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Sample records for alters suberin composition

  1. Defensive Armor of Potato Tubers: Nonpolar Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant Assessment, and Solid-State NMR Compositional Analysis of Suberin-Enriched Wound-Healing Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Kallash, Linda; Wang, Isabel; Phan, Van C; Huang, Wenlin; Serra, Olga; Stark, Ruth E

    2015-08-05

    The cultivation, storage, and distribution of potato tubers are compromised by mechanical damage and suboptimal healing. To investigate wound-healing progress in cultivars with contrasting russeting patterns, metabolite profiles reported previously for polar tissue extracts were complemented by GC/MS measurements for nonpolar extracts and quantitative (13)C NMR of interfacial solid suspensions. Potential marker compounds that distinguish cultivar type and wound-healing time point included fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkanes, glyceryl esters, α,ω-fatty diacids, and hydroxyfatty acids. The abundant long-chain fatty acids in nonpolar extracts and solids from the smooth-skinned Yukon Gold cultivar suggested extensive suberin biopolymer formation; this hypothesis was supported by high proportions of arenes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups in the solid and among the polar markers. The absence of many potential marker classes in nonpolar Atlantic extracts and interfacial solids suggested a limited extent of suberization. Modest scavenging activities of all nonpolar extracts indicate that the majority of antioxidants produced in response to wounding are polar.

  2. Binding interactions between suberin monomer components and pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivella, M.À., E-mail: angels.olivella@udg.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Maria Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain); Bazzicalupi, C.; Bianchi, A. [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia, 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Río, J.C. del [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain); Fiol, N.; Villaescusa, I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Maria Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Understanding the role of biomacromolecules and their interactions with pollutants is a key for elucidating the sorption mechanisms and making an accurate assessment of the environmental fate of pollutants. The knowledge of the sorption properties of the different constituents of these biomacromolecules may furnish a significant contribution to this purpose. Suberin is a very abundant biopolymer in higher plants. In this study, suberin monomers isolated from cork were analyzed by thermally-assisted methylation with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in a pyrolysis unit coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The isolated monomer mixture was used to study the sorption of three pesticides (isoproturon, methomyl and oxamyl). The modes of pesticide–sorbent interactions were analyzed by means of two modeling calculations, the first one representing only the mixture of suberin monomers used in the sorption study, and the second one including glycerol to the mixture of suberin monomers, as a building block of the suberin molecule. The results indicated that the highest sorption capacity exhibited by the sorbent was for isoproturon (33%) being methomyl and oxamyl sorbed by the main suberin components to a lesser extent (3% and < 1%, respectively). In addition to van der Waals interactions with the apolar region of sorbent and isoproturon, modeling calculations evidenced the formation of a hydrogen bond between the isoproturon NH group and a carboxylic oxygen atom of a suberin monomer. In the case of methomyl and oxamyl only weak van der Waals interactions stabilize the pesticide–sorbent adducts. The presence of glycerol in the model provoked significant changes in the interactions with isoproturon and methomyl. - Highlights: • Suberin has low affinity to retain pesticides of aliphatic character. • Suberin has a moderate affinity to adsorb isoproturon. • Modeling calculations show that apolar portion of suberin interacts with isoproturon.

  3. Solving the puzzles of cutin and suberin polymer biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisson, Fred; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Pollard, Mike

    2012-06-01

    Cutin and suberin are insoluble lipid polymers that provide critical barrier functions to the cell wall of certain plant tissues, including the epidermis, endodermis and periderm. Genes that are specific to the biosynthesis of cutins and/or aliphatic suberins have been identified, mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana. They notably encode acyltransferases, oxidases and transporters, which may have either well-defined or more debatable biochemical functions. However, despite these advances, important aspects of cutin and suberin synthesis remain obscure. Central questions include whether fatty acyl monomers or oligomers are exported, and the extent of extracellular assembly and attachment to the cell wall. These issues are reviewed. Greater emphasis on chemistry and biochemistry will be required to solve these unknowns and link structure with function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Tomato Peroxidase Involved in the Synthesis of Lignin and Suberin1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Mónica; Guerrero, Consuelo; Botella, Miguel A.; Barceló, Araceli; Amaya, Iraida; Medina, María I.; Alonso, Francisco J.; de Forchetti, Silvia Milrad; Tigier, Horacio; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2000-01-01

    The last step in the synthesis of lignin and suberin has been proposed to be catalyzed by peroxidases, although other proteins may also be involved. To determine which peroxidases are involved in the synthesis of lignin and suberin, five peroxidases from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) roots, representing the majority of the peroxidase activity in this organ, have been partially purified and characterized kinetically. The purified peroxidases with isoelectric point (pI) values of 3.6 and 9.6 showed the highest catalytic efficiency when the substrate used was syringaldazine, an analog of lignin monomer. Using a combination of transgenic expression and antibody recognition, we now show that the peroxidase pI 9.6 is probably encoded by TPX1, a tomato peroxidase gene we have previously isolated. In situ RNA hybridization revealed that TPX1 expression is restricted to cells undergoing synthesis of lignin and suberin. Salt stress has been reported to induce the synthesis of lignin and/or suberin. This stress applied to tomato caused changes in the expression pattern of TPX1 and induced the TPX1 protein. We propose that the TPX1 product is involved in the synthesis of lignin and suberin. PMID:10759507

  5. Analysis of cutin and suberin biomarker patterns in alluvial sedi-ments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Jennifer; Sesterheim, Anna; König, Frauke; Fuchs, Elmar

    2015-04-01

    Cutin and suberin are the primary source of hydrolysable aliphatic lipid polyesters in soil organic matter (SOM). They are known as geochemical biomarkers to estimate the contribution of different plant species and tissues to SOM. Despite their potential as biomarkers, cutin and suberin have received less attention as flood plain sediment biomarkers. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiency of cutin and suberin as biomarkers in floodplains. Therefore similarities between the lipid pattern in alluvial sediments and in the actual vegetation were considered. Lipids of plant tissues (roots, twigs, leaves) from different species (reed (e.g. Phalaris arun-diacea), Salix alba, Ulmus laevis and grassland (e.g. Carex spec.)) and of the un-derlying soils and sediments were obtained and investigated at four sites in the nature reserve Knoblauchsaue (Hessen, Germany). The four sampling sites differ not only with respect to their vegetation, but also within their distance to the river Rhine. Cutin and suberin monomers of plants and soils were analysed by alkaline hydrolysis, methylation and acetylation and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Resulting lipid patterns were specific for the appropriate plant species and tissues. However, the traceability of single selected lipids was decreasing alongside the soil profile, with the exception of monomers in softwood floodplain soils. Selected tissue specific lipid ratios showed a higher traceability due to strong attributions of lipid ratios in soils and roots of U. laevis and Carex spec. and in leaves of U. laevis and S. alba. In contrast, there was no accordance between the suberin specific lipid ratios in soils and roots of S. alba and P. arundiacea. The most robust interpretations were afforded when a set of multiple biomarkers (i.e. a combination of free lipid ratios and ratios of hydrolysable lipids) was used to collectively reconstruct the source vegetation of different sediment layers.

  6. Biofuels. Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Ghiaci, Payam

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at ≥40°C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We used...... adaptive laboratory evolution to select yeast strains with improved growth and ethanol production at ≥40°C. Sequencing of the whole genome, genome-wide gene expression, and metabolic-flux analyses revealed a change in sterol composition, from ergosterol to fecosterol, caused by mutations in the C-5 sterol...... desaturase gene, and increased expression of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. Additionally, large chromosome III rearrangements and mutations in genes associated with DNA damage and respiration were found, but contributed less to the thermotolerant phenotype....

  7. Numerical Validation of Chemical Compositional Model for Wettability Alteration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekbauov, Bakhbergen; Berdyshev, Abdumauvlen; Baishemirov, Zharasbek; Bau, Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Chemical compositional simulation of enhanced oil recovery and surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation processes is a complex task that involves solving dozens of equations for all grid blocks representing a reservoir. In the present work, we perform a numerical validation of the newly developed mathematical formulation which satisfies the conservation laws of mass and energy and allows applying a sequential solution approach to solve the governing equations separately and implicitly. Through its application to the numerical experiment using a wettability alteration model and comparisons with existing chemical compositional model's numerical results, the new model has proven to be practical, reliable and stable.

  8. Mutualistic rhizobia reduce plant diversity and alter community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kane R

    2014-12-01

    Mutualistic interactions can be just as important to community dynamics as antagonistic species interactions like competition and predation. Because of their large effects on both abiotic and biotic environmental variables, resource mutualisms, in particular, have the potential to influence plant communities. Moreover, the effects of resource mutualists such as nitrogen-fixing rhizobia on diversity and community composition may be more pronounced in nutrient-limited environments. I experimentally manipulated the presence of rhizobia across a nitrogen gradient in early assembling mesocosm communities with identical starting species composition to test how the classic mutualism between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and their legume host influence diversity and community composition. After harvest, I assessed changes in α-diversity, community composition, β-diversity, and ecosystem properties such as inorganic nitrogen availability and productivity as a result of rhizobia and nitrogen availability. The presence of rhizobia decreased plant community diversity, increased community convergence (reduced β-diversity), altered plant community composition, and increased total community productivity. These community-level effects resulted from rhizobia increasing the competitive dominance of their legume host Chamaecrista fasciculata. Moreover, different non-leguminous species responded both negatively and positively to the presence of rhizobia, indicating that rhizobia are driving both inhibitory and potentially facilitative effects in communities. These findings expand our understanding of plant communities by incorporating the effects of positive symbiotic interactions on plant diversity and composition. In particular, rhizobia that specialize on dominant plants may serve as keystone mutualists in terrestrial plant communities, reducing diversity by more than 40%.

  9. Composition effects on synthetic glass alteration mechanisms: Part 1. Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajmohan, Natarajan; Frugier, P.; Gin, St.

