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Sample records for alters thyroid status

  1. Cardiac myosin heavy chain transition under altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arnoštová, Petra; Jedelský, P.; Soukup, Tomáš; Žurmanová, Jitka

    Geneva: Swiss Society for Neuroscience, 2008. s. 125.3-125.3. ISBN 92-990014-3-X. [FENS. Forum of European Neuroscience /6./. 12.07.2008-16.07.2008, Geneva] Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spo2 * cardiac myosin heavy chain * transition * thyroid status Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  2. Changes of Calsequesterin expression in rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Sulimenko, Vadym; Novák, Petr; Marková, Vladimíra; Zachařová, Gisela

    Les 2 Alpes: WCBR, 2011. ---. [31st European Winter Conference on Brain Research. 12.03.2011-19.03.2011, Les 2 Alpes] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Calsequesterin * thyroid changes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  3. Body, heart, thyroid gland and skeletal muscle weight changes in rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.; Jirmanová, Isa

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2001), s. 619-626. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thyroid state * skeletal muscles * body and organ weight Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2001

  4. Expression of Calcium Binding Proteins in Skeletal and Heart Muscles of Rats with Altered Thyroid Status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Kyoto, Japan: Physiological society, 2009. s. 5-5. [International congress of Physiological Sciences /36./. 27.07.2009-01.08.2009, Kyoto] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : calsequestrin * muscle * thyroid status Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Expression of calsequestrin in skeletal and heart muscles of rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Škajeva, Maria; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Martin: Univerzita Komenského, 2008. s. 86-86. [Fyziologické dny /84./. 06.02.2008-08.02.2008, Martin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spr2 * calsequestrin * thyroid status * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  6. Expression of calsequestrin in skeletal and heart muscles of rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Škajeva, Maria; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Fyziologický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.. Roč. 57, č. 2 (2008), 24P-24P ISSN 0862-8408. [Fyziologické dny /84./. 06.02.2008-08.02.2008, Martin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : cpr1 * calsequestrin * thyroid status * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  7. Alterations in thyroid hormone status in Greenland sledge dogs exposed to whale blubber contaminated with organohalogen compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Maja; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune;

    2011-01-01

    As a model of high trophic level carnivores, sledge dogs were fed from 2 to 18 months of age with minke whale blubber containing organohalogen compounds (OHC) corresponding to 128µg PCB/day. Controls were fed uncontaminated porcine fat. Thyroid hormone levels were assessed in 7 exposed and 7...... may be required for current OHC contamination levels to result in detectable adverse effects on thyroid hormone dynamics....

  8. Expression of MyHC and Ca-binding mRNAs and proteins in rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vadászová, Adriana; Zachařová, Gisela; Escudero, Astrid; Maláčová, Daniela; Žurmanová, Jitka; Križanová, O.; Soukup, Tomáš

    Praha : UK Praha, 2006. s. 168-168. [Morphology 2006, 43. Mezinár. anatomický kongres a Histochemické symposium. 03.09.2006-06.09.2006, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD305/03/H148; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat * skeletal muscle * myosin * Ca binding proteins * influence of thyroid hormones Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. Expresion of calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in skeletal muscles of rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Escudero, Astrid; Říčný, Jan; Soukup, Tomáš

    Fyziologický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.. Roč. 56, č. 3 (2007), 8P-8P ISSN 0862-8408. [Fyziologické dny /83./. 06.02.2007-08.02.2007, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: MYORES(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpr1 * rat muscle phenotype * calcium binding protein * thyroid hormone effects Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    IntroductionThe work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may be in part responsible for the developmental neurotoxicity of these compounds in humans (Rogan et al. 1986). This is a logical hypothesis, given the well-described effects of PCBs on plasma thyroid hormone levels in adult animals, and ...

  11. Reevaluation of the Thyroid Scan for the Assessment of Pathophysiologic Status of Thyroid Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, In Sook; Nah, Jung Il; Kim, Deog Yoon [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    To diagnosis and understand the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease, not only hormonal measurements but also thyroid scan is believed to have a unique role. Especially in the cases of the change of the thyroid function by thyroiditis, it is emphasized that thyroid scan can be helpful in differential diagnosis, Discordant results of thyroid hormone levels and thyroid scan are found in transient hyperthyroidism, or in transient hypothyroidism. We analysed and reevaluated thyroid scan to look at the importance of thyroid scan. The results are summarised as follows: 1) 80%. of hyperthyroid patients had hyperthyroidism increased RAIU with even density, they are compatible with Graves' disease. 2) 2.1% of hyperthyroid patients had normal or decreased RAIU, which are classified as high iodine turn over genuine hyperthyroidism. 3) 8.5% of hyperthyroid patients had markedly decreased RAIU at both 2 hour and 24 hour, whose pathologic processes are suggested to be heterogenous namely subacute thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and pamless thyroiditis. 4) 45% of hypothyroid patients had increased 24 hr RAIU, 30% of hypothyroid patients were normal, 25%, decreased. In conclusion, thyroid scan should be reevaluated its useful role to asses the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease. Especially in cases of transient thyrotoxicosis, thyroid scan is essential to diagnose and follow up the disease process.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    IntroductionThe work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may be in part responsibl

  13. Thyroid axis alterations in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertig, Anna M; Niechciał, Elżbieta; Skowrońska, Bogda

    2012-01-01

    In recent years researchers have become increasingly interested in the particular relation between the function of the thyroid gland and the body mass in the population of obese children. Numerous studies have been conducted and the literature on the related issues has been abounding. Several thereof have strived at pinpointing a significant link between the function of the thyroid axis and the body mass. Yet, it still remains to be clarified whether these subtle changes in the level of thyroid hormones and TSH observed in childhood obesity are responsible for the increased body mass or rather they represent a secondary phenomenon. The mechanism most often put forward by the researchers that links obesity to thyroid function is the increased level of leptin, which affects neurones in the hypothalamus and the thyroid axis causing TRH and TSH secretion. The body mass is positively correlated with serum leptin and elevated level of leptin is connected with an increase in TSH level. However, there is still controversy whether these inconspicuous differences observed in thyroid axis merit the treatment with thyroxine since these changes seem to constitute a consequence rather than a cause of obesity. Therefore, as most authors postulate, primary importance should be placed on lifestyle changes and body weight reduction leaving substitutive treatment as a supplementary option. The purpose of this review is to present the most current issues on child obesity and the related malfunction of the thyroid axis through an overview of international publications from the years 1996-2011. PMID:23146791

  14. Influence of chronically altered thyroid status on the activity of liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in female inbred Lewis rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rauchová, Hana; Zachařová, Gisela; Soukup, Tomáš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 5 (2004), s. 286-290. ISSN 0018-5043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 22/2001; NATO(XX) 979876 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : hypothyroidism * hyperthyroidism * thyroid hormones Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.946, year: 2004

  15. Expression of the skeletal calsequestrin isoform in normal and regenerated skeletal muscles and in the hearts of rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Sulimenko, Vadym; Marková, Vladimíra; Kopecká, Kateřina; Zachařová, Gisela; Paleček, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2012), s. 575-586. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1228; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) Myores 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : skeletal calsequestrin * calcium and muscle contraction * thyroid hormones * western blot and qRT-PCR analysis * muscle transplantation * fast and slow muscle fibers Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  16. Alterations within the rat thyroid gland during vitamin A deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid glands from female rats kept vitamin A deficient for one, two, and three months were examined by electron microscopy. After one month on the diet, no consistent alterations were noted. After two months, the colloid in some follicles displayed a peripheral zone of decreased density. In addition, ultimobranchial follicles within the gland had become keratinized. After two to three months on the diet, cells were seen entering the colloid. Many of these cells were identified as follicular cells. Quantitative and autoradiographic studies indicated that thyroids of vitamin A deficient rats took up less radioiodide than thyroids of control rats. It's possible that the presence of follicular cells in the colloid reflects an accelerated turnover of these cells and could indicate an early pathological sign

  17. Genetic Alterations in Hungarian Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiás, Bálint; Halászlaki, Csaba; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Árvai, Kristóf; Horváth, Péter; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Horváth, Evelin; Horányi, János; Járay, Balázs; Székely, Eszter; Székely, Tamás; Győri, Gabriella; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Dank, Magdolna; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Vasas, Béla; Iványi, Béla; Lakatos, Péter

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancers is increasing worldwide. Some somatic oncogene mutations (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS) as well as gene translocations (RET/PTC, PAX8/PPAR-gamma) have been associated with the development of thyroid cancer. In our study, we analyzed these genetic alterations in 394 thyroid tissue samples (197 papillary carcinomas and 197 healthy). The somatic mutations and translocations were detected by Light Cycler melting method and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques, respectively. In tumorous samples, 86 BRAF (44.2%), 5 NRAS (3.1%), 2 HRAS (1.0%) and 1 KRAS (0.5%) mutations were found, as well as 9 RET/PTC1 (4.6%) and 1 RET/PTC3 (0.5%) translocations. No genetic alteration was seen in the non tumorous control thyroid tissues. No correlation was detected between the genetic variants and the pathological subtypes of papillary cancer as well as the severity of the disease. Our results are only partly concordant with the data found in the literature. PMID:26259532

  18. Hyperproliferative Hepatocellular Alterations after Intraportal Transplantation of Thyroid Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Frank; Klotz, Luisa; Hacker, Hans Jörg; Li, Yanhua; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Brix, Klaudia; Herzog, Volker; Bannasch, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The thyroid hormone 3,5,3′-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) is a strong direct hepatocyte mitogen in vivo. The effects of T3 resemble those of peroxisome proliferators, which are known to induce hepatocellular tumors in rats. With the aim of studying long-term local effects of thyroid hormones on liver parenchyma, small pieces of thyroid tissue were transplanted via the portal veins into the livers of thyroidectomized male Lewis rats. At 1 week, 3 weeks, 3 months, and 18 months after transplantation, the transplants were found to proliferate, to synthesize thyroglobulin, and to release thyroxine and T3. At 3 and 18 months after transplantation, the hepatocytes of the liver acini downstream of the transplanted follicles showed an increase in cytoplasmic basophilia, a loss of glycogen, an enlargement and hyperchromasia of their nuclei, and a strong increase in cell turnover compared with unaltered liver acini. The altered hepatocytes exhibited an increase in the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, malic enzyme, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, cytochrome-c-oxidase, and acid phosphatase; the activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase were strongly decreased. The hepatocytic alterations downstream of the transplanted follicles could be explained by effects of T3. On the other hand, they resembled alterations characteristic of amphophilic preneoplastic liver foci observed in different models of hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:10623658

  19. Current surgical status of thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Karanikas, Michael; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Mitrakas, Alexandros; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Zervas, Vasilis; Kouroumichakis, Ioannis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Mikroulis, Dimitrios; Tsimogiannis, Konstantinos E

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%-15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of each one. PMID:22247619

  20. Thyroid Nodule Imaging, Status and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Durre Sabih; Kashif Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common, occurring in almost two-thirds of some populations; among these only about 7% are malignant. The most important question with any new discovered thyroid nodule is, “is this malignant?” The main arbiter of malignancy or benignity remains fine needle aspiration and the mainstay of treatment surgery. But given the resources involved, doing an FNAC or surgery in every discovered nodule would be prohibitive to impossible. The clinician must decide which nodule to invest...

  1. Levels of myosin heavy chain mRNA transcripts and content of protein isoforms in the slow soleus muscle of 7 month-old rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vadászová, Adriana; Hudecová, S.; Križanová, O.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2006), s. 221-225. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD305/03/H148; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/6078; SAV(SK) APVT-51-027404; NATO(XE) 979876; MYORES(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : myosin heavy chain * thyroid hormones status * mRNA transcripts Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  2. Thyroid Nodule Imaging. Status and Limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durre Sabih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules are common, occurring in almost two-thirds of some populations; among these only about 7% are malignant. The most important question with any new discovered thyroid nodule is, “is this malignant?” The main arbiter of malignancy or benignity remains fine needle aspiration and the mainstay of treatment surgery. But given the resources involved, doing an FNAC or surgery in every discovered nodule would be prohibitive to impossible. The clinician must decide which nodule to investigate and which to watch in the hope that this will never turn out to be malignant. FNACs are used basically to decide which nodule to operate upon (or more importantly which to not operate upon and clinical and imaging features are used to decide which nodule to investigate by FNAC and which to leave alone. This paper describes the various imaging options for looking at thyroid nodules and briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages with each.

  3. Current surgical status of thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touzopoulos P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Touzopoulos1, Michael Karanikas1, Paul Zarogoulidis2, Alexandros Mitrakas1, Konstantinos Porpodis2, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis3, Vasilis Zervas2, Ioannis Kouroumichakis4, Theodoros C Constantinidis5, Dimitrios Mikroulis6, Konstantinos E Tsimogiannis71First Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, "G. Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Surgery Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Second Internal Medicine Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 5Medical School, Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Democritus University of Thrace, Regional Laboratory of Public Health, Eastern Macedonia-Thrace, Greece; 6Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 7Surgery Department, "G. Hatzikosta" General Hospital of Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%–15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of

  4. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. PMID:27326465

  5. Total oxidant/antioxidant status in sera of patients with thyroid cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong; Feng, Jia-fu; Zeng, Ping; Yang, Yun-Hong; Luo, Jun; Yang, Yu-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of all cancers. In order to evaluate the total oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with thyroid cancer and to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress parameters and serum thyroid profiles among thyroid cancer patients and various controls, we determined oxidative status including total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) and calculation of oxidative stress index (OSI) in sera in 82 thyroi...

  6. G raves’ disease – anti-thyroid autoantibodies and function thyroid status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disease in the pathogenesis of which a key role play the antibodies against the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TRAb). The aim of this study is to analyze the immune and hormonal status in patients with Graves' disease, who are on thyreostatic therapy and in remission. Materials and methods: 67 patients were studied - 11 men and 56 women - with Graves' disease, mean age 49.7 years (range - 20-76 ). Of these, 55 were on thyreostatic therapy (two subgroups: 27 - treated up to 24 months , and 28 with relapsed disease ) and 12 were in remission up to a year. Patient's condition is assessed as a complex of clinical, biochemical, including hormonal, immune status and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland. We examined thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, antityreoperoxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO) and TRAb. The patients on therapy are: in hyperthyroidism - 10/ 14 with subclinical hyperthyroidism - 9/8, euthyroid - 7/6 and with subclinical hypothyroidism - 1/0. Results: The patients with hyperthyroidism ( 43.6% ) in both thyreostatic therapy groups have a significantly higher average values of TRAb. The patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism and relapse showed higher levels of TRAb in comparison with those undergoing therapy to 24 months after diagnosing. The values of TRAb in the euthyroid patients in both groups of treatment were 1,5 IU / l. The Anti-TPO values were increased in 78.2% of the patients on therapy and 55.5% of those in remission. Conclusion: With the decrease of thyroid hormones during treatment of Hyperthyroidism the levels of TRAb and Anti-TPO decrease. The TRAb values are useful for the monitoring the effect of the thyreostatic treatment, determining the therapeutic approach in patients with a sustained reduction of TRAb in the course thyreostatic therapy and particularly for relapse

  7. Assessment of thyroid status by laboratory methods: developments and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewendahl, K

    1990-01-01

    Serum protein-bound iodine and in vivo radioiodine tests were employed for over three decades although their usefulness was hampered by interference from iodinated compounds. Tests reflecting thyroid hormone action were therefore used for additional information on thyroid status. Competitive saturation analysis of serum T4 was introduced in the 60s. RIAs for T4 and T3 were not developed until ten years later because of problems in raising polyclonal antibodies to small haptens. Methods for FT4 and FT3 based on equilibrium dialysis of serum labelled with radioiodinated hormone emerged in the 60s, and in the 70s sensitive RIAs enabled direct determination of free hormone concentrations in serum dialysate. Dialysis and ultrafiltration methods are tedious and therefore various free hormone indices, based on total hormone concentrations and tests for unoccupied thyroid hormone-binding sites, have been used right up to our times. In the 80s rapid assays for FT4 and FT3 based on varying principles were developed particularly by commercial companies. Free hormone assays utilizing thyroid hormone analogs as tracers have been criticized because binding of analogs to serum proteins results in spurious values in conditions characterized by thyroid hormone-binding protein abnormalities. Bioassay of TSH was not adopted by the clinical service laboratory because of insufficient analytical sensitivity. The first immunological TSH assay, based on cross-reaction of human and bovine TSH in a hemagglutination inhibition test, was also too insensitive for practical purposes. RIAs for direct determination of normal TSH concentrations were developed in the 60s. The breakthrough in measurement of low TSH concentrations occurred in the 80s with the advent of immunometric assays utilizing monoclonal antibodies. Recently chemiluminescence, fluorescence and enzyme labels have been used for the development of non-isotopic methods for thyroid hormones and TSH. Immunoassay systems for bed

  8. Effects of thyroid hormones on the antioxidative status in the uterus of young adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    KONG, Lingfa; WEI, Quanwei; FEDAIL, Jaafar Sulieman; Shi, Fangxiong; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; WATANABE, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones and oxidative stress play significant roles in the normal functioning of the female reproductive system. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS), participates in the regulation of thyroid function and is also a good biomarker for assessment of the oxidative stress status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate effects of thyroid hormones on uterine antioxidative status in young adult rats. Thirty immature female Sprague-D...

  9. Ultrasound elastography in the evaluation of thyroid pathology. Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantisani, Vito, E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Lodise, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.lodise@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Grazhdani, Hektor, E-mail: he1graz@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Mancuso, Ester, E-mail: ester.mancuso@libero.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Maggini, Elena, E-mail: elenamaggini@yahoo.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Di Rocco, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgiodirocco@virgilio.it [Department of Surgical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); D’Ambrosio, Ferdinando, E-mail: ferdinando.dambrosio@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.calliada@gmail.com [Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia (Italy); Redler, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.redler@uniroma1.it [Department of Surgical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Ricci, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.ricci@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Catalano, Carlo [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Thyroid pathology including thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases represents often a diagnosing challenge for clinicians. US, although highly accurate in identifying thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases, is still not sufficiently accurate to evaluate them. US-elastography has been introduced in order to further increase US accuracy in many fields and eventually for thyroid disease. The aim of the present paper it to provide an update of the literature on different available techniques and the results reported both for thyroid nodules differentiation and for diffuse thyroid disease evaluation. Advantages and limitations of elastography are also discussed.

  10. Ultrasound elastography in the evaluation of thyroid pathology. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid pathology including thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases represents often a diagnosing challenge for clinicians. US, although highly accurate in identifying thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases, is still not sufficiently accurate to evaluate them. US-elastography has been introduced in order to further increase US accuracy in many fields and eventually for thyroid disease. The aim of the present paper it to provide an update of the literature on different available techniques and the results reported both for thyroid nodules differentiation and for diffuse thyroid disease evaluation. Advantages and limitations of elastography are also discussed

  11. A comparative study of thyroid status of patients on phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K. Dhodi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Valproate monotherapy does not alter serum levels of thyroid hormones. On the contrary, alterations of thyroid hormone function were seen in patients treated with carbamazepine and phenytoin. However, all the patients were euthyroid and were not associated with clinical or even subclinical hypothyroidism. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 362-365

  12. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition. PMID:25468924

  13. Levels of myosin heavy chain mRNA transcripts and protein isoforms in the fast extensor digitorum longus muscle of 7-month-old rats with chronic thyroid status alterations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vadászová, Adriana; Hudecová, S.; Križanová, O.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2006), s. 707-710. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0327 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/4106; NATO(XE) 979876; SAV(SK) APVT-51-027404; MYORES(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : myosin heavy chain isoforms * thyroid hormones * muscle differentiation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  14. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Kohrle, Josef; Pedersen, Inge Bulow; Hollenbach, Birgit; Hog, Antonia; Ovesen, Lars; Perrild, Hans; Laurberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ) introduction of iodine fortification. Serum selenium concentration and urinary iodine were measured, and the thyroid gland was examined by ultrasonography in the same subjects. Associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid parameters were examined in multiple linear regression models or...... logistic regression models.Results: Serum selenium concentration was found to be significantly, negatively associated with thyroid volume (P=0.006), and a low selenium status significantly increased the risk for thyroid enlargement (P=0.007). Furthermore, low serum selenium status had a tendency to...... increase the risk for development of multiple nodules (P=0.087).Conclusions: Low serum selenium concentration was associated with a larger thyroid volume and a higher prevalence of thyroid enlargement....

  15. Geographical mapping of a multifocal thyroid tumour using genetic alteration analysis & miRNA profiling

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    Li Jing

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC frequently presents as multiple tumour-foci within a single thyroid gland or pluriform, with synchronous tumours comprising different histological variants, raising questions regarding its clonality. Among the genetic aberrations described in PTC, the BRAF V600E mutation and ret/PTC activation occur most commonly. Several studies have investigated the genetic alteration status of multifocal thyroid tumours, with discordant results. To address the question of clonality this study examined disparate geographical and morphological areas from a single PTC (classic PTC, insular and anaplastic foci, and tumour cells adjacent to vascular invasion and lymphocytic infiltrate for the presence of ret/PTC 1 or BRAF mutations. Moreover, we wanted to investigate the consistency of miRNA signatures within disparate areas of a tumour, and geographical data was further correlated with expression profiles of 330 different miRNAs. Putative miRNA gene targets were predicted for differentially regulated miRNAs and immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue sections in an effort to investigate phenotypic variations in microvascular density (MVD, and cytokeratin and p53 protein expression levels. Results All of the morphological areas proved negative for ret/PTC 1 rearrangement. Two distinct foci with classic morphology harboured the BRAF mutation. All other regions, including the insular and anaplastic areas were negative for the mutation. MiRNA profiles were found to distinguish tumours containing the BRAF mutation from the other tumour types, and to differentiate between the more aggressive insular & anaplastic tumours, and the classic variant. Our data corroborated miRNAs previously discovered in this carcinoma, and additional miRNAs linked to various processes involved in tumour growth and proliferation. Conclusion The initial genetic alteration analysis indicated that pluriform PTC did not necessarily evolve

  16. Susceptibility of rats with altered thyroid status to malignant arrhythmias is primarily related to myocardial levels of connexin-43 and can be partially ameliorated by supplementation with red palm oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bačová, B.; Vinczenzová, C.; Žurmanová, J.; Kašparová, Dita; Knezl, V.; Radošinská, J.; Beňová, T.; Pavelka, Stanislav; Soukup, Tomáš; Tribulová, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl A (2013), 41A-46A. ISSN 1205-6626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1228; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Grant ostatní: Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 628412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : thyroid hormones * cardiac arrhythmias * connexin-43 * PKC.epsilon * red palm oil Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.758, year: 2013

  17. Current Status and Future Perspectives in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Won Gu; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasing all over the world. The exact cause of this increase is still debated and there are conflicting reports. Sophisticated molecular studies suggest that environmental chemicals may have effects of thyroid carcinogenesis. The development of powerful molecular biology techniques has enabled targeted next-generation sequencing for detection of mutations in thyroid cancer, and this technique can make a specific diagnosis of thyroid cancer in cytologically indeterminate c...

  18. Proportions of myosin heavy chain mRNAs, protein isoforms and fiber types in the slow and fast skeletal muscles are maintained after alterations of thyroid status in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Diallo, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2015), s. 111-118. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK123; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSH-CT-2004-511978 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : thyroid hormones * muscle gene expression * MyHC isoforms and muscle fiber types * quantitative real time RT-PCR * SDS-PAGE and 2-D Stereological analysis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  19. THYROID STATUS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE SITES ON LAKE OKEECHOBEE, FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to environmental contaminants has been shown to alter normal thyroid function in various wildlife species, including the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Abnormalities in circulating levels of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) have been reported in juven...

  20. Lipid profile and thyroid hormone status in the last trimester of pregnancy in single-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Sajedi, Zhila; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Ansari Nik, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Changes in lipid metabolism have been shown to occur during pregnancy. The thyroid hormones affect lipid metabolism. The present study was carried out to find out whether the last trimester of pregnancy affects thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), lipid, and lipoprotein profile in healthy dromedary camels. Twenty clinical healthy dromedary camels aged between 4-5 years were divided into two equal groups: (1) pregnant camels in their last trimester of pregnancy and (2) non-pregnant age-matched controls. Thyroid function tests were carried out by measuring serum levels of TSH, free thyroxin (fT4), total thyroxin (T4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and total triiodothyronine (T3) by commercially available radio immunoassay kits. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were analyzed using enzymatic/spectrophotometric methods while low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and total lipid (TL) were calculated using Friedewald's and Raylander's formula, respectively. Serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones except fT4 did not show any significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. fT4 level was lower in the pregnant camels (P lipid, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and VLDL did not show significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. All of these variables in pregnant camels were higher than non-pregnant. Based on the results of this study, the fetus load may not alter the thyroid status of the camel and the concentrations of thyroid hormones were not correlated with TSH and lipid profile levels in the healthy pregnant camels. PMID:24429808

  1. TSH RECEPTOR GENETIC ALTERATIONS IN THE AUTONOMOUSLY FUNCTIONING THYROID ADENOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施秉银; 李雪萍; 李社莉; 薛明战; 王毅; 徐莉

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between TSH receptor gene mutations and autonomously functioning thyroid adenomas (AFTAs). Methods The thyroid samples from 14 cases of diagnosed AFTAs were analyzed, with normal thyroid specimens adjacent to the tumors as controls. The 155 base pairs DNA fragments which encompassed the third cytoplasmic loop and the sixth transmembrane segments in the TSH receptor gene exon 10 were amplified by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analyzed by the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Direct sequencing of the PCR products was performed with Prism Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Core Kit. Results 6 of 14 AFTA specimens displayed abnormal migration in SSCP analysis. In sequence analysis of 3 abnormally migrated samples, one base substitution at nucleotide 1957 (A to C) and two same insertion mutations of one adenosine nucleotide between nucleotide 1972 and 1973 were identified. No mutations were found in controls. Conclusion This study confirmed the presence of TSH receptor gene mutations in AFTAs; both one-point substitution mutation and one-base insertion mutation were found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of AFTAs.

  2. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  3. Thyroid volumes and iodine status in Egyptian South Sinai schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Naser Yamamah, Gamal; Kamel, Ashraf Fawzy; Abd-El Dayem, Soha; Hussein, Amal Saad; Salama, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The determination of goitre prevalence in children by ultrasonography is an important tool for considering iodine deficiency disorders. Our objective was to describe measurements of thyroid volumes by ultrasonography in Egyptian South Sinai schoolchildren and compare these with the WHO/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders normative thyroid volume criteria (WHO/ICCIDD). Material and methods Cross-sectional thyroid ultrasonographic data of 719 school...

  4. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  5. Molecular alterations in childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident and low-dose radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis has been used for evaluating the risk from radiation exposure. While the epidemiological studies have supported the LNT model at doses above 100 mGy, more uncertainties are still existed in the LNT model at low doses below 100 mGy. Thus, it is urged to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation carcinogenesis. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, significant amount of childhood thyroid cancer has emerged in the children living in the contaminated area. As the incidence of sporadic childhood thyroid cancer is very low, it is quite evident that those cancer cases have been induced by radiation exposure caused mainly by the intake of contaminated foods, such as milk. Because genetic alterations in childhood thyroid cancers have extensively been studied, it should provide a unique chance to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. In a current review, molecular signatures obtained from the molecular studies of childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident have been overviewed, and new roles of radiation exposure in thyroid carcinogenesis will be discussed. (author)

  6. Alterations of Thyroid Morphology and Function After Long-Term Exposure to Low Doses of Endocrine Disruptor Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaglov V.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to evaluate changes in thyroid morphology and function after different long-term exposure to low doses of endocrine disruptor dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT under the maximum permissible levels in food products. Materials and Methods. The experiment was performed on adult male Wistar rats (n=62. Drinking water was substituted for water solution of o,p-DDT 20 and 80 μg/L. Mean daily consumption of DDT was 1.89±0.86 and 7.77±0.17 µg/kg body weight, respectively. Rat serum thyroid hormone content and histology of the thyroid glands were studied after 6 and 10 weeks of exposure to DDT. Results. 6-week exposure to DDT caused inhibition of thyroid function followed by reactive increase of thyroid stimulating hormone secretion and triiodothyronine production. These symptoms were similar to those of the early stage of iodine deficiency. Restoration of rat thyroid status after 10 weeks of exposure was achieved due to diffuse microfollicular transformation of thyroid parenchyma. Conclusion. Exposure to low doses of DDT inhibits thyroid function. Reactive increase of thyroid hormone production after exposure to DDT and in iodine deficiency is similar, but early changes in thyroid histology are different. Long-term exposure to DDT is supposed to aggravate iodine deficiency and to be a risk factor of thyroid tumors.

  7. Functional status of thyroid of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators after 10 years after disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators' complaints is carried out and their clinical surveillance is conducted as well. Pronounced disorders of neuro-immune-endocrine system of the liquidators majority and ahill reflex latency half-period prolongation have been observed. By data of ultrasonic study the majority of examined ones have thyroid hyperplasia without features of chronic autoimmune inflammation and formation of adenomatous knots. Thyroid levels of hormone concentration are reduced. There is direct dependence between hormones levels and irradiation dose. The is concluded, that in delayed period after irradiation by low doses the hypo-function status of thyroid is observing

  8. Status of Thyroid Disorders in Central Nepal: A Tertiary Care Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Mahato

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nepal is a Himalayan, landlocked country surrounded by India and China. It is endemic for iodine deficiency disease. Thyroiddysfunction is major health problem among the Nepalese people. Its prevalence increases with age. Screening of thyroid disease is advised inhigh risk population. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among subjects who attended Biochemistry Departmentof Tribhuwan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Material and Methods: This is a hospital based retrospective studyconducted in the Department of Biochemistry Tribhuwan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine. This study was designed toinvestigate status of thyroid dysfunction in central Nepal. A total of 5230 cases from all over Nepal were studied in a single year. Blood sampleswere collected, serum separated and thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and TSH were assayed by Vitros ECIQ analyser Ortho Clinical DiagonosticsUSA. Result and discussion: Among 5230 subjects prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 29.0% with subclinical hypothyroidism17%,hypothyroidism 8%, hyperthyroidism 3%, subclinical hyperthyroidism1% and euthyroidism 71%.Higher prevalence was seen in the age group31-45. Conclusion: This study revealed that subclinical and overt hypothyroidism is preponderant followed by sub clinical hyperthyroidism.Females are more vulnerable to the thyroid dysfunction. Since it is a hospital based study, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction may not beapplicable. So an extensive demographic survey should be done to provide accurate data of thyroid dysfunction in the general population

  9. Thyroid alterations due to X-irradiation of haemangioma on the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a case report of two patients who received X-irradiation (2x500 R and 5x200 R resp.) in infancy or childhood because of haemangioma on the neck and developed serious alterations of the thyroid glands (carcinoma, thyreoiditis, atrophia) 10-20 years later. Attention is called to the risk of radio-therapy in young age. (L.E.)

  10. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  11. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound

  12. Expression of muscle phenotype in altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Jirmanová, Isa; Vadászová, Adriana; Smerdu, V.; Asmussen, G.

    Durban: Microscopy society of Southern Africa, 2002, s. 355-356. ISBN 0-620-29294-6. [International Congress on Electron Microskopy /15./. Durban (ZA), 01.09.2002-06.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Grant ostatní: Czech-Slovenian Intergovermental Grant(SI) 02-2004-05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : intramuscular transplantation * muscle phenotype Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  13. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UIsalt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; Pchildren had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  14. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:27221367

  15. Gestational age-specific reference ranges from different laboratories misclassify pregnant women's thyroid status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Boas, Malene;

    2014-01-01

    region, the use of gestational-age-specific reference ranges from different laboratories led to misclassification. Up to 100% of maternal FT4 levels fell outside the other cohort's reference range despite similar TSH levels. In clinical practice, thyroid testing of pregnant women without adding method......OBJECTIVES: Correct interpretation of thyroid status during pregnancy is vital to secure fetal development. Pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status necessitate the use of gestational age-specific reference ranges. In this study, we investigated between-laboratory reproducibility of...... comparable (P=0.09). Up to 90.3% of the women had FT4 levels outside their laboratory's nonpregnant reference range, and up to 100% outside the other cohort's gestational-age-specific reference ranges. Z-score-based reference ranges markedly improved comparison between cohorts. CONCLUSION: Even in the same...

  16. Renal function markers and thyroid hormone status in undialyzed chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Rajagopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to quantify thyroid hormones in undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses controls and to study the correlation between renal function markers and thyroid hormones. Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with a higher prevalence of primary hypothyroidism (HT, but at the same studies on thyroid hormone status in uremic patients has reported conflicting results. Methods: Thyroid hormones and renal function parameters like serum urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, total protein and albumin were estimated and correlations between thyroid hormones and renal function parameters were studied in 60 undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses 100 healthy controls. Results: We found both T3 and T4 were significantly reduced (p<0.0001 for T3 and 0.007 for T4 whereas TSH remains to be unchanged in patient group compared to controls. We also observed that urea and creatinine were negatively correlated whereas creatinine clearance was positively correlated with both T3 and T4 that has high statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.01 level. But urea alone is negatively correlated with TSH that has statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.05 level. Conclusion: From our data, we speculate that renal insufficiency may lead to thyroid hormone disturbances.

  17. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

  18. Thyroid status of children immigrating from the vicinity of Chernobylsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area surrounding the Chernobyl plant is generally recognized as a goitreogenous area, in the sense that soils and water are deficient in Iodine, and the incidence of goitre is relatively high. These conditions assure the avid uptake of an iodine as a pollutant, if and when present. The Chernobyl explosion and fire is estimated to have released 1.8*10E18 Bq of Iodine 131 and 3.7*10E18 Bq Iodine 133, together accounting for a large portion of the total radioactive emissions (US Department of Energy z Table 4.3, p. 4.15 in Health and Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident DOE/ER-0322, June 1987). Uptake was measured in the thyroid glands of many of those exposed. Within the past three years, the frequency of cancer of the thyroid in children in the Ukraine Belarus and in the Bryansk Region of the Russian Federation has risen rapidly, from less than one case per 100,000 per year in Belarus to over 10 cases in 1991, per 100,000 per year. In respect to the unusual exposures and risks, this report describes what studies we have done among Jewish immigrants from the areas and what our findings seem to mean. (authors). 8 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  19. Detection of radioiodine-induced cytogenetic alterations in circulating lymphocytes of thyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodines are often used for experimental purposes and for diagnosis and therapy in clinical practice. Human population might also be exposed to radioiodines in nuclear accidents. The ionizing energy of radioiodine affects not only the thyroid where it concentrates but also other tissues, especially the lymphocytes during their circulation through and around the gland containing the radioisotopes. Therefore, it seemed to be of interest to carry out investigations concerning the cytogenetic alterations in blood lymphocytes of patients treated with iodine-131. The method of choice was the relatively easily performable micronucleus assay in cytokinesis-blocked cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes. The test was performed on blood samples of 30 patients before the radioisotope treatment and one, two and four days after, one as well as 6 and - in a few cases - 12 weeks later. The amounts of iodine-131 injected were dependent on the clinical practices to reach the therapeutic radiation doses for hyperthyroidism and adenomas and were in the range of 220 and 5180 MBq. it was observed that the micronucleus frequency increased in the treated hyperthyroid patients while in patients with toxic adenomas the radioiodine did not result in an increase or even as compared to the pretreatment values in a few cases decreased values were seen. The results suggest individual differences in radiosensitivity as well as that the frequency of cytogenetic alterations depend on the physiological or pathological conditions of the thyroid. The significance of this observation will be discussed for dose assessments by cytogenetic techniques due to internal radioiodine. (author)

  20. Selenium status and over-expression of interleukin-15 in celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Velia Stazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In celiac disease (CD, for its multifactorial nature, the target organs are not limited to the gut, but include thyroid, liver, skin and reproductive and nervous systems. Between the extraintestinal symptoms associated with CD, autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs are more evident, underlining as CD-related autoimmune alterations can be modulated not only by gluten but also by various concurrent endogenous (genetic affinity, over-expression of cytokines and exogenous (environment, nutritional deficiency factors. In their pathogenesis a central role for over-expression of interleukin-15 (IL-15 is shown, by inhibiting apoptosis, leading to the perpetuation of inflammation and tissue destruction. Thyroid is particularly sensitive to selenium deficiency because selenoproteins are significant in biosynthesis and activity of thyroid hormones; besides, some selenoproteins as glutathione peroxidase are involved in inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, selenium malabsorption in CD can be thought as a key factor directly leading to thyroid and intestinal damage. Considering the complexity of this interaction and on the basis of available evidence, the aim of this review is to assess as preventive and therapeutic target the role of IL-15 and selenium in the pathogeneses of both CD and AITD.

  1. Somatic VHL gene alterations in MEN2-associated medullary thyroid carcinoma

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    Pacak Karel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in RET are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2, an autosomal dominantly inherited cancer syndrome that is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma. Recent studies suggest a "second hit" mechanism resulting in amplification of mutant RET. Somatic VHL gene alterations are implicated in the pathogenesis of MEN2 pheochromocytomas. We hypothesized that somatic VHL gene alterations are also important in the pathogenesis of MEN2-associated MTC. Methods We analyzed 6 MTCs and 1 C-cell hyperplasia (CCH specimen from 7 patients with MEN2A and RET germline mutations in codons 609, 618, 620, or 634, using microdissection, microsatellite analysis, phosphorimage densitometry, and VHL mutation analysis. Results First, we searched for allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET by using the polymorphic markers D10S677, D10S1239, and RET on thyroid tissue from these patients. Evidence for RET amplification by this technique could be demonstrated in 3 of 6 MTCs. We then performed LOH analysis using D3S1038 and D3S1110 which map to the VHL gene locus at 3p25/26. VHL gene deletion was present in 3 MTCs. These 3 MTCs also had an allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET. Mutation analysis of the VHL gene showed a somatic frameshift mutation in 1 MTC that also demonstrated LOH at 3p25/26. In the 2 other MTCs with allelic imbalance of RET and somatic VHL gene deletion, no somatic VHL mutation could be detected. The CCH specimen did neither reveal RET imbalance nor somatic VHL gene alterations. Conclusion These data suggest that a RET germline mutation is necessary for development of CCH, that allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET may set off tumorigenesis, and that somatic VHL gene alterations may not play a major role in tumorigenesis of MEN2A-associated MTC.

  2. Somatic VHL gene alterations in MEN2-associated medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germline mutations in RET are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), an autosomal dominantly inherited cancer syndrome that is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma. Recent studies suggest a 'second hit' mechanism resulting in amplification of mutant RET. Somatic VHL gene alterations are implicated in the pathogenesis of MEN2 pheochromocytomas. We hypothesized that somatic VHL gene alterations are also important in the pathogenesis of MEN2-associated MTC. We analyzed 6 MTCs and 1 C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) specimen from 7 patients with MEN2A and RET germline mutations in codons 609, 618, 620, or 634, using microdissection, microsatellite analysis, phosphorimage densitometry, and VHL mutation analysis. First, we searched for allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET by using the polymorphic markers D10S677, D10S1239, and RET on thyroid tissue from these patients. Evidence for RET amplification by this technique could be demonstrated in 3 of 6 MTCs. We then performed LOH analysis using D3S1038 and D3S1110 which map to the VHL gene locus at 3p25/26. VHL gene deletion was present in 3 MTCs. These 3 MTCs also had an allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET. Mutation analysis of the VHL gene showed a somatic frameshift mutation in 1 MTC that also demonstrated LOH at 3p25/26. In the 2 other MTCs with allelic imbalance of RET and somatic VHL gene deletion, no somatic VHL mutation could be detected. The CCH specimen did neither reveal RET imbalance nor somatic VHL gene alterations. These data suggest that a RET germline mutation is necessary for development of CCH, that allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET may set off tumorigenesis, and that somatic VHL gene alterations may not play a major role in tumorigenesis of MEN2A-associated MTC

  3. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Is Significantly Associated with Bone Health Status in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recent studies revealed a novel association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and bone health status in healthy male populations. The present study aimed to validate this association and provide new information on the relationship between TSH levels and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in men. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 681 men with complete data of calcaneal SOS, body anthropometry, serum TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) l...

  4. Short-term exposure of arsenite disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic (As) pollution in aquatic environment may adversely impact fish health by disrupting their thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, we explored the effect of short-term exposure of arsenite (AsIII) on thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish. We measured As concentrations, As speciation, and thyroid hormone thyroxine levels in whole zebrafish, oxidative stress (H2O2) and damage (MDA) in the liver, and gene transcription in hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis in the brain and liver tissues of zebrafish after exposing to different AsIII concentrations for 48 h. Result indicated that exposure to AsIII increased inorganic As in zebrafish to 0.46–0.72 mg kg−1, induced oxidative stress with H2O2 being increased by 1.4–2.5 times and caused oxidative damage with MDA being augmented by 1.6 times. AsIII exposure increased thyroxine levels by 1.3–1.4 times and modulated gene transcription in HPT axis. Our study showed AsIII caused oxidative damage, affected thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in HPT axis in zebrafish. - Highlights: • 48 h-LC50 value of arsenite (AsIII) was 42 mg L−1 for zebrafish. • AsIII exposure elevated oxidative stress and caused oxidative damage in zebrafish. • AsIII exposure increased the content of thyroid hormone thyroxine. • AsIII exposure altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish. - Short-term exposure of arsenite caused oxidative stress, disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in Zebrafish

  5. Iodine status and its correlations with age, blood pressure, and thyroid volume in South Indian women above 35 years of age (Amrita Thyroid Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadayath Usha Menon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid disorders are more commonly seen among females and the prevalence increases with age. There is no population data from India focusing on iodine levels and their correlations with thyroid volume and other factors in adult women. Aim: This study was designed to establish the iodine status and its relation with various factors including thyroid volume measured by ultrasound among the females of Kerala. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional house to house survey among the females above 35 years of age in a randomly selected urban area in Cochin Corporation, Kerala State, India. Selected subjects were interviewed, examined and blood and urine tests were done. Thyroid volume was calculated using ultrasound. Results: Among the 508 subjects who participated in the checkup, 471 subjects were included for analysis. Mean age was 50.3 + 10.7 years and 53.2% were postmenopausal. A total of 98% of the subjects were using iodized salt and median urinary iodine excretion (UIE was 162.6 mcg/l. UIE had negative correlation with age and systolic blood pressure (BP, but had no correlation with thyroid volume (TV, thyroid nodularity, free thyroxine 4 (FT4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH or anti thyroid peroxidase (TPO levels. Iodine deficiency was more commonly seen in subjects with hypertension and also among postmenopausal females. Conclusions: This study showed that females > 35 years were iodine sufficient, though one third of the subjects had UIE levels less than the recommended level. Iodine levels had significant negative correlation with age and systolic BP and no correlation with thyroid volume or biochemical parameters. Iodine deficiency was significantly higher in subjects with new and known hypertension and this relation merits further evaluation.

  6. Cellular Signaling Pathway Alterations and Potential Targeted Therapies for Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Giunti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parafollicular C-cell-derived medullary thyroid cancer (MTC comprises 3% to 4% of all thyroid cancers. While cytotoxic treatments have been shown to have limited efficacy, targeted molecular therapies that inhibit rearranged during transfection (RET and other tyrosine kinase receptors that are mainly involved in angiogenesis have shown great promise in the treatment of metastatic or locally advanced MTC. Multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as vandetanib, which is already approved for the treatment of progressive MTC, and cabozantinib have shown distinct advantages with regard to rates of disease response and control. However, these types of tyrosine kinase inhibitor compounds are able to concurrently block several types of targets, which limits the understanding of RET as a specific target. Moreover, important resistances to tyrosine kinase inhibitors can occur, which limit the long-term efficacy of these treatments. Deregulated cellular signaling pathways and genetic alterations in MTC, particularly the activation of the RAS/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR cascades and RET crosstalk signaling, are now emerging as novel and potentially promising therapeutic treatments for aggressive MTC.

  7. [Effect of thyroid status on the system proteolysis under stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Introduction of merkazolil to in rats (25 mg/kg 20 days), causing reduction of iodine containing thyroid hormones levels (ITH) in the blood, reduces the trypsin-like activity (TLA) and the activity of α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) and α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG) in the liver and blood; in the alarm-stage of stress reaction (1 hour after swimming in a cage) it defines more pronounced than that in euthyroid animals stimulation of proteolysis due to the decline of α1-AT and α2-MG activity, in stage of resistance (48 hours) it prevents the normalization of TLA, α1-AT and α2-MG activity, which took place in the stress at the euthyrosis; in the stage of exhaustion (1 hour of the stress within 10 days) promotes to the most significant activation of the proteolysis owing to profound inhibition of the α1-AT and α2-MG. The introduction of L-thyroxine (1.5-3.0 μg/kg 28 days) does not change the concentration of ITH in the blood and it does not affect the proteolyis system; in the alarm- and exhaustion stages it limits the increase of the TLA, in the stage of re-istance prevents it, eliminating the depression of aα1AT and aα-MG activity. The results demon-trate a new aspect of the participation of ITH in the body anti-stress system --heir effect on pro-ease/inhibitor system. PMID:25508399

  8. Studies on the possible role of thyroid hormone in altered muscle protein turnover during sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five days after thyroidectomy (Tx) or sham-Tx in young male Sprague-Dawley rats, sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Control animals underwent laparotomy and manipulation of the cecum without ligation or puncture. Sixteen hours after CLP or laparotomy, protein synthesis and degradation were measured in incubated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles by determining rate of 14C-phenylalanine incorporation into protein and tyrosine release into incubation medium, respectively. Triiodothyronine (T3) was measured in serum and muscle tissue. Protein synthesis was reduced by 39% and 22% in EDL and SOL, respectively, 16 hours after CLP in sham-Tx rats. The response to sepsis of protein synthesis was abolished in Tx rats. Protein breakdown was increased by 113% and 68% in EDL and SOL, respectively, 16 hours after CLP in sham-Tx animals. The increase in muscle proteolysis during sepsis was blunted in hypothyroid animals and was 42% and 49% in EDL and SOL, respectively. T3 in serum was reduced by sepsis, both in Tx and sham-Tx rats. T3 in muscle, however, was maintained or increased during sepsis. Abolished or blunted response of muscle protein turnover after CLP in hypothyroid animals may reflect a role of thyroid hormones in altered muscle protein metabolism during sepsis. Reduced serum levels of T3, but maintained or increased muscle concentrations of the hormone, suggests that increased T3 uptake by muscle may be one mechanism of low T3 syndrome in sepsis, further supporting the concept of a role for thyroid hormone in metabolic alterations in muscle during sepsis

  9. Hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid axis alterations in female mice with deletion of the neuromedin B receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karen J; Paula, Gabriela S M; Império, Guinever E; Bressane, Nina O; Magalhães, Carolina M A; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C

    2014-11-01

    Neuromedin B, a peptide highly expressed at the pituitary, has been shown to act as autocrine/paracrine inhibitor of thyrotropin (TSH) release. Here we studied the thyroid axis of adult female mice lacking neuromedin B receptor (NBR-KO), compared to wild type (WT) littermates. They exhibited slight increase in serum TSH (18%), with normal pituitary expression of mRNA coding for α-glycoprotein subunit (Cga), but reduced TSH β-subunit mRNA (Tshb, 41%), lower intra-pituitary TSH content (24%) and increased thyroid hormone transporter MCT-8 (Slc16a2, 44%) and thyroid hormone receptor β mRNA expression (Thrb, 39%). NBR-KO mice exhibited normal thyroxine (T4) and reduced triiodothyronine (T3) (30%), with no alterations in the intra-thyroidal content of T4 and T3 or thyroid morphological changes. Hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) mRNA (Trh) was increased (68%), concomitant with a reduction in type 2 deiodinase mRNA (Dio2, 30%) and no changes in MCT-8 and thyroid hormone receptor mRNA expression. NBR-KO mice exhibited a 56% higher increase in serum TSH in response to an acute single intraperitoneal injection of TRH concomitant with a non-significant increase in pituitary TRH receptor (Trhr) mRNA at basal state. The phenotype of female NBR-KO mice at the hypothalamus-pituitary axis revealed alterations in pituitary and hypothalamic gene expression, associated with reduced serum T3, and higher TSH response to TRH, with apparently normal thyroid morphology and hormonal production. Thus, results confirm that neuromedin B pathways are importantly involved in secretory pathways of TSH and revealed its participation in the in vivo regulation of gene expression of TSH β-subunit and pituitary MCT8 and Thrb and hypothalamic TRH and type 2 deiodinase. PMID:25454367

  10. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

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    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  11. Changes of thyroid hormones concentration in blood of sheep depending on age and reproductive status

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Šperanda; Zvonimir Steiner; Marcela Šperanda; Zvonco Antunović; Josip Novoselec

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the reproductive status was tested in the blood serum of 30 sheep (10 pregnant sheep on the 15th day prior to lambing, 10 lactating sheep on the 20th day of the lactation and 10 non-pregnant sheep). The influence of age was determined in the blood serum of 20 sheep and 20 lambs. Analysis of the impact of age in sheep and lamb on the concentration of thyroid hormones showed that 30-day old lambs had significantly higher (P

  12. Slow to fast muscle transformation following heterochronous isotransplantation is influenced by host thyroid hormone status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, Kateřina; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 6 (2014), s. 677-684. ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12058; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK123 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSH-CT-2004-511978 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscle fiber types * muscle regeneration * muscle transplantation * MyHC isoforms * thyroid hormone status Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.927, year: 2013

  13. Association of Age with Thyroid Hormone Status and Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD

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    Md Ashraf-uz-zaman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is associated with increased prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities including hypothyroidism. A meta-analysis showed an increased prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular mortality only in a relatively younger population. Objective: To compare the thyroid function status in IHD patients of different age groups. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on 31 IHD subjects aged 35-59 years (Group B1 and 19 IHD subjects aged 60-85 years (Group B2 in the Department of Physiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2009 to June 2010. For comparison 24 healthy subjects aged 35-59 years (Group A1 and 26 with age 60-85 years (Group A2 were studied. The IHD subjects were selected from coronary care unit of cardiology department and OPD of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka. Serum FT3, FT4 and TSH of all subjects were measured by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired Student’s ‘t’ test. Results: The mean ± SD of FT3 and FT4 were significantly lower and TSH was significantly higher in Group B1 IHD patients than that of Group A1 healthy subjects, but no difference was found between Group A2 and Group B2 and between Group B1 and Group B2. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone levels are significantly lower in younger IHD population (age 35-59 years than the age-matched normal controls.

  14. Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

  15. Effect of altered innervation and thyroid hormones on myosin heavy chain expression and fiber type transitions: a mini-review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Smerdu, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 2 (2015), s. 123-130. ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH12058; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK123 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSH-CT-2004-511978 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscle fiber types * muscle regeneration * muscle transplantation * MyHC isoforms * thyroid hormone status * innervation Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.927, year: 2013

  16. Exposure to the herbicide acetochlor alters thyroid hormone-dependent gene expression and metamorphosis in Xenopus Laevis.

    OpenAIRE

    Crump, Doug; Werry, Kate; Veldhoen, Nik; Van Aggelen, Graham; Helbing, Caren C.

    2002-01-01

    A growing number of substances released into the environment disrupt normal endocrine mechanisms in a wide range of vertebrates. Little is known about the effects and identities of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that target thyroid hormone (TH) action, particularly at the cellular level. Frog tadpole metamorphosis depends completely on TH, which has led to the suggestion of a metamorphosis-based assay for screening potential EDCs. A major mechanism of TH action is the alteration of gen...

  17. Intake of phthalate-tainted foods alters thyroid functions in Taiwanese children.

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    Ming-Tsang Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On April-May, 2011, two Taiwan chemical companies were found to have intentionally added phthalates, Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and/or Di-isononyl phthalate, as a substitute of emulsifier to many foodstuffs. This study aimed to investigate whether exposure to these foods altered endocrine functions in children aged ≤10 years and, if so, whether those changes could be reversed by stopping exposure. METHODS: One Phthalates Clinic for Children was established in southern Taiwan between May 31 and June 17, 2011. All eligible children had their exposure information, blood and/or urine specimens collected. Endocrine functions were assessed in serum. The exposure groups were categorized into three (High, >500 ppm, Low, 1-500 ppm, and No, <1 ppm of DEHP. After six months, some children were followed up for the selected endocrine hormones. RESULTS: Sixty children were eligible in this study; all were Tanner stage 1 with no pubic hair. Compared to non-exposed group, both high and low exposure groups had significantly lower serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels (P = 0.001 and 0.024. At six months follow-up, serum triiodothyronine (T3 levels was significantly changed (P = 0.034 in high exposure group (n = 13. For serum estradiol (E2, the detectable rate (≥8 pg/mL decreased from 76.9% (10/13 to 30.8% (4/13 (P = 0.070. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that serum TSH levels can be altered when children were exposed to high concentrations of phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. Serum E2 and T3 may be partially recovered after stopping exposure.

  18. [Thyroid and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker-Davis, Françoise; Hiéronimus, Sylvie; Fénichel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the thyroid depends upon the environment for regular iodine supply, avoiding iodine deficiency or excess. Thyroid function may be altered by natural compounds present in water or foodstuff (such as iodine or phyto-goitrogens), or by synthetic compounds, either administered knowingly (in case of medicine), or as an untoward event in case of exposure to industrial products and pesticides, massively produced and polluting the environment. Compounds with an impact on thyroid homeostasis are called thyroid disruptors (TD). TD may disrupt the thyroid economy at any level of regulation: thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism, or transport; cellular level including thyroid hormone signaling; tumorigenesis or more indirectly via the triggering of an autoimmune process. Compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may act at multiple levels. PT effects on human health depend on parameters linked to the individual person (age at exposure, iodine status, diet, professional exposure, place of living, family history of thyroid disease, detoxification enzyme genetic variants) and on parameters linked to the compounds themselves (chemical structure, lipo- or hydro-solubility, modes of exposure, metabolites activity, "cocktail effect"). The toxic effects of TD do not necessarily follow the rules of classical toxicology (low-dose effects, non-monotonic curves). The main clinical risks are the deleterious impact on neurocognition and behavior for the fetus and the young child, and possibly the elderly, while in adults the main concerns are tumori/goitrogenesis and autoimmune thyroid disease. The potential socioeconomic impact for society warrants an active and major involvement in research to find solutions in a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26603908

  19. Subacute Microcystin-LR Exposure Alters the Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones in Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio Rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystin-LR (MC-LR has been detected extensively in the aquatic environment and has the potential to disturb the thyroid endocrine system. However, limited information is available on the effects of subacute MC-LR exposure on fish thyroid hormone (TH metabolism. In the present study, juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio were exposed to MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for 28 days. Whole-body TH content and thyroid follicle histology were used as direct endpoints to assess thyroid disruption. The activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs and the transcription of selected genes associated with TH synthesis were also investigated to study the underlying mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Exposure of zebrafish to MC-LR significantly increased whole-body thyroxine (T4 content but decreased whole-body triiodothyronine (T3 content. We also observed hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid follicle epithelial cells, as well as up-regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroid peroxidase (TPO, and transthyretin (TTR genes. The decreases in ID1 and ID2 activities coupled with an increase in ID3 activity were observed in MC-LR treatment groups. These results demonstrate that exposure to MC-LR at environmental concentrations results in the disturbance of TH homeostasis by disrupting the synthesis and conversion of THs.

  20. ret/PTC-1 expression alters the immunoprofile of thyroid follicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aherne Sinead

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hashimoto Thyroiditis (H.T. is a destructive autoimmune thyroid condition whose precise molecular pathogenesis remains unclear. ret/PTC-1 is a chimeric transcript which has been described in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD and thyroid neoplasia. The purpose of this study was to observe the immunogenic effect exposure to H.T. and control lymphocyte supernatant would have on normal (Nthy-ori and ret/PTC-1 (TPC-1 expressing thyroid cell line models. Results A 2 × 2 matrix comprising Nthy-ori and TPC-1 cell lines and H.T. and control lymphocyte supernatant was designed and utilised as follows; activated lymphocytic supernatant from a H.T. and normal control were co-cultured with a cell line derived from normal thyroid (Nthy-ori and also a cell line derived from a papillary thyroid carcinoma that endogenously expresses ret/PTC-1 (TPC-1. The co-cultures were harvested at 0, 6 and 18 hour time points. Gene expression analysis was performed on RNA extracted from thyrocytes using TaqMan® Immune profiling Low-Density Arrays (Applied Biosystems, CA, USA comprising gene expression markers for 93 immune related targets plus 3 endogenous controls. Stimulation of the normal thyroid cell line model with activated T cell supernatant from the H.T. donor yielded global up-regulation of immune targets when compared with control supernatant stimulation. In particular, a cohort of targets (granzyme B, CD3, CD25, CD152, CD45 associated with cytotoxic cell death; T cell receptor (TCR and T cell signaling were up-regulated in the normal cell line model. When the ret/PTC-1 expressing thyroid cell line was co-cultured with H.T. lymphocyte supernatant, in comparison to control supernatant stimulation, down-regulation of the same subset of immune targets was seen. Conclusion Co-culturing H.T. lymphocyte supernatant with a normal thyroid cell line model leads to over-expression of a subset of targets which could contribute to the pathogenesis of H

  1. Subacute Microcystin-LR Exposure Alters the Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones in Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Zidong Liu; Rong Tang; Dapeng Li; Qing Hu; Ying Wang

    2015-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been detected extensively in the aquatic environment and has the potential to disturb the thyroid endocrine system. However, limited information is available on the effects of subacute MC-LR exposure on fish thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. In the present study, juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L) for 28 days. Whole-body TH content and thyroid follicle histology were used as direct ...

  2. Effects of thyroid status and thyrostatic drugs on hepatic glucuronidation of lodothyronines and other substrates in rats - Induction of phenol UDP-glucuronyltransferase by methimazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Visser (Ton); E. Kaptein (Ellen); A.L. Gijzel (Anthonie); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); M.L. Cannon (Mark); F. Bonthuis (Fred); W.J. de Greef (W.)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractGlucuronidation of iodothyronines in rat liver is catalyzed by at least three UDP-glucuronyltransferases (UGTs): bilirubin UGT, phenol UGT, and androsterone UGT. Bilirubin and phenol UGT activities are regulated by thyroid hormone, but the effect of thyroid status on hepatic glucuronidat

  3. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Aloe vera on Antioxidant Status and Thyroid Functions in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the antioxidant status and thyroid functions of female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) when exposed to 3.0 Gy of gamma ray (dose rats = 0.696 Gy/min.) as s single dose and the role of 0.25 ml Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate/kg body weight against the damage caused by gamma irradiation. Total number of 50 female albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups; normal control group, irradiated group, Aloe vera administered group, irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 1 week and the 5th group is the irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 2 weeks starting from 24 h post-irradiation. Total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured in serum of all groups. The results of this study revealed that 3.0 Gy of gamma irradiation resulted in a highly significant reduction in serum total antioxidant capacity (39.89%), highly significant increase in TBARs (29.19%) and a significant increase in serum T3 and T4 levels (8.21 and 25.51%, respectively) compared to control group. There was a non-significant change in serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs, and a highly significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels (31.00 and 36.57%) in rats administered Aloe vera alone. Concerning rats administered Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate post-irradiation, serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs were restored to the normal levels after 2 weeks. Serum levels of T3 and T4 (represent thyroid functions) were restored to the normal levels after 1 week and found to be inhibited (20.41 and 22.62%, respectively) after 2 weeks of administration. (author)

  4. Tissue-specific alterations in thyroid hormone homeostasis in combined Mct10 and Mct8 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Müller (Julia); S. Mayerl (Steffen); T.J. Visser (Ton); V.M. Darras (Veerle); A. Boelen (Anita); L. Frappart (Lucien); L. Mariotta (Luca); F. Verrey; H. Heuer (Heike)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe monocarboxylate transporter Mct10 (Slc16a10; T-type amino acid transporter) facilitates the cellular transport of thyroid hormone (TH) and shows an overlapping expression with the wellestablished TH transporter Mct8. Because Mct8 deficiency is associated with distinct tissue-specific

  5. Influence of thyroid status on responses of rat isolated pulmonary artery, vas deferens and trachea to smooth muscle relaxant drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, S R; Wanstall, J. C.; Mustafa, M. B.

    1987-01-01

    1 Responses to relaxant drugs have been examined on isolated KCl-contracted smooth muscle preparations from rats in which thyroid status was changed by prior treatment with either thyroxine (T4) for 1 week (preparations of pulmonary artery, trachea and vas deferens) or methimazole for 10-12 weeks (pulmonary artery preparations). 2 On pulmonary artery preparations, T4 treatment caused a significant increase in the magnitude of the relaxant responses to noradrenaline and isoprenaline but not th...

  6. Study of eventual alterations of the thyroid function in the irradiation of head-and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid function of forty-one patients with head and neck tumors, submmited to radiotherapy, were analyzed before and after the treatment through radioassay, thyroid uptake and thyroid scanning. The pathophysiology of the gland irradiated is analysed and the almost absence of modifications of the thyroid function is reported. (Author)

  7. Circulating Thyroxine, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, and Hypothyroid Status and the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Tracey Bosworth; Remaley, Alan T.; Jarmo Virtamo; Demetrius Albanes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer inc...

  8. Urticaria crónica con alteraciones de la función tiroidea y anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea Chronic urticaria with alterations of the thyroid function and thyroid peroxidase antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego S. Fernández Romero

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La urticaria crónica es una enfermedad frecuente, caracterizada por la presencia de ronchas y/o angioedema con una duración superior a las 6 semanas. En un número importante de pacientes se comporta como una enfermedad autoinmune asociada frecuentemente con alteraciones en la función tiroidea y con la presencia de anticuerpos antitiroideos. Presentamos una serie de 70 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de urticaria crónica a los cuales les investigamos la función tiroidea y la presencia de anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea. Siete (10% tenían diagnóstico de enfermedad tiroidea previa al momento de la consulta. A los 63 pacientes restantes se les estudió los niveles de tirotrofina sérica, 11 de los cuales (17% presentaron valores anormales, que sumados a los 7 con enfermedad previa llegan a 18 (26% con función tiroidea alterada. A 61 pacientes se les investigó anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea, 22 (36% fueron positivos. De 57 pacientes sin diagnóstico de patología tiroidea previa al momento de la consulta por urticaria, a los que se les estudió tanto los niveles de tirotrofina sérica como la presencia de anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea, 24 (42% presentaron alguno de los estudios alterados. El alto porcentaje de alteraciones tiroideas en nuestra serie de pacientes resalta la necesidad de estudiar la función tiroidea y la presencia de anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea en pacientes con urticaria crónica.Chronic urticaria is a frequent pathology, characterized by the presence of hives and/or angioedema lasting longer than 6 weeks. In an important number of patients it behaves as an autoimmune illness, frequently associated with alterations in thyroid function and thyroid antibodies. We herein describe a consecutive series of 70 patients with a diagnosis of chronic urticaria. Seven (10% had a diagnosis of thyroid illness previous to their first consultation. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies were studied in the

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis

  10. Fifteen-Year Follow-Up of Thyroid Status in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasher, V.; Ninan, S.; Haque, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome is relatively unknown with limited long-term follow-up data. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with Down syndrome over a 15-year period. Results: For healthy adults with Down syndrome there is a gradual increase in thyroxine…

  11. Blood biochemistry, thyroid hormones, and oxidant/antioxidant status of guinea pigs challenged with sodium arsenite or arsenic trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar; Garg, Anil Kumar; Dass, Ram Sharan; Behera, Suvendu Kumar

    2014-08-01

    The present experiment aimed to compare the two most commonly used compounds of arsenic (sodium arsenite and arsenic trioxide) for their effect on blood metabolites, thyroid hormones, and oxidant/antioxidant status in guinea pigs. Twenty-one adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into three equal groups. Animals in group T1 (control) were fed a basal diet, whereas 50 ppm arsenic was added in the basal diet either as sodium arsenite (T2) or arsenic trioxide (T3) and fed for 11 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were significantly increased along with a decrease in blood hemoglobin level in both the arsenic-administered groups. The level of erythrocytic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione reductase) was decreased and lipid peroxidation was elevated upon arsenic exposure. Serum thyroid hormone levels were reduced and arsenic levels in tissues increased in both the arsenic-exposed groups, irrespective of the arsenic compound. Thus, sodium arsenite and arsenic trioxide exerted similar adverse effects on blood metabolic profile, antioxidant status, and thyroid hormones in guinea pigs. PMID:24948398

  12. Nanometals induce stress and alter thyroid hormone action in amphibia at or below North American water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinther, Ashley; Vawda, Saadia; Skirrow, Rachel C; Veldhoen, Nik; Collins, Patricia; Cullen, Jay T; van Aggelen, Graham; Helbing, Caren C

    2010-11-01

    Nanometals are manufactured to particle sizes with diameters in the nanometer range and are included in a variety of consumer and health products. There is a lack of information regarding potential effects of these materials on aquatic organisms. Amphibians are regarded as environmental sentinels and demonstrate an exquisite sensitivity to thyroid hormone action, a hormone that is essential for human health. This present study assessed the effect of exposure to nanometals on stress and thyroid hormone signaling in frog tissue using a cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay derived from Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. The C-fin assay maintains tissue complexity and biological replication while multiple chemical responses can be assessed from the same individual. We tested the ability of nanosilver (0.06 μg/L-5.5 mg/L), quantum dots (0.25 μg/L-22 mg/L), and nanozinc oxide (0.19-10 mg/L) to alter gene expression in the presence or absence of 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results were compared to exposure to micrometer-silver, silver nitrate, and micrometer-cadmium telluride. Nanosilver (≥2.75 mg/L) and quantum dots (≥0.22 mg/L) altered the expression of transcripts linked to T(3)- and stress-mediated pathways, while nanozinc oxide had no effect. Lower concentrations of nanosilver (0.6 to 550 μg/L) perturbed T(3)-mediated signaling while not inducing cell stress. The observed effects were orders of magnitude below acute toxicity levels and occurred at or below the current North American water quality guidelines for metals, underscoring the need for evaluating nanoparticles separately from their constituent chemicals. PMID:20929207

  13. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (Pthyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (Pdisruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept. PMID:24167152

  14. Thyroid status influence on adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and complement C3 in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianhua

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid abnormalities (hyperthyroid and hypothyroid are accompanied by changes in intermediary metabolism including alterations in body weight, insulin resistance and lipid profile. The aims of this study were to examine plasma ASP, its precursor C3 and adiponectin in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects as compared to controls. Methods A total of 99 subjects were recruited from endocrinology/out-patient clinics: 46 hyperthyroid subjects, 23 hypothyroid subjects and 30 control subjects. Subjects were evaluated for FT4, FT3, TSH, glucose, insulin, complete lipid profile and the adipokines: adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and complement C3. Results Hyperthyroidism was associated with a 95% increase in adiponectin (p = 0.0002, a 47% decrease in C3 (p Conclusion These changes suggest that thyroid disease may be accompanied by changes in adipokines, which may contribute to the phenotype expressed.

  15. Iodine metabolism and thyroid functions in various species of domestic animals and poultry birds. I - Species difference in thyroid status as reflected by triiodothyronine 131I uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro triiodothyronine-131I uptake, by red blood cells was studied in buffaloes, buffaloe calves, cross-bred calves, rams, goats, piglets and also in pure white leg horn and cross-bred birds. Results revealed that buffalo calves have the lowest uptake values, whereas piglets appeared to have the highest values as compared to other species. Distinct differences in the uptake of T3-131I by the erythrocytes were observed to exist within as well as amongst the species of farm animals and poultry birds studied. Cross-breds exhibited higher degree of T3-131I uptake as compared to pure-breds. This test offers promise where more tedious methods may not be possible for conducting the survey on the thyroid status and iodine metabolism on large population of live-stock. (author)

  16. Thyroid endocrine status of wild European eels (Anguilla anguilla) in the Loire (France). Relationships with organic contaminant body burdens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, M; Marchand, J; Zalouk-Vergnoux, A; Kamari, A; Moreau, B; Blanchet-Letrouvé, I; Le Bizec, B; Mouneyrac, C; Poirier, L

    2016-04-15

    In teleost fish, thyroid function is involved in various critical physiological processes. Given the complexity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, a large number of genes and proteins can be the potential target of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate, in yellow and silver European eels (Anguilla anguilla), potential effects of EDCs on thyroid status by analyzing the associations between EDC body burdens and thyroid hormones (THs). In yellow individuals, greater free T3/T4 ratios (FT3/FT4) and lower plasma FT4 levels were associated with greater concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as highlighted by significant correlations with many congeners. Few positive relationships with alkylphenols were noticed. In contrast, silver eels usually exhibited less significant correlations between THs and contaminant loads. Expression of a series of genes involved in the HPT axis was also investigated in the silver individuals. Concerning mRNA expression in silver females, some main correlations were noticed: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHβ) gene expression was significantly correlated to numerous PCBs, and hepatic mRNA levels of deiodinase 2 (Deio 2) were negatively correlated to 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-OHF) and 2-naphtol (2-OHNa). Thyroid receptor (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels exhibited weak negative correlations with some PBDEs in silver females and males. Hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA levels were detected in all silver males but at lower levels than in silver females. In males, Vtg mRNA levels were positively associated to FT4/TT4. In silver females, strong positive correlations were found between congeners of PCBs, PBDEs and PFAS suggesting potential estrogenic effects. Overall, the observed results indicate that several organic contaminants, mainly dl-, ndl-PCBs and PBDEs, could be associated with changes in thyroid homeostasis in these fish, via direct or indirect

  17. Combined analysis of circulating epithelial cells and serum thyroglobulin for distinguishing disease status of the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Liou, Miaw-Jene; Hsu, Hsung-Ling; Hsieh, Jason Chia-Hsun; Chen, Yi-An; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Lin, Jen-Der

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounts for about 80% of the cases in thyroid cancer. Routine surveillance by serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and medical imaging is the current practice to monitor disease progression of the patients. Whether enumeration of circulating epithelial cells (CECs) helps to define disease status of PTC patients was investigated. CECs were enriched from the peripheral blood of the healthy control subjects (G1, n = 17) and the patients at disease-free status (G2, n = 26) or with distant metastasis (G3, n = 22). The number of CECs expressing epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy analyses. The medium number of EpCAM+-CECs was 6 (interquartile range 1-11), 12 (interquartile range 7-16) and 91 (interquartile range 31-206) cells/ml of blood for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. EpCAM+-CEC counts were significantly higher in G3 than in G1 (p < 0.05) and G2 (p < 0.05). The medium number of TSHR+-CECs was 9 (interquartile range 3-13), 16 (interquartile range 10-24) and 100 (interquartile range 31-226) cells/ml of blood for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The TSHR+-CEC counts also distinguished G3 from G1 (p < 0.05) and G2 (p < 0.05). With an appropriate cut off value of CEC count, the disease status for 97.9% (47/48) of the cases was clearly defined. Notably, the metastatic disease for all patients in G3 (22/22) was revealed by combined analysis of serum Tg and CEC. This study implicates that CEC testing can supplement the current standard methods for monitoring disease status of PTC. PMID:26684026

  18. The Danish investigation on iodine intake and thyroid disease, DanThyr: status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P.; Jørgensen, T.; Perrild, H.;

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Denmark was an area of iodine deficiency, and mandatory iodine fortification of table salt and salt in bread (13 p.p.m. iodine) was initiated in 2000/2001. The Danish investigation on iodine intake and thyroid disease (DanThyr) is the monitoring of the iodine fortification program...... compilation of data from the national registers on the use of thyroid medication, thyroid surgery, and radioiodine therapy. Studies were carried-out in parallel in subcohorts living in areas with differences in iodine content of ground water. Results: The study showed profound effects of even small...... differences in iodine intake level on the prevalence of goiter, nodules, and thyroid dysfunction. Mild and moderate iodine deficiency was associated with a decrease in serum TSH with age. Other environmental factors were also important for goiter development (increase in risk, smoking and pregnancy; decrease...

  19. Alterations in local thyroid hormone signaling in the hippocampus of the SAMP8 mouse at younger ages: association with delayed myelination and behavioral abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawano, Erika; Negishi, Takayuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Masami; Tashiro, Tomoko

    2013-03-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains were established through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain based on phenotypic variations of aging and consist of senescence-prone (SAMP) and senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Among them, SAMP8 is considered as a model of neurodegeneration displaying age-associated learning and memory impairment and altered emotional status. Because adult hypothyroidism is one of the common causes of cognitive impairment and various psychiatric disorders, we examined the possible involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the pathological aging of SAMP8 using the senescence-resistant SAMR1 as control. Although plasma TH levels were similar in both strains, a significant decrease in type 2 deiodinase (D2) gene expression was observed in the SAMP8 hippocampus from 1 to 8 months of age, which led to a 35-50% reductions at the protein level and 20% reduction of its enzyme activity at 1, 3, and 5 months. D2 is responsible for local conversion of thyroxine into transcriptionally active 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), so the results suggest a reduction in T3 level in the SAMP8 hippocampus. Attenuation of local TH signaling was confirmed by downregulation of TH-dependent genes and by immunohistochemical demonstration of delayed and reduced accumulation of myelin basic protein, the expression of which is highly dependent on TH. Furthermore, we found that hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were not age-associated but were characteristic of young SAMP8 before they start showing impairments in learning and memory. Early alterations in local TH signaling may thus underlie behavioral abnormalities as well as the pathological aging of SAMP8. PMID:23224839

  20. THE THYROID GLAND STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS DURING STANDARD THERAPY AND BIOLOGICAL THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    G. R. Akhunova; F V Valeeva; I. G. Salikhov

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the condition of the thyroid gland in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) during standard therapy and biologicaltherapy (infliximab).Subjects and methods. Twenty-six patients with AS were examined; some of them received biological therapy with infliximab, while the others took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The structuralunctional state of thyroid gland was evaluated in all patients. The effect of therapy was evaluated by the ASAS criteria. The efficiency of the...

  1. Cardioprotective effects of lipoic acid, quercetin and resveratrol on oxidative stress related to thyroid hormone alterations in long-term obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheserek, Maureen Jepkorir; Wu, Guirong; Li, Longnan; Li, Lirong; Karangwa, Eric; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated possible mechanisms for cardioprotective effects of lipoic acid (LA), quercetin (Q) and resveratrol (R) on oxidative stress related to thyroid hormone alterations in long-term obesity. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed on high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+LA, HFD+R, HFD+Q and normal diet for 26weeks. Body weight, blood pressure, thyroid hormones, oxidative stress markers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and ion pump activities were measured, and expression of cardiac genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. HFD induced marked increase (Pblood pressure and oxidative stress, while plasma triidothyronine levels reduced. ACE activity increased (Pblood pressure. In conclusion, LA, resveratrol and quercetin supplementation reduces obesity thereby restoring plasma thyroid hormone levels and attenuating oxidative stress in the heart and thus may have therapeutic potential in heart diseases. PMID:27260466

  2. Differential gene regulation under altered gravity conditions in follicular thyroid cancer cells: relationship between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Pietsch, Jessica; Grosse, Jirka; Wehland, Markus; Schulz, Herbert; Saar, Katrin; Hübner, Norbert; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Braun, Markus; van Loon, Jack; Vagt, Nicole; Egli, Marcel; Richter, Peter; Einspanier, Ralf; Sharbati, Soroush; Baltz, Theo; Infanger, Manfred; Ma, Xiao; Grimm, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and cytoskeletal proteins form a dynamic network interacting with signalling molecules as an adaptive response to altered gravity. An important issue is the exact differentiation between real microgravity responses of the cells or cellular reactions to hypergravity and/or vibrations. To determine the effects of real microgravity on human cells, we used four DLR parabolic flight campaigns and focused on the effects of short-term microgravity (22 s), hypergravity (1.8 g), and vibrations on ML-1 thyroid cancer cells. No signs of apoptosis or necrosis were detectable. Gene array analysis revealed 2,430 significantly changed transcripts. After 22 s microgravity, the F-actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton was altered, and ACTB and KRT80 mRNAs were significantly upregulated after the first and thirty-first parabolas. The COL4A5 mRNA was downregulated under microgravity, whereas OPN and FN were significantly upregulated. Hypergravity and vibrations did not change ACTB, KRT-80 or COL4A5 mRNA. MTSS1 and LIMA1 mRNAs were downregulated/slightly upregulated under microgravity, upregulated in hypergravity and unchanged by vibrations. These data indicate that the graviresponse of ML-1 cells occurred very early, within the first few seconds. Downregulated MTSS1 and upregulated LIMA1 may be an adaptive mechanism of human cells for stabilizing the cytoskeleton under microgravity conditions. PMID:21865726

  3. Differential gene expression profile and altered cytokine secretion of thyroid cancer cells in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Pietsch, Jessica; Wehland, Markus; Schulz, Herbert; Saar, Katrin; Hübner, Norbert; Bauer, Johann; Braun, Markus; Schwarzwälder, Achim; Segerer, Jürgen; Birlem, Maria; Horn, Astrid; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Waßer, Kai; Grosse, Jirka; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2014-02-01

    This study focuses on the effects of short-term [22 s, parabolic flight campaign (PFC)] and long-term (10 d, Shenzhou 8 space mission) real microgravity on changes in cytokine secretion and gene expression patterns in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells. FTC-133 cells were cultured in space and on a random positioning machine (RPM) for 10 d, to evaluate differences between real and simulated microgravity. Multianalyte profiling was used to evaluate 128 secreted cytokines. Microarray analysis revealed 63 significantly regulated transcripts after 22 s of microgravity during a PFC and 2881 after 10 d on the RPM or in space. Genes in several biological processes, including apoptosis (n=182), cytoskeleton (n=80), adhesion/extracellular matrix (n=98), proliferation (n=184), stress response (n=268), migration (n=63), angiogenesis (n=39), and signal transduction (n=429), were differentially expressed. Genes and proteins involved in the regulation of cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, such as IL6, IL8, IL15, OPN, VEGFA, VEGFD, FGF17, MMP2, MMP3, TIMP1, PRKAA, and PRKACA, were similarly regulated under RPM and spaceflight conditions. The resulting effect was mostly antiproliferative. Gene expression during the PFC was often regulated in the opposite direction. In summary, microgravity is an invaluable tool for exploring new targets in anticancer therapy and can be simulated in some aspects in ground-based facilities. PMID:24196587

  4. Study of altered platelet morphology with changes in glycaemic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitakshara Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that platelet morphology is altered with increasing glycaemic levels. These changes can be known by measurements of PVI which is an important simple and effortless tool can be used more extensively to predict the acute vascular events and thereby help curb morbidity and mortality. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 757-761

  5. Thyroid scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PET scan Skin nodules Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma Toxic nodular goiter ... Topics Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Nuclear Scans Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Diseases Thyroid Tests Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  6. Thyroid status and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid function, lipid peroxidation (LPO) products content and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus are studied. The levels of malonic dialdehyde, vitamins A, C and E, reduced glutathion, and activity of enzymatic antioxidants were measured in the blood of 60 women living in Minsk and 90 pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The functions of the thyroid was assessed from the blood levels of tri-iodothyronine, thyroxin, thyroidbinding globulin, and T4/TSH ratio. It is shown that the content of LPO products is increased higher and the levels of antioxidant vitamins and reduced glutathion decreased lower in the residents of contaminated territories. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in pregnant women depend on the function of the thyroid

  7. The Danish investigation on iodine intake and thyroid disease, DanThyr: status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P.; Jørgensen, T.; Perrild, H.; Ovsen, L.; Knudsen, N.; Pedersen, I. B.; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Carlé, A.; Vejbjerg, P.

    2006-01-01

    in risk, oral contraception and alcohol consumption), and the individual risk depended on the genetic background. Environmental factors had only a minor influence on the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in the population. There were more cases of overt hypothyroidism in mild than in moderate...... differences in iodine intake level on the prevalence of goiter, nodules, and thyroid dysfunction. Mild and moderate iodine deficiency was associated with a decrease in serum TSH with age. Other environmental factors were also important for goiter development (increase in risk, smoking and pregnancy; decrease...

  8. Exposure to2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) alters thyroid hormone levels and thyroid hormone-regulated gene transcription in manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Miao, Jingjing; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have the potential to disturb the thyroid endocrine system in vertebrates, but little is known about the disruptive effects of PBDEs on marine bivalves. In this study, we first examined the effects of BDE-47 exposure on growth of juvenile manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum. The result showed that 1.0 and 10 μg L(-1) BDE-47 had adverse effects on 14-d shell-length growth of juvenile clams. Then, one-year-old adult clams were exposed to 0, 0.1 and 1 μg L(-1) BDE-47 for 15 d. BDE-47 (1 μg L(-1)) exposure caused significant decreases of total T4 (thyroxine) by 40% and T3 (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine) by 75% concentrations in haemolymph of the clams. Transcription of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism were also studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Gene expression levels of sodium iodide symporter (rp-NIS), iodothyronine deiodinase (rp-Deio) and thyroid peroxidase (rp-TPO) were increased in a dose-dependent manner at day 5 and day 10, while monocarboxylate transporter 8 (rp-Mct8) was downregulated at day 5, day 10 and day 15. The effect and preliminary mechanism observed in the present study were consistent with the results from previous studies on rodent and fish, implying that exposure to BDE-47 may pose threat to thyroid hormone homeostasis in bivalves through thyroid synthesis and metabolism pathways. This study may provide a first step towards understanding of the thyroid function disruptive effects of PBDEs on marine bivalves and the underlying mechanism across taxonomic groups and phyla. PMID:26943874

  9. Risk assessment of thyroid follicular cell tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, R. N.; Crisp, T M; Hurley, P M; Rosenthal, S L; Singh, D. V.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid follicular cell tumors arise in rodents from mutations, perturbations of thyroid and pituitary hormone status with increased stimulation of thyroid cell growth by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or a combination of the two. The only known human thyroid carcinogen is ionizing radiation. It is not known for certain whether chemicals that affect thyroid cell growth lead to human thyroid cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency applies the following science policy positions: 1)...

  10. Alterations in Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal/Thyroid Axes and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Patients with Primary Insomnia: A Clinical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Xia; Gui-Hai Chen; Zhi-Hua Li; Song Jiang; Jianhua Shen

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-target gland axis is thought to be linked with insomnia, yet there has been a lack of further systematic studies to prove this. This study included 30 patients with primary insomnia (PI), 30 patients with depression-comorbid insomnia (DCI), and 30 healthy controls for exploring the alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal/thyroid axes' hormones and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to evaluate sleep quality i...

  11. Maternal iodine status and the thyroid function of pregnant mothers and their neonates in Jaffna District of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavukkarasu Yoganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine status of pregnant women and their newborns have not been studied in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. This study was planned to assess the maternal iodine status and thyroid function at the third trimester of gestation and the thyrotrophin level of their neonate. Methods: Four hundred and seventy-seven pregnant women and their newborns were randomly selected among six Medical Officers of Health Divisions out of 12 in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. Maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (fT4, thyroglobulin (Tg, urinary iodine levels, and the neonatal thyrotrophin (nTSH level were assessed. Results: In this study, mean age, weight, height, and gestational age of the mothers were 28.95 (±5.46 years, 63.02 (±11.56 kg, 154.39 (±6.00 cm, and 39.33 (±1.37 weeks, respectively. Maternal median urinary iodine concentration (UIC was 140.0 μg/L (inter-quartile range 126.0–268.0 μg/L. Median values of the maternal serum TSH, fT4,and Tg were 1.9 mIU/L, 12.6 pmol/L, and 21.4 IU/L, respectively. Among the 477 newborns, 50.5% (n = 239 were males. Mean birth weight of newborn was 3.03 (±0.43 kg, while the mean length was 51.1 (±2.1 cm. Among the newborns, 18% (n = 86 had nTSH level > mIU/L and 37.7% (n = 180 within TSH level > mIU/L. nTSH level had positive but very weak correlations with maternal thyroid parameters, that is, UIC (r = 0.06, P = 0.13, fT4 (r = 0.01, P = 0.05, TSH (r = 0.09, P = 0.05, and Tg (r = 0.12, P = 0.03. Conclusion: On the basis of the World Health Organization criteria, the iodine status of pregnant women was inadequate in this region and also nTSH levels indicate moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Therefore, the continuous education on adequate iodine intake during pregnancy and monitoring of iodine status are useful.

  12. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F;

    2015-01-01

    hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of...... nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis...... may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism....

  13. Effects of PBDE-47 on thyroid and steroid hormone status in juvenile turbot (Schophtalamus maximus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, G.; Tyrhaug, I.B.; Sormo, E.G. [Dept. of Biology, Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Andersen, O.K. [Rogaland Research Akvamiljo, Mekjarvik (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Many of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) chemicals, and particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), has become of increasing concern to scientists over the past decade. Many of the PBDEs are persistent and lipophilic and have been shown to bioaccumulate. The levels of PBDEs in biota seem to be increasing, and several trends, including in humans, indicate that this increase may be rapid1. In general, BFRs have a low acute toxicity, but there is concern about their long-term toxic effects. Exposure studies have revealed a range of subtle biochemical, cellular and physiological effects following low-dose exposure, and many BFRs have been reported to have endocrine disruptive properties. Thus, there is concern about their potential to affect organisms and populations. Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in organism's development, metabolism, growth and behavior. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) including BFRs may affect the thyroid system through several mechanisms. They may directly affect the thyroid gland function, the peripheral metabolism of THs and/or the binding of THs to plasma transport proteins. Effects of PHAHs on TH homeostasis have been documented in a number of species, including fish. Du to its persistence against degradation PBDE-47 is among the most abundant PBDE congener in biota, and there is a great concern about its ecotoxicological effects on organisms and populations. The aim of the present study was to examine if PBDE-47 may affect levels of circulating steroid and thyroid hormones in juvenile turbot (Scophtalamus maximus). The turbot is a benthic living flatfish that can be exposed to PHAHs via the sediment living organisms. Thus, plasma levels of T, E, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were determined in juvenile turbot that had been continuously exposed to PBDE-47 via water for 3 weeks.

  14. Alterations of nutritional status: impact of chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nutritional status of a cancer patient may be affected by the tumor, the chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy directed against the tumor, and by complications associated with that therapy. Chemotherpay-radiotherapy is not confined exclusively to malignant cell populations; thus, normal tissues may also be affected by the therapy and may contribute to specific nutritional problems. Impaired nutrition due to anorexia, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may be dependent upon the specific chemotherapeutic agent, dose, or schedule utilized. Similar side effects from radiation therapy depend upon the dose, fractionation, and volume irradiated. When combined modality treatment is given the nutritional consequences may be magnified. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are underway to investigate the efficacy of nutritional support during chemotherapy-radiotherapy on tolerance to treatment, complications from treatment, and response rates to treatment. Preliminary results demonstrate that the administration of total parenteral nutrition is successful in maintaining weight during radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but that weight loss occurs after discontinuation of nutritional support. Thus, longterm evaluation is mandatory to learn the impact of nutritional support on survival, diease-free survival, and complication rates, as well as on the possible prevention of morbidity associated with aggressive chemotherapy-radiation therapy

  15. Alteration of Oxidative Status in Rats Following Administration of Acrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. El-Sayed1, Shawkia S. Abd El- Halim1,

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR is a known industrial neurotoxic and carcinogenic chemical in rodents. The recent discovery of acrylamide in wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms. Objective: The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of acrylamide administration on in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH as well as copper and zinc superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (Cu/Zn SOD of rats. Material and Methods: Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups each containing "7" rats. Group 1 served as negative control fed on basal diet and group 2 (positive control received basal diet and acrylamide (0.34g/ kg diet for 11 days. Levels of MDA, GSH and activity of SOD were determined in liver, kidneys, brain, heart, testes, spleen and lungs of rats. Results: ACR treatment significantly increased MDA in all organs; the highest increase was detected in testis (87.9% and heart (71.5% while the lowest one was found in kidneys (28.2%. On the other hand, GSH levels and SOD activities were significantly reduced in ACR treated rats. However, the reduction of GSH level ranged from 10.2% to 36.5 %.The inhibition of SOD activities were higher in testis (57.3% and lungs (38.5%. Conclusion: The present study showed that ACR exerts deteriorated effects on oxidative status of rats

  16. Altered Mental Status in a Child With an Unwitnessed Fall: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurat, Michelle R; Zaia, Brita E

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of altered mental status in a 5-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department after presumed head trauma. A computed tomography head was conducted and its findings were normal, and the boy was discharged home. He returned the next day with persistent altered mental status and was found to have an abnormal MR brain suggestive of embolic strokes. An echocardiogram revealed a large atrial mass that was later confirmed by pathology to be an atrial myxoma. This is a unique and, to our knowledge, unreported presentation of a known but rare disease process in a pediatric patient. PMID:27253357

  17. Alterations in lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falguni H Panchal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus (LP, a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disorder, wherein inflammation produces lipid metabolism disturbances, is linked to increase in cardiovascular (CV risk with dyslipidemia. Increased reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides have also been implicated in its pathogenesis. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the status on lipid disturbances, oxidative stress, and inflammation in LP patients. Materials and Methods: The study was initiated after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee permission and written informed consent from participants. The study included 125 patients (74 LP patients and 51 age and sex-matched controls visiting the outpatient clinic in the dermatology department of our hospital. Variables analyzed included lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and catalase (CAT activity. Results: Analysis of lipid parameters revealed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C along with decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. LP patients also presented with a significantly higher atherogenic index that is, (TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios than the controls. A significant increase in CRP levels was observed among the LP patients. There was a statistically significant increase in the serum levels of the lipid peroxidation product, MDA and a statistically significant decrease in CAT activity in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. A statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.96 was observed between serum MDA levels and duration of LP whereas a significantly negative correlation (r = −0.76 was seen between CAT activity and LP duration. Conclusion: Chronic inflammation in patients with LP may explain the association with dyslipidemia and CV risk. Our findings also suggest that an increase in

  18. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Misa Agustiño

    2012-07-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats were individually exposed for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM cell at different levels of non-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR, which was calculated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD technique. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01 after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10 W/Kg or 0.104±5.10−3 W/Kg. Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity.

  19. Involvement of heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfation in the regulation of energy metabolism and the alteration of thyroid hormone levels in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Naoko; Habuchi, Hiroko; Sugaya, Noriko; Nakamura, Masao; Imamura, Toru; Watanabe, Hideto; Kimata, Koji

    2013-08-01

    Here, we report that male heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase-2 (Hs6st2) knockout mice showed increased body weight in an age-dependent manner even when fed with a normal diet and showed a phenotype of impaired glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins Ucp1 and Ucp3 was reduced in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) of male Hs6st2 knockout mice, suggesting reduced energy metabolism. The serum level of thyroid-stimulating hormone was significantly higher and that of thyroxine was lower in the knockout mice. When cultures of brown adipocytes from wild-type and Hs6st2 knockout mice isolated and differentiated in vitro were treated with FGF19 (fibroblast growth factor 19) or FGF21 in the presence or the absence of heparitinase I, phosphorylation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase was reduced. Heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-sulfation was reduced not only in BAT but also in the thyroid tissue of the knockout mice. Thus, 6-O-sulfation in HS seems to play an important role in mediating energy metabolism by controlling thyroid hormone levels and signals from the FGF19 subfamily proteins, and the alteration of the HS composition may result in metabolic syndrome phenotypes such as altered glucose and insulin tolerance. PMID:23690091

  20. The association between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in its reference range and bone status in postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martha Savaria

    2007-04-01

    Evidence suggests that hyperthyroidism adversely affects bone, but the condition is rare and probably contributes little to postmenopausal osteoporosis. Subclinical hyperthyroidism, which can result from treatment with L-thyroxine, is more common, but its relationship to osteoporosis and fracture is uncertain. A recent study of healthy, postmenopausal Koreans with no history of thyroid disease reported associations between both below-normal and low-normal circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and osteoporosis. These findings raise the hypothesis that variation in thyroid function, or TSH itself, affects bone in normal women. In the present research, we used data collected in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine associations between TSH, as it varies over its reference range, and bone status in healthy, postmenopausal American women. In some analyses, we used osteoporosis and osteopenia defined according to World Health Organization guidelines as the outcome variable. In others, we used bone mineral density (BMD) as a continuum. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, serum T(4), estrogen replacement therapy, smoking, and physical activity level, the odds ratios (95% CI) relating TSH between 0.39 and 1.8 mIU/L (the median of the reference range) versus TSH between 1.8 and 4.5 to osteoporosis and osteopenia were 3.4 (95% CI, 1.3-9.2) and 2.2 (1.2-3.8), respectively. Furthermore, BMD increased significantly as TSH increased over its reference range in both black and white women. After multivariate adjustment, least-square mean BMD for non-Hispanic white women in the bottom serum TSH quintile category was 0.79 g/cm(2) (95% CI, 0.76-0.82), as compared to 0.83 g/cm(2) (95% CI, 0.8-0.85) for those in the top quintile category. Least-square mean BMD (95% CI) for non-Hispanic black women in the bottom serum TSH quintile category was 0.85 g/cm(2) (95% CI, 0.81-0.89). For non-Hispanic black women in the

  1. Radioactive contamination. Italian programme to monitor the radiocesium levels in the urine and thyroid status of exposed children from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1995, following the accident at Chernobyl, the Italian Red Cross has hosted about 2,000 children from the contaminated zones of Belorussia and the Ukraine. The purpose of the project was to ensure, by temporary removal of the children from the contaminated areas, an improvement in their general well-being with both physical and psychological benefits. In the current work, in particular, the results reported are of a study carried out in order to evaluate radioactive contamination levels and the medical surveillance of the thyroid status of the exposed children after the fall-out of the accident at Chernobyl. During the course of the research 400 children were examined, masculine and feminine, between the ages of 6 and 16. The children from Belorussia were hosted by families in Tuscany and the children from the Ukraine were hosted in the Corpomiles Center of the Italian Red Cross in Lazio. The children were hosted for a period of 30 days in our country and many have returned since then and we have repeated the same analyses. In the current work a radiometric analysis was carried out on the children's urine samples to find Cs-137 and Cs-134. The concentration of the two radionuclides was measured at the beginning and end of the children's stay in Italy. The two radionuclides were collected over a period of 24 hours. Moreover, a scan of the thyroid was carried out on the same children to discover the potential presence of a glandular tumour of pathological form caused by I-131. The results of the spectrometric analyses give indications as to the degree of radioactivity contamination in the children relative to their different home countries. The results confirm the existence of a chronic radioactive contamination due to a balanced diet of contaminated food. The analysis of the thyroid also demonstrated small to medium lymphadenopaties latero cervical. In conclusion, data collected from our present multidisciplinary work shows a decrease of around 30% in Cs-137

  2. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 14. Read More Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Laryngeal nerve damage Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid gland removal Patient Instructions Thyroid gland ...

  3. Metabolic alteration of urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women, and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Bong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic changes in urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. Methods Quantitative steroid profiling combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure the urinary concentrations of 84 steroids in both pre- (n = 21, age: 36.95 ± 7.19 yr and post-menopausal female (n = 19, age: 52.79 ± 7.66 yr, and male (n = 16, age: 41.88 ± 8.48 yr patients with PTC. After comparing the quantitative data of the patients with their corresponding controls (pre-menopause women: n = 24, age: 33.21 ± 10.48 yr, post-menopause women: n = 16, age: 49.67 ± 8.94 yr, male: n = 20, age: 42.75 ± 4.22 yr, the levels of steroids in the patients were normalized to the mean concentration of the controls to exclude gender and menopausal variations. Results Many urinary steroids were up-regulated in all PTC patients compared to the controls. Among them, the levels of three active androgens, androstenedione, androstenediol and 16α-hydroxy DHEA, were significantly higher in the pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. The corticoid levels were increased slightly in the PTC men, while progestins were not altered in the post-menopausal PTC women. Estrogens were up-regulated in all PTC patients but 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol were remarkably changed in both pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. For both menopausal and gender differences, the 2-hydroxylation, 4-hydroxylation, 2-methoxylation, and 4-methoxylation of estrogens and 16α-hydroxylation of DHEA were differentiated between pre- and post-menopausal PTC women (P P -7. Conclusions These results are expected be helpful for better understanding the pathogenic differences in PTC according to gender and menopausal conditions.

  4. Thyroid function and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Silvia; Radetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the biggest health emergencies in the developed countries. Obesity leads to multiple metabolic alterations which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid function has been often described as altered in obese children, however, it is not clear whether the altered thyroid function is the cause or the consequence of fat excess. On the other hand, thyroid structure seems also to be affected. Nevertheless, both functional and structural alterations seem to improve after weight loss and therefore no treatment is needed. PMID:23149391

  5. Thyroid and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ghianda, S; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common in the general population especially in women. All thyroid diseases are in fact more common in women than in men and may interfere with the reproductive system. Thyroid function and the gonadal axes are related throughout the woman's fertile period. The relationship between the two glands is mutual. In particular, thyroid hormones affect the reproductive function both directly and indirectly through several actions. Studies on the relationship between menopause and thyroid function are few and do not allow to clarify whether menopause has an effect on the thyroid regardless of aging. With aging, the main changes regarding thyroid physiology and function are: a reduction of thyroid iodine uptake, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine synthesis and catabolism of free thyroxine while reverse triiodothyronine increases; the level of thyroid stimulating hormone remains normal with sometimes a tendency to higher limits. These changes are present in both sexes without distinction between males and females. The complexity of the relationships can be summarized in three aspects: thyroid status does not influence significantly the climacteric syndrome; menopause may modify the clinical expression of some thyroid diseases, particularly the autoimmune ones; thyroid function is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of the complications of menopause. However, coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis may be aggravated in the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on thyroxine requirements in women with hypothyroidism should be considered. PMID:23998691

  6. Prevalence of c.2268dup and detection of two novel alterations, c.670_672del and c.1186C>T, in the TPO gene in a cohort of Malaysian–Chinese with thyroid dyshormonogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ching Chin; Harun, Fatimah; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Heh, Choon Han; Othman, Rozana; Junit, Sarni Mat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The c.2268dup mutation in the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene is the most common TPO alteration reported in Taiwanese patients with thyroid dyshormonogenesis. The ancestors of these patients are believed to originate from the southern province of China. Our previous study showed that this mutation leads to reduced abundance of the TPO protein and loss of TPO enzyme activity in a Malaysian–Chinese family with goitrous hypothyroidism. The aim of our study was to provide further data on...

  7. Current status of PET imaging of differentiated thyroid cancer with second generation radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is favorable, some histotypes show worst clinical outcome and higher risk of recurrence. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and 131I-whole-body-scan (WBS), together with neck ultrasound (US), represent the golden standard for DTC follow-up. Nevertheless, the relatively high frequency of patients with high Tg levels and negative WBS requires further investigations by using new imaging modalities. The availability of whole body positron emission tomography (PET) methods, in parallel with the advances in radiochemistry, offer a wide substrate for many solutions. To this day 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT still represents the imaging of choice in follow-up of patients with high serum Tg and negative 131I-WBS but in the last decades the research has focused on finding “second generation” radiopharmaceuticals for PET imaging, with both diagnostic and prognostic purposes, aiming to change the way to image thyroid cancer. Moreover, the use of various PET radiopharmaceuticals, that offer the possibility to explore different pathways involved in thyroid cancer, could find important applications in the near future for clinical decision making in order to program tailored treatments and follow-up. It would be desirable to use the same radiopharmaceutical for both imaging and dosimetric purpose to achieve a tailored therapy. Many efforts are focused in this direction and 124I-PET/CT is now emerging as a valid tool in restaging and therapy management of DTC with promising results. Although the preliminary data available in literature require a confirmation in larger studies with longer follow-up, we think that in next future 124-PET/CT could gain an important role for management of DTC. The aim of this review was to perform a systematic analysis of literature describing the state of art of “second generation” PET-radiopharmaceuticals for imaging DTC. Discussion is focused on the utility of 124I

  8. Metabolic alteration of urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women, and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the metabolic changes in urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Quantitative steroid profiling combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure the urinary concentrations of 84 steroids in both pre- (n = 21, age: 36.95 ± 7.19 yr) and post-menopausal female (n = 19, age: 52.79 ± 7.66 yr), and male (n = 16, age: 41.88 ± 8.48 yr) patients with PTC. After comparing the quantitative data of the patients with their corresponding controls (pre-menopause women: n = 24, age: 33.21 ± 10.48 yr, post-menopause women: n = 16, age: 49.67 ± 8.94 yr, male: n = 20, age: 42.75 ± 4.22 yr), the levels of steroids in the patients were normalized to the mean concentration of the controls to exclude gender and menopausal variations. Many urinary steroids were up-regulated in all PTC patients compared to the controls. Among them, the levels of three active androgens, androstenedione, androstenediol and 16α-hydroxy DHEA, were significantly higher in the pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. The corticoid levels were increased slightly in the PTC men, while progestins were not altered in the post-menopausal PTC women. Estrogens were up-regulated in all PTC patients but 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol were remarkably changed in both pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. For both menopausal and gender differences, the 2-hydroxylation, 4-hydroxylation, 2-methoxylation, and 4-methoxylation of estrogens and 16α-hydroxylation of DHEA were differentiated between pre- and post-menopausal PTC women (P < 0.001). In particular, the metabolic ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol, which could reveal the enzyme activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, showed gender differences in PTC patients (P < 1 × 10-7). These results are expected be helpful for better understanding the pathogenic differences in PTC according to gender and menopausal conditions

  9. Cytokine Status, Thyroid Autoantibodies and Their Dynamic Changes During the Treatment of Graves' Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Lazanovich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been found during the research that the changes of Th1 and Th2 marker cytokine content in Graves Disease are dynamic and are directly correlated not only with the severity of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, but also with the method of treatment used and duration of Thiamazole therapy. The beginning of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis shows the largest amounts of both pro-inflammatory (IL-1a, IL-8, IFN-γ and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines which are significantly reduced during Thiamazole therapy, with the exception of the cases of severe disease course. Thyroid resection does not result in immunologic remission either, which is confirmed by persisting high serum levels of IL-1a, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10 and TSH antibodies in the severe GBD group. Among the unfavorable prognostic factors for recurrent disease are high serum levels of TSH antibodies, IL-1a and IFN-γ during pre-surgery period.

  10. Low-Normal Thyroid Function and Novel Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnda J.N. van Tienhoven-Wind

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures.

  11. Low-normal thyroid function and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2015-01-01

    The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures. PMID:25690422

  12. Association between postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid antibodies and depression.

    OpenAIRE

    B. Harris; Othman, S.; Davies, J. A.; Weppner, G. J.; Richards, C J; Newcombe, R G; Lazarus, J H; Parkes, A. B.; Hall, R; Phillips, D I

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To define the relation between mood and autoimmune thyroid dysfunction during the eight months after delivery. DESIGN--Double blind comparison of the psychiatric status of women positive and negative for thyroid antibodies. Clinical examination and blood sampling for free triiodothyronine and thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and thyroid antibody concentrations at four weekly intervals. Psychiatric assessment at six, eight, 12, 20, and 28 weeks post partum. SETTING--Outpatien...

  13. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  14. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Caroline [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  15. Undifferentiated altered mental status: a late presentation of toxic acetaminophen ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Thomas E; Melnick, Edward R

    2012-01-01

    Altered mental status is a common undifferentiated presentation in the emergency department. We describe a case of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure that was diagnosed and treated prior to obtaining definitive historical or laboratory information about the etiology. The physical exam finding of scleral icterus in this case was a key element to rapid identification and treatment of this life-threatening condition. A discussion of appropriate N-acetylcysteine treatment for acute liver failure and acetaminophen intoxication is included. PMID:23326702

  16. Undifferentiated Altered Mental Status: A Late Presentation of Toxic Acetaminophen Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Robey, Thomas E.; Melnick, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered mental status is a common undifferentiated presentation in the emergency department. We describe a case of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure that was diagnosed and treated prior to obtaining definitive historical or laboratory information about the etiology. The physical exam finding of scleral icterus in this case was a key element to rapid identification and treatment of this life-threatening condition. A discussion of appropriate N-acetylcysteine treatment for acute liver f...

  17. Accuracy of the initial diagnosis among patients with an acutely altered mental status

    OpenAIRE

    Sporer, KA; Solares, M; Edward, JD; Wang, W.; Alan, HBW; Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this prospective observational study were to: (1) determine the accuracy of physician diagnosis in patients with an acutely altered mental status (AMS) within the first 20 min of emergency department (ED) presentation; and (2) access if physician confidence in early diagnosis correlates with accuracy of diagnosis. Methods: A prospective observational convenience study was conducted of 112 adult patients who presented to an urban county ED with AMS (Glasgow Coma S...

  18. Altered mental status and complete heart block: an unusual presentation of aspirin toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Kupfer, Yizhak; Chawla, Kabu; Tessler, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most commonly used medications. We report a patient who presented with severe weakness, altered mental status and complete heart block requiring temporary pacing. Despite the patient's family denying that the patient used aspirin, an arterial blood gas that revealed a respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis suggested the diagnosis of salicylate toxicity. The salicylate level was extremely elevated and the patient was successfully treated with haemodialysis. Our case...

  19. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Body in Balance › Thyroid Nodules Fact Sheet Thyroid Nodules March 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Hindi ... Singer, MD Leonard Wartofsky, MD What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped ...

  20. The value of electroencephalography in differential diagnosis of altered mental status in emergency departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of electroencephalography in patients with altered mental status in emergency departments. Methods: Demographical characteristics, types and aetiologies of seizures, and clinical outcomes of the patients were recorded. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the complaints of admission: findings and symptoms of seizure; stroke and symptoms of stroke-related seizures; syncope; and metabolic abnormalities and other causes of altered mental status. The electroencephalography findings were classified into 3 groups: epileptiform discharges; paroxysmal electroencephalography abnormalities; and background slowing. Electroencephalography abnormalities in each subgroup were evaluated. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 190 patients in the study, 117(61.6%) had pathological electroencephalography findings. The main reason for electroencephalography in the emergency department was the presence of seizure findings and symptoms in 98(51.6%) patients. The ratio of electroencephalography abnormality was higher in patients who were admitted with complaints of metabolic abnormality-related consciousness disturbances (p<0.001). A total of 124(65.3%) patients had neuroimagings. Electroencephalography abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in patients with neuroimagings compared to those without neuroimagings (p<0.003). Conclusion: Despite advanced neuroimaging techniques, electroencephalography is still an important tool in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status such as epileptic seizures, metabolic abnormalities, pseudo-seizures and syncope. (author)

  1. Clinical Concepts on Thyroid Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    AlfredoPontecorvi; GiampaoloPapi; SalvatoreMariaCorsello

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland that are so severe that require admission to intensive care units frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC) and thyrotoxic storm (TS), including ther...

  2. Effects of a Single Venous Dose of Zinc on Thyroid Status in Healthy Individuals and Patients With Graves' Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqi, Lubna; Gláucia M. F. S. Mazeto; Shuhama, Tadao; Brandão-Neto, José

    2000-01-01

    Zinc metabolism may regulate thyroid function acting at TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) synthesis, peripheral deiodination of T4 (tetraiodothyronine), and binding of thyroid hormones to nuclear receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute zinc administration on TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), FT3 (free triiodothyronine), and FT4 (free tetraiodothyronine) in 10 healthy individuals and 12 hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. All these individuals were st...

  3. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated as a result of Chernobyl accident: status and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer incidence in the human population of Belarus irradiated in childhood for the period passed after the Chernobyl accident is analysed and potential perspectives for development of disease incidence in exposed population during life span. Thyroid cancer cases in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated due to the Chernobyl accident are predicted using the additive model with modified parameters. Predicted values are shown to be in good agreement with the actual data on thyroid cancer cases in children aged 0-6

  4. Examination of the somatostatin receptor status in non-medullary thyroid cancer; Untersuchungen zum Somatostatinrezeptor-Status bei nicht-medullaeren Schilddruesenkarzinomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerges, R.; Brandt-Mainz, K.; Bockisch, A. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kahaly, G. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Medizin - Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen; Mueller-Brand, J.; Maecke, H. [Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Walgenbach, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemein- und Abdominalchirurgie; Bruns, C. [Praeklinische Forschung Novartis, Basel (Switzerland); Andreas, J. [Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-06-01

    Aim: Recent in-vitro and in-vivo studies demonstrated a somatostatin receptor expression in some non-medullary thyroid carcinomas. In this study we investigated the somatostatin receptor status for this particular tumor entity in a larger patient group. Subject and methods: We compared 131-iodine with 111-In-pentetreotide scans in 24 patients with metastasizing, non-medullary thyroid cancer. The findings were correlated with other imaging modalities. Additionally, we performed receptor autoradiography in one patient, octreotide therapy in another patient and administration of 90-Y- and 111-In-DOTATOC in 2 consecutive patients. Results: In the 15 patients with papillary or follicular carcinoma, 111-In-pentetreotide was inferior to 131-I in 8/15, equal in 1/15, and superior in 6/15 patients. In 8/9 of the patients with Huerthle cell cacinoma, metastases showed a 111-In-pentetreotide accumulation of various intensity, while 131-iodine scans were negative except for one patient. 111-In-pentetreotide was equal or superior compared to 201-Tl or 99m-Tc-sestamibi, but for the most part inferior in comparison with 18-F-FDG-PET. The findings of 111-In-pentetreotide scintigraphy correlated well with the receptor autoradiography and the accumulation of DOTATOC, but not with the therapeutic effect of `cold` octreotide on the thyroid cancer metastases. Conclusions: Several metastases of papillary and follicular carcinoma, and the majority of Huerthle cell cancer metastases can express somatostatin receptors. 111-In-pentetreotide scintigraphy is a promising tool for localization of metastases especially in Huerthle cell cancer or if PET is not available, and may be useful for selection of possible candidates, if therapeutic effective {beta}-emitting somatostatin analogues will be available for routine application. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: in aktuellen In-vitro und In-vivo-Untersuchungen wurde eine Somatostatinrezeptor-Expression bei einigen nicht

  5. Phytoestrogen consumption and risk for cognitive decline and dementia: With consideration of thyroid status and other possible mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, M; White, L R; Kridawati, A; Bandelow, S; Hogervorst, E

    2016-06-01

    It is predicted that around 20% of the worlds population will be age 60 or above by 2050. Prevalence of cognitive decline and dementia is high in older adults and modifiable dietary factors may be able to reduce risk for these conditions. Phytoestrogens are bioactive plant chemicals found in soy, which have a similarity in structure to natural estradiol (the most abundant circulating estrogen). This structural likeness enables phytoestrogens to interact with estrogen receptors in the brain, potentially affecting cognition. However, findings in this domain are largely inconsistent, with approximately 50% of studies showing positive effects of phytoestrogens on cognition and the other half resulting in null/negative findings. This paper provides an updated review of the relationship between consumption of phytoestrogens and risk for cognitive decline and/or dementia. In particular, possible mediators were identified to explain discrepant findings and for consideration in future research. A case can be made for a link between phytoestrogen consumption, thyroid status and cognition in older age, although current findings in this area are very limited. Evidence suggests that inter-individual variants that can affect phytoestrogen bioavailability (and thus cognitive outcome) include age and ability to breakdown ingested phytoestrogens into their bioactive metabolites. Factors of the study design that must be taken into account are type of soy product, dosage, frequency of dietary intake and type of cognitive test used. Guidelines regarding optimal phytoestrogen dosage and frequency of intake are yet to be determined. PMID:26535810

  6. The Thyroid Status of Children and Adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture Examined during 20–30 Months after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Cross-Sectional, Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanobe, Hajime; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Yanai, Rie; Takahashi, Miyuki; Sato, Hideo; Sagawa, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background A possible increase in thyroid cancer in the young represents the most critical health problem to be considered after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan (March 2011), which is an important lesson from the Chernobyl disaster (April 1986). Although it was reported that childhood thyroid cancer had started to increase 3–5 yr after the Chernobyl accident, we speculate that the actual period of latency might have been shorter than reported, considering the delay in initiating thyroid surveillance in the then Soviet Union and also the lower quality of ultrasonographic testing in the 1980s. Our primary objectives in the present study were to identify any possible thyroid abnormality in young Fukushima citizens at a relatively early timepoint (20–30 months) after the accident, and also to strive to find a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings, thyroid-relevant biochemical markers, and iodine-131 ground deposition in the locations of residence where they stayed during very early days after the accident. Methods and Findings This is a cross-sectional study. We targeted the Fukushima residents who were 18 yr old or younger (including fetuses) at the time of the accident. Our examinations comprised a questionnaire, thyroid ultrasonography, thyroid-related blood tests, and urinary iodine measurement. We analyzed a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings (1,137 subjects), serum hormonal data (731 subjects), urinary iodine concentrations (770 subjects), and iodine-131 ground deposition (1,137 subjects). We did not find any significant relationship among these indicators, and no participant was diagnosed to contract thyroid cancer. Conclusions At the timepoint of 20–30 months after the accident, we did not confirm any discernible deleterious effects of the emitted radioactivity on the thyroid of young Fukushima residents. This is the first report in English detailing the thyroid status of young Fukushima

  7. The thyroid status of children and adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture examined during 20-30 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Watanobe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A possible increase in thyroid cancer in the young represents the most critical health problem to be considered after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan (March 2011, which is an important lesson from the Chernobyl disaster (April 1986. Although it was reported that childhood thyroid cancer had started to increase 3-5 yr after the Chernobyl accident, we speculate that the actual period of latency might have been shorter than reported, considering the delay in initiating thyroid surveillance in the then Soviet Union and also the lower quality of ultrasonographic testing in the 1980s. Our primary objectives in the present study were to identify any possible thyroid abnormality in young Fukushima citizens at a relatively early timepoint (20-30 months after the accident, and also to strive to find a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings, thyroid-relevant biochemical markers, and iodine-131 ground deposition in the locations of residence where they stayed during very early days after the accident. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional study. We targeted the Fukushima residents who were 18 yr old or younger (including fetuses at the time of the accident. Our examinations comprised a questionnaire, thyroid ultrasonography, thyroid-related blood tests, and urinary iodine measurement. We analyzed a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings (1,137 subjects, serum hormonal data (731 subjects, urinary iodine concentrations (770 subjects, and iodine-131 ground deposition (1,137 subjects. We did not find any significant relationship among these indicators, and no participant was diagnosed to contract thyroid cancer. CONCLUSIONS: At the timepoint of 20-30 months after the accident, we did not confirm any discernible deleterious effects of the emitted radioactivity on the thyroid of young Fukushima residents. This is the first report in English detailing the thyroid status of young Fukushima

  8. Modulation of radiation induced alteration in the antioxidant status of mice by naringin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alteration of antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation by naringin, a citrus flavoglycoside, was investigated in Swiss albino mice treated with 2 mg/kg b. wt. naringin before exposure to 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 Gy gamma radiation. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined in the liver and small intestine of mice treated or not with naringin at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h post-irradiation. Whole-body irradiation of mice caused a dose dependent elevation in the lipid peroxidation while a dose dependent depletion was observed for glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in both liver as well as small intestine. The study demonstrates that naringin protects mouse liver and intestine against the radiation-induced damage by elevating the antioxidant status and reducing the lipid peroxidation

  9. Alterations of Thyroid Morphology and Function After Long-Term Exposure to Low Doses of Endocrine Disruptor Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

    OpenAIRE

    Yaglov V.V.; Yaglova N.V.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate changes in thyroid morphology and function after different long-term exposure to low doses of endocrine disruptor dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) under the maximum permissible levels in food products. Materials and Methods. The experiment was performed on adult male Wistar rats (n=62). Drinking water was substituted for water solution of o,p-DDT 20 and 80 μg/L. Mean daily consumption of DDT was 1.89±0.86 and 7.77±0.17 µg/kg body weight, r...

  10. An Unusual Cause of Altered Mental Status in Multiple Myeloma: An Extraosseous Manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruvongvanich, Veeravich; Spanuchart, Ittikorn; O-Charoen, Pichaya; Kitamura, Christian; Sumida, Lauren; Roytman, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Multiple myeloma typically presents as lytic bony lesions, hypercalcemia, anemia, and renal failure. Extraosseous manifestations are rare. We report on a patient who was recently diagnosed with multiple myeloma and completed the first cycle of bortezomib, dexamethasone, and palliative radiation therapy with good response. Two weeks after discharge, she became confused and was re-admitted. Despite treatment with lactulose and rifaximin, altered mental status worsened. Computer tomographic scan of abdomen showed hepatomegaly and numerous ill-defined small hyperdense nodules scattered throughout the liver. Liver biopsy demonstrated aggregation of plasma cell myeloma. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed dural thickening. Patient's altered mental status was likely from leptomeningeal myelomatosis and hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Although extraosseous manifestations in multiple myeloma including liver and leptomeningeal involvement are rare, its incidence has increased. This condition portends a poor prognosis. The non-specific manifestations of extraosseous myeloma can be confused with complications of multiple sclerosis and lead to incorrect management, thus clinicians should be aware of these pathologies and perform proper diagnostic tests including imaging and tissue pathology. The most effective treatment is unknown, however bortezomib and thalidomide show promise. PMID:27099806

  11. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... producing a hormone knows as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Most people who have an underactive thyroid gland ... levels of T4 and high blood levels of TSH. Hyperthyroidism Also known as overactive thyroid and thyrotoxicosis, ...

  12. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Thyroid Autoantibodies; Antithyroid Antibodies; Antimicrosomal Antibody; Thyroid Microsomal Antibody; ...

  13. Thyroid ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may or may not be cancerous (a tumor ). Sometimes the thyroid is enlarged without any nodules. ... to: Cysts Enlargement of the thyroid gland ( goiter ) Thyroid nodules Your doctor can use these ...

  14. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (2015) Radiation Safety in the Treatment of Patients with Thyroid Diseases by Radioiodine 131 I: Practice Recommendations of the ...

  15. Effects of long-term thyroid hormone level alterations, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and statin administration in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S119-S131. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1228; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12058; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK123 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSH-CT-2004-511978 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : thyroid hormones * n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) * statins * rat muscle proteins * cardiac remodeling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  16. Mercury exposure associated with altered plasma thyroid hormones in the declining western pond turtle (Emys marmorata) from California mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erik; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Sparling, Donald; Blumenshine, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat to wildlife health that can impair many physiological processes. Mercury has well-documented endocrine activity; however, little work on the effects of Hg on the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in aquatic wildlife exists despite the fact that it is a sensitive endpoint of contaminant exposure. An emerging body of evidence points to the toxicological susceptibility of aquatic reptiles to Hg exposure. We examined the endocrine disrupting potential of Hg in the western pond turtle (Emys marmorata), a long-lived reptile that is in decline throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. We measured total Hg (THg) concentrations in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma T3 and T4 of turtles from several locations in California that have been impacted by historic gold mining. Across all turtles from all sites, the geometric mean and standard error THg concentration was 0.805 ± 0.025 μg/g dry weight. Sampling region and mass were the strongest determinants of RBC THg. Relationships between RBC THg and T3 and T4 were consistent with Hg-induced disruption of T4 deiodination, a mechanism of toxicity that may cause excess T4 levels and depressed concentrations of biologically active T3.

  17. The etiology of thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

  18. Protocol design and current status of CLIVIT: a randomized controlled multicenter relevance trial comparing clips versus ligatures in thyroid surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollermann C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annually, more than 90000 surgical procedures of the thyroid gland are performed in Germany. Strategies aimed at reducing the duration of the surgical procedure are relevant to patients and the health care system especially in the context of reducing costs. However, new techniques for quick and safe hemostasis have to be tested in clinically relevance randomized controlled trials before a general recommendation can be given. The current standard for occlusion of blood vessels in thyroid surgery is ligatures. Vascular clips may be a safe alternative but have not been investigated in a large RCT. Methods/design CLIVIT (Clips versus Ligatures in Thyroid Surgery is an investigator initiated, multicenter, patient-blinded, two-group parallel relevance randomized controlled trial designed by the Study Center of the German Surgical Society. Patients scheduled for elective resection of at least two third of the gland for benign thyroid disease are eligible for participation. After surgical exploration patients are randomized intraoperatively into either the conventional ligature group, or into the clip group. The primary objective is to test for a relevant reduction in operating time (at least 15 min when using the clip technique. Since April 2004, 121 of the totally required 420 patients were randomized in five centers. Discussion As in all trials the different forms of bias have to be considered, and as in this case, a surgical trial, the role of surgical expertise plays a key role, and will be documented and analyzed separately. This is the first randomized controlled multicenter relevance trial to compare different vessel occlusion techniques in thyroid surgery with adequate power and other detailed information about the design as well as framework. If significant, the results might be generalized and may change the current surgical practice.

  19. Inflammation severely alters thyroid hormone signaling in the central nervous system during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rat: Direct impact on OPCs differentiation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mercedes; Baldassarro, Vito A; Sivilia, Sandra; Giardino, Luciana; Calzà, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is severely impaired by inflammatory cytokines and this could lead to remyelination failure in inflammatory/demyelinating diseases. Due to the role of thyroid hormone in the maturation of OPCs and developmental myelination, in this study we investigated (i) the possible occurrence of dysregulation of thyroid hormone signaling in the CNS tissue during experimental neuroinflammation; (ii) the possible impact of inflammatory cytokines on thyroid hormone signaling and OPCs differentiation in vitro. The disease model is the experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in female Dark-Agouti rats, whereas in vitro experiments were carried out in OPCs derived from neural stem cells. The main results are the following: (i) a strong upregulation of cytokine mRNA expression level was found in the spinal cord during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; (ii) thyroid hormone signaling in the spinal cord (thyroid hormone receptors; deiodinase; thyroid hormone membrane transporter) is substantially downregulated, due to the upregulation of the thyroid hormone inactivating enzyme deiodinase 3 and the downregulation of thyroid hormone receptors, as investigated at mRNA expression level; (iii) when exposed to inflammatory cytokines, deiodinase 3 is upregulated in OPCs as well, and OPCs differentiation is blocked; (iv) deiodinase 3 inhibition by iopanoic acid recovers OPCs differentiation in the presence on inflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that cellular hypothyroidism occurs during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, possibly impacting on thyroid hormone-dependent cellular processes, including maturation of OPCs into myelinating oligodendrocytes. GLIA 2016;64:1573-1589. PMID:27404574

  20. Differential Gene Regulation under Altered Gravity Conditions in Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells: Relationship between the Extracellular Matrix and the Cytoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Pietsch, Jessica; Grosse, Jirka; Wehland, Markus; Schulz, Herbert; Saar, Katrin; Hübner, Norbert; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Braun, Markus; van Loon, Jack; Vagt, Nicole; EGLI, Marcel; Richter, Peter; Einspanier, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and cytoskeletal proteins form a dynamic network interacting with signalling molecules as an adaptive response to altered gravity. An important issue is the exact differentiation between real microgravity responses of the cells or cellular reactions to hypergravity and/or vibrations. To determine the effects of real microgravity on human cells, we used four DLR parabolic flight campaigns and focused on the effects of short-term microgravity (...

  1. Symptoms and Signs Associated with Postpartum Thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Maureen Groer; Cecilia Jevitt

    2014-01-01

    Background. Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a common triphasic autoimmune disease in women with thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies. This study evaluated women's thyroid disease symptoms, physical findings, stress levels, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels across six postpartum months in three groups, TPO negative, TPO positive, and PPT positive women. Methods. Women were recruited in midpregnancy (n = 631) and TPO status was determined which then was used to form the three post...

  2. Effect of developmental low dose PBDE 47 exposure on thyroid hormone status and serum concentrations of FSH and inhibin B in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, A.J.M.; Kuriyama, S.N.; Akkoc, Z.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

    2004-09-15

    Several persistent halogenated organic compounds such as PCBs, dioxins and more recently, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis in experimental animals. Particular concern exists regarding exposure to these compounds during critical periods of development when thyroid hormones orchestrate the growth and differentiation of many organs including the brain and the testis. While the contamination levels of PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants have declined in the past years, increasing levels of PBDEs have been detected in environmental and human samples including human breast milk. PBDEs are produced in large quantities and used worldwide as flame retardants in electrical appliances, carpets and furniture upholstery. Similar to other halogenated environmental organic pollutants, PBDEs seem to present a wide range of toxic effects including reproductive, endocrine, neurobehavioral and hepatic toxicity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that in utero and pubertal exposures to DE-71 (a commercial mixture containing mostly tetra- and penta-bromodiphenyl ethers) significantly reduce thyroxine levels (T4) in rats. The present study has focused on the possible effects of the tetra- BDE congener 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47) on thyroid hormone status and associated changes on FSH and inhibin B levels in the developing male rat. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW PBDE 47. These doses are pertinent to human exposure situation because a study by She et al.3 found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat.

  3. Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and Its Relationship with Iodine Status in Shanghai:a Population-based Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jun; RUAN Ye; WU Fan; ZOU Shu Rong; GUO Chang Yi; ZANG Jia Jie; ZHU Zhen Ni; MI Ming; HUANG Cui Hua; YU Hui Ting; LU Xi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid nodules (TNs) and its relationship with urine iodine concentrations (UICs) after the regional rapid economic growth and lifestyle changes. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the general population aged 15-69 years. A questionnaire regarding general and personal characteristics and relevant information was administered. Ultrasonography of the thyroid was performed, and serum triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free tetraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) levels were measured for each individual subject. Results The prevalence rates of TNs in the whole population, females and males were 27.76%, 34.04%, and 21.60%, respectively. The prevalence of multiple nodules increased with age, whereas the prevalence peaks differed between males and females. The median UICs in the whole population and females with non-TNs were higher than those of subjects with TNs (P=0.0035, P=0.0068). The median UICs in subjects with a single TN were higher than those in subjects with multiple TNs (P=0.0164, P=0.0127). The result showed a U-shaped curve relationship between UIC and prevalence of TNs. The prevalence of TNs was the lowest when the UIC was 140-400 µg/L. Conclusion The prevalence of TNs was nearly 30%and increased with age. The relationship between UIC and prevalence of TNs is U-shaped, with an increase in risk when the UIC was 400 µg/L. Very low or high UIC levels need attention and correction.

  4. Radiation damage to the thyroid and metabolic changes in cattle in the initial and remote period after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial period after the Chernobyl accident was the most dangerous for animals kept in the zone of radioactive contamination. Dose burdens from I-isotopes on the thyroid gland of cattle in the initial period after the accident contributed significantly into the alteration of the hormonal status, physiological state and productive, qualities of cattle on farms of the Gomel area of Belarus

  5. Cobalamin C deficiency in an adolescent with altered mental status and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan

    2014-12-01

    Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.) PMID:25367534

  6. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It makes hormones that help ... There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater risk if you ...

  7. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders cannot be distinguished from one another on pathology specimens. As in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis is ... associated with symptoms including anxiety, insomnia, palpitations (fast heart rate), fatigue, weight loss, and irritability. Since these ...

  8. Thyroid storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000400.htm Thyroid storm To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thyroid storm is a life-threatening condition that develops ...

  9. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  10. Thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications

  11. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2030: The Unexpected Burden of Thyroid, Liver, and Pancreas Cancers in the United States . Cancer Research; 74(11): ... 2030: The Unexpected Burden of Thyroid, Liver, and Pancreas Cancers in the United States . Cancer Research; 74(11): ...

  12. Expression of Tenascin C, EGFR, E-Cadherin, and TTF-1 in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and the Correlation with RET Mutation Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Florian; Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia; Rendl, Gundula; Rodrigues, Margarida; Pirich, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tenascin C expression correlates with tumor grade and indicates worse prognosis in several tumors. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in driving proliferation in many tumors. Loss of E-cadherin function is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is involved in rearranged during transfection (RET) transcription in Hirschsprung's disease. Tenascin C, EGFR, E-cadherin, TTF-1-expression, and their correlations with RET mutation status were investigated in 30 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) (n = 26) or C-cell hyperplasia (n = 4). Tenascin C was found in all, EGFR in 4/26, E-cadherin in 23/26, and TTF-1 in 25/26 MTC. Tenascin C correlated significantly with tumor proliferation (overall, r = 0.61, p < 0.005; RET-mutated, r = 0.81, p < 0.01). E-cadherin showed weak correlation, whereas EGFR and TTF-1 showed no significant correlation with tumor proliferation. EGFR, E-cadherin, and TTF-1 showed weak correlation with proliferation of RET-mutated tumors. Correlation between TTF-1 and tenascin C, E-cadherin, and EGFR was r = -0.10, 0.37, and 0.21, respectively. In conclusion, MTC express tenascin C, E-cadherin, and TTF-1. Tenascin C correlates significantly with tumor proliferation, especially in RET-mutated tumors. EGFR is low, and tumors expressing EGFR do not exhibit higher proliferation. TTF-1 does not correlate with RET mutation status and has a weak correlation with tenascin C, E-cadherin, and EGFR expression. PMID:27409604

  13. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of ionizing radiation in the introduction of thyroid carcinoma is discussed. In the treatment of thyroid cancer, radioiodine administration is of value as an ablation procedure, completing the thyroidectomy and as a method to irradiate selectively functioning thyroid carcinoma tissue that cannnot be removed surgically. Results of the clinical management of 155 patients with malignant thyroid tumours are presented. The ablation dose of iodine-131 can be decreased to 40 millicuries thus effectively reducing the patients whole body radiation dose

  14. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  15. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. → Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. → Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  16. Effect of Alterations in Thyroid Status on the Metabolism of Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine by Rat Pituitary Gland In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Michiko; Ingbar, Sidney H.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of thyroxine (T4) was studied in slices of rat pituitary gland and liver from the same animal incubated in vitro with [125I]T4 and 10 mM dithiothreitol. In the pituitary gland, generation of 125I-labeled 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), as well as overall T4 degradation, increased significantly at 24 h after thyroidectomy and by 2 wk were approximately five times control values. Conversely, following a single injection of T3 (1.5 μg/100 g body wt), values for both functions were s...

  17. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Does not Affect Changes of Lipid Metabolism Induced in Rats by Altered Thyroid Status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rauchová, Hana; Vokurková, Martina; Pavelka, Stanislav; Behuliak, Michal; Tribulová, N.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 7 (2013), s. 507-512. ISSN 0018-5043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/09/0570; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hypothyriodism * hyperthyroidism * mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase * glucose * plasma lipids Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2013

  18. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 ± 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 ± 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  19. [Thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  20. Cytomorphologic significance of marginal vacuoles in diffuse thyroid enlargements

    OpenAIRE

    Anshu Gupta; Manish Singhal; Shivani Kalhan; Atul Gupta; Onis Singhal; Viplesh Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid is an established first-line test for thyroid lesions. Marginal vacuoles (MVs) have been associated with hyperactivity of the thyroid, but some studies have pointed towards their nonspecific status. Aims: To assess the presence of MVs in diffuse thyroid enlargements and evaluate the strength of correlation between MVs, levels of thyroid hormone and cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Ninety-seven cases of diff...

  1. Relations between various measures of iodine intake and thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and serum thyroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.; Jorgensen, T.; Knudsen, N.; Laurberg, P.; Perrild, H.

    2002-01-01

    -frequency questionnaire and by measuring iodine excretion in spot urine samples. Thyroid volume and nodularity were measured with ultrasonography. Results: In multiple linear regression models, significant inverse relations were found between thyroid volume and estimated 24-h iodine excretion, iodine intake from diet...... excretion measured as a urinary concentration, predicted thyroid volume. Serum thyroglobulin concentration appears to be a good marker of iodine status. Subgroups with low intakes of milk and milk products had an increased risk of thyroid disease....

  2. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Symptoms Hypothyroidism Thyroid Nodules Lifestyle and Prevention Thyroid Disorders The thyroid gland is located at the ... lives, and must be closely monitored by physicians. Thyroid Nodules Thyroid disorders can also occur because of ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  4. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » Thyroid cancer risk factors What causes thyroid cancer? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Previous Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Next Topic Can thyroid cancer be prevented? What ...

  5. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small thyroid growth ( nodule or cyst) A thyroid gland that is so overactive it is dangerous ( thyrotoxicosis ) Cancer of the thyroid Noncancerous (benign) tumors of the thyroid that are causing symptoms Thyroid ...

  6. Teaching medical students a clinical approach to altered mental status: simulation enhances traditional curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Sperling

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simulation-based medical education (SBME is increasingly being utilized for teaching clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teaching clinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods: AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results: A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42% attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001. Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05. They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03, know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01, and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003. Students who participated in a simulation session

  7. Thyroid uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid gland is altered by the iodine content of diet or drugs. American diet has a high iodine content because each slice of the white bread contains nearly 150μg of iodine due to the bleaching process employed in the production of the bread. This carrier content of iodine reduces the uptake so much, that the normal American uptakes are usually three to four times lower than the uptakes in the developing countries. The other drawback of the thyroid uptake test is that it is affected by the iodine containing drugs. Anti-diarrhoea medications are quire common in the developing countries and many of them contain iodine moiety. Without a reliable drug history, a low thyroid uptake value may lead to a misleading conclusion

  8. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the relationship between A-bomb radiation and thyroid cancer in the literature. The previous studies have showed a similar outcome; that is, the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher with increasing radiation doses. Risk for thyroid cancer is significantly high in women. Latent cancer found at autopsy is also found to be significantly increased with increasing radiation doses, especially for women. (N.K.)

  9. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib H, Papini E, Paschke R, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice ...

  10. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  11. Fine structural lesions and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) produced ultrastructural lesions of thyroid follicular cells and a reduction in serum levels of thyroid hormones in neonatal (0, 7, 14, and 21 days of age) Osborne-Mendel rats exposed to 50 or 500 ppm PCB in utero and by the milk. Litter size was decreased significantly in rats fed 500 ppm PCB. Body weights at 21 days of age were reduced in rats exposed to 50 and 500 ppm PCB. The ultrastructural lesions in follicular cells were dose- and age-dependent but were ...

  12. Alterations of serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin, nuclear binding of tri-iodothyronine and thyroid hormone-stimulated cellular uptake of oxygen and glucose in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear tri-iodothyronine (T3) binding and thyroid hormone-stimulated oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness (NTI) in which serum T3 was significantly (P less than 0.05) depressed (0.62 +/- 0.12 (S.D.) nmol/l) compar...

  13. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: Its effect on thyroid gland and breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Kandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid peroxidase (TPO is a key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormone. TPO is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (organification and coupling reactions. TPO is a major antigen corresponding to thyroid-microsomal autoantibodies. Anti-TPO auto antibodies are very important to diagnose autoimmune thyroid diseases and also in estimating its clinical course. Autoimmune thyroid disease is detected mostly by measuring circulating antibodies to thyroglobulin which is uncommon measurement of antibodies to TPO that gives reliable information about autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of Grave′s disease patients have high levels of antiTPO antibodies. About 4% of subclinical hypothyroid patients with positive TPO antibodies develop clinical hypothyroidism. There is always a controversy on the relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. As these tissues, i.e., breast and thyroid, originate embryologically from the same type of cells, hypothyroid/hyperthyroid females are more prone to develop benign or malignant breast tumors. The studies on breast cancer patients indicate increased thyroid disorders in breast cancer patients, most commonly Hashimoto′s thyroiditis accounts to increased thyroid disorders in these patients. This is independent of hormonal receptor status of the patient. These findings suggest the usefulness of screening for thyroid disease in any patient with breast cancer.

  14. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  15. Effects of perinatal exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children: IV. Thyroid hormones and neonatal neurobehavioral status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Nakai, K.; Oka, T.; Kurokawa, N.; Satoh, H. [Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hosokawa, T. [Dept. of Human Development, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sakai, T. [Miyagi Childrens Hospital, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    From several epidemiological studies, it has been reported that there are some associations between perinatal exposures to PCBs, dioxins and heavy metals, and neurobehavioral defects such as postnatal growth delay and poorer cognitive function. We have started a prospective cohort study to examine the effects of perinatal exposures to environmentally persistent organic pollutants on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children. Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal brain development. A lack of THs in pregnancy can result in congenital hypothyroidism, which causes moderate to severe intellectual defects. It has been reported that perinatal exposure to PCBs adversely affects on children's intellectual functions. The chemical structures of some PCBs resembles thyroxine (T4), and therefore, it is suspected that the action mechanism of PCBs is disruption of TH function. Some PCBs and their metabolites are thought to bind with transthyretine (TTR), which is necessary for the transfer of T4 into the brain, and this may cause a shortage of T4 in the developing brain. To examine the effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs on children's development, it is essential to evaluate the functions of THs at a fundamental level. In this report, we examined the correlations of THs in maternal peripheral blood and cord blood, and the association between THs and neonatal neurobehavioral status.

  16. Impaired hair growth and wound healing in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Jurado, Constanza; García-Serrano, Laura; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia; Paramio, Jesús M.; Aranda, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Both clinical and experimental observations show that the skin is affected by the thyroidal status. In hypothyroid patients the epidermis is thin and alopecia is common, indicating that thyroidal status might influence not only skin proliferation but also hair growth. We demonstrate here that the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) mediate these effects of the thyroid hormones on the skin. Mice lacking TRα1 and TRβ (the main thyroid hormone binding isoforms) display impaired hair cycling associat...

  17. In vivo evaluation of different alterations of redox status by studying pharmacokinetics of nitroxides using magnetic resonance techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačić, Goran; Pavićević, Aleksandra; Peyrot, Fabienne

    2016-08-01

    Free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species (ROS), are involved in various pathologies, injuries related to radiation, ischemia-reperfusion or ageing. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to directly detect free radicals in vivo, but the redox status of the whole organism or particular organ can be studied in vivo by using magnetic resonance techniques (EPR and MRI) and paramagnetic stable free radicals - nitroxides. Here we review results obtained in vivo following the pharmacokinetics of nitroxides on experimental animals (and a few in humans) under various conditions. The focus was on conditions where the redox status has been altered by induced diseases or harmful agents, clearly demonstrating that various EPR/MRI/nitroxide combinations can reliably detect metabolically induced changes in the redox status of organs. These findings can improve our understanding of oxidative stress and provide a basis for studying the effectiveness of interventions aimed to modulate oxidative stress. Also, we anticipate that the in vivo EPR/MRI approach in studying the redox status can play a vital role in the clinical management of various pathologies in the years to come providing the development of adequate equipment and probes. PMID:26827126

  18. In vivo evaluation of different alterations of redox status by studying pharmacokinetics of nitroxides using magnetic resonance techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bačić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species (ROS, are involved in various pathologies, injuries related to radiation, ischemia-reperfusion or ageing. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to directly detect free radicals in vivo, but the redox status of the whole organism or particular organ can be studied in vivo by using magnetic resonance techniques (EPR and MRI and paramagnetic stable free radicals – nitroxides. Here we review results obtained in vivo following the pharmacokinetics of nitroxides on experimental animals (and a few in humans under various conditions. The focus was on conditions where the redox status has been altered by induced diseases or harmful agents, clearly demonstrating that various EPR/MRI/nitroxide combinations can reliably detect metabolically induced changes in the redox status of organs. These findings can improve our understanding of oxidative stress and provide a basis for studying the effectiveness of interventions aimed to modulate oxidative stress. Also, we anticipate that the in vivo EPR/MRI approach in studying the redox status can play a vital role in the clinical management of various pathologies in the years to come providing the development of adequate equipment and probes.

  19. Congenital leptin deficiency and thyroid function

    OpenAIRE

    Paz-Filho Gilberto; Delibasi Tuncay; Erol Halil K; Wong Ma-Li; Licinio Julio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Thyroid function is closely related to leptin's secretion by the adipose tissue. In states of leptin-deficiency, the circadian rhythm of TSH is altered, leading to central hypothyroidism in animal models. In humans, central hypothyroidism has also been described in rare cases of congenital leptin deficiency. However, the thyroid phenotype in these cases is heterogeneous, with the occurrence of central hypothyroidism in a minority of cases. Here we describe thyroid function in four l...

  20. [Acute alterations of neurotransmitters levels in striatum of young rat after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Viana, Glauce Socorro Barros; Fonteles, Marta Maria de França

    2003-06-01

    High doses of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine, result in behavioural changes, seizures and status epilepticus in rats. The purpose of the present work is to invetigate the striatal neurotransmissors level in young rats after status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of pilocarpine (400mg/Kg; s.c.). Controls received saline. Young animals were closed observed for behavioural changes during 1 and 24h. In these periods, the animals that developed status epilepticus and didn't survive this acute phase of seizures had the brains removed and striatal neurotransmissors level determined by HPLC. The concentration of dopamine, serotonine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid was reduced and an increase in 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid was observed. These results suggest that cholinergic activation can interage with dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in acute phase of the convulsive process in immature striatum. PMID:12894279

  1. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  2. Prediction of disease status by recombinant human TSH-stimulated serum Tg in the post surgical follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Two-year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is now available to facilitate monitoring for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Initial experiences seem to indicate that rhTSH can modify the guidelines for this disease. Our study reports 2-year experience with rhTSH on 27 consecutive patients undergone total removal of the thyroid for differentiated cancer followed by radioiodine therapy. Aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the thyroglobulin (Tg) in predicting of disease status after primary therapies. Sensitivity and specificity of rhTSH testing was compared with neck ultrasound (US) and whole body scan (WBS) after 131I and 99mTc-Sestamibi (MIBI). Materials and Methods: Forty-eight cycles of rhTSH administration (0.9 mg i.m. in two consecutive days) were performed on l-T4 therapy. Favourable results were considered Tg levels <1 g/l after rhTSH, no image indicative of thyroid tissue or suspect neck nodes, negative WBS after 131I and 99mTc-MIBI. 24 h after the second dose of rhTSH, 131I (185 MBq) was administered in all subjects; WBS was acquired with a gamma-camera Orbiter 7500 (Siemens). In all but two patients, 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy (555-740 MBq) was performed using a gamma-camera SP6HR (Elscint). Results: Baseline unfavourable Tg levels were noted in 15% of patients with recurrence disease. After rhTSH testing unfavourable Tg levels were noted in further 17%. A concordance between rhTSH testing and neck US was found in 85%. A concordance among rhTSH, neck US and 131I and 99mTc-MIBI was found in 46% of subjects. Specificity of Tg after rhTSH administration, neck US, 131I and 99mTc-MIBI was 100%, 70%, 31% and 50%, while sensitivity was 100%, 94%, 83% and 84%, respectively. Mean TSH levels at the time of radioiodine administration were significantly higher (p=0.03) after rhTSH than after LT4 withdrawal. Concordance between 131I WBS under suppressive L-T4 and overt hypothyroidism was found in 71% of patients. Pain at the injection site and mild nausea were the

  3. A Thyroid Hormone Challenge in Hypothyroid Rats Identifies T3 Regulated Genes in the Hypothalamus and in Models with Altered Energy Balance and Glucose Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Herwig, Annika; Campbell, Gill; Mayer, Claus-Dieter; Boelen, Anita; Richard A. Anderson; Alexander W Ross; Mercer, Julian G.; Barrett, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Background: The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) is known to affect energy balance. Recent evidence points to an action of T3 in the hypothalamus, a key area of the brain involved in energy homeostasis, but the components and mechanisms are far from understood. The aim of this study was to identify components in the hypothalamus that may be involved in the action of T3 on energy balance regulatory mechanisms.

  4. Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chabria Shiven B; Lawrason Jock

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Early disseminated Lyme disease can have a myriad of central nervous system manifestations. These run the gamut from meningitis to radiculopathy and cranial neuropathy. Here we present a case that manifested with only acute mental status change in the setting of central nervous system involvement with Lyme disease. A paucity of other central nervous system manifestations is rare, especially with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers. This article underscores the importance o...

  5. Eclipta yellow vein virus enhances chlorophyll destruction, singlet oxygen production and alters endogenous redox status in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asifa; Luqman, Suaib; Masood, Nusrat; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Saeed, Sana Tabanda; Samad, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    The infection of Eclipta yellow vein virus [EcYVV-IN, Accession No. KC476655], recently reported for the first time, on Andrographis paniculata was studied for redox-mediated alteration mechanism in infected plants. A. paniculata, an important medicinal plant, is used in traditional Indian, Chinese and modern system of medicine. Andrographolide, one of the foremost components of this plant, is known for its varied pharmacological properties. Our investigation provides insight into the effect of virus-induced changes in the singlet oxygen quenching due to the alteration in pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoids) as well as activation of plant secondary metabolism along with defense activation leading to changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic redox status. Due to infection, a reduction in carotenoid content was observed which leads to reduced quenching of singlet oxygen. An increased level of enzymatic (SOD and APX) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, RP, NO, TAC and TP) activities were also observed in virus-infected plants with a positive correlation (>0.9). However, CAT activity was diminished which could be either due to its proteolytic degradation or inactivation by superoxide anions (O(2-.)), NO or peroxynitrite radicals. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in total phenolic content was observed in the infected plants while no considerable difference was seen in the total flavonoid content. Our results highlighted the alteration in redox status caused by virus-induced biotic stress on the plants and could be useful for understanding the after effects of viral infection This study could also be helpful in developing biomimetic methods for improving the production of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. PMID:27035255

  6. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  7. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  8. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Workplace Giving Other Ways to Donate Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: ... prevent recurrence or progression of their cancer. THYROID HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY Many people have a thyroid gland ...

  9. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja E. Menger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT, to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster.

  10. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Katja E.; James, Andrew M.; Cochemé, Helena M.; Harbour, Michael E.; Chouchani, Edward T.; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Partridge, Linda; Murphy, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster. PMID:26095360

  11. Trends of Thyroid Cancer in Israel: 1980–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Lital Keinan-Boker; Silverman, Barbara G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing worldwide, while mortality from thyroid cancer is stable or decreasing. Consequently, survival rates are rising. We describe time trends in the incidence, mortality, and 5-year survival of thyroid cancer in Israel in 1980–2012, in light of the global trends. Methods: Israel National Cancer Registry database provided information regarding thyroid cancer incidence and vital status, which enabled computation of survival rates. The Central Bu...

  12. Thyroid Hormone Profile in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz Qari, Faiza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormone has the a major role in the cardiovascular system function and cardiac a As well as to maintain the cardiovascular homeostasis A slightly change ind thyroid status actually affects cardiovascular mortality hemodynamic. The background of this study was to define the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Objectives: The primary objective was to define the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in acute coronary syndrome, including Non-ST Segm...

  13. Epidemiology of thyroid diseases in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonia Okeoghene Ogbera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid disorders are common endocrine disorders encountered in the African continent. Environmental and nutritional factors are often implicated in the occurrence of some thyroid disorders that occur in this part of the world. This is a narrative review that seeks to document the pattern, prevalence, and management of thyroid disorders in the continent. Materials and Methods: The search engine used for this review were PubMed and Google scholar. All available articles on thyroid disorders from the sub-African continent, published until May 2011, were included. Results: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD which top the list of thyroid disorders and remain the commonest cause of thyroid disorders in the continent is often affected not only by the iodine status in the region but sometimes also by selenium deficiency and thiocyanate toxicity. The reported prevalence rates of endemic goiter range from 1% to 90% depending on the area of study with myxedematous cretinism still a prominent feature of IDD in only a few regions of the continent. The extent of autoimmune thyroid disorders remains unknown because of underdiagnosis and underreporting but the few available studies note a prevalence rate of 1.2% to 9.9% of which Graves diseases is the commonest of these groups of disorders. Rarer causes of thyroid dysfunction such as thyroid tuberculosis and amiodarone related causes are also documented in this review. The onset of new thyroid diseases following amiodarone usage was documented in 27.6% of persons treated for arrhythmia. Reports on thyroid malignancies (CA in Africa abound and differentiated thyroid malignancies are noted to occur more commonly than the other forms of thyroid CA. The documented prevalence rates of thyroid CA in the African continent are as follows (papillary: 6.7-72.1%, follicular: 4.9-68%, anaplastic: 5-21.4%, and medullary: 2.6%-13.8%. For the differentiated thyroid CA, there is a changing trend toward the more

  14. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 {+-} 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 {+-} 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  15. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special place in oncology belongs to thyroid cancer as it is a cancer originating from hormonally active tissue. 90 % of endocrine neoplasia are represented by thyroid cancer. It is a relatively rare cancer and due to its heterogeneity it encompasses spectrum of therapeutic approaches with interdisciplinary management which includes various implications for prognosis and lethality. Generally, the prognosis for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is good, a 10 years survival rate is at 85 %. Standard treatment includes surgical therapy, TSH suppressive therapy and ablation of the thyroid remnant with radioactive iodine. Patients with recurrent disease, disseminated disease present at the time of diagnosis, patients unsuitable for surgical treatment or for treatment with radioiodine still remain a therapeutic challenge. As there is no effective systematic treatment there is a hope for new therapy with multiple kinase inhibitors such as vandetanib, sorafenib, cabozantinib a lenvatinib which is based on promising results of several studies. (author)

  16. Thyroid carcinomas of Belarussian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma increases significantly following exposure to ionizing irradiation. However, the mechanisms of radiation-induced tumorigenesis at the molecular and chromosomal levels have not been identified. In order to gain some indication of the processes affecting the thyroid epithelium, cytogenetic and molecular genetic investigations were performed on childhood thyroid carcinomas that developed after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Belarussia, and on secondary thyroid tumours that developed after radiotherapy. At the cytogenetic level, the radiation-induced tumours were shown to have an increased frequency of translocations, multiple and complex chromosome aberrations, and novel breakpoints for structural chromosome aberrations. At the molecular level, different alterations of the RET protooncogene were detected in 65% of the Belarussian tumours. (orig.)

  17. Screening of thyroid status in children exposed to ionizing radiation in utero and at the first year of life as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study to investigate peculiarities of thyroid pathology development of children exposed to radiation in utero and within the first year of life. In 1998, the 12 years after the Chernobyl accident, two cohorts of children aged 11-14 in Khoiniki region and Braslav region were screened. Minimum average dose to the thyroid was in children exposed in utero - 36 cGy. Maximum average thyroid dose was registered in children exposed at 0-1.5 years old on mixed nutrition - 110 cGy

  18. Iron and exercise induced alterations in antioxidant status. Protection by dietary milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunquin, Gautier; Rouleau, Vincent; Bouhallab, Said; Bureau, Francois; Theunynck, Denis; Rousselot, Pierre; Arhan, Pierre; Bougle, Dominique

    2006-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation stress induced by iron supplementation can contribute to the induction of gut lesions. Intensive sports lead to ischemia reperfusion, which increases free radical production. Athletes frequently use heavy iron supplementation, whose effects are unknown. On the other hand, milk proteins have in vitro antioxidant properties, which could counteract these potential side effects. The main aims of the study were: (1) to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise training (ET) and iron overload on antioxidant status; (2) to assess the protective properties of casein in vivo; (3) to study the mechanisms involved in an in vitro model. Antioxidant status was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD); glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)), and on the onset of aberrant crypts (AC) in colon, which can be induced by lipid peroxidation. At day 30, all ET animals showed an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, in iron concentration in colon mucosa and liver and in the number of AC compared to untrained rats. It was found that Casein's milk protein supplementation significantly reduced these parameters. Additional information on protective effect of casein was provided by measuring the extent of TBARS formation during iron/ascorbate-induced oxidation of liposomes. Free casein and casein bound to iron were found to significantly reduce iron-induced lipid peroxidation. The results of the overall study suggest that Iron supplementation during intensive sport training would decrease anti-oxidant status. Dietary milk protein supplementation could at least partly prevent occurrence of deleterious effects to tissue induced by iron overload. PMID:17390518

  19. Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabria Shiven B

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early disseminated Lyme disease can have a myriad of central nervous system manifestations. These run the gamut from meningitis to radiculopathy and cranial neuropathy. Here we present a case that manifested with only acute mental status change in the setting of central nervous system involvement with Lyme disease. A paucity of other central nervous system manifestations is rare, especially with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers. This article underscores the importance of a high index of clinical suspicion in detection of Lyme disease related manifestations in endemic areas.

  20. Electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress on alteration of enzymatic antioxidant status of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation causes damage to living tissues through a series of molecular events, such as photoelectric, Compton and Auger effects, depending on the radiation energy. Because human tissues contain 80% water, the major radiation damage is due to the aqueous free radicals, generated by the action of radiation on water. It was found to be 10 Gy was the lethal dose for mice. Different dosages (4 Gy, 6 Gy and 8 Gy) of electron beam radiation were used to study the level of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant status of irradiated mice. The results showed higher the radiation dosage, increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant level. (author)

  1. Regulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression by the alteration of redox status in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wu-kui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 has been considered as a critical transcriptional factor in response to hypoxia. It can increase P-glycoprotein (P-Gp thus generating the resistant effect to chemotherapy. At present, the mechanism regulating HIF-1α is still not fully clear in hypoxic tumor cells. Intracellular redox status is closely correlated with hypoxic micro-environment, so we investigate whether alterations in the cellular redox status lead to the changes of HIF-1α expression. HepG2 cells were exposed to Buthionine sulphoximine (BSO for 12 h prior to hypoxia treatment. The level of HIF-1α expression was measured by Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays. Reduce glutathione (GSH concentrations in hypoxic cells were determined using glutathione reductase/5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrob-enzoic acid (DTNB recycling assay. To further confirm the effect of intracellular redox status on HIF-1α expression, N-acetylcysteine (NAC was added to culture cells for 8 h before the hypoxia treatment. The levels of multidrug resistance gene-1 (MDR-1 and erythropoietin (EPO mRNA targeted by HIF-1α in hypoxic cells were further determined with RT-PCR, and then the expression of P-Gp protein was observed by Western blotting. The results showed that BSO pretreatment down-regulated HIF-1α and the effect was concentration-dependent, on the other hand, the increases of intracellular GSH contents by NAC could partly elevate the levels of HIF-1α expression. The levels of P-Gp (MDR-1 and EPO were concomitant with the trend of HIF-1α expression. Therefore, our data indicate that the changes of redox status in hypoxic cells may regulate HIF-1α expression and provide valuable information on tumor chemotherapy.

  2. The plant secondary metabolite citral alters water status and prevents seed formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, E; Díaz-Tielas, C; López-González, D; Martínez-Peñalver, A; Reigosa, M J; Sánchez-Moreiras, A M

    2016-05-01

    Based on previous results, which showed that the secondary metabolite citral causes disturbances to plant water status, the present study is focused on demonstrating and detailing these effects on the water-related parameters of Arabidopsis thaliana adult plants, and their impact on plant fitness. Clear evidence of effects on water status and fitness were observed: plants treated with 1200 and 2400 μm citral showed decreased RWC, reduced Ψs , increased Ψw and reduced stomatal opening, even 7 days after the beginning of the experiment. Plant protection signals, such as leaf rolling or increased anthocyanin content, were also detected in these plants. In contrast, 14 days after beginning the treatment, treated plants showed signs of citral-related damage. Moreover, the reproductive success of treated plants was critically compromised, with prematurely withered flowers and no silique or seed development. This effect of citral on fitness of adult plants suggests a promising application of this natural compound in weed management by reducing the weed seed bank in the soil. PMID:26587965

  3. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  4. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in coronary artery disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Supriya Simon; V Chithra; Anoop Vijayan; Roy D Dinesh; T Vijayakumar

    2013-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an indicator of oxidative stress, and mean break per cell (b/c) values, which is an indicator of decreased DNA repair efficiency, were found to be significantly increased in patients compared to normal controls ( < 0.05) whereas ascorbic acid and GSH were found to be lower among patients than the control group. It has been found that elevated oxidative stress decreased antioxidant level and decreased DNA repair efficiency can contribute to the development of CAD. This study also showed that high MDA, low ascorbic acid and GSH were significantly associated with high b/c value.

  5. A rare cause of altered mental status and fever in a young military recruit in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodosingh, Dev Richard; Robles-Arias, Carlos; Alemán-Ortiz, Jesse R; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William

    2014-12-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is a medical emergency characterized by increased core body temperature with associated systemic inflammatory response leading to a syndrome of multi-organ damage in which encephalopathy predominates. We describe a case of a 29 year old male recruit presenting with altered mental status during military training in Puerto Rico. Associated symptoms included high grade fever, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and profuse sweating followed by loss of consciousness. Upon arrival to medical evaluation the patient was found with dry skin and depressed Glasgow Coma Score. Initial laboratories, clinical evolution of symptoms and imaging studies were consistent with the diagnosis of HS. Patient was managed with mechanical ventilatory support, intravenous fluids and external cooling measures. He was later discharged home without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of HS in Puerto Rico. PMID:25563039

  6. Thyroid hormone-regulated gene expression in juvenile mouse liver: identification of thyroid response elements using microarray profiling and in silico analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquette Martin A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disruption of thyroid hormone signalling can alter growth, development and energy metabolism. Thyroid hormones exert their effects through interactions with thyroid receptors that directly bind thyroid response elements and can alter transcriptional activity of target genes. The effects of short-term thyroid hormone perturbation on hepatic mRNA transcription in juvenile mice were evaluated, with the goal of identifying genes containing active thyroid response elements. Thyroid hormone disruption was induced from postnatal day 12 to 15 by adding goitrogens to dams' drinking water (hypothyroid. A subgroup of thyroid hormone-disrupted pups received intraperitoneal injections of replacement thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (replacement. An additional group received only thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (hyperthyroid. Hepatic mRNA was extracted and hybridized to Agilent mouse microarrays. Results Transcriptional profiling enabled the identification of 28 genes that appeared to be under direct thyroid hormone-regulation. The regulatory regions of the genome adjacent to these genes were examined for half-site sequences that resemble known thyroid response elements. A bioinformatics search identified 33 thyroid response elements in the promoter regions of 13 different genes thought to be directly regulated by thyroid hormones. Thyroid response elements found in the promoter regions of Tor1a, 2310003H01Rik, Hect3d and Slc25a45 were further validated by confirming that the thyroid receptor is associated with these sequences in vivo and that it can bind directly to these sequences in vitro. Three different arrangements of thyroid response elements were identified. Some of these thyroid response elements were located far up-stream (> 7 kb of the transcription start site of the regulated gene. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling of thyroid hormone disrupted animals coupled with a novel bioinformatics search

  7. Investigation on the iodine nutritional status and the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma in Zhoushan Archipelago residents%舟山群岛居民碘营养状况及甲状腺癌现患调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺王玉; 刘晓光; 胡晓斐; 周世权; 王晔恺; 张永奎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the nutritional status of iodine and the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma of residents in Zhoushan Archipelago, and to explore the related factors influencing the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma. Methods The residents in Zhoushan Archipelago were selected by cluster random sampling. The subjects were surveyed by questionnaire, their thyroids were examined by B-ultrasonography, the thyroid function and the levels of urine iodine were analyzed. Pathological diagnosis was conductedto the patients suspected of thyroid carcinoma. Results The median levels of urine iodine in urban residents, famers, salt-makers, fishermen from Zhoushan and buddhists from Putuoshan were 320. 7, 188. 9, 122. 2, 193. 6 and 271. 7μg/L respectively, while the prevalence rates of thyroid carcinoma were 215/100 000,398/100 000 0, 407/100 000, 829/100 000,340/100 000, respectively; The age or a higher level of hTSH of a person were risk factors for suffering from thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion The iodine intake of residents in ZhouShan Archipelago is adequate and the prevalence rate of thyroid carcinoma is high. Serum hTSH could be used as a predictor for the risk of thyroid carcinoma.%目的 调查舟山群岛居民碘营养状况、甲状腺癌患病情况及致甲状腺癌的相关影响因素.方法 以整群阻随机抽样法对舟山群岛城镇居民、农民、岱山盐民、嵊泗渔民及普陀山僧侣进行流行病学问卷调查、甲状腺B超检查、甲状腺功能和尿碘测定,对甲状腺癌疑似病人行术后病理切片诊断.结果 舟山群岛城镇居民、农民、岱山盐民、嵊泗渔民及普陀山僧侣的尿碘中位数(MUI)为分别为320.7、188.9、122.2、193.6和271.7 μg/L,甲状腺癌累积患病率分别为215/10万(3/1 389)、398/10万(2/502)、407/10万(3/737)、829/10万(3/362)和340/10万(1/294);年龄、血清人促甲状腺激素(hTSH)是预测甲状腺癌的独立危险因素(P<0.05).结论 舟山群岛居民碘营

  8. Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Orlo H.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with thyroid nodules must be treated selectively because these nodules develop far more frequently than does thyroid cancer. A thorough clinical history, family history and history of radiation, as well as an accurate physical examination, are very important in determining whether surgical treatment is indicated. Thyroid function tests, a radioactive isotope scan, a thyroid echogram and fine-needle biopsy are also useful.

  9. Predictive value of antithyroglobulin antibody on recurrence or metastasis following ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of serum thyroglobulin(Tg)and antithyroglobulin antibody(Tg Ab)in differentiated thyroid carcinoma complicated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis after thyroid ablation.Methods Serum Tg and Tg Ab levels and the status of illness in 154differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with coexistent Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and confirmed pathology after surgery followed by remnant ablation were performed during three years follow up.Tg and Tg Ab levels were assessed

  10. Thyroid dysfunction in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Perminova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the rate and structure of thyroid diseases in infertile women and to asses their reproductive system depending upon the thyroid pathology. Subjects and methods. The study was based on the results of screening of T status of 496 women with infertility (main group and 80 fertile women (control group. Traditional methods of diagnosis of infertility were used along with special methods of investigation including assessment of function and structure of T (TTH, fT4, fT3, AT-TPO, AT-rTTH, ultrasound examination of T, thin-niddle aspirational biopsy, scintigraphy of T. A complex evaluation of the reproductive system status in infertile women was done depending on the type of T pathology. Results. Infertile women were found to suffer from thyroid dysfunction 3.8 times as more often as fertile ones (48% and 12.5%, p <0.05. Its structure included mainly AT-TPO carrier phenomenon in combination with ultrasound markers of thyroid autoimmunity (24%, hypothyroidism following thyroid autoimmunity (9.4% demonstrating itself as clinical (0.8%, subclinical (8.6%, and euthyroid (7.8% goiters. The portion of women with infertility and hyperthyroidism was small (0.6%. An association of thyroid autoimmunity with idiopathic infertility, endometriosis, endocrine infertility was found. Conclusion. It is necessary to perform a screening assessment of the function and structure of T in infertile women within diagnostic search for the reasons of infertility and in-time correction of the revealed thyroid dysfunction.

  11. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence. PMID:26486481

  12. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. PMID:24997195

  13. Efficacy of lower doses of vanadium in restoring altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rat lenses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anju Preet; Bihari L Gupta; Gupta Pramod K Yadava; Najma Z Baquer

    2005-03-01

    partially reverse the diabetic changes, metabolic and morphological, while vanadate in lowered dose in combination with Trigonella was found to be the most effective in restoring the altered lens metabolism and morphological appearance in diabetes. It may be concluded that vanadate at lowered doses administered in combination with Trigonella was the most effective in controlling the altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic lenses, these being significant factors involved in the development of diabetic complications, that reflects in the reduced lens opacity.

  14. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid KHOSROSHAHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Khosroshahi N, Alizadeh P, Khosravi M, Salamati P, Kamrani K. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:31-36.AbstractObjectiveAltered mental status is a common cause of intensive care unit admission inchildren. Differentiating structural causes of altered mental status from metabolic etiologies is of utmost importance in diagnostic approach and management of the patients. Among many biomarkers proposed to help stratifying patients with altered mental status, spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase appears to be the most promising biomarker to predict cellular necrosis.Materials & MethodsIn this cross sectional study we measured spinal fluid level of lactatedehydrogenase in children 2 months to 12 years of age admitted to a single center intensive care unit over one year. Spinal fluid level of lactate dehydrogenase in 40 pediatric cases of febrile seizure was also determined as the control group.ResultsThe study group included 35 boys (58.3% and 25 girls (41.7%. Their meanage was 2.7+/-3 years and their mean spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase levelwas 613.8+/-190.4 units/liter. The control group included 24 boys (55.8% and19 girls (44.2%. Their mean age was 1.3+/-1.2 years and their mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level was 18.9+/-7.5 units/liter. The mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level in children with abnormal head CT scan was246.3+/-351.5 units/liter compared to 164.5+/-705.7 in those with normal CTscan of the head (p=0.001.ConclusionSpinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level is useful in differentiating structural andmetabolic causes of altered mental status in children. ReferencesFesk SK. Coma and confusional states: emergency diagnosis and management. Neurol Clin 1998; 16: 237- 56.Cucchiara BL, Kanser SE, Wolk DA, et al. Early impairment in consciousness Predicts

  15. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonde Jens

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4 (10–16% among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3, free triiodthyroxine (FT3 and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels.

  16. Does thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine therapy, or antithyroid drug treatment alter reactivity of patients` T cells to epitopes of thyrotropin receptor in autoimmune thyroid diseases?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, M.; Kaplan, E.; Abdel-Latif, A. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The effect of treatment on thyroid antibody production and T cell reactivity to thyroid antigens was studied in 15 patients with Graves` disease (GD) before and after thyroidectomy, 19 patients with GD before and after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, and 9 patients maintained euthyroid on antithyroid drugs (ATD). In GD patients, the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TSH receptor (TSHR)-specific T cell lines to recombinant human TSHR extracellular domain, thyroglobulin, and TSHR peptides were examined on the day of surgery or RAI therapy (day 0) and also 6-8 weeks and 3-6 months thereafter. Reactivity to TSHR peptides before surgery was heterogeneous and spanned the entire extracellular domain. Six to 8 weeks after subtotal thyroidectomy, the number of patients` PBMC responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides decreased. A further decrease in the T cell reactivity to TSHR peptides was observed 3-6 months after surgery. The responses of PBMC from Graves` patients before RAI therapy were less than those in the presurgical group. Six to 8 weeks after RAI therapy, the number of patients responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides increased. Three to 6 months after RAI, T cell responses to TSHR peptides were less than those 6-8 weeks after RAI therapy, but still higher than the values on day 0. Responses of PBMC from patients with GD, maintained euthyroid on ATD, were lower than those before surgery or RAI therapy. The reactivity of T cell lines in different groups reflected a pattern similar to PBMC after treatment. TSHR antibody and microsomal antibody levels decreased after surgery, but increased after RAI therapy. The difference in the number of recognized peptides by patients` PBMC before RAI and surgery may reflect the effect of long term therapy with ATD in the patients before RAI vs. the shorter period in patients before surgery. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Does thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine therapy, or antithyroid drug treatment alter reactivity of patients' T cells to epitopes of thyrotropin receptor in autoimmune thyroid diseases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of treatment on thyroid antibody production and T cell reactivity to thyroid antigens was studied in 15 patients with Graves' disease (GD) before and after thyroidectomy, 19 patients with GD before and after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, and 9 patients maintained euthyroid on antithyroid drugs (ATD). In GD patients, the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TSH receptor (TSHR)-specific T cell lines to recombinant human TSHR extracellular domain, thyroglobulin, and TSHR peptides were examined on the day of surgery or RAI therapy (day 0) and also 6-8 weeks and 3-6 months thereafter. Reactivity to TSHR peptides before surgery was heterogeneous and spanned the entire extracellular domain. Six to 8 weeks after subtotal thyroidectomy, the number of patients' PBMC responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides decreased. A further decrease in the T cell reactivity to TSHR peptides was observed 3-6 months after surgery. The responses of PBMC from Graves' patients before RAI therapy were less than those in the presurgical group. Six to 8 weeks after RAI therapy, the number of patients responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides increased. Three to 6 months after RAI, T cell responses to TSHR peptides were less than those 6-8 weeks after RAI therapy, but still higher than the values on day 0. Responses of PBMC from patients with GD, maintained euthyroid on ATD, were lower than those before surgery or RAI therapy. The reactivity of T cell lines in different groups reflected a pattern similar to PBMC after treatment. TSHR antibody and microsomal antibody levels decreased after surgery, but increased after RAI therapy. The difference in the number of recognized peptides by patients' PBMC before RAI and surgery may reflect the effect of long term therapy with ATD in the patients before RAI vs. the shorter period in patients before surgery. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Thyroid Gland in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B T Turumhambetova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the main parameters of thyroid status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as particularities of course of this disease depending on of thyroid gland function disorder. Materials and methods. 52 women with RA were examined. The first group consisted of 11 women with subclinical and manifestive hypothyroidism the second one 41 women without thyroid gland function disorder. The group comparison was conducted on main indexes of thyroid gland condition the hormon level, AT-TPO, ultrasonic data, as well as clinical and laboratory RA data. Results. In women with hypothyroidism the systemic manifestations of RA were more often truely diagnosed; DAS28 indexes, ESR, the number ot swollen joints were higher. The high level ot AT-TPO was diagnosed in 54,55% – I group and in 31,7% – II group TTG level was really less in patients receiving synthetic glycocorticoids. Small thyroid gland volume was diagnosed in 23,07% of examined patients. The thyroid gland status indexes in them did not differ from patients with normal thyroid gland volume. Reliable increasing of the peripheral resistance index was revealed in lower thyroid artery according to the ultrasonic study data under the reduced thyroid gland size. Conclusions. High incidence of hypothyroidism and AT-TPO carriage in RA was revealed. Hypothyroidism development is accompanied by high clinic-laboratory RA activity. The reduction of the thyroid gland volumes in RA is possibly stipulated not only by autoimmunal pathology, but also chronic ischemia of the organ in the conditions of immune-complex vasculitis and early atherosclerosis. The TTG level in patients with RA is defined not only by pathology of the thyroid gland, but glycocorticoid therapy as well.

  19. Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency and brain development: A role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal brain development. Even subclinical hypothyroidism experienced in utero can result in neuropsychological deficits in children despite normal thyroid status at birth. Neurotrophins have been implicated in a host of brain cellular func...

  20. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Kandil; Mohamed Abdel Khalek; Haytham Alabbas; Philip Daroca; Tina Thethi; Paul Friedlander; Ryan Leblanc; Obai Abdullah; Bernard Jaffe; Byron Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black ...

  1. Thyroid function in pregnancy☆

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones. Normal thyroid function during pregnancy is important for both the mother and developing fetus. This review discusses the changes in thyroid physiology that occur during pregnancy, the significance of thyroid function tests and thyroid antibody titers assessed during pregnancy, and the potential obstetric complications associated with maternal hypothyroidism.

  2. Lingual thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    BASARIA, S.

    2000-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is an uncommon entity (Incidence: 1 per 10,000 individuals). The first case was noted in 1869 by Hickmann. In 1972, a total number of 373 cases were collected from the world literature. Because of the rarity and the suprahyoid approach of Operation Choosen, this case is reported.

  3. Thyroid swellings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rebecca Hatton; Madhukar Patel; Devasenan Devendra

    2009-01-01

    @@ A 48 year old post-menopausal woman presents with a smooth midline sweHing in her neck,which has been present for more than 10 years.On examination.you find that it is consistent with an enlarged thyroid gland.

  4. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one of the glands that make up the endocrine system. The glands of the endocrine system produce and store hormones and release them into ... one of the glands that make up the endocrine system. Thyroid hormones affect metabolism, brain development, breathing, heart ...

  5. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... determine thyroid function include: Free T4 test Serum TSH T3 Thyroid autoantibodies Imaging studies are generally not ... signs of mild thyroid failure (such as elevated TSH). This condition is also known as subclinical hypothyroidism. ...

  6. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Diseases Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... a health practitioner will usually order to detect thyroid dysfunction is a test for thyroid stimulating hormone ( ...

  7. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  8. Mycophenolate mofetil alters the antioxidant status in duodenum of rats: Implication for silymarin usage in mycophenolate mofetil induced gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Sheikhzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF as an immunosuppressive agent is used to prevent graftrejection. One of the adverse effects of long time administration of MMF is the gastrointestinaldisorder. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effect of silymarin (SMN onMMF-induced gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats wereassigned into three groups including the control and test groups. The control animals receivedsaline(5 mL kg-1andthe test animals were treated with MMF (40 mg kg-1, orally and saline,MMF and silymarin (SMN, 50 mg kg-1, orally for 14 consecutive days, respectively. To evaluatethe GI disorders due to the MMF-induced oxidative stress and subsequently the protective effectof SMN, malondialdehyde (MDA,total thiol molecules(TTM levels and total anti-oxidantcapacity (TAC were determined. Additionally, histopathological examinations in the duodenalregion of small intestine were performed. The MMF-increased level of MDA was reduced bySMN administration, while the MMF-reduced level of TTM increased significantly (p< 0.05 bySMN administration. Histopathological examinations showed the goblet cell reduction andcongestion in the MMF-received animals; while SMN was able to improve the MMF-inducedgoblet cell reduction and congestion. Our data suggest that the MMF-induced GI disorders arecharacterized by changes in antioxidant status, which presented by the elevation of MDA leveland reduction of TTM concentration. Moreover, the improved biochemical alterations andhistopathologic damages by SMN indicating its gastroprotective and antioxidant effects

  9. Influence of a combination of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners (PCB 47; PCB 77) on thyroid status, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and short- and long-term memory in 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The important role of thyroid hormones in growth and development, maintenance of body temperature, digestion, cardiac function, and normal brain development can be disrupted by environmental contaminants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Polychlorinated biphenyls are environmental contaminants that are widespread, persistent, lipophilic, and bioaccumulate through food webs, concentrating in adipose tissue. Placental and lactational PCB exposure of offspring causes metabolic and endocrine disruptions including hypothyroxinemia, spatial learning and memory deficits, neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations, and reproductive problems. Previous studies in our lab using the individual congeners PCB 47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, ortho-substituted) and PCB 77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, non-ortho-substituted) have demonstrated alterations in thyroid hormone levels, alterations in brain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and spatial learning deficits. In the present study, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet with or without a mixture of PCB 47/77 at 1.25 ppm, 12.5 ppm or 25.0 ppm (w/w). Rat pups were swum in the Morris water maze four times a day on days 21-29 in order for the animals to learn the position of a submerged fixed platform. A probe test was run on day 24 (30 min after last swim) for short-term memory, and on day 29 (24 h after the last swim) for long-term memory after removal of the platform. Time spent in the quadrant previously containing the platform was recorded. Rats were decapitated on day 30, serum collected and frozen at -20 deg. ChAT activity was measured radiometrically in basal forebrain and hippocampus. All PCB-treated animals experienced a depression in both triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The present study found that all doses of PCB depressed ChAT activity in hippocampus with no significant alteration in the basal forebrain. In PCB-treated animals, short-term memory showed a trend toward improvement

  10. Management of thyroid disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Premawardhana, L D K E; Lazarus, J H

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease is the predominant form of thyroid dysfunction in the developed world. Although its precise cause is currently unclear, principles of management have been established. There is a vigorous debate about the management of the increasingly commonly recognised subclinical forms of thyroid dysfunction despite recent recommendations. Nodular thyroid disease and thyroid carcinoma have received wide attention. The effects of drugs and pregnancy on thyroid function have also ...

  11. Thyroid Imaging in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldis, Marina; Waldman, Lindsey; Marginean, Otilia; Rosenberg, Henrietta Kotlus; Rapaport, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. It is important to know the cause of each patient's thyroid dysfunction to foresee the course of therapy and outcomes. Imaging methods, such as ultrasound and thyroid scan, help determine the anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. Although thyroid scan is considered superior in detecting ectopic thyroid tissue, ultrasound is able to detect the presence of thyroid tissue not otherwise visualized in 15% of patients. PMID:27241963

  12. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RishengMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO. Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  13. CLINICAL CONCEPTS ON THYROID EMERGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo ePontecorvi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland that are so severe that require admission to intensive care units frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC and thyrotoxic storm (TS, including therapeutic strategy flow-charts. Furthermore, a special chapter is dedicated to the approach to massive goiter, which represents a surgical thyroid emergency.Data source. We searched the electronic MEDLINE database to September 2013.Data selection and Data extraction. Reviews, original articles and case reports on myxedematous coma, hypothyroid coma, thyroid storm, thyrotoxic storm, massive goiter, huge goiter, prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, therapy, prognosis were selected.Data synthesis and conclusions. Severe excess or defect of thyroid hormone are rare conditions which jeopardize the life of patients in most cases. Both HC and TS are triggered by precipitating factors, which occur in patients with severe hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, respectively. The pillars of HC therapy are: high dose l-thyroxine and/or tri-iodothyroinine; i.v. glucocorticoids; treatment of hydro-electrolyte imbalance (mainly, hyponatraemia; treatment of hypothermia; not rarely, endotracheal intubation and assisted mechanic ventilation are needed. Therapy of TS is based on beta-blockers, thyrostatics, and i.v. glucocorticoids; eventually, high-dose iodide compounds or lithium carbonate may be of benefit. Surgery represents the gold standard treatment in patients with euthyroid massive nodular goiter, although new techniques – e.g., percutaneous laser ablation - are helpful in subjects at high surgical risk or refusing operation.

  14. Understanding the Healthy Thyroid State in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führer, Dagmar; Brix, Klaudia; Biebermann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are of crucial importance for the physiological function of almost all organs. In cases of abnormal TH signaling, pathophysiological consequences may arise. The routine assessment of a healthy or diseased thyroid function state is currently based on the determination of serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and the TH T3 and T4. However, the definition of a ‘normal’ TSH range and similarly ‘normal’ T3 and T4 concentrations remains the subject of debate in different countries worldwide and has important implications on patient treatment in clinics. Not surprisingly, a significant number of patients whose thyroid function tests are biochemically determined to be within the normal range complain of impaired well-being. The reasons for this are so far not fully understood, but it has been recognized that thyroid function status needs to be ‘individualized’ and extended beyond simple TSH measurement. Thus, more precise and reliable parameters are required in order to optimally define the healthy thyroid status of an individual, and as a perspective to employ these in clinical routine. With the recent identification of new key players in TH action, a more accurate assessment of a patient's thyroid status may in the future become possible. Recently described distinct TH derivatives and metabolites, TH transporters, nongenomic TH effects (either through membrane-bound or cytosolic signaling), and classical nuclear TH action allow for insights into molecular and cellular preconditions of a healthy thyroid state. This will be a prerequisite to improve management of thyroid dysfunction, and additionally to prevent and target TH-related nonthyroid disease. PMID:26601068

  15. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  16. Inhibition of glutathione biosynthesis alters compartmental redox status and the thiol proteome in organogenesis-stage rat conceptuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Craig; Shuster, Daniel Z; Roman Gomez, Rosaicela; Sant, Karilyn E; Reed, Matthew S; Pohl, Jan; Hansen, Jason M

    2013-10-01

    Developmental signals that control growth and differentiation are regulated by environmental factors that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alter steady-state redox environments in tissues and fluids. Protein thiols are selectively oxidized and reduced in distinct spatial and temporal patterns in conjunction with changes in glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) redox potentials (E(h)) to regulate developmental signaling. The purpose of this study was to measure compartment-specific thiol redox status in cultured organogenesis-stage rat conceptuses and to evaluate the impact of thiol oxidation on the redox proteome. The visceral yolk sac (VYS) has the highest initial (0 h) total intracellular GSH (GSH+2GSSG) concentration (5.5 mM) and the lowest Eh (-223 mV) as determined by HPLC analysis. Total embryo (EMB) GSH concentrations ranged lower (3.2 mM) and were only slightly more oxidized than the VYS. Total GSH concentrations in yolk sac fluid (YSF) and amniotic fluid (AF) are >500-fold lower than in tissues and are highly oxidized (YSF E(h)=-121 mV and AF E(h)=-49 mV). Steady-state total Cys concentrations (Cys+2CySS) were significantly lower than GSH in tissues but were otherwise equal in VYS and EMB near 0.5 mM. On gestational day 11, total GSH and Cys concentrations in EMB and VYS increase significantly over the 6h time course while E(h) remains relatively constant. The Eh (GSH/GSSG) in YSF and AF become more reduced over time while E(h) (Cys/CySS) become more oxidized. Addition of L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BS0) to selectively inhibit GSH synthesis and mimic the effects of some GSH-depleting environmental chemicals significantly decreased VYS and EMB GSH and Cys concentrations and increased Eh over the 6h exposure period, showing a greater overall oxidation. In the YSF, BSO caused a significant increase in total Cys concentrations to 1.7 mM but did not significantly change the E(h) for Cys/CySS. A significant net

  17. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  18. Alterations in thyroid hormones, lipid peroxidation, glutathione content and protein plasma levels of male rats and their male offspring treated with lead acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a pervasive environmental pollutant known to induced a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunction in both laboratory animals as well as in human. The present work was directed to study the impact of lead (Pb) contamination on blood levels of thyroid hormones. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, total protein, albumin and globulin in male albino rats and whether this impact extends to their offspring growing up in same conditions. Animals were classified into three main groups; 1- control. 2- painter's (fathers). 3- first generation of male rats yielded from Pb-contaminated parents (fathers and mothers). groups 2 and 3 were levels; 100 and 200 mg l, drinking water with lead acetates at two dose levels; 100 and 200 mg l. drinking water for two months. The results revealed that lead contamination induced significant elevations (P4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in both fathers and offspring. Yet, lead significantly increase the plasma lipid peroxidation (P<0.001) with concomitant decreased in glutathione blood content in both fathers and male offspring. The plasma levels of total; protein were significantly increased as a response to the plasma albumin elevations and in turn the albumin / globulin ratio in both fathers and male offspring. Collectively, it was evident that lead high dose (200 mg) dose and the male offspring were highly contaminated than their fathers. The present investigation recommended that urban population ad persons whose work is associated with exposure to lead. Would expected to be at increased risk for lead exposure that will extend to their offspring, and they should be submitted with antioxidants and subjected to periodical medical examinations

  19. Thyroid Hormone Control of Cardiac Substrate Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyti Villet, Outi

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) plays an important role in maintaining a homeostasis in all the cells of our body. It also has significant cardiovascular effects, and abnormalities of its concentration can cause cardiovascular disease and even morbidity. Especially development of heart failure has been connected to low levels of thyroid hormone. A decrease in TH levels or TH-receptor binding adversely effects cardiac function. Although, this occurs in part through alterations in excitation-contraction a...

  20. Maternal diabetes mellitus, a rat model for nonthyroidal illness: Correction of hypothyroxinemia with thyroxine treatment does not improve fetal thyroid hormone status

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Rosa M.; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Escobar del Rey, Francisco; Obregón, María Jesús

    1997-01-01

    Maintenance of normal maternal thyroxinemia prevents severe triiodothyronine (T3) deficiency of the fetus with primary thyroid failure (1). We have studied whether thyroxine (T4) would also protect the fetal brain when maternal hypothyroxinemia is caused by nonthyroidal illnesses. We have used the streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus pregnant rat as a model of maternal nonthyroidal illness. We measured the effects of diabetes mellitus, and of correction of the ensuing maternal hypothyroxi...

  1. The thyroid hormone receptors modulate the skin response to retinoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura García-Serrano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinoids play an important role in skin homeostasis and when administered topically cause skin hyperplasia, abnormal epidermal differentiation and inflammation. Thyroidal status in humans also influences skin morphology and function and we have recently shown that the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs are required for a normal proliferative response to 12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate (TPA in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have compared the epidermal response of mice lacking the thyroid hormone receptor binding isoforms TRα1 and TRβ to retinoids and TPA. Reduced hyperplasia and a decreased number of proliferating cells in the basal layer in response to 9-cis-RA and TPA were found in the epidermis of TR-deficient mice. Nuclear levels of proteins important for cell proliferation were altered, and expression of keratins 5 and 6 was also reduced, concomitantly with the decreased number of epidermal cell layers. In control mice the retinoid (but not TPA induced parakeratosis and diminished expression of keratin 10 and loricrin, markers of early and terminal epidermal differentiation, respectively. This reduction was more accentuated in the TR deficient animals, whereas they did not present parakeratosis. Therefore, TRs modulate both the proliferative response to retinoids and their inhibitory effects on skin differentiation. Reduced proliferation, which was reversed upon thyroxine treatment, was also found in hypothyroid mice, demonstrating that thyroid hormone binding to TRs is required for the normal response to retinoids. In addition, the mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 and the chemotactic proteins S1008A and S1008B were significantly elevated in the skin of TR knock-out mice after TPA or 9-cis-RA treatment and immune cell infiltration was also enhanced. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since retinoids are commonly used for the treatment of skin disorders, these results demonstrating that TRs

  2. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or MRI of the neck may show a tumor growing from the thyroid gland. A thyroid biopsy makes the diagnosis. An examination ... the thyroid Images ... Saunders; 2016:chap 226. Lai SY, Mandel SJ, Weber RS. Management of thyroid neoplasms. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  3. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment is needed. Many types of growths and tumors can develop in the thyroid gland. Most of these are benign (non-cancerous) but ... are thyroid lymphoma, thyroid sarcoma or other rare tumors. Parathyroid cancer Behind, but attached to, the thyroid gland are 4 tiny glands called the parathyroids . The ...

  4. Effect of steroid replacement on thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in Addison′ s disease with primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prakash Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Steroid replacement without thyroxine supplementation normalizes thyroid function test (TFT in some but not all Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to this improvement in TFT. However, the documentation of the change in thyroid autoimmunity after cortisol replacement is very limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of steroid replacement on TFT and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. Six Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism, who were only on steroid replacement, were included in the study. Low serum cortisol (22 pmol/L and/or hyperpigmentation of skin/mucous membranes was considered as the diagnostic criteria for Addison's disease. Primary hypothyroidism (both overt and subclinical was defined as high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH with/without low free thyroxine (fT4. TFT and anti-TPO-Ab were performed before and after steroid replacement in all of them. Results: Poststeroid replacement, there was a normalization of TSH in all but one subjects. In overt hypothyroidism patients, fT4 also normalized. The improvement in TFT was not associated with decreasing titer of the anti-TPO-Ab in all six patients. However, there was a significant difference in TSH after steroid replacement compared to the baseline status. Conclusions: The concept of normalization of primary hypothyroidism with cortisol replacement in patients with Addison's disease should be recognized to avoid iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis caused by thyroxine replacement. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to these alterations.

  5. Thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases

  6. The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence. The significance of the presence of thyroid autoantibodies, particularly thyroid peroxidase antibodies, in serum from patients with breast cancer is unknown, but it has been suggested that antibody positivity is associated with better prognosis. One area in which thyroid and breast functions overlap is in the uptake and utilization of dietary iodide. Experimental findings showing the ability of iodine or iodine-rich seaweed to inhibit breast tumour development is supported by the relatively low rate of breast cancer in Japanese women who consume a diet containing iodine-rich seaweed. However, there is as yet no direct evidence that iodine, iodinated compounds, or a combination of iodine and selenium is the antimammary carcinogenic element in the Japanese diet. It remains to be resolved whether the perceived breast cancer–thyroid disease relationship is thyroid or iodine related or, in the case of thyroid autoantibodies, is the consequence of an immune response to the carcinoma. Is this response breast specific and does it relate to iodine status? These and many other questions await resolution before a definitive role in the natural history of breast carcinoma can be assigned to the thyroid

  7. Salt iodization in Denmark and individual changes in thyroid size, thyroid nodularity and serum thyroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejbjerg, Anne

    Iodine is an essential mineral for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Low iodine intake levels are associated with goitre and other iodine deficiency-related disorders that have affected billions of people worldwide. Until recently the iodine intake of many European populations was below the...... year 2000. A monitoring program entitled the Danish Investigation on Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases (DanThyr) was initiated before any iodization of salt had begun to improve knowledge on how to evaluate iodine status in a population and to study the effects of an increase in iodine intake. The aim...... of this PhD thesis was to evaluate individual changes in thyroid related variables associated with iodine fortification. We chose thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity and serum thyroglobulin as indicators of impact and evaluated possible changes in an 11-year follow-up investigation performed before...

  8. Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M; Chiamolera, Maria I; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Wondisford, Fredic E

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis determines the set point of thyroid hormone (TH) production. Hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pituitary thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), which acts at the thyroid to stimulate all steps of TH biosynthesis and secretion. The THs thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) control the secretion of TRH and TSH by negative feedback to maintain physiological levels of the main hormones of the HPT axis. Reduction of circulating TH levels due to primary thyroid failure results in increased TRH and TSH production, whereas the opposite occurs when circulating THs are in excess. Other neural, humoral, and local factors modulate the HPT axis and, in specific situations, determine alterations in the physiological function of the axis. The roles of THs are vital to nervous system development, linear growth, energetic metabolism, and thermogenesis. THs also regulate the hepatic metabolism of nutrients, fluid balance and the cardiovascular system. In cells, TH actions are mediated mainly by nuclear TH receptors (210), which modify gene expression. T3 is the preferred ligand of THR, whereas T4, the serum concentration of which is 100-fold higher than that of T3, undergoes extra-thyroidal conversion to T3. This conversion is catalyzed by 5'-deiodinases (D1 and D2), which are TH-activating enzymes. T4 can also be inactivated by conversion to reverse T3, which has very low affinity for THR, by 5-deiodinase (D3). The regulation of deiodinases, particularly D2, and TH transporters at the cell membrane control T3 availability, which is fundamental for TH action. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1387-1428, 2016. PMID:27347897

  9. Immuno diagnosis of thyroid diseases in children exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immune status has been studied in 200 children with different thyroid diseases. A marked deficiency of immunity T-link, considerable variations, depending on the type of thyroid pathology, on interferon content in blood, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 have been revealed. 1 tab, 14 refs

  10. Thyroid hormones and adult-type Leydig cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijntjes, E.

    2008-01-01

    Alterations in thyroid hormone levels are well known to influence key functions in growth and development. Although in many countries the diet is fortified with iodide, essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, still not all humans have access to fortified diets, leaving a substantial part of the pop

  11. INTER- RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THYROID AND RENAL PROFILE IN OVERT HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal function is altered by thyroid status. Therefore, this study was done to determine the relationship between thyroid and renal parameters in overt type of thyroid dysfunction. AIM: The aims of this study were to correlate parameters of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, with serum T3, T4 and TSH in overt hypothyroid cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Case control study included fifty diagnosed cases of hypothyroidism in the department of Endocrinology, Medicine and Surgery of A J Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Mangaluru, of age group 15-75 years. Based on TSH levels, subjects were classified as subclinical hypothyroids and overt hypothyroids. Results were compared with age and sex matched twenty five euthyroids. Serum T3, T4 and TSH; Serum creatinine; and Creatinine clearance were estimated and analysed. RESULTS: The results of the present study were obtained from 75subjects out of whom 25 were controls, 22 were subclinical hypothyroids and 28 were overt hypothyroids. Age distribution of study subjects shows that the mean age was 39.56±13.019 for overt hypothyroids. Sex distribution of study subjects shows that majority of overt hypothyroids (78.6% were females. Percentage of individuals with altered serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance among overt hypothyroids shows that there were more cases of overt hypothyroids with increased serum creatinine. Hypothyroid cases had decreased renal function. Overt hypothyroids showed statistically significant difference in the levels of serum creatinine, but they did not differ in the levels of creatinine clearance. CONCLUSION: Hypothyroidism is linked with considerable derangement in biochemical parameters of renal function, necessitating regularl monitoring of renal pararmeters in hypothyroid patients.

  12. Recurrent Silent Thyroiditis as a Sequela of Postpartum Thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Preaw Hanseree; Vincent Bryan Salvador; Issac Sachmechi; Paul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Thyroiditis encompasses a group of disorders characterized by thyroid inflammation. Though clinically indistinguishable from silent thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis occurs in women within 12 months after delivery. Recurrent postpartum thyroiditis in subsequent pregnancies is common, but recurrent silent thyroiditis is rare. We reported a case of patient with recurrent episodes of thyroiditis, unrelated to pregnancy, after an episode of postpartum thyroiditis. It is of interest that postpar...

  13. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  15. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Key statistics for thyroid cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  16. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bresciani M. De Andrade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3 which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3, and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2, (ii slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development.We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. Energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and likely contribute to catch-up fat.

  17. Exercise lowers thyroid radioiodine uptake: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of exercise upon the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid was examined in both rats and humans. Rats that exercised intermittently on a mechanical wheel for a period of 20 days had singificantly lower uptake values (p < 0.0001) than sedentary controls. Human volunteers that ran at least ten miles/week had a lower mean 24-h uptake value (8.0 +- 2.8%) than nonexercisign subjects (14.3 +- 5.1%, p < 0.01). Other thyroid function studies (thyroxine, triiodothyronine, triiodothyronine resin uptake, thyroid-stimulating hormone) did not differ significantly between the exercisign and nonexercising groups. These studies suggest that exercise significantly alters thyroid iodine economy

  18. Thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study two main objectives were concerned.The first one is the estimation of serum of thyroid hormones antigen level in pregnant women in Khartoum area. To fulfill the first objectives, thirty pregnant women were selected their age 25-45 yrs and serum was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for T4, T3 and TSH and was found that mean concentration in serum T4=156, T3= 2.9 and TSH 0.4. For the assessment of the other parameters, the same number was allowed for Hb%, age and weight and so no significant different was observed in the mean concentration and evaluated as best results can concerned. Different techniques were used in the study such as micro reader and spectrophotometer. (Author)

  19. Molecular mechanisms of thyroid tumorigenesis; Molekulare Mechanismen der Schilddruesentumorgenese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, K.; Fuehrer, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Abt. fuer Endokrinolgoie, Diabetologie und Nephrologie

    2008-09-15

    Thyroid nodules are the most frequent endocrine disorder and occur in approximately 30% of the German population. Thyroid nodular disease constitutes a very heterogeneous entity. A striking diversity of possible functional and morphological features of a thyroid tumour derived from the same thyroid ancestor cell, is a hallmark of thyroid tumorigenesis and is due to specific genetic alterations. Defects in known candidate genes can be found in up to 70% of differentiated thyroid carcinomas and determine the respective cancer phenotype. Papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) harbour BRAF (or much less frequently RAS) mutations in sporadically occurring tumours, while radiation-induced PTC display chromosomal rearrangements such as RET, TRK, APR9 / BRAF. These genetic events results in constitutive MAPKinase activation. Follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) harbour RAS mutations or PAX8/ PPAR{gamma} rearrangements, both of which, however have also been identified in follicular adenoma. In addition, recent studies show, that activation of PI3K/AKT signalling occurs with high frequency in follicular thyroid tumours. Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancers (ATC) display genetic features of FTC or PTC, in addition to aberant activation of multiple tyrosinkinase pathways (overexpression or mutations in PI3K and MAPK pathways). This underscores the concept of a sequential evolution of ATC from differentiated thyroid cancer, a process widely conceived to be triggered by p53 inactivation. In contrast, the molecular pathogenesis of benign thyroid tumours, in particular cold thyroid nodules is less known, except for toxic thyroid nodules, which arise from constitutive activation of cAMP signalling, predominantly through TSHR mutations. (orig.)

  20. Progression of solitary and multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma— a retrospective study of 368 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiang-qian; WANG Chen; XU Meng; YU Yang; YUN Xin-wei; JIA Yong-sheng; WEI Song-feng; REN Xiu-bao; GAO Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) represents one of the most frequent endocrine malignancies.Several factors have been found to be involved in determining the outcome of treatment for patients with PTC.Large tumor size,diagnosis at an early age,extra-thyroidal invasion,aggressive histological variants,and distant metastases are the most important determinants of a poor outcome.BRAFv600E mutation has been found to be a major genetic alteration in PTC.This study aimed to evaluate progression in patients with multifocal and solitary PTC.Methods We performed a retrospective study to analyze 368 patients with PTC who underwent surgery,including 282 patients with solitary PTC and 86 patients with multifocal PTC.The status of BRAFv600E mutation in all tumor foci from multifocal PTC was detected.Results Our study suggested that multifocal PTC was more related to lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion than solitary PTC.However,the distant metastasis rate and 10-year survival rate showed no difference between these two groups.The number of tumor foci did not affect progression of disease in multifocal PTC patients.Lymph node metastasis in multifocal PTC patients was associated with larger tumors,diagnosis at early stage,and extra-thyroidal invasion.Conclusion The status of BRAFv600E mutation was more frequent in multifocal PTC patients with lymph node metastasis and diagnosis at later age.

  1. Neonatal Maternal Separation Alters, in a Sex-Specific Manner, the Expression of TRH, of TRH-Degrading Ectoenzyme in the Rat Hypothalamus, and the Response of the Thyroid Axis to Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Gutiérrez-Mariscal, Mariana; Vargas, Yamili; Pérez-Maldonado, Adrián; Romero, Fidelia; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Charli, Jean-Louis; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis activity is important for energy homeostasis, and is modified by stress. Maternal separation (MS) alters the stress response and predisposes to metabolic disturbances in the adult. We therefore studied the effect of MS on adult HPT axis activity. Wistar male and female pups were separated from their mothers 3 h/d during postnatal day (PND)2-PND21 (MS), or left nonhandled (NH). Open field and elevated plus maze tests revealed increased locomotion in MS males and anxiety-like behavior in MS females. At PND90, MS females had increased body weight gain, Trh expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and white adipose tissue mass. MS males had increased expression of TRH-degrading enzyme in tanycytes, reduced TSH and T3, and enhanced corticosterone serum concentrations. MS stimulated brown adipose tissue deiodinase 2 activity in either sex. Forty-eight hours of fasting (PND60) augmented serum corticosterone levels similarly in MS or NH females but more in MS than in NH male rats. MS reduced the fasting-induced drop in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus-Trh expression of males but not of females and abolished the fasting-induced increase in Trh expression in both sexes. Fasting reduced serum concentrations of TSH, T4, and T3, less in MS than in NH males, whereas in females, TSH decreased in MS but not in NH rats, but T4 and T3 decreased similarly in NH and MS rats. In conclusion, MS produced long-term changes in the activity of the HPT axis that were sex specific; response to fasting was partially blunted in males, which could affect their adaptive response to negative energy balance. PMID:27323240

  2. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsame, D.; Chadli, A.; Hallab, L.; El Aziz, S.; El Ghomari, H.; Farouqi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from failure of one thyroid lobe development. We report a 23-year-old female presented with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in left lobe, associated with hemiagenesis of right lobe and isthmus which was previously diagnosed as Graves' hyperthyroidism, but developed further into Hashimoto's thyroiditis after being treated with antithyroid drugs. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning of an absent lobe. The antithyroid pharmacotherapy by thiamazole was used. However, due to symptoms of hypothyroidism, it was discontinued two months later, so thyroid hormone substitution was reintroduced. Antithyroid antibody studies and ultrasonography documented the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:24198979

  3. 促甲状腺素抑制治疗对老年患者情绪的影响%Effects of suppressive therapy of thyroid-stimulating hormone on emotion status in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛志昊; 张轶西; 丁巍; 潘明; 陈闯; 赵斌; 张健; 张弘

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨分化型甲状腺癌患者(DTC)术后促甲状腺激素(TSH)水平与老年患者情绪的关系. 方法 测定患者血清游离三碘甲腺原氨酸(FT3)、游离甲状腺素(FT4)及促甲状腺激素(TSH)水平.入选患者165例,其中行DTC根治术老年患者74例,行结节性甲状腺肿双侧甲状腺次全切除术者(无抑制组)43例,甲状腺功能检查结果正常(健康对照组)48例;行DTC根治术老年患者再根据测定血清TSH水平分为完全抑制组(33例)和部分抑制组(41例);并使用汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)及汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)进行评定. 结果 完全抑制组HAMA评分与无抑制组和健康对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01),与部分抑制组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);各组HAMD评分间比较差异均无统计学意义.完全抑制组TSH水平、游离甲状腺素(FT4)水平与HAMA总分具有相关性(P<0.05). 结论 TSH完全抑制组老年患者的焦虑症状比其他各组更为严重;完全抑制组焦虑症状与甲状腺功能异常存在相关性,适当调整DTC术后TSH抑制水平有可能改善老年患者的焦虑症状.%Objective To analyze the effects of suppressive therapy of thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH) on emotion status in elderly patients undergoing resection of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).Methods Serum levels of free T3 (FT3),free T4 (FT4) and TSH were measured in elderly patients.165 patients were enrolled,in whom 74 cases with DTC underwent complete resection and TSH suppressive therapy [completely (CSG,n=33) and partially (PSG,n=41)],43 cases with nodular goiter without TSH suppressive therapy (WSG) underwent bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy and 48 cases had normal thyroid function (normal control group,NCG).Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were used to evaluate patients' emotion status.Results There were significant differences in scores of HAMA between CSG and other three

  4. An Adolescent Boy with Comorbid Anorexia Nervosa and Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2016-03-01

    Low triiodothyronine syndrome is a physiological adaptation encountered in anorexia nervosa (AN) and generally improves with sufficient weight gain. However, when a primary thyroid pathology accompanies AN, both the evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and the management of the co-morbid disease become more challenging. Hashimoto thyroiditis could complicate the management of AN by causing hyper- or hypothyroidism. AN could also negatively affect the treatment of Hashimoto thyroiditis by altering body weight and metabolic rate, as well as by causing drug non-compliance. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with comorbid AN restrictive sub-type and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this case report, we aimed to draw attention to the challenges that could be encountered in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with AN when accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:26757948

  5. An Adolescent Boy with Comorbid Anorexia Nervosa and Hashimoto Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Low triiodothyronine syndrome is a physiological adaptation encountered in anorexia nervosa (AN) and generally improves with sufficient weight gain. However, when a primary thyroid pathology accompanies AN, both the evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and the management of the co-morbid disease become more challenging. Hashimoto thyroiditis could complicate the management of AN by causing hyper- or hypothyroidism. AN could also negatively affect the treatment of Hashimoto thyroiditis by altering body weight and metabolic rate, as well as by causing drug non-compliance. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with comorbid AN restrictive sub-type and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this case report, we aimed to draw attention to the challenges that could be encountered in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with AN when accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:26757948

  6. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Katja E. Menger; Andrew M. James; Helena M. Cochemé; Harbour, Michael E.; Edward T. Chouchani; Shujing Ding; Ian M. Fearnley; Linda Partridge; Michael P. Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Summary Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox...

  7. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Neonatal Thyroid Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate obstetric features of pregnant women with thyroid disorders and thyroid function tests of their newborn infants. Methods. Women with hypothyroidism and having anti-thyroglobulin (ATG and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibodies were assigned as group I, women with hypothyroidism who did not have autoantibodies were assigned as group II, and women without thyroid problems were assigned as group III. Results. Pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism (group I had more preterm delivery and their babies needed more frequent neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission. In group I, one infant was diagnosed with compensated hypothyroidism and one infant had transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Five infants (23.8% in group II had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels >20 mIU/mL. Only two of them had TSH level >7 mIU/L at the 3rd postnatal week, and all had normal free T4 (FT4. Median maternal TSH level of these five infants with TSH >20 mIU/mL was 6.6 mIU/mL. In group III, six infants (6.5% had TSH levels above >20 mIU/mL at the 1st postnatal week. Conclusion. Infants of mothers with thyroid problems are more likely to have elevated TSH and higher recall rate on neonatal thyroid screening. Women with thyroid disorders and their newborn infants should be followed closely for both obstetrical problems and for thyroid dysfunction.

  8. Glycerol-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase Expression and Oxygen Consumption in Liver Mitochondria of Female and Male Rats with Chronic Alteration of Thyroid Status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rauchová, Hana; Mráček, Tomáš; Novák, Petr; Vokurková, Martina; Soukup, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2011), s. 43-47. ISSN 0018-5043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0570; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR GPP303/10/P227; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : chronic administration * triiodothyronine * methimazole * sex difference * idebenone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.188, year: 2011

  9. Spectrum of thyroid function in children among the patients attending to examine thyroidal illness at CNMU, Dhaka - A retrospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of a standard range of thyroid hormones for Bangladesh younger population is very essential. Trials were conducted to standardize the normal range of thyroid hormones i.e. T3, T4 and TSH level, at 95% confidence limit (2sd) of age ranging from 1 day to 12 yrs of Bangladesh children group, which were differ by sex. The ranges of different thyroid status were evaluated in the In vitro Laboratory of Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Dhaka. Comparing three stages (Table 2,3, and 4) observed hormone ranges at euthyroid stage marked off for overlapping the higher level of hypo thyroidal stage by lower side and the lower level of hyper thyroidal stage by higher side. Present work calculated the mean values of thyroid hormones of both sexes, which were found not affected by the sex. (author)

  10. Gestational dexamethasone alters fetal neuroendocrine axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    This study tested whether the maternal transport of dexamethasone (DEXA) may affect the development of the neuroendocrine system. DEXA (0.2mg/kg b.w., subcutaneous injection) was administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In the DEXA-treated group, a decrease in maternal serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and increase in thyrotropin (TSH) levels (hypothyroid status) were observed at GDs 15 & 20 with respect to control group. The reverse pattern (hyperthyroid status) was observed in their fetuses at embryonic days (EDs) 15 & 20. Although the maternal body weight was diminished, the weight of the thyroid gland was increased at studied GDs as compared to the control group. The fetal growth retardation, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinism, and cytokines distortions (transforming growth factor-beta; TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TNF-α, and interferon-γ; IFN-γ) were noticed at examined EDs if compared to the control group. Alternatively, the maternofetal thyroid dysfunctions due to the maternal DEXA administration attenuated the levels of fetal cerebral norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E), and elevated the levels of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) at considered days. These alterations were age-dependent and might damage the nerve transmission. Finally, maternal DEXA might act as neuroendocrine disruptor causing dyshormonogenesis and fetal cerebral dysfunction. PMID:27220267

  11. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  12. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  13. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  14. Child thyroid anatomy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and ... a major role in regulating the body's metabolism. Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and ...

  15. Cancer of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main types of thyroid cancer are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are ... on statistics from SEER and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. ...

  16. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic Targeted therapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  17. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Page Content On this page: ... responds by decreasing TSH production. [ Top ] How does pregnancy normally affect thyroid function? Two pregnancy-related hormones— ...

  18. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  19. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to other parts of the body, making the disease more difficult to control. Medullary : This rare form of thyroid cancer develops in ... about 5-10 percent of all thyroid malignancies. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) ... Symptoms: Symptoms of this disease vary. Your child may have a lump in ...

  20. Iodine and Thyroid Cancer in Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Arora

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a low papillary to follicular ratio in iodine deficient areas. A study of malignant thyroid tumors done over a period of 4 years in Goa shows that the ratio of papillary to follicular carcinoma in Goa conforms to a iodine deficient status of the population.

  1. Iodine and Thyroid Cancer in Goa

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Arora; Avril Dias

    2007-01-01

    There is a low papillary to follicular ratio in iodine deficient areas. A study of malignant thyroid tumors done over a period of 4 years in Goa shows that the ratio of papillary to follicular carcinoma in Goa conforms to a iodine deficient status of the population.

  2. Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Crea; Carla Bizzarri; Marco Cappa

    2011-01-01

    The two major autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) include Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT); both of which are characterized by infiltration of the thyroid by T and B cells reactive to thyroid antigens, by the production of thyroid autoantibodies and by abnormal thyroid function (hyperthyroidism in GD and hypothyroidism in AT). While the exact etiology of thyroid autoimmunity is not known, it is believed to develop when a combination of genetic susceptibility and environment...

  3. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies in recurrent miscarriage women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine thyroid status in recurrent miscarriage Sudanese women and to determine the association between thyroid antibodies and miscarriage. The study included patients attending obstetrics and gynecology unit at Khartoum teaching hospital and Omdurman New hospital since June 2008 to Jan 2009, these patients were complaining of vaginal bleeding. Sixty, apparently healthy pregnant women with history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages during the first trimester, their ages ranged between 20 and 45 years were selected as target group. Forty healthy, normal pregnant women of the same gestational age and known to reach term and had healthy labor, patients with age ranged between 17 and 41 years were selected from (SAEC), referral clinic center at Khartoum Teaching and Omdurman New Hospitals as control group. The two groups were physically examined and their thyroid glands were seen by the physician. Questionnaires were completed for all the subjects. Patients with metabolic or endocrinologic disorders, genital organ anamoly, uterine myoma, mal nourishment or exposed to toxic substances were excluded from the study. Five ml of venous blood samples were collected from the target and control subjects. Thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies (TT4, TT3, FT4, FT3, TSH, TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab) were measured for the two groups (target and control ) using RIA technique. The results of this study showed that there was a significant decrease decrease in the concentrations of thyroid hormones (TT4 and TT3) in the target group (p-value = 0.0001 and 0.004 respectively) compared with the control group. Moreover, there was a significant elevation in the concentration of TSH in the target group (p- value = 0.0001). The free T-4 concentration was lower but not significant in the target group (p-value=0.075), FT3 level was similar in both groups (p-value = 0.591). The presence of abnormal high concentrations of TT4 in control and target groups was 37.5% and

  4. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  5. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Yoo; Yohanan Kim; Alfred Simental; Jared C. Inman

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  6. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  7. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Activation is Associated with Altered Plasma One-Carbon Metabolites and B-Vitamin Status in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Lysne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma concentrations of metabolites along the choline oxidation pathway have been linked to increased risk of major lifestyle diseases, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs have been suggested to be involved in the regulation of key enzymes along this pathway. In this study, we investigated the effect of PPAR activation on circulating and urinary one-carbon metabolites as well as markers of B-vitamin status. Male Wistar rats (n = 20 received for 50 weeks either a high-fat control diet or a high-fat diet with tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA, a modified fatty acid and pan-PPAR agonist with high affinity towards PPARα. Hepatic gene expression of PPARα, PPARβ/δ and the enzymes involved in the choline oxidation pathway were analyzed and concentrations of metabolites were analyzed in plasma and urine. TTA treatment altered most biomarkers, and the largest effect sizes were observed for plasma concentrations of dimethylglycine, nicotinamide, methylnicotinamide, methylmalonic acid and pyridoxal, which were all higher in the TTA group (all p < 0.01. Hepatic Pparα mRNA was increased after TTA treatment, but genes of the choline oxidation pathway were not affected. Long-term TTA treatment was associated with pronounced alterations on the plasma and urinary concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats.

  8. Thyroid organotypic rat and human cultures used to investigate drug effects on thyroid function, hormone synthesis and release pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug induced thyroid effects were evaluated in organotypic models utilizing either a rat thyroid lobe or human thyroid slices to compare rodent and human response. An inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) function led to a perturbation in the expression of key genes in thyroid hormone synthesis and release pathways. The clinically used thiourea drugs, methimazole (MMI) and 6-n-propyl-2-thioruacil (PTU), were used to evaluate thyroid drug response in these models. Inhibition of TPO occurred early as shown in rat thyroid lobes (2 h) and was sustained in both rat (24–48 h) and human (24 h) with ≥ 10 μM MMI. Thyroid from rats treated with single doses of MMI (30–1000 mg/kg) exhibited sustained TPO inhibition at 48 h. The MMI in vivo thyroid concentrations were comparable to the culture concentrations (∼ 15–84 μM), thus demonstrating a close correlation between in vivo and ex vivo thyroid effects. A compensatory response to TPO inhibition was demonstrated in the rat thyroid lobe with significant up-regulation of genes involved in the pathway of thyroid hormone synthesis (Tpo, Dio1, Slc5a5, Tg, Tshr) and the megalin release pathway (Lrp2) by 24 h with MMI (≥ 10 μM) and PTU (100 μM). Similarly, thyroid from the rat in vivo study exhibited an up-regulation of Dio1, Slc5a5, Lrp2, and Tshr. In human thyroid slices, there were few gene expression changes (Slc5a5, ∼ 2-fold) and only at higher MMI concentrations (≥ 1500 μM, 24 h). Extended exposure (48 h) resulted in up-regulation of Tpo, Dio1 and Lrp2, along with Slc5a5 and Tshr. In summary, TPO was inhibited by similar MMI concentrations in rat and human tissue, however an increased sensitivity to drug treatment in rat is indicated by the up-regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis and release gene pathways at concentrations found not to affect human tissue. -- Highlights: ► Novel model of rat thyroid or human thyroid slices to evaluate pathways of injury. ► TPO inhibition by MMI or PTU altered

  9. Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baba KA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Khalid A El Baba1, Sami T Azar21Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Bahrain Specialist Hospital, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Timely treatment of thyroid disease during pregnancy is important in preventing adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Thyroid abnormalities are very often subclinical in nature and not easily recognized without specific screening programs. Even mild maternal thyroid hormone deficiency may lead to neurodevelopment complications in the fetus. The main diagnostic indicator of thyroid disease is the measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels. Availability of gestation-age-specific thyroid-stimulating hormone thresholds is an important aid in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction. Pregnancy-specific free thyroxine thresholds not presently available are also required. Large-scale intervention trials are urgently needed to assess the efficacy of preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid disorders. Accurate interpretation of both antepartum and postpartum levels of thyroid hormones is important in preventing pregnancy-related complication secondary to thyroid dysfunction. This article sheds light on the best ways of management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in order to prevent any possible maternal or fetal complication.Keywords: TSH, HCG, TBG

  10. Thyroid function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short revision of thyroid physiology is done. The radioisotopes of common use in thyroid investigation and the choice of the most appropriated ones are discussed. A table showing radioisotopes frequently used in this study, with their main characteristics is presented. Among several isotopic assays in thyroid propaedeutics, those that refer to the function study, topographic studies and tests 'in vitro' are pointed out. Exploration methods 'in vivo' are treated, such as: thyroid uptake; urinary excretion; thyroid scintigraphy, with scintigraphic imagings; stimulation test by TSH; suppression test; pbi; clearance test with perchlorate; iodine deficiency test and thyroid study with technetium. 'In vitro' proofs like triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) assays, as well as free thyroxine index, are treated. At last, the therapeutics by Iodine 131 is commented and emphasis is given to its application on the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma

  11. Effect of antiepileptic drug therapy on thyroid hormones among adult epileptic patients: An analytical cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Arulmozhi, Ranjitha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of conventional and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on thyroid hormone levels in adult epileptic patients. Methods: A hospital-based, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among the adult epileptic patients receiving conventional AEDs (Group 2) or newer AEDs (Group 3) for more than 6 months. Serum thyroid hormone levels including free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were analyzed and the hormonal status was compared with healthy control subjects (Group 1). Findings: Sodium valproate and phenytoin were commonly used conventional AEDs; levetiracetam and topiramate were common among the newer drugs. There was a statistically significant decrease in serum fT4 and increase in serum TSH levels (P hormone levels (fT3, fT4, and TSH; P = 0.68, 0.37, and 0.90, respectively) was observed with newer antiepileptics-treated patients when compared to control group. One-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Dunnett's test was performed using SPSS version 17.0 software package. Conclusion: The present study showed that conventional AEDs have significant alteration in the thyroid hormone levels than the newer antiepileptics in adult epileptic patients.

  12. Dopamine receptor alterations in female rats with diet-induced decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): interactions with reproductive status

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Paul F.; Ozias, Marlies K.; Carlson, Susan E.; Reed, Gregory A.; Winter, Michelle K; McCarson, Kenneth E.; Levant, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Decreased tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. This study examined the effects of a diet-induced loss of brain DHA content and concurrent reproductive status on dopaminergic parameters in adult female Long–Evans rats. An α-linolenic acid-deficient diet and breeding protocols were used to produce virgin and parous female rats with cortical phospholipid DHA levels 20–22% ...

  13. Alterations in vitamin D status and anti-microbial peptide levels in patients in the intensive care unit with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Thomas R

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D insufficiency is common in hospitalized patients. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D may enhance the innate immune response by induction of cathelicidin (LL-37, an endogenous antimicrobial peptide produced by macrophages and neutrophils. Thus, the relationship between vitamin D status and LL-37 production may be of importance for host immunity, but little data is available on this subject, especially in the setting of human sepsis syndrome and other critical illness. Methods Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, vitamin D binding protein (DBP and LL-37 in critically ill adult subjects admitted to intensive care units (ICUs with sepsis and without sepsis were compared to healthy controls. Results Critically ill subjects had significantly lower plasma 25(OHD concentrations compared to healthy controls. Mean plasma LL-37 levels were significantly lower in critically ill subjects compared to healthy controls. Vitamin D binding protein levels in plasma were significantly lower in critically ill subjects with sepsis compared to critically ill subjects without sepsis. There was a significant positive association between circulating 25(OHD and LL-37 levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates an association between critical illness and lower 25(OHD and DBP levels in critically ill patients as compared to healthy controls. It also establishes a positive association between vitamin D status and plasma LL-37, which suggests that systemic LL-37 levels may be regulated by vitamin D status. Optimal vitamin D status may be important for innate immunity especially in the setting of sepsis. Further invention studies to examine this association are warranted.

  14. Altered mental status and low anion gap in a patient with sickle cell anemia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Wartak Siddharth A; Mehendale Reshma A; Freda Benjamin; Verma Ashish; Rose David N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction It is challenging to diagnose two coexisting medical conditions if the symptoms are overlapping. This is further confounded if the patient presents with an unexplained deterioration in mental status. A low anion gap or a zero anion gap is an uncommon clinical finding and has few differential diagnoses. This test therefore has important implications in correctly identifying underlying medical conditions. Case presentation A 50-year-old African American male patient with s...

  15. Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vaamonde

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In this high-intensity endurance athlete, sperm parameters, mainly sperm morphology and DNA fragmentation, are altered. Further knowledge is needed with regards nutritional antioxidant intake and other dietetic strategies oriented toward avoiding oxidative damage in semen of high-performance triathletes. Moreover, adequate nutritional strategies must be found and nutritional advice given to athletes so as to palliate or dampen the effects of exercise on semen quality.

  16. The Ca(2+) status of the endoplasmic reticulum is altered by induction of calreticulin expression in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, S.; Wyatt, S. E.; Love, J.; Thompson, W. F.; Robertson, D.; Boss, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in plant cells, we generated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; NT1) suspension cells and Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of calreticulin (CRT), an ER-localized Ca(2+)-binding protein. NT1 cells and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a maize (Zea mays) CRT gene in both sense and antisense orientations under the control of an Arabidopsis heat shock promoter. ER-enriched membrane fractions from NT1 cells were used to examine how altered expression of CRT affects Ca(2+) uptake and release. We found that a 2.5-fold increase in CRT led to a 2-fold increase in ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) accumulation in the ER-enriched fraction compared with heat-shocked wild-type controls. Furthermore, after treatment with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, ER microsomes from NT1 cells overproducing CRT showed a 2-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) released, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) retained compared with wild type. These data indicate that altering the production of CRT affects the ER Ca(2+) pool. In addition, CRT transgenic Arabidopsis plants were used to determine if altered CRT levels had any physiological effects. We found that the level of CRT in heat shock-induced CRT transgenic plants correlated positively with the retention of chlorophyll when the plants were transferred from Ca(2+)-containing medium to Ca(2+)-depleted medium. Together these data are consistent with the hypothesis that increasing CRT in the ER increases the ER Ca(2+) stores and thereby enhances the survival of plants grown in low Ca(2+) medium.

  17. Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Rizwan Siddiqui; Asia Taha; K Moorthy; Mohd Ejaz Hussain; S F Basir; Najma Zaheer Baquer

    2005-09-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) and sodium orthovanadate (SOV) have been reported to have antidiabetic effects. However, SOV exerts hypoglycemic effects at relatively high doses with several toxic effects. We used low doses of vanadate in combination with TSP and evaluated their antidiabetic effects on antioxidant enzymes and membrane-linked functions in diabetic rat brains. In rats, diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body wt.) and they were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV with 5% TSP for 21 days. Blood glucose levels, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+/K+ ATPase, membrane lipid peroxidation and fluidity were determined in different fractions of whole brain after 21 days of treatment. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose ( < 0.001), decreased activities of SOD, catalase and Na+/K+ ATPase ( < 0.01, < 0.001 and < 0.01), increased levels of GPx and MDA ( < 0.01 and < 0.001) and decreased membrane fluidity ( < 0.01). Treatment with different antidiabetic compounds restored the above-altered parameters. Combined dose of Trigonella and vanadate was found to be the most effective treatment in normalizing these alterations. Lower doses of vanadate could be used in combination with TSP to effectively counter diabetic alterations without any toxic effects.

  18. Role of maternal thyroid hormones in the developing neocortex and during human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Stenzel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of thyroid hormones during brain development has been appreciated for many decades. In humans, low levels of circulating maternal thyroid hormones, e.g. caused by maternal hypothyroidism or lack of iodine in diet, results in a wide spectrum of severe neurological defects, including neurological cretinism characterized by profound neurologic impairment and mental retardation, underlining the importance of the maternal thyroid hormone contribution. In fact, iodine intake, which is essential for thyroid hormone production in the thyroid gland, has been related to the expansion of the brain, associated with the increased cognitive capacities during human evolution. Because thyroid hormones regulate transcriptional activity of target genes via their nuclear thyroid hormone receptors, even mild and transient changes in maternal thyroid hormone levels can directly affect and alter the gene expression profile, and thus disturb fetal brain development. Here we summarize how thyroid hormones may have influenced human brain evolution through the adaptation to new habitats, concomitant with changes in diet and, therefore, iodine intake. Further, we review the current picture we gained from experimental studies in rodents on the function of maternal thyroid hormones during developmental neurogenesis. We aim to evaluate the effects of maternal thyroid hormone deficiency as well as lack of thyroid hormone receptors and transporters on brain development and function, shedding light on the cellular behavior conducted by thyroid hormones.

  19. Effect of leucovorin (folinic acid on the developmental quotient of children with Down's syndrome (trisomy 21 and influence of thyroid status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Blehaut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seven genes involved in folate metabolism are located on chromosome 21. Previous studies have shown that folate deficiency may contribute to mental retardation in Down's syndrome (DS. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the effect of oral folate supplementation (daily dose of 1.0+/-0.3 mg/kg on cognitive functions in DS children, aged from 3 to 30 months. They received 1 mg/kg leucovorin or placebo daily, for 12 months, in a single-centre, randomised, double-blind study. Folinic acid (leucovorin, LV was preferred to folic acid as its bioavailability is higher. The developmental age (DA of the patients was assessed on the Brunet-Lezine scale, from baseline to the end of treatment. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat analysis (113 patients did not show a positive effect of leucovorin treatment. However, it identified important factors influencing treatment effect, such as age, sex, and concomitant treatments, including thyroid treatment in particular. A per protocol analysis was carried out on patients evaluated by the same examiner at the beginning and end of the treatment period. This analysis of 87 patients (43 LV-treated vs. 44 patients on placebo revealed a positive effect of leucovorin on developmental age (DA. DA was 53.1% the normal value with leucovorin and only 44.1% with placebo (p<0.05. This positive effect of leucovorin was particularly strong in patients receiving concomitant thyroxin treatment (59.5% vs. 41.8%, p<0.05. No adverse event related to leucovorin was observed. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that leucovorin improves the psychomotor development of children with Down's syndrome, at least in some subgroups of the DS population, particularly those on thyroxin treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00294593.

  20. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  1. EFFECT OF THERAPEUTIC AND DOUBLE THERAPEUTIC DOSES OF IVERMECTIN ON OXIDATIVE STATUS AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN MALE RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hafez El-Far

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the biochemical alterations of oxidative status and male sexual hormones, thyroid hormones, cortisol, liver function and kidney function; sixty male New Zealand White rabbits were equally allotted according to their body weight into two groups. Control samples were collected before subcutaneous injection of rabbits by ivermectinin Therapeutic (TD) and Double Therapeutic Doses (DTD). After injection blood samples were collected from ear vein at 1st, 3rd and 7th day of experiment...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Hashimoto thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Hashimoto thyroiditis is a condition that affects the function ...

  3. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  4. The use of radioisotopes in the investigation of the iodine status and thyroid function in farm animals in the Sudan. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of isotopes to diagnose moderate mineral imbalances in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid weight of 2000 grazing animals (sheep, goats, cattle and camels), together with an estimate of thyroid activity and the iodine content of milk, using 131I, suggest that iodine deficiency prevails in extensive areas of the Sudan. Iodine supplementation for humans and animals in the Sudan appears justified. Results are based on radioassays carried out to determine the blood serum levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, and the thyroid uptake of 131I under conditions of adequate I-uptake. The I-content of milk (and blood serum, pasture, water and soil, where possible) was determined, in order to correlate the levels of the thyroid hormones and of 131I-uptake with I-supply. Experiments were also carried out on the effects of administering balanced and unbalanced mineral rations on I-metabolism and thyroid hormone production

  5. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  6. Thyroid and parathyroid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, J E; Freitas, A E

    1994-07-01

    With the advent of better thyroid function tests, a tumor marker, and fine-needle aspiration, the role of thyroid imaging studies in the evaluation of the patients with thyroid disease has diminished. Although multimodality thyroid imaging had improved our understanding of thyroid disease, current indications for thyroid imaging are the solitary or dominant thyroid nodule, an upper mediastinal mass, differentiation of hyperthyroidism, detection and staging of postoperative thyroid cancer, neonatal hypothyroidism, thyroid developmental anomalies, and the thyroid mass post-thyroidectomy for benign disease. To provide optimal, cost-effective, care for the thyroid patient, the physician must understand the advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality--scintigraphy, real-time sonography (RTS), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance--in specific clinical settings. Similarly, preoperative noninvasive localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing their initial neck exploration usually is not warranted. In this situation, the best localization procedure is to enlist the services of an experienced parathyroid surgeon. However, if this is not feasible because of local constraints, both sestamibi methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide excellent localization (< 90%) of juxta-thyroidal and ectopic parathyroid adenomas. Hyperplastic glands are more difficult to detect because of their smaller size, and tandem studies (MIBI and MRI) should provide higher sensitivity before initial exploration, especially in patients with ectopic glands. In patients with persistent or recurrent disease, multimodality imaging with MIBI, MR, computed tomography and RTS in a sequential fashion is warranted to optimize two-test, site-specific localization. PMID:7973759

  7. Carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference is made to the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodule, reaffirming the concepts of algorithm study, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures and cost-effectiveness. Stressing once again the place of cytology and the concept of selecting patients for surgery, surgical tactics in front of the thyroid nodule and the need for probate multidisciplinary study and treatment of this pathology. Briefly discusses the most controversial treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, the sine qua non of the pathologist in the operating room in thyroid surgery and the value of the quantification of nuclear DNA in the diagnosis and prognosis of these tumors (Author)

  8. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  9. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with MTC should be checked for certain other tumors, especially pheochromocytoma. ... Treatment involves surgery to remove the thyroid gland and surrounding ... and experienced with the operation required. Chemotherapy ...

  10. Mitochondrial impairment induced by postnatal ActRIIB blockade does not alter function and energy status in exercising mouse glycolytic muscle in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchir, Nelly; Pecchi, Émilie; Relizani, Karima; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Amthor, Helge; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2016-04-01

    Because it leads to a rapid and massive muscle hypertrophy, postnatal blockade of the activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) is a promising therapeutic strategy for counteracting muscle wasting. However, the functional consequences remain very poorly documented in vivo. Here, we have investigated the impact of 8-wk ActRIIB blockade with soluble receptor (sActRIIB-Fc) on gastrocnemius muscle anatomy, energy metabolism, and force-generating capacity in wild-type mice, using totally noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic(31)P-MRS. Compared with vehicle (PBS) control, sActRIIB-Fc treatment resulted in a dramatic increase in body weight (+29%) and muscle volume (+58%) calculated from hindlimb MR imaging, but did not alter fiber type distribution determined via myosin heavy chain isoform analysis. In resting muscle, sActRIIB-Fc treatment induced acidosis and PCr depletion, thereby suggesting reduced tissue oxygenation. During an in vivo fatiguing exercise (6-min repeated maximal isometric contraction electrically induced at 1.7 Hz), maximal and total absolute forces were larger in sActRIIB-Fc treated animals (+26 and +12%, respectively), whereas specific force and fatigue resistance were lower (-30 and -37%, respectively). Treatment with sActRIIB-Fc further decreased the maximal rate of oxidative ATP synthesis (-42%) and the oxidative capacity (-34%), but did not alter the bioenergetics status in contracting muscle. Our findings demonstrate in vivo that sActRIIB-Fc treatment increases absolute force-generating capacity and reduces mitochondrial function in glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, but this reduction does not compromise energy status during sustained activity. Overall, these data support the clinical interest of postnatal ActRIIB blockade. PMID:26837807

  11. Age Related Change in Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakila Rahman, Nasim Jahan, Nayma Sultana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Thyroid hormones play a vital role in metabolism, sensitivity of tissues to other hormones and also in oxygen consumption of almost all cells of the body. However, mild to moderate decrease in function of thyroid gland may occur with advancing age even in apparently healthy elderly subjects.Objectives: To observe age related change in thyroid function status in apparently healthy elderly subjects in Bangladesh.Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2011. Sixty apparently healthy elderly subjects of both sexes aged 50 to 75 years were taken as study group. They were collected from Probin Nibash Hitoishi Shangha, Agargaon, Dhaka. In addition, 30 apparently healthy young adult subjects aged 20-40 years were included as control. For assessment of thyroid function, serum free thyroxine (FT4, free triiodothyronine (FT3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels were estimated by ELISA method. Statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient test as applicable.Results: In this study, mean serum free thyroxine (FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3 levels were significantly (p<0.001 lower and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level was significantly (p<0.001 higher in apparently healthy elderly subjects in comparison to those of the healthy young subjects. Again, serum FT4 and FT3 levels were negatively correlated whereas serum TSH level was positively correlated with age of the subjects.Conclusion: The present study revealed a progressive decrease in thyroid function with advancement of age.

  12. BRAF, PIK3CA, and HER2 Oncogenic Alterations According to KRAS Mutation Status in Advanced Colorectal Cancers with Distant Metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Kyung Nam

    Full Text Available Anti-EGFR antibody-based treatment is an important therapeutic strategy for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC; despite this, several mutations-including KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations, and HER2 amplification-are associated with the mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequencies and clinical implications of these genetic alterations in advanced CRC.KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations were determined by Cobas real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR in 191 advanced CRC patients with distant metastasis. Microsatellite instability (MSI status was determined by a fragmentation assay and HER2 amplification was assessed by silver in situ hybridization. In addition, KRAS mutations were investigated by the Sanger sequencing method in 97 of 191 CRC cases.Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA were found in 104 (54.5%, 6 (3.1%, and 25 (13.1% cases of advanced CRC, respectively. MSI-high status and HER2 amplification were observed in 3 (1.6% and 16 (8.4% cases, respectively. PIK3CA mutations were more frequently found in KRAS mutant type (18.3% than KRAS wild type (6.9% (P = 0.020. In contrast, HER2 amplifications and BRAF mutations were associated with KRAS wild type with borderline significance (P = 0.052 and 0.094, respectively. In combined analyses with KRAS, BRAF and HER2 status, BRAF mutations or HER2 amplifications were associated with the worst prognosis in the wild type KRAS group (P = 0.004. When comparing the efficacy of detection methods, the results of real time PCR analysis revealed 56 of 97 (57.7% CRC cases with KRAS mutations, whereas Sanger sequencing revealed 49 cases (50.5%.KRAS mutations were found in 54.5% of advanced CRC patients. Our results support that subgrouping using PIK3CA and BRAF mutation or HER2 amplification status, in addition to KRAS mutation status, is helpful for managing advanced CRC patients.

  13. Survival discriminants for differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1975, the American Cancer Society, Illinois Division, has published end results of major cancer sites drawn from patient data contributed voluntarily by hospital cancer registries throughout the state. The current study was undertaken, in part, to apprehend information regarding contested areas in the management of patients having differentiated (papillary/follicular) thyroid cancer. A total of 2,282 patients with either papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid from 76 different Illinois hospitals and providing 10 years of follow-up information (life-table analysis) were retrospectively analyzed for demographic, disease, and treatment-related predictors of survival. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards method was made for stage, age, race, sex, morphology, history of radiation exposure, presence of positive lymph nodes, initial surgical treatment, postoperative iodine 131 therapy, and replacement/suppressive thyroid hormone treatment. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) predictors of favorable survival after thyroid cancer were low stage (I and II), young age (less than 50 years), white race, female sex, and the administration, postoperatively, of either thyroid hormone or radioactive iodine. Factors that had no influence on survival were lymph node status, choice of initial surgical treatment, and a history of prior irradiation. We suggest that where a prospective clinical trial is impracticable, a retrospective analysis of a large and detailed database, such as that available from cooperating hospital-based tumor registries, may yet provide useful insights to solutions of cancer management problems

  14. Pathophysiological aspects of recent advances in current thyroid function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper first discusses thyroid function and thyroid ''status'', which is determined by thyroid gland function in secreting T4, and peripheral bio-transformation of T4. The accuracy of a current in-vitro diagnostic strategy ensures high reliability in clinical routine. More recent test procedures for iodothyronines and immunological phenomena need further evaluation. Later, the bio-transformation of T4 to bioactive and regulatory iodothyronines is discussed with respect to its possible clinical implications. Finally, the significance of TBG in the interpretation of T4 and T3 concentrations is determined and more attention is directed to its functional heterogeneity. (author)

  15. Pathophysiology of recent advances in current thyroid function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first chapter I have discussed thyroid function and thyroid status which is determined by thyroid gland function in secreting T4 and peripheral biotransformation of T4. The accuracy of a current in-vitro diagnostic strategy allows high reliability in clinical routine. More recent test procedures for iodothyronines and immunological phenomena need further evaluation. In another chapter the biotransformation of T4 to bioactive and regulatory iodothyronines with respect to possible clinical implications is discussed. Finally, the role of TBG for interpration of T4 and T3 concentrations is determined and more attention directed to its functional heterogeneity. (orig.)

  16. Progress in standardizing and harmonizing thyroid function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faix, James D; Miller, W Greg

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormone. Because thyroid hormone synthesis is affected by iodine deficiency on the one hand and by excess iodine intake on the other, thyroid function biomarkers may be useful for assessing iodine status and studying the effects of iodine supplementation. However, reference intervals for some of the most useful thyroid function biomarkers, including serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroglobulin, vary widely due to variability in the commercially available immunoassays for these tests. Recognizing the need for standardization of thyroid function testing, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine established a working group, later restructured as the Committee for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests, to examine its feasibility. The committee has established a conventional reference measurement procedure for FT4 and an approach to harmonization of results for TSH. Panels of single-donation human blood specimens that span the measuring interval of the immunoassays were used to assess the performance of commercially available immunoassays and form the basis for their recalibration. Recalibration of the manufacturers' methods for both FT4 and TSH has shown that the variability among immunoassays can be successfully eliminated for euthyroid individuals as well as for patients with thyroid disease. The committee is not investigating the standardization of thyroglobulin at the present time. PMID:27534642

  17. Ring finger protein 43 expression is associated with genetic alteration status and poor prognosis among patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talabnin, Chutima; Janthavon, Patcharee; Thongsom, Sunisa; Suginta, Wipa; Talabnin, Krajang; Wongkham, Sopit

    2016-06-01

    Ring finger E3 ligases have roles in processes central to maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular homeostasis. Many ring finger E3 ligases are implicated in malignancy. Ring finger protein 43 (RNF43) is a ring finger E3 ligase that negatively regulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. RNF43 is frequently mutated in several types of malignancy, including intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The significance of its expression in ICC has not, however, been reported. We determined RNF43 expression and identified RNF43 polymorphisms in ICC tissues. We also investigated the correlation between RNF43 expression and RNF43 mutation status, RNF43 polymorphisms, clinicopathological features, and prognosis of ICC patients. RNF43 reduced expression in ICC, and the reduction of RNF43 messenger RNA expression was significantly correlated with the presence of rs2257205 and RNF43 somatic mutations, confirming that all RNF43 somatic mutations in ICC are inactivating. Overall survival was worst in patients with down-regulation of RNF43. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that RNF43 expression was an independent prognostic factor. There was no statistically significant association between RNF43 messenger RNA and protein expression nor any clinicopathological features or RNF43 polymorphisms. The results imply that RNF43 is down-regulated in ICC and may play a crucial role during development of ICC. PMID:26980022

  18. The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Block, Gladys; Rice, Barbara L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.

    2005-01-01

    Defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring crew health during long-duration space exploration missions. Data pertaining to such nutrient requirements are extremely limited. The primary goal of this study was to better understand nutritional changes that occur during long-duration space flight. We examined body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals in 11 astronauts before and after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Dietary intake and limited biochemical measures were assessed during flight. Crew members consumed a mean of 80% of their recommended energy intake, and on landing day their body weight was less (P = 0.051) than before flight. Hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin saturation, and transferrin were decreased and serum ferritin was increased after flight (P serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was decreased after flight (P < 0.01). Bone resorption was increased after flight, as indicated by several markers. Bone formation, assessed by several markers, did not consistently rise 1 d after landing. These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers.

  19. Thyroid Growth and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term 'cancer' to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID:26558233

  20. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  1. Thyroid functional status in aged patients with malignant tumors and relationship with chemo-therapy%老年恶性肿瘤患者甲状腺功能状态及化学药物疗法对其的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹春华; 黄涛金; 谢勇久; 林争; 王绎; 明华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨老年恶性肿瘤患者的甲状腺功能状态及化学药物疗法(简称化疗)对其甲状腺功能的影响。方法选取2010-01至2014-02确诊的老年恶性肿瘤患者398例,并选择400例体检老年人群作为健康对照组,进行甲状腺激素(thyroid hormone,TH)和促甲状腺激素(thyroid stimulating hormone,TSH)水平测定。将激素水平正常,KPS (Karnofsky)评分>60的老年恶性肿瘤患者分为:肿瘤治疗组132例,肿瘤对照组129例。两组年龄、KPS评分无统计学差异。肿瘤治疗组患者进行相应化疗,观察治疗前及治疗后6个月的TH和TSH水平,肿瘤对照组仅给予对症治疗,同期比较两组TH和TSH水平,分析化疗对老年恶性肿瘤患者甲状腺功能的影响。结果398例老年恶性肿瘤患者的TH、TSH与健康对照组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。肿瘤治疗组患者的TH、TSH与肿瘤对照组相比,TSH的差异存统计学意义(P<0.05)。肿瘤治疗组中甲状腺功能减退(甲减)的比例为7.58%,亚临床型甲减的比例为23.48%。肿瘤对照组中甲减的比例为5.65%,亚临床甲减的比例为5.65%。两组比较,亚临床型甲减的发生率存在统计学差异( P<0.05)。结论老年恶性肿瘤患者的甲状腺功能异常发生率与健康群体比较无统计学差异,化疗对老年恶性肿瘤患者的甲状腺功能有一定的影响。%Objective To study thyroid functional status of the aged patients with malignant tumors and the relationship be-tween thyroid function with chemotherapy.Methods 398 aged patients with malignant tumors were recruited as the pathological group.At the same time, 400 aged healthg subjects served as the control group.The thyroid hormones (thyroid hormone, TH), and thyrotropin ( thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) levels were measured.The thyroid function in the groups was analyzed and compared. When KPS

  2. Thyroid ultrasonography in congenital isolated thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Wakamoto, H; Miyazaki, M.; Tatsumi, K; Amino, N

    1995-01-01

    The effects of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency on thyroid development was examined using ultrasonography in a child with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Ultrasound revealed the thyroid gland was one sixth normal volume, suggesting that TSH plays an important part in thyroid growth, but not a critical role in differentiation.

  3. Severe exercise and exercise training exert opposite effects on human neutrophil apoptosis via altering the redox status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Da Syu

    Full Text Available Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis, a process crucial for immune regulation, is mainly controlled by alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondria integrity. Exercise has been proposed to be a physiological way to modulate immunity; while acute severe exercise (ASE usually impedes immunity, chronic moderate exercise (CME improves it. This study aimed to investigate whether and how ASE and CME oppositely regulate human neutrophil apoptosis. Thirteen sedentary young males underwent an initial ASE and were subsequently divided into exercise and control groups. The exercise group (n = 8 underwent 2 months of CME followed by 2 months of detraining. Additional ASE paradigms were performed at the end of each month. Neutrophils were isolated from blood specimens drawn at rest and immediately after each ASE for assaying neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis (annexin-V binding on the outer surface along with redox-related parameters and mitochondria-related parameters. Our results showed that i the initial ASE immediately increased the oxidative stress (cytosolic ROS and glutathione oxidation, and sequentially accelerated the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, the surface binding of annexin-V, and the generation of mitochondrial ROS; ii CME upregulated glutathione level, retarded spontaneous apoptosis and delayed mitochondria deterioration; iii most effects of CME were unchanged after detraining; and iv CME blocked ASE effects and this capability remained intact even after detraining. Furthermore, the ASE effects on neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis were mimicked by adding exogenous H(2O(2, but not by suppressing mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, while ASE induced an oxidative state and resulted in acceleration of human neutrophil apoptosis, CME delayed neutrophil apoptosis by maintaining a reduced state for long periods of time even after detraining.

  4. Dual Ectopic Thyroid with Normally Located Thyroid: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Santanu Barua; Sarojini Dutta Choudhury; Mihir Saikia; Dipti Sarma; Uma Kaimal Saikia; Bipul Kumar Choudhury; Swapna Dewri

    2011-01-01

    Dual ectopic thyroid is a rare presentation of thyroid ectopia. Only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of a normally located thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of dual ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submandibular areas in a seventeen-year-old female with hypoplastic thyroid gland in its normal location. The patient presented with a midline swelling at the base of tongue with dysphagia. Thyroid function test revealed primary h...

  5. Ultrasonography of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two rare diseases of the thyroid gland are described. One, an intracystic carcinoma, has apparently only been described once before. The other, a mousetyphoid induced abscess, is extremely rare. Without ultrasonography both conditions would have been misdiagnosed in the first instance. It is advocated that all uncertain thyroid conditions and all ''cold'' areas on scintigraphy should be examined with ultrasonography. (orig.)

  6. Thyroid and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic 'Thyroid and Radiation' is both an old and new area to be solved by human beings. The thyroid is an organ that is usually susceptible to exposure to ionizing radiation, both by virtue of its ability to concentrate radioiodine (internal radiation) and by routine medical examination: Chest X-ray, Dental X-ray, X-irradiation of cervical lymph nodes etc. (external radiation). Iodine-131 is widely used for the therapy of Graves' disease and thyroid cancers, of which the disadvantage is radiation-induced hypothyroidism but not complications of thyroid tumor. The thyroid gland is comparatively radioresistant, however, the data obtained from Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Marshall islands indicates a high incidence of external radiation-induced thyroid tumors as well as hypothyroidism. The different biological effects of internal and external radiation remains to be further clarified. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrate the increased number of thyroid cancer in children around Chernobyl in Belarus. In this review, we would like to introduce the effect of radiation on the thyroid gland at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Furthermore the clinical usefulness of iodine-131, including the safety-control for radiation exposure will be discussed. (author) 50 refs

  7. Thyroid ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a sound wave picture of the thyroid gland taken by a hand-held instrument and translated to a 2-dimensional picture on a monitor. It is used in diagnosis of tumors, cysts or goiters of the thyroid, and is a painless, no-risk procedure.

  8. THE ASSESSMENT OF THE PREVALENCE OF ASSOCIATED BENIGN PATHOLOGY OF THYROID AND MAMMARY GLANDS

    OpenAIRE

    VASIUKHINA I.A.; DANILOVA L.I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to assess the prevalence of associated benign pathology of thyroid and mammary glands in women with unsuppressed menstrual cycle. Materials and methods: 265 women with unsuppressed menstrual cycle (MC) were examined by the sample method. The examination of the women included ultrasonography of thyroid and mammary glands with the detector-frequency of 7.5 MHz. The thyroid status and clinicolaboratory indicators of the reproductive system were estimated. Results. The prevalence of th...

  9. Oesophageal Conduit – a Cause of Diffuse Mediastinal Uptake on Thyroid Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Luke I; Kottekkattu K Balan

    2013-01-01

    99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy plays an essential role in the management of a variety of thyroid and parathyroid disorders. The authors report an unusual case of mediastinal tracer distribution of 99mTc-pertechnetate and 99mTc-MIBI in relation to an oesophageal conduit following oesophago-gastrectomy and reconstructive surgery on thyroid scintigraphy. This is a rare but important cause of diffuse mediastinal uptake on thyroid scintigraphy. An awareness of abnormal anatomy as well as altered...

  10. Relationship between Lipoprotein(a) and Thyroid Hormones in Hypothyroid Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliaperumal, Ramachandran; William, Ebenezer; Selvam, Thangapaneer; Krishnan, Shyam M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Changes in plasma lipid concentrations are well known metabolic consequences of thyroid dysfunction. The alterations are most prominent in hypothyroidism which is typically associated with pronounced hypercholesterolaemia and frequently with moderate hypertriglyceridaemia. In cases of hypothyroidism, how the serum Lp(a) levels are influenced by thyroid hormone remains unknown and contradictory results on the effect of thyroid hormone on serum Lp(a) levels have been r...

  11. Thyroid Function in Pregnancy and Its Influences on Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Saki, Forough; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemi, Seyede Zahra; Forouhari, Sedighe; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal thyroid function alters during pregnancy. Inadequate adaptation to these changes results in thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy complications. Objectives: This prospective study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid diseases in pregnancy and its outcomes in south of Iran. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 600 healthy singleton pregnant women who aged 18 to 35 years old at 15 to 28 weeks of gestation. We investigated the prevalence of thyro...

  12. Screening for thyroid disease among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Magdy A; Moustafa M. Rizk; Ahmed A. El-Kafoury; Doaa Kilany

    2014-01-01

    Altered thyroid hormones have been described in patients with diabetes especially those with poor glycemic control. The aim of this work was to evaluate; the presence of serum anti-thyroid peroxidase (serum anti-TPO) autoantibodies and the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Patients and methods: Fifty diabetic children coming for regular follow-up in the diabetes clinic of El-Shatby University Children’s Hospital were enrolled in the study a...

  13. The Thyroid Status of Children and Adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture Examined during 20–30 Months after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Cross-Sectional, Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Watanobe, Hajime; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Yanai, Rie; Takahashi, Miyuki; Sato, Hideo; Sagawa, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background A possible increase in thyroid cancer in the young represents the most critical health problem to be considered after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan (March 2011), which is an important lesson from the Chernobyl disaster (April 1986). Although it was reported that childhood thyroid cancer had started to increase 3–5 yr after the Chernobyl accident, we speculate that the actual period of latency might have been shorter than reported, considering the delay in initiating thyr...

  14. Thyroid stem cells: lessons from normal development and thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Dolly; Friedman, Susan; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing advances in stem cell research have opened new avenues for therapy for many human disorders. Until recently, however, thyroid stem cells have been relatively understudied. Here, we review what is known about thyroid stem cells and explore their utility as models of normal and malignant biological development. We also discuss the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells and explore the clinical implications of cancer stem cells in the thyroid gland. Since thyroid cancer is the most...

  15. Thyroid diseases and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases and diabetes mellitus are the most common endocrine diseases during pregnancy. Internal Medicine doctors could be involved in the management of pregnant women affected by thyroid diseases, in particular if an Endocrine Unit lacks in the hospital; it is mandatory that they have the skills to cope with these diseases. METHODS In this work authors describe the most common thyroid abnormalities that can occur during pregnancy: hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical, hyperthyroidism (clinical and sub-clinical, autoimmune thyroiditis (in particular the so called post-partum thyroiditis, nodular diseases and cancer. They discuss moreover the peculiar pathophysiologic mechanisms by which these diseases appear, the diagnostic tools and the therapies, according to their own experience and the more recent international guidelines. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS It is important to evaluate thyroid function tests before and during pregnancy, at 16th and 28th gestational week; it is mandatory to cure also the “sub-clinical” hypothyroidism during pregnancy, when TSH level are higher than 5 μIU/mL; the optimal dose of levo-thyroxine during pregnancy is, average, 30-50% higher than that used before pregnancy; it is not correct to treat mild or sub-clinical hyperthyroidism; propylthyouracil is the best drug to treat hyperthyroidism during pregnancy; the post-partum thyroiditis is generally transient, so that a careful monitoring of thyroid function is advisable, in particular after 9-12 months of therapy; thyroid cancer, if discovered during pregnancy, generally has no negative effects on the outcome of the pregnancy; it would be better to treat surgically thyroid cancer during the last trimester of the pregnancy.

  16. Thyroid endocrine disruption of acetochlor on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Hu, Jingjin; Li, Shuying; Ma, Youning; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide acetochlor is widely used and detected in the environment and biota, and has been suspected to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system, but underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. In the present study, zebrafish larvae (7 days post-fertilization) were exposed to a series concentration of acetochlor (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300 µg l(-1) ) within a 14-day window until 21 days post-fertilization. Thyroid hormones and mRNA expression profiles of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were analyzed. Exposure to the positive control, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 ), altered the mRNA expression, suggesting that the HPT axis in the critical window of zebrafish responded to chemical exposure and could be used to evaluate the effects of chemicals on the thyroid endocrine system. The mRNA expressions of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (tshβ, slc5a5 and tpo) were upregulated significantly with acetochlor treatment, which might be responsible for the increased thyroxine concentrations. The downregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (dio1 and ugt1ab) and transport (ttr) in zebrafish larvae exposed to acetochlor might further explain the increased thyroxine levels and decreased T3 levels. The mRNA expression of the thyroid hormone receptor (trα) was also upregulated upon acetochlor exposure. Results suggested that acetochlor altered mRNA expression of the HPT axis-related genes and changed the whole body thyroid hormone levels in zebrafish larvae. It demonstrated that acetochlor could cause endocrine disruption of the thyroid system by simulating the biological activity of T3 . Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26397822

  17. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems PMID:27420076

  18. Ectopic lingual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid ectopy is characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue outside its normal position resulting from a defect of the thyroid diverticulum migration from the base of the tongue until its final pre-tracheal position. One case is presented in a 12-year-old girl patient who consults for a failure to thrive estimated at less than three standard deviations (SD). Bone age was estimated at 8 years late compared to chronological age. The hormonal assessment showed hypothyroidism with negative thyroid antibodies. Cervical ultrasound was revealed thyroid parenchyma pre-dominantly left in place while sweeping the area under chin showed a nodular formation of the base of the tongue. Thyroid scan with technetium 99 m showed a selective uptake of radiotracer in sublingual position. Cervical computed tomography revealed a posterior median sublingual mass spontaneously hyperdense and enhancing sharply after injection of contrast. Treatment with thyroxine allowed obtaining euthyroidism. This case asks us to be careful before aetiological diagnosis of hypothyroidism in children, because although this is rare, the presence of a thyroid parenchyma up to the cervical ultrasound does not eliminate the presence of ectopic tissue

  19. Parity and 11-Year Serum Thyrotropin and Thyroid Autoantibody Change: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergved, Lena; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Laurberg, Peter; Krejbjerg, Anne; Ovesen, Lars; Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Knudsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    thyrotropin (TSH), as well as change in thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) status. A random sample of 4649 people aged 18-65 years participated in a population-based study in the period 1997-1998. In the study presented here, 1749 non-pregnant women with no history of thyroid disease were included who...

  20. F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and MALT lymphoma recurrence of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the case of a 86-year-old male patient with a rapidly growing nodule within the right lobe of the thyroid gland, which after hemithyroidectomy, turned out to be a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland. In addition, Hashimoto's thyroiditis was reported in the thyroid tissue adjacent to the MALT lymphoma. During follow-up a second nodule emerged within the left lobe and, because of evidence of MALT lymphoma recurrence, F-18-FDG-PET was performed. F-18-FDG-PET imaged a clearly in-creased accumulation within the whole left lobe and isthmus. Thus, no differences in the degree of hypermetabolism could be imaged between the nodule and the adjacent thyroid tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report about F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with MALT lymphoma of the thyroid. Literature search revealed only a few cases of MALT lymphomas in locations other than the thyroid gland that were studied with F-18-FDG-PET. In no case was F-18 FDG accumulation seen in the MALT lesions. However, clear F-18 FDG accumulation was reported in some patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It is concluded that the intensive F-18-FDG accumulation within the whole left lobe and isthmus of the presented case was due to the coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Consequently, F-18-FDG-PET imaging does not seem to be indicated in a patient with MALT lymphoma and known Hashimoto's thyroiditis in order to evaluate the status of the MALT lymphoma. (author)

  1. Differences in superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery blood flow spectrum parameters in subacute thyroiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the differences in superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery blood flow spectrum parameters in subacute thyroiditis. Methods:A Total of 40 cases of patients with subacute thyroiditis and 40 cases of healthy volunteers were selected for study and enrolled in pathology group and control group respectively, color Doppler ultrasonography was conducted to detect peak blood flow velocities (Vmax) of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery as well as resistance index (RI), and serum was collected to detect thyroid hormone contents, infection indexes and oxidative stress indexes. Results:Peak blood flow velocities Vmax of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery of pathology group were significantly higher than those of control group, and resistance index RI was not different from that of control group;FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, ESR, CRP, PCT and MDA of pathology group were significantly higher than those of control group, and SOD and TAOC were significantly lower than those of control group;Vmax of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery were positively correlated with FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, ESR, CRP, PCT and MDA, and negatively correlated with SOD and TAOC. Conclusion:Peak blood flow velocities (Vmax) of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery in subacute thyroiditis are significantly accelerated, Vmax has good consistency with thyroid hormone contents, infection indexes and oxidative stress indexes, and it can accurately assess the severity of the disease.

  2. Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Orla

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the presence of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia. METHODS: Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, we assessed levels of DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) in 71 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 17 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and matched normal thyroid tissue. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG and 4-HNE expression was significantly higher in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal tissue (all p values < .001). Similarly, elevated nuclear levels of 8-oxo-dG were seen in all in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal (p values < .07, < .001, < .001, respectively). In contrast, a higher level of 4-HNE expression was detected in normal thyroid tissue compared with matched tumor tissue (p < .001 for all groups). Comparing all 3 groups, 4-HNE levels were higher than 8-oxo-dG levels (p < .001 for all groups) except that cytoplasmic levels of 8-oxo-dG were higher than 4-HNE in all (p < .001). These results were independent of proliferation status. CONCLUSION: High levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia indicates this damage is an early event that may influence disease progression.

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  4. SIALOLITHIASIS IN PATIENTS WITH THYROID CANCER: TREATMENT, REHABILITATION AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doklaeva Malika Nurdynovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the salivary glands is one of the most frequent pathologies among dental patients. Salivolithiasis is most common among the diseases of the salivary glands. Half of the patients after the surgery relapse stone formation. One of the etiological causes salivolithiasis is a violation of mineral metabolism. Known effects of thyroid hormones on the balance of bone remodeling. The aim of our study was to improve treatment of patients with salivolithiasis in thyroid pathology. Materials and methods. To determine thyroid function in patients were studied: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (free T4.. State of mineral metabolism was assessed by content in the blood calcium-regulating hormones parathyrin (PTH (pg / ml and calcitonin (CAT (pg / ml, a marker of bone resorption-Cross laps (ng / ml and bone formation - osteocalcin (ng / ml. Postoperatively, the patients were divided into two groups: the first consisted of patients with preoperative correction of thyroid status at the doctor, endocrinologist, the second (control - without preoperative correction of thyroid status doctor endocrinologist. Results. In the control group of patients compared with the group that received the necessary correction, much heavier passed the postoperative period. Output. Reasonable pharmacological correction in violation of mineral metabolism in patients with calculous sialadenitis is the best procedure that can reduce the number of complications such as acute exacerbations of chronic sialadenitis.

  5. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-κB, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis

  6. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In, E-mail: jipark@mcw.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-κB, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis.

  7. Role of the Wnt pathway in thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSastre-Perona

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of Wnt signaling is involved in the development of several epithelial tumors. Wnt signaling includes two major pathways (i the canonical or Wnt/βcatenin pathway and (ii the non-canonicals pathways, which do not involve βcatenin stabilization. Among these pathways, the Wnt/βcatenin pathway has received most attention during the past years for its critical role in cancer. A number of publications emphasize its role in thyroid cancer. Wnt signaling plays a crucial role in development and epithelial renewal, and components such as βcatenin and Axin are often mutated in thyroid cancer. Although it is accepted that alteration of Wnt signaling is a late event in thyroid cell transformation that affects anaplastic thyroid tumors, recent data also suggest its alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma with RET/PTC mutations. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the main relevant data of Wnt/βcatenin signaling in thyroid cancer.

  8. Report of a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwudi Onyeaghana Okani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT is an autoimmune disease, known to be the most common cause of hypothyroidism in nonendemic goitrous areas. It is usually characterized by symmetric, painless, and diffused but sometimes localized swelling of the thyroid gland with features of hypothyroidism. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, on the other hand, is the most common yet less aggressive form of thyroid cancer, especially in iodine-deficient areas. The coexistence of the two diseases is possible but not common. This case study reports a 50-year-old female with a 10-year history of a huge goiter, which was essentially symptom-free until about 3 months prior to presentation when the patient started complaining of neck pain, dysphagia, productive cough, and cold intolerance. Physical examination revealed focal cystic and tender area in the multinodular swelling and associated cervical lymphadenopathy on the left side of the neck. The serum thyroid stimulating hormone was high, sub-normal T3, and the T4 was low. The fine needle aspiration cytology yielded 10 ml of aspirate of pus admixed with altered blood which on microscopy showed a few suspicious follicular epithelial cells with open nuclei admixed with mainly neutrophil polymorphs, siderophages, and foam cells in a hemorrhagic background. The patient had an incision biopsy that showed areas displaying PTC and HT.

  9. Unusual Presentation of Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Vijayraj S.; Abhishek Vijayakumar; Neelamma Natikar

    2012-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 80% of all thyroid cancers. The most common presentation of thyroid cancer is an asymptomatic thyroid mass or a nodule. Usually as thyroid enlarges, it extends in to mediastinum. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presentation as multiple true cystic swelling extending from neck to anterior chest wall in subcutaneous plane is not present in the literature. We present a rare case of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma wh...

  10. Carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural history and the clinical findings in 227 patients with thyroid carcinoma are described and the etiology discussed. The need for uniform pathologic classification and staging is emphasized. (Auth.)

  11. Thyroid Disease and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid absorbs the radioactive substance. Next, a special camera measures where the radioactive substance is taken up ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  12. Thyroid Disease (for Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid absorbs the radioactive substance. Then a special camera measures where the radioactive substance is taken up ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  13. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    V S Medvedev; P. A. Isayev; Ilyin, A. A.; D. Yu. Semin; V. V. Polkin; D. N. Derbugov; S. V. Vasilkov

    2013-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  14. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  15. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... and released into the kid's bloodstream. Why Do Kids Get Thyroid Disease? In most cases, doctors and ...

  16. Diagnosis and management of carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are a frequent finding but engender concern primarily because of a large size or, occasionally, as a manifestation of a carcinoma. Needle biopsy permits a definite diagnosis in the majority of cases. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma is treated by surgery, the extent of which would be based on the gross evidence of the extent of the disease, the histologic features of the lesion, the patient's age and overall medical status, and the need to avoid postoperative complications. The appropriate care after surgery is also based on the individual patient. Medullary thyroid carcinoma is best treated by total thyroidectomy with cervical lymph node dissection on the side of a palpable nodule. Serum calcitonin determinations provide diagnostic and some prognostic data. Anaplastic carcinoma is usually best treated by radiation therapy. The outlook is good for most thyroid carcinoma recognized reasonably early

  17. The application of molecular nuclear medicine in imaging diagnosis and targeted treatment of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of endocrine system. Different pathological classifications of thyroid carcinoma differ greatly in biological behavior and prognosis. As a newly-emerging subject, molecular nuclear medicine has made rapid advances in both diagnosis and treatment of thyroid carcinoma. With the application of new imaging agents and devices such as SPECT/CT and PET/CT, molecular nuclear imaging can demonstrate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the alterations in specific molecules of thyroid cancer on cellular and molecular level. Meanwhile, it is capable of utilizing radiopharmaceuticals to target specifically to these molecules. Here we present a review on the latest progresses in this field. (authors)

  18. Hashimoto's thyroiditis following Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Husaini; Muallima, Nur; Adam, John M F; Sanusi, Harsinen

    2010-01-01

    Both Graves' disease and chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) are autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland. Graves' disease is caused by stimulation of TSH receptor located on the thyroid gland by an antibody, which is known as TSH receptor antibody (TRAb). Furthermore, this may lead to hyperplasia and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. On the contrary, the cause of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is thought due to a TSH stimulation-blocking antibody (TSBAb) which blocks the action of TSH hormone and subsequently brings damage and atrophy to thyroid gland. Approximately 15-20% of patients with Graves' disease had been reported to have spontaneous hypothyroidism resulting from the chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease). Pathogenesis for chronic thyroiditis following anti-thyroid drug treatment in patients with Graves' disease remains unclear. It has been estimated that chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease, which occurs following the Graves' disease episode is due to extended immune response in Graves' disease. It includes the immune response to endogenous thyroid antigens, i.e. thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, which may enhance lymphocyte infiltration and finally causes Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We report four cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) in patients who have been previously diagnosed with Graves' hyperthyroidism. In three cases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs in 7 to 25 years after the treatment of Grave's disease; while the other case has it only after few months of Grave's disease treatment. The diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) was based on clinical manifestation, high TSHs level, positive thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody, and supported by positive results of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Moreover, the result of histopathological test has also confirmed the diagnosis in two cases. All cases have been successfully treated by levothyroxine treatment. PMID:20305330

  19. Encephalopathy Associated With Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    li A. Raouf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs are immune-endocrine disorders affecting the thyroid gland and, eventually, also a number of other systemic targets, including the brain and the nervous system. Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (EAATD is a rare, heterogeneous condition arising from the background of an ATD. It is characterised by neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms with acute or sub-acute onset, and virtually any neurological or psychiatric symptom can appear. However, EAATD often presents with confusion, altered consciousness, seizures, or myoclonus. The majority of cases are associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, but a number of patients with Graves’ disease have also been described. EAATD is likely an immune-mediated disorder. Its exact prevalence has not been precisely elucidated, with an increasing number of cases reported in the last few years. Most EAATD patients respond in a dramatic manner to corticosteroids. However, the immunosuppressive treatment may require a long course (up to 12 months. The increasing number of EAATD cases reported in the literature demonstrates a growing interest of the scientific community about this condition, which still requires a better definition of its pathophysiology, the diagnostic criteria, and the most appropriate management, including the long-term follow-up of patients. The current clinical evidence about EAATD is mostly based on the report of single cases or small cohort studies. In this review, we present the current knowledge about EAATD, with a dedicated focus to the clinical management of the patients from a diagnostic and therapeutic perspective.

  20. Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and development, both in fetal life and postnatally. Here we review the role of thyroid hormone in postnatal cardiac development, given recent insights into its role in stimulating a burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation in the murine heart in preadolescence; a response required to meet the massive increase in circulatory demand predicated by an almost quadrupling of body weight during a period of about 21 days from birth to adolescence. Importantly, thyroid hormone metabolism is altered by chronic diseases, such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease, as well as in very sick children requiring surgery for congenital heart diseases, which results in low T3 syndrome that impairs cardiovascular function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Therapy with T3 or thyroid hormone analogs has been shown to improve cardiac contractility; however, the mechanism is as yet unknown. Given the postnatal cardiomyocyte mitogenic potential of T3, its ability to enhance cardiac function by promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation warrants further consideration.

  1. Thyroid Hormones and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwen, K. Alexander; Schröder, Erich; Brabant, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Background Clustering of various metabolic parameters including abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and hypertension have been used worldwide as metabolic syndrome to predict cardiometabolic risk. Thyroid dysfunction impacts on various levels of these components. Objectives The purpose of the present review is to summarize available data on thyroid hormone-dependent action on components of the metabolic syndrome. Methods A PubMed search for any combination of hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome, blood pressure, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, diabetes mellitus, body weight or visceral fat was performed. We included papers and reviews published between 2000 and today but accepted also frequently cited papers before 2000. Results There is convincing evidence for a major impact of thyroid function on all components of the metabolic syndrome, reflecting profound alterations of energy homeostasis at many levels. Conclusion Even though the interactions shown in animal models and man are complex, it is evident that insulin sensitivity is highest and adverse thyroid effects on the metabolic system are lowest in euthyroid conditions. PMID:24783045

  2. Hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation has been carried out due to the apparent disagreement between the very wide so called normal ranges of the serum levels of the thyroid hormones and the extreme sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary control system to minimal changes in thyroid hormone production. TRH (thyrotropin-releasing-hormone) infusion and injection studies have been performed using labelled compounds and radioassays and radioimmunoassays. (Auth.)

  3. Vascularity in thyroid neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Andersen, Niels Frost; Melsen, Flemming;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of four different methods (vascular grading, Chalkley count, microvessel density (MVD) and stereological estimation) for quantifying intratumoral microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms, by comparing the variability within and between...... count should be the preferred method for assessing microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed a tendency towards higher degree of vascularity in FA compared to both FC and PC for all methods. No statistically significant association was seen between vascular density and...

  4. Lingual thyroid in children

    OpenAIRE

    P Singhal; Sharma, K R; Singhal, A.

    2011-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is a rare embryological anomaly and originates from failure of the thyroid gland to descend from the foramen caecum to its normal eutopic pre-laryngeal site. The ectopic gland located at the base of the tongue is often asymptomatic but may cause local symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia with stomatolalia, upper airway obstruction and haemorrhage, often with hypothyroidism. One case is presented, in a 5 year-old girl patient, who complained of sensation of a foreign body and ...

  5. Papillary thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A;

    1994-01-01

    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....

  6. Robotic transaxillary thyroid surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinovics, Naomi; Aidan, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological advances have led to a rapid progress in endocrine surgery. With the advent of minimally invasive techniques in thyroid surgery, robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery (RATS) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches. Its main advantages are improved cosmetic outcome, avoiding cervical incisions, increased patient satisfaction, improved visualization, arms articulations, eliminating surgeon’s natural tremor, thereby increasing precision. The main disadvant...

  7. Achalasia and thyroid disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hassan Emami; Mostafa Raisi; Jaleh Amini; Hamed Daghaghzadeh

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate some possible etiologies of achalasia by screening patients with achalasia for some autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease.METHODS: We examined 30 known cases of achalasia (20 females, 10 males). Their age ranged 15-70 years.All of them were referred to our institute for treatment.Their sera were evaluated to detect some possible associations with rheumatoid disease, thyroid disease,inflammatory process, anemia, etc.RESULTS: Seven out of 30 patients (23%) had thyroid disease including four patients with hypothyroidism (13.3%), two patients with hyperthyroidism (6.6%),and one had only thyroid nodule but was in euthyroid state (3.3%). Two of these hypothyroid patients had no related clinical symptoms (subclinical) and two had clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism. There were no correlations between the intensity of thyroid diseases and the severity of achalasia symptoms.CONCLUSION: The etiology of achalasia is unknown although autoimmunity has been implicated and is supported by several studies. Thyroid disease presents concomitantly with achalasia in about one fourth of our patients who may have a common etiology.

  8. The effect of chemoradiation therapy on pituitary-thyroid system function in children suffering Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional status of the thyroid gland was evaluated in 63 children with Hodgkin's disease, aged 4-15 years, before, in the course of and 5 years after chemoradiation therapy. Thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood were assayed. The disease was shown to disrupt the pituitary-thyroid system leading to hypothyroidism development which progressed as the disease advanced. While chemotherapy brought the balance between the peripheral thyroid hormone levels and TSH back to normal, thyroid function decrease again following radiotherapy of the neck. The most pronounced and persistent failure of the pituitary-thyroid system was registered with the total target dose of 30 Gy and higher. Irradiation in a dose of 20 Gy caused less disruption and the function was spontaneously restored within 12 months after the treatment

  9. Clinicopathological and Molecular Histochemical Review of Skull Base Metastasis from Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skull base metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma including follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare clinical entity. Eighteen FTC cases and 10 PTC cases showing skull base metastasis have been reported. The most common symptom of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC is cranial nerve dysfunction. Bone destruction and local invasion to the surrounding soft tissues are common on radiological imaging. Skull base metastases can be the initial clinical presentation of FTC and PTC in the presence of silent primary sites. The possibility of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC should be considered in patients with the clinical symptoms of cranial nerve dysfunction and radiological findings of bone destruction. A variety of genetic alterations in thyroid tumors have been identified to have a fundamental role in their tumorigenesis. Molecular histochemical studies are useful for elucidating the histopathological features of thyroid carcinoma. Recent molecular findings may provide novel molecular-based treatment strategies for thyroid carcinoma

  10. Modern concepts of preoperative preparation of patients with thyroid gland disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sabljak Vera; Kalezić Nevena; Ivanović Branislava; Živaljević Vladan; Diklić Aleksandar; Paunović Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of patients with thyroid gland disease, in any kind of surgery, should include the possibility of difficult intubation caused by thyromegaly, the hormonal status (its disbalance), as well as the screening, and therapy of consequences of thyroid imbalance on specific organ systems, especially cardiovascular. It is necessary to select the adequate anesthetics and other pharmacological agents, according to current hormonal status. It is also necessary to select the ...

  11. Preoperative Thyroid Ultrasound Is Indicated in Patients Undergoing Parathyroidectomy for Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus A. Arciero, Zita S. Shiue, Jeremy D. Gates, George E. Peoples, Alan P. B. Dackiw, Ralph P. Tufano, Steven K. Libutti, Martha A. Zeiger, Alexander Stojadinovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary hyperaparathyroidism (pHPT is often accompanied by underlying thyroid pathology that can confound preoperative parathyroid localization studies and complicate intra-operative decision making. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US in patients prior to undergoing parathyroidectomy for pHPT.Methods: An Institutional Review Board approved prospective study was undertaken from January 2005 through July 2008. All patients with pHPT meeting inclusion criteria (n=94 underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasound in addition to standard 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy for parathyroid localization. Demographics, operative management and final pathology were examined in all cases.Results: Fifty-four of the 94 patients (57% were noted to have a thyroid nodule on preoperative US, of which 30 (56% underwent further examination with fine needle aspiration biopsy. Alteration of the operative plan attributable to underlying thyroid pathology occurred in 16 patients (17%, with patients undergoing either total thyroidectomy (n=9 or thyroid lobectomy (n=7. Thyroid cancer was noted in 33% of patients undergoing thyroid resection, and 6% of all patients with HPT.Conclusions: The routine utilization of preoperative thyroid ultrasound in patients prior to undergoing parathyroid surgery for pHPT is indicated. The added information from this non-invasive modality facilitates timely management of co-incidental, and sometimes malignant, thyroid pathology.

  12. Association of Type II 5' Monodeiodinase Thr92Ala Single Nucleotide Gene Polymorphism and Circulating Thyroid Hormones Among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalakanti, Dhanunjaya; Dolia, Pragna B

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders are common endocrinopathies, which often occur parallel. Dyslipidemia is very common in both of these conditions. The development of hypothyroidism is well-known in type 1 diabetics, but it was not distinctly understood in type 2 diabetics. Thus we tried to examine the association between type II deiodinase (D2 or DIO2) Thr92Ala single nucleotide gene polymorphism and thyroid function among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A total of 130 type 2 diabetics were screened and genotyped for DIO2 Thr92Ala polymorphism. Fasting plasma glucose, Glycosylated haemoglobin, lipid and thyroid profiles, malondialdehyde (MDA) and paraoxonase were estimated according to standard procedures. A significant altered level of thyroid hormones (TH's) was found in Ala/Ala genotype when compared with Thr/Thr or Thr/Ala genotype. DIO2 and T3:T4 ratio significantly decreased, whereas total T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels significantly elevated among Ala/Ala genotype (131 ± 30 ng/ml; 0.12 ± 0.05; 7.17 ± 2.05 µg/dl; 4.77 ± 3.1 µIU/ml, respectively) when compared with Thr/Thr + Thr/Ala genotypes (176 ± 33 ng/ml; 0.21 ± 0.05; 5.21 ± 1.1 µg/dl; 2.59 ± 1.61 µIU/ml respectively). Moreover, D2 levels were significantly negatively correlated with TH's levels except total T4 among Ala/Ala genotypes. All the patients were having a poor glycemic control, and their glycemic status was positively correlating with MDA levels. On the other hand, serum paraoxonase activity decreased among Ala/Ala genotype (104 ± 21 vs. 118 ± 18 nmol/min/ml). In conclusion, DIO2 Ala92 homozygous variant found to be associated with altered levels of DIO2, Thyroid profile and paraoxonase. Hence, we recommend to do detail study of genetic factors related to thyroid function and prevent additional diabetic complications. PMID:27069323

  13. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Nishant; Akbani, Rehan; Aksoy, B. Arman; Ally, Adrian; Arachchi, Harindra; Asa, Sylvia L.; Auman, J. Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B.; Behera, Madhusmita; Bernard, Brady; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bishop, Justin A.; Black, Aaron D.; Bodenheimer, Tom; Boice, Lori; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Bowen, Jay; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A.; Brookens, Robin; Brooks, Denise; Bryant, Robert; Buda, Elizabeth; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carling, Tobias; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Carty, Sally E.; Chan, Timothy A.; Chen, Amy Y.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cheung, Dorothy; Chin, Lynda; Cho, Juok; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ciriello, Giovanni; Clarke, Amanda; Clayman, Gary L.; Cope, Leslie; Copland, John; Covington, Kyle; Danilova, Ludmila; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; DiCara, Daniel; Dhalla, Noreen; Dhir, Rajiv; Dookran, Sheliann S.; Dresdner, Gideon; Eldridge, Jonathan; Eley, Greg; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Eng, Stephanie; Fagin, James A.; Fennell, Timothy; Ferris, Robert L.; Fisher, Sheila; Frazer, Scott; Frick, Jessica; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Ganly, Ian; Gao, Jianjiong; Garraway, Levi A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Getz, Gad; Gehlenborg, Nils; Ghossein, Ronald; Gibbs, Richard A.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Gomez-Hernandez, Karen; Grimsby, Jonna; Gross, Benjamin; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Harper, Hollie A.; Hayes, D. Neil; Heiman, David I.; Herman, James G.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hofree, Matan; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Huang, Franklin W.; Huang, Mei; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Ideker, Trey; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Kebebew, Electron; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kim, Jaegil; Kramer, Roger; Kreisberg, Richard; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Ladanyi, Marc; Lai, Phillip H.; Laird, Peter W.; Lander, Eric; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lee, Darlene; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Semin; Lee, William; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Lu, Yiling; Ma, Yussanne; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; McFadden, David G.; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Miller, Michael; Mills, Gordon; Moore, Richard A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Murray, Bradley A.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Noble, Michael S.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J.; Parker, Joel S.; Paull, Evan O.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ramirez, Ricardo; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Ren, Xiaojia; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rheinbay, Esther; Ringel, Matthew D.; Rivera, Michael; Roach, Jeffrey; Robertson, A. Gordon; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Rosenthall, Matthew; Sadeghi, Sara; Saksena, Gordon; Sander, Chris; Santoso, Netty; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Schumacher, Steven E.; Seethala, Raja R.; Seidman, Jonathan; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Seth, Sahil; Sharpe, Samantha; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Shen, John P.; Shen, Ronglai; Sherman, Steven; Sheth, Margi; Shi, Yan; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sica, Gabriel L.; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Song, Xingzhi; Sougnez, Carrie; Stewart, Chip; Stojanov, Petar; Stuart, Joshua M.; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Taylor, Barry S.; Thiessen, Nina; Thorne, Leigh; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Tuttle, R. Michael; Umbricht, Christopher B.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Vandin, Fabio; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; Vinco, Michelle; Voet, Doug; Walter, Vonn; Wang, Zhining; Waring, Scot; Weinberger, Paul M.; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Wheeler, David; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilson, Jocelyn; Williams, Michelle; Winer, Daniel A.; Wise, Lisa; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W.; Yang, Liming; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I.; Zeiger, Martha A.; Zeng, Dong; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Zhao, Ni; Zhang, Hailei; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Zhang, Wei; Zmuda, Erik; Zou., Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  14. Current surgical status of thyroid diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Touzopoulos P; Karanikas M; Zarogoulidis P; Mitrakas A; Porpodis K; Katsikogiannis N; Zervas V; Kouroumichakis I; TC Constantinidis; Mikroulis D; Tsimogiannis KE

    2011-01-01

    Panagiotis Touzopoulos1, Michael Karanikas1, Paul Zarogoulidis2, Alexandros Mitrakas1, Konstantinos Porpodis2, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis3, Vasilis Zervas2, Ioannis Kouroumichakis4, Theodoros C Constantinidis5, Dimitrios Mikroulis6, Konstantinos E Tsimogiannis71First Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, "G. Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,...

  15. Celiac Disease and Thyroid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illnesses, so it is important to get a TSH thyroid test if you experience any of the ... Function •It is recommended that people have their TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) measured once a year. This ...

  16. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave's disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. PMID:26221205

  17. How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called metanephrines). Other tests Vocal cord exam (laryngoscopy) Thyroid tumors can sometimes affect the vocal cords. If you are going to have surgery to treat thyroid cancer, a procedure called a laryngoscopy will probably ...

  18. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99mTc-pertechnetate scans or 123I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.)

  19. Clinical studies on thyroid diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Fliers, E.; Wiersinga, W.M.; Eskes, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on some aspects of thyroid disease: prevention of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), diagnosis of related conditions as autoimmune hypophysitis in autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease), and treatment of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT).

  20. Alterative application of five anticonvulsants according to the half life for the treatment of status epilepticus in children with severe viral encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional subhibernation therapy may easily cause complications, such as respiratory depression and hyportension because of application of chlorpromazine hydrochloride and promethazine in a large dosage.OBJECTIVE: To observe therapeutic effect of modified subhibernation therapy (alterative application of five anticonvulsants according to the half life) on status epilepticus in children with severe viral encephalitis (VE).DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, the First Hospital of Jilin University.PARTICIPANTS: The participants in present study were 96 patients withsevere viral encephalitis including 52 boys and 44 girls who received treatment in the Department of Pediatrics, the First Hospital of Jilin University from February 2000 to March 2006. All children met the diagnostic criteria of Zhufutong Practice Pediatrics (the seventh edition). Two weeks ago, they ever got upper respiratory infection or enteronitis and so on before the onset, spirit abnormal, behavior disorder, limbs act disorder, vomit, headache, convulsion,nervous system masculine signs such as limbs act disord, autonomic nerve damage manifestation, brain nerve palsy, dysreflexia, meningeal irritation sign, cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalography (EEG)abnormity. All parents provided the confirmed consent. The patients were randomly divided into control group (n =40) and experimental group (n =56).METHODS: Patients in the control group received anticonvulsion, ice compress and routine treatment. The convulsion was treated with five drugs: 0.5 mg/kg wintermin and phenergan, respectively, 100 g/L chlorpromazine hydrochloride (0.5 mL/kg), 5 mg/kg luminal, 0.3 mg/kg ansiolin. When convulsion attacked,those five drugs were given alternatively; however, those were not given if the convulsion did not attack.Children in the experimental group were treated with improved subhibernation therapy based on routine treatment. The dosages of anticonvulsants were as the

  1. Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change

  2. Sweet's syndrome and subacute thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmus, Y.; Kovatz, S.; Shilo, L.; Ganem, G; Shenkman, L.

    2000-01-01

    A 63 year old woman developed biopsy documented lesions of acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet's syndrome) one week after the onset of subacute thyroiditis. This is only the second reported case of such an association. The role of cytokines in the development of both subacute thyroiditis and Sweet's syndrome may be the link between these two conditions.


Keywords: Sweet's syndrome; thyroiditis; cytokines; thyroid

  3. Thyroid ultrasonography: Pitfalls and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seon hyeong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Thyroid ultrasonography (US) plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of thyroid-related diseases. The aim of this article was to illustrate various pitfalls that can occur in utilizing thyroid US and techniques to prevent them. In this article, we present cases demonstrating the common pitfalls associated with US equipment, performance, normal thyroid structures, misinterpretations, and surrounding structures. Knowledge of these areas is essential to avoid misdiagnosis or improper disease management.

  4. Fulda thyroid nodule prognosis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Fulda'-program calculates for thyroid nodule patients the probability of management with respect to surgery, follow up, radioiodine therapy or fine needle aspiration biopsy by use of the weighted factors: pre-existing results, patient age, palpation, thyroid volume, marginal nodule perfusion, echo texture, thyroid volume increase and TSH level. As the following definite management is in good correlation to the precalculated management, the 'Fulda'-program could be useful for organisation and strategy of thyroid nodule patients. (orig.)

  5. Thyroid carcinoma and hot nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukata, Shuji; Tamai, Hajime; Matsubayashi, Sunao; Nagai, Keisuke; Hirota, Yoshihiko; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Katayama, Shoichi; Kuma, Kanji; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1987-09-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with a nodule in the thyroid gland. /sup 131/I scintigraphy of the gland showed a hot nodule. Histology of the resected thyroid revealed a papillary adenocarcinoma. Although a thyroid carcinoma with a hot nodule seen on the radioiodine isotope scan is a very rare occurrence, it is clinically very important because it may indicate a thyroid malignancy.

  6. Revisiting Thyroid Hormones in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Correia Santos; Patrício Costa; Dina Ruano; António Macedo; Maria João Soares; José Valente; Ana Telma Pereira; Maria Helena Azevedo; Joana Almeida Palha

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial during development and in the adult brain. Of interest, fluctuations in the levels of thyroid hormones at various times during development and throughout life can impact on psychiatric disease manifestation and response to treatment. Here we review research on thyroid function assessment in schizophrenia, relating interrelations between the pituitary-thyroid axis and major neurosignaling systems involved in schizophrenia’s pathophysiology. These include the ser...

  7. Robotic Surgery for Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jandee; Chung, Woong Youn

    2013-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an innovation in thyroid surgery that may compensate for the drawbacks of conventional endoscopic surgery. A surgical robot provides strong advantages, including three-dimensional imaging, motion scaling, tremor elimination, and additional degrees of freedom. We review here recent adaptations, experience and applications of robotics in thyroid surgery. Robotic thyroid surgeries include thyroid lobectomy, total thyroidectomy, central compartment neck dissection, and radical ...

  8. Case presentation – thyroid lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisa Izić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland account for about 1% of thenewly diagnosed malignant tumors each year, and their incidence inwomen is twice the incidence in men. According to the WHO classification (2004 thyroid tumors are divided into: carcinoma of the thyroid, adenoma and similar tumors, and other thyroid tumors which include: teratomas, angiosarcomas, paragangliomas and others, as well as primary lymphomas and plasmacytomas. Primary thyroid lymphomasare defined as lymphomas which originate in the thyroid gland. This study presents the case of a 68-year-old patient with a thyroid lymphoma, which caused compression of the airways. In the patientpresented there was reduced activity of the thyroid gland. The dominant symptoms were: breathing difficulties, hoarse voice and the enlargement of the thyroid. An ultrasound examination was performedbefore surgery on the neck, which showed a multinodular thyroid,with compromised and compressed trachea to the right and rear. Anemergency surgical procedure was performed to reduce the tumor.Pathohistological diagnosis confirmed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.The aim of the study was to present a patient with a thyroid lymphoma, who had previously not had any immunological changes to the gland,that is, she had not had any chronic lymphocyte thyroiditis, but due to the compressive syndrome it was necessary to perform an emergencysurgical procedure to reduce the tumor.

  9. Diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendations of the Thyroid Section of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Endokrinologie have been established with a view to diagnostic practice; they help to define the most appropriate diagnostic procedure in consideration of its diagnostic value, necessity, expenditure in terms of time and cost, and the hazard involved. Methodological progress and recent scientific findings have been considered as well as economic aspects and the available technical facilities. The decision on what method to apply in thyroid diagnostics and therapy should be based on a specific anamnesis and a detailed physical examination. The measured data must be compatible with the patient's symptoms and with unambiguously established clinical signs. In a progressively structured diagnostic procedure, one should always start with the simple, non-invasive in vitro techniques. Functional diagnostics of thyroid diseases is supplemented by thyroid scintiscanning with short-lived radionuclides and by thyroid cytology. Experience and precise knowledge help to save funds and reduce the radiation doses applied. Of course, uncertain diagnoses and untypical findings necessitate a wider application of diagnostic means than clinically more or less validated diagnoses. (orig./MG)

  10. Effects of persistent organic pollutants on the thyroid function of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Aegean Sea, is it an endocrine disruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitzler, Joseph; Koutrarkis, Emmanuil; Siebert, Ursula; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Das, Krishna

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the alterations of organochlorinated compounds such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) on the thyroid in wild and cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) at environmental concentrations. These compounds influence the endocrine system of many fish species and are qualified as endocrine disruptors. The thyroid seems to be a target organ. Two alteration endpoints: the thyroid histology and the muscular ...

  11. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  12. Indirect thyroid lymphography in the thyroid diseases diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect thyroid lymphography with water-soluble radiographic agents has been applied. This method allows contrast lymph microvessels of the thyroid gland, providing the detection of volume formations of 0.3 to 0.4 cm and more in diameter. 232 patients with different thyroid diseases were examined. Different rate of the water-soluble contrast agent resolution in diffuse toxic and nodular goiter, thyroid cancer, chronic thyroiditis is of great importance in differential diagnosis of these diseases. This method provides necessary information on the organs inner structure, its topography and size

  13. Burkitts primary thyroid lymphoma coexistence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare neoplasm, above all in children. We present a case of a child with Burkitt's thyroid lymphoma as the only manifestation of this disease, associated to lymphocytic thyroiditis. Clinically, it initiated as a rapidly growing goiter with compressive symptomatology. The X-ray findings are described: hypoechoic and hypodense multiple nodes that affect the right thyroid lobe and isthmus, with extraglandular extension to the vascular space and to the mediastinum. The differential diagnosis is considered with other more frequent thyroid pathologies in this age group. (Author) 14 refs

  14. Expression of thyroid stimulating hormone β splice variant in thyroid of mouse with autoimmune thyroiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁继红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of marrowderived thyroid stimulating hormoneβ(TSHβ)splice variant in thyroid of mouse with autoimmune thyroiditis induced by thyroglobulin(Tg)immunization,and to analyze whether TSHβsplice variant participated in the pathological process of autoimmune thyroiditis.Methods Using random number table,forty-eight mice(24 females and 24 males)of 7 to 8 weeks old with body mass 20 to25 g were randomly divided into 4 groups(12 females

  15. Effect of drugs on the thyroid function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of drugs in the results of thyroid function tests, which could lead to misinterpretation of the real clinical state of the patients, are reviewed. The aspects of the metabolism of the thyreoidean hormones which could be related to these alterations are presented. (Author)

  16. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  17. Iodine deficiency and thyroid nodular pathology - epidemiological and cancer characteristics in different populations: Portugal and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, José Eduardo Carvalho; Kalk, William John; Freitas, Miguel; Marques Carreira, Isabel; Castelo Branco, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and pathology pattern of iodine deficiency (ID) related disorders are influenced by the dietary iodine intake: low iodine leads to thyroid nodular enlargement, to an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer, an increase in anaplastic carcinomas and to an alteration in the papillary to follicular neoplasia ratio. This study aims at highlighting the effects of ID by comparatively evaluating the pattern of thyroid nodular pathology in different populations that, alth...

  18. Evolving molecularly targeted therapies for advanced-stage thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Keith C; Ryder, Mabel

    2016-07-01

    Increased understanding of disease-specific molecular targets of therapy has led to the regulatory approval of two drugs (vandetanib and cabozantinib) for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and two agents (sorafenib and lenvatinib) for the treatment of radioactive- iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in both the USA and in the EU. The effects of these and other therapies on overall survival and quality of life among patients with thyroid cancer, however, remain to be more-clearly defined. When applied early in the disease course, intensive multimodality therapy seems to improve the survival outcomes of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), but salvage therapies for ATC are of uncertain benefit. Additional innovative, rationally designed therapeutic strategies are under active development both for patients with DTC and for patients with ATC, with multiple phase II and phase III randomized clinical trials currently ongoing. Continued effort is being made to identify further signalling pathways with potential therapeutic relevance in thyroid cancers, as well as to elaborate on the complex interactions between signalling pathways, with the intention of translating these discoveries into effective and personalized therapies. Herein, we summarize the progress made in molecular medicine for advanced-stage thyroid cancers of different histotypes, analyse how these developments have altered - and might further refine - patient care, and identify open questions for future research. PMID:26925962

  19. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas of thyroid in Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Mimicking benign cystic nodule on ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) of the thyroid is uncommon and mostly occur in patients with a Hashimoto's thyroiditis (82%). We present a case on SEP of thyroid in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which mimics growing benign cystic masses on serial ultrasonography.

  20. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  1. Thyroid Dysfunction and its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Agnihotri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present review article is on thyroid dysfunctions which can be hypo or hyper thyroidism. Along with the ongoing allopathic treatment options, one can go for the alternative therapies or natural cures. Various nutritional supplements including iodine, botanicals like guggul and many more play an effective role in the management of thyroid dysfunction apart from the pharmaceuticals like synthetic T3 and T4 hormones and procaine thyroid. Along with these, homeopathy and yoga are equally important. The discussion suggests and emphasizes the importance of improving the lifestyle and nutritional diet; and further providing spiritual support along with natural thyroid medication.

  2. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Aakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study. In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L, respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight.

  3. Total and free thyroid hormone levels in chronic renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta H

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The levels of serum total thyroxine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free T3, (FT3 free T4 (FT4 and thyrotropin (TSH were measured in 127 clinically euthyroid patients with varying grades of chronic renal failure (CRF; and 97 healthy individuals. They were grouped as: Group I containing 93 patients on conservative management; Group II containing 34 patients on regular dialysis therapy; and Group III (normals. Group I patients showed significant decrease in TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels (p less than 0.001 as compared to Group III, whereas FT4 and TSH values in group I were not significantly altered. TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels reduced as the severity of renal damage increased. Variations in TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in Group II patients were similar to those in Group I, except for a decrease in TSH levels (p less than 0.05 as compared to normals. Several thyroid function tests are abnormal in CRF patients, however, finding of normal FT4 and TSH levels would indicate functional euthyroid status.

  4. Horner's syndrome and thyroid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchter, Igor; Becker, Minerva; Mickel, Robert; Dulguerov, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Although thyroid goiter is a common condition, it rarely results in Horner's syndrome. We report a case of a patient with an intrathoracic multinodular goiter complicated by Horner's syndrome. Benign thyroid disease was confirmed pathologically, and the patient's symptoms improved after surgery. In the literature, the major cause of Horner's syndrome is neoplasia, with malignant lesions being twice as frequent as benign tumors. An extensive review of the literature demonstrates a different repartition for thyroid neoplasia: including our case, 38 cases of Horner's syndrome secondary to a benign thyroid tumor are described, against only 8 cases caused by a thyroid carcinoma. We conclude that contrary to the commonly held opinion, Horner's syndrome is more often due to benign thyroid diseases than to thyroid malignancies. PMID:11891400

  5. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  6. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  7. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  8. The relationship between perchlorate in drinking water and cord blood thyroid hormones: First experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Javidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the controversial information regarding the effects of perchlorate on thyroid function of high risk population as neonates, and given the high prevalence rate of thyroid disorders specially congenital hypothyroidism in our region, this study aims to investigate for the first time in Iran, the relationship between drinking groundwater perchlorate and cord blood thyroid hormones level in an industrial region. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, drinking groundwater perchlorate level of rural areas of Zarinshahr, Isfahan was measured. Simultaneously, cord blood level of thyroid hormones of neonates born in the studied region was measured. Thyroid function test of neonates in regions with low and high perchlorate level were compared. Results: In this study, 25 tap water samples were obtained for perchlorate measurement. Level of cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, T4 and T3 of 25 neonates were measured. Mean (standard deviation of perchlorate, TSH, T4 and T3 was 3.59 (5.10 μg/l, 7.81 (4.14 mIU/m, 6.06 (0.85 mg/dl, and 63.46 (17.53 mg/dl, respectively. Mean levels of thyroid function tests were not different in low ( 0.05. Conclusions: Perchlorate did not appear to be related to thyroid function of neonates in the studied industrial region. It seems that iodine status of the regions, as well as other environmental contaminants and genetic background, could impact on its relation with thyroid function of neonates.

  9. Carbofuran-induced histophysiological changes in thyroid of the teleost fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term toxic effects of continuous exposure for 6 months, from January to June, to a safe dose (4.5 ppm) of a commercial carbamate pesticide, carbofuran, on the histophysiology of thyroid in adult and young (yearling) Channa punctatus, are described in this investigation. In both the experimental groups, thyroid histology exhibited various abnormalities, including hypertrophy, hyperplasia and degeneration of follicular epithelial cells, and reduction in colloid content. Apart from this, in young experimentals, fibrosis of thyroid components, formation of cystic cellular masses, and rupture of blood vessels resulting in hemorrhage can also be seen and suggest direct action of this pesticide on the thyroid. On the other hand, in both treated groups, retardation of thyroid function was also evidenced by significantly reduced thyroidal radioiodine (131I) uptake and CR (conversion ratio of PB131I in blood serum in relation to total serum 131I uptake) values. Apparently, these histopathological and physiological changes were markedly pronounced in young experimentals, suggesting greater susceptibility of this group to chronic toxicity of carbofuran than that of adults. Thus, on the basis of these results, it can be inferred that carbofuran pesticide, which is washed into water systems in small quantities, induces adverse histophysiological alterations in thyroid, in an age- and size-dependent manner, possibly by acting directly on thyroid and/or through the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis, in this species

  10. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Vitorino Modesto dos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body 99mTc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocytic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided.

  11. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body 99m Tc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocitic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided. (author)

  12. Thyroid hormone autoantibodies: are they a better marker to detect early thyroid damage in patients with hematologic cancers receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor or immunoregulatory drug treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, P.; Mian, M.; Pitini, V.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Sindoni, A.; Galletti, M.; Mandolfino, M.; Santoro, D.; Mondello, S.; Aloisi, C.; Altavilla, G.; Benvenga, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unlike cytotoxic agents, novel antineoplastic drugs can variably affect thyroid function and so impair patient outcomes. However, the widely used standard thyroid tests have demonstrated low sensitivity for detecting early thyroid damage that leads to dysfunction of the gland. To find a more reliable thyroid marker, we assessed the presence of antibodies binding thyroid hormones (thAbs) in a cancer population undergoing potentially thyrotoxic treatment. Methods From April 2010 to September 2013, 82 patients with hematologic malignancies treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors or immunoregulatory drugs were recruited. Healthy volunteers (n = 104) served as control subjects. Thyroid function, autoimmunity tests, thAbs, and thyroid sonography were assessed once during treatment. Results Overall, thAb positivity was recorded in 13% of the entire cohort. In most cases, the thAbs were of a single type, with a predominance of T3 immunoglobulin G. More specifically, thAbs were detected in 11 cancer patients; and abnormal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin antibody, and thyroperoxidase antibody were detected in 6 (p = 0.05), 0 (p = 0.0006), and 2 cancer patients (p = 0.001) respectively. Ultrasonographic alterations of the thyroid were observed in 12 cancer patients. In contrast, of the 104 healthy control subjects, only 1 was positive for thAbs (1%). Conclusions We have demonstrated for the first time that thAbs are a reliable marker of early thyroid dysfunction when compared with the widely used standard thyroid tests. A confirmatory prospective trial aiming at evaluating thAbs at various time points during treatment could clarify the incidence and timing of antibody appearance.

  13. Remote access thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Kandil, Emad; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2015-10-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  14. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gene. These cases are known as familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). FMTC can occur alone, or it can be seen along with other tumors. The combination of FMTC and tumors of other endocrine glands is called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN ...

  15. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008029 Diagnostic value of serum thyroglobulin autoantibody on recurrence and/or metastasis following surgery in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. FAN Qun(范群), et al. Dept Nucl Med, West China Hosp, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Endocrinol Metab 2007;23(6):494-497. Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of serum thyrog

  16. Tubercular thyroid abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Awanish; Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Srivastava, Rohit; Khan, Khursheed Alam

    2013-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented with neck swelling, difficulty in swallowing, voice change along with systemic features such as evening rise of temperature, chronic cough and weight loss. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed two cystic swellings. An ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of tubercular abscess. The patient responded well to antigravity aspiration of the swellings and antitubercular treatment.

  17. Thyroid ophthalmopathy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune orbital disorder closely associated with Graves' disease, although both conditions may also occur isolatedly. Thyroid ophthalmopathy may precede, coincide or follow the thyroid dysfunction onset and may rarely occur in euthyroid and hypothyroid patients. The extra ocular muscles are most frequently involved and become enlarged resulting in ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Other relevant signs include palpebral retraction, conjunctival hyperemia and periorbitary edema. Visual loss may occur in association with compressive optic neuropathy at the orbital apex. Thyroid ophthalmopathy is characterized by inflammation, congestion, hypertrophy and fibrosis involving fat and the orbital muscles. The disease activity is divided into two phases: an acute or inflammatory phase and a second one corresponding to an inactive phase associated with fibrotic changes and fat infiltration of the retrobulbar tissues. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and imaging methods are indicated in case of doubt or suspicion of optic neuropathy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can confirm the diagnosis, allowing the evaluation of the critical region of the orbital apex. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice considering the superior tissue contrast resolution, besides the capacity of evaluating the disease activity by means of long TR sequences and detecting inflammatory changes, with a relevant role in a timely therapeutic planning, which may improve the prognosis. (author)

  18. Differentiation between healthy thyroid remnants and tumor tissue after radioiodine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma using in-vitro phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In many tumors, tumor growth and spread is triggered by changes in cell membrane metabolism, which can lead to systemic alterations in levels of phospholipids. The aim of this study was to differentiate between healthy remnants of thyroid tissue and residual/recurrent tumor tissue or metastases in patients with thyroid carcinoma by measurement of plasma levels of various phospholipids. Phospholipid concentrations was measured by in-vitro phosphorus-31-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in blood samples from 30 patients with thyroid cancer, who had been rendered hypothyroid in preparation for diagnostic/therapeutic administration of iodine-131. All patients were already thyroidectomized. 131I-whole-body scintigraphy and measurements of thyroglobulin values in a 2-year-follow-up were used to distinguish between patients in remission, patients with only healthy thyroid remnants and patients with cancerous thyroid tissue and/or metastases. Significantly lower blood plasma levels of systemic sphingomyelin (0.33±0.06 vs. 0.46±0.03 (controls) mmol/l; p31P-MRS can be used to differentiate between the presence of tumor tissue, healthy remnants of thyroid tissue not requiring further treatment and remission in patients with thyroid cancer. In future, therefore, plasma 31P-MRS could be developed as an additional diagnostic tool for the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer. (author)

  19. CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells are undifferentiated, radioresistant and survive radioiodide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Chien-Chih [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ren-Shyan [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Yang, An-Hang [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ching-Sheng [National Yang-Ming University Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Chi, Chin-Wen [National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China); Tseng, Ling-Ming [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Tsai, Yi-Fan [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Ho, Jennifer H. [Taipei Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Center for Stem Cell Research, Taipei (China); Lee, Chen-Hsen [NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Lee, Oscar K. [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Stem Cell Research Center, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 131}I therapy is regularly used following surgery as a part of thyroid cancer management. Despite an overall relatively good prognosis, recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer is not rare. CD133-expressing cells have been shown to mark thyroid cancer stem cells that possess the characteristics of stem cells and have the ability to initiate tumours. However, no studies have addressed the influence of CD133-expressing cells on radioiodide therapy of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD133{sup +} cells contribute to the radioresistance of thyroid cancer and thus potentiate future recurrence and metastasis. Thyroid cancer cell lines were analysed for CD133 expression, radiosensitivity and gene expression. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line ARO showed a higher percentage of CD133{sup +} cells and higher radioresistance. After {gamma}-irradiation of the cells, the CD133{sup +} population was enriched due to the higher apoptotic rate of CD133{sup -} cells. In vivo {sup 131}I treatment of ARO tumour resulted in an elevated expression of CD133, Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Glut1 genes. After isolation, CD133{sup +} cells exhibited higher radioresistance and higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 and Glut1 in the cell line or primarily cultured papillary thyroid cancer cells, and lower expression of various thyroid-specific genes, namely NIS, Tg, TPO, TSHR, TTF1 and Pax8. This study demonstrates the existence of CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells which show a higher radioresistance and are in an undifferentiated status. These cells possess a greater potential to survive radiotherapy and may contribute to the recurrence of thyroid cancer. A future therapeutic approach for radioresistant thyroid cancer may focus on the selective eradication of CD133{sup +} cells. (orig.)

  20. CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells are undifferentiated, radioresistant and survive radioiodide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I therapy is regularly used following surgery as a part of thyroid cancer management. Despite an overall relatively good prognosis, recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer is not rare. CD133-expressing cells have been shown to mark thyroid cancer stem cells that possess the characteristics of stem cells and have the ability to initiate tumours. However, no studies have addressed the influence of CD133-expressing cells on radioiodide therapy of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD133+ cells contribute to the radioresistance of thyroid cancer and thus potentiate future recurrence and metastasis. Thyroid cancer cell lines were analysed for CD133 expression, radiosensitivity and gene expression. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line ARO showed a higher percentage of CD133+ cells and higher radioresistance. After γ-irradiation of the cells, the CD133+ population was enriched due to the higher apoptotic rate of CD133- cells. In vivo 131I treatment of ARO tumour resulted in an elevated expression of CD133, Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Glut1 genes. After isolation, CD133+ cells exhibited higher radioresistance and higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 and Glut1 in the cell line or primarily cultured papillary thyroid cancer cells, and lower expression of various thyroid-specific genes, namely NIS, Tg, TPO, TSHR, TTF1 and Pax8. This study demonstrates the existence of CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells which show a higher radioresistance and are in an undifferentiated status. These cells possess a greater potential to survive radiotherapy and may contribute to the recurrence of thyroid cancer. A future therapeutic approach for radioresistant thyroid cancer may focus on the selective eradication of CD133+ cells. (orig.)

  1. Waterborne exposure to triadimefon causes thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental delay in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Li, Shuying; Yao, Tingting; Zhao, Renjie; Wang, Qiangwei; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-08-01

    Triadimefon (TDF) is a triazole-derivative fungicide that is detectable in the environment and target agricultural products, prompting concern over its risk to wildlife and human health. In our study, Nieuwkoop & Faber stage 51 Xenopus laevis tadpoles were exposed to different nominal concentrations TDF (0, 0.112, and 1.12mg/L) for 21 days while the tadpoles were undergoing pre-morphological development. Developmental condition, bioaccumulation and thyroid hormone levels, and mRNA expression of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were examined. Exposure to TDF caused a reduction in developmental rates on pre-metamorphosis of X. laevis. TDF exposure significantly decreased thyroid hormone (T4 and T3) concentrations, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. The downregulation of thyroglobulin and upregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (ugt1ab) might be responsible for the decreased thyroid hormone concentrations. Treatment with TDF also significantly increased mRNA expression of genes involved in thyroid-stimulating hormone as a compensatory mechanism response to decreased thyroid hormone concentrations. Gene expression and in silico ligand docking studies were combined to study the interaction between TDF and thyroid hormone receptor. Results showed that TDF could consequently affect the HPT axis signaling pathway. In addition, bioconcentration of TDF was observed in tadpoles, indicating the bioactivity of this compound. Taken together, the results suggest that TDF alters the HPT axis-related genes and changes thyroid hormone contents in X. laevis tadpoles, thus causing thyroid endocrine disruption and consequently delaying thyroid hormones-dependent metamorphic development. PMID:27289584

  2. Iodine nutrition and risk of thyroid irradiation from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss the following aspects of physiopathology of iodine nutrition related to thyroid irradiation by nuclear accidents: (1) The cycle of iodine in nature, the dietary sources of iodine and the recommended dietary allowances for iodine. (2) The anomalies of thyroid metabolism induced by iodine deficiency. The caricatural situation as seen in endemic goitre will be used as mode. (3) The specific paediatric aspects of adaptation to iodine deficiency. (4) The present status of iodine nutrition in Europe. (author)

  3. Inappropriate secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a total of 2904 patients with thyroid disorders treated with thyreostatic drugs or with thyroxin we observed a discrepancy between TSH-values and T-4. In primary hyperthyreosis (Graves disease or toxic adenoma) thyreostatic drugs produced long lasting suppression of TSH (under 0.07 mIE/ml), or in high levels of T-4 the level of TSH remained in normal range or the level of TSH was very high in patients with normal level of T-4. The clinical status of the patients was relevant, additional laboratory tests (Free thyroxin, T-3 levels) were necessary. (Original)

  4. Radiation dosimetry of radioiodinated thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physiologically based compartmental model for T4 and T3 metabolism in man was used to generate time-activity curves for residence of radioiodine in key organs. T4 and T3 labeled with 123I, 124I, 125I, and 131I were studied. Conditions modeled included radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) values of 0%, 1%, 5%, 15% and 25%, and RAIU of 15% combined with various degrees of pharmacologic block of thyroidal RAIU. Using the MIRD S tables, rad doses were generated for each condition. While the shapes of the time-activity curves varied widely with alterations in physical and biological turnover and with changes in steady-state due to iodine administration, it was possible to calculate overall effective half-lives for each organ of interest from the integral of the time-activity curve projected by solution of the model. This overall effective half-life of the hormone for the body's exchangeable hormone compartments correlated well with calculated radiation dose to the thyroid in the unblocked state. With progressive degrees of iodine block, this correlation persisted, though with proportionately reduced thyroid radiation doses. Use and manipulation of a compartmental model, rather than the usual multiexponential model, for radiation dosimetry facilitates conceptualization and the projection of the effects of interventions such as iodide block

  5. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  6. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nsame

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from failure of one thyroid lobe development. We report a 23-year-old female presented with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in left lobe, associated with hemiagenesis of right lobe and isthmus which was previously diagnosed as Graves’ hyperthyroidism, but developed further into Hashimoto’s thyroiditis after being treated with antithyroid drugs. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning of an absent lobe. The antithyroid pharmacotherapy by thiamazole was used. However, due to symptoms of hypothyroidism, it was discontinued two months later, so thyroid hormone substitution was reintroduced. Antithyroid antibody studies and ultrasonography documented the presence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

  7. Introduction to European comments on "Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarzab, Barbara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    Guest Editors of Thyroid Research supplement devoted to medullary thyroid cancer present the history on how the discussion about "Medullary Thyroid Cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association" was initiated and subsequently widely commented before and during European Thyroid...

  8. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and BRAF V600E in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Ki; Woo, Jung-Woo; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Inhye; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is less associated with extrathyroidal extension (ETE), advanced tumor stage and lymph node (LN) metastasis. Other studies have suggested that concurrent CLT could antagonize PTC progression, even in BRAF-positive patients. Since the clinical significance of the BRAF mutation has been particularly associated with conventional PTC, the purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of CLT according to BRAF mutation status in conventional PTC patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 3332 conventional PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central neck dissection at the Thyroid Cancer Center of Samsung Medical Center between January 2008 and June 2015. In this study, the prevalence of BRAF mutation was significantly less frequent in conventional PTC patients with CLT (76.9% vs 86.6%). CLT was an independent predictor for low prevalence of ETE in both BRAF-negative (OR=0.662, P=0.023) and BRAF-positive (OR=0.817, P=0.027) conventional PTC patients. In addition, CLT was an independent predictor for low prevalence of CLNM in both BRAF-negative (OR=0.675, P=0.044) and BRAF-positive (OR=0.817, P=0.030) conventional PTC patients. In conclusion, BRAF mutation was significantly less frequent in conventional PTC patients with CLT. However, CLT was an independent predictor for less aggressiveness in conventional PTC patients regardless of BRAF mutation status. PMID:26598713

  9. Resistance to Thyroid Hormone due to defective thyroid receptor alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Carla; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones act via nuclear receptors (TR?1, TR?1, TR?2) with differing tissue distribution; the role of ?2 protein, derived from the same gene locus as TR?1, is unclear. Resistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTH?) is characterised by tissue-specific hypothyroidism associated with near-normal thyroid function tests. Clinical features include dysmorphic facies, skeletal dysplasia (macrocephaly, epiphyseal dysgenesis), growth retardation, constipation, dyspraxia and intellectual deficit...

  10. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  11. Thyroid hormone antibodies and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in mongrel dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormally elevated serum T3 concentrations measured by RIA were observed in 19 clinically euthyroid or hypothyroid mongrel dogs. The serum T4 concentrations in these sera were low, normal, or high. Measurement of the intensity of thyroid hormone binding to serum proteins was determined by equilibrium dialysis. A marked decrease in the percent free T3 was observed in these abnormal sera. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pH 7.4, of normal dog serum enriched with tracer 125I-labeled thyroid hormones demonstrated binding of [125I]T4 to transthyretin, thyroid hormone-binding globulin, and albumin and of [125I]T3 primarily to thyroid hormone-binding globulin. In all abnormal sera, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated strikingly higher binding of T3 to immunoglobulin (Ig). Eleven of 16 abnormal sera had minimal to moderate binding of T4 to Ig. The percent free T4 was lower only in dogs whose sera demonstrated markedly increased binding of T4 to Ig. All abnormal sera tested had positive antithyroglobulin antibodies, consistent with the diagnosis of autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis. As in humans, antibodies to thyroid hormones in dogs are more common in the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and should be considered when elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations are observed in the absence of clinical thyrotoxicosis. When an antibody to only one thyroid hormone is present, a marked discrepancy in the serum concentrations of T3 and T4 will be observed

  12. Thyroid dysfunction and thyroid antibodies in Iranian patients with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Sedighe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, and the pathogenesis is unknown. An increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases has been described in these patients. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and hypoparathyroidism in patients with vitiligo. Materials and Methods: One hundred and nine patients (38 males and 71 females with vitiligo were enrolled. Thyroid physical examination was carried out. Thyroid function tests, thyroid antibodies, calcium and phosphorus were assessed. The collected data were analysed by SPSS version 11. Results: Thyromegaly was found in 30.1% of patients. Hypothyroidism was found in 16 (15.7% out of 109 cases. Two of them had clinical and 14 had subclinical hypothyroidism. One patient had Grave′s disease. Antibody positivity was the most common disorder (anti-TPO and anti-tg were positive in 36.7 and 32.1%, respectively. No patient had hypoparathyroidism. Conclusion: According to our study, thyroid dysfunction, particulary hypothyroidism and thyroid antibodies increase in patients with vitiligo. We recommend thyroid antibodies assessment and thyroid function evaluation in these patients.

  13. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits iodide uptake in the thyroid follicular cells and lowers plasma levels of thyroid hormones upon infusion into sheep and ewes. In this study, the effects of EGF on basal and stimulated thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in the mouse. Mice were pretreated with 125I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was not altered by intravenous injection of EGF (5 micrograms/animal). However, the radioiodine secretion stimulated by both TSH (120 microU/animal) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP; 5 micrograms/animal) were inhibited by EGF (5 micrograms/animal). At a lower dose level (0.5 microgram/animal), EGF had no influence on stimulated radioiodine secretion. In conclusion, EGF inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

  14. Sonographic Elastography of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Menzilcioglu, Mehmet Sait; Duymus, Mahmut; Avcu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid gland disorders include benign and malignant thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid disorders. The incidence of malignant thyroid nodules is low and the prognosis is good. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer and diffuse parenchymal disorders is generally based on clinical manifestations and histopathological evaluation. Ultrasonography has its place in the diagnostics and follow-up of thyroid disorders. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new, developing method that shows increase in ...

  15. ROLE OF ULTRASOUND IN THYROID DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Janani Parkkunam; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography has established itself has a useful tool in evaluating and managing thyroid disorders. This article provides an overview of basic principles of ultrasound, how it is used in different thyroid disorders, different sonographic pattern of thyroid disorders, comparative features of malignant and benign nodule, ultrasound features of diffuse thyroid disorders and congenital thyroid disorders, ultrasound guided FNAC, advanced techniques of ultrasound in thyroid imaging.

  16. Revisiting Thyroid Hormones in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Correia Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are crucial during development and in the adult brain. Of interest, fluctuations in the levels of thyroid hormones at various times during development and throughout life can impact on psychiatric disease manifestation and response to treatment. Here we review research on thyroid function assessment in schizophrenia, relating interrelations between the pituitary-thyroid axis and major neurosignaling systems involved in schizophrenia’s pathophysiology. These include the serotonergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic networks, as well as myelination and inflammatory processes. The available evidence supports that thyroid hormones deregulation is a common feature in schizophrenia and that the implications of thyroid hormones homeostasis in the fine-tuning of crucial brain networks warrants further research.

  17. Substances that disrupt thyroid hormone biosynthesis (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pap, Andreea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupters are natural or synthetic chemical substances that have the possibility to alter the endocrine functions leading to serious metabolic changes especially in newborns. The accumulation and persistence over long periods of time became a priority in terms of health and environment. The mechanism of action is represented by blocking, mimicking or modifying the effects of thyroid hormones. In this review, the main purpose was to determine what effects have the endocrine disruptors on the thyroid gland, especially on the thyroid hormone biosynthesis and setting the stage involved by it. We focused on the action of perchlorates, phthalates, BPC, PDPEs, soy, isoflavones, nitrates, thiocyanates, bisphenol A and triclorsan and came to the conclusion that their intervention can result in either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

  18. Thyroid hormone binding proteins as novel targets for hydroxylated polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs): possible implications for toxicity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Some toxic effects caused by polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) develop through alterations in the reproductive and thyroid hormone regulatory systems, thereby affecting (brain) development, reproduction and behaviour of several species (Stone, 1995, Birnbaum, 1994, for review: Brouwer et

  19. SEX-STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE LAKES IN FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  20. Gestational Diabetes and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Monaco; Giorgio Napolitano; Cesidio Giuliani; Ester Vitacolonna; Ines Bucci; Barbara Di Nenno; Annalisa Passante; Annunziata Lapolla; Dominique Cerrone; Fabio Capani

    2012-01-01

    Background. About 10% of pregnancies are complicated by previously unknown impairment of glucose metabolism, which is defined as gestational diabetes. There are little data available on prevalence of thyroid disorders in patients affected by gestational diabetes, and about their postgestational thyroid function and autoimmunity. We therefore investigated pancreatic and thyroid autoimmunity in gestational diabetic patients and in women who had had a previous gestational diabetic pregnancy. Met...

  1. PHARMACOTHERAPY IN ADVANCED THYROID CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Voichiţa Mogoş

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid cancers are the most common carcinomas of the endocrine system. Their behavior depends of histology, extension of the disease and patients-related factors. Differentiated thyroid cancers arising from follicular epithelium may be cured with combined surgery and radioiodine therapy. In 10-15 % of cases patients may develop metastases which are cause of death. In advanced differentiated thyroid cancers of follicular origin combined therapy with radioiodine and TSH suppression may result ...

  2. Thyroid scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Gregory B; Neelis, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is performed in cats and dogs and has been used to a limited degree in other species such as the horse. Thyroid scintigraphy is most commonly used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment management of feline hyperthyroidism but is also used in the evaluation of canine hypothyroidism and canine thyroid carcinoma. This article reviews the normal scintigraphic appearance of the thyroid in the cat, the dog, and the horse and the principles of interpretation of abnormal scan results in the cat and the dog. Radioiodine is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism, and the principles of its use in the cat are reviewed. PMID:24314043

  3. Differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retrospective analysis of the case files of children with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) was performed to define the disease by its presentation, clinical course and outcome of radioiodine therapy. Differentiated thyroid cancer in children and adolescents is rare but aggressive. The biological behavior differs from that in adults and is related to the age. Younger the age (≤10 years), more aggressive and widespread is the disease with male preponderance and high mortality. The Post-surgical radioiodine ablation/therapy is an important and effective adjuvant in the management of DTC in children and adolescents and even though they present with advance disease, long-term survival and overall prognosis is good

  4. Construction of thyroid simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This work exposes the methodology of construction of thyroid simulators; which was developed considering the mathematical model for the man of reference proposed by Cristy M. The physical models are designed for different ages and is conformed by two concentric cylinders of polyvynil chloride and its anatomic form was molded with silicone (polyimethyl siloxano). The cavities that represent the lobes of the thyroid contain a radioactive solution. It was made a theoretical calculation of the damping factors for this structure reproducing the values reported in literature with a rank of acceptable uncertainty within the margin of energies of photons emitted by the radionuclides ones but using. Here a protocol of construction of these simulators appears to be used like patterns in dosimetry in alive. (orig.)

  5. Ultrasonography of thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chu Wan; Lee, Kwan Seh; Chung, Yong In; Lee, Kyung Hi; Lee, Mun Ho; Koh, Chang Soon; Kim, Byung Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The fundamental requirement for ultrasound in thyroid disease is to differentiate cystic masses from solid ones. But with the advance in scan equipment and technique the more detailed information about the lesion, echogenicity, internal echo pattern and surroundings casts but a faint on the clues to give more specific categorical or histological diagnosis of the lesions. Authors reviewed 186 cases of ultrasonography of thyroid gland performed from March to September, 1979 at Seoul National University Hospital and concluded that; 1. Differentiation of solid mass from cystic one is easily and readily made but a few of solid masses appear as cystic ones in ultrasonogram because of inappropriate scan technique. 2. Categorical or histological diagnosis is still beyond the scope of our knowledge but some clues suggest that only accumulation of data will solve the problem in the future.

  6. Ultrasonography of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental requirement for ultrasound in thyroid disease is to differentiate cystic masses from solid ones. But with the advance in scan equipment and technique the more detailed information about the lesion, echogenicity, internal echo pattern and surroundings casts but a faint on the clues to give more specific categorical or histological diagnosis of the lesions. Authors reviewed 186 cases of ultrasonography of thyroid gland performed from March to September, 1979 at Seoul National University Hospital and concluded that; 1. Differentiation of solid mass from cystic one is easily and readily made but a few of solid masses appear as cystic ones in ultrasonogram because of inappropriate scan technique. 2. Categorical or histological diagnosis is still beyond the scope of our knowledge but some clues suggest that only accumulation of data will solve the problem in the future.

  7. Robotic transaxillary thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovics, Naomi; Aidan, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Recent technological advances have led to a rapid progress in endocrine surgery. With the advent of minimally invasive techniques in thyroid surgery, robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery (RATS) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches. Its main advantages are improved cosmetic outcome, avoiding cervical incisions, increased patient satisfaction, improved visualization, arms articulations, eliminating surgeon's natural tremor, thereby increasing precision. The main disadvantages are longer operative time, and increased cost compared to conventional thyroidectomy, as well as potential injuries to the brachial plexus, skin flap, esophagus, and trachea. Large-scale studies, mainly from South-Korea, have proved that in skilled hands, RATS is a safe alternative to conservative thyroidectomy and should be presented to patients with aesthetic concerns. As with any new emerging technique, careful patient selection is crucial, and further evidence must be sought to confirm its indications. PMID:26425452

  8. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and (99m)TcO4 (-) thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC. PMID:27186311

  9. Epigenetics modifications and therapeutic prospects in human thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziella eCatalano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available At present no successful treatment is available for advanced thyroid cancer, which comprises poorly differentiated, anaplastic, and metastatic or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer not responding to radioiodine. In the last few years, biologically targeted therapies for advanced thyroid carcinomas have been proposed on the basis of the recognition of key oncogenic mutations. Although the results of several phase II trials look promising, none of the patients treated had a complete response, and only a minority of them had a partial response, suggesting that the treatment is, at best, effective in stabilizing patients with progressive disease. Epigenetic refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without any alteration in the primary DNA sequence. The epigenetic processes establish and maintain the global and local chroma¬tin states that determine gene expression. Epigenetic abnormalities are present in almost all cancers and, together with genetic changes, drive tumour progression. Various genes involved in the control of cell proliferation and invasion (p16INK4A, RASSF1A,PTEN, Rap1GAP, TIMP3, DAPK, RARβ2, E-cadherin, and CITED1 as well as genes specific of thyroid differentiation (Na+/I- symport, TSH receptor, pendrin, SL5A8, and TTF-1 present aberrant methylation in thyroid cancer.This review deals with the most frequent epigenetic alterations in thyroid cancer and focuses on epigenetic therapy, whose goal is to target the chromatin in rapidly dividing tumour cells and potentially restore normal cell functions. Experimental data and clinical trials, especially using deacetylase inhibitors and demethylating agents, are discussed.

  10. Regulation of mitochondrial and nuclear effect of thyroid hormones by cytoplasmic/protein /components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific T4-binding protein (T4 effect modulator, T4EM), mediating a number of significant hormone effects in nucleus and mitochondria have been discovered in liver and brain cytoplasm. It is a glycoprotein with molecular mass of 24 kDa, consisting of 200 amino acid residues with alanine in N-terminal. T4EM is revealed to bind extremely low concentration of T4 (Ka=1, 3?109M-1). In liver cells alterations in organism thyroid status have been established to effect the modulator's activity greatly. T4EM isolated from the liver of hyperthyroid rats stimulated mitochondrial protein biosynthesis significantly as compared to the modulator isolated from the lever of intact and thyroidectomized rats. The modulator's activity has been revealed to be subjected to significant variations depending not only on functional state of thyroid gland, but on animal's age as well, changing in liver and brain differently. In liver gradual increase of the modulator's activity correlating to the animal's age and reaching its maximum in 3-month rats has been observed, to be in compliance with calorigenic effect of T4 in this organ. In brain cells T4EM activity increase has been revealed in late embryonic and early postnatal period of rat life. Beside stimulation of mitochondrial protein biosynthesis in rat lever T4EM increases protein phosphorylation, nuclear RNA polymerize activity and mitochondria respiration. Similar studies on brain cells show that adult brain the modulator does not cause confident alteration in any of studied parameters. On the basis of findings T4EM is suggested to be necessary the formation of age and tissue responsiveness to thyroxine. (author)

  11. Thyroid associated orbitopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Maheshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid associated orbitopathy, also known as Graves′ orbitopathy, is typically a self-limiting autoimmune process associated with dysthyroid states. The clinical presentation may vary from very mild disease to severe irreversible sight-threatening complications. Despite ongoing basic science and clinical research, the pathogenesis and highly effective therapeutic strategies remain elusive. The present article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of this common, yet poorly understood disease, which remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist.

  12. Tubercular thyroid abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awanish; Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Srivastava, Rohit; Khan, Khursheed Alam

    2013-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented with neck swelling, difficulty in swallowing, voice change along with systemic features such as evening rise of temperature, chronic cough and weight loss. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed two cystic swellings. An ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of tubercular abscess. The patient responded well to antigravity aspiration of the swellings and antitubercular treatment. PMID:23814203

  13. Radiation and thyroid neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now generally accepted that an association exists between external radiation administered to the head, neck, and upper thorax of infants, children, and adolescents and the subsequent development of neoplastic changes in the thyroid gland. Until recent years, external radiation was frequently administered to shrink an enlarged thymus or for the treatment of tonsillitis, adenoiditis, hearing loss, hemangioma, acne, tinea capitis, and other conditions. During the course of these treatments, the thyroid gland was exposed to scatter radiation. The use of external radiation therapy was then accepted practice, and its value was attested by many. Concern about the adverse effects was not initially appreciated, primarily because of the long periods of time between the radiation and the recognition of changes in the thyroid. The availability and effectiveness of other therapeutic measures and the growing concern about the delayed effects of radiation therapy when administered to the young for relatively benign conditions has, in recent years, largely eliminated use of this form of therapy, except in a few unusual conditions

  14. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T4 and T3 but also rT3, 3,3'-T2, 3',5'-T2, and 3,5-T2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T3 and T2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T4 metabolism, T3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T4, and rT3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T4. As metabolic pathways of T3 and rT3, conversion of them to 3,3'-T2 or to 3',5'-T2 and 3,5-T2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Olympia; Moran, Carla; Halsall, David; Chatterjee, Krishna; Gurnell, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are amongst the most commonly requested laboratory investigations in both primary and secondary care. Fortunately, most TFTs are straightforward to interpret and confirm the clinical impression of euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. However, in an important subgroup of patients the results of TFTs can seem confusing, either by virtue of being discordant with the clinical picture or because they appear incongruent with each other [e.g. raised thyroid hormones (TH), but with non-suppressed thyrotropin (TSH); raised TSH, but with normal TH]. In such cases, it is important first to revisit the clinical context, and to consider potential confounding factors, including alterations in normal physiology (e.g. pregnancy), intercurrent (non-thyroidal) illness, and medication usage (e.g. thyroxine, amiodarone, heparin). Once these have been excluded, laboratory artefacts in commonly used TSH or TH immunoassays should be screened for, thus avoiding unnecessary further investigation and/or treatment in cases where there is assay interference. In the remainder, consideration should be given to screening for rare genetic and acquired disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis [e.g. resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), thyrotropinoma (TSHoma)]. Here, we discuss the main pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of TFTs, and propose a structured algorithm for the investigation and management of patients with anomalous/discordant TFTs. PMID:24275187

  16. Thyroid disorders in acute period after radiation therapy on neck region

    OpenAIRE

    E I Bobrova; V V Fadeev; V M Sotnikov; M G Pavlova; Yu P Sych

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of our study was to analyze thyroid status in adult patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma in acute period after radiotherapy on neck region. Material and methods. Thyroid function (TSH, free T 4, anti-TPO) and thyroid ultrasound were evaluated in 22 adults (10 women, 12 men, mean age 30.2 yrs) with a history of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) before radiotherapy on neck region, 7-14 days, 6 month, 1 year after treatment. Results. Incidence of subclinical hyperthyroidism was 1...

  17. Thyroid cancer. Reevaluation of an experimental model for radiogenic endocrine carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of experimental studies of radiogenic thyroid cancer is appraised, and some older data are reinterpreted in the light of more recent findings. Problems of thyroid dosimetry, particularly the dosimetry of internal radioiodides, are discussed. The steps in radiation carcinogenesis during the acute phase, the latent phase, and the phase of tumor growth are discussed in terms of thyroid epithelial cell population changes. The roles of three cell populations (undamaged or completely repaired epithelial cells, oncogenically initiated cells, and terminally damaged but functionally competent cells) in neoplasia are described. Finally, the implications for man of these experimental results and conclusions are discussed. 89 refs., 4 figs

  18. Risk factors for goiter and thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, N.; Laurberg, P.; Perrild, H.;

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of thyroid diseases is determined by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status, but other environmental factors influencing entire populations have been identified such as goitrogens in food...... and drinking water. Less focus has been on individual environmental factors and the interplay between factors. The goiter prevalence is higher in certain groups in the population. The variation in goiter prevalence between the genders is well known with a higher occurrence among women. The association with age...... is probably dependent on iodine status, because it seems that the zenith of goiter prevalence appears earlier in life the more severe iodine deficiency the population is exposed to. The association with individual risk factors has been investigated in some studies, especially the association with tobacco...

  19. Risk factors for goiter and thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, N.; Laurberg, P.; Perrild, H.; Bulow, I.; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, T.

    2002-01-01

    with age is probably dependent on iodine status, because it seems that the zenith of goiter prevalence appears earlier in life the more severe iodine deficiency the population is exposed to. The association with individual risk factors has been investigated in some studies, especially the association......The occurrence of thyroid diseases is determined by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status, but other environmental factors influencing entire populations have been identified such as goitrogens in food...... and drinking water. Less focus has been on individual environmental factors and the interplay between factors. The goiter prevalence is higher in certain groups in the population. The variation in goiter prevalence between the genders is well known with a higher occurrence among women. The association...

  20. Evaluation of the effects of clomipramine on the canine hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis

    OpenAIRE

    Gulikers, Keven Peter

    2002-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants have been shown to alter thyroid function in man and laboratory animals, but have not been evaluated in the dog. The effect of administration of clomipramine on canine thyroid function was studied in a prospective protocol in which 14 mature, healthy dogs were administered clomipramine (3 mg/kg PO q12h) for 112 days. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (T4), total 3,5,3' triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4), and 3,3',5' triiodothyronine (rever...

  1. Oesophageal Conduit – a Cause of Diffuse Mediastinal Uptake on Thyroid Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke I. Sonoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy plays an essential role in the management of a variety of thyroid and parathyroid disorders. The authors report an unusual case of mediastinal tracer distribution of 99mTc-pertechnetate and 99mTc-MIBI in relation to an oesophageal conduit following oesophago-gastrectomy and reconstructive surgery on thyroid scintigraphy. This is a rare but important cause of diffuse mediastinal uptake on thyroid scintigraphy. An awareness of abnormal anatomy as well as altered physiological tracer uptake would help to avoid any diagnostic pitfall

  2. Irreversible thyroid disruption induced after subchronic exposure to hexachlorobenzene in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouati, Hela; Gamet-Payrastre, Laurence; Saad, Moncef Ben

    2016-05-01

    Thyroid hormones play a complex role in the toxicity of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and related compounds. Time-course and dose-response experiments for free- and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) plasma levels for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid gland histomorphology were determined in male Wistar rats. Also, we examined the possible reversibility of changes noted after removal of HCB. Rats treated with this organochlorine compound resulted in a hypertrophy of the thyroid gland and altered thyroid function by decreasing significantly the levels of total- and free T4 in a dose-dependent manner (total T4: 28 and 51%; free T4: 21 and 37%), and this decrease was seen as early as 21 days and thereafter. Free T3 was also decreased by 21% with the highest dose starting from day 21. No significant changes were observed in the circulating levels of total T3 In response to the decrease of thyroid hormones, a dose-dependent increase of TSH levels (27 and 31%, respectively, for 4 mg and 16 mg/kg of HCB body weight) was observed after 21 days of HCB treatment. We have observed a hypertrophy and hyperplasia of follicular cells and a decrease in colloid volume in histological picture. When HCB was removed and changed by vehicle, the thyroid relative weight and plasma TSH continued to rise and serum thyroid hormones remained suppressed. These findings suggest that subchronic exposure of rats to HCB induced an irreversible hypothyroidism state. PMID:24311623

  3. Medical hypothesis: can gonadotropins influence thyroid volume in women with PCOS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakir Evrim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been reported that luteinizing hormone (LH had thyropropic effect on rat and human thyroid membrane. It has been known that patients with PCOS have elevated LH levels in comparison to healthy controls. The goiter prevalence is more common in women than in men regardless of population. The higher incidence of thyroid diseases in women has been previously attributed to higher estradiol levels. Estradiol has been shown to enhance proliferative and mitogenic activities of thyroid cells. However, in recent years chronic estradiol treatment has been shown to reduce volume densities of thyroid follicles, follicular epithelium and thyroid gland volume. It is thought to be due to LH suppression. Therefore we suggested that increased LH levels might provide a stimulus for growth on thyroid and alter thyroid function. Therefore patients with PCOS who had elevated LH levels should be treated by combined estradiol pills such as estrogen-progestin contraceptives for suppression of LH secretion. Further studies are needed to evaluate the association between LH, LH suppression and thyroid volume in patients with PCOS.

  4. The effect of lithium on thyroid function in patients with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraszewska, Agnieszka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1963 lithium treatment has been the best proven long-term pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BD, both in the prevention of depressive and manic episodes, along with the reduction of the suicide risk. Thyroid gland and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis play a role in the pathophysiology, clinical course and treatment of BD. The influence of lithium on the thyroid gland is one of the key side effects in the long-term therapy with this drug. Lithium is accumulated in the thyroid gland at 3 to 4-fold higher concentrations as compared to its plasma levels. Its administration results in the reduced production with release inhibition of thyroid hormones, altering the immune processes of this gland. The most common thyroid side effects associated with long-term lithium treatment are goiter and hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of lithium therapy. Lithium may also induce an increase in the thyroid autoimmunity, especially if such change had been present before lithium treatment producing structural changes in this gland. This paper reviews the management of complications described above as well as recommendations for monitoring of thyroid function in patients receiving long-term lithium treatment are discussed.

  5. Medical hypothesis: can gonadotropins influence thyroid volume in women with PCOS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Evrim; Sahin, Mustafa; Cakal, Erman; Ozbek, Mustafa; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that luteinizing hormone (LH) had thyropropic effect on rat and human thyroid membrane. It has been known that patients with PCOS have elevated LH levels in comparison to healthy controls.The goiter prevalence is more common in women than in men regardless of population. The higher incidence of thyroid diseases in women has been previously attributed to higher estradiol levels. Estradiol has been shown to enhance proliferative and mitogenic activities of thyroid cells. However, in recent years chronic estradiol treatment has been shown to reduce volume densities of thyroid follicles, follicular epithelium and thyroid gland volume. It is thought to be due to LH suppression.Therefore we suggested that increased LH levels might provide a stimulus for growth on thyroid and alter thyroid function. Therefore patients with PCOS who had elevated LH levels should be treated by combined estradiol pills such as estrogen-progestin contraceptives for suppression of LH secretion. Further studies are needed to evaluate the association between LH, LH suppression and thyroid volume in patients with PCOS. PMID:23194382

  6. ASSOCIATION OF THYROID D YSFUNCTION WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM and Thyroid Diseases are the two most common endocrine disorders seen in general population. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is commonly associated with altered thyroid function. AIM: The present study was done to study the Prevalence of Thyroid Disease in patients of Type II diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present s tudy 250 type - 2 diabetic patients were investigated for fasting blood sugar (FBS, Post lunch blood sugar , Glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1c, Total tri - iodo - thyronine (T3, Total thyroxine (T4, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH. RESULTS: Out of the 250 type 2 dia betic subjects studied, 49 (19. 60% cases showed abnormal thyroid function, 23cases had Subclinica l Hypothyroidism, 17 cases were Overt Hypothyroidism, 9 cases were Overt Hyperthyroidism, 2 cases of Subclinical Hyperthy roidism and 201 (80. 40% cases showed normal thyroid hormone level. Dyslipidaemia was found in most diabetic patients. P value (<0. 05 was significant for age, body mass index, pulse rate, fasting blood sugar, post lunch blood sugar, total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins. CONCLUSION: The ability to diagnose and treat unsuspected thyroid diseases in type II diabetic patients may resu lt in better control of the diabetic state, thereby greatly enhancing the quality of life. This study justifies the view that all type II diabetic patients should be screened for thyroid diseases due to the close association of these two disorders.

  7. Proteomics of thyroid tumours provides new insights into their molecular composition and changes associated with malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Molloy, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Around 5% of the general population have palpable thyroid nodules. Although most thyroid tumours are benign, thyroid cancer represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, comprising mainly follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have shed some light on the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer but there have not been any comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies of large scale to reveal protein expression differences between thyroid tumours and the molecular alterations associated with tumour malignancy. We applied data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry which enabled quantitative expression analysis of over 1,600 proteins from 32 specimens to compare normal thyroid tissue with the three most common tumours of the thyroid gland: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. In follicular tumours, we found marked reduction of the tumour suppressor and therapeutic target extracellular protein decorin. We made the novel observation that TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was found frequently overexpressed in follicular carcinoma compared with follicular adenoma. Proteomic pathway analysis showed changes in papillary carcinoma were associated with disruption of cell contacts (loss of E-cadherin), actin cytoskeleton dynamics and loss of differentiation markers, all hallmarks of an invasive phenotype. PMID:27025787

  8. Classification of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer by global RNA profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    classification will not only contribute to our biological insight but also improve clinical and pathological examinations, thus advancing thyroid tumour diagnosis and ultimately preventing superfluous surgery. This review evaluates the status of classification and biological insights gained from molecular...... classifiers that may differentiate malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Molecular classification models based on global RNA profiles from fine-needle aspirations are currently being evaluated; results are preliminary and lack validation in prospective clinical trials. There is no doubt that molecular...

  9. DNA Methylation in Thyroid Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer with 1,690 deaths each year. There are four main types of which the papillary and follicular types together account for >90% followed by medullary cancers with 3% to 5% and anaplastic carcinomas making up <3%. Epigenetic events of DNA hypermethylation are emerging as promising molecular targets for cancer detection. Our immediate and long term goal is to identify DNA methylation markers for early detection of thyroid cancer. This pilot study comprised of 21 patients to include 11 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), 2 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 5 normal thyroid cases, and 3 hyperthyroid cases. Aberrant promoter methylation was examined in 24 tumor suppressor genes using the methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) assay and in the NIS gene using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The frequently methylated genes were CASP8 (17/21), RASSF1 (16/21) and NIS (9/21). In the normal samples, CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were methylated in 5/5, 4/5 and 1/5 respectively. In the hyperthyroid samples, CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were methylated in 3/3, 2/3 and 1/3 respectively. In the thyroid cancers, CASP8, RASSF1, and NIS were methylated in 9/13, 10/13, and 7/13 respectively. CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were also methylated in concurrently present normal thyroid tissue in 3/11, 4/11 and 3/11 matched thyroid cancer cases (matched for presence of both normal thyroid tissue and thyroid cancer), respectively. Our data suggests that aberrant methylation of CASP8, RASSF1, and NIS maybe an early change in thyroid tumorigenesis regardless of cell type

  10. Comparative study of pituitary-thyroid hormone economy in fasting and hypothyroid rats.

    OpenAIRE

    St Germain, D L; Galton, V A

    1985-01-01

    Starvation in laboratory rodents results in significant alterations in thyroid hormone economy characterized by decreased circulating levels of thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and a decline in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. To investigate this apparent paradox, we have compared in fasted and hypothyroid animals the intracellular parameters mediating thyroid hormone action in the anterior pituitary gland. In vitro saturation analysis combined with quantitation of nuclea...

  11. A Lack of Thyroid Hormones Rather than Excess Thyrotropin Causes Abnormal Skeletal Development in Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett, J. H. Duncan; Williams, Allan J.; Murphy, Elaine; Boyde, Alan; Howell, Peter G. T.; Swinhoe, Rowan; Archanco, Marta; Flamant, Frédéric; Samarut, Jacques; Costagliola, Sabine; Vassart, Gilbert; Weiss, Roy E.; Refetoff, Samuel; Williams, Graham R.

    2007-01-01

    By proposing TSH as a key negative regulator of bone turnover, recent studies in TSH receptor (TSHR) null mice challenged the established view that skeletal responses to disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis result from altered thyroid hormone (T3) action in bone. Importantly, this hypothesis does not explain the increased risk of osteoporosis in Graves’ disease patients, in which circulating TSHR-stimulating antibodies are pathognomonic. To determine the relative importance o...

  12. Galectin-3 expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma in relation to tumor progression

    OpenAIRE

    Cvejić Dubravka S.; Savin-Žegarac Svetlana B.; Petrović Ivana M.; Paunović Ivan R.; Tatić Svetislav B.; Havelka Marija J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Galectin-3, a lectin with specificity for beta galactosides, is believed to be implicated in multiple biological processes through interactions with complementary glycoconjugates. Alterations in galectin-3 expression are observed in a variety of human tumors. In thyroid, this lectin has been found to be highly expressed in malignancies of epithelial origin. We analyzed galectin-3 expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An immunohistochemical study u...

  13. Thyroid hormone therapy following the thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medication with thyroid hormones following total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma is based on the following principles: 1. The patient is informed about the lifelong necessity of taking a thyroid hormones daily before breakfast. This hormone must be given orally and its bioligical effect is identical with that of the tyhroid hormone secreted by the healthy thyroid gland. 2. The daily dosage of thyroid hormones may be assessed on the basis of the following parameters: a) the patient's clinical euthyroidism, b) suppression of thyrotropic activity, c) unrestricted tolerance of the preparation. 3. The in vitro parameters associated with optimal medication should be within the following ranges: Thyroxine value (TT4 or FT4): above the normal range, triiodothyronine value (TT3 or FT3): within the upper normal range and thyrotropin value (TSH 'ultrasensitive' or TRH-test): suppressed. (orig.)

  14. Effects of persistent organic pollutants on the thyroid function of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Aegean sea, is it an endocrine disruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitzler, J.G; Koutrakis, E.T.; Siebert, U; Thomé, J.-P.; Das, K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the alterations of organochlorinated compounds such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) on the thyroid in wild and cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) at environmental concentrations. These compounds influence the endocrine system of many fish species and are qualified as endocrine disruptors. The thyroid seems to be a target organ. Two alteration endpoints: the thyroid histology and the muscular ...

  15. Influence of excessive iodine intake on the thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in population of Turinsk, Sverdlovsk Region, of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Vasil'evich Kiyaev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background.Previous surveys showed chronic iodine excess - median urinary iodine concentration (UIC over 500 mcg/l — supposedly due to water contamination in population of Turinsk, a town in Sverdlovsk Region of Russia.Aim.Conduct an assessment of the effects of chronic iodine excess on thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in schoolchildren and adults.Materials and methods.Assessment was conducted in 100 schoolchildren and 100 adults residing in Turinsk and 97 schoolchildren and 100 adults in the control site (city of Pervouralsk with optimal UIC. Assessment included thyroid ultrasonogrpahy, urinary iodine and dry spot TSH in schoolchildren and TSH and TPO-ab in adults. Iodine was also measured in random water samples from 10 households in Turinsk.Results.Median UIC in schoolchildren in Turinsk (719 mcg/l was significantly higher (129 mcg/l than in Pervouralsk resulting in higher prevalence of thyroid enlargement and TSH level. In adults TSH level as well as prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis were higher in residents of Turinsk compared to control group from Pervouralsk.Conclusions.Iodine excess alters thyroid function in schoolchildren and adults increasing prevalence of thyroid enlargement in children and autoimmune thyroidis in adults.

  16. Scintigraphic visualization of 'Blocking' thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An important problem in nuclear endocrinology is 'blocking' of thyroid gland, which necessitates postpone of the investigation, adverse clinical effect of stopping medications and a delay of making diagnosis. The aim of the study was to introduce and to determine the clinical value of the scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI in patients (Pts) with 'blocked thyroid'. In 365 Pts (aged 38-75 years), indicated for a thyroid scintigraphy after proper preparation, an investigation was performed with 74 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate, 20 min. p.i. In 14 of them (3.8%), the thyroid was 'blocked' and additional scintigraphy was done with 370-555 MBq 99mTc-MIBI, 15 and 120 min.p.i. It was estimated that in all Pts there was a visualization of thyroid. In 1 of them, a large 'hot' nodule was visualized in the early and late image. Later on a differentiated thyroid carcinoma was proved histologically. In the rest of the patients 'cold' nodules with different size were visualized, eventually as a result of cysts. As a conclusion we consider, that a scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI is a useful tool in Pts with 'blocked' thyroid. In addition an evaluation of the thyroid nodule could be done and therefore- a recommendation for therapy

  17. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  18. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  19. The WOMED model of benign thyroid disease: Acquired magnesium deficiency due to physical and psychological stressors relates to dysfunction of oxidative phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Moncayo

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: We interpret the elevated thyroid vascularization and low magnesium levels as signs of an inflammatory process related to the musculoskeletal changes. Improvement of thyroid function and morphology can be achieved after correcting the influence of stressors together with the supplementation regime. We hypothesize that the central biochemical event in thyroid disease is that of an acquired, altered mitochondrial function due to deficiency of magnesium, selenium, and coenzyme Q10.

  20. Physiological changes in thyroid function during pregnancy: an approach to the interpretation of thyroid tests = Cambios fisiológicos de la función tiroidea en el embarazo: bases para la interpretación de las pruebas tiroideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba Ramírez, Nathalia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A proper understanding of thyroid physiology and its changes through pregnancy is critical to suspect diseases affecting the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, and to make a proper interpretation of the tests that measure its function. Alterations in thyroid function tests are common during pregnancy, and it may be difficult to distinguish them from those due to disease. Clinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are rare during pregnancy (0.2% to 0.36%, but subclinical forms are more frequent (around 2%. Iodine is essential as substrate for thyroid hormone synthesis, and the requirements vary according to the population and the moment of pregnancy. Infertile couples have five to ten times more thyroid disorders; for that reason they should be studied as to thyroid function when searching for the cause of the infertility. Autoimmunity has been associated with maternal and perinatal complications such as abortion, preterm delivery and postpartum thyroiditis; some studies have shown that their incidence decreases with levothyroxine. This review includes the following aspects: thyroid physiology during pregnancy, thyroid function and fertility, iodine and pregnancy, anti-thyroid antibodies and pregnancy, thyroid function tests during pregnancy, and screening for thyroid disorders in pregnant women.