheim et al (2001a). They found a strong correlation between amplification and basin depth and shallow shear wave velocities. Amplification below 1 Hz is strongly controlled by slowness-averaged shear velocities to depths of 30 and 100 meters. Depth averaged shear velocities to 10 meters has modest control of amplifications between 1-3 Hz. Modeling reveals that low velocity material in the shallow layers (< 200 m) effectively controls amplification. They developed a method to scale nuclear explosion ground motion time series to sites around LVV

  18. Comparison of results of relative location methods and moment tensor inversion for the nuclear explosions experimented in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, G.

    2016-12-01

    The fourth nuclear explosion testing in North Korea was executed in January 6, 2006. This event was located near the previous. The master event method and double difference method(Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000) were used to improve the relative location of the events accurately. The master event method with searching for optimal grid was revised. Two results show the very similar locations. First arrival times were picked with cross-correlation method for data of stations surrounding the event location. The distance from the third event to the fourth is about 0.88 km with azimuth 352 356o. Depths from sea level of the events are similar. The fourth location was guessed under the higher elevation of the Mantap mountain. Comparison between cross-correlation of the waveforms of the events show that the value of cross-correlation with the second and the third is higher than that of cross-correlation with the third and the fourth. The results of moment tensor inversion for the events were acquired with the modified TDMT(Minson and Dreger, 2008; Cho, 2015) with frequency band of 0.04 0.08 Hz. The results show the typical characteristics of explosion in T-k plot. The moment magnitude of the second, the third, fourth in the same depth 0.7 km is about 4.4, 4.7, 4.5 respectively. The fourth event has higher amplitude of the vertical component than the others. The third showed the highest amplitude of tangential component among the events. But the real data showed the tangential component. It may be caused by the tectonic stress, topography effect, inhomogeneous structure near source or anomalous chemical effect. The fourth has lower tangential component. This may mean that the depth from the surface was deeper. Moment tensor inversion with 3D viscoelastic FDM was applied with 3D velocity structure derived from Bayesian hierarchical method(Rhie, et al, 2015).

  19. Coulomb explosion of nanodroplets drives the conversion of laser energy to nuclear energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isidore; Last; Shlomo; Ron; Andreas; Heidenreich; Joshua; Jortner

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical–computational studies of table-top laser-driven nuclear fusion of high-energy(up to 15 MeV)deuterons with7Li,6Li,and D nuclei demonstrate the attainment of high fusion yields within a source–target reaction design.This constitutes a source of Coulomb-exploding deuterium nanodroplets driven by an ultraintense femtosecond near-infrared laser and a solid hollow cylindrical target containing the second element.The source–target reaction design attains the highest table-top fusion efficiencies(up to 4×109J 1per laser pulse)obtained to date.The highest conversion efficiency of laser energy to nuclear energy(10 2–10 3)for table-top DD fusion attained in the source–target design is comparable to that for DT fusion currently accomplished for‘big science’inertial fusion setups.

  20. Model for ground motion and atmospheric overpressure due to underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Walker, J.J.

    1980-10-01

    A physical model is proposed to describe the ground motion pattern resulting from an underground nulear explosion in an idealized homogeneous medium. Irregular behaviors in the observed ground motion are assumed to be perturbations caused by the local inhomogeneity of the ground medium. Our model correlates the ground motions at any point in the spalled zone to the initial acceleration pulse at the ground zero. Interestingly, the model predicts that the ground motion first comes to a stop at a definite radius about the ground zero, and the region expands both outward and inward as time goes on. We believe that this result is closely related to a phenomenon observed at NTS. In the far field approximation, we also calculate the overpressure in the lower atmosphere generated by the ground motion. We demonstrate that the irregular component of the ground motion does not affect the overpressure history in any significant way. Consequently the model ground motion can be used as a good approximation in generating the atmospheric overpressure.

  1. Fuel-Air Explosive Simulation of Far-Field Nuclear Airblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-31

    average jet width as a funtion of time and Figures 19 and 20 are plots of the heaa trajectories of characteristic vertical jets. In both ot the latter two...t.e nuclear static overpressure data were obtained with variable reluctance or strain gage transducers in conjunction with magnetic tape recording...These are high frequency piezoelectric transducers with a built-in voltage-follower amplifier. The rise time of these transducers is ,i ps. Resonant

  2. Surface Coatings as Xenon Diffusion Barriers for Improved Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon detection systems, used within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). One type of radioxenon detection systems used in this context is the Swedish SAUNA system. This system uses a cylindrical plastic scintillator cell to measure the beta decay from radioxenon isotopes. The detector cell also acts as a container...

  3. 核爆次声监测技术的研究现状与技术可行性分析%Analysis of the Study Actuality and Technical Feasibility for Nuclear Explosion Infrasound Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程先友; 青建华; 庞新良

    2013-01-01

    介绍了次声监测技术在核爆监测系统中的作用,阐述了核爆次声监测技术的研究现状与研究进展情况,并对开展核爆次声监测技术研究的技术可行性进行了分析.%It describes the use of infrasound detect for nuclear explosion monitoring,and also presents the current status of nuclear explosion infrasound monitoring,and gives the analysis of the technical feasibility for nuclear explosion by infrasound monitoring.

  4. RADIATION SAFETY JUSTIFICATION FOR THE LONG-TERM STORAGE OF GAS CONDENSATE IN THE UNDERGROUND RESERVOURS FORMED BY THE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents approaches to the safety justification of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs formed by the nuclear explosion technology. Gas condensate and brine are the intermediate level liquid radioactive waste containing isotopes: 3Н, 137Cs and 90Sr, in traces - 239Pu, 235U, 241Am.Safety of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs is assessed on the base of the multi-barrier principle implementation, used during radioactive waste disposal. It is shown that the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the sealed underground reservoirs formed by nuclear explosion technologies in salt domes does not lead to the surface radioactive contamination and population exposure.

  5. The Prospect of using Three-Dimensional Earth Models To Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring and Ground Motion Hazard Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca, J J; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J; Richards, P; Pasyanos, M E; Myers, S C; Lay, T; Harris, D; Antoun, T

    2008-11-19

    The last ten years have brought rapid growth in the development and use of three-dimensional (3D) seismic models of Earth structure at crustal, regional and global scales. In order to explore the potential for 3D seismic models to contribute to important societal applications, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a 'Workshop on Multi-Resolution 3D Earth Models to Predict Key Observables in Seismic Monitoring and Related Fields' on June 6 and 7, 2007 in Berkeley, California. The workshop brought together academic, government and industry leaders in the research programs developing 3D seismic models and methods for the nuclear explosion monitoring and seismic ground motion hazard communities. The workshop was designed to assess the current state of work in 3D seismology and to discuss a path forward for determining if and how 3D Earth models and techniques can be used to achieve measurable increases in our capabilities for monitoring underground nuclear explosions and characterizing seismic ground motion hazards. This paper highlights some of the presentations, issues, and discussions at the workshop and proposes two specific paths by which to begin quantifying the potential contribution of progressively refined 3D seismic models in critical applied arenas. Seismic monitoring agencies are tasked with detection, location, and characterization of seismic activity in near real time. In the case of nuclear explosion monitoring or seismic hazard, decisions to further investigate a suspect event or to launch disaster relief efforts may rely heavily on real-time analysis and results. Because these are weighty decisions, monitoring agencies are regularly called upon to meticulously document and justify every aspect of their monitoring system. In order to meet this level of scrutiny and maintain operational robustness requirements, only mature technologies are considered for operational monitoring systems, and operational technology necessarily lags

  6. Waveform cross correlation for seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions. Part I: Grand master events

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty using waveform cross correlation requires a uniform coverage of the globe with master events well recorded at array stations of the International Monitoring System. The essence of cross correlation as a monitoring tool consists in a continuous comparison of digital waveforms at a given station with waveform templates from the global set of master events. At array stations, cross correlation demonstrates a higher resolution because the time delays at individual sensors from master and slave events are the same but they may differ from theoretical ones used in standard beamforming. In the regions where master events and thus waveform templates are available, one can reduce the amplitude threshold of signal detection by a factor of 2 to 3 relative to standard beamforming and STA/LTA detector used at the International Data Centre. The gain in sensitivity corresponds to a body wave magnitude reduction by 0.3 to 0.4 units and doubles the number of dete...

  7. Spalax™ new generation: A sensitive and selective noble gas system for nuclear explosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Petit, G; Cagniant, A; Gross, P; Douysset, G; Topin, S; Fontaine, J P; Taffary, T; Moulin, C

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the verification regime of the Comprehensive nuclear Test ban Treaty (CTBT), CEA is developing a new generation (NG) of SPALAX™ system for atmospheric radioxenon monitoring. These systems are able to extract more than 6cm(3) of pure xenon from air samples each 12h and to measure the four relevant xenon radioactive isotopes using a high resolution detection system operating in electron-photon coincidence mode. This paper presents the performances of the SPALAX™ NG prototype in operation at Bruyères-le-Châtel CEA centre, integrating the most recent CEA developments. It especially focuses on an innovative detection system made up of a gas cell equipped with two face-to-face silicon detectors associated to one or two germanium detectors. Minimum Detectable activity Concentrations (MDCs) of environmental samples were calculated to be approximately 0.1 mBq/m(3) for the isotopes (131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and 0.4 mBq/m(3) for (135)Xe (single germanium configuration). The detection system might be used to simultaneously measure particulate and noble gas samples from the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS). That possibility could lead to new capacities for particulate measurements by allowing electron-photon coincidence detection of certain fission products.

  8. Chronology of cholelithiasis. Dating gallstones from atmospheric radiocarbon produced by nuclear bomb explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, H.Y.; Druffel, E.R.; Rampone, W.M.

    1986-04-24

    We investigated the natural history of cholelithiasis in 59 samples of stones from the gallbladder or common bile duct in 15 patients, using as a tracer for the timing of stone formation the /sup 14/C released into the environment during nuclear weapons testing. The ages of the stones were correlated with the dates of onset of symptoms and with other clinical data. None of 11 symptomatic patients had symptoms or complications until at least two years (mean +/- SD, 8.0 +/- 5.1 years) after stone formation began. There was a lag time of 11.7 +/- 4.6 years between initial stone formation and cholecystectomy. The growth rates of stones from 11 symptomatic patients and 4 asymptomatic patients were similar (2.6 +/- 1.4 and 2.6 +/- 1.1 mm per year). Studies of two stones retrieved from the common bile duct showed that one had the same age as a cholecystic stone; the other, removed two years after cholecystectomy, apparently grew in the common bile duct. The long latency period between the formation of gallstones and the onset of symptoms indicates that interruption of the natural progression of gallstone disease is potentially possible with medical therapy.

  9. Effects of nuclear weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S.; Dolan, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  10. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S; Dolan, P J

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  11. Explosive Nuclear Burning in the pp-Chain Region and the Breakout Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubono S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear reactions in the pp-chain region and on the breakout process from the pp-chain region under very high temperature conditions are reviewed, and some possibilities for experimental investigation are discussed. The reactions discussed could play an important role typically for the primordial nucleosynthesis and supernova nucleosynthesis. Specifically, I discuss here the reactions starting from the two key nuclei, 7Be and 7Li. The 7Be(n,α reaction, which destroys 7Be, is considered to have a large impact to the primordial 7Li problem. Our recent estimate of the reaction rate indicates that the reaction rate can be about one order of magnitude smaller than the rate currently adopted, suggesting this channel has a minor effect for the 7Li problem. Under a proton-rich environment at high temperature like the νp-process, the 7Be(α,γ11C(α,p14N pathway is expected to play a majpr role for heavy element synthesis, comparable to the triple alpha process. These two reactions on the pathway were investigated by using low-energy, high-intensity RI beams of 7Be and 11C. The results support the theoretical prediction of heavy nucleus production at around mass 90-100 by the νp-process, where the anomalously abundant p-nuclei exist. The reactions on the breakout sequence of 7Li(n,γ8Li(α,n11B are also discussed which could paly a crucial role in nuetron-rich envirnments, like in the primirdial universe as well as the early stage of the r-process. The cross sections of the first step reaction 7Li(n,γ8Li seems well confirmed, but the second step reaction 8Li(α,n11B still is not well known yet, whose status of the study is discussed.

  12. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  13. Analysis of the Characteristics of the Background Noise from a Nuclear Explosion Monitoring%核爆次声背景噪声信号特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青建华; 程先友; 庞新良

    2013-01-01

    Infrasound monitoring is one of the four monitoring technologies stipulated in " The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty".According to the interest in the understanding of background noise during nuclear explosion infrasound monitoring,the discussion is concentrated on the infrasound caused by earthquake,volcanic eruption,lightning,gale and so on.It's very important to understand these characteristics for developing nuclear explosion infrasound monitoring.%核爆炸次声监测技术是《全面禁止核试验条约》规定的监测技术手段之一,主要用来监测大气层中的核爆炸.根据核爆次声监测对背景噪声信号影响的关注,重点介绍了地震、火山喷发、闪电、大风等非核爆次声信号的特征,了解这些特征对于开展核爆次声监测有益.

  14. Altitude headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, J Ivan; Holdridge, Ashley; Mendizabal, Jorge E

    2013-12-01

    High altitude headache (HAH) has been defined by the International Headache Society as a headache that appears within 24 hours after ascent to 2,500 m or higher [1••]. The headache can appear in isolation or as part of acute mountain sickness (AMS), which has more dramatic symptoms than the headache alone. If symptoms are ignored, more serious conditions such as high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), or even death may ensue. While there is no definitive understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism, it is speculated that HAH occurs from the combination of hypoxemia-induced intracranial vasodilation and subsequent cerebral edema. There are a number of preventive measures that can be adopted prior to ascending, including acclimatization and various medications. A variety of pharmacological interventions are also available to clinicians to treat this extremely widespread condition.

  15. End of FY2014 Report - Filter Measurement System for Nuclear Material Storage Canisters (Including Altitude Correction for Filter Pressure Drop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-24

    Two LANL FTS (Filter Test System ) devices for nuclear material storage canisters are fully operational. One is located in PF-4 ( i.e. the TA-55 FTS) while the other is located at the Radiation Protection Division’s Aerosol Engineering Facility ( i.e. the TA-3 FTS). The systems are functionally equivalent , with the TA-3 FTS being the test-bed for new additions and for resolving any issues found in the TA-55 FTS. There is currently one unresolved issue regarding the TA-55 FTS device. The canister lid clamp does not give a leak tight seal when testing the 1 QT (quart) or 2 QT SAVY lids. An adapter plate is being developed that will ensure a correct test configuration when the 1 or 2 QT SAVY lid s are being tested .

  16. Estimation of the amount of the nuclear transformation products formed under explosion-induced compression of a substance to the superdense state

    CERN Document Server

    Adamenko, S V; Kossko, I A; Kurochkin, V D; Kovylyaev, V V; Ponomarev, S S; Andreev, A V

    2004-01-01

    In the present work carried out at the Electrodynamics Laboratory Proton-21 with the use of X-ray electron probe microanalysis (XEPMA) and glow-discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) techniques, we study the chemical composition of a substance formed as a result of the explosion-induced compression of solid targets and deposited on the surfaces of accumulating screens. We established that the explosion products contain chemical elements which were not included in the composition of the initial materials of targets and accumulating screens or were included in them as impurities in quantities by 3...7 and more orders in magnitude less than those detected after the experiment. We conclude that the regular appearance of chemical elements, which were not included in the composition of the initial materials of targets and accumulating screens, in the explosion products is the consequence of a nuclear transformation of a part of their material, i.e., is the fact testifying to both the running of the nucleosynthesis reac...

  17. Scientific Support for NQR Explosive Detection Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 8 March 2004 - 7 March 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Scientific Support for NQR Explosive Detection Development...Laboratory (NRL) to improve explosive detection using nuclear quadrupole resonance ( NQR ) is summarized. The work includes studies of the effects...superconducting coils for explosive detection. Additional studies involving slowly rotating NQR measurements were also pursued. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nuclear

  18. An investigation of the feasibility of building a harbor on the West coast of South America using explosive power of nuclear weapons, a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodtner, H. H.

    1971-12-31

    There is an interest in discovering the various peace time uses of nuclear explosives. One of the proposals is the building of harbors. There are several ports along the west coast of South America where lighterage is necessary. This implies a need for expanded harbor facilities. The problem is to find a good location for creating a harbor, and the feasibility of accomplishing this with the use of nuclear force. Feasibility includes blast effects, radiation hazards, the number of weapons needed, and economic considerations. Economic considerations include the cost of treating a harbor of sufficient depth and area, the building of harbor facilities, and the estimated savings and advantages of the new harbor. Several meetings were held with naval personnel of the Military Liaison group at UCRL to discuss the general problems of harbors. Thirty-three different ports were given a preliminary investigation.

  19. Explosives tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S [San Ramon, CA; Howard, Douglas E [Livermore, CA; Eckels, Joel D [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  20. Yield and depth Estimation of Selected NTS Nuclear and SPE Chemical Explosions Using Source Equalization by modeling Local and Regional Seismograms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, C. K.; Roman-nieves, J. I.; Woods, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Source parameters of nuclear and chemical explosions are often estimated by matching either the corner frequency and spectral level of a single event or the spectral ratio when spectra from two events are available with known source parameters for one. In this study, we propose an alternative method in which waveforms from two or more events can be simultaneously equalized by setting the differential of the processed seismograms at one station from any two individual events to zero. The method involves convolving the equivalent Mueller-Murphy displacement source time function (MMDSTF) of one event with the seismogram of the second event and vice-versa, and then computing their difference seismogram. MMDSTF is computed at the elastic radius including both near and far-field terms. For this method to yield accurate source parameters, an inherent assumption is that green's functions for the any paired events from the source to a receiver are same. In the frequency limit of the seismic data, this is a reasonable assumption and is concluded based on the comparison of green's functions computed for flat-earth models at various source depths ranging from 100m to 1Km. Frequency domain analysis of the initial P wave is, however, sensitive to the depth phase interaction, and if tracked meticulously can help estimating the event depth. We applied this method to the local waveforms recorded from the three SPE shots and precisely determined their yields. These high-frequency seismograms exhibit significant lateral path effects in spectrogram analysis and 3D numerical computations, but the source equalization technique is independent of any variation as long as their instrument characteristics are well preserved. We are currently estimating the uncertainty in the derived source parameters assuming the yields of the SPE shots as unknown. We also collected regional waveforms from 95 NTS explosions at regional stations ALQ, ANMO, CMB, COR, JAS LON, PAS, PFO and RSSD. We are

  1. Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    underground explosions has led to significant progress in the development of geomechanics a science studying mechanical properties of rocks and rock...mining industry. One way to improve methods of fragmentation by explosives involves utilizing the geomechanical properties of the rock massif, in...Geomekhanika krupnomasshtabnykh vzryvov ( Geomechanics of large explosions), Nedra, Moscow, 319 pp. [This book in available in electronic format

  2. Summary of a joint US-Japan study of potential approaches to reduce the attractiveness of various nuclear materials for use in a nuclear explosive device by a terrorist group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C.G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Inoue, N.; Kuno, Y.; Mihara, T.; Sagara, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-49 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan); Ebbinghaus, B.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box L-168, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Murphy, J.; Dalton, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave, SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Nagayama, Y. [Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, 3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a joint US-Japan study to establish a mutual understanding, through scientific-based study, of potential approaches to reduce the attractiveness of various nuclear materials for use in a terrorist nuclear explosive device (NED). 4 approaches that can reduce materials attractiveness with a very high degree of effectiveness are: -) diluting HEU with natural or depleted U to an enrichment of less than 10% U-235; -) storing Pu in nuclear fuel that is not man portable and with a dose rate greater or equal to 10 Gy/h at 1 m; -) storing Pu or HEU in heavy items, i.e. not transportable, provided the removal of the Pu or HEU from the item requires a purification/processing capability; and -) converting Pu and HEU to very dilute forms (such as wastes) that, without any security barriers, would require very long acquisition times to acquire a Category I quantity of Pu or of HEU. 2 approaches that can reduce materials attractiveness with a high degree of effectiveness are: -) converting HEU-fueled research reactors into LEU-fueled research reactors or dilute HEU with natural or depleted U to an enrichment of less than 20% U-235; -) converting U/Al reactor fuel into U/Si reactor fuel. Other approaches have been assessed as moderately or totally inefficient to reduce the attractiveness of nuclear materials.

  3. Application of continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance to the quantitative analysis of some high explosives and propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R. P.

    The principles and techniques of CW NMR chemical characterization of explosives and propellants are reviewed, and some typical results are summarized. The instrument design and adjustment parameters are discussed; the need to determine the RF saturation values by trial and error for each sample is indicated; the practical steps for a typical analysis are listed; and four basic approaches (analysis vs a standard, analysis via standard additions, signal/gram measurements, and solvent extraction) are described. Results are presented for water in RDX, in nitrocellulose (NC), and in nitroglycerine-NC (NG-NC); NG in NG-NC paste and in propellant; oil in PE4 plasticizer grease; wax in RDX waxes; NG in damp NG-NC pastes; plasticizer in PE4; and TNT in chloroform solutions.

  4. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  5. [Study on Tritium Content in Soil at Sites of Nuclear Explosions on the Territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonova, L V; Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O

    2015-01-01

    As a result of investigations carried out on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site, tritium was found in different environmental objects--surface and ground waters, vegetation, air environment, and snow cover. The analysis of the data obtained has shown that contamination of environmental objects at the Semipalatinsk Test Site with tritium is associated with the places where underground nuclear tests were performed. Since tritium can originate from an activation reaction and be trapped by pock particles during a test, it was decided to examine the soil in the sites where surface and excavation tests took place. It was found that the concentration of tritium in soil correlates with the concentration of europium. Probably, the concentration of tritium in the soil depends on the character and yield of the tests performed. Findings of the study have revealed that tritium can be found in soil in significant amounts not only in sites where underground nuclear tests took place but also in sites where surface and excavation nuclear tests were carried out.

  6. Nuclear Geoplosics Sourcebook. Volume IV. Part I. Empirical Analysis of Ground Motion from Above and Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    November 10, 1975. IV-1.8 Feynman , R. P., R. B. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol. II, Chapter 39, Addison Wesley, Massachusetts...Event, POR 6400, Sandia Laboratories, March 1971. IV-2.18 Preston, R. G., and V. E. Wheeler , Response of the Line-of-Sight Pipe to Ground Shock in the...Hupmobile Nuclear Effects Test, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (Unpublished). IV-2.19 Randolph, P. L., R. G. Preston, and V. E. Wheeler , Preliminary

  7. Impact of steam explosion on the wheat straw lignin structure studied by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance and density functional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Harri; Elder, Thomas; Maaheimo, Hannu; Rovio, Stella; Rahikainen, Jenni; Kruus, Kristiina; Tamminen, Tarja

    2014-10-29

    Chemical changes of lignin induced by the steam explosion (SE) process were elucidated. Wheat straw was studied as the raw material, and lignins were isolated by the enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) procedure before and after the SE treatment for analyses mainly by two-dimensional (2D) [heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC)] and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The β-O-4 structures were found to be homolytically cleaved, followed by recoupling to β-5 linkages. The homolytic cleavage/recoupling reactions were also studied by computational methods, which verified their thermodynamic feasibility. The presence of the tricin bound to wheat straw lignin was confirmed, and it was shown to participate in lignin reactions during the SE treatment. The preferred homolytic β-O-4 cleavage reaction was calculated to follow bond dissociation energies: G-O-G (guaiacyl) (69.7 kcal/mol) > G-O-S (syringyl) (68.4 kcal/mol) > G-O-T (tricin) (67.0 kcal/mol).

  8. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assay of water sampled from the underground nuclear explosion site in the north of the Perm region (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@list.ru; Shuktomova, Ida I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The results of our study revealed a local biologically relevant surface water contamination in the radionuclide anomaly in the north of Russia (Perm region) by means of Allium schoenoprasum L. anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay. This radionuclide anomaly was formed in 1971 as a result of an underground nuclear explosion with soil excavation. Specific activities of main dose-forming radionuclides in all examined reservoirs are below intervention levels officially adopted in Russia for drinking water. We found that {sup 90}Sr significantly contributes to induction of cytogenetic disturbances. Our previous data and the data described here suggest that metal and radionuclide combined exposure (with the dose below permissible exposure limits for human) may cause substantial biological effects. These effects are in part due to synergic response. The findings described here indicated that development of a new concept of radiation protection for humans and biota should be based on the clear understanding of biological effects of low doses of radiation in chronic exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures.

  9. High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    Electromagnetic Pulse Horizontal Electromagnetic Pulse Advanced Fast Electromagnetic Pulse Nuclear Weapons Effect Testing and Environments 16. SECURITY...TOP 01-2-620A 9 July 2015 G-1 APPENDIX G. ABBREVIATIONS. AFEMP Advanced Fast Electromagnetic ... Electromagnetic Pulse A burst of electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion or a suddenly fluctuating magnetic field. The resulting electric and

  10. Removal of radioactive iodine and cesium in water purification processes after an explosion at a nuclear power plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Kobashigawa, Naoya; Ohkubo, Keiko; Terada, Hiroshi; Kishida, Naohiro; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-09-15

    The presence of radionuclides at five water purification plants was investigated after an explosion at a nuclear power plant hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Radioactive iodine (¹³¹I) and cesium (¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs) were detected in raw water in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures. ¹³¹I was not removed by coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation. ¹³¹I was removed by granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) at a level of about 30%-40%, although ¹³¹I was not removed in some cases. This was also confirmed by laboratory-scale experiments using PAC. The removal percentages of ¹³¹I in river and pond waters by 25 mg dry/L of PAC increased from 36% to 59% and from 41% to 48%, respectively, with chlorine dosing before PAC. ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs were effectively removed by coagulation at both a water purification plant and in laboratory-scale experiments when turbidity was relatively high. In contrast, ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in pond water with low turbidity were not removed by coagulation. This was because ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in river water were present mainly in particulate form, while in pond water they were present mainly as cesium ions (¹³⁴Cs+ and ¹³⁷Cs+). However, the removal of ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in pond water by coagulation increased markedly when ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs were mixed with sediment 24 h before coagulation.

  11. Adaptation to High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude native...

  12. Estimation of the amount of the nuclear transformation products formed under explosion-induced compression of a substance to the superdense state

    OpenAIRE

    Adamenko, S. V.; Adamenko, A. S.; Kossko, I. A.; Kurochkin, V. D.; Kovylyaev, V. V.; Ponomarev, S. S.; Andreev, A. V.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work carried out at the Electrodynamics Laboratory Proton-21 with the use of X-ray electron probe microanalysis (XEPMA) and glow-discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) techniques, we study the chemical composition of a substance formed as a result of the explosion-induced compression of solid targets and deposited on the surfaces of accumulating screens. We established that the explosion products contain chemical elements which were not included in the composition of the initial ma...

  13. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  14. Niche explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normark, Benjamin B; Johnson, Norman A

    2011-05-01

    The following syndrome of features occurs in several groups of phytophagous insects: (1) wingless females, (2) dispersal by larvae, (3) woody hosts, (4) extreme polyphagy, (5) high abundance, resulting in status as economic pests, (6) invasiveness, and (7) obligate parthenogenesis in some populations. If extreme polyphagy is defined as feeding on 20 or more families of hostplants, this syndrome is found convergently in several species of bagworm moths, tussock moths, root weevils, and 5 families of scale insects. We hypothesize that extreme polyphagy in these taxa results from "niche explosion", a positive feedback loop connecting large population size to broad host range. The niche explosion has a demographic component (sometimes called the "amplification effect" in studies of pathogens) as well as a population-genetic component, due mainly to the increased effectiveness of natural selection in larger populations. The frequent origins of parthenogenesis in extreme polyphages are, in our interpretation, a consequence of this increased effectiveness of natural selection and consequent reduced importance of sexuality. The niche explosion hypothesis makes detailed predictions about the comparative genomics and population genetics of extreme polyphages and related specialists. It has a number of potentially important implications, including an explanation for the lack of observed trade-offs between generalists and specialists, a re-interpretation of the ecological correlates of parthenogenesis, and a general expectation that Malthusian population explosions may be amplified by Darwinian effects.

  15. Explosive Start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANCISCO; LITTLE

    2006-01-01

    I ducked involuntarily as the first set of explosions went off and made my way in double time to the street corner, where I had spotted an arcade that could be used for shelter. Running quickly in a crouched, military maneuver while inhaling gunpowder fumes, I was totally oblivious to the laughter and head-shaking coming

  16. Strengthening hospital preparedness for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive events: clinicians' opinions regarding physician/physician assistant response and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Joan E; Richter, Anke

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the attitudes of physicians and physician assistants (PA) regarding response roles and responsibilities as well as training opinions to understand how best to partner with emergency department physicians and to effectively apply scarce healthcare dollars to ensure successful emergency preparedness. Physicians and PAs representing 21 specialties in two level I trauma public hospitals were surveyed. Participants scored statements within four categories regarding roles and responsibilities of clinicians in a disaster; barriers to participation; implementation of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive training; and training preferences on a Likert scale of 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree). Additional open-ended questions were asked. Respondents strongly feel that they have an ethical responsibility to respond in a disaster situation and that other clinicians would be receptive to their assistance. They feel that they have clinical skills that could be useful in a catastrophic response effort. They are very receptive to additional training to enable them to respond. Respondents are neutral to slightly positive about whether this training should be mandated, yet requiring training as a condition for licensure, board certification, or credentialing was slightly negative. Therefore, it is unclear how the mandate would be encouraged or enforced. Barriers to training include mild concerns about risk and malpractice, the cost of training, the time involved in training, and the cost for the time in training (eg, lost revenue and continuing medical education time). Respondents are not concerned about whether they can learn and retain these skills. Across all questions, there was no statistically significant difference in responses between the medical and surgical subspecialties. Improving healthcare preparedness to respond to a terrorist or natural disaster requires increased efforts at organization, education and training

  17. OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE IN AN ASSESSMENT OF THE DANGER OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF PEACEFUL NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS ON THE EXAMPLE OF FACILITY «DNEPR»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Hramcov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was to assess the dynamics of the changes during the five-year period (from 2008 to 2013 of the radiation situation in the territory adjacent to the places of the peaceful nuclear explosions of the “Dnepr” series in the Murmansk region, the analysis of information environment of the subject in the Internet and the study of the population public opinion.Gamma-radiation dose rate registered in the investigated territory in 2013 (140 – 180 nSv/h corresponded to the natural radiation background, characteristic for the Khibiny. The average content of 137Cs in soil is comparable to the level of the global fallout contamination. Levels of the artificial radionuclides concentration in the samples of natural foodstuffs (mushrooms and berries were found in 2013 to be much lower than corresponded permissible levels. Values of the 3H specific activity for the water samples from the surface and underground sources sampled in 2013 decreased more than in 1,5 times in comparing with 2008 and have not exceeded the interventional level – 7600 Bq/kg. Exposure doses estimated for the critical group of population Exposure doses estimated in 2013 for the critical groups of population have not exceeded the dose limit adopted in RSS-99/2009. The interest of population to the mentioned problem has not been pointed out on the basic of the analysis of publications electronic versions in mass media for 2013. The comparative analysis of the results of the survey showed that level of public concern over the radiation environment in their places of residence has been low in 2008 and even lower in 2013. With a low level of the knowledge concerning radiation respondents found their significant interest for the issues relating radiation, its effects on the health and radiation protection measures.Along with the radiation-hygienic monitoring, it is necessary to conduct regular activities aimed on the population informing about the

  18. Detonation probabilities of high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Bement, T.R.

    1995-07-01

    The probability of a high explosive violent reaction (HEVR) following various events is an extremely important aspect of estimating accident-sequence frequency for nuclear weapons dismantlement. In this paper, we describe the development of response curves for insults to PBX 9404, a conventional high-performance explosive used in US weapons. The insults during dismantlement include drops of high explosive (HE), strikes of tools and components on HE, and abrasion of the explosive. In the case of drops, we combine available test data on HEVRs and the results of flooring certification tests to estimate the HEVR probability. For other insults, it was necessary to use expert opinion. We describe the expert solicitation process and the methods used to consolidate the responses. The HEVR probabilities obtained from both approaches are compared.

  19. NQR Stimulation Technique for Explosives Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A method of customization stimulation signal based on direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) for Nuclear Quadrapole Resonance Explosives Detection System is presented. DDS has many advantages, such as high frequency resolution, high convert speed,

  20. Adaptation to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Nayar

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  1. Shell and explosive hydrogen burning

    CERN Document Server

    Boeltzig, A; Cavanna, F; Cristallo, S; Davinson, T; Depalo, R; deBoer, R J; Di Leva, A; Ferraro, F; Imbriani, G; Marigo, P; Terrasi, F; Wiescher, M

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of light elements, from helium up to silicon, mainly occurs in Red Giant and Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and Novae. The relative abundances of the synthesized nuclides critically depend on the rates of the nuclear processes involved, often through non-trivial reaction chains, combined with complex mixing mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the contributions made by LUNA experiments in furthering our understanding of nuclear reaction rates necessary for modeling nucleosynthesis in AGB stars and Novae explosions.

  2. Forward and inverse modeling of near-field seismic waveforms from underground nuclear explosions for effective source functions and structure parameters. Final report, 5 September 1986-5 March 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, L.J.; Barker, J.S.

    1987-04-05

    It is well established that near-field records of nuclear explosions can be analyzed to obtain detailed information about the seismic source function and its dependence on yield. This information is generally formulated in terms of parametrized models for the RDP and for the test-site crustal structure. In this study, results of forward modeling studies are reviewed to obtain the source and structure parameters for Pahute Mesa. These models fit the observed near-field records well, but there is some question as to how errors in crustal structure might affect seismic-source parameters. Furthermore, there is a general need to be able to develop source-structure models in a consistent, unbiased fashion. To address these issues, a simultaneous inversion was developed for source and structure parameters. In previous reports, the authors discussed the development of the method and applied it to Pahute Mesa data. This report presents an application of an improved technique for inverting for parameters in these types of problems known as the jumping method. A second problem with analysis of near-field records from explosions is that there is some question as to whether crustal materials respond in a linear anelastic or anelastic fashion or whether they have significant nonlinear response because of the high-shear strain levels. Near-field data sets from several nuclear explosions and an earthquake are examined to address this question. It is shown that if nonlinear material response occurs it does not have a large enough effect to have a significant effect on data interpretation.

  3. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  4. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep K Sharma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to describe the clinical and computed tomography features of 'explosive pleuritis', an entity first named by Braman and Donat in 1986, and to propose a case definition. A case report of a previously healthy, 45-year-old man admitted to hospital with acute onset pleuritic chest pain is presented. The patient arrived at the emergency room at 15:00 in mild respiratory distress; the initial chest x-ray revealed a small right lower lobe effusion. The subsequent clinical course in hospital was dramatic. Within 18 h of admission, he developed severe respiratory distress with oxygen desaturation to 83% on room air and dullness of the right lung field. A repeat chest x-ray, taken the morning after admission, revealed complete opacification of the right hemithorax. A computed tomography scan of the thorax demonstrated a massive pleural effusion with compression of pulmonary tissue and mediastinal shift. Pleural fluid biochemical analysis revealed the following concentrations: glucose 3.5 mmol/L, lactate dehydrogenase 1550 U/L, protein 56.98 g/L, amylase 68 U/L and white blood cell count 600 cells/mL. The pleural fluid cultures demonstrated light growth of coagulase-negative staphylococcus and viridans streptococcus, and very light growth of Candida albicans. Cytology was negative for malignant cells. Thoracotomy was performed, which demonstrated a loculated parapneumonic effusion that required decortication. The patient responded favourably to the empirical administration of intravenous levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, and conservative surgical methods in the management of the empyema. This report also discusses the patient's rapidly progressing pleural effusion and offers a potential case definition for explosive pleuritis. Explosive pleuritis is a medical emergency defined by the rapid development of a pleural effusion involving more than 90% of the hemithorax over 24 h, which causes compression of pulmonary tissue and

  5. Tibetans at extreme altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi; Li, Shupin; Ward, Michal P

    2005-01-01

    Between 1960 and 2003, 13 Chinese expeditions successfully reached the summit of Chomolungma (Mt Everest or Sagarmatha). Forty-five of the 80 summiteers were Tibetan highlanders. During these and other high-altitude expeditions in Tibet, a series of medical and physiological investigations were carried out on the Tibetan mountaineers. The results suggest that these individuals are better adapted to high altitude and that, at altitude, they have a greater physical capacity than Han (ethnic Chinese) lowland newcomers. They have higher maximal oxygen uptake, greater ventilation, more brisk hypoxic ventilatory responses, larger lung volumes, greater diffusing capacities, and a better quality of sleep. Tibetans also have a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness and less body weight loss. These differences appear to represent genetic adaptations and are obviously significant for humans at extreme altitude. This paper reviews what is known about the physiologic responses of Tibetans at extreme altitudes.

  6. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusions associated with pneumonia (parapneumonic effusions are one of the most common causes of exudative pleural effusions in the world. Approximately 20 to 40% of patients hospitalized with pneumonia will have an accompanying pleural effusion. The term 'Explosive pleuritis' was originally described by Braman and Donat in 1986 as pleural effusions developing within hours of admission. We report a 38 years old male patient with minimal pleural effusion which progressed rapidly within one day to involve almost whole of the hemithorax. There were multiple loculations on ultrasonography of thorax. Pleural fluid was sero-sanguinous and revealed gram positive diplococcic. The patient improved with antibiotics and pigtail catheter drainage.

  7. Evolution of Approaches to Safe Handling of Explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L.Mikhaylov

    2004-01-01

    On definition, nuclear weapons (NW) containing fissile and explosive materials are dangerous in terms of radiation release and explosion. In Russia, the problems of nuclear safety of ammunition during accidents are solved by so-called “one-point safety” with use of physical and design scheme of the primary unit.

  8. Evolution of Approaches to Safe Handling of Explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L. Mikhaylov

    2004-01-01

    @@ On definition, nuclear weapons (NW) containing fissile and explosive materials are dangerous in terms of radiation release and explosion. In Russia, the problems of nuclear safety of ammunition during accidents are solved by so-called "one-point safety" with use of physical and design scheme of the primary unit.

  9. Leidenfrost explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, F; Dorbolo, S

    2012-01-01

    We present a fluid dynamics video showing the behavior of Leidenfrost droplets composed by a mixture of water and surfactant (SDS, Sodium Dodecyl sulfate). When a droplet is released on a plate heated above a given temperature a thin layer of vapor isolates the droplet from the plate. The droplet levitates over the plate. This is called the Leidenfrost effect. In this work we study the influence of the addition of a surfactant on the Leidenfrost phenomenon. As the droplet evaporates the concentration of SDS rises up to two orders of magnitude over the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). An unexpected and violent explosive behavior is observed. The video presents several explosions taken with a high speed camera (IDT-N4 at 30000 fps). All the presented experiments were performed on a plate heated at 300{\\deg}C. On the other hand, the initial quantity of SDS was tuned in two ways: (i) by varying the initial concentration of SDS and (ii) by varying the initial size of the droplet. By measuring the volume of th...

  10. Protective method of flying control system under high altitude nuclear detonation%高空核爆环境下飞行控制系统的防护方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金永; 张春侠; 周春梅; 马继峰; 董文杰

    2012-01-01

    Strong electromagnetic radiation under high altitude nuclear detonation can cause the instantaneous and permanent degradation or failure of (he functions of spacecraft control system. The latent threat and damage effects on spacecraft flying control system under strong electromagnetic radiation environments are firstly analyzed, then the relevant protective concepts and methods for flying control system under strong electromagnetic pulse and strong radiation environments are investigated. The ability resisting strong electromagnetic radiation damage of spacecraft will be significantly improved when the protective method is applied to flying control system for radiation hardening design.%针对高空核爆引起的强电磁辐射使空间飞行器控制系统发生瞬时和持续的功能降级以及失效的问题,分析了强电磁辐射对空间飞行器飞行控制系统的潜在威胁和损伤效应,提出了强电磁脉冲辐射和强射线辐射环境下飞行控制系统的一些防护概念和方法.这些方法应用于飞行控制系统抗辐射加固设计,可显著提高空间飞行器抗强电磁辐射损伤能力.

  11. Magic nuclei at explosive dynamo activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratyev V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive nucleosynthesis at conditions of magnetorotational instabilities is considered for iron group nuclides by employing arguments of nuclear statistical equilibrium. Effects of ultra-strong nuclear magnetization are demonstrated to enhance the portion of titanium product. The results are corroborated with an excess of 44Ti revealed from the Integral mission data.

  12. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  13. Chaotic Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Tél, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    We investigate chaotic dynamical systems for which the intensity of trajectories might grow unlimited in time. We show that (i) the intensity grows exponentially in time and is distributed spatially according to a fractal measure with an information dimension smaller than that of the phase space,(ii) such exploding cases can be described by an operator formalism similar to the one applied to chaotic systems with absorption (decaying intensities), but (iii) the invariant quantities characterizing explosion and absorption are typically not directly related to each other, e.g., the decay rate and fractal dimensions of absorbing maps typically differ from the ones computed in the corresponding inverse (exploding) maps. We illustrate our general results through numerical simulation in the cardioid billiard mimicking a lasing optical cavity, and through analytical calculations in the baker map.

  14. Prediction of Pseudo relative velocity response spectra at Yucca Mountain for underground nuclear explosions conducted in the Pahute Mesa testing area at the Nevada testing site; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), managed by the Office of Geologic Disposal of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for commercial, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This work, intended to extend our understanding of the ground motion at Yucca Mountain resulting from testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS, was funded by the Yucca Mountain project and the Military Applications Weapons Test Program. This report summarizes one aspect of the weapons test seismic investigations conducted in FY88. Pseudo relative velocity response spectra (PSRV) have been calculated for a large body of surface ground motions generated by underground nuclear explosions. These spectra have been analyzed and fit using multiple linear regression techniques to develop a credible prediction technique for surface PSRVs. In addition, a technique for estimating downhole PSRVs at specific stations is included. A data summary, data analysis, prediction development, prediction evaluation, software summary and FORTRAN listing of the prediction technique are included in this report.

  15. High Altitude Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    such enzyme inhibition would favor the creation of a metabolic acidosis to offset the hypoxic respiratory alkalosis of high altitude hyperventilation...that some of their symptoms might be due to the early respiratory alkalosis seen upon arrival at high altitude. Unfortunately 23 out of the 30 subjects...i I Hamilton-16 was negative in all cases and normal respiratory excursions were seen. CSF chemistries and cell counts were normal. Houston and

  16. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  17. Atmospheric Diffusion Loss of Radiation Belt Trapped Electrons Injected by High Altitude Nuclear Detonation%高空核爆炸注入辐射带电子的大气扩散损失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛胜利; 罗旭东; 王建国; 乔登江

    2011-01-01

    With Fokerer-Plank equation of pitch-angle diffusion, a numerical method for atmospheric diffusion loss of radiation belt trapped electrons is shown. Flux and energy spectrum are calculated as atmospheric scattering of fission β spectrum electrons injected in radiation belt by high altitude nuclear detonation. Diffusion due to atmospheric scattering is remarkable as L < 1. 3. Low energy electrons are removed more rapidly than those with high energy. Electron flux decays rapidly at an initial phase and then decays gradually aa an exponential function of time.%利用辐射带电子大气倾角扩散的福克-普朗克方程,通过推导与拟合处理扩散系数表征式,构造二阶精度有限差分格式,给出辐射带捕获电子大气扩散损失的数值计算方法.计算高空核爆炸裂变β谱电子注入辐射带后在不同L壳上的通量损失和能谱变化,结果表明,当L<1.3时,大气作用引起的扩散损失效应明显,低能电子比高能电子消失要快,电子通量初始阶段衰减很快,随后逐渐近似成时间指数函数形式衰减.

  18. Managing traumatic brain injury secondary to explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess Paula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosions and bombings are the most common deliberate cause of disasters with large numbers of casualties. Despite this fact, disaster medical response training has traditionally focused on the management of injuries following natural disasters and terrorist attacks with biological, chemical, and nuclear agents. The following article is a clinical primer for physicians regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by explosions and bombings. The history, physics, and treatment of TBI are outlined.

  19. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  20. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  1. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  2. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  3. Operation greenhouse. Scientific director`s report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 8.1. Blast effects on aircraft in flight. Nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, J.C.; Lehmkuhl, J.C.

    1951-10-01

    The primary objective of this report is to present data concerning the structural and aerodynamic loads as measured on various types of aircraft, in flight, in the vicinity of an atomic explosion. A secondary objective is to describe the instrumentation (installation, calibration, and operation) in order to provide for the future planning and conduct of similar tests. The data presented herein were obtained on Dog, Easy, and George shots of Operation Greenhouse. The airplanes used to collect these data were B-17`s, T-33`s, B-50D`s and one XB-47. These instrumented airplanes were arrayed at preassigned locations in the air space above the explosions. A total of approximately 250 channels of information were obtained which essentially consisted in wing bending, torsion, and shear at the root, mid-span, and outer panel; horizontal stabilizer bending at the root; normal accelerations at the nose, c.g., and tail; aerodynamic pressures at various locations on the airplanes; and temperatures experienced by various critical components of the airplane. The positions of the airplanes at the time of shock arrival were accurately determined by means of radar tracking. The measured data were correlated by means of time signals, every second, from a land based radio transmitter station, and with reference to time zero, by means of a photoelectric cell. The recorded data show that the loads produced by the shock wave were in general accord with theory. The loading experienced by an airplane while passing through the `puff` of the atomic cloud is shown to be considerably higher than that caused by the shock wave. For this reason the penetration of the puff should be avoided even by `sampling` drones.

  4. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of (239)Pu due to non-nuclear detonation of high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L. L.; Harvey, T. F.; Freis, R. P.; Pitovranov, S. E.; Chernokozhin, E. V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of (239)Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal 'coupling coefficient' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of (239)Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported.

  5. Altitude and endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  6. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  7. The Department of Defense Chemical, Biological, Nuclear and High Yield Explosive Response Enterprise: Have We Learned the Lessons to Ensure an Effective Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    event of a natural spread of a disease such as avian flu among the human population or a foot and mouth outbreak among the cattle population. Nuclear...ten-thousand people in the United States were put on antibiotics due to possible exposure (Burke 2007, 50). The form of delivery of the anthrax

  8. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  9. Low altitude remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez Calero, D.; Peyaud, A.; Van der Wal, D.; van 't Hof, J.; Hakkesteegt, H.; Vink, R.; Bovenkamp, E.G.P.; van Antwerpen, G.; Meynart, R.; Neeck, S.P.; Shimoda, H.; Habib, S.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 TNO started to fly some sensors on an unmanned helicopter platform. These sensors included RGB, B/W and thermal infrared cameras. In 2008 a spectrometer was added. The goal for 2010 is to be able to offer a low altitude flying platform including several sensors. Development of these sensors

  10. Preliminary analysis of electromagnetic pulse generated by nuclear explosions in space with case signal model%深空核爆炸辐射电磁脉冲的初步解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱梦; 周辉; 程引会; 李宝忠; 吴伟; 李进玺; 马良; 赵墨

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary understanding of electromagnetic pulse generated by nuclear explosions in space has been developed with case signal model. For observers in large distances, a net dipole can be resulted from the average movements of space charges. Based on the law of electron movements, the electric dipole moment of the whole system has been analytically described. The radiation fields are closely related to the derivatives of the dipole moment with time. The peak value of radiation signal in far field increases linearly with the initial kinetic energies of electrons, and quadratically with the radius of bomb and with the rise time constant. The peak is irrelevant to explosion yield, while the peak time will be postponed as the yield decreases.%采用壳模型分析深空核爆在远场产生辐射电磁脉冲的规律,对深空核爆电磁脉冲的形成机理进行研究.在已知电子运动规律的前提下,推导了发射电子的电偶极矩表达式,并得到了辐射电磁脉冲的特性.计算结果表明:远处辐射场的峰值电场与爆炸当量无关,但达到峰值的时间随爆炸当量增加而提前;电子初始动能的增大也能线性地提高峰值强度;峰值强度与上升时间常数及弹体半径的平方成正比.

  11. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials AGENCY: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF); Department of Justice. ACTION:...

  12. Totally confined explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  13. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging.

  14. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the ...

  15. NEW EXPLOSIVE WELDING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Lotous, V.; Dragobetskii, V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - analysis of the variety of factors of the physical phenomena accompanying the process of the power explosive effect for development of new processes of metal treatment: explosive film coating of hardening and updating of a superficial layer of an item. Industrial approbation of cladding techniques by explosion of item surfaces of complex configuration and determination of parameters of the process of the explosive welding of high-strength pig-iron (graphite of the spherical form) wi...

  16. Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    NOV 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...2013www.ll.mit.edu Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives (PHASE) is a promising new technology that detects trace explosive residues from significant... photoacoustic phenomena resulting from ultraviolet laser excitation. Exposed explosives are excited up to 100 meters away by using PHASE’s

  17. Inspection tester for explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  18. Explosive Line Wave Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    curvature produced by each line wave generator. Piezoelectric pins were used for an additional assessment of the explosive lens design...to a visual assessment of the wave curvature from the high speed camera images, the explosive lens design was also evaluated using piezoelectric pins...High Explosive Firing Complex (HEFC). The various explosive line wave generators were taped vertically on a supporting board and the detonation wave

  19. Explosives Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. H. Seabury; A. J. Caffrey

    2006-04-01

    The feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices has been studied computationally, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Monte Carlo results, in turn were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements have been previously reported. In this report we describe measurements performed on actual explosives and compare the results with calculations. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another by PGNAA

  20. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyer, S.D.

    1997-06-01

    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig.

  1. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  2. Theory and test on nuclear quadrupole resonance explosive detection%核四极矩共振炸药探测原理与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兆和; 吴滕芳; 顾文彬; 高攀

    2006-01-01

    为了解决探雷虚警率,实现探雷的有效性,介绍了核四极矩共振(Nuclear quadrupole resonance简称NQR)基本原理及其用于炸药探测的依据;分析了黑索金(RDX)、梯恩梯(TNT)分子中氮原子(N14)的共振频率及其探测原理;介绍了一种可行的炸药探测研究试验系统,重点研究分析了黑索金(RDX)自由感应衰减(FID)信号、FFT变换、频率响应以及不同质量的RDX对探测信号的影响.实现了RDX的有效探测.

  3. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  4. Brain Food at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts. This pathophysiological condition is known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) which leads to oxidative stress and further causes cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Hypoxia causes neurodegeneration in different brain regions; however, the hippocampus is found to be more prone in comparison to other brain regions. As the hippocampus is affected most, therefore, spatial memory is impaired most during such condition. This chapter will give a brief review of the damaging effect of high altitude on cognition and also throw light on possible herbal interventions at high altitude, which can improve cognitive performance as well as provide protection against the deteriorating effect of hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude.

  5. Explosives tester with heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  6. Explosive Technology Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  7. Active explosion barrier performance against methane and coal dust explosions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. J. L. du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of methane or coal dust explosions through the use of active explosion-suppression systems remains one of the most underutilised explosion controls in underground coal mines...

  8. Processing of explosive nuclear quadrupole resonance signals based on empirical mode decomposition and wavelet transform%基于经验模态分解及小波变换的炸药 NQR 信号处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝凤龙; 徐更光; 黄学义

    2014-01-01

    Explosive nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR ) signals have nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics.In order to solve the NQR signal de-noising problem,a de-noising method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD)and wavelet transform was proposed.The original NQR signals of RDX detected by experiment were used to analyze the de-noising performance.The results indicate that the proposed method can eliminate the noise effectively and well preserve the effective information of original signals.Meanwhile,the method can overcome the shortcomings of wavelet threshold de-noising and direct EMD de-noising,and improve the signal-to-noise ratio.The method has excellent adaptability,and was proved to be an effective de-noising way for NQR signals.%为解决炸药 NQR 信号去噪问题,针对 NQR 信号非线性与非平稳性特点,提出基于经验模态分解及小波变换联合的信号去噪方法。据实验测试的黑索金 NQR 信号对所提方法进行去噪性能分析。结果表明该方法在保留信号有用信息的前提下可有效去除噪声,从而提高信噪比、克服小波阈值去噪与直接 EMD 去噪缺陷,自适应性良好,为有效的炸药 NQR 信号去噪方法。

  9. Imaging Detonations of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    14. ABSTRACT The techniques and instrumentation presented in this report allow for mapping of temperature, pressure , chemical species, and...measurement in the explosive near- to far-field (0–500 charge diameters) of surface temperatures, peak air-shock pressures , some chemical species...15. SUBJECT TERMS imaging, explosions, temperature, pressure , chemical species 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU

  10. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  11. Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, T; Mellor, A

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed.

  12. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  13. Practical small-scale explosive seam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A small-scale explosive seam welding process has been developed that can significantly contribute to remote metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions, such as nuclear reactor repair and assembly of structure in space. This paper describes this explosive seam welding process in terms of joining principles, variables, types of joints created, capabilities, and applications. Very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long-length, uniform, hermetically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The practicality of this process has been demonstrated by its current acceptance, as well as its capabilities that are superior in many applications to the universally accepted joining processes, such as mechanical fasteners, fusion and resistance welding, and adhesives. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24896

  14. Type Ia Supernova Explosion: Gravitationally Confined Detonation

    CERN Document Server

    Plewa, T; Lamb, D

    2004-01-01

    We present a new mechanism for Type Ia supernova explosions in massive white dwarfs. The proposed scenario follows from relaxing the assumption of symmetry in the model and involves a detonation created in an unconfined environment. The explosion begins with an essentially central ignition of stellar material initiating a deflagration. This deflagration results in the formation of a buoyantly-driven bubble of hot material that reaches the stellar surface at supersonic speeds. The bubble breakout forms a strong pressure wave that laterally accelerates fuel-rich outer stellar layers. This material, confined by gravity to the white dwarf, races along the stellar surface and is focused at the location opposite to the point of the bubble breakout. These streams of nuclear fuel carry enough mass and energy to trigger a detonation just above the stellar surface. The flow conditions at that moment support a detonation that will incinerate the white dwarf and result in an energetic explosion. The stellar expansion fol...

  15. Investigations of Novel Sensor Technology for Explosive Specific Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    improvised explosive devices (IEDs);Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance ( NQR ); Ion Mobility 69 Spectrometry (lMS); Fido sensor; electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD...6.1.1 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance ( NQR )................................................................. 14 6.1.2 High Temperature Superconductor...HTS) for NQR . ............................................ 14 6.1.3 RF atomic magnetometer for NQR

  16. Energy at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N E; Stacey, M J; Woods, D R

    2011-03-01

    For the military doctor, an understanding of the metabolic effects of high altitude (HA) exposure is highly relevant. This review examines the acute metabolic challenge and subsequent changes in nutritional homeostasis that occur when troops deploy rapidly to HA. Key factors that impact on metabolism include the hypoxic-hypobaric environment, physical exercise and diet. Expected metabolic changes include augmentation of basal metabolic rate (BMR), decreased availability of oxygen in peripheral metabolic tissues, reduction in VO2 max, increased glucose dependency and lactate accumulation during exercise. The metabolic demands of exercise at HA are crucial. Equivalent activity requires greater effort and more energy than it does at sea level. Soldiers working at HA show high energy expenditure and this may exceed energy intake significantly. Energy intake at HA is affected adversely by reduced availability, reduced appetite and changes in endocrine parameters. Energy imbalance and loss of body water result in weight loss, which is extremely common at HA. Loss of fat predominates over loss of fat-free mass. This state resembles starvation and the preferential primary fuel source shifts from carbohydrate towards fat, reducing performance efficiency. However, these adverse effects can be mitigated by increasing energy intake in association with a high carbohydrate ration. Commanders must ensure that individuals are motivated, educated, strongly encouraged and empowered to meet their energy needs in order to maximise mission-effectiveness.

  17. High Altitude Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lt. Col. G K

    2017-01-01

    Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs) and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA) every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc.), cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc.) nail changes (koilonychias), airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma) are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place. PMID:28216727

  18. High altitude dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G K Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc., cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc. nail changes (koilonychias, airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place.

  19. Modeling radionuclide migration from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pandey, Sachin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Malley, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    The travel time of radionuclide gases to the ground surface in fracture rock depends on many complex factors. Numerical simulators are the most complete repositories of knowledge of the complex processes governing radionuclide gas migration to the ground surface allowing us to verify conceptualizations of physical processes against observations and forecast radionuclide gas travel times to the ground surface and isotopic ratios

  20. Explosion models, light curves, spectra and H$_{0}$

    CERN Document Server

    Höflich, P; Wheeler, J C; Nomoto, K; Thielemann, F K

    1996-01-01

    From the spectra and light curves it is clear that SNIa are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs. However, details of the explosion are highly under debate. Here, we present detailed models which are consistent with respect to the explosion mechanism, the optical and infrared light curves (LC), and the spectral evolution. This leaves the description of the burning front and the structure of the white dwarf as the only free parameters. The explosions are calculated using one-dimensional Lagrangian codes including nuclear networks. Subsequently, optical and IR-LCs are constructed. Detailed NLTE-spectra are computed for several instants of time using the density, chemical and luminosity structure resulting from the LCs. The general methods and critical tests are presented (sect. 2). Different models for the thermonuclear explosion are discussed including detonations deflagrations, delayed detonations, pulsating delayed detonations (PDD) and helium detonations (sect.3). Comparisons between theoretical and obs...

  1. Aging of civil explosives (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hoen, C. 't; Krämer, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch MoD and police, TNO composed sets with different kinds of civil explosives to train their detection dogs. The manufacturer of these explosives guarantees several years of stability of these explosives. These sets of explosives are used under different conditions, like temperature and

  2. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  4. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ....gov . This Federal Register notice, as well as news releases and other relevant information, are also..., Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) regulates the import, manufacture, distribution, and storage of...

  5. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  6. Explosion suppression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  7. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  8. Fantasy physics for nuclear testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    In November a group of scientists will scour a small patch of the Middle East for signs that a nuclear explosion has taken place. Edwin Cartlidge describes their delicate mission and the sophisticated gadgetry they will rely on.

  9. Altitude transitions in energy climbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The aircraft energy-climb trajectory for configurations with a sharp transonic drag rise is well known to possess two branches in the altitude/Mach-number plane. Transition in altitude between the two branches occurs instantaneously, a 'corner' in the minimum-time solution obtained with the energy-state model. If the initial and final values of altitude do not lie on the energy-climb trajectory, then additional jumps (crude approximations to dives and zooms) are required at the initial and terminal points. With a singular-perturbation approach, a 'boundary-layer' correction is obtained for each altitude jump, the transonic jump being a so-called 'internal' boundary layer, different in character from the initial and terminal layers. The determination of this internal boundary layer is examined and some computational results for an example presented.

  10. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  11. Explosive Welding with Nitroguanidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadwin, L D

    1964-03-13

    By using the explosive nitroguanidine, continuous welds can be made between similar and dissimilar metals. Since low detonation pressures are attainable, pressure transfer media are not required between the explosive and the metal surface. The need for either a space or an angle between the metals is eliminated, and very low atmospheric pressures are not required. Successful welds have been made between tantalum and 4140 steel, 3003H14 aluminum and 4140 steel, and 304 stainless steel and 3003H14 aluminum.

  12. Overview of Explosive Initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    important characteristics of an effective primary explosive is an extremely swift deflagration to detonation transition, meaning that once the... Taylor , G. W. C., Napier, S. E., "Preparation of Explosive Substances Containing Carboxymethyl Cellulose," U.S. Patent 3,291,664, 1966. 8 Perich, A...Rinkenbach, W. H., "Study of the Action of Lead Azide on Copper," U.S. Army ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, Technical Report No. 1152, 1942. 11 Taylor , G. W

  13. Handbook of HE (High Explosives) Explosive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-11

    uPcup SI.B iPip P 3 [ xpI os i or ,tf fects, Lx’i Osions In Air,6 19 6T~lT’ Explosions, Airblast - 19 ABSTRAC.T ’Continuje on "uri~ee it neczessary and...AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY/EN ATTN: MAT 0323 ATTN- LIURARY/AFIT/LDEE NAVAL OCEAN SYSTEMS CENTER AIR FORCE LOGISTICS COMMAND ATTN: CODE 825

  14. A3 Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulreix, Lionel J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation shows drawings, diagrams and photographs of the A3 Altitude Test Facility. It includes a review of the A3 Facility requirements, and drawings of the various sections of the facility including Engine Deck and Superstructure, Test Cell and Thrust Takeout, Structure and Altitude Support Systems, Chemical Steam generators, and the subscale diffuser. There are also pictures of the construction site, and the facility under construction. A Diagram of the A3 Steam system schematic is also shown

  15. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3...

  16. Application of altitude control techniques for low altitude earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, K. G.; Herder, R. W.; Glass, A. B.; Cooley, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The applications sensors of many low altitude earth satellites designed for recording surface or atmospheric data require near zero orbital eccentricities for maximum usefulness. Coverage patterns and altitude profiles require specified values of orbit semimajor axis. Certain initial combinations of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and argument of perigee can produce a so called 'frozen orbit' and minimum altitude variation which enhances sensor coverage. This paper develops information on frozen orbits and minimum altitude variation for all inclinations, generalizing previous results. In the altitude regions where most of these satellites function (between 200 and 1000 kilometers) strong atmospheric drag effects influence the evolution of the initial orbits. Active orbital maneuver control techniques to correct evolution of orbit parameters while minimizing the frequency of maneuvers are presented. The paper presents the application of theoretical techniques for control of near frozen orbits and expands upon the methods useful for simultaneously targeting several inplane orbital parameters. The applications of these techniques are illustrated by performance results from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-3 and -5) missions and in preflight maneuver analysis and plans for the Seasat Oceanographic Satellite.

  17. Air Blasts from Cased and Uncased Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-12

    The problem of a spherical blast in air is solved using the STUN code. For bare charges, the calculations are shown to be in excellent agreement with previous published results. It is demonstrated that, for an unconfined (uncased) chemical explosive, both range and time to effect scale inversely as the cube root of the yield and directly as the cube root of the ambient air density. It is shown that the peak overpressure decays to roughly 1/10 of ambient pressure in a scaled range of roughly 10 m/kg1/3 at sea level. At a height of 30 km, where the ambient density is a factor of 64 less, the range to the same decay increases to 40 m/kg1/3 . As a direct result of the scaling a single calculation suffices for all charge sizes and altitudes. Although the close-in results are sensitive to the nature of the explosive source and the equation of state of the air, this sensitivity is shown to virtually disappear at scaled ranges > 0.5 m/kg1/3 . For cased explosives the case thickness introduces an additional scale factor. Moreover, when the blast wave arrives at the inner case radius the case begins to expand. Fracture occurs when a critical value of the resulting hoop strain is reached, causing the case to shatter into fragments. A model is proposed to describe the size distribution of the fragments and their subsequent motion via drag interaction with the explosion products and ambient air. It is shown that a significant fraction of the charge energy is initially transmitted to the case fragments in the form of kinetic energy; for example, a 1 kg spherical charge with a 5 mm thick steel case has almost 29% of the total charge energy as initial kinetic energy of case fragments. This percentage increases with increasing case thickness and decreases with increasing charge size. The peak overpressure at a given range is 70-85% for cased explosives as compared with uncased and the peak impulse per unit area is 90-95%. The peak overpressure and

  18. Explosive welding of pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-15

    Arrangement of pipelines for the transportation of oil and gas is a complicated problem. In this paper it is suggested to use the explosive welding method to weld pipes together. This method is rather new. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its static analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. We suggest to perform explosive welding according to the following scheme: the ends of the 2 pipes are connected, the external surfaces are kept at a similar level. A cylindrical steel layer of diameter larger than the pipe diameter is set around the pipe joint and an explosive charge is placed on its external surface. The basic problem is the elimination of strains and reduction of pipe diameter in the area of the dynamic effect. The suggestion is to use water as filler: the volume of pipes in the area adjacent to the zone of explosive welding is totally filled with water. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gas dynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

  19. Surface explosion cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Clanet, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We present a fluid dynamics video on cavities created by explosions of firecrackers at the water free surface. We use three types of firecrackers containing 1, 1.3 and 5 g of flash powder. The firecrackers are held with their center at the surface of water in a cubic meter pool. The movies are recorded from the side with a high-speed video camera. Without confinement the explosion produces an hemispherical cavity. Right after the explosion this cavity grows isotropically, the bottom then stops while the sides continue to expand. In the next phase the bottom of the cavity accelerates backwards to the surface. During this phase the convergence of the flow creates a central jet that rises above the free surface. In the last part of the video the explosion is confined in a vertical open tube made of glass and of centimetric diameter. The explosion creates a cylindrical cavity that develops towards the free end of the tube. Depending on the charge, the cavity can either stop inside the tube or at its exit, but nev...

  20. Explosion containment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  1. Asteroid airburst altitude vs. strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Darrel; Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan

    2016-10-01

    Small NEO asteroids (<Ø140m) may not be a threat on a national or global level but can still cause a significant amount of local damage as demonstrated by the Chelyabinsk event where there was over $33 million worth of damage (1 billion roubles) and 1500 were injured, mostly due to broken glass. The ground damage from a small asteroid depends strongly on the altitude at which they "burst" where most of the energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The ability to accurately predict ground damage is useful in determining appropriate evacuation or shelter plans and emergency management.Strong asteroids, such as a monolithic boulder, fail and create peak energy deposition close to the altitude at which ram dynamic pressure exceeds the material cohesive strength. Weaker asteroids, such as a rubble pile, structurally fail at higher altitude, but it requires the increased aerodynamic pressure at lower altitude to disrupt and disperse the rubble. Consequently the resulting airbursts have a peak energy deposition at similar altitudes.In this study hydrocode simulations of the entry and break-up of small asteroids were performed to examine the effect of strength, size, composition, entry angle, and speed on the resulting airburst. This presentation will show movies of the simulations, the results of peak burst height, and the comparison to semi-analytical models.

  2. Altitude Stress During Participation of Medical Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soon Bae; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sang Jun; Cho, Su Hee; Suh, Dae Chul

    2016-01-01

    Medical congresses often held in highlands. We reviewed several medical issues associated with altitude stress especially while physicians have participated medical congress held in high altitude. Altitude stress, also known as an acute mountain sickness (AMS), is caused by acute exposure to low oxygen level at high altitude which is defined as elevations at or above 1,200 m and AMS commonly occurs above 2,500 m. Altitude stress with various symptoms including insomnia can also be experienced...

  3. Multiphase Instabilities in Explosive Dispersal of Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S. ``Bala''

    2015-11-01

    Explosive dispersal of particles is a complex multiphase phenomenon that can be observed in volcanic eruptions or in engineering applications such as multiphase explosives. As the layer of particles moves outward at high speed, it undergoes complex interactions with the blast-wave structure following the reaction of the energetic material. Particularly in this work, we are interested in the multiphase flow instabilities related to Richmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RM) instabilities (in the gas phase and particulate phase), which take place as the particle layer disperses. These types of instabilities are known to depend on initial conditions for a relatively long time of their evolution. Using a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, we study the growth of these instabilities and their dependence on initial conditions related to the particulate phase - namely, (i) particle size, (ii) initial distribution, and (iii) mass ratio (particles to explosive). Additional complexities associated with compaction of the layer of particles are avoided here by limiting the simulations to modest initial volume fraction of particles. A detailed analysis of the initial conditions and its effects on multiphase RM/RT-like instabilities in the context of an explosive dispersal of particles is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  4. Novel high explosive compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  5. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices.

  6. Ex-vessel Steam Explosion Analysis for Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Matjaž Leskovar; Mitja Uršič

    2016-01-01

    A steam explosion may occur during a severe accident, when the molten core comes into contact with water. The pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the multicomponent three-dimensional Eulerian fuel–coolant interaction code under the conditions of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications project reactor exercise, is presented and discussed. In ...

  7. Analysis of Explosives in Soil Using Solid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography: Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    results. Hibbs developed a detector based on nuclear quadrupole resonance ( NQR ) that was able to detect landmines filled with RDX explosive (Hibbs 2001...2000) and incorporated into the FIDO explosives detector by Cumming et al. (2001). The NQR sensors detect explosives through the NQR signal produced...grapher/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) or to an high pressure liquid chromato- graphy (HPLC) interface, where the fiber is extended again into the carrier

  8. High-nitrogen explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAz

  9. Application of explosive welding to heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, G.

    1983-10-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: advantages of explosive welding; principle of explosive welding; explosive welding of tubes; metallurgy of explosive welds (micrographs; microhardness); tubular heat exchangers; plugging; sleeving; retubing; construction of new heat exchangers; thermal sleeves.

  10. The Information Explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, William

    Three facets of the media--events, myths, and sales pitches--constitute the most important lines of force taken by the information bombardment which all of us encounter and are influenced by every day. The focus of this book is on the changes created and hastened by this information explosion of the media bombardment: how we can live with them,…

  11. Conventional Weapons Underwater Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    te that the heat of detonation (the energy available per mass of explosive) is an increasing function of the aluminum content. As shown in Table 2...the heat of detonation of RDX is 6.15 MJ/kg; addition of 30 wt % Al increases this to 10.12 - a factor of 1.64. Fig. 12 indicates a bubble energy

  12. Explosives Safety Competency Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    Munitions Systems Journeyman CDC—AFSC 2W051 Combat Ammunition Planning and Production—AFCOMAC Munitions Systems Craftsman Course—AFSC 2W071 Combat...Ammunition Planning and Production—AFCOMAC Munitions Systems Craftsman Course—AFSC 2W071 Navy Basics of Naval Explosives Hazard Control—AMMO-18 b

  13. Explosions during galaxy formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As an idealized model of the e ects of energy release by supernovae during galaxy formation, we consider an explosion at the center of a halo which forms at the intersection of laments in the plane of a cosmological pancake by gravitational instability during pancake collapse. Such halos resemble the virialized objects found in N{body simulations in a CDM universe and, therefore, serve as a convenient, scale{free test{bed model for galaxy formation. ASPH=P3M simulations reveal that such explosions are anisotropic. The energy and metals are channeled into the low density regions, away from the pancake plane. The pancake remains essentially undisturbed, even if the explosion is strong enough to blow away all the gas lo- cated inside the halo at the onset of the explosion and reheat the IGM surrounding the pancake. Infall quickly replenishes this ejected gas and gradually restores the gas fraction as the halo mass continues to grow. Estimates of the collapse epoch and SN energy{release for galaxies of di erent mass in the CDM model can re- late these results to scale{dependent questions of blow{out and blow{away and their implication for early IGM heating and metal enrichment and the creation of dark{matter{dominated dwarf galaxies.

  14. Portable raman explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  15. Earthquake-explosion discrimination using diffusion maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, N.; Bregman, Y.; Lindenbaum, O.; Ben-Horin, Y.; Averbuch, A.

    2016-12-01

    Discrimination between earthquakes and explosions is an essential component of nuclear test monitoring and it is also important for maintaining the quality of earthquake catalogues. Currently used discrimination methods provide a partial solution to the problem. In this work, we apply advanced machine learning methods and in particular diffusion maps for modelling and discriminating between seismic signals. Diffusion maps enable us to construct a geometric representation that capture the intrinsic structure of the seismograms. The diffusion maps are applied after a pre-processing step, in which seismograms are converted to normalized sonograms. The constructed low-dimensional model is used for automatic earthquake-explosion discrimination of data that are collected in single seismic stations. We demonstrate our approach on a data set comprising seismic events from the Dead Sea area. The diffusion-based algorithm provides correct discrimination rate that is higher than 90 per cent.

  16. Sub-photospheric shocks in relativistic explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Beloborodov, Andrei M

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the mechanism of shocks in opaque outflows from astrophysical explosions, in particular in cosmological gamma-ray bursts. Sub-photospheric shocks can produce neutrino emission and affect the observed photospheric radiation from the explosion. Shocks develop from internal compressive waves and can be of different types depending on the composition of the flow: (1) Shocks in `photon gas' with small plasma inertial mass have a unique structure determined by the `force-free' condition -- zero radiation flux in the plasma rest frame. Radiation dominance over plasma inertia suppresses formation of collisionless shocks mediated by collective electromagnetic fields. (2) Strong collisionless subshocks develop in the opaque flow if it is sufficiently magnetized. We evaluate the critical magnetization for this to happen. The collisionless subshock is embedded in a thicker radiation-mediated shock structure. (3) Shocks in outflows carrying a free neutron component involve dissipation through nuclear c...

  17. Development of Aptitude at Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Alexandra M.; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Botti, Ana Baya; Bucks, Romola; Holloway, John W.; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Webster, Rebecca J.; Baldeweg, Torsten; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of people currently live at altitudes in excess of 2500 metres, where oxygen supply is limited, but very little is known about the development of brain and behavioural function under such hypoxic conditions. We describe the physiological, cognitive and behavioural profile of a large cohort of infants (6-12 months), children (6-10 years)…

  18. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  19. New explosive seam welding concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

  20. Research on the fundamental process of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in severe accident. Numerical simulation of fundamental process of vapor explosion using particle method. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-027-5. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshizuka, Seiichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Liu, Jie; Oka, Yoshiaki [Tokyo Univ., Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    A vapor explosion may happen when the hot liquid of the molten core contacts with the cold fluid of the coolant in severe accidents. Water jet impingement on a molten tin drop, which appears at collapse of a vapor film surrounding the hot drop, is analyzed in three dimensions using a particle method to investigate the fundamental processes is vapor explosions. As the result, the melt is extruded from the drop like filaments, which is the same behavior observed in the X-ray photographs obtained by Ciccarelli and Frost. Rapid boiling caused by spontaneous nucleation is necessary for strong fragmentation as shown in the X-ray photographs. In the case of the molten core, the interface temperature falls below the solidification temperature after direct contact with the water jets. Therefore, the rapid fragmentation is unlikely and a strong vapor explosion is unlikely as well. A one-dimensional code for propagation of pressure waves is developed. A spontaneous nucleation model is employed for thermal fragmentation. A one-dimensional test calculation of propagation of a pressure wave is carried out. The present result agrees with the past calculations in references. (author)

  1. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  2. Explosive Nucleosynthesis Study Using Laser Driven γ-ray Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Hayakawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose nuclear experiments using γ-ray pulses provided from high field plasma generated by high peak power laser. These γ-ray pulses have the excellent features of extremely short pulse, high intensity, and continuous energy distribution. These features are suitable for the study of explosive nucleosyntheses in novae and supernovae, such as the γ process and ν process. We discuss how to generate suitable γ-ray pulses and the nuclear astrophysics involved.

  3. Development of ammonium nitrate based explosives to optimize explosive properties and explosive welding parameters used during explosion cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Christoph

    The ability to accurately measure and predict the velocity of explosively driven flyer plates has been a subject of significant work by the explosives community for some time. The majority of this work has focused on the use of high-energy, ideal explosives that are of interest for defense applications. Several attempts have been made to modify the experimental methods developed for these ideal explosives for use in testing low-energy, non-ideal explosive compounds (including industrially useful mixtures of ammonium nitrate, fuels, and additives) with varying degrees of success. The detonation properties of non-ideal explosives are difficult to measure precisely due to the effect of physical, environmental, and geometric factors on the detonation of these materials. The work presented in this document attempts to mitigate the variability inherent in measurements of non-ideal, ammonium nitrate-based explosives by performing testing using charge geometry similar to that used in the industrial process of explosion welding. A method to measure flyer plate velocity with optical high-speed imaging using commercially available equipment is described. Flyer plate velocity data from both experimental measurements and numerical modeling is presented. A new formula for predicting explosive energy based on the detonation velocity of an ammonium nitrate based explosive in a planar geometry is proposed and applied to a theoretical explosive cladding scenario.

  4. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... 286) Actions ${title} Loading... High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety What is considered a high altitude? How is ...

  5. Characteristic Research on Evaporated Explosive Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The evaporation source of evaporated explosive was designed and improved based on the inherent specialties of explosive. The compatibility of explosives and addition agent with evaporation vessels was analyzed. The influence of substrate temperature on explosive was analyzed, the control method of substrate temperature was suggested. The influences of evaporation rate on formation of explosive film and mixed explosive film were confirmed. Optimum evaporation rate for evaporation explosive and the better method for evaporating mixed explosive were presented. The necessary characteristics of the evaporated explosive film were obtained by the research of the differences between the evaporated explosive and other materials.

  6. Effects of molten material temperatures and coolant temperatures on vapor explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tianshu; YANG Yanhua; YUAN Minghao; HU Zhihua

    2007-01-01

    An observable experiment facility for low-temperature molten materials to be dropped into water was set up in this study to investigate the mechanism of the vapor explosion. The effect of the fuel and coolant interaction(FCI) on the vapor explosion during the severe accidents of a fission nuclear reactor has been studied. The experiment results showed that the molten material temperature has an important effect on the vapor explosion behavior and pressure. The increase of the coolant temperature would decrease the pressure of the vapor explosion.

  7. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in skeletal muscle of humans exposed to high-altitude hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; van Hall, Gerrit

    2003-01-01

    ) was unaltered by prolonged hypoxia, in accordance with the notion that HO-1 is an acute stress response protein. In conclusion, our data indicate high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a good model for oxidative stress and that antioxidant genes are not upregulated in muscle tissue by prolonged hypoxia despite......Recent research suggests that high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a model for prolonged oxidative stress in healthy humans. In this study, we investigated the consequences of prolonged high-altitude hypoxia on the basal level of oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in muscle cells, a major oxygen...

  8. Explosive bulk charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  9. Explosive welding underwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, T.; Allen, K.; Lowes, J.M.

    1980-06-11

    Explosive welding underwater is described. First and second underwater tubular members are assembled together so that the outer surface of the first tubular member and the inner surface of the second tubular member are spaced apart to form an annular cavity. The cavity is closed by seals accommodated in portions of the second tubular member, and is then cleaned and dried and filled with a gas at a pressure greater than the surrounding water pressure. The pressure in the cavity is reduced prior to detonating an explosive charge within the first tubular member to weld the members together. The second tubular member may include portions for receiving further seals so as to subdivide the cavity into a number of zones. The pressures in the zones then can be separately adjusted so as to be able to control the pressure difference a cross each seal. 9 claims.

  10. Explosion of Leidenfrost Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Florian; Colinet, Pierre; Dorbolo, Stephane

    2012-11-01

    When a drop is released on a plate heated above a given temperature, a thin layer of vapour can isolate the droplet so that it levitates over the plate. This effect was first reported by Leidenfrost in 1756. However, this fascinating subject remains an active field of research in both fundamental and applied researches. In this work, we focus on what happens when surfactant is added to the drop. The aim is to study the influence of a decrease of the surface tension. Surprisingly, as the droplet evaporates, suddenly it explodes. The evolution of the droplet and the resulting explosion are followed using a high speed camera. We show that when a critical concentration of surfactant is reached inside the drop, a shell of surfactant is formed leading to the explosion. The authors would like to thank FNRS for financial support. This work is financially supported by ODILE project (Contract No. FRFC 2.4623.11).

  11. Cold Stress at High Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Majumdar

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cold at high altitudes has been analysed from a purely physical standpoint. It has been shown that Siple's Wind-Chill Index is not reliable because (i it does not make use of the well established principles governing the physical processes of heat transfer by convection and radiation, and (ii it assumes that the mean radiant temperature of the surroundings is the same as the ambient dry bulb temperature. A Cold Stress Index has been proposed which is likely to be a more reliable guide for assessing the climatic hazards of high altitude environments. The Index can be quickly estimated with the help of two nomograms devised for the purpose.

  12. Explosive Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Higashimori, Katsuaki; Yokoi, Nobumitsu; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This ...

  13. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  14. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  15. Space Operations Center orbit altitude selection strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrikis, J.; Myers, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strategy for the operational altitude selection has to respond to the Space Operation Center's (SOC) maintenance requirements and the logistics demands of the missions to be supported by the SOC. Three orbit strategies are developed: two are constant altitude, and one variable altitude. In order to minimize the effect of atmospheric uncertainty the dynamic altitude method is recommended. In this approach the SOC will operate at the optimum altitude for the prevailing atmospheric conditions and logistics model, provided that mission safety constraints are not violated. Over a typical solar activity cycle this method produces significant savings in the overall logistics cost.

  16. Eulerian-Lagrangian Simulation of an Explosive Dispersal of Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Koneru, Rahul; Annamalai, Subramanian

    2016-11-01

    Explosive dispersal of solid particles can be observed in a wide variety of contexts, notably in natural phenomenon such as volcanic eruptions or in engineering applications such as detonation of multiphase explosives. As the initial blast wave crosses the surrounding layer of particles, compaction occurs shortly before particles disperse radially outward at high speed. During the dispersion phase, complex multiphase interactions occurs between particles and detonation products of the explosive. Using a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, namely point particle simulations, we study the case of a bed of particles of cylindrical shape surrounding an explosive chord. Our interest lies in predicting the behavior of particles after detonation. In particular, capturing and describing the mechanisms responsible for late-time formation of stable particle jets is sought. Therefore, detonation of the explosive material is not simulated. Instead an equivalent energy source is used to initiate the simulation. We present a detailed description of our approach to solving this problem, and our most recent progress in the analysis of particles explosive dispersal. This work was supported by the U.S. DoE, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  17. Nanosensors for trace explosive detection

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, co...

  18. Surface Signatures of an Underground Explosion as Captured by Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Swanson, E.; Coppersmith, R.; Cooley, J.; Rougier, E.; Larmat, C. S.; Norskog, K.

    2016-12-01

    This study employed high-resolution photogrammetric modeling to quantify cm-scale surface topographic changes resulting from a 5000kg underground chemical explosion. The test occurred in April 2016 at a depth of 76m within a quartz monzonite intrusion in southern Nevada. The field area was a 210m x 150m polygon broadly centered on the explosion's emplacement hole. A grid of ground control points (GCPs) installed in the field area established control within the collection boundaries and ensured high-resolution digital model parameterization. Using RTK GPS techniques, GCP targets were surveyed in the days before and then again immediately after the underground explosion. A quadcopter UAS with a 12MP camera payload captured overlapping imagery at two flight altitudes (10m and 30m AGL) along automated flight courses for consistency and repeatability. The overlapping imagery was used to generate two digital elevation models, pre-shot and post-shot, for each of the flight altitudes. Spatial analyses of the DEMs and orthoimagery show uplift on the order of 1 to 18cm in the immediate area near ground zero. Other features such as alluvial fracturing appear in the photogrammetric and topographic datasets. Portions of the nearby granite outcrop experienced rock fall and rock rotation. The study detected erosional and depositional features on the test bed and adjacent to it. In addition to vertical change, pre-shot and post-shot surveys of the GCPs suggest evidence for lateral motion on the test bed surface, with movement away from surface ground zero on the order of 1 to 3cm. Results demonstrate that UAS photogrammetry method provides an efficient, high-fidelity, non-invasive method to quantify surface deformation. The photogrammetry data allow quantification of permanent surface deformation and of the spatial extent of damage. These constraints are necessary to develop hydrodynamic and seismic models of explosions that can be verified against recorded seismic data.

  19. Evolution, Explosion and Nucleosynthesis of Core Collapse Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Limongi, M

    2003-01-01

    We present a new set of presupernova evolutions and explosive yields of massive stars of initial solar composition (Y=0.285, Z=0.02) in the mass range 13-35 Msun. All the models have been computed with the latest version (4.97) of the FRANEC code that now includes a nuclear network extending from neutrons to Mo98. The explosive nucleosynthesis has been computed twice: a first one with an hydro code and a second one following the simpler radiation dominated shock approximation (RDA).

  20. Estimation of ex-vessel steam explosion pressure loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovar, Matjaz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: matjaz.leskovar@ijs.si; Ursic, Mitja [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-11-15

    An ex-vessel steam explosion may occur when, during a severe reactor accident, the reactor vessel fails and the molten core pours into the water in the reactor cavity. A steam explosion is a fuel coolant interaction process where the heat transfer from the melt to water is so intense and rapid that the timescale for heat transfer is shorter than the timescale for pressure relief. This can lead to the formation of shock waves and production of missiles that may endanger surrounding structures. A strong enough steam explosion in a nuclear power plant could jeopardize the containment integrity and so lead to a direct release of radioactive material to the environment. In this article, different scenarios of ex-vessel steam explosions in a typical pressurized water reactor cavity are analyzed with the code MC3D, which is being developed for the simulation of fuel-coolant interactions. A parametric study was performed varying the location of the melt release (central, right and left side melt pour), the cavity water subcooling, the primary system overpressure at vessel failure and the triggering time for explosion calculations. The main purpose of the study was to establish the influence of the varied parameters on the fuel-coolant interaction behaviour, to determine the most challenging cases and to estimate the expected pressure loadings on the cavity walls. For the most explosive central, right side and left side melt pour scenarios a detailed analysis of the explosion simulation results was performed. The study shows that for some ex-vessel steam explosion scenarios higher pressure loads are predicted than obtained in the OECD programme SERENA phase 1.

  1. Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M

    2013-06-21

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence.

  2. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow

  3. Altitude Stress During Participation of Medical Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Bae; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sang Jun; Cho, Su Hee; Suh, Dae Chul

    2016-09-01

    Medical congresses often held in highlands. We reviewed several medical issues associated with altitude stress especially while physicians have participated medical congress held in high altitude. Altitude stress, also known as an acute mountain sickness (AMS), is caused by acute exposure to low oxygen level at high altitude which is defined as elevations at or above 1,200 m and AMS commonly occurs above 2,500 m. Altitude stress with various symptoms including insomnia can also be experienced in airplane. AMS and drunken state share many common features in symptoms, neurologic manifestations and even show multiple microbleeds in corpus callosum and white matter on MRI. Children are more susceptible to altitude stress than adults. Gradual ascent is the best method for the prevention of altitude stress. Adequate nutrition (mainly carbohydrates) and hydration are recommended. Consumption of alcohol can exacerbate the altitude-induced impairments in judgment and the visual senses and promote psychomotor dysfunction. For prevention or treatment of altitude stress, acetazolamide, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, dexamethasone and erythropoietin are helpful. Altitude stress can be experienced relatively often during participation of medical congress. It is necessary to remind the harmful effect of AMS because it can cause serious permanent organ damage even though the symptoms are negligible in most cases.

  4. Laser machining of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  5. Nuclear cycler: An incremental approach to the deflection of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Massimiliano; Thiry, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel deflection approach based on nuclear explosions: the nuclear cycler. The idea is to combine the effectiveness of nuclear explosions with the controllability and redundancy offered by slow push methods within an incremental deflection strategy. The paper will present an extended model for single nuclear stand-off explosions in the proximity of elongated ellipsoidal asteroids, and a family of natural formation orbits that allows the spacecraft to deploy multiple bombs while being shielded by the asteroid during the detonation.

  6. Explosive Welding for Remote Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Explosive seam welding produces up to 100-percent joint strength. Ribbon explosive activated by remote energy source produces metallurgically sound joint. Success of technique verified for joints between like metals and joints between two different metals. Applications include structural assembly in toxic atmospheres and in radioactive or otherwise hazardous environments.

  7. Active Water Explosion Suppression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    efficient in eliminating the heat of detonation , thereby eliminating the heat of combustion and the associated burning of explosive by-products in the...efficiency in eliminating the heat of detonation . In any case, the net effect of the water absorbing the detonation energy of the explosive is a major

  8. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  9. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  10. Safeguards Issues at Nuclear Reactors and Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-15

    The Agency's safeguards technical objective is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection.

  11. Explosive welding of undersea pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalker, A.W.

    1978-02-01

    The phenomenon of explosive welding has been known informally for many years. A number of investigations reported the occurerence of solid phase bonds as an incidental effect when using high explosives in association with adjacent metal surfaces and probably the earliest formal record was the observation by Carl in 1944 of a bond between two copper discs in contact with a detonator. In 1957 Philipchuk reported what is now recognized as an explosive weld between aluminium channel sections and a steel die when carrying out explosive forming trials. Since then a great deal of development work has resulted in explosive welding becoming a well established manufacturing technique, particularly in the fields of cladding and the joining of tube/tubeplates. In more recent years the process has been extended to the welding of large diameter line pipe materials.

  12. Explosive welding: Principles and potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasher, D.G.; Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Explosive welding is a solid-state process in which controlled explosive detonations force two or more metals together at high pressures. The resultant composite system is joined with a high-quality metallurgical bond. Explosive welding (or explosive bonding) is a high-pressure process in which contaminant surface films are plastically jetted off the base metals as a result of the collision of two metals. The time duration involved in the explosive welding event is so short that the reaction zone (or heat affected zone) between the constituent metals is microscopic. During the process, the first few atomic layers of each metal become plasma because of the high velocity of the impact (200 to 500 m/s, 660 to 1,640 ft/s.) The angle of collision causes the plasma to jet in front of the collision point, effectively scrub-cleaning both surfaces, and leaving clean metal behind.

  13. The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-05

    We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

  14. NQR detection of explosive simulants using RF atomic magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a highly selective spectroscopic method that can be used to detect and identify a number of chemicals of interest to the defense, national security, and law enforcement community. In the past, there have been several documented attempts to utilize NQR to detect nitrogen bearing explosives using induction sensors to detect the NQR RF signatures. We present here our work on the NQR detection of explosive simulants using optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers. RF atomic magnetometers can provide an order of magnitude (or more) improvement in sensitivity versus induction sensors and can enable mitigation of RF interference, which has classically has been a problem for conventional NQR using induction sensors. We present the theory of operation of optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers along with the result of laboratory work on the detection of explosive simulant material. An outline of ongoing work will also be presented along with a path for a fieldable detection system.

  15. NQR Characteristics of an RDX Plastic Explosives Simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecek, J; Schwitter, B; Miljak, D; Stancl, M

    2012-12-01

    For reliable detection of explosives, a combination of methods integrated within a single measurement platform may increase detection performance. However, the efficient field testing of such measurement platforms requires the use of inexplosive simulants that are detectable by a wide range of methods. Physical parameters such as simulant density, elemental composition and crystalline structure must closely match those of the target explosive. The highly discriminating bulk detection characteristics of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) especially constrain simulant design. This paper describes the development of an inexplosive RDX simulant suited to a wide range of measurement methods, including NQR. Measurements are presented that confirm an RDX NQR response from the simulant. The potential use of the simulant for field testing a prototype handheld NQR-based RDX detector is analyzed. Only modest changes in prototype operation during field testing would be required to account for the use of simulant rather than real explosive.

  16. Observation of a rare cosmic ray event at mountain altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Basudhara; Raha, Sibaji; Saha, Swapan K.; Biswas, Sukumar; Dey, Sandhya; Maulik, Atanu; Mazumdar, Amal; Saha, Satyajit; Syam, Debapriyo

    2015-02-01

    Existence of strangelets in cosmic rays has been predicted even at mountain altitudes ∼ 3-4 km with extremely low abundance. We exposed an appropriate passive detector to cosmic rays at Darjeeling, India, at an atmospheric pressure of 765 hPa, as a pilot study to determine its suitability for the detection of strangelets in a large area detector array through long-term exposure. During the analysis we found a highly unusual event consisting of a cluster of six identical nuclear tracks. We argue that even the most mundane explanation of this event requires unusual physics, the first possible observation of multifragmentation involving cosmic rays.

  17. Magnetic Monopole Search at high altitude with the SLIM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, S; Cozzi, M; Errico, M; Fabbri, F; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, R; Giorgini, M; Kumar, A; Manzoor, S; McDonald, J; Mandrioli, G; Marcellini, S; Margiotta, A; Medinaceli, E; Patrizii, L; Pinfold, J L; Popa, V; Qureshi, I E; Saavedra, O; Sahnoun, Z; Sirri, G; Spurio, M; Togo, V; Velarde, A; Zanini, A

    2008-01-01

    The SLIM experiment was a large array of nuclear track detectors located at the Chacaltaya high altitude Laboratory (5230 m a.s.l.). The detector was in particular sensitive to Intermediate Mass Magnetic Monopoles, with masses 10^5 < M <10^{12} GeV. From the analysis of the full detector exposed for more than 4 years a flux upper limit of 1.3 x 10^{-15} cm^{-2} s^{-1} sr^{-1} for downgoing fast Intermediate Mass Monopoles was established at the 90% C.L.

  18. Economy of Adaptation to High Altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Paul Richalet

    2004-01-01

    @@ The international meeting that will be held in Xining and Lhasa in August 2004 will be a wonderful occasion to share facts and concepts dealing with adaptation to high altitude. Life at high altitude is a challenge for thousands of animal species and millions of humans residing or visiting high altitude regions of the world. To try to understand the physiological mechanisms involved in the adaptation processes to high altitude hypoxia, it is convenient to start by defining what is "extreme" from a biological point of view.

  19. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been proven...

  20. The interaction of explosively generated plasma with explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas G.; Whitley, Von H.; Johnson, Carl E.

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that the temperature of explosively generated plasma (EGP) is of the order of 1 eV and plasma ejecta can be focused to achieve velocities as high as 25 km/s. Proof-of-principle tests were performed to determine if EGP could be used for explosive ordnance demolition and other applications. The goals were: to benignly disable ordnance containing relatively sensitive high performance explosives (PBX-9501); and to investigate the possibility of interrupting an ongoing detonation in a powerful high explosive (again PBX-9501) with EGP. Experiments were performed to establish the optimum sizes of plasma generators for the benign deactivation of high explosives, i.e., the destruction of the ordnance without initiating a detonation or comparable violent event. These experiments were followed by attempts to interrupt an ongoing detonation by the benign disruption of the unreacted explosive in its path. The results were encouraging. First, it was demonstrated that high explosives could be destroyed without the initiation of a detonation or high order reaction. Second, ongoing detonations were successfully interrupted with EGP. [LA-UR-15-25350

  1. Multi-Phenomenology Explosion Monitoring (Multi-PEM). Signal Detection. Research to target smaller sources for tomorrow’s missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-12

    This a guide on how to detect and identify explosions from various sources. For example, nuclear explosions produce acoustic, optical, and EMP outputs. Each signal can be buried in noise, but fusing detection statistics from seismic, acoustic, and electromagnetic signals results in clear detection otherwise unobtainable.

  2. Physics of High-Altitude Nuclear Burst Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    ccerta i (Iant ur numbc rs and symmet ry properti , sOf’ thle ir Ci gen tu1C tion S or Ji itollic and liniear polvaLtUiiC nl’als the electron...Research Corporation, July 1972. 7-41. O’Neil and G. Davidson, "The Fluorescence of Air and Nitro- gen E, ’-d by Energetic Electrons," ASE-1602, AFCPL-67-0...nc th IVa Iable flux~y ile nr gram is aliso of order v /L. One must c’btai n £experl nmental] V or cs timate it thcor- etica 11 v somehow. I~w.ve

  3. Mixing in explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  4. Explosion risks from nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillard, Jacques; Vignes, Alexis; Dufaud, Olivier; Perrin, Laurent; Thomas, Dominique

    2009-05-01

    Emerging nanomanufactured products are being incorporated in a variety of consumer products ranging from closer body contact products (i.e. cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpastes, pharmaceuticals, clothing) to more remote body-contact products (electronics, plastics, tires, automotive and aeronautical), hence posing potential health and environmental risks. The new field of nanosafety has emerged and needs to be explored now rather than after problems becomes so ubiquitous and difficult to treat that their trend become irreversible. Such endeavour necessitates a transdisciplinary approach. A commonly forgotten and/or misunderstood risk is that of explosion/detonation of nanopowders, due to their high specific active surface areas. Such risk is emphasized and illustrated with the present development of an appropriate risk analysis. For this particular risk, a review of characterization methods and their limitations with regard to nanopowders is presented and illustrated for a few organic and metallic nanopowders.

  5. Strong explosions impact on buildings representative of an industrial facility; Impact de fortes explosions sur les batiments representatifs d'une installation industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trelat, S

    2006-12-15

    The goal of this study is to focus on the analysis of blast wave damage to structures when blast wave is consequence of explosive charge detonation. The objective is to propose useful tools to predict charges on structure. All experiences are realized in laboratory. The experimental investigation consists in simulating a detonation of a stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixture at ground level or at higher altitude. The study is going to give us experimental data on blast wave effects on a structure. For that, two types of structures frequently found on industrial site are going to be used: a parallelepipedal structure and a cylindrical structure, both with known dimensions. Finally, the important point of the problem is to determine an energetic equivalence between TNT and gas used in the experiments, in order to model TNT explosions at full scale by gaseous explosions at reduced scale. (author)

  6. Direct imaging of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, E.A.; Moler, R.B.; Saunders, A.W.; Trower, W.P. E-mail: trower@naxs.net

    2000-11-15

    Any technique that can detect nitrogen concentrations can screen for concealed explosives. However, such a technique would have to be insensitive to metal, both encasing and incidental. If images of the nitrogen concentrations could be captured, then, since form follows function, a robust screening technology could be developed. However these images would have to be sensitive to the surface densities at or below that of the nitrogen contained in buried anti-personnel mines or of the SEMTEX that brought down Pan Am 103, {approx}200 g. Although the ability to image in three-dimensions would somewhat reduce false positives, capturing collateral images of carbon and oxygen would virtually assure that nitrogenous non-explosive material like fertilizer, Melmac[reg] dinnerware, and salami could be eliminated. We are developing such an instrument, the Nitrogen Camera, which has met experimentally these criteria with the exception of providing oxygen images, which awaits the availability of a sufficiently energetic light source. Our Nitrogen Camera technique uses an electron accelerator to produce photonuclear reactions whose unique decays it registers. Clearly if our Nitrogen Camera is made mobile, it could be effective in detecting buried mines, either in an active battlefield situation or in the clearing of abandoned military munitions. Combat operations require that a swathe the width of an armored vehicle, 5 miles deep, be screened in an hour, which is within our camera's scanning speed. Detecting abandoned munitions is technically easier as it is free from the onerous speed requirement. We describe here our Nitrogen Camera and show its 180 pixel intensity images of elemental nitrogen in a 200 g mine simulant and in a 125 g stick of SEMTEX. We also report on our progress in creating a lorry transportable 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron, the principal enabling technology that will allow our Nitrogen Camera to be deployed in the field.

  7. Direct imaging of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, E A; Moler, R B; Saunders, A W; Trower, W P

    2000-01-01

    Any technique that can detect nitrogen concentrations can screen for concealed explosives. However, such a technique would have to be insensitive to metal, both encasing and incidental. If images of the nitrogen concentrations could be captured, then, since form follows function, a robust screening technology could be developed. However these images would have to be sensitive to the surface densities at or below that of the nitrogen contained in buried anti-personnel mines or of the SEMTEX that brought down Pan Am 103, approximately 200 g. Although the ability to image in three-dimensions would somewhat reduce false positives, capturing collateral images of carbon and oxygen would virtually assure that nitrogenous non-explosive material like fertilizer, Melmac dinnerware, and salami could be eliminated. We are developing such an instrument, the Nitrogen Camera, which has met experimentally these criteria with the exception of providing oxygen images, which awaits the availability of a sufficiently energetic light source. Our Nitrogen Camera technique uses an electron accelerator to produce photonuclear reactions whose unique decays it registers. Clearly if our Nitrogen Camera is made mobile, it could be effective in detecting buried mines, either in an active battlefield situation or in the clearing of abandoned military munitions. Combat operations require that a swathe the width of an armored vehicle, 5 miles deep, be screened in an hour, which is within our camera's scanning speed. Detecting abandoned munitions is technically easier as it is free from the onerous speed requirement. We describe here our Nitrogen Camera and show its 180 pixel intensity images of elemental nitrogen in a 200 g mine simulant and in a 125 g stick of SEMTEX. We also report on our progress in creating a lorry transportable 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron, the principal enabling technology that will allow our Nitrogen Camera to be deployed in the field.

  8. Shock desensitizing of solid explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

  9. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  10. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  11. Another Inconvenient Truth: Even a Small Nuclear War Could be Much Worse Than you Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.

    2008-05-01

    The number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986. However, the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races, and for a significant expansion in the number of nuclear weapons states. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build weapons if they so desire. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in "megacities", which are ideal targets for nuclear weapons. Based upon observations of the damage caused by nuclear explosions in World War II and in nuclear tests, a group of researchers has estimated the area that might be consumed in firestorms following a regional war between the smallest current nuclear states involving 100, 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal). Based upon observations of large forest fires these firestorms should inject smoke into the upper troposphere. Using estimates of the mass of flammable material in the areas that would burn we find that 5x1012 g of elemental carbon could be injected into the upper troposphere in a regional nuclear war. A suite of numerical models show that this upper tropospheric soot will be transported due to solar heating into the stratosphere and will rise to altitudes above 40 km. The elemental carbon will absorb sunlight, heating the stratosphere and cooling the ground. The heating of the stratosphere could cause column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25-45% at mid-latitudes, and 50- 70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts would remain near or below 220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extra-tropical "ozone hole". The cooling at the ground would reduce precipitation globally by about 10%, create lower

  12. Active explosion barrier performance against methane and coal dust explosions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J J L du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of methane or coal dust explosions through the use of active explosion-suppression systems remains one of the most underutilised explosion controls in underground coal mines. As part of the effort to develop better technologies to safeguard mines, the use of active barrier systems was investigated at Kloppersbos in South Africa. The system is designed to meet the requirements of the European Standard (EN 14591-4 2007) as well as the Mine Safety Standardisation in the Ministry of Coal Industry, Coal Industrial l Standard of the Peoples Republic of China (MT 694-1997). From the tests conducted, it can be concluded that the ExploSpot System was successful in stopping flame propagation for both methane and methane and coal dust hybrid explosions when ammonium phosphate powder was used as the suppression material. The use of this barrier will provide coal mine management with an additional explosion control close to the point of ignition and may find application within longwall faces further protecting mines against the risk of an explosion propagating throughout a mine.

  13. Sleep at high altitude: guesses and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Konrad E; Buenzli, Jana C; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-12-15

    Lowlanders commonly report a poor sleep quality during the first few nights after arriving at high altitude. Polysomnographic studies reveal that reductions in slow wave sleep are the most consistent altitude-induced changes in sleep structure identified by visual scoring. Quantitative spectral analyses of the sleep electroencephalogram have confirmed an altitude-related reduction in the low-frequency power (0.8-4.6 Hz). Although some studies suggest an increase in arousals from sleep at high altitude, this is not a consistent finding. Whether sleep instability at high altitude is triggered by periodic breathing or vice versa is still uncertain. Overnight changes in slow wave-derived encephalographic measures of neuronal synchronization in healthy subjects were less pronounced at moderately high (2,590 m) compared with low altitude (490 m), and this was associated with a decline in sleep-related memory consolidation. Correspondingly, exacerbation of breathing and sleep disturbances experienced by lowlanders with obstructive sleep apnea during a stay at 2,590 m was associated with poor performance in driving simulator tests. These findings suggest that altitude-related alterations in sleep may adversely affect daytime performance. Despite recent advances in our understanding of sleep at altitude, further research is required to better establish the role of gender and age in alterations of sleep at different altitudes, to determine the influence of acclimatization and of altitude-related illness, and to uncover the characteristics of sleep in highlanders that may serve as a study paradigm of sleep in patients exposed to chronic hypoxia due to cardiorespiratory disease.

  14. Developmental functional adaptation to high altitude: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, A Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Various approaches have been used to understand the origins of the functional traits that characterize the Andean high-altitude native. Based on the conceptual framework of developmental functional adaptation which postulates that environmental influences during the period of growth and development have long lasting effects that may be expressed during adulthood, we initiated a series of studies addressed at determining the pattern of physical growth and the contribution of growth and development to the attainment of full functional adaptation to high-altitude of low and high altitude natives living under rural and urban conditions. Current research indicate that: (a) the pattern of growth at high altitude due to limited nutritional resources, physical growth in body size is delayed but growth in lung volumes is accelerated because of hypoxic stress); (b) low-altitude male and female urban natives can attain a full functional adaptation to high altitude by exposure to high-altitude hypoxia during the period of growth and development; (c) both experimental studies on animals and comparative human studies indicate that exposure to high altitude during the period of growth and development results in the attainment of a large residual lung volume; (d) this developmentally acquired enlarged residual lung volume and its associated increase in alveolar area when combined with the increased tissue capillarization and moderate increase in red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration contributes to the successful functional adaptation of the Andean high-altitude native to hypoxia; and (e) any specific genetic traits that are related to the successful functional adaptation of Andean high-altitude natives have yet to be identified.

  15. Diving at altitude: from definition to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, S Murat; Pieri, Massimo; Marroni, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Diving above sea level has different motivations for recreational, military, commercial and scientific activities. Despite the apparently wide practice of inland diving, there are three major discrepancies about diving at altitude: threshold elevation that requires changes in sea level procedures; upper altitude limit of the applicability of these modifications; and independent validation of altitude adaptation methods of decompression algorithms. The first problem is solved by converting the normal fluctuation in barometric pressure to an altitude equivalent. Based on the barometric variations recorded from a meteorological center, it is possible to suggest 600 meters as a threshold for classifying a dive as an "altitude" dive. The second problem is solved by proposing the threshold altitude of aviation (2,400 meters) to classify "high" altitude dives. The DAN (Divers Alert Network) Europe diving database (DB) is analyzed to solve the third problem. The database consists of 65,050 dives collected from different dive computers. A total of 1,467 dives were found to be classified as altitude dives. However, by checking the elevation according to the logged geographical coordinates, 1,284 dives were disqualified because the altitude setting had been used as a conservative setting by the dive computer despite the fact that the dive was made at sea level. Furthermore, according to the description put forward in this manuscript, 72 dives were disqualified because the surface level elevation is lower than 600 meters. The number of field data (111 dives) is still very low to use for the validation of any particular method of altitude adaptation concerning decompression algorithms.

  16. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a...

  17. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit. When...

  18. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions...

  19. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by the...

  20. [Causation, prevention and treatment of dust explosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maolong; Jia, Wenbin; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Fei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hu, Dahai

    2014-10-01

    With the development of industrial technology, dust explosion accidents have increased, causing serious losses of people's lives and property. With the development of economy, we should lay further emphasis on causation, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion. This article summarizes the background, mechanism, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion, which may provide some professional knowledge and reference for the treatment of dust explosion.

  1. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emissions from explosive volcanism: the 1982-1983 eruptions of Galunggung, Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, G.J.S.; Casadevall, T.J.; Schnetzler, C.C.; Doiron, S.D.; Walter, Louis S.; Krueger, A.J.; Badruddin, M.

    1994-01-01

    Galunggung volcano, Java, awoke from a 63-year quiescence in April 1982, and erupted sporadically through January 1983. During its most violent period from April to October, the Cikasasah Volcano Observatory reported 32 large and 56 moderate to small eruptions. From April 5 through September 19 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), carried on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite, detected and measured 24 different sulfur dioxide clouds; an estimated 1730 kilotons (kt) of SO2 were outgassed by these explosive eruptions. The trajectories, and rapid dispersion rates, of the SO2 clouds were consistent with injection altitudes below the tropopause. An additional 300 kt of SO2 were estimated to have come from 64 smaller explosive eruptions, based on the detection limit of the TOMS instrument. For the first time, an extended period of volcanic activity was monitored by remote sensing techniques which enabled observations of both the entire SO2 clouds produced by large explosive eruptions (using TOMS), and the relatively lower levels of SO2 emissions during non-explosive outgassing (using the Correlation Spectrometer, or COSPEC). Based on COSPEC measurements from August 1982 to January 1983, and on the relationship between explosive and non-explosive degassing, approximately 400 kt of SO2 were emitted during non-explosive activity. The total sulfur dioxide outgassed from Galunggung volcano from April 1982 to January 1983 is calculated to be 2500 kt (?? 30%) from both explosive and non-explosive activity. While Galunggung added large quantities of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere, its sporadic emissions occurred in relatively small events distributed over several months, and reached relatively low altitudes, and are unlikely to have significantly affected aerosol loading of the stratosphere in 1982 by volcanic activity. ?? 1994.

  2. Explosive welding finds uses offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    This article discusses an explosive welding procedure for pipeline repair. Unlike fusion welding, explosive welding does not leave a brittle area behind and will stop axial or longitudinal cracking of a pipeline. The metals are joined by cold impact pressure, which actually liquifies the metal at the point of impact. In explosive welding, the force of the circular explosion drives the two metals together with such an impact that a bonded wave pattern is set up. All surface defects and oxides are pushed ahead of the collision front, resulting in a metal-to-metal seal. Two techniques are reviewed: the Exploweld method and the Norabel method. Both methods do not reduce or expand the internal diameter of the welded surface.

  3. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  4. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  5. Simulation Analysis of Indoor Gas Explosion Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱新明; 陈林顺; 冯长根

    2003-01-01

    The influence factors and process of indoor gas explosion are studied with AutoReaGas explosion simulator. The result shows that venting pressure has great influence on the indoor gas explosion damage. The higher the venting pressure is, the more serious the hazard consequence will be. The ignition location has also evident effect on the gas explosion damage. The explosion static overpressure would not cause major injury to person and serious damage to structure in the case of low venting pressure (lower than 2 kPa). The high temperature combustion after the explosion is the major factor to person injury in indoor gas explosion accidents.

  6. Did gamma ray burst induce Cambrian explosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pisin; Ruffini, R.

    2015-06-01

    One longstanding mystery in bio-evolution since Darwin's time is the origin of the Cambrian explosion that happened around 540 million years ago (Mya), where an extremely rapid increase of species occurred. Here we suggest that a nearby GRB event 500 parsecs away, which should occur about once per 5 Gy, might have triggered the Cambrian explosion. Due to a relatively lower cross section and the conservation of photon number in Compton scattering, a substantial fraction of the GRB photons can reach the sea level and would induce DNA mutations in organisms protected by a shallow layer of water or soil, thus expediting the bio-diversification. This possibility of inducing genetic mutations is unique among all candidate sources for major incidents in the history of bio-evolution. A possible evidence would be the anomalous abundance of certain nuclear isotopes with long half-lives transmuted by the GRB photons in geological records from the Cambrian period. Our notion also imposes constraints on the evolution of exoplanet organisms and the migration of panspermia.

  7. Did Gamma Ray Burst Induce Cambrian Explosion?

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Pisin

    2014-01-01

    One longstanding mystery in bio-evolution since Darwin's time is the origin of the Cambrian explosion that happened around 540 million years ago (Mya), where an extremely rapid increase of species occurred. Here we suggest that a nearby GRB event ~500 parsecs away, which should occur about once per 5 Gy, might have triggered the Cambrian explosion. Due to a relatively lower cross section and the conservation of photon number in Compton scattering, a substantial fraction of the GRB photons can reach the sea level and would induce DNA mutations in organisms protected by a shallow layer of water or soil, thus expediting the bio-diversification. This possibility of inducing genetic mutations is unique among all candidate sources for major incidents in the history of bio-evolution. A possible evidence would be the anomalous abundance of certain nuclear isotopes with long half-lives transmuted by the GRB photons in geological records from the Cambrian period. Our notion also imposes constraints on the evolution of ...

  8. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Joshua David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  9. Disaster management following explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B R

    2008-01-01

    Explosions and bombings remain the most common deliberate cause of disasters involving large numbers of casualties, especially as instruments of terrorism. These attacks are virtually always directed against the untrained and unsuspecting civilian population. Unlike the military, civilians are poorly equipped or prepared to handle the severe emotional, logistical, and medical burdens of a sudden large casualty load, and thus are completely vulnerable to terrorist aims. To address the problem to the maximum benefit of mass disaster victims, we must develop collective forethought and a broad-based consensus on triage and these decisions must reach beyond the hospital emergency department. It needs to be realized that physicians should never be placed in a position of individually deciding to deny treatment to patients without the guidance of a policy or protocol. Emergency physicians, however, may easily find themselves in a situation in which the demand for resources clearly exceeds supply and for this reason, emergency care providers, personnel, hospital administrators, religious leaders, and medical ethics committees need to engage in bioethical decision-making.

  10. Numerical simulation of gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, A.C.; Van Wingerden, J.M.; Verhagen, T.L.

    1989-08-01

    Recent developments in numerical fluid dynamics and computer technology enable detailed simulation of gas explosions. Prins Maurits Laboratory TNO of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research developed the necessary software. This software is a useful tool to develop and evaluate explosion safe installations. One of the possible applications is the design of save offshore rigs. (f.i. to prevent Piper Alpha disasters). The two-dimensional blast model is described and an example is given. 4 figs., 6 refs.

  11. System for analysis of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S [San Ramon, CA

    2010-06-29

    A system for analysis of explosives. Samples are spotted on a thin layer chromatography plate. Multi-component explosives standards are spotted on the thin layer chromatography plate. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in a solvent mixture and chromatography is allowed to proceed. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 1. The thin layer chromatography plate is heated. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 2.

  12. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrovnikov Sergei M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT, hexogen (RDX, trotyl-hexogen (Comp B, octogen (HMX, and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  13. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Scott K; Borrowdale, Roderick

    2014-04-01

    The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring.

  14. Detecting Surface Changes from an Underground Explosion in Granite Using Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Coppersmith, Ryan T.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Swanson, Erika M.; Cooley, James A.

    2017-08-01

    Efficient detection and high-fidelity quantification of surface changes resulting from underground activities are important national and global security efforts. In this investigation, a team performed field-based topographic characterization by gathering high-quality photographs at very low altitudes from an unmanned aerial system (UAS)-borne camera platform. The data collection occurred shortly before and after a controlled underground chemical explosion as part of the United States Department of Energy's Source Physics Experiments (SPE-5) series. The high-resolution overlapping photographs were used to create 3D photogrammetric models of the site, which then served to map changes in the landscape down to 1-cm-scale. Separate models were created for two areas, herein referred to as the test table grid region and the nearfield grid region. The test table grid includes the region within 40 m from surface ground zero, with photographs collected at a flight altitude of 8.5 m above ground level (AGL). The near-field grid area covered a broader area, 90-130 m from surface ground zero, and collected at a flight altitude of 22 m AGL. The photographs, processed using Agisoft Photoscan® in conjunction with 125 surveyed ground control point targets, yielded a 6-mm pixel-size digital elevation model (DEM) for the test table grid region. This provided the ≤3 cm resolution in the topographic data to map in fine detail a suite of features related to the underground explosion: uplift, subsidence, surface fractures, and morphological change detection. The near-field grid region data collection resulted in a 2-cm pixel-size DEM, enabling mapping of a broader range of features related to the explosion, including: uplift and subsidence, rock fall, and slope sloughing. This study represents one of the first works to constrain, both temporally and spatially, explosion-related surface damage using a UAS photogrammetric platform; these data will help to advance the science of

  15. Effect of altitude on some blood factors and its stability after leaving the altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematy, Yones; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Razavi, Akram; Doudi, Monir

    2014-09-01

    The underlying mechanisms of altitude training are still a matter of controversial discussion. The aim of this study was to compare the hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count and volume between normal and high altitude situations and their persistence after returning back from higher altitudes. The study population included male students of Ardal Branch, Islamic Azad University. Twelve apparently healthy individual with high level of physical activity, mean age of 22.6 ± 1.50 years were selected through purposive and available sampling method. In this study, blood samples were collected at different time and altitudes in order to compare the changes of Red Blood Cell (RBC), Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Mean Cell Volume (MCV). The first blood sampling was conducted at the altitude of 1830 m. The subsequent blood samplings were conducted 48 and 72 h after reaching the altitude of 4000 m and 24, 48 and 72 h after returning back to the altitude of 1830 m. The statistical method used in this study was repeated measurement ANOVA. Red Blood Cell (RBC) changes between onset of climbing to 1830 m and 24, 48 and 2 h after sojourn at 1830 m height (after returning from 4000 m altitude) was significant. Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) showed no significant change in any of the altitudes. MCHC changes between onset of moving toward altitude 1830 meters and 24, 48 and 72 h after sojourn at 1830 m height (after returning from 4000 m altitude) was also significant in addition, MCHC showed a significant difference between 24 h staying at 1830 m altitude with 48 and 72 h staying at 4000 m altitude. Mean Cell Volume (MCV) showed no significant difference between 48 and 72 h staying at 4000 m altitude and also between 24, 48 and 72 h staying at 1830 m altitude; however, there was a significant difference between onset of moving toward 1830 m altitude with 24, 48 and 72 h staying at 1830 m altitude and also 48 and 72 h staying at

  16. 15 CFR 744.2 - Restrictions on certain nuclear end-uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., manufacture, construction, testing or maintenance of any nuclear explosive device, or components or subsystems... nuclear reactor, critical facility, facility for the fabrication of nuclear fuel, facility for the... nuclear material; or (iv) Facilities for the fabrication of nuclear reactor fuel containing plutonium....

  17. Biological Implications of the Nuclear Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    Reported are the proceedings of an interdisciplinary symposium on the effects on the biosphere of the release of radiation from the use of nuclear energy. Papers given include discussions of the use of radioisotopes in medicine, the benefits and possible consequences of peaceful applications of nuclear explosives, methods of estimating maximum…

  18. The laryngeal mask airway at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Grant D; Sittig, Steven E; Schears, Gregory J

    2008-02-01

    The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is an accepted adjunct for airway management in emergency patients. There are a number of case reports describing its use in transport medicine for infant to adult patients, including during flight. Although studies of the effect altitude has on air-filled tracheal tubes exists, we were unable to find documentation of the effect of altitude on laryngeal mask airways. Our objective was to assess the effect of altitude on the LMA in both fixed wing and rotary wing models. We performed an in vitro study of the effect of altitude on the LMA cuff. Infant and adult airway trainer mannequins with properly sized and inserted LMA-Classic laryngeal mask airways were monitored for cuff pressure changes while flown at altitudes commonly encountered during air medical transport. Both models demonstrated that LMA cuff pressures may exceed manufacturer recommended levels for safe use even at the relatively low altitudes experienced during rotor wing flight. Properly inserted and inflated laryngeal mask airways at ground level may result in overinflated LMA cuffs when flown to altitudes commonly used for rotor and fixed wing medical transport unless monitored and corrected.

  19. Pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Schultheiss

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify the pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure using the state of the art Compact Integrated Pupillograph (CIP and to investigate a potential correlation of altered pupil reaction with severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS. This work is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO study. METHODS: Parameters of pupil dynamics (initial diameter, amplitude, relative amplitude, latency, constriction velocity were quantified in 14 healthy volunteers at baseline (341 m and high altitude (4559 m over several days using the CIP. Scores of AMS, peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed for respective correlations with pupil dynamics. For statistical analysis JMP was used and data are shown in terms of intra-individual normalized values (value during exposure/value at baseline and the 95% confidence interval for each time point. RESULTS: During high altitude exposure the initial diameter size was significantly reduced (p<0.05. In contrast, the amplitude, the relative amplitude and the contraction velocity of the light reaction were significantly increased (p<0.05 on all days measured at high altitude. The latency did not show any significant differences at high altitude compared to baseline recordings. Changes in pupil parameters did not correlate with scores of AMS. CONCLUSIONS: Key parameters of the pupillary light reaction are significantly altered at high altitude. We hypothesize that high altitude hypoxia itself as well as known side effects of high altitude exposure such as fatigue or exhaustion after ascent may account for an altered pupillogram. Interestingly, none of these changes are related to AMS.

  20. Pupillary Light Reaction during High Altitude Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Andreas; Wilhelm, Barbara; Peters, Tobias; Fischer, M. Dominik; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian; Willmann, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to quantify the pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure using the state of the art Compact Integrated Pupillograph (CIP) and to investigate a potential correlation of altered pupil reaction with severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methods Parameters of pupil dynamics (initial diameter, amplitude, relative amplitude, latency, constriction velocity) were quantified in 14 healthy volunteers at baseline (341 m) and high altitude (4559 m) over several days using the CIP. Scores of AMS, peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed for respective correlations with pupil dynamics. For statistical analysis JMP was used and data are shown in terms of intra-individual normalized values (value during exposure/value at baseline) and the 95% confidence interval for each time point. Results During high altitude exposure the initial diameter size was significantly reduced (p<0.05). In contrast, the amplitude, the relative amplitude and the contraction velocity of the light reaction were significantly increased (p<0.05) on all days measured at high altitude. The latency did not show any significant differences at high altitude compared to baseline recordings. Changes in pupil parameters did not correlate with scores of AMS. Conclusions Key parameters of the pupillary light reaction are significantly altered at high altitude. We hypothesize that high altitude hypoxia itself as well as known side effects of high altitude exposure such as fatigue or exhaustion after ascent may account for an altered pupillogram. Interestingly, none of these changes are related to AMS. PMID:24503770

  1. Aging effect of 137Cs obtained from 137Cs in the Kanto loam layer from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and in the Nishiyama loam layer from the Nagasaki A-bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We measured (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil of the Kanto loam in the eastern Tokyo metropolitan area and the Nishiyama loam in Nagasaki, Japan. The observed (137)Cs deposition in the Kanto loam from the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident ranged from 4.0 to 77 kBq m(-2), which corresponds to 0.3-5 times of that in the Nishiyama loam. The (137)Cs retardation factor in the Kanto loam obtained seven months after the Fukusima NPP accident and in the Nishiyama loam after 36 and 38 years from the detonation of the Pu atomic bomb (A-bomb) ranged from 180 to 260 and 2000 to 10,000, respectively. This difference in the retardation factors is attributed to an aging effect that corresponds to seven months and 36 to 38 years after the deposition of (137)Cs occurred on the soil minerals.

  2. NQR炸药检测系统中激励脉冲拖尾的抑制%Removal of the Tailing Effects of Transmitting Pulse in a Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Detecting System for Explosive Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华民; 张国选; 陈春; 高攀

    2007-01-01

    介绍了核四极矩共振(Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance简称NQR)炸药检测系统的基本原理及检测过程中面临的如何消除激励脉冲信号拖尾对NQR检测信号的影响问题.文中采用了在发射电路中增加消振铃电路来消除激励脉冲拖尾的方法,并给出了电路分析和实验结果.经实际应用验证,该种方法对消除激励脉冲拖尾具有较好的效果,提高了系统的探测能力.

  3. Aftershock Characteristics as a Means of Discriminating Explosions from Earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2009-05-20

    The behavior of aftershock sequences around the Nevada Test Site in the southern Great Basin is characterized as a potential discriminant between explosions and earthquakes. The aftershock model designed by Reasenberg and Jones (1989, 1994) allows for a probabilistic statement of earthquake-like aftershock behavior at any time after the mainshock. We use this model to define two types of aftershock discriminants. The first defines M{sub X}, or the minimum magnitude of an aftershock expected within a given duration after the mainshock with probability X. Of the 67 earthquakes with M > 4 in the study region, 63 of them produce an aftershock greater than M{sub 99} within the first seven days after a mainshock. This is contrasted with only six of 93 explosions with M > 4 that produce an aftershock greater than M{sub 99} for the same period. If the aftershock magnitude threshold is lowered and the M{sub 90} criteria is used, then no explosions produce an aftershock greater than M{sub 90} for durations that end more than 17 days after the mainshock. The other discriminant defines N{sub X}, or the minimum cumulative number of aftershocks expected for given time after the mainshock with probability X. Similar to the aftershock magnitude discriminant, five earthquakes do not produce more aftershocks than N{sub 99} within 7 days after the mainshock. However, within the same period all but one explosion produce less aftershocks then N{sub 99}. One explosion is added if the duration is shortened to two days after than mainshock. The cumulative number aftershock discriminant is more reliable, especially at short durations, but requires a low magnitude of completeness for the given earthquake catalog. These results at NTS are quite promising and should be evaluated at other nuclear test sites to understand the effects of differences in the geologic setting and nuclear testing practices on its performance.

  4. The Physical Basis of Lg Generation by Explosion Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Stevens; G. E. Baker; H. Xu; T. J. Bennett; N. Rimer; S. D. Day

    2004-12-20

    The goal of this project has been to develop a quantitative predictive capability for explosion-generated Lg phases with a sound and unambiguous physical basis. The research program consisted of a theoretical investigation of explosion-generated Lg combined with an observational study. The specific question addressed by this research program is how the Lg phase is generated by underground nuclear explosions. This question is fundamental to how Lg phases are interpreted for use in explosion yield estimation and earthquake/explosion discrimination. To constrain modeling, we have extensively reviewed the existing literature and complemented that work with an examination of several explosion data sets, most notably: (1) Degelen Mountain explosions recorded between 7 and 57 km, with corresponding recordings at Borovoye, at approximately 650 km; (2) recordings from Russian deep seismic sounding experiments; (3) NTS explosion sources including the NPE and nuclear tests covering a range of source depths and media properties. A simple point explosion in an infinite medium generates no shear waves, so the Lg phase is generated entirely by non-spherical components of the source and conversions through reflections and scattering. We find that the most important contributors to the Lg phase are: (1) P to S conversion at the free surface and other near source interfaces, (2) S waves generated directly by a realistically distributed explosion source including nonlinear effects due to the free surface and gravity, and (3) Rg scattering to Lg. Additional effects that contribute significantly to Lg are scattering of converted S phases that traps more of the converted P-to-S in the crust, and randomization of the components of Lg. The pS phase from a spherically symmetric explosion source in media with P-wave velocity less than upper mantle S-wave velocity is trapped in the crust and can explain the observed radial and vertical Lg. The free surface pS converted phase from the same

  5. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using 12CO(J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF BARRIERS ON FLAME AND EXPLOSION WAVE IN GAS EXPLOSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林柏泉; 周世宁; 张仁贵

    1998-01-01

    This paper researches into the influence of barriers on flame and explosion wave in gasexplosion on the basis of experiment. The result shows that the barrier is very important to thetransmission of flame and explosion wave in gas explosion. When there are barriers, the speed oftransmission would be very fast and shock wave will appear in gas explosion, which would in-crease gas explosion power. The result of research is very important to prevent gas explosion anddecrease the power of it.

  7. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  8. Python Engine Installed in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    An engine mechanic checks instrumentation prior to an investigation of engine operating characteristics and thrust control of a large turboprop engine with counter-rotating propellers under high-altitude flight conditions in the 20-foot-dianieter test section of the Altitude Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Cleveland, Ohio, now known as the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  9. Design of the Radio Frequency Coil in a Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) Explosive Detection System%NQR炸药探测系统中射频线圈的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝凤龙; 徐更光; 黄学义

    2013-01-01

    基于核四极矩共振(Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance,NQR)炸药探测原理,对探测系统中拾取信号的关键部件射频线圈进行了优化设计,并确定了小型螺线管型线圈的直径、长度和匝数.试验测试表明,此线圈射频场均匀性好、信噪比大、灵敏度高,可以快速准确探测到NQR信号,验证了线圈设计理论的有效性和制作方法的可行性.该设计方法对提高隐藏炸药探测的准确率以及不同试验条件下射频线圈的设计具有重要意义.

  10. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A L

    2009-10-16

    Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

  11. Explosion limits for combustible gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Min-ming; WU Guo-qing; HAO Ji-fei; DAI Xin-lian

    2009-01-01

    Combustible gases in coal mines are composed of methane, hydrogen, some multi-carbon alkane gases and other gases. Based on a numerical calculation, the explosion limits of combustible gases were studied, showing that these limits are related to the concentrations of different components in the mixture. With an increase of C4H10 and C6H14, the Lower ExplosionLimit (LEL) and Upper Explosion-Limit (UEL) of a combustible gas mixture will decrease clearly. For every 0.1% increase in C4H10 and C6H14, the LEL decreases by about 0.19% and the UEL by about 0.3%. The results also prove that, by increasing the amount of H2, the UEL of a combustible gas mixture will increase considerably. If the level of H2 increases by 0.1%, the UEL will increase by about 0.3%. However, H2 has only a small effect on the LEL of the combustible gas mixture. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for judging the explosion risk of an explosive gas mixture in mines.

  12. Explosion and explosives. Volume 32, Number 5, 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: CMDB propellants with high pressure exponent; the thermal decomposition of phenylnitromethane in 2-propanol; double exposed flash x-ray photographic observation on detonation of coal mining explosions; detonation of condensed multiple components about detonation characteristics of three liquid explosives; synthesis of N,N'-bis (2,4,6-trinitro-3-glycidoxyphenyl)-ethylene dinitramine; resistance characteristics of electric primer containing conductive particles; and formation of Meisenheimer's complex by adding an aqueous sodium hydroxide to the reaction product of epoxy compound with picric acid.

  13. Early history of high-altitude physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2016-02-01

    High-altitude physiology can be said to have begun in 1644 when Torricelli described the first mercury barometer and wrote the immortal words "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air." Interestingly, the notion of atmospheric pressure had eluded his teacher, the great Galileo. Blaise Pascal was responsible for describing the fall in pressure with increasing altitude, and Otto von Guericke gave a dramatic demonstration of the enormous force that could be developed by atmospheric pressure. Robert Boyle learned of Guericke's experiment and, with Robert Hooke, constructed the first air pump that allowed small animals to be exposed to a low pressure. Hooke also constructed a small low-pressure chamber and exposed himself to a simulated altitude of about 2400 meters. With the advent of ballooning, humans were rapidly exposed to very low pressures, sometimes with tragic results. For example, the French balloon, Zénith, rose to over 8000 m, and two of the three aeronauts succumbed to the hypoxia. Paul Bert was the first person to clearly state that the deleterious effects of high altitude were caused by the low partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and later research was accelerated by high-altitude stations and expeditions to high altitude.

  14. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  15. The Quiet Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A European-led team of astronomers are providing hints that a recent supernova may not be as normal as initially thought. Instead, the star that exploded is now understood to have collapsed into a black hole, producing a weak jet, typical of much more violent events, the so-called gamma-ray bursts. The object, SN 2008D, is thus probably among the weakest explosions that produce very fast moving jets. This discovery represents a crucial milestone in the understanding of the most violent phenomena observed in the Universe. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 23a/08 A Galaxy and two Supernovae These striking results, partly based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, will appear tomorrow in Science Express, the online version of Science. Stars that were at birth more massive than about 8 times the mass of our Sun end their relatively short life in a cosmic, cataclysmic firework lighting up the Universe. The outcome is the formation of the densest objects that exist, neutron stars and black holes. When exploding, some of the most massive stars emit a short cry of agony, in the form of a burst of very energetic light, X- or gamma-rays. In the early afternoon (in Europe) of 9 January 2008, the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift telescope discovered serendipitously a 5-minute long burst of X-rays coming from within the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years away towards the Lynx constellation. The Swift satellite was studying a supernova that had exploded the previous year in the same galaxy, but the burst of X-rays came from another location, and was soon shown to arise from a different supernova, named SN 2008D. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), ESO, and at various other institutions have observed the supernova at great length. The team is led by Paolo Mazzali of INAF's Padova Observatory and MPA. "What made this event very interesting," says Mazzali, "is that the X-ray signal was very

  16. Observations on military exploitation of explosives detection technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anthony A.; de Ruiter, C. J.; Ehlerding, Anneli; McFee, John E.; Svinsås, Eirik; van Rheenen, Arthur D.

    2011-06-01

    Accurate and timely detection of explosives, energetic materials, and their associated compounds would provide valuable information to military commanders in a wide range of military operations: protection of fast moving convoys from mobile or static IED threats; more deliberate countermine and counter-IED operations during route or area clearance; and static roles such as hasty or deliberate checkpoints, critical infrastructure protection and support to public security. The detection of hidden explosive hazards is an extremely challenging problem, as evidenced by the fact that related research has been ongoing in many countries for at least seven decades and no general purpose solution has yet been found. Technologies investigated have spanned all major scientific fields, with emphasis on the physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, robotics, computer technology and mathematics. This paper will present a limited, operationally-focused overview of the current status of detection technologies. Emphasis will be on those technologies that directly detect the explosive hazard, as opposed to those that detect secondary properties of the threat, such as the casing, associated wires or electronics. Technologies that detect explosives include those based on nuclear radiation and terahertz radiation, as well as trace and biological detection techniques. Current research areas of the authors will be used to illustrate the practical applications.

  17. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2016-08-01

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the "Bravo" detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the "5th Fukuryu-maru" did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed.

  18. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  19. Coulomb explosion of "hot spot"

    CERN Document Server

    Oreshkin, V I; Chaikovsky, S A; Artyomov, A P

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed and estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  20. Instrument safety in explosive atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, J A

    1975-01-01

    The current "Energy Crisis" has dramatically increased our potential need for coal, the worlds most abundant fossil fuel. This will probably lead to a greater use of automation and instrumentation in the coal mining industry. The presence of methane in coal mines and in the coal itself plus the presence of coal dust, both of which can form an explosive atmosphere in air, means that the possibility of a gas or coal dust ignition must be considered when designing, purchasing and installing new equipment in this industry. In addition, many metallurgical processes involve the use of potentially explosive substances against which similar safety precautions must be taken. This paper outlines the various methods of protection currently in use and proposed for electrical instruments in explosive atmospheres, with particular emphasis on the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission.

  1. Evidence for Nearby Supernova Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Benítez, N; Canelles, M; Benitez, Narciso; Maiz-Apellaniz, Jesus; Canelles, Matilde

    2002-01-01

    Supernova explosions are one of the most energetic--and potentially lethal--phenomena in the Universe. Scientists have speculated for decades about the possible consequences for life on Earth of a nearby supernova, but plausible candidates for such an event were lacking. Here we show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at~130 parsecs from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. We find that the deposition on Earth of 60Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that ~2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction.

  2. Nuclear Nonproliferation Strategies for South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-03

    a nuclear arsenal. India is presumed to possess components for nuclear weapons including the actual fissile material "pits" or "cores" for weapons...weapons with various aircraft and with ŕ "Lack of Capital Deters Russians from Building VVERs in India," Nucleonics Week, October 1, 1992; "India...ban on the production of fissile materials for nuclear explosive devices or outside of safeguards. India opposes regional arms control measures that

  3. Exploring an Alternative Channel of Evolution Towards SNa Ia Explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Chiosi, E; Trevisan, P; Piovan, L; Orio, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility that isolated CO-WDs with mass smaller than the Chandrasekhar limit may undergo nuclear runaway and SNa explosion, triggered by the energy produced by under-barrier pycno-nuclear reactions between carbon and light elements. Such reactions would be due to left over impurities of the light elements, which would remain inactive until the WDs transit from the liquid to the solid state. We devise a simple formulation for the coulombian potential and the local density in a ionic lattice affected by impurities and introduce it in the known rates of pycno-nuclear reactions for multi-component plasmas. Our semi-analytical results indicate that the energy generated by these pycno-nuclear reactions exceed the WD luminosity at much younger ages than the age of the Universe, even for WDs with masses as low as $0.8\\, M_\\odot$. A thermonuclear runaway may thus be triggered in isolated WDs. The explosion would occur sooner in WDs of higher masses, e.g. a few hundred million years in a...

  4. Explosively Joining Dissimilar Metal Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    both steel, photograph (7), and the Ni-Cu specimen, photograph (8) , showed considerable pitting corrosion in the aluminum . 4. The paint was then...for 6061 -T6 aluminum and are: collision angle 5 - 200, collision velocity 270 - 350 m/sec, with an impact pressure of at least 27 Kbar (391 Kpsi...Welded Aluminum Alloy 1 .. 5 rn-i (P0 -I Op. 2si 11 6W TABLE I Explosive2 Cladder Metal Base Metal Explosive Loading (gins/in2 6061 -T6 Al 304 SS TSE- 1004

  5. Intravesical explosion during transurethral electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgios, Kallinikas; Evangelos, Boulinakis; Helai, Habib; Ioannis, Gerzelis

    2015-05-01

    Intravesical explosion is a very rare complication of transurethral resection of prostate and transurethral resection of bladder tumour operations. In vitro studies have shown that the gases produced during the procedure could result in a blast once they are mixed with air from the atmosphere. A 79-year-old male experienced an explosion in his bladder while undergoing a transurethral resection of bladder tumour. The case is presented as well as the way that it was treated as an emergency. Precautions of such events are finally suggested.

  6. Nitric oxide in adaptation to altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Cynthia M; Laskowski, Daniel; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2012-04-01

    This review summarizes published information on the levels of nitric oxide gas (NO) in the lungs and NO-derived liquid-phase molecules in the acclimatization of visitors newly arrived at altitudes of 2500 m or more and adaptation of populations whose ancestors arrived thousands of years ago. Studies of acutely exposed visitors to high altitude focus on the first 24-48 h with just a few extending to days or weeks. Among healthy visitors, NO levels in the lung, plasma, and/or red blood cells fell within 2h, but then returned toward baseline or slightly higher by 48 h and increased above baseline by 5 days. Among visitors ill with high-altitude pulmonary edema at the time of the study or in the past, NO levels were lower than those of their healthy counterparts. As for highland populations, Tibetans had NO levels in the lung, plasma, and red blood cells that were at least double and in some cases orders of magnitude greater than other populations regardless of altitude. Red blood cell-associated nitrogen oxides were more than 200 times higher. Other highland populations had generally higher levels although not to the degree shown by Tibetans. Overall, responses of those acclimatized and those presumed to be adapted are in the same direction, although the Tibetans have much larger responses. Missing are long-term data on lowlanders at altitude showing how similar they become to the Tibetan phenotype. Also missing are data on Tibetans at low altitude to see the extent to which their phenotype is a response to the immediate environment or expressed constitutively. The mechanisms causing the visitors' and the Tibetans' high levels of NO and NO-derived molecules at altitude remain unknown. Limited data suggest processes including hypoxic upregulation of NO synthase gene expression, hemoglobin-NO reactions, and genetic variation. Gains in understanding will require integrating appropriate methods and measurement techniques with indicators of adaptive function under hypoxic

  7. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive ... NIBIB-funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that ...

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mixture, the primary purpose of which is to function by explosion; i.e., with substantially instantaneous release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179....

  9. New Source Model for Chemical Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    With sophisticated inversion scheme, we recover characteristics of SPE explosions such as corner frequency fc and moment M0, which are used to develop a new source model for chemical explosions.

  10. Pulmonary contusion and hemothorax due to explosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeza-Herrera, Carlos; Sanjuán-Fabián, Héctor; Medellín-Sierra, Ulises Darío; Nájera-Garduño, Heladio; García-Cabello, Luis Manuel

    2006-01-01

    .... Such is the case of gunpowder explosive objects used during celebration holidays. We present a 14-year-old male who suffered a pulmonary contusion as a consequence of an explosion of "huevo de codorniz...

  11. Assessment of Safety Parameters for Radiological Explosion Based on Gaussian Dispersion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Alok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Hong Suk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    These sources if used with explosive (called RDD - radiological dispersion device), can cause dispersion of radioactive material resulting in public exposure and contamination of the environment. Radiological explosion devices are not weapons for the mass destruction like atom bombs, but can cause the death of few persons and contamination of large areas. The reduction of the threat of radiological weapon attack by terrorist groups causing dispersion of radioactive material is one of the priority tasks of the IAEA Nuclear Safety and Security Program.Emergency preparedness is an essential part for reducing and mitigating radiological weapon threat. Preliminary assessment of dispersion study followed by radiological explosion and its quantitative effect will be helpful for the emergency preparedness team for an early response. The effect of the radiological dispersion depends on various factors like radioisotope, its activity, physical form, amount of explosive used and meteorological factors at the time of an explosion. This study aim to determine the area affected by the radiological explosion as pre assessment to provide feedback to emergency management teams for handling and mitigation the situation after an explosion. Most practical scenarios of radiological explosion are considered with conservative approach for the assessment of the area under a threat for emergency handling and management purpose. Radioisotopes under weak security controls can be used for a radiological explosion to create terror and socioeconomic threat for the public. Prior assessment of radiological threats is helpful for emergency management teams to take prompt decision about evacuation of the affected area and other emergency handling actions. Comparable activities of Co-60 source used in radiotherapy and Sr-90 source of disused and orphaned RTGs with two different quantities of TNT were used for the scenario development of radiological explosion. In the Basic Safety Standard (BSS

  12. The behavior limestone under explosive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. Yu; Orlova, Yu N.; Bogomolov, G. N.

    2016-11-01

    Limestone behavior under explosive loading was investigated. The behavior of the limestone by the action of the three types of explosives, including granular, ammonite and emulsion explosives was studied in detail. The shape and diameter of the explosion craters were obtained. The observed fragments after the blast have been classified as large, medium and small fragments. Three full-scale experiments were carried out. The research results can be used as a qualitative test for the approbation of numerical methods.

  13. Gas Explosions Mitigation by Ducted Venting

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The mitigation of effects of gas and dust explosions within industrial equipment is effective if venting the combustion products to safe location. The presence of relief duct is however likely to increase the severity of the explosion with respect to equipment vented to open atmosphere, due to secondary explosions occurring in the initial sections of duct, frictional drag and inertia of the gas column, acoustic and Helmholtz oscillations. The weights of these phenomena on explosion e...

  14. Statistical estimation of loads from gas explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Høiset, Stian

    1998-01-01

    In the design of structures in the offshore and process industries, the possibility of a gas explosion must always be considered. This is usually incorporated by performing explosion simulations. However, estimations based on such calculations introduce uncertainties in the design process. The main uncertainties in explosion simulations are the assumption of the gas cloud,the location of the ignition point and the properties of the explosion simulator itself. In this thesis, we try to investi...

  15. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T) AGENCY: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), Department of...

  16. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T) AGENCY: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF), Department of...

  17. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T) AGENCY: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), Department of...

  18. Responses of the autonomic nervous system in altitude adapted and high altitude pulmonary oedema subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Sen Gupta, J.; Nayar, H. S.

    1985-06-01

    Studies were carried out to ascertain the role of sympatho-parasympathetic responses in the process of adaptation to altitude. The assessment of status of autonomic balance was carried out in a group of 20 young male subjects by recording their resting heart rate, blood pressure, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, extremity temperatures, pupillary diameter, cold pressor response, oxygen consumption, cardioacceleration during orthostasis and urinary excretion of catecholamines; in a thermoneutral laboratory. The same parameters were repeated on day 3 and at weekly intervals for a period of 3 weeks, after exposing them to 3,500 m; and also after return to sea level. At altitude, similar studies were carried out in a group of 10 acclimatized lowlanders, 10 high altitude natives and 6 patients who had recently recovered from high altitude pulmonary oedema. In another phase, similar studies were done in two groups of subjects, one representing 15 subjects who had stayed at altitude (3,500 4,000 m) without any ill effects and the other comprising of 10 subjects who had either suffered from high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) or acute mountain sickness (AMS). The results revealed sympathetic overactivity on acute induction to altitude which showed gradual recovery on prolonged stay, the high altitude natives had preponderance to parasympathetic system. Sympathetic preponderance may not be an essential etiological factor for the causation of maladaptation syndromes.

  19. Can High Altitude Influence Cytokines and Sleep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Aquino Lemos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2 induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.

  20. Altitude Registration of Limb-Scattered Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Leslie; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jaross, Glen; Loughman, Robert; Kramarova, Natalya; Chen, Zhong; Taha, Ghassan; Chen, Grace; Xu, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    One of the largest constraints to the retrieval of accurate ozone profiles from UV backscatter limb sounding sensors is altitude registration. Two methods, the Rayleigh scattering attitude sensing (RSAS) and absolute radiance residual method (ARRM), are able to determine altitude registration to the accuracy necessary for long-term ozone monitoring. The methods compare model calculations of radiances to measured radiances and are independent of onboard tracking devices. RSAS determines absolute altitude errors, but, because the method is susceptible to aerosol interference, it is limited to latitudes and time periods with minimal aerosol contamination. ARRM, a new technique introduced in this paper, can be applied across all seasons and altitudes. However, it is only appropriate for relative altitude error estimates. The application of RSAS to Limb Profiler (LP) measurements from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite indicates tangent height (TH) errors greater than 1 km with an absolute accuracy of +/-200 m. Results using ARRM indicate a approx. 300 to 400m intra-orbital TH change varying seasonally +/-100 m, likely due to either errors in the spacecraft pointing or in the geopotential height (GPH) data that we use in our analysis. ARRM shows a change of approx. 200m over 5 years with a relative accuracy (a long-term accuracy) of 100m outside the polar regions.

  1. Can High Altitude Influence Cytokines and Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; Rodrigues, Bruno; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain. PMID:23690660

  2. Oxygen ion energization observed at high altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Waara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of significant heating (up to 8 keV perpendicular to the geomagnetic field of outflowing oxygen ions at high altitude (12 RE above the polar cap. The shape of the distribution functions indicates that most of the heating occurs locally (within 0.2–0.4 RE in altitude. This is a clear example of local ion energization at much higher altitude than usually reported. In contrast to many events at lower altitudes, it is not likely that the locally observed wave fields can cause the observed ion energization. Also, it is not likely that the ions have drifted from some nearby energization region to the point of observation. This suggests that additional fundamentally different ion energization mechanisms are present at high altitudes. One possibility is that the magnetic moment of the ions is not conserved, resulting in slower outflow velocities and longer time for ion energization.

  3. Altitude Registration of Limb-Scattered Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Leslie; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jaross, Glen; Loughman, Robert; Kramarova, Natalya; Chen, Zhong; Taha, Ghassan; Chen, Grace; Xu, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    One of the largest constraints to the retrieval of accurate ozone profiles from UV backscatter limb sounding sensors is altitude registration. Two methods, the Rayleigh scattering attitude sensing (RSAS) and absolute radiance residual method (ARRM), are able to determine altitude registration to the accuracy necessary for long-term ozone monitoring. The methods compare model calculations of radiances to measured radiances and are independent of onboard tracking devices. RSAS determines absolute altitude errors, but, because the method is susceptible to aerosol interference, it is limited to latitudes and time periods with minimal aerosol contamination. ARRM, a new technique introduced in this paper, can be applied across all seasons and altitudes. However, it is only appropriate for relative altitude error estimates. The application of RSAS to Limb Profiler (LP) measurements from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite indicates tangent height (TH) errors greater than 1 km with an absolute accuracy of +/-200 m. Results using ARRM indicate a approx. 300 to 400m intra-orbital TH change varying seasonally +/-100 m, likely due to either errors in the spacecraft pointing or in the geopotential height (GPH) data that we use in our analysis. ARRM shows a change of approx. 200m over 5 years with a relative accuracy (a long-term accuracy) of 100m outside the polar regions.

  4. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den D.M.; Elwenspoek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a liquid is exposed to extremely high heat-fluxes. Within a few microseconds a bubble in the form vapour film is generated, followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and finally the bubbles collapse. This effect, which already has proven its use in curren

  5. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den D.M.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a very high temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures homogeneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles almost instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and fina

  6. Measuring explosive non-ideality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C

    1999-02-17

    The sonic reaction zone length may be measured by four methods: (1) size effect, (2) detonation front curvature, (3) crystal interface velocity and (4) in-situ gauges. The amount of data decreases exponentially from (1) to (4) with there being almost no gauge data for prompt detonation at steady state. The ease and clarity of obtaining the reaction zone length increases from (1) to (4). The method of getting the reaction zone length, , is described for the four methods. A measure of non-ideality is proposed: the reaction zone length divided by the cylinder radius. N = /R{sub o}. N = 0 for true ideality. It also decreases with increasing radius as it should. For N < 0.10, an equilibrium EOS like the JWL may be used. For N > 0.10, a time-dependent description is essential. The crystal experiment, which measures the particle velocity of an explosive-transparent material interface, is presently rising in importance. We examine the data from three experiments and apply: (1) an impedance correction that transfers the explosive C-J particle velocity to the corresponding value for the interface, and (2) multiplies the interface time by 3/4 to simulate the explosive speed of sound. The result is a reaction zone length comparable to those obtained by other means. A few explosives have reaction zones so small that the change of slope in the particle velocity is easily seen.

  7. Explosion mitigation by water mist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, R. van der; Cargill, S.; Longbottom, A.; Rhijnsburger, M.P.M.; Erkel, A.G. van

    2010-01-01

    The internal explosion of an anti-ship missile or stored ammunition is a potentially catastrophic threat for a navy vessel. These events generally cause heavy blast loading and fragments to perforate the ship structure. As a solution to reduce the blast loading, the compartment can be filled with

  8. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  9. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  10. Optical Pressure Measurements of Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Explosive Shocks in Air, 2nd ed.; Springer-Verlag: Berlin , Germany, 1985. 7. Anderson, J. D. Hypersonic and High Temperature Gas Dynamics, 2nd Ed...PDF) RDRL CIO LA T LANDFRIED RDRL WML M ZOLTOSKI RDRL WML A F DE LUCIA W OBERLE RDRL WML B J GOTTFRIED J CIEZAK

  11. Supernova 2007bi as a pair-instability explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Gal-Yam, A; Ofek, E O; Nugent, P E; Kulkarni, S R; Kasliwal, M M; Quimby, R M; Filippenko, A V; Cenko, S B; Chornock, R; Waldman, R; Kasen, D; Sullivan, M; Beshore, E C; Drake, A J; Thomas, R C; Bloom, J S; Poznanski, D; Miller, A A; Foley, R J; Silverman, J M; Arcavi, I; Ellis, R S; Deng, J

    2010-01-01

    Stars with initial masses 10 M_{solar} 140 M_{solar}), if such exist, have oxygen cores which exceed M_{core} = 50 M_{solar}. There, high temperatures are reached at relatively low densities. Conversion of energetic, pressure-supporting photons into electron-positron pairs occurs prior to oxygen ignition, and leads to a violent contraction that triggers a catastrophic nuclear explosion. Tremendous energies (>~ 10^{52} erg) are released, completely unbinding the star in a pair-instability SN (PISN), with no compact remnant. Transitional objects with 100 M_{solar} 3 M_{solar} of ra dioactive 56Ni were synthesized, and that our observations are well fit by PISN models. A PISN explosion in the local Universe indicates that nearby dwarf galaxies probably host extremely massive stars, above the apparent Galactic limit, perhaps resulting from star formation processes similar to those that created the first stars in the Universe.

  12. Radiation Physics for Space and High Altitude Air Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Saganti, P.; Shavers, M. R.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are of extra-solar origin consisting of high-energy hydrogen, helium, and heavy ions. The GCR are modified by physical processes as they traverse through the solar system, spacecraft shielding, atmospheres, and tissues producing copious amounts of secondary radiation including fragmentation products, neutrons, mesons, and muons. We discuss physical models and measurements relevant for estimating biological risks in space and high-altitude air travel. Ambient and internal spacecraft computational models for the International Space Station and a Mars mission are discussed. Risk assessment is traditionally based on linear addition of components. We discuss alternative models that include stochastic treatments of columnar damage by heavy ion tracks and multi-cellular damage following nuclear fragmentation in tissue.

  13. Ex-vessel Steam Explosion Analysis for Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Leskovar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A steam explosion may occur during a severe accident, when the molten core comes into contact with water. The pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the multicomponent three-dimensional Eulerian fuel–coolant interaction code under the conditions of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications project reactor exercise, is presented and discussed. In reactor calculations, the largest uncertainties in the prediction of the steam explosion strength are expected to be caused by the large uncertainties related to the jet breakup. To obtain some insight into these uncertainties, premixing simulations were performed with both available jet breakup models, i.e., the global and the local models. The simulations revealed that weaker explosions are predicted by the local model, compared to the global model, due to the predicted smaller melt droplet size, resulting in increased melt solidification and increased void buildup, both reducing the explosion strength. Despite the lower active melt mass predicted for the pressurized water reactor case, pressure loads at the cavity walls are typically higher than that for the boiling water reactor case. This is because of the significantly larger boiling water reactor cavity, where the explosion pressure wave originating from the premixture in the center of the cavity has already been significantly weakened on reaching the distant cavity wall.

  14. Computer code simulations of explosions in flow networks and comparison with experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, W. S.; Nichols, B. D.; Moore, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Steinke, R. G.; Idzorek, R. D.

    1987-10-01

    A program of experimental testing and computer code development for predicting the effects of explosions in air-cleaning systems is being carried out for the Department of Energy. This work is a combined effort by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and New Mexico State University (NMSU). Los Alamos has the lead responsibility in the project and develops the computer codes; NMSU performs the experimental testing. The emphasis in the program is on obtaining experimental data to verify the analytical work. The primary benefit of this work will be the development of a verified computer code that safety analysts can use to analyze the effects of hypothetical explosions in nuclear plant air cleaning systems. The experimental data show the combined effects of explosions in air-cleaning systems that contain all of the important air-cleaning elements (blowers, dampers, filters, ductwork, and cells). A small experimental set-up consisting of multiple rooms, ductwork, a damper, a filter, and a blower was constructed. Explosions were simulated with a shock tube, hydrogen/air-filled gas balloons, and blasting caps. Analytical predictions were made using the EVENT84 and NF85 computer codes. The EVENT84 code predictions were in good agreement with the effects of the hydrogen/air explosions, but they did not model the blasting cap explosions adequately. NF85 predicted shock entrance to and within the experimental set-up very well. The NF85 code was not used to model the hydrogen/air or blasting cap explosions.

  15. High altitude syndromes at intermediate altitudes: a pilot study in the Australian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaney, Graham; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2013-10-01

    Our hypothesis is that symptoms of high altitude syndromes are detectable even at intermediate altitudes, as commonly encountered under Australian conditions (flatus expulsion (HAFE). Symptoms of high altitude syndromes are of growing concern because of the global trend toward increasing numbers of tourists and workers exposed to both rapid ascent and sustained physical activity at high altitude. However, in Australia, high altitude medicine has almost no profile because of our relatively low altitudes by international standards. Three factors lead us to believe that altitude sickness in Australia deserves more serious consideration: Australia is subject to rapid growth in alpine recreational industries; altitude sickness is highly variable between individuals, and some people do experience symptoms already at 1500 m; and there is potential for an occupational health and safety issue amongst workers. To test this hypothesis we examined the relationship between any high altitude symptoms and a rapid ascent to an intermediate altitude (1800 m) by undertaking an intervention study in a cohort of eight medical clinic staff, conducted during July of the 2012 (Southern Hemisphere) ski season, using self-reporting questionnaires, at Mansfield (316 m above sea level) and at the Ski Resort of Mt Buller (1800 m), Victoria, Australia. The intervention consisted of ascent by car from Mansfield to Mt Buller (approx. 40 min drive). Participants completed a self-reporting questionnaire including demographic data and information on frequency of normal homeostatic processes (fluid intake and output, food intake and output, symptoms including thirst and headaches, and frequency of passing wind or urine). Data were recorded in hourly periods extending over 18 h before and 18 h after ascent. We found that the frequency of flatus production more than doubled following ascent, with a post-ascent frequency of approximately 14 expulsions per person over the 18 h recording period (Rate

  16. MECHANISM OF EXPLOSIVE WELDING OF METALS

    OpenAIRE

    Sek, W.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanism of explosive welding is discussed. The experimental date indicate that the explosive bonding interface forms behind the collision point and the physical properties of metals affect considerably this process. The usefulness of hydrodynamic model for describing the explosive welding process is called in question.

  17. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... site plan shall include: (1) A scaled map that shows the location of all proposed explosive hazard... explosive hazard facility and all other explosive hazard facilities and each public area, including...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with...

  19. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forbidden explosives. 173.54 Section 173.54... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.54 Forbidden explosives. Unless otherwise provided in this subchapter, the following explosives shall not be offered for...

  20. 46 CFR 147.95 - Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives. 147.95 Section 147.95 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.95 Explosives. (a) Explosives—general. Except as provided for elsewhere in this subchapter, explosives, as defined in 49 CFR 173.50, which are hazardous...

  1. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-522). ...

  2. Portable SERS Instrument for Explosives Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    groundwater monitoring from a cone penetrometer (CPT) platform (5) Demonstrate improved capability for discriminating explosives versus colorimetry ...interference, and better discrimination of individual explosives compared to colorimetry • Applicability to virtually any environmental water...chemicals such as nitroaromatics or nitramines. While this makes colorimetry more generally applicable at explosive sites, it also limits the ability to

  3. Explosion Power and Pressure Desensitization Resisting Property of Emulsion Explosives Sensitized by MgH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yangfan; Ma, Honghao; Liu, Rong; Shen, Zhaowu

    2014-07-01

    Due to low detonation power and pressure desensitization problems that traditional emulsion explosives encounter in utilization, a hydrogen-based emulsion explosives was devised. This type of emulsion explosives is sensitized by hydrogen-containing material MgH2, and MgH2 plays a double role as a sensitizer and an energetic material in emulsion explosives. Underwater explosion experiments and shock wave desensitization experiments show that an MgH2 emulsion explosives has excellent detonation characteristics and is resistant to pressure desensitization. The pressure desensitization-resistant mechanism of MgH2 emulsion explosives was investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Frequency of damage by external explosion hazards based on geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Guenter [Risa Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin-Charlottenburg (Germany); Camarinopoulos, Alexis; Theodora, Karali [Environment Reliability and Risk Analysis (ERRA), Athens (Greece); Camarinopoulos, Leonidas [Piraeus Univ. (Greece); Schubert, B. [VENE, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    External explosions can significantly contribute to risk of damage for industrial plants. External explosions may origin from other plants in the neighbourhood, which store and operate with explosive substances, or from transport of such substances on road, rail, or water. If deflagration is involved, ignition will not necessarily occur at the place of the accident, but a cloud of a combustible gas-air mixture may develop, which will ignite at some distance depending on wind velocity. A probabilistic model has been developed to calculate frequencies of damage based on numerical integration or on Monte Carlo simulation. Geographical information systems provide map material for sites, roads, rail and rivers on a computer. Data has been collected and applied for a nuclear power plant in Germany as an example. The method, however, can be used for any type of plant subject to external explosion hazards. (orig.)

  5. Pulmonary Embolism Masquerading as High Altitude Pulmonary Edema at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prativa; Lohani, Benu; Murphy, Holly

    2016-12-01

    Pandey, Prativa, Benu Lohani, and Holly Murphy. Pulmonary embolism masquerading as high altitude pulmonary edema at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:353-358, 2016.-Pulmonary embolism (PE) at high altitude is a rare entity that can masquerade as or occur in conjunction with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and can complicate the diagnosis and management. When HAPE cases do not improve rapidly with descent, other diagnoses, including PE, ought to be considered. From 2013 to 2015, we identified eight cases of PE among 303 patients with initial diagnosis of HAPE. Upon further evaluation, five had deep vein thrombosis (DVT). One woman had a contraceptive ring and seven patients had no known thrombotic risks. PE can coexist with or mimic HAPE and should be considered in patients presenting with shortness of breath from high altitude regardless of thrombotic risk.

  6. Study of film boiling collapse behavior during vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masahiro; Yamano, Norihiro; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi

    1996-06-01

    Possible large scale vapor explosions are safety concern in nuclear power plants during severe accident. In order to identify the occurrence of the vapor explosion and to estimate the magnitude of the induced pressure pulse, it is necessary to investigate the triggering condition for the vapor explosion. As a first step of this study, scooping analysis was conducted with a simulation code based on thermal detonation model. It was found that the pressure at the collapse of film boiling much affects the trigger condition of vapor explosion. Based on this analytical results, basic experiments were conducted to clarify the collapse conditions of film boiling on a high temperature solid ball surface. Film boiling condition was established by flooding water onto a high temperature stainless steel ball heated by a high frequency induction heater. After the film boiling was established, the pressure pulse generated by a shock tube was applied to collapse the steam film on the ball surface. As the experimental boundary conditions, materials and size of the balls, magnitude of pressure pulse and initial temperature of the carbon and stainless steel balls were varied. The transients of pressure and surface temperature were measured. It was found that the surface temperature on the balls sharply decreased when the pressure wave passed through the film on balls. Based on the surface temperature behavior, the film boiling collapse pattern was found to be categorized into several types. Especially, the pattern for stainless steel ball was categorized into three types; no collapse, collapse and reestablishment after collapse. It was thus clarified that the film boiling collapse behavior was identified by initial conditions and that the pressure required to collapse film boiling strongly depended on the initial surface temperature. The present results will provide a useful information for the analysis of vapor explosions based on the thermal detonation model. (J.P.N.)

  7. Characterization Of High Explosives Detonations Via Laser-Induced Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa-Aleman, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    One objective of the Department of Energy’s National Security Administration is to develop technologies that can help the United States government to detect foreign nuclear weapons development activities. The realm of high explosive (HE) experiments is one of the key areas to assess the nuclear ambitions of a country. SRNL has participated in the collection of particulates from HE experiments and characterized the material with the purpose to correlate particulate matter with HE. Since these field campaigns are expensive, on-demand simulated laboratory-scale explosion experiments are needed to further our knowledge of the chemistry and particle formation in the process. Our goal is to develop an experimental test bed in the laboratory to test measurement concepts and correlate particle formation processes with the observables from the detonation fireball. The final objective is to use this knowledge to tailor our experimental setups in future field campaigns. The test bed uses pulsed laser-induced plasmas to simulate micro-explosions, with the intent to study the temporal behavior of the fireball observed in field tests. During FY15, a plan was prepared and executed which assembled two laser ablation systems, procured materials for study, and tested a Step-Scan Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (SS-FTIR). Designs for a shadowgraph system for shock wave analysis, design for a micro-particulate collector from ablated pulse were accomplished. A novel spectroscopic system was conceived and a prototype system built for acquisition of spectral/temporal characterization of a high speed event such as from a high explosive detonation. Experiments and analyses will continue into FY16.

  8. Sleep of Andean high altitude natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, J H; Stone, B M; Tsang, G

    1992-01-01

    The structure of sleep in lowland visitors to altitudes greater than 4000 m is grossly disturbed. There are no data on sleep in long-term residents of high altitudes. This paper describes an electroencephalographic study of sleep in high altitude dwellers who were born in and are permanent residents of Cerro de Pasco in the Peruvian Andes, situated at 4330 m. Eight healthy male volunteers aged between 18 and 69 years were studied. Sleep was measured on three consecutive nights for each subject. Electroencephalographs, submental electromyographs and electro-oculograms were recorded. Only data from the third night were used in the analysis. The sleep patterns of these subjects resembled the normal sleep patterns described by others in lowlanders at sea level. There were significant amounts of slow wave sleep in the younger subjects and rapid eye movement sleep seemed unimpaired.

  9. Numerical computation algorithm of explosion equations and thermodynamics parameters of mine explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李守巨; 刘迎曦; 何翔; 周圆π

    2001-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is presented to simulate the explosion reaction process of mine explosives based on the equation of state, the equation of mass conservation and thermodynamics balance equation of explosion products. With the affection of reversible reaction of explosion products to explosion reaction equations and thermodynamics parameters considered, the computer program has been developed. The computation values show that computer simulation results are identical with the testinq ones.

  10. Numerical computation algorithm of explosion equations and thermodynamics parameters of mine explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shou-ju; LIU Ying-xi; HE Xiang; ZHOU Y uan-pai

    2001-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is presented to simulate the explosion reacti on process of mine explosives based on the equation of state, the equation of ma ss conservation and thermodynamics balance equation of explosion products. With the affection of reversible reaction of explosion products to explosion reaction equations and thermodynamics parameters considered, the computer program has be en developed. The computation values show that computer simulation results are i dentical with the testing ones.

  11. Gas explosions - an elementary account; Eksplosiv fare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seehusen, Joachim

    2002-07-01

    Although in a typical gas explosion the flame front propagates at sub-sonic speed, it still moves fast. Safety people often believe they can run away from a gas explosion. While gas explosions are well understood in the major companies, this is not true in many small ones, and people often do not realise how small the difference may be between a small puff and a dangerous explosion. Of special interest in a ''hydrogen society'' is the fact that hydrogen is dangerous and must be handled with care. The article discusses in an elementary way some of the basic concepts from the physics of gas explosions.

  12. Numerical and theoretical analyses of underground explosion cavity decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R.; Aldridge, D. F.; Chael, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    wholespace. Equilibrating the moment magnitudes of explosions for differing fill materials leads to misleading results in the amplitudes of the radiated elastic waves. The proper procedure entails equalizing the intrinsic energies of the explosions. Numerically-calculated results are in reasonable agreement with a theoretical model based on acoustic and elastic spherical wave propagation from a point center of symmetry. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Damage Effects of Shelled Explosive Explosion in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage of concrete subjected to explosion loading is an important issue in defense engineering. The damage degree of concrete is related to many factors, such as the type of explosive charge, the depth of burial and the parameters of concrete. In this paper, three factors are considered for experiments of shelled explosives in concrete targets, which are the filling coefficient, length-to-diameter ratio and the depth of burial. The filling coefficient is from 0.1 to 1 by changing thickness of shell, and length-to-diameter ratio is from 2.5 to 10. The unconfined compressive strength of concrete target for test is 35MPa. The experimental results showed that the sizes of craters of concretes are varied as the filling coefficient, length-to-diameter ratio and the depth of burial. The optimal values of filling coefficient, length-to-diameter ratio and the depth of burial of shelled charges were obtained to get largest damage regions of concrete targets. This work provides a base for evaluating the damage of concrete and designing the penetrating warhead.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.672-677, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.434

  14. Variability in low altitude astronomical refraction as a function of altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Russell D; Lozowski, Edward P; Fathi-Nejad, Arsha

    2008-12-01

    Low altitude astronomical refraction (LAAR) of the setting Sun was measured over a sea horizon from a coastal location in Barbados, West Indies. The altitude of the upper limb of the Sun and the apparent horizon were determined using a digital video camera (Canon XL2) and a digital SLR camera (Canon EOS 5D). A total of 14 sunsets were measured between 2005 and 2007. From these measurements LAAR variability was estimated at 14 standard altitudes of the refracted Sun between 0 degrees .01 and 4 degrees .5. The relative variability decreases with increasing altitude from +/- 0.0195 of mean refraction at an altitude of 0 degrees .01 to +/- 0.0142 at 4 degrees .5. If extrapolated to an altitude of 15 degrees , a linear fit to the data produces a relative variability of +/- 0.0038 and an absolute variability of +/- 0(").45. Statistical analysis of the relative variability in LAAR appears to support the decreasing trend. However, error propagation analysis further suggests that the observed values of refraction may exceed the accuracy of the measurement system at altitudes higher than 2 degrees .

  15. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  16. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-04-30

    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Observations of the altitude of the volcanic plume during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, April–May 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arason

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 lasted for 39 days, 14 April–23 May. The eruption had two explosive phases separated by a phase with lava formation and reduced explosive activity. The height of the plume was monitored every 5 min with a C-band weather radar located in Keflavík International Airport, 155 km distance from the volcano. Furthermore, several web cameras were mounted with a view of the volcano, and their images saved every five seconds. Time series of the plume-top altitude were constructed from the radar observations and images from a web camera located in the village Hvolsvöllur at 34 km distance from the volcano. This paper presents the independent radar and web camera time series and performs cross validation. The results show good agreement between the time series for the range when both series are available. However, while the radar altitudes are semi-discrete the data availability was much higher than for the web camera, indicating how essential weather radars are as eruption plume monitoring devices. The echo top radar series of the altitude of the volcanic plume are publicly available from the Pangaea Data Publisher (http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.760690.

  18. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  19. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  20. Altitude Preexposure Recommendations for Inducing Acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    acetazolamide ( Kronenberg and Cain, 1968). Acute exposure to high altitude increases heart rate and cardiac output to maintain systemic oxygen delivery...emphasizing the regulation of breathing. Physiologist. 11:37–57. Kronenberg R.S., and Cain S.M. (1968). Hastening respiratory acclimatization to

  1. High-altitude physiology: lessons from Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Peter D.; Simonson, Tatum S.; Wei, Guan; Wagner, Harrieth; Wuren, Tanna; Yan, Ma; Qin, Ga; Ge, Rili

    2013-05-01

    Polycythemia is a universal lowlander response to altitude; healthy Andean high-altitude natives also have elevated [Hb]. While this may enhance O2 transport to tissues, studies have shown that acute isovolumic changes in [Hb] do not affect exercise capacity. Many high-altitude Tibetans have evolved sea-level values of [Hb], providing a natural opportunity to study this issue. In 21 young healthy male Tibetans with [Hb] between 15 and 23 g/dl, we measured VO2MAX and O2 transport capacity at 4200m. VO2MAX was higher when [Hb] was lower (Pcardiac output and muscle O2 diffusional conductance, but neither ventilation nor the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (AaPO2) varied with [Hb]. In contrast, Andean high altitude natives remain polycythemic with larger lungs and higher lung diffusing capacity, a smaller exercising AaPO2, and lower ventilation. The challenges now are (1) to understand the different adaptive pathways used by Andeans and Tibetans, and (2) to determine in Tibetans whether, during evolution, reduced [Hb] appeared first, causing compensatory cardiac and muscle adaptations, or if enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport capacity appeared first, permitting secondary reduction in [Hb]. For (2), further research is necessary to determine the basis of enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport, and identify molecular targets of evolution in heart and muscle. Putative mutations can then be timed and compared to appearance of those affecting [Hb].

  2. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-06-18

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  3. Measurement of Aircraft Speed and Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Albert W. Hall, Thomas M. Moul, Virgil S. Ritchie, and Robert T. Taylor who, as members of a technical review covinittee, made many valuable...Terry J.; and Webb, Lainie D.: Calibrations and Comparisons of Pressuie-Type Airspeed-Altitude Systems of the X-15 Airplane From Subsonic to High

  4. Altitude, Orthocenter of a Triangle and Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the altitudes of a triangle (the cevians perpendicular to the opposite sides. Using the generalized Ceva’s Theorem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the orthocenter of a triangle [7]. Finally, we formalize in Mizar [1] some formulas [2] to calculate distance using triangulation.

  5. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH, “live high, train low” (LH-TL or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT. Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  6. Breathing and sleep at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, Philip N; Lucas, Samuel J E; Burgess, Keith R

    2013-09-15

    We provide an updated review on the current understanding of breathing and sleep at high altitude in humans. We conclude that: (1) progressive changes in pH initiated by the respiratory alkalosis do not underlie early (48 h), complex cellular and neurochemical re-organization occurs both in the peripheral chemoreceptors as well as within the central nervous system. The latter is likely influenced by central acid-base changes secondary to the extent of the initial respiratory responses to initial exposure to high altitude; (3) sleep at high altitude is disturbed by various factors, but principally by periodic breathing; (4) the extent of periodic breathing during sleep at altitude intensifies with duration and severity of exposure; (5) complex interactions between hypoxic-induced enhancement in peripheral and central chemoreflexes and cerebral blood flow--leading to higher loop gain and breathing instability--underpin this development of periodic breathing during sleep; (6) because periodic breathing may elevate rather than reduce mean SaO2 during sleep, this may represent an adaptive rather than maladaptive response; (7) although oral acetazolamide is an effective means to reduce periodic breathing by 50-80%, recent studies using positive airway pressure devices to increase dead space, hyponotics and theophylline are emerging but appear less practical and effective compared to acetazolamide. Finally, we suggest avenues for future research, and discuss implications for understanding sleep pathology.

  7. Applying NASA's explosive seam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    1991-01-01

    The status of an explosive seam welding process, which was developed and evaluated for a wide range of metal joining opportunities, is summarized. The process employs very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration to accelerate a long-length, narrow area of sheet stock into a high-velocity, angular impact against a second sheet. At impact, the oxide films of both surface are broken up and ejected by the closing angle to allow atoms to bond through the sharing of valence electrons. This cold-working process produces joints having parent metal properties, allowing a variety of joints to be fabricated that achieve full strength of the metals employed. Successful joining was accomplished in all aluminum alloys, a wide variety of iron and steel alloys, copper, brass, titanium, tantalum, zirconium, niobium, telerium, and columbium. Safety issues were addressed and are as manageable as many currently accepted joining processes.

  8. Explosives detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  9. RANCHERO explosive pulsed power experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Goforth, J H; Armijo, E V; Atchison, W L; Bartos, Yu; Clark, D A; Day, R D; Deninger, W J; Faehl, R J; Fowler, C M; García, F P; García, O F; Herrera, D H; Herrera, T J; Keinigs, R K; King, J C; Lindemuth, I R; López, E; Martínez, E C; Martínez, D; McGuire, J A; Morgan, D; Oona, H; Oro, D M; Parker, J V; Randolph, R B; Reinovsky, R E; Rodríguez, G; Stokes, J L; Sena, F C; Tabaka, L J; Tasker, D G; Taylor, A J; Torres, D T; Anderson, H D; Broste, W B; Johnson, J B; Kirbie, H C

    1999-01-01

    The authors are developing the RANCHERO high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. Their near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of ~50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. The authors have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper, they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long. (6 refs).

  10. Determination of Nanogram Microparticles from Explosives after Real Open-Air Explosions by Confocal Raman Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-07-05

    Explosives are increasingly being used for terrorist attacks to cause devastating explosions. The detection of their postblast residues after an explosion is a high challenge, which has been barely investigated, particularly using spectroscopic techniques. In this research, a novel methodology using confocal Raman microscopy has been developed for the analysis of postblast residues from 10 open-air explosions caused by 10 different explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, HMTD, dynamite, black powder, ANFO, chloratite, and ammonal) commonly used in improvised explosive devices. The methodology for the determination of postblast particles from explosives consisted of examining the samples surfaces with both the naked eye, first, and microscopically (10× and 50×), immediately afterward; and finally, analyzing the selected residues by confocal Raman spectroscopy in order to identify the postblast particles from explosives. Interestingly, confocal Raman microscopy has demonstrated to be highly suitable to rapidly, selectively, and noninvasively analyze postblast microscopic particles from explosives up to the nanogram range.

  11. Incorporating Love- and Rayleigh-Wave Magnitudes, Unequal Earthquake and Explosion Variance Assumptions, and Intrastation Complexity for Improved Event Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    formulation of the teleseismic explosion identification problem with multiple discriminants, Bull. Seism . Soc.Am.9T. 1730-1741. Bonner, J.L., D...Application at Regional and Teleseismic Distances, Part II: Application and Ms-mh Performance. Bull. Seism . Soc. Am. 96: 678-696 Bonner, J. L., R. B...Herrmann, D. Harkrider, and M. Pasyanos (2008). The surface wave magnitude for the 9 October 2006 North Korean nuclear explosion. Bull. Seism . Soc

  12. Vpliv natančnosti numeričnih metod na rezultate simuliranj mešalne faze parne eksplozije: The influence of the accuracy of numerical methods on steam explosion premixing-phase simulation results:

    OpenAIRE

    Leskovar, Matjaž; Marn, Jure; Mavko, Borut

    2000-01-01

    A steam explosion is a physical event which can occur when two fluids are mixing and the temperature of one fluid is higher than the boiling point of the other. Steam explosions are an important area of study in nuclear engineering because the conditions for a steam explosion are fulfild during some scenaria of severe nuclear reactor accidents, when the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. Research is mainly focused on the steam-explosion promixing-phase it determines the ex...

  13. EXPLOSION RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin KULICH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article we discuss the possibilities and analytical tools that can deal with the classification of space into zones with danger of explosion for devices with the presence of compressed flammable gases. Then we continue with specifications of possibilities for practical utilization linked to variables such as ventilation degree, hypothetical volume etc., including the examples. At the end we also give a brief overview of software for modelling gas leak, including examples of an outcome.

  14. Trace Explosives Detection by Photoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Some field tests in counter-terrorism efforts to detect explosive traces employ chemistries that yield colored products. We have examined a test kit of this kind, ETKPlus, based on widely used chemistries and employed extensively by the Israel Police. Our investigation focuses on the prospect of gaining sensitivity by replacing the normal colorimetric modality with photoluminescence detection, which, to our knowledge, has not been explored to date. We find two or more orders of magnitude sens...

  15. LX-10 Explosive Damage Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    Suite NAWCWD TM 8757 6 where P = System pressure Vs = System volume n = Covolume we = Weight of explosive burned F = Impetus, f...simultaneously ignited and regress uniformly, and the regression rate depends only on pressure and propellant temperature. 2. Heat losses from the bomb are...and fired in a manometric closed vessel. The pressure -time history was recorded, and an analysis of the data was performed to evaluate both the

  16. Force Enhancement Packages for Countering Nuclear Threats in the 2022-2027 Time Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    until relieved by a NG FET officer. In addition, part-time members of CNT HQ staff will augment the field HQ and the team at the GCC HQ. The HQ proposed...sensor systems. One such ISR sensor system is the Enhanced Medium Altitude Reconnaissance and Surveillance System (EMARSS), of which the Army plans to...Enhanced Medium Altitude Reconnaissance and Surveillance System EO/IR electro-optical/infrared EOD explosive ordnance disposal FBI Federal Bureau of

  17. SNe Ia: Can Chandrasekhar Mass Explosions Reproduce the Observed Zoo?

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, E

    2014-01-01

    The question of the nature of the progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is important both for our detailed understanding of stellar evolution and for their use as cosmological probes of the dark energy. Much of the basic features of SNe Ia can be understood directly from the nuclear physics, a fact which Gerry would have appreciated. We present an overview of the current observational and theoretical situation and show that it not incompatible with most SNe Ia being the results of thermonuclear explosions near the Chandrasekhar mass.

  18. The nitrogen camera and the detection of concealed explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trower, W. P.

    1993-06-01

    The nitrogen camera is an instrument based on a nuclear technique which is capable of imaging nitrogen concentrations with surface densities and amounts typical of currently concealed conventional explosives. Its signal is the totality of high-energy gamma rays detected in the multiscalar mode after the irradiation of a target pixel by a beam from a 50 MeV electron racetrack microtron. The sole interfering signal, from 13C, can be disentangled by two methods. Images of 180 2 × 2 cm 2 pixels, which are shown, eventually will be produced in ˜ 7.2 s. Progress towards an operational nitrogen camera is discussed.

  19. Difficulties in Probing Nuclear Physics: A Study of $^{44}$Ti and $^{56}$Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Hungerford, Aimee; Timmes, Francis X; Young, Patrick; Bennett, Michael; Diehl, Steven; Herwig, Falk; Hirschi, Raphael; Pignatari, Marco; Magkotsios, Georgios; Rockefeller, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    The nucleosynthetic yield from a supernova explosion depends upon a variety of effects: progenitor evolution, explosion process, details of the nuclear network, and nuclear rates. Especially in studies of integrated stellar yields, simplifications reduce these uncertainties. But nature is much more complex, and to actually study nuclear rates, we will have to understand the full, complex set of processes involved in nucleosynthesis. Here we discuss a few of these complexities and detail how the NuGrid collaboration will address them.

  20. Is High Altitude Pulmonary Edema Relevant to Hawai‘i?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    High altitude clinical syndromes have been described in the medical literature but may be under recognized in the state of Hawai‘i. As tourism increases, high altitude injuries may follow given the easy access to high altitude attractions. Visitors and clinicians should be aware of the dangers associated with the rapid ascent to high altitudes in the perceived comfort of a vehicle. This paper will review the basic pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of the most serious of the high altitude clinical syndromes, high altitude pulmonary edema. PMID:25478294

  1. Fuze for explosive magnetohydrodynamic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G.

    1976-12-23

    An apparatus is examined by which high explosive charges are propelled into and detonated at the center of an MHD-X generator. The high explosive charge units are engaged and propelled by a reciprocating ram device. Detonating in each instance is achieved by striking with a firing pin a detonator charge that is in register with a booster charge, the booster charge being in detonating communication with the high explosive charge. Various safety requirements are satisfied by a spring loaded slider operating in a channel transverse and adjacent to the booster charge. The slide retains the detonator charge out of register with the booster charge until a safety pin that holds the slider in place is pulled by a lanyard attached between the reciprocating ram and the safety pin. Removal of the safety pin permits the detonator charge to slide into alignment with the booster charge. Firing pin actuation is initiated by the slider at the instant the detonator charge and the booster charge come into register.

  2. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A L

    2010-03-12

    We investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from condensed explosive charges. These states are often modeled with a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function. However, the JWL function is not a Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics, and therefore cannot give a complete specification of such states. We use the Cheetah code of Fried to study the loci of states of the expanded detonation products gases from C-4 charges, and their combustion products air. In the Le Chatelier Plane of specific-internal-energy versus temperature, these loci are fit with a Quadratic Model function u(T), which has been shown to be valid for T < 3,000 K and p < 1k-bar. This model is used to derive a Fundamental Equation u(v,s) for C-4. Given u(v,s), one can use Maxwell's Relations to derive all other thermodynamic functions, such as temperature: T(v,s), pressure: p(v,s), enthalpy: h(v,s), Gibbs free energy: g(v,s) and Helmholz free energy: f(v,s); these loci are displayed in figures for C-4. Such complete equations of state are needed for numerical simulations of blast waves from explosive charges, and their reflections from surfaces.

  3. Estimation of high altitude Martian dust parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Bhalodi, Pinali

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils are known to occur near the Martian surface mostly during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer and they play vital role in deciding background dust opacity in the atmosphere. The second source of high altitude Martian dust could be due to the secondary ejecta caused by impacts on Martian Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Also, the surfaces of the Moons are charged positively due to ultraviolet rays from the Sun and negatively due to space plasma currents. Such surface charging may cause fine grains to be levitated, which can easily escape the Moons. It is expected that the escaping dust form dust rings within the orbits of the Moons and therefore also around the Mars. One more possible source of high altitude Martian dust is interplanetary in nature. Due to continuous supply of the dust from various sources and also due to a kind of feedback mechanism existing between the ring or tori and the sources, the dust rings or tori can sustain over a period of time. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, it is mystery how dust has reached to such high altitudes. Estimation of dust parameters before-hand is necessary to design an instrument for the detection of high altitude Martian dust from a future orbiter. In this work, we have studied the dust supply rate responsible primarily for the formation of dust ring or tori, the life time of dust particles around the Mars, the dust number density as well as the effect of solar radiation pressure and Martian oblateness on dust dynamics. The results presented in this paper may be useful to space scientists for understanding the scenario and designing an orbiter based instrument to measure the dust surrounding the Mars for solving the mystery. The further work is underway.

  4. Can aneroid sphygmomanometers be used at altitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kametas, N A; McAuliffe, F; Krampl, E; Nicolaides, K H; Shennan, A H

    2006-07-01

    Mercury-independent devices are increasingly being used in clinical practice as mercury will soon be removed from clinical use as a result of environmental, health and safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a portable aneroid device in an adult population at high altitude by following the part of the protocol of the British Hypertension Society regarding comparison between device and observer. We examined 10 subjects in Cerro de Pasco, Peru, which is situated 4370 m above sea level. The aneroid device was initially calibrated at both high altitude and at sea level to ensure optimal function. Validation of the device was undertaken at high altitude by connecting it in parallel to two mercury sphygmomanometers. Eleven sequential same-arm measurements were taken from each subject by two trained observers, alternating between mercury sphygmomanometry and the aneroid device. Simultaneous mercury readings were also recorded for additional analysis. During calibration, all 60 comparisons between the aneroid and mercury sphygmomanometers were within 3 mm Hg both at sea level and at high altitude. At validation, the device achieved an A grade for both systolic and diastolic pressures and also fulfilled the requirements of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. The mean and standard deviation for systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively, were -1.32 (4.3) mm Hg and 3.7 (4.7) mm Hg in sequential analysis and -0.7 (2.6) mm Hg and -3.3 (2.7) mm Hg in simultaneous analysis. We conclude that the Riester-Exacta portable aneroid device can be recommended for use in an adult population at high altitude.

  5. High altitude pulmonary edema among "Amarnath Yatris"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz A Koul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual pilgrimage (Yatra to the cave shrine of Shri Amarnath Ji′ is a holy ritual among the Hindu devotees of Lord Shiva. Located in the Himalayan Mountain Range (altitude 13,000 ft in south Kashmir, the shrine is visited by thousands of devotees and altitude sickness is reportedly common. Materials and Methods: More than 600,000 pilgrims visited the cave shrine in 2011 and 2012 with 239 recorded deaths. Thirty one patients with suspected altitude sickness were referred from medical centers en-route the cave to Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary-care center in capital Srinagar (5,000 ft. The clinical features and the response to treatment were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients (all lowlanders, 19 male; age 18-60 years, median 41 had presented with acute onset breathlessness of 1-4 days (median 1.9 d starting within 12-24 h of a rapid ascent; accompanied by cough (68%, headache (8%, dizziness and nausea (65%. Sixteen patients had associated encephalopathy. Clinical features on admission included tachypnea ( n = 31, tachycardia ( n = 23, bilateral chest rales ( n = 29, cyanosis ( n = 22 and grade 2-4 encephalopathy. Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 24 cases and bilateral infiltrates on radiologic imaging in 29. Ten patients had evidence of high-altitude cerebral edema. All patients were managed with oxygen, steroids, nifedipine, sildenafil and other supportive measures including invasive ventilation ( n = 3. Three patients died due to multiorgan dysfunction. Conclusions: Altitude sickness is common among Amaranath Yatris from the plains and appropriate educational strategies should be invoked for prevention and prompt treatment.

  6. Generation of High-Frequency P and S Wave Energy by Rock Fracture During a Buried Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-20

    AFRL-RV -PS- TR-2015-0145 AFRL-RV -PS- TR-2015-0145 GENERATION OF HIGH-FREQUENCY P AND S WAVE ENERGY BY ROCK FRACTURE DURING A BURIED EXPLOSION ...SUBTITLE Generation of High-Frequency P and S Wave Energy by Rock Fracture During a Buried Explosion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-12-C-0210 5b...underground nuclear explosions . This model predicts the generation of strong S wave radiation in the non-linear source region whenever spherical

  7. Totally confined explosive welding. [apparatus to reduce noise level and protect personnel during explosive bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and associated apparatus for confining the undesirable by-products and limiting noise of explosive welding are discussed. The apparatus consists fo a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and within which the explosion occurs. The shape of the enclosure, the placement of the explosive, and the manner in which the enclosure is placed upon the material to be welded determine the force of the explosion transmitted to the proposed bond area. The explosion is totally confined within the enclosure thus reducing the noise level and preventing debris from being strewn about to contaminate the weld area or create personnel hazards.

  8. Nuclear Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident provides valuable lessons for China national nuclear Corp.as it continues to expand its operations AS Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis sparks a global debate over nuclear safety,China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC),the country’s largest nuclear plant operator, comes under the spotlight.

  9. Simulation of the Underwater Nuclear Explosion and Its Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    VARIABLE TYPE c first optimization strategy used by ADS ISTRAT integer c 0 Go directly to the optimizer c 6 Sequential Linear Programming c 7 Method of...Centers (Design must be feasible) c 8 Sequential Quadratic Programming c 9 Sequential Convex Programming c second optimizer to be used by ADS IOPT

  10. Biological Effects of Nuclear Explosions (BENE) Domain Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    smallest burns. Burns that go through the skin and involve the underlying fascia, muscle , or bones are considered fourth degree burns. A severe burn...term scarring and risk of contracture and dysfunction of the limb. The eschar (thick, scab-like crust that forms over many burns) can also restrict...gamma rays are emitted from a contaminant. Skin, connective tissue, blood vessels, bone and muscle could all sustain significant radiation damage. In

  11. Modeling Regional Seismic Waves from Underground Nuclear Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-15

    applications to modeling NTS seismograms, Pure AppL Geophys. (in press). Thatcher, W. and R. M. Hamilton (1973). Aftershocks and source...seismograms. J. Pure and Appl . Geophys., 128, 101-193. Stevens, J. L. and S. M. Day (1985). The physical basis of m6 , Ms and variable frequency magnitude...the far-field rise time for P and S are given by 7V- Ral and 72m-RD/P rspectively. The time historia of cpluio s are nsully =prumed in tarus of

  12. SEISMIC DATA FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING IN THE ARABIAN PENINSULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2004-07-08

    We report results from the third and final year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We are working with King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology to collect data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consists of 38 digital three-component stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We have an ongoing collaboration with the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, which runs the eight station Kuwait National Seismic Network. We installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). In this paper we present a summary of data collected under these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of souce parameters and earth structure.

  13. Digital SLIFER Recorder, Model A. [Underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breding, D.R.; Fogel, D.; Loukota, J.J.; Worthen, G.S.; Watterberg, J.P.

    1977-11-01

    The Digital SLIFER Recorder (DSR) is an instrument that records a time-varying frequency signal in the range from 700 kHz to 1500 kHz with an amplitude greater than 200 mV. This signal is referenced to an input fiducial marker, and recording is initiated by an increase in the frequency of the signal. The primary purpose of this instrument is to record data from the SLIFER system. The DSR records 512 samples after the record trigger signal, with a sample interval of 50 ..mu..s (for a total recording time of 25.55 ms). The measurement essentially uses a 20-cycle period-averaging counter technique.

  14. Caging the Dragon: The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    fines layers, in moderation, to get some impedance to gas flow. The last event I worked on before Baneberry was Manzanas , and that was the first...trying to design a stemming plan when I requested coal-tar epoxy plugs on Manzanas . And yet, it was pretty clear that the stemming plan for Manzanas ...more than ten, at least. Kunkle: We first put them in just before Baneberry, on Manzanas . And before the Baneberry event we had a design for a shot

  15. Role of the altitude level on cerebral autoregulation in residents at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Gerard F A; Krins, Anne; Basnyat, Buddha; Odoom, Joseph A; Ince, Can

    2007-08-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is impaired in Himalayan high-altitude residents who live above 4,200 m. This study was undertaken to determine the altitude at which this impairment of autoregulation occurs. A second aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that administration of oxygen can reverse this impairment in autoregulation at high altitudes. In four groups of 10 Himalayan high-altitude dwellers residing at 1,330, 2,650, 3,440, and 4,243 m, arterial oxygen saturation (Sa(O(2))), blood pressure, and middle cerebral artery blood velocity were monitored during infusion of phenylephrine to determine static cerebral autoregulation. On the basis of these measurements, the cerebral autoregulation index (AI) was calculated. Normally, AI is between zero and 1. AI of 0 implies absent autoregulation, and AI of 1 implies intact autoregulation. At 1,330 m (Sa(O(2)) = 97%), 2,650 m (Sa(O(2)) = 96%), and 3,440 m (Sa(O(2)) = 93%), AI values (mean +/- SD) were, respectively, 0.63 +/- 0.27, 0.57 +/- 0.22, and 0.57 +/- 0.15. At 4,243 m (Sa(O(2)) = 88%), AI was 0.22 +/- 0.18 (P < 0.0005, compared with AI at the lower altitudes) and increased to 0.49 +/- 0.23 (P = 0.008, paired t-test) when oxygen was administered (Sa(O(2)) = 98%). In conclusion, high-altitude residents living at 4,243 m have almost total loss of cerebral autoregulation, which improved during oxygen administration. Those people living at 3,440 m and lower have still functioning cerebral autoregulation. This study showed that the altitude region between 3,440 and 4,243 m, marked by Sa(O(2)) in the high-altitude dwellers of 93% and 88%, is a transitional zone, above which cerebral autoregulation becomes critically impaired.

  16. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  17. Role of Nucleon Strangeness in Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Timothy; Alberg, Mary; Miller, Gerald

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing quest to simulate explosions of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) in hydrodynamical calculations has placed an enormous premium upon the nuclear and hadronic processes integral to the system's evolution (i.e., the microphysics). In this context, modifications to the neutrino-nucleon elastic cross section have been identified as potentially key to ensuring that stalled bounce shocks are sufficiently re-energized to produce the desired explosion. An important source of such corrections can be found in a negative value for the nucleon's strange helicity content Δs , which leads to the enhancement and suppression of the ν - p and ν - n total cross sections, respectively. In this talk, however, I summarize the results of a recent analysis which led to a comparatively small magnitude for the strange helicity (Δs >= - 0 . 1) - a fact which renders nucleon strangeness an unlikely candidate for the decisive missing ingredient necessary in simulations for CCSN explosions. Work supported by DOE Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences program under Award No. DE-FG02-97ER-41014, and NSF Grant No. 1205686.

  18. Low-Altitude Airbursts and the Impact Threat - Final LDRD Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Crawford, David A.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this nine-week project was to advance the understanding of low-altitude airbursts by developing the means to model them at extremely high resolution in order to span the scales of entry physics as well as blast wave and plume formation. Small asteroid impacts on Earth are a recognized hazard, but the full nature of the threat is still not well understood. We used shock physics codes to discover emergent phenomena associated with low-altitude airbursts such as the Siberian Tunguska event of 1908 and the Egyptian glass-forming event 29 million years ago. The planetary defense community is beginning to recognize the significant threat from such airbursts. Low-altitude airbursts are the only class of impacts that have a significant probability of occurring within a planning time horizon. There is roughly a 10% chance of a megaton-scale low-altitude airburst event in the next decade.The first part of this LDRD final project report is a preprint of our proceedings paper associated with the plenary presentation at the Hypervelocity Impact Society 2007 Symposium in Williamsburg, Virginia (International Journal of Impact Engineering, in press). The paper summarizes discoveries associated with a series of 2D axially-symmetric CTH simulations. The second part of the report contains slides from an invited presentation at the American Geophysical Union Fall 2007 meeting in San Francisco. The presentation summarizes the results of a series of 3D oblique impact simulations of the 1908 Tunguska explosion. Because of the brevity of this late-start project, the 3D results have not yet been written up for a peer-reviewed publication. We anticipate the opportunity to eventually run simulations that include the actual topography at Tunguska, at which time these results will be published.3

  19. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Winterberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving mag...

  20. Nuclear forensics using gamma-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    Much of George Dracoulis's research career was devoted to utilizing gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the past several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low- resolution gamma ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  1. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, E. B.

    2016-09-01

    Much of George Dracoulis's research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  2. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of George Dracoulis’s research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  3. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-07-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium.

  4. Numerical computations of explosions in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chushkin, P. I.; Shurshalov, L. V.

    The development and the present-day state of the problem on numerical computations of explosions in gases are reviewed. In the first part, different one-dimensional cases are discussed: point explosion with counterpressure, blast-like expansion of volumes filled with a compressed hot gas, blast of charges of condensed explosive, explosion processes in real high-temperature air, in combustible detonating media and under action of other physical-chemical factors. In the second part devoted to two-dimensional flows, we consider explosion in the non-homogeneous atmosphere, blast of asymmetric charges, detonation in gas, explosion modelling of some cosmic phenomena (solar flares, the Tunguska meteorite). The survey includes about 110 works beginning with the first publications on the subject.

  5. APPLICATION OF EXPLOSIVE ENERGY IN METALWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vječislav Bohanek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available When an explosive charge is detonate, considerable amount of energy in a very short period of time is released. Energy, released in this way, is used for performing various kinds of useful work. Most explosives are consumed to obtain mineral raw materials in the mining industry and for various excavations in the construction industry. One of the specific areas of application explosive energy is an area of explosive metalworking. Using energy of explosive metal is welded, formed, cuts, harden etc. This paper presents an overview of the existing explosive metalworking methods. Methods are explained and comparative advantages in comparison to conventional metalworking methods are given (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Seismo-acoustic analysis of the Buncefield oil depot explosion in the UK, 2005 December 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottemöller, L.; Evers, L. G.

    2008-03-01

    A massive vapour cloud explosion occurred at the Buncefield fuel depot near Hemel Hempstead, UK, in the morning of 2005 December 11. The explosion was the result of an overflow from one of the storage tanks with the release of over 300 tons of petrol and generating a vapour cloud that spread over an area of 80000 m2, before being ignited. Considerable damage was caused in the vicinity of the explosion and a total of 43 people were injured. The explosion was detected by seismograph stations in the UK and the Netherlands and by infrasound arrays in the Netherlands. We analysed the seismic recordings to determine the origin time of 06:01:31.45 +/-0.5 s (UTC) from P-wave arrival times. Uncertainties in determination of origin time from acoustic arrival times alone were less than 10 s. Amplitudes of P-, Lg and primary acoustic waves were measured to derive decay relationships as function of distance. From the seismic amplitudes we estimated a yield of 2-10 tons equivalent to a buried explosion. Most seismic stations recorded primary and secondary acoustic waves. We used atmospheric ray tracing to identify the various travel paths, which depend on temperature and wind speed as function of altitude, leading to directional variation. Refracted waves were observed from the troposphere, stratosphere and thermosphere with a good match between observed and calculated traveltimes. The various wave types were also identified through array processing, which provides backazimuth and slowness, of recordings from an infrasound array in the Netherlands. The amplitude of stratospheric refracted acoustic waves recorded by the array microbarometers was used to estimate a yield of 21.6 (+/-5) tons TNT equivalent. We have demonstrated through joint seismo-acoustic analysis of the explosion that both the seismic velocity model and the atmospheric model are sufficient to explain the observed traveltimes.

  7. Pulmonary embolism in young natives of high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic events are relatively common in high altitude areas and known to occur in young soldiers working at high altitude without usual risk factors associated with thrombosis at sea-level. However, till now, cases with thrombotic events were reported only in lowlanders staying at high altitude. These two cases of pulmonary embolism demonstrate that thrombotic events can occur in highlanders after a prolonged stay at the extreme altitude.

  8. Effectiveness of Preacclimatization Strategies for High-Altitude Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    hypobaric conditions. IAE 15, 15 d of intermittent altitude exposure; IAE 7, 7 d of intermittent altitude expo- sure; NH (Sleep), Ambient normobaric hypoxia ...than those using norm(!)baric hypoxia (breathing, ង.9% ox-ygen). Key Words: hypobaric hypoxia , normobaric hypoxia , staging, acute mountain sickness...large decrements in endurance exercise performance occur when unacclimatized individuals rapidly ascend to high altitudes. Six altitude and hypoxia

  9. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  10. The Nuclear Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congedo, Tom; Lahoda, Edward; Matzie, Regis; Task, Keith

    The objective of the nuclear industry is to pro-duce energy in the forms of heat from either fission reactions or radioactive decay and radiation from radioactive decay or by accelerator methods. For fission heat applications, the nuclear fuel has a very high specific energy content that currently has two principal uses, for military explosives and for electricity generation. As higher temperature reactors become more widely available, the high temperature heat (>900°C) will also be useful for making chemicals such as hydrogen. For radiation applications, the emissions from radioactive decay of unstable nuclides are employed in research, medicine, and industry for diagnostic purposes and for chemical reaction initiation. Radioactive decay heat is also employed to generate electricity from thermoelectric generators for low-power applications in space or remote terrestrial locations.

  11. Tracing the differences between Vulcanian and Strombolian explosions using infrasonic and thermal radiation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, E.; Ripepe, M.; Harris, A. J. L.; Delle Donne, D.

    2009-03-01

    Eruptive plume dynamics is a direct expression of explosive style, where duration and altitude of eruptive clouds and dispersion of erupted products is proportional to the degree of fragmentation. We present an analysis of infrasonic and thermal records for explosions at Villarrica (Chile), Stromboli (Italy), Santiaguito and Fuego (Guatemala) volcanoes. Across these four systems magma composition spans from basaltic to dacitic and explosive activity is typically described as ranging from Strombolian to Vulcanian. We use this analysis to provide a quantitative, geophysically-based description of, and discrimination between, the different explosive styles that characterize the four volcanoes. While infrasound is directly related to the emission of over-pressurized gas, and thus solely reflects the plume emission, both plume emission and ascent are detected thermally. Thus, the two data sets together provide a complete description of the plume dynamics. In particular, while infrasound solely reflects the gas-thrust phase driving plume emission, thermal radiation energy is also affected by buoyancy during plume ascent. Thermal radiation energy estimated for explosions at Stromboli and Villarrica (10 4-10 7 J) is lower than that for events at Santiaguito and Fuego (10 8-10 9 J), but infrasonic energies overlap. This suggests a greater contribution of buoyancy for eruptive clouds at Santiaguito and Fuego when compared with Stromboli and Villarrica. We further investigated the plume dynamics by comparing infrasonic energy, which reflects gas-thrust ( EGT), with the difference between thermal radiation and infrasonic energies, which mostly reflects buoyancy ( EB). Our data distribution reveals two separate clusters. Explosions at Stromboli and Villarrica share low values of buoyancy, pointing to a gas-thrust dominated emission, efficient coupling of the infrasonic source to the atmosphere, and a Strombolian-type source process to generate a plume rich in coarse fragments

  12. [Effect of altitude on iron absorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, F; Zavaleta, N; Hertrampf, E; Berlanga, R; Camborda, L; Olivares, M

    1998-03-01

    Iron bioavailability was evaluated in people living in high altitudes. Absorption was estimated from a reference dose of ferrous ascorbate and from a standard diet of wheat flour, using extrinsic tag radioisotope technique of 55Fe and 59Fe. Twenty four volunteers, healthy women, with ages ranging from 28 to 45 years, participated. Of those, eleven lived at 3450 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) in Huancayo city-Peru (study group), and 13 lived in Santiago de Chile at 630 m.a.s.l. (control group). Iron absorption from reference dose of ferrous ascorbate was 32.0% and 31.1% in the study and control groups respectively. The geometric mean of iron absorption from the standard diet, corrected to 40% of absorption of reference dose, was 9.0% and 6.9% in the study and control groups respectively (NS). The results suggest that altitude does not produce a high iron absorption in highlander residents.

  13. HAWC - The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Andreas; HAWC Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The high altitude water Cherenkov observatory (HAWC) is an instrument for the detection of high energy cosmic gamma-rays. Its predecessor Milagro has successfully proven that the water Cherenkov technology for gamma-ray astronomy is a useful technique. HAWC is currently under construction at Sierra Negra in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m and will include several improvements compared to Milagro. Two complementary DAQ systems of the HAWC detector allow for the observation of a large fraction of the sky with a very high duty cycle and independent of environmental conditions. HAWC will observe the gamma-ray sky from about 100 GeV up to 100 TeV. Also the cosmic ray flux anisotropy on different angular length scales is object of HAWC science. Because of HAWC's large effective area and field of view, we describe its prospects to observe gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as an example for transient sources.

  14. Dust observations at orbital altitudes surrounding Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L; Weber, T D; Malaspina, D; Crary, F; Ergun, R E; Delory, G T; Fowler, C M; Morooka, M W; McEnulty, T; Eriksson, A I; Andrews, D J; Horanyi, M; Collette, A; Yelle, R; Jakosky, B M

    2015-11-01

    Dust is common close to the martian surface, but no known process can lift appreciable concentrations of particles to altitudes above ~150 kilometers. We present observations of dust at altitudes ranging from 150 to above 1000 kilometers by the Langmuir Probe and Wave instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Based on its distribution, we interpret this dust to be interplanetary in origin. A comparison with laboratory measurements indicates that the dust grain size ranges from 1 to 12 micrometers, assuming a typical grain velocity of ~18 kilometers per second. These direct observations of dust entering the martian atmosphere improve our understanding of the sources, sinks, and transport of interplanetary dust throughout the inner solar system and the associated impacts on Mars's atmosphere.

  15. Nuclear Astrophysics with rare isotopes at FRIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2011-05-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) currently under construction at Michigan State University will be one of the worlds’ most powerful accelerators to produce rare isotopes. These isotopes live only fractions of seconds, but their properties are imprinted onto the composition of the visible universe and the nature of stellar explosions. FRIB will produce for the first time many of the rare isotopes that are part of the rapid neutron capture process, responsible for the origin of heavy elements; it will measure reaction rates that govern stellar explosions such as supernovae, novae, and X-ray bursts; and it will produce the same exotic nuclei that form the crust of neutron stars. I will discuss how data from FRIB, together with new observational data, promise to address many open questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astronomy, including the chemical evolution of our Galaxy, the nuclear energy sources of stellar explosions, and the nature of neutron stars.

  16. Nuclear safeguards; Salvaguardias nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurron, O.

    2015-07-01

    Safeguards control at the Juzbado Plant is implemented through the joint IAEA/EURATOM partnership approach in force within the European Union for all nuclear facilities. this verification agreement is designed to minimize burden on the operators whilst ensuring that both inspectorate achieve the objectives related to their respective safeguards regimes. This paper outlines the safeguards approaches followed by the inspectorate and the particularities of the Juzbado Plants nuclear material accountancy and control system. (Authors)

  17. The effect of altitude hypoxia on glucose homeostasis in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J J; Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1997-01-01

    1. Exposure to altitude hypoxia elicits changes in glucose homeostasis with increases in glucose and insulin concentrations within the first few days at altitude. Both increased and unchanged hepatic glucose production (HGP) have previously been reported in response to acute altitude hypoxia...

  18. 14 CFR 135.93 - Autopilot: Minimum altitudes for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Autopilot: Minimum altitudes for use. 135... Operations § 135.93 Autopilot: Minimum altitudes for use. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section, no person may use an autopilot at an altitude above the terrain which is...

  19. Endotracheal Tube Cuff Management at Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-05

    model study of endotracheal intubation including mechanical ventilation and four methods of cuff pressure management during ascent and descent...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2014-0007 Endotracheal Tube Cuff Management at Altitude SSgt Tyler J. Britton, RRT1; Richard D. Branson, RRT2...REPORT TYPE Special Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) June 2012 – December 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Endotracheal Tube Cuff Management

  20. Performance of portable ventilators at altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-20

    including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations...D.R.J.). This study was presented as a poster at the Military Health System Research Symposium, August 12Y15, 2013, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Address...BirdVSO2 and theLTV- 1000 at ranges of altitudes from sea level to 9,800 ft using lung models of adult respiratory distress syndrome and severe asthma