    2010-01-01

    Alteration of nuclear waste glasses and silicate minerals is governed by complex processes regulated by several coupled mechanisms. Among these processes is reactive mass transfer through the amorphous gel layer (known as the passivating reactive interphase (PRI) in case of a rate-limiting effect) located between the pristine glass and the bulk solution. In order to assess the influence of the glass composition and the pH on the properties of the PRI, and thus on the nuclear glass durability, an experimental leaching study was performed on borosilicate glass samples with or without Ca, Al, and Zr. Experiments were conducted to understand the influence of the pH and glass composition on the solvated cation diffusion coefficient within the PRI and to generate data for calibration of a PRI solubility model (not presented here). All the experiments were carried out at high S/V ratios so that silicon rapidly reached apparent saturated conditions and the PRI could form: in such conditions glass alteration is controlled only by diffusion of water and dissolved species through the PRI and by precipitation of crystallized secondary phases. The constituents in the PRI and the crystallized secondary phases depend to a large extent on the glass composition and pH. Alkali metal (Na) or preferentially alkaline earth (Ca) elements are retained in the PRI for charge compensation of Al and Zr. The apparent diffusion coefficient calculated from the release of boron, a good tracer, varies with the pH from less than 4 * 10 -22 to 9 * 10 -18 m 2 s -1 in the studied glasses. These very low diffusion coefficients decrease as the pH increases. Concerning the PRI composition we show that Si, Al, Ca and Zr have strong interactions and thus major consequences on the glass durability. Our findings indicate that the SiO 2 aq activity is relatively constant and independent of the pH below pH 9, followed by a drop at pH 10. In addition, the activity of SiO 2 aq is affected by the glass

  10. Cork suberin molecular structure: stereochemistry of the C18 epoxy and vic-diol ω-hydroxyacids and α,ω-diacids analyzed by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Cabral, Vanessa; Graça, José

    2013-07-24

    Suberin is the biopolyester that protects the secondary tissues of plants against environmental variability and aggressions. Cork suberin is composed mostly of C18 ω-hydroxyacids and α,ω-diacids, 9,10-substituted with an unsaturation, an epoxide ring, or a vic-diol group. Although determinant for suberin macromolecular structure, the stereochemistry of these monomers is poorly studied, sometimes with contradictory results. An NMR technique was used here to assign the configuration of the 9,10-epoxy and 9,10-diol groups in C18 suberin acids, comparing the chemical shifts of diagnostic (1)H and (13)C signals with the ones of model compounds, before and after conversion of the vic-diol group into benzylidene acetal derivatives. The relative configuration was proved to be cis in the C18 9,10-epoxy and threo in the C18 9,10-diol suberin acids. These monomers were present in suberin probably as racemic mixtures, as shown by polarimetry. The revealed stereochemistry allows the suberin macromolecule to be built as an ordered array of midchain kinked C18 acids, reinforced by intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

  11. A potato skin SSH library yields new candidate genes for suberin biosynthesis and periderm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Marçal; Serra, Olga; Fluch, Silvia; Molinas, Marisa; Figueras, Mercè

    2011-05-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers are underground storage organs covered by the skin or periderm, a suberized layer that protects inner flesh from dehydration and pathogens. Understanding the molecular processes associated with periderm formation is of great importance for a better knowledge of this protective tissue and for improving the storage life of tubers. Here, to isolate new candidate genes for potato periderm, a suppression subtractive hybridization library from potato skin was performed. This library yielded a comprehensive list of 108 candidate genes that were manually sorted in functional categories according to the main cellular and metabolic processes in periderm. As expected, the list contains Suberin and wax genes, including some genes with a demonstrated role in the biosynthesis of these cell wall aliphatic compounds. Moreover, Regulation and Stress and defence genes are highly abundant in the library in general agreement with previous potato skin proteomic studies. The putative function of the genes in periderm is discussed.

  12. Plant litter chemistry alters the content and composition of organic carbon associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in invaded ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Mioko; Suseela, Vidya; Simpson, Myrna; Powell, Brian; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2017-10-01

    the higher surface area of soil minerals at this site. The plant biomarkers were lower in the aggregate fractions of the P. lobata-invaded soils, compared with noninvaded pine stands, potentially suggesting a microbial co-metabolism of pine-derived compounds. These results highlight the complex interactions among litter chemistry, soil biota, and minerals in mediating soil C storage in unmanaged ecosystems; these interactions are particularly important under global changes that may alter plant species composition and hence the quantity and chemistry of litter inputs in terrestrial ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Texture and Compositional Evidence for Epigenetic Alteration in Mn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This communication is the first to report the presence of significant epigenetic alteration in protore manganese carbonate at the Palaeo-proterozoicNsuta manganese deposit in the Birimian of Ghana. The alteration is recognisable macroscopically by strong veining of quartz and/or pink rhodochrosite and, in some cases, ...

  14. Stereochemistry of C18 monounsaturated cork suberin acids determined by spectroscopic techniques including (1) H-NMR multiplet analysis of olefinic protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Graça, José

    2014-01-01

    Suberin is a biopolyester responsible for the protection of secondary plant tissues, and yet its molecular structure remains unknown. The C18:1 ω-hydroxyacid and the C18:1 α,ω-diacid are major monomers in the suberin structure, but the configuration of the double bond remains to be elucidated. To unequivocally define the configuration of the C18:1 suberin acids. Pure C18:1 ω-hydroxyacid and C18:1 α,ω-diacid, isolated from cork suberin, and two structurally very close C18:1 model compounds of known stereochemistry, methyl oleate and methyl elaidate, were analysed by NMR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, and GC-MS. The GC-MS analysis showed that both acids were present in cork suberin as only one geometric isomer. The analysis of dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) and picolinyl derivatives proved the double bond position to be at C-9. The FTIR spectra were concordant with a cis-configuration for both suberin acids, but their unambiguous stereochemical assignment came from the NMR analysis: (i) the chemical shifts of the allylic (13) C carbons were shielded comparatively to the trans model compound, and (ii) the complex multiplets of the olefinic protons could be simulated only with (3) JHH and long-range (4) JHH coupling constants typical of a cis geometry. The two C18:1 suberin acids in cork are (Z)-18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid and (Z)-octadec-9-enedoic acid. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Chronic zinc deficiency alters chick gut microbiota composition and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under co...

  16. Thermal Emission Spectra of Altered Tephras and Constraints on the Composition of Martian Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Victoria E.; Morris, Richard V.

    2003-01-01

    We have begun to create a comprehensive set of thermal infrared (TIR, approx. 1650-200/cm, approx. 6-50 microns) spectra of palagonitic and hydrothermally altered soils that exhibit a range of mineralogical and chemical compositions for use in analyzing MGS TES data. Palagonite, a phyllosilicate-poor hydrolytically altered tephra, has been suggested as a possible component of the martian soil/dust based on visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral similarities with martian dusty regions. The chemistry and crystallinity of altered tephras are highly variable depending on the parent material and local environmental conditions, and are important indicators of alteration processes.

  17. The effect of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) deficient poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özparpucu, Merve; Gierlinger, Notburga; Burgert, Ingo; Van Acker, Rebecca; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Pilate, Gilles; Déjardin, Annabelle; Rüggeberg, Markus

    2018-04-01

    CAD-deficient poplars enabled studying the influence of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties. Severe alterations in lignin composition did not influence the mechanical properties. Wood represents a hierarchical fiber-composite material with excellent mechanical properties. Despite its wide use and versatility, its mechanical behavior has not been entirely understood. It has especially been challenging to unravel the mechanical function of the cell wall matrix. Lignin engineering has been a useful tool to increase the knowledge on the mechanical function of lignin as it allows for modifications of lignin content and composition and the subsequent studying of the mechanical properties of these transgenics. Hereby, in most cases, both lignin composition and content are altered and the specific influence of lignin composition has hardly been revealed. Here, we have performed a comprehensive micromechanical, structural, and spectroscopic analysis on xylem strips of transgenic poplar plants, which are downregulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach. All parameters were evaluated on the same samples. Raman microscopy revealed that the lignin of the hpCAD poplars was significantly enriched in aldehydes and reduced in the (relative) amount of G-units. FTIR spectra indicated pronounced changes in lignin composition, whereas lignin content was not significantly changed between WT and the hpCAD poplars. Microfibril angles were in the range of 18°-24° and were not significantly different between WT and transgenics. No significant changes were observed in mechanical properties, such as tensile stiffness, ultimate stress, and yield stress. The specific findings on hpCAD poplar allowed studying the specific influence of lignin composition on mechanics. It can be concluded that the changes in lignin composition in hpCAD poplars did not affect the micromechanical tensile properties.

  18. Clinoptilolite compositions in diagenetically-altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The compositions of Yucca Mountain clinoptilolites and their host tuffs are highly variable. Clinoptilolites and heulandites in fractures near the repository and in a thin, altered zone at the top of the Topopah Spring basal vitrophyre have consistent calcium-rich compositions. Below this level, clinoptilolites in thick zones of diagenetic alteration on the east side of Yucca Mountain have calcic-potassic compositions and become more calcium rich with depth. Clinoptilolites in stratigraphically equivalent tuffs to the west have sodic-potassic compositions and become more sodic with depth. Clinoptilolite properties important for repository performance assessment include thermal expansion/contraction behavior, hydration/dehydration behavior, and ion-exchange properties. These properties can be significantly affected by clinoptilolite compositions. The compositional variations for clinoptilolites found by this study suggest that the properties will vary vertically and laterally at Yucca Mountain. Used in conjunction with experimental data, the clinoptilolite compositions presented here can be used to model the behavior of clinoptilolites in the repository environment and along transport pathways

  19. AIEC pathobiont instigates chronic colitis in susceptible hosts by altering microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Koren, Omry; Carvalho, Frederic A; Ley, Ruth E; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2014-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is driven by a seemingly aberrant immune response to the gut microbiota with disease development dictated by genetics and environmental factors. A model exemplifying this notion is our recent demonstration that colonisation of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) during microbiota acquisition drove chronic colitis in mice lacking the flagellin receptor TLR5 (T5KO). T5KO colitis persisted beyond AIEC clearance and requires TLR4 and the NLRC4 inflammasome. We hypothesised that AIEC instigates chronic inflammation by increasing microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin levels. Examine if transient AIEC colonisation lastingly alters levels of LPS and flagellin and changes microbiota composition. Germ-free mice (wild type (WT) and T5KO) were inoculated with AIEC strain LF82 and placed in standard housing allowing a complex microbiota that eliminated AIEC in both mice strains. Faeces were assayed for the inflammatory marker, lipocalin-2, bacterial loads, and microbiota composition by pyrosequencing. Faecal LPS and flagellin bioactivity were measured via a cell-based reporter assay. Transient AIEC colonisation, in WT mice, did not alter inflammatory markers, bacterial loads, microbiota composition, nor its pro-inflammatory potential. By contrast, transient AIEC colonisation of T5KO mice drove chronic inflammation which correlated with microbiota components having higher levels of bioactive LPS and flagellin. Such AIEC-induced elevation of LPS and flagellin persisted well beyond AIEC clearance, required AIEC be flagellated, and was associated with alteration in microbiota species composition including a loss of species diversity. AIEC, and perhaps other pathobionts, may instigate chronic inflammation in susceptible hosts by altering the gut microbiota composition so as to give it an inherently greater ability to activate innate immunity/pro-inflammatory gene expression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  20. Differential effects of conifer and broadleaf litter inputs on soil organic carbon chemical composition through altered soil microbial community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Jing-Xin; Shi, Zuo-Min; Xu, Jia; Hong, Pi-Zheng; Ming, An-Gang; Yu, Hao-Long; Chen, Lin; Lu, Li-Hua; Cai, Dao-Xiong

    2016-06-01

    A strategic selection of tree species will shift the type and quality of litter input, and subsequently magnitude and composition of the soil organic carbon (SOC) through soil microbial community. We conducted a manipulative experiment in randomized block design with leaf litter inputs of four native subtropical tree species in a Pinus massoniana plantation in southern China and found that the chemical composition of SOC did not differ significantly among treatments until after 28 months of the experiment. Contrasting leaf litter inputs had significant impacts on the amounts of total microbial, Gram-positive bacterial, and actinomycic PLFAs, but not on the amounts of total bacterial, Gram-negative bacterial, and fungal PLFAs. There were significant differences in alkyl/O-alkyl C in soils among the leaf litter input treatments, but no apparent differences in the proportions of chemical compositions (alkyl, O-alkyl, aromatic, and carbonyl C) in SOC. Soil alkyl/O-alkyl C was significantly related to the amounts of total microbial, and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, but not to the chemical compositions of leaf litter. Our findings suggest that changes in forest leaf litter inputs could result in changes in chemical stability of SOC through the altered microbial community composition.

  1. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, April D. [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Novak, Petr [Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice 37001 (Czech Republic); Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lu, Zhenqiang [The Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cherrington, Nathan J., E-mail: cherrington@pharmacy.arizona.edu [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  2. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  3. Exploring the human microbiome from multiple perspectives: factors altering its composition and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, David; Méndez-García, Celia; Raczkowska, Beata Anna; Bargiela, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Ferrer, Manuel; Barbas, Coral

    2017-07-01

    Our microbiota presents peculiarities and characteristics that may be altered by multiple factors. The degree and consequences of these alterations depend on the nature, strength and duration of the perturbations as well as the structure and stability of each microbiota. The aim of this review is to sketch a very broad picture of the factors commonly influencing different body sites, and which have been associated with alterations in the human microbiota in terms of composition and function. To do so, first, a graphical representation of bacterial, fungal and archaeal genera reveals possible associations among genera affected by different factors. Then, the revision of sequence-based predictions provides associations with functions that become part of the active metabolism. Finally, examination of microbial metabolite contents and fluxes reveals whether metabolic alterations are a reflection of the differences observed at the level of population structure, and in the last step, link microorganisms to functions under perturbations that differ in nature and aetiology. The utilisation of complementary technologies and methods, with a special focus on metabolomics research, is thoroughly discussed to obtain a global picture of microbiota composition and microbiome function and to convey the urgent need for the standardisation of protocols. © FEMS 2017.

  4. Alterations in lipid composition and fluidity of liver plasma membranes in copper-deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, K.Y.; Rosenstein, F.; Shi, F.; Hassel, C.A.; Carr, T.P.; Zhang, J. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1988-07-01

    In view of the importance of membrane fluidity on cell functions, the influence of phospholipid acyl groups on membrane fluidity, and the changes in lipid metabolism induced by copper (Cu) deficiency, this study was designed to examine the influence of dietary Cu on the lipid composition and fluidity of liver plasma membranes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two dietary treatments, namely Cu deficient and Cu adequate. After 8 weeks of treatment, liver plasma membranes were isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The lipid fluidity of plasma membranes, as assessed by the intramolecular eximer fluorescence of 1,3-di(1-pyrenyl) propane, was significantly depressed by Cu deficiency. In addition, Cu deficiency significantly reduced the content of arachidonic and palmitoleic acids but increased the docosatetraenoic acids of membrane phospholipids. This alteration in unsaturated phospholipid fatty acid composition, especially the large reduction in arachidonic acid, may have contributed to the depressed membrane fluidity. Furthermore, Cu deficiency also markedly altered the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols associated with the plasma membranes. Thus, the lipid composition and fluidity of liver plasma membranes are responsive to the animal's Cu status.

  5. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  6. Impacts of fat fromruminants’ meat on cardiovascular health and possible strategies to alter its lipid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Larraín, Rafael E.

    2017-01-01

    intake of fat, saturated FAs and cholesterol as a means of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Interestingly, ruminant meat has some bioactive lipids such as C18:1t11 and C18:2 c9, t11 which have been reported to have positive effects on human health. In order to improve muscle fat composition......In the last few decades there has been increased consumer interest in the fatty acid (FA) composition of ruminant meat due to its content of saturated FAs, which have been implicated in diseases associated with modern life. However, recent studies have questioned the recommendations to reduce...... from a human health standpoint, oilseeds, plant oils andmarine oils can be used in ruminant diets. On the other hand,molecular mechanisms play an important role in the alteration of the FA composition of muscle fat. Genetics offer a wide range of possibilities for improvement of muscle fat...

  7. Kinetics of radiation-induced structural alterations in electron-irradiated polymer-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu.A.; Potanin, A.S.; Koztaeva, U.P.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In our previous studies measurements of internal friction temperature dependence were used for characterization of thermally activated and radiation-induced structural evolution in different types of polymer-based composites. This paper supplements these measurements with kinetic studies of internal friction (IF) parameters and EPR signals in a glass-cloth epoxy-filled laminate ST-ETF after electron irradiation up to doses of 1-10 MGy. Experiment have shown that the lifetime of free radicals in this composite considerably exceeds the characteristic time of molecular structural rearrangement due to scission and cross-linking after irradiation, as determined from IF measurements. This result is explained by slow proceeding of sterically hindered disproportionation reactions that stabilize the end groups of the macro-chain disrupt during irradiation and finally fix the act of scission. A mathematical model is formulated for description of structural evolution and alterations of IF parameters in polymer-based composites during and after electron irradiation. The description is based on the track model of radiation damage in polymers and phenomenological theory of radiation-induced structural transformations. General description does not give details of radiation-chemical conversion in different structural components of composites but indicates the direction of their structural evolution. In the model considered a composite material was divided into three parts (binder, filler, and a boundary layer). It was supposed that after primary distribution of radiation energy radiation-chemical conversion proceeds independently in each of these regions. It was also suggested that all the radical reactions were of the second order. On the example of glass-cloth laminate ST-ETF it is shown that this model allows to describe alterations in composite structural characteristics during irradiation and in the course of their self-organization after

  8. Dietary emulsifiers directly alter human microbiota composition and gene expression ex vivo potentiating intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Bodt, Jana; Marzorati, Massimo; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2017-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays a central role in the development of many chronic inflammatory diseases including IBD and metabolic syndrome. Administration of substances that alter microbiota composition, including the synthetic dietary emulsifiers polysorbate 80 (P80) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), can promote such inflammatory disorders. However, that inflammation itself impacts microbiota composition has obfuscated defining the extent to which these compounds or other substances act directly upon the microbiota versus acting on host parameters that promote inflammation, which subsequently reshapes the microbiota. We examined the direct impact of CMC and P80 on the microbiota using the mucosal simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (M-SHIME) model that maintains a complex stable human microbiota in the absence of a live host. This approach revealed that both P80 and CMC acted directly upon human microbiota to increase its proinflammatory potential, as revealed by increased levels of bioactive flagellin. The CMC-induced increase in flagellin was rapid (1 day) and driven by altered microbiota gene expression. In contrast, the P80-induced flagellin increase occurred more slowly and was closely associated with altered species composition. Transfer of both emulsifier-treated M-SHIME microbiotas to germ-free recipient mice recapitulated many of the host and microbial alterations observed in mice directly treated with emulsifiers. These results demonstrate a novel paradigm of deconstructing host-microbiota interactions and indicate that the microbiota can be directly impacted by these commonly used food additives, in a manner that subsequently drives intestinal inflammation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Suberin fatty acids isolated from outer birch bark improve moisture barrier properties of cellulose ether films intended for tablet coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinämäki, Jyrki; Halenius, Anna; Paavo, Maaja; Alakurtti, Sami; Pitkänen, Pauliina; Pirttimaa, Minni; Paaver, Urve; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Kogermann, Karin; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2015-07-15

    We showed that the addition of suberin fatty acids (SFAs) even at small concentrations significantly improves the water vapor barrier properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. SFAs were isolated from the outer birch bark using extractive hydrolysis. The effects of SFAs on the film formation of aqueous HPMC were investigated with free films plasticized with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400). Special attention was paid on the physical solid-state, moisture barrier and mechanical stress-strain properties of films intended for tablet film coatings. Topography and surface morphology, glass transition temperature (Tg), tensile strength, Young's modulus, and water vapor permeation (WVP) of films were studied. The addition of SFAs lowered the Tg of films suggesting partial enhancement in film plasticization. The WVP of films decreased with increasing SFAs concentration up to 15% (calculated as a % w/w from a polymer weight). The WVP value for a non-suberized reference film and suberized film plasticized with PEG 400 was 2.13×10(-6) and 0.69[×10(-6) g/(mm(2)×h)×mm/Pa], respectively. The addition of SFAs impaired the mechanical stress-strain properties of HPMC films by reducing the deformation capacity of film. In conclusion, the film properties and performance of aqueous HPMC can be modified by including SFAs in the films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Brine Composition on Wettability Alteration and Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswani, P.; Karpyn, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Brine composition is known to affect the effectiveness of waterflooding during enhanced oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs. Recent studies have identified Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- as critical ions, responsible for incremental oil recovery via wettability alteration. To investigate the underlying mechanism of wettability alteration and, to evaluate the individual contribution of these ions towards improving oil recovery, a series of coreflooding experiments are performed. Various characterization techniques like zeta potential (ZP), drop angle analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) analysis are performed to evaluate the surface interactions taking place at the carbonate core samples, brine solution and crude oil interfaces. Total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity measurements confirm the ionic strength of the brine samples. Acid number calculations, ZP and contact angle measurements confirm the initial oil-wetting state of the core. ICP MS analysis of the effluent brine, confirm the relationship between the ionic interactions and oil recovery.

  11. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in sorghum bicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target to alter the abundance and composition of lignin. The major regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism are myb transcription factors, which have been shown to modulate secondary cell wall compositi...

  12. Night-time lighting alters the composition of marine epifaunal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas W; Coleman, Matthew; Griffith, Katherine M; Jenkins, Stuart R

    2015-04-01

    Marine benthic communities face multiple anthropogenic pressures that compromise the future of some of the most biodiverse and functionally important ecosystems in the world. Yet one of the pressures these ecosystems face, night-time lighting, remains unstudied. Light is an important cue in guiding the settlement of invertebrate larvae, and altering natural regimes of nocturnal illumination could modify patterns of recruitment among sessile epifauna. We present the first evidence of night-time lighting changing the composition of temperate epifaunal marine invertebrate communities. Illuminating settlement surfaces with white light-emitting diode lighting at night, to levels experienced by these communities locally, both inhibited and encouraged the colonization of 39% of the taxa analysed, including three sessile and two mobile species. Our results indicate that ecological light pollution from coastal development, shipping and offshore infrastructure could be changing the composition of marine epifaunal communities. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Night-time lighting alters the composition of marine epifaunal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas W.; Coleman, Matthew; Griffith, Katherine M.; Jenkins, Stuart R.

    2015-01-01

    Marine benthic communities face multiple anthropogenic pressures that compromise the future of some of the most biodiverse and functionally important ecosystems in the world. Yet one of the pressures these ecosystems face, night-time lighting, remains unstudied. Light is an important cue in guiding the settlement of invertebrate larvae, and altering natural regimes of nocturnal illumination could modify patterns of recruitment among sessile epifauna. We present the first evidence of night-time lighting changing the composition of temperate epifaunal marine invertebrate communities. Illuminating settlement surfaces with white light-emitting diode lighting at night, to levels experienced by these communities locally, both inhibited and encouraged the colonization of 39% of the taxa analysed, including three sessile and two mobile species. Our results indicate that ecological light pollution from coastal development, shipping and offshore infrastructure could be changing the composition of marine epifaunal communities. PMID:25926694

  14. Antisense acid invertase (TIV1) gene alters soluble sugar composition and size in transgenic tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, E M; Hall, B; Bennett, A B

    1996-11-01

    Invertase (beta-fructosidase, EC 3.2.1.26) hydrolyzes sucrose to hexose sugars and thus plays a fundamental role in the energy requirements for plant growth and maintenance. Transgenic plants with altered extracellular acid invertase have highly disturbed growth habits. We investigated the role of intracellular soluble acid invertase in plant and fruit development. Transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants expressing a constitutive antisense invertase transgene grew identically to wild-type plants. Several lines of transgenic fruit expressing a constitutive antisense invertase gene had increased sucrose and decreased hexose sugar concentrations. Each transgenic line with fruit that had increased sucrose concentrations also had greatly reduced levels of acid invertase in ripe fruit. Sucrose-accumulating fruit were approximately 30% smaller than control fruit, and this differential growth correlated with high rates of sugar accumulation during the last stage of development. These data suggest that soluble acid invertase controls sugar composition in tomato fruit and that this change in composition contributes to alterations in fruit size. In addition, sucrose-accumulating fruit have elevated rates of ethylene evolution relative to control fruit, perhaps as a result of the smaller fruit size of the sucrose-accumulating transgenic lines.

  15. Interactions between assembly order and temperature can alter both short- and long-term community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Christopher F; Warren, Philip H; Collen, Ben; Blackburn, Tim; Worsfold, Nicholas; Petchey, Owen

    2013-12-01

    Both the order in which species arrive in a community, and environmental conditions, such as temperature, are known to affect community structure. Little is known, however, about the potential for, and occurrence of, interactions between assembly history and the environment. Of particular, interest may be the interaction between temperature and community assembly dynamics, especially in the light of predicted global climatic change and the fundamental processes that are governed, through metabolic rate, by an individual's environmental temperature. We present, to our knowledge, the first experimental exploration of how the influence of assembly history, temperature, and the interaction between the two alters the structure of communities of competitors, using small-scale protist microcosm communities where temperature and assembly order were manipulated factorially. In our experiment, the most important driver of long-term abundance was temperature but long-lasting assembly order effects influenced the relationship between temperature and abundance. Any advantage of early colonization proved to be short-lived, and there was rarely any long-term advantage to colonizing a habitat before other species. The results presented here suggest that environmental conditions shape community composition, but that occasionally temperature could interact with the stochastic nature of community assembly to significantly alter future community composition, especially where temperature change has been large. This could have important implications for the dynamics of both rare and invasive species.

  16. Lipid composition of microdomains is altered in neuronopathic Gaucher disease sheep brain and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Leanne K; Rozaklis, Tina; Adams, Melissa K; Hopwood, John J; Karageorgos, Litsa

    2017-07-01

    Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase activity that leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine. Membrane raft microdomains are discrete, highly organized microdomains with a unique lipid composition that provide the necessary environment for specific protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions to take place. In this study we purified detergent resistant membranes (DRM; membrane rafts) from the occipital cortex and spleen from sheep affected with acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease and wild-type controls. We observed significant increases in the concentrations of glucosylceramide, hexosylsphingosine, BMP and gangliosides and decreases in the percentage of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine leading to an altered DRM composition. Altered sphingolipid/cholesterol homeostasis would dramatically disrupt DRM architecture making them less ordered and more fluid. In addition, significant changes in the length and degree of lipid saturation within the DRM microdomains in the Gaucher brain were also observed. As these DRM microdomains are involved in many cellular events, an imbalance or disruption of the cell membrane homeostasis may impair normal cell function. This disruption of membrane raft microdomains and imbalance within the environment of cellular membranes of neuronal cells may be a key factor in initiating a cascade process leading to neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV lipodystrophy diagnosis and management. Body composition and metabolic alterations: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelson, Ellen S

    2003-04-01

    Body composition alterations are common in HIV infection and include AIDS wasting and lipodystrophy. Both are associated with metabolic alterations, including hypertriglyceridemia and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; insulin resistance and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are also associated with lipodystrophy. However, there is no accepted case definition for HIV-associated lipodystrophy, and patients may have one or all aspects at any given time. The inability of cross-sectional studies to capture the dynamic process of these alterations has hindered the search for a case definition. In the meantime, there are several approaches to treatment of the resulting abnormalities. Switching antiretrovirals has been most successful for improving metabolism, with little or not effect on fat distribution. Growth hormone treatment has successfully reduced visceral fat and buffalo humps but is not FDA-approved for this indication. Metformin and rosiglitazone have produced some improvement in fat distribution as well as glucose metabolism. Other methods that have been tried with varying degrees of success (and little published data) include treatment with testosterone and its derivatives, weight reduction through diet and exercise, and plastic surgery.

  18. Thermal discharge-created increasing temperatures alter the bacterioplankton composition and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Xiong, Shangling; Qian, Peng; Zhang, Demin; Liu, Lian; Fei, Yuejun

    2016-12-01

    Elevated seawater temperature has altered the coupling between coastal primary production and heterotrophic bacterioplankton respiration. This shift, in turn, could influence the feedback of ocean ecosystem to climate warming. However, little is known about how natural bacterioplankton community responds to increasing seawater temperature. To investigate warming effects on the bacterioplankton community, we collected water samples from temperature gradients (ranged from 15.0 to 18.6 °C) created by a thermal flume of a coal power plant. The results showed that increasing temperatures significantly stimulated bacterial abundance, grazing rate, and altered bacterioplankton community compositions (BCCs). The spatial distribution of bacterioplankton community followed a distance similarity decay relationship, with a turnover of 0.005. A variance partitioning analysis showed that temperature directly constrained 2.01 % variation in BCCs, while temperature-induced changes in water geochemical and grazing rate indirectly accounted for 4.03 and 12.8 % of the community variance, respectively. Furthermore, the relative abundances of 24 bacterial families were linearly increased or decreased (P < 0.05 in all cases) with increasing temperatures. Notably, the change pattern for a given bacterial family was in concert with its known functions. In addition, community functional redundancy consistently decreased along the temperature gradient. This study demonstrates that elevated temperature, combined with substrate supply and trophic interactions, dramatically alters BCCs, concomitant with decreases in functional redundancy. The responses of sensitive assemblages are temperature dependent, which could indicate temperature departures.

  19. Recent developments in altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingfield, K J; Bonnet, M; Scollan, N D

    2013-03-01

    There is increasing evidence to indicate that nutrition is an important factor involved in the onset and development of several chronic human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type II diabetes and obesity. Clinical studies implicate excessive consumption of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) as risk factors for CVD, and in the aetiology of other chronic conditions. Ruminant-derived foods are significant sources of medium-chain SFA and TFA in the human diet, but also provide high-quality protein, essential micronutrients and several bioactive lipids. Altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods offers the opportunity to align the consumption of fatty acids in human populations with public health policies without the need for substantial changes in eating habits. Replacing conserved forages with fresh grass or dietary plant oil and oilseed supplements can be used to lower medium-chain and total SFA content and increase cis-9 18:1, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to a variable extent in ruminant milk. However, inclusion of fish oil or marine algae in the ruminant diet results in marginal enrichment of 20- or 22-carbon PUFA in milk. Studies in growing ruminants have confirmed that the same nutritional strategies improve the balance of n-6/n-3 PUFA, and increase CLA and long-chain n-3 PUFA in ruminant meat, but the potential to lower medium-chain and total SFA is limited. Attempts to alter meat and milk fatty acid composition through changes in the diet fed to ruminants are often accompanied by several-fold increases in TFA concentrations. In extreme cases, the distribution of trans 18:1 and 18:2 isomers in ruminant foods may resemble that of partially hydrogenated plant oils. Changes in milk fat or muscle lipid composition in response to diet are now known to be accompanied by tissue-specific alterations in the expression of one or more

  20. Oilseed cultivars developed from induced mutations and mutations altering fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.; Nichterlein, K.; Maluszynski, M.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-three cultivars of annual oilseed crops, developed using induced mutations, have been officially approved and released for cultivation in 26 countries. The maximum number of cultivars have been released in soybean (58), followed by groundnut (44), sesame (16), linseed (15), rapeseed (14), Indian mustard (8), castorbean (4), white mustard (3) and sunflower (1). The majority (118 of 163) of the cultivars have been developed as direct mutants and 45 of 163 by using the induced mutants in a crossing programme. While in soybean 53 out of 58 cultivars were selected as direct mutants, in groundnut 22 from 44 were developed after hybridization. Eighty-three cultivars were developed directly by exposing seeds to gamma or X-rays. Attempts have been made to infer the successful dose range, defined as the range which led to the development, registration and release of the maximum number of mutant cultivars for gamma and X-rays. The successful dose ranges in Gy for the main oilseed crops are: soybean 100-200, groundnut 150-250, rapeseed 600-800, Indian mustard 700 and sesame 100-200. The main characteristics of the new cultivars, besides higher yield, are altered plant type, early flowering and maturity and oil content. Mutants altering fatty acid composition have been isolated in soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, linseed and minor oil crops. New cultivars having altered fatty acid composition have been released in rapeseed, sunflower and linseed. The latter, previously grown for non-edible oil, has been converted to a new edible oil crop. (author)

  1. Anthropogenic N deposition increases soil organic matter accumulation without altering its biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Donald R; Freedman, Zachary B; Upchurch, Rima A; Steffens, Markus; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-02-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that future rates of atmospheric N deposition have the potential to increase soil C storage by reducing the decay of plant litter and soil organic matter (SOM). Although the microbial mechanism underlying this response is not well understood, a decline in decay could alter the amount, as well as biochemical composition of SOM. Here, we used size-density fractionation and solid-state 13 C-NMR spectroscopy to explore the extent to which declines in microbial decay in a long-term (ca. 20 yrs.) N deposition experiment have altered the biochemical composition of forest floor, bulk mineral soil, as well as free and occluded particulate organic matter. Significant amounts of organic matter have accumulated in occluded particulate organic matter (~20%; oPOM); however, experimental N deposition had not altered the abundance of carboxyl, aryl, alkyl, or O/N-alkyl C in forest floor, bulk mineral soil, or any soil fraction. These observations suggest that biochemically equivalent organic matter has accumulated in oPOM at a greater rate under experimental N deposition, relative to the ambient treatment. Although we do not understand the process by which experimental N deposition has fostered the occlusion of organic matter by mineral soil particles, our results highlight the importance of interactions among the products of microbial decay and the chemical and physical properties of silt and clay particles that occlude organic matter from microbial attack. Because oPOM can reside in soils for decades to centuries, organic matter accumulating under future rates of anthropogenic N deposition could remain in soil for long periods of time. If temperate forest soils in the Northern Hemisphere respond like those in our experiment, then unabated deposition of anthropogenic N from the atmosphere has the potential to foster greater soil C storage, especially in fine-texture forest soils. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Adult onset global loss of the fto gene alters body composition and metabolism in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona McMurray

    Full Text Available The strongest BMI-associated GWAS locus in humans is the FTO gene. Rodent studies demonstrate a role for FTO in energy homeostasis and body composition. The phenotypes observed in loss of expression studies are complex with perinatal lethality, stunted growth from weaning, and significant alterations in body composition. Thus understanding how and where Fto regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition is a challenge. To address this we generated a series of mice with distinct temporal and spatial loss of Fto expression. Global germline loss of Fto resulted in high perinatal lethality and a reduction in body length, fat mass, and lean mass. When ratio corrected for lean mass, mice had a significant increase in energy expenditure, but more appropriate multiple linear regression normalisation showed no difference in energy expenditure. Global deletion of Fto after the in utero and perinatal period, at 6 weeks of age, removed the high lethality of germline loss. However, there was a reduction in weight by 9 weeks, primarily as loss of lean mass. Over the subsequent 10 weeks, weight converged, driven by an increase in fat mass. There was a switch to a lower RER with no overall change in food intake or energy expenditure. To test if the phenotype can be explained by loss of Fto in the mediobasal hypothalamus, we sterotactically injected adeno-associated viral vectors encoding Cre recombinase to cause regional deletion. We observed a small reduction in food intake and weight gain with no effect on energy expenditure or body composition. Thus, although hypothalamic Fto can impact feeding, the effect of loss of Fto on body composition is brought about by its actions at sites elsewhere. Our data suggest that Fto may have a critical role in the control of lean mass, independent of its effect on food intake.

  3. Exercise Alters Gut Microbiota Composition and Function in Lean and Obese Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacob M; Mailing, Lucy J; Niemiro, Grace M; Moore, Rachel; Cook, Marc D; White, Bryan A; Holscher, Hannah D; Woods, Jeffrey A

    2018-04-01

    Exercise is associated with altered gut microbial composition, but studies have not investigated whether the gut microbiota and associated metabolites are modulated by exercise training in humans. We explored the impact of 6 wk of endurance exercise on the composition, functional capacity, and metabolic output of the gut microbiota in lean and obese adults with multiple-day dietary controls before outcome variable collection. Thirty-two lean (n = 18 [9 female]) and obese (n = 14 [11 female]), previously sedentary subjects participated in 6 wk of supervised, endurance-based exercise training (3 d·wk) that progressed from 30 to 60 min·d and from moderate (60% of HR reserve) to vigorous intensity (75% HR reserve). Subsequently, participants returned to a sedentary lifestyle activity for a 6-wk washout period. Fecal samples were collected before and after 6 wk of exercise, as well as after the sedentary washout period, with 3-d dietary controls in place before each collection. β-diversity analysis revealed that exercise-induced alterations of the gut microbiota were dependent on obesity status. Exercise increased fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in lean, but not obese, participants. Exercise-induced shifts in metabolic output of the microbiota paralleled changes in bacterial genes and taxa capable of short-chain fatty acid production. Lastly, exercise-induced changes in the microbiota were largely reversed once exercise training ceased. These findings suggest that exercise training induces compositional and functional changes in the human gut microbiota that are dependent on obesity status, independent of diet and contingent on the sustainment of exercise.

  4. Omega-3 supplementation alters mitochondrial membrane composition and respiration kinetics in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, E A F; Paglialunga, S; Gerling, C; Whitfield, J; Mukai, K; Chabowski, A; Heigenhauser, G J F; Spriet, L L; Holloway, G P

    2014-03-15

    Studies have shown increased incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into whole skeletal muscle following supplementation, although little has been done to investigate the potential impact on the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes and the functional consequences on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Therefore, we supplemented young healthy male subjects (n = 18) with fish oils [2 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g docosahexanoic acid (DHA) per day] for 12 weeks and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken prior to (Pre) and following (Post) supplementation for the analysis of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid composition and various assessments of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Total EPA and DHA content in mitochondrial membranes increased (P respiration, determined in permeabilized muscle fibres, demonstrated no change in maximal substrate-supported respiration, or in the sensitivity (apparent Km) and maximal capacity for pyruvate-supported respiration. In contrast, mitochondrial responses during ADP titrations demonstrated an enhanced ADP sensitivity (decreased apparent Km) that was independent of the creatine kinase shuttle. As the content of ANT1, ANT2, and subunits of the electron transport chain were unaltered by supplementation, these data suggest that prolonged omega-3 intake improves ADP kinetics in human skeletal muscle mitochondria through alterations in membrane structure and/or post-translational modification of ATP synthase and ANT isoforms. Omega-3 supplementation also increased the capacity for mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emission without altering the content of oxidative products, suggesting the absence of oxidative damage. The current data strongly emphasize a role for omega-3s in reorganizing the composition of mitochondrial membranes while promoting improvements in ADP sensitivity.

  5. Prenatal stress-induced alterations in major physiological systems correlate with gut microbiota composition in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, Anna V; Crampton, Sean; Desbonnet, Lieve; Edge, Deirdre; O'Sullivan, Orla; Lomasney, Kevin W; Zhdanov, Alexander V; Crispie, Fiona; Moloney, Rachel D; Borre, Yuliya E; Cotter, Paul D; Hyland, Niall P; O'Halloran, Ken D; Dinan, Timothy G; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Cryan, John F

    2015-10-01

    Early-life adverse experiences, including prenatal stress (PNS), are associated with a higher prevalence of neurodevelopmental, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in affected offspring. Here, in a rat model of chronic PNS, we investigate the impact of late gestational stress on physiological outcomes in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were subjected to repeated restraint stress from embryonic day 14 to day 20, and their male offspring were assessed at 4 months of age. PNS induced an exaggeration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress, as well as an elevation of blood pressure and impairment of cognitive function. Altered respiratory control was also observed, as demonstrated by increased variability in basal respiratory frequency and abnormal frequency responses to both hypoxic and hypercapnic challenges. PNS also affected gastrointestinal neurodevelopment and function, as measured by a decrease in the innervation density of distal colon and an increase in the colonic secretory response to catecholaminergic stimulation. Finally, PNS induced long lasting alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition. 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing revealed a strong trend towards decreased numbers of bacteria in the Lactobacillus genus, accompanied by elevated abundance of the Oscillibacter, Anaerotruncus and Peptococcus genera in PNS animals. Strikingly, relative abundance of distinct bacteria genera significantly correlated with certain respiratory parameters and the responsiveness of the HPA axis to stress. Together, these findings provide novel evidence that PNS induces long-term maladaptive alterations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems, accompanied by hyper-responsiveness to stress and alterations in the gut microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Soil bacterial community composition altered by increased nutrient availability in Arctic tundra soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Akihiro; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Simpson, Rodney T; Moore, John C

    2014-01-01

    The pool of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the Arctic is disproportionally large compared to those in other biomes. This large quantity of SOC accumulated over millennia due to slow rates of decomposition relative to net primary productivity. Decomposition is constrained by low temperatures and nutrient concentrations, which limit soil microbial activity. We investigated how nutrients limit bacterial and fungal biomass and community composition in organic and mineral soils within moist acidic tussock tundra ecosystems. We sampled two experimental arrays of moist acidic tussock tundra that included fertilized and non-fertilized control plots. One array included plots that had been fertilized annually since 1989 and the other since 2006. Fertilization significantly altered overall bacterial community composition and reduced evenness, to a greater degree in organic than mineral soils, and in the 1989 compared to the 2006 site. The relative abundance of copiotrophic α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria was higher in fertilized than control soils, and oligotrophic Acidobacteria were less abundant in fertilized than control soils at the 1989 site. Fungal community composition was less sensitive to increased nutrient availability, and fungal responses to fertilization were not consistent between soil horizons and sites. We detected two ectomycorrhizal genera, Russula and Cortinarius spp., associated with shrubs. Their relative abundance was not affected by fertilization despite increased dominance of their host plants in the fertilized plots. Our results indicate that fertilization, which has been commonly used to simulate warming in Arctic tundra, has limited applicability for investigating fungal dynamics under warming.

  7. Dysbiosis and compositional alterations with aging in the gut microbiota of patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Takehiro; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Suda, Wataru; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Shimizu, Yu; Yagi, Hiroki; Liu, Qing; Nomura, Seitaro; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Takeda, Norifumi; Harada, Mutsuo; Toko, Haruhiro; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Takimoto, Eiki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Honda, Kenya; Morita, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Masahira; Komuro, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested a potential impact of gut microbiota on the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). However, it is still unknown whether HF is associated with dysbiosis in gut microbiota. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in patients with HF to elucidate whether gut microbial dysbiosis is associated with HF. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of fecal samples obtained from 12 HF patients and 12 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects, and analyzed the differences in gut microbiota. We further compared the composition of gut microbiota of 12 HF patients younger than 60 years of age with that of 10 HF patients 60 years of age or older. The composition of gut microbial communities of HF patients was distinct from that of HC subjects in both unweighted and weighted UniFrac analyses. Eubacterium rectale and Dorea longicatena were less abundant in the gut microbiota of HF patients than in that of HC subjects. Compared to younger HF patients, older HF patients had diminished proportions of Bacteroidetes and larger quantities of Proteobacteria. The genus Faecalibacterium was depleted, while Lactobacillus was enriched in the gut microbiota of older HF patients. These results suggest that patients with HF harbor significantly altered gut microbiota, which varies further according to age. New concept of heart-gut axis has a great potential for breakthroughs in the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approach for HF.

  8. Altered Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune Response in Experimental Steatohepatitis Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Mitsuaki; Miura, Kouichi; Minami, Shinichiro; Shimura, Yoichiro; Ohnishi, Hirohide

    2017-02-01

    Although several types of diet have been used in experimental steatohepatitis models, comparison of gut microbiota and immunological alterations in the gut among diets has not yet been performed. We attempted to clarify the difference in the gut environment between mice administrated several experimental diets. Male wild-type mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet, a choline-deficient amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet, and a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks. We compared the severity of steatohepatitis, the composition of gut microbiota, and the intestinal expression of interleukin (IL)-17, an immune modulator. Steatohepatitis was most severe in the mice fed the CDAA diet, followed by the MCD diet, and the HF diet. Analysis of gut microbiota showed that the composition of the Firmicutes phylum differed markedly at order level between the mice fed the CDAA and HF diet. The CDAA diet increased the abundance of Clostridiales, while the HF diet increased that of lactate-producing bacteria. In addition, the CDAA diet decreased the abundance of lactate-producing bacteria and antiinflammatory bacterium Parabacteroides goldsteinii in the phylum Bacteroidetes. In CDAA-fed mice, IL-17 levels were increased in ileum as well as portal vein. In addition, the CDAA diet also elevated hepatic expression of chemokines, downstream targets of IL-17. The composition of gut microbiota and IL-17 expression varied considerably between mice administrated different experimental diets to induce steatohepatitis.

  9. Exogenous Nitrogen Addition Reduced the Temperature Sensitivity of Microbial Respiration without Altering the Microbial Community Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition is changing in both load quantity and chemical composition. The load effects have been studied extensively, whereas the composition effects remain poorly understood. We conducted a microcosm experiment to study how N chemistry affected the soil microbial community composition characterized by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs and activity indicated by microbial CO2 release. Surface and subsurface soils collected from an old-growth subtropical forest were supplemented with three N-containing materials (ammonium, nitrate, and urea at the current regional deposition load (50 kg ha-1 yr-1 and incubated at three temperatures (10, 20, and 30°C to detect the interactive effects of N deposition and temperature. The results showed that the additions of N, regardless of form, did not alter the microbial PLFAs at any of the three temperatures. However, the addition of urea significantly stimulated soil CO2 release in the early incubation stage. Compared with the control, N addition consistently reduced the temperature dependency of microbial respiration, implying that N deposition could potentially weaken the positive feedback of the warming-stimulated soil CO2 release to the atmosphere. The consistent N effects for the surface and subsurface soils suggest that the effects of N on soil microbial communities may be independent of soil chemical contents and stoichiometry.

  10. Soil bacterial community composition altered by increased nutrient availability in Arctic tundra soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Akihiro; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simpson, Rodney T.; Moore, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The pool of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the Arctic is disproportionally large compared to those in other biomes. This large quantity of SOC accumulated over millennia due to slow rates of decomposition relative to net primary productivity. Decomposition is constrained by low temperatures and nutrient concentrations, which limit soil microbial activity. We investigated how nutrients limit bacterial and fungal biomass and community composition in organic and mineral soils within moist acidic tussock tundra ecosystems. We sampled two experimental arrays of moist acidic tussock tundra that included fertilized and non-fertilized control plots. One array included plots that had been fertilized annually since 1989 and the other since 2006. Fertilization significantly altered overall bacterial community composition and reduced evenness, to a greater degree in organic than mineral soils, and in the 1989 compared to the 2006 site. The relative abundance of copiotrophic α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria was higher in fertilized than control soils, and oligotrophic Acidobacteria were less abundant in fertilized than control soils at the 1989 site. Fungal community composition was less sensitive to increased nutrient availability, and fungal responses to fertilization were not consistent between soil horizons and sites. We detected two ectomycorrhizal genera, Russula and Cortinarius spp., associated with shrubs. Their relative abundance was not affected by fertilization despite increased dominance of their host plants in the fertilized plots. Our results indicate that fertilization, which has been commonly used to simulate warming in Arctic tundra, has limited applicability for investigating fungal dynamics under warming. PMID:25324836

  11. Altered Plant Litter and Microbial Composition Lead to Topsoil Organic Carbon Loss Over a Shrub-encroachment Gradient in an Inner Mongolia Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Li, H.; Shen, H.; Xu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Xing, A.; Fang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 150 years, shrub encroachment has occurred in arid and semi-arid ecosystems resulting from climate change and increased human disturbance. Previous studies have revealed that shrub encroachment has substantial effects on habitat heterogeneity, aboveground biomass and bulk carbon content of grasslands, thereby affecting the regional carbon balance. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is mainly derived from aboveground litter, root litter and root exudates and is metabolized by microorganisms. The quality and quantity of plant litter together with soil microbial biomass are important drivers of SOC accumulation. However, the mechanisms regulating soil carbon accumulation by the shrub encroachment remain unclear and molecular evidence is particularly lacking. We use the data of the chemical composition of plant tissues and SOC, and the soil microbial communities to identify the effects of shrub encroachment on SOC accumulation in the top layer along a gradient of natural shrub cover in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia. Our finding indicates that nitrogen-rich legume-shrub encroachment led to soil carbon accumulation in the shrub patch, with more extensive carbon loss observed in the grassy matrix, which resulted in an overall carbon loss. In the pure grassland, a higher abundance of cutin and suberin and a lower concentration of free lipids were detected, suggesting the preservation of recalcitrant polymers derived from herb inputs. In the shrub-encroached grasslands, the labile shrub leaves did not decompose alone but were mixed with herb litter to promote the degradation of SOC via the priming of microbial activities. The SOC remained unchanged in the shrub patches with the increasing shrub cover, which might have been caused by the replacement of prior carbon decompositions with the fresh input of shrub leaves. Similarly, the SOC decreased significantly with increasing shrub cover in the grassy matrix, which likely resulted from insufficient fresh plant inputs

  12. Gut microbiota composition associated with alterations in cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial outcomes among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jesseca A; Ptacek, Travis S; Carter, Stephen J; Liu, Nianjun; Kumar, Ranjit; Hyndman, LaKeshia; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Morrow, Casey D; Rogers, Laura Q

    2017-05-01

    In this proof-of-concept pilot study, our purpose was to determine correlations between gut microbiota composition and alterations in cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial outcomes among post-primary treatment breast cancer survivors (BCS). Composition of the gut microbiota in BCS (n = 12) was assessed at baseline (M0) and at the end of 3 months (M3) using Illumina MiSeq DNA Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed using the QIIME bioinformatics software and represented through diversity metrics and taxa analyses. Cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and sleep dysfunction were assessed at M0 and M3 via the submaximal treadmill test, Fatigue Symptom Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Increased fatigue interference in BCS was associated with increased mean within-sample Shannon diversity (organism richness and evenness) (p = 0.009). Weighted UniFrac analysis (shifts in taxa relative abundance) revealed significant differences in between-sample (beta) diversity for changes in fatigue interference (p = 0.01) and anxiety (p = 0.022), with a trend observed for fatigue intensity and sleep dysfunction (p gut bacteria genera (e.g., Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, Bacteroides) (p gut microbiota composition and longitudinal changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue, and anxiety in BCS. Further research examining the role of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in exercise-induced effects on psychosocial outcomes in BCS is warranted.

  13. Altered Bone Mechanics, Architecture and Composition in the Skeleton of TIMP-3-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brendyn; Spevak, Lyudmila; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Javaheri, Behzad; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Boskey, Adele; Bou-Gharios, George; Carriero, Alessandra

    2017-06-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) maintains a healthy extracellular matrix by regulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), disintegrin-metalloproteinases (ADAM), and disintegrin-metalloproteinases with ThromboSpondin-like motifs (ADAMTS) activity. Currently, there is a need for a comprehensive understanding of the effects of TIMP-3 on the bone quality and integrity. In this study, we examined the mechanical, morphological, and compositional properties of TIMP-3 knock out (Timp-3 -/- ) mouse bone. We hypothesize that the lack of TIMP-3 plays an important role in maintaining the overall bone integrity. Mechanical properties of humeri, lumbar vertebrae, and femurs from Timp-3 -/- mice were determined using 3-point bending, compression, and notched 3-point bending, respectively. Morphological properties of the humeral cortical and trabecular bone and the caudal vertebrae cortical bone were evaluated using micro-computed tomography, while the composition of the femoral cortical and trabecular bone was examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging. Our results revealed that the integrity of the Timp-3 -/- bone is compromised due to changes in its composition, structure, and mechanics. Reductions in the yield and ultimate load and stress capacity, and loss in bone fracture toughness were attributed to reduced density and thickness, and increased porosity of cortical bone. Thin trabeculae were dense, highly connected, and closely packed in Timp-3 -/- bone. Furthermore, altered cortical and trabecular bone mineralization and increased compositional heterogeneity were found in Timp-3 -/- bone, all being indicative of high bone remodeling. In conclusion, this study suggests that the lack of TIMP-3 is detrimental to bone development and maintenance.

  14. Functional properties of butter oil made from bovine milk with experimentally altered fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Jimenez-Flores, R; Bremmer, D R; Clark, J H; DePeters, E J; Schmidt, S J; Drackley, J K

    2007-11-01

    Modification of milk fat composition might be desirable to alter manufacturing characteristics or produce low saturated fat dairy products that more closely meet consumer dietary preferences. The aim of this research was to evaluate functional properties of butter oil obtained from milks with fat composition modified by altering the profile of long-chain fatty acids (FA) absorbed from the small intestine of cows. A control and 5 mixtures of long-chain free FA were infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows in a 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 1) control (no FA infused), 2) mostly saturated FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 3) low-linoleic palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.85), 4) palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 5) soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.10), and 6) high-palmitic soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.68). All treatments included meat solubles and Tween 80 as emulsifiers. Solid fat content (from 0 to 40 degrees C), melting point, and force at fracture were determined in butter oil. Milk fat from cows infused with palm FA (treatment 4) exhibited functionality equal to or better than control butter oil. Infusion with palm FA increased amounts of triglyceride (TG) fractions with 48, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, 36, and 42 carbon numbers. Infusion with soy FA increased TG with 26, 38, 40, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 34, 42, and 46 carbons. Infusion of the mostly saturated FA increased TG with 38, 50, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, and 42 carbon numbers. These TG groups were consistently correlated with functional properties of butter oils from different treatments. The content of palmitic acid is important for maintaining functionality in the presence of increased polyunsaturated FA. The composition of milk fat may be able to be optimized through nutritional manipulation of diets for dairy cows if the optimal composition of FA and TG is defined for a particular dairy product.

  15. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  16. Morphology variation, composition alteration and microstructure changes in ion-irradiated 1060 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hao; Si, Naichao; Wang, Quan; Zhao, Zhenjiang

    2018-02-01

    Morphology variation, composition alteration and microstructure changes in 1060 aluminum irradiated with 50 keV helium ions were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with x-ray elemental scanning, 3D measuring laser microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that, helium ions irradiation induced surface damage and Si-rich aggregates in the surfaces of irradiated samples. Increasing the dose of irradiation, more damages and Si-rich aggregates would be produced. Besides, defects such as dislocations, dislocation loops and dislocation walls were the primary defects in the ion implanted layer. The forming of surface damages were related with preferentially sputtering of Al component. While irradiation-enhanced diffusion and irradiation-induced segregation resulted in the aggregation of impurity atoms. And the aggregation ability of impurity atoms were discussed based on the atomic radius, displacement energy, lattice binding energy and surface binding energy.

  17. Alteration of postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations with meal frequency and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A; Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Fairchild, Timothy J

    2014-11-14

    A frequent eating pattern may alter glycaemic control and augment postprandial insulin concentrations in some individuals due to the truncation of the previous postprandial period by a subsequent meal. The present study examined glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) responses in obese individuals when meals were ingested in a high-frequency pattern (every 2 h, 6M) or in a low-frequency pattern (every 4 h, 3M) over 12 h. It also examined these postprandial responses to high-frequency, high-protein meals (6MHP). In total, thirteen obese subjects completed three 12 h study days during which they consumed 6276 kJ (1500 kcal): (1) 3M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (2) 6M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (3) 6MHP - 45 % protein and 35 % carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected every 10 min and analysed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide and GIP. Insulin total AUC (tAUC) and peak insulin concentrations (Pmeal frequency or composition. In obese subjects, ingestion of meals in a low-frequency pattern does not alter glucose tAUC, but increases postprandial insulin responses. The substitution of carbohydrates with protein in a frequent meal pattern results in tighter glycaemic control and reduced postprandial insulin responses.

  18. Invasion by Cordgrass Increases Microbial Diversity and Alters Community Composition in a Mangrove Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasion by exotic plant species can alter ecosystem function and reduce native plant diversity, but relatively little is known about their effects on belowground microbial communities. Here we investigated the effects of exotic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora invasion on the distribution of soil bacterial communities in a mangrove nature reserve of the Jiulong River Estuary, southeast China using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and multivariate statistical analysis. Our results showed that S. alterniflora invasion altered soil properties, and significantly increased soil bacterial taxa richness, primarily by stimulating an increase in conditionally rare or rare taxa, and changes in community composition and function. Abundant, conditionally rare and rare subcommunities exhibited similar response patterns to environment changes, with both conditionally rare and rare taxa showing a stronger response than abundant ones. Habitat generalists were detected among abundant, conditionally rare and rare taxa, whereas habitat specialists were only identified among conditionally rare taxa and rare taxa. In addition, we found that vegetation was the key factor driving these patterns. However, our comparative analysis indicated that both environmental selection, and neutral process, significantly contributed to soil bacterial community assembly. These results could improve the understanding of the microbial processes and mechanisms of cordgrass invasion, and offer empirical data of use in the restoration and management of the mangrove wetlands.

  19. Galacturonosyltransferase 4 silencing alters pectin composition and carbon partitioning in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Fabiana; Bermúdez, Luisa; Lira, Bruno Silvestre; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; Elbl, Paula; Demarco, Diego; Alseekh, Saleh; Insani, Marina; Buckeridge, Marcos; Almeida, Juliana; Grigioni, Gabriela; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Carrari, Fernando; Rossi, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Pectin is a main component of the plant cell wall and is the most complex family of polysaccharides in nature. Its composition is essential for the normal growth and morphology pattern, as demonstrated by pectin-defective mutant phenotypes. Besides this basic role in plant physiology, in tomato, pectin structure contributes to very important quality traits such as fruit firmness. Sixty-seven different enzymatic activities have been suggested to be required for pectin biosynthesis, but only a few genes have been identified and studied so far. This study characterized the tomato galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT) family and performed a detailed functional study of the GAUT4 gene. The tomato genome harbours all genes orthologous to those described previously in Arabidopsis thaliana, and a transcriptional profile revealed that the GAUT4 gene was expressed at higher levels in developing organs. GAUT4-silenced tomato plants exhibited an increment in vegetative biomass associated with palisade parenchyma enlargement. Silenced fruits showed an altered pectin composition and accumulated less starch along with a reduced amount of pectin, which coincided with an increase in firmness. Moreover, the harvest index was dramatically reduced as a consequence of the reduction in the fruit weight and number. Altogether, these results suggest that, beyond its role in pectin biosynthesis, GAUT4 interferes with carbon metabolism, partitioning, and allocation. Hence, this cell-wall-related gene seems to be key in determining plant growth and fruit production in tomato.

  20. Divergent selection-induced obesity alters the composition and functional pathways of chicken gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinmei; Zhao, Lele; Wang, Lifeng; Zhao, Wenjing; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Leng, Li; Wang, Yuxiang; He, Chuan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Heping; Li, Hui; Meng, He

    2016-11-28

    The gastrointestinal tract is populated by a complex and vast microbial network, with a composition that reflects the relationships of the symbiosis, co-metabolism, and co-evolution of these microorganisms with their host. The mechanism that underlies such interactions between the genetics of the host and gut microbiota remains elusive. To understand how genetic variation of the host shapes the gut microbiota and interacts with it to affect the metabolic phenotype of the host, we compared the abundance of microbial taxa and their functional performance between two lines of chickens (fat and lean) that had undergone long-term divergent selection for abdominal fat pad weight, which resulted in a 4.5-fold increase in the fat line compared to the lean line. Our analysis revealed that the proportions of Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria differed significantly between the two lines (8 vs. 18% and 33 vs. 24%, respectively) at the phylum level. Eight bacterial genera and 11 species were also substantially influenced by the host genotype. Differences between the two lines in the frequency of host alleles at loci that influence accumulation of abdominal fat were associated with differences in the abundance and composition of the gut microbiota. Moreover, microbial genome functional analysis showed that the gut microbiota was involved in pathways that are associated with fat metabolism such as lipid and glycan biosynthesis, as well as amino acid and energy metabolism. Interestingly, citrate cycle and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathways that play important roles in lipid storage and metabolism were more prevalent in the fat line than in the lean line. Our study demonstrates that long-term divergent selection not only alters the composition of the gut microbiota, but also influences its functional performance by enriching its relative abundance in microbial taxa. These results support the hypothesis that the host and gut microbiota interact at the

  1. Functional diversity in a fragmented landscape — Habitat alterations affect functional trait composition of frog assemblages in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana C. Riemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat alterations cause biodiversity loss, which in turn negatively affects ecosystem functioning and services, and thus human well-being. To be able to consider ecosystem functioning in conservation actions, analyzing the effects of habitat alteration on functional diversity is essential. Some altered habitats can maintain a significant part of regional biodiversity, however, functional diversity information in altered habitats is so far mostly lacking. We compared functional richness and functional β-diversity based on resource-use traits of frogs between three land-use categories in a rainforest ecosystem in Madagascar. Land-use categories represent a habitat alteration gradient ranging from continuous forest over forest fragments to matrix habitats including different agricultures. Our study revealed distinct changes in resource-use trait composition and complex patterns in the relationship between species richness and functional richness. Thus, the functional structure of frog assemblages changed due to habitat alterations. However, altered habitats likely provide different, rather than fewer functions compared to intact forest. Streams in all land-use categories were the functionally richest habitats, and thus important for ecosystem functioning. Species richness was one, but not the only driver of functional richness in our system. Functional clustering, potentially due to environmental filters depending on resource availability, was caused by anthropogenic and natural drivers. Our study shows that, even in systems where fragmented landscapes still maintain high species diversity, functional diversity can be altered in human altered habitats, which may affect ecosystem processes like productivity, nutrient cycling, and energy flows.

  2. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW), a surrogate marker of an adverse fetal milieu, is linked to muscle insulin resistance, impaired insulin-stimulated glycolysis, and future risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle mass, fiber composition, and capillary density are important determinants of muscle f...... was not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSION: Alterations in fiber composition and size may contribute to development of type 2 diabetes in individuals with LBW....

  3. Niacin alters the ruminal microbial composition of cattle under high-concentrate condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the effects of niacin on the ruminal microbial ecology of cattle under high-concentrate diet condition, Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology was used. Three cattle with rumen cannula were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design trial. Three diets were fed to these cattle during 3 periods for 3 days, respectively: high-forage diet (HF; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 80:20, high-concentrate diet (HC; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 20:80, and HC supplemented with 800 mg/kg niacin (HCN. Ruminal pH was measured before feeding and every 2 h after initiating feeding. Ruminal fluid was sampled at the end of each period for microbial DNA extraction. Overall, our findings revealed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA was induced and the α-diversity of ruminal bacterial community decreased in the cattle of HC group. Adding niacin in HC could relieve the symptoms of SARA in the cattle but the ruminal pH value and the Shannon index of ruminal bacterial community of HCN group were still lower than those of HF group. Whatever the diet was, the ruminal bacterial community of cattle was dominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. High-concentrate diet significantly increased the abundance of Prevotella, and decreased the abundance of Paraprevotella, Sporobacter, Ruminococcus and Treponema than HF. Compared with HC, HCN had a trend to decrease the percentage of Prevotella, and to increase the abundance of Succiniclasticum, Acetivibrio and Treponema. Increasing concentrate ratio could decrease ruminal pH value, and change the ruminal microbial composition. Adding niacin in HC could increase the ruminal pH value, alter the ruminal microbial composition.

  4. Rapid plant evolution in the presence of an introduced species alters community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Lau, Matthew K; Jacobs, Ryan; Monroy, Jenna A; Shuster, Stephen M; Whitham, Thomas G

    2015-10-01

    Because introduced species may strongly interact with native species and thus affect their fitness, it is important to examine how these interactions can cascade to have ecological and evolutionary consequences for whole communities. Here, we examine the interactions among introduced Rocky Mountain elk, Cervus canadensis nelsoni, a common native plant, Solidago velutina, and the diverse plant-associated community of arthropods. While introduced species are recognized as one of the biggest threats to native ecosystems, relatively few studies have investigated an evolutionary mechanism by which introduced species alter native communities. Here, we use a common garden design that addresses and supports two hypotheses. First, native S. velutina has rapidly evolved in the presence of introduced elk. We found that plants originating from sites with introduced elk flowered nearly 3 weeks before plants originating from sites without elk. Second, evolution of S. velutina results in a change to the plant-associated arthropod community. We found that plants originating from sites with introduced elk supported an arthropod community that had ~35 % fewer total individuals and a different species composition. Our results show that the impacts of introduced species can have both ecological and evolutionary consequences for strongly interacting species that subsequently cascade to affect a much larger community. Such evolutionary consequences are likely to be long-term and difficult to remediate.

  5. Drosophila development, physiology, behavior, and lifespan are influenced by altered dietary composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Kiel G; LePine, Olivia K; Abbineni, Prabhodh S; Bridgeman, Justin M; Coorssen, Jens R; Mercier, A Joffre; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2017-07-03

    Diet profoundly influences the behavior of animals across many phyla. Despite this, most laboratories using model organisms, such as Drosophila, use multiple, different, commercial or custom-made media for rearing their animals. In addition to measuring growth, fecundity and longevity, we used several behavioral and physiological assays to determine if and how altering food media influence wild-type (Canton S) Drosophila melanogaster, at larval, pupal, and adult stages. Comparing 2 commonly used commercial food media we observed several key developmental and morphological differences. Third-instar larvae and pupae developmental timing, body weight and size, and even lifespan significantly differed between the 2 diets, and some of these differences persisted into adulthood. Diet was also found to produce significantly different thermal preference, locomotory capacity for geotaxis, feeding rates, and lower muscle response to hormonal stimulation. There were no differences, however, in adult thermal preferences, in the number or viability of eggs laid, or in olfactory learning and memory between the diets. We characterized the composition of the 2 diets and found particularly significant differences in cholesterol and (phospho)lipids between them. Notably, diacylglycerol (DAG) concentrations vary substantially between the 2 diets, and may contribute to key phenotypic differences, including lifespan. Overall, the data confirm that 2 different diets can profoundly influence the behavior, physiology, morphology and development of wild-type Drosophila, with greater behavioral and physiologic differences occurring during the larval stages.

  6. Inclusions in Minerals: the Importance of Host Mineral Composition, Pressure and Temperature for Potential Inclusion Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, K.; Markl, G.

    2017-12-01

    Inclusions in minerals are used to decipher details of the host mineral/rock history. They frequently originate from the time of mineral formation; be it diamond, garnet or `common' feldspar. Thus protected they survive changing pressure and temperature for different durations compared to their non-enclosed counterparts. Inclusions may (partially) equilibrate at a later point in history, and thus provide complementary information on past processes and alteration pathways less commonly discussed. The study investigates partially altered pyroxene inclusions in feldspars indicative of high-p-T fluid transport during granulite facies metamorphism in charnockites from the Lofoten Islands in Northern Norway. The protoliths formed about 1750 Ma ago, at about 800 - 900°C and 4 kbar. During crustal thickening, they reached high-pressure granulite-facies conditions of about 8-11 kbar at 700°C (1). While this event caused large magmatic pyroxenes to react with an infiltrating fluid to form corona textures of amphibole; pyroxenes inside feldspars behaved very differently. Pyroxenes enclosed in orthoclase-rich feldspar were partially hydrated to amphiboles. Contrastingly, feldspar with lower orthoclase content protected the magmatic pyroxenes efficiently. Transport and transformation mechanisms recorded in these µm to nm textures were studied by EMPA and TEM. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) prepared TEM-foils revealed that pyroxenes, when spatially connected to albite exsolution lamellae, show dissolution features. Based on composition, nanostructures and the known p-T-history, we propose the following succession of events. Ternary feldspar containing small magmatic pyroxenes began to exsolve between about 800 and 700°C. The exsolution changed from coherent to incoherent and a fluid infiltrated the feldspar accompanied by a formation of nanotunnels. Gradually the tunnels grew larger so that finally whole film perthites acted as pathways. When the fluid had access to pyroxene

  7. Magnesium isotope composition of the altered upper oceanic crust at ODP Holes 504B and 896A, Costa Rica Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumais, Aurélien; Teagle, Damon A. H.; James, Rachael H.; Harris, Michelle; Pearce, Christopher R.; Milton, James A.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Alt, Jeffrey C.

    2017-04-01

    Chemical reactions between the oceanic crust and seawater play a major role in regulating the composition of the oceans that, in turn, influence important geochemical cycles (e.g., C, S, Mg). It is well established that alteration of the oceanic crust is the principal sink of Mg in seawater, but the effect of this process on the Mg isotope composition of the oceans remains unclear. Here we present the first measurements of Mg isotopes in altered oceanic crust from ODP Holes 504B and 896A. These holes are located in 5.9 Ma crust located 200 km south of the intermediate spreading rate Costa Rica Rift. Hole 504B penetrates: (i) A volcanic section, consisting of primitive to moderately altered mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) that was open to seawater alteration under oxic-suboxic conditions at temperatures concentrations. Consequently, there is no observable change to the Mg isotopic composition of the dikes at bulk rock scale. [1] Teng et al., (2010) GCA 74, 4150-4166. [2] Huang et al., (2015) Lithos 231, 53-61.

  8. Altered Gut Microbiota Composition in Rag1-deficient Mice Contributes to Modulating Homeostasis of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ohseop; Lee, Seungwon; Kim, Ji-Hae; Kim, Hyekang; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can produce all kind of blood lineage cells, and gut microbiota that consists of various species of microbe affects development and maturation of the host immune system including gut lymphoid cells and tissues. However, the effect of altered gut microbiota composition on homeostasis of HSPCs remains unclear. Here we show that compositional change of gut microbiota affects homeostasis of HSPCs using Rag1 (-/-) mice which represent lymphopenic condition. The number and proportions of HSPCs in Rag1 (-/-) mice are lower compared to those of wild types. However, the number and proportions of HSPCs in Rag1 (-/-) mice are restored as the level of wild types through alteration of gut microbiota diversity via transferring feces from wild types. Gut microbiota composition of Rag1 (-/-) mice treated with feces from wild types shows larger proportions of family Prevotellaceae and Helicobacterceae whereas lower proportions of family Lachnospiraceae compared to unmanipulated Rag1 (-/-) mice. In conclusion, gut microbiota composition of lymphopenic Rag1 (-/-) mice is different to that of wild type, which may lead to altered homeostasis of HSPCs.

  9. Bone mineral and body composition alterations in paediatric cystic fibrosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reix, Philippe; Bellon, Gabriel [Hopital Femme Mere Enfant, Service de Pediatrie, Pneumologie, Allergologie, Mucoviscidose, Bron (France); Braillon, Pierre [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service d' Imagerie Foetale et Pediatrique, Bron (France)

    2010-03-15

    With the increased life span of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, CF-related bone diseases could have an increased prevalence and morbidity in this group. In children, previous retrospective and prospective studies have yielded conflicting results on bone mineralization. To monitor body composition and bone mineral status of children with CF. We reviewed the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data of 161 children with CF (age 10 {+-} 4.8 years). Total body bone mineral content (BMCt), total lean tissue mass (LTMt) and total fat mass (FMt) were measured and compared to expected data calculated from ideal weight for height (Wi; e.g. BMCti, LTMti, FMti). The bt (BMCt/BMCti), lt (LTMt/LTMti) and ft (FMt/FMti) ratios were used as quantitative variables. Low bt ratio was found at all ages (mean bt ratio 0.94{+-}0.10; P<0.001), even in children <6 years of age. However, the children's BMCt was satisfactorily adapted to their weight. lt and ft ratios were not constant across age groups. Children <10 years had 8% reduction of their lt ratio, maintaining normal levels thereafter. The opposite trend was found for ft ratio. Poor clinical, nutritional status and vitamin A levels were correlated with bt and lt ratios. Our results indicate that children with CF could have early alterations in their bone status and that lt and ft ratios did not have constant values across ages. Interpreting DXA data using this approach is suitable in children with CF. (orig.)

  10. A Vaccine against Rumen Methanogens Can Alter the Composition of Archaeal Populations▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Yvette J.; Popovski, Sam; Rea, Suzanne M.; Skillman, Lucy C.; Toovey, Andrew F.; Northwood, Korinne S.; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to formulate a vaccine based upon the different species/strains of methanogens present in sheep intended to be immunized and to determine if a targeted vaccine could be used to decrease the methane output of the sheep. Two 16S rRNA gene libraries were used to survey the methanogenic archaea in sheep prior to vaccination, and methanogens representing five phylotypes were found to account for >52% of the different species/strains of methanogens detected. A vaccine based on a mixture of these five methanogens was then formulated, and 32 sheep were vaccinated on days 0, 28, and 103 with either a control or the anti-methanogen vaccine. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed that each vaccination with the anti-methanogen formulation resulted in higher specific immunoglobulin G titers in plasma, saliva, and rumen fluid. Methane output levels corrected for dry-matter intake for the control and treatment groups were not significantly different, and real-time PCR data also indicated that methanogen numbers were not significantly different for the two groups after the second vaccination. However, clone library data indicated that methanogen diversity was significantly greater in sheep receiving the anti-methanogen vaccine and that the vaccine may have altered the composition of the methanogen population. A correlation between 16S rRNA gene sequence relatedness and cross-reactivity for the methanogens (R2 = 0.90) also exists, which suggests that a highly specific vaccine can be made to target specific strains of methanogens and that a more broad-spectrum approach is needed for success in the rumen. Our data also suggest that methanogens take longer than 4 weeks to adapt to dietary changes and call into question the validity of experimental results based upon a 2- to 4-week acclimatization period normally observed for bacteria. PMID:19201957

  11. Bone mineral and body composition alterations in paediatric cystic fibrosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reix, Philippe; Bellon, Gabriel; Braillon, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    With the increased life span of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, CF-related bone diseases could have an increased prevalence and morbidity in this group. In children, previous retrospective and prospective studies have yielded conflicting results on bone mineralization. To monitor body composition and bone mineral status of children with CF. We reviewed the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data of 161 children with CF (age 10 ± 4.8 years). Total body bone mineral content (BMCt), total lean tissue mass (LTMt) and total fat mass (FMt) were measured and compared to expected data calculated from ideal weight for height (Wi; e.g. BMCti, LTMti, FMti). The bt (BMCt/BMCti), lt (LTMt/LTMti) and ft (FMt/FMti) ratios were used as quantitative variables. Low bt ratio was found at all ages (mean bt ratio 0.94±0.10; P<0.001), even in children <6 years of age. However, the children's BMCt was satisfactorily adapted to their weight. lt and ft ratios were not constant across age groups. Children <10 years had 8% reduction of their lt ratio, maintaining normal levels thereafter. The opposite trend was found for ft ratio. Poor clinical, nutritional status and vitamin A levels were correlated with bt and lt ratios. Our results indicate that children with CF could have early alterations in their bone status and that lt and ft ratios did not have constant values across ages. Interpreting DXA data using this approach is suitable in children with CF. (orig.)

  12. Dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism and microbiota composition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Tatiana M; Wall, Rebecca; O'Sullivan, Orla; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M; Cotter, Paul D; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-03-14

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) on intestinal microbiota composition and SCFA production. C57BL/6 mice (n 8 per group) were fed a standard diet either supplemented with t10c12-CLA (0·5 %, w/w) (intervention) or with no supplementation (control), daily for 8 weeks. Metabolic markers (serum glucose, leptin, insulin and TAG, and liver TAG) were assessed by ELISA commercial kits, tissue long-chain fatty acids and caecal SCFA by GC, and microbial composition by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Dietary t10c12-CLA significantly decreased visceral fat mass (Pcomposition were affected by t10c12-CLA intake. Caecal acetate, propionate and isobutyrate concentrations were higher (Pmicrobiota composition following 8 weeks of t10c12-CLA supplementation revealed lower proportions of Firmicutes (P= 0·003) and higher proportions of Bacteroidetes (P= 0·027) compared with no supplementation. Furthermore, t10c12-CLA supplementation for 8 weeks significantly altered the gut microbiota composition, harbouring higher proportions of Bacteroidetes, including Porphyromonadaceae bacteria previously linked with negative effects on lipid metabolism and induction of hepatic steatosis. These results indicate that the mechanism of dietary t10c12-CLA on lipid metabolism in mice may be, at least, partially mediated by alterations in gut microbiota composition and functionality.

  13. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  14. Polishing and toothbrushing alters the surface roughness and gloss of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface roughness and gloss of composite resins after using two polishing systems and toothbrushing. Six composite resins (Durafill VS, Filtek Z250, Filtek Z350 XT, Kalore, Venus Diamond, and Venus Pearl) were evaluated after polishing with two polishing systems (Sof-Lex, Venus Supra) and after toothbrushing up to 40,000 cycles. Surface roughness (Ra) and gloss were determined for each composite resin group (n=6) after silicon carbide paper grinding, polishing, and toothbrushing. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences in both Ra and gloss between measuring stages for the composite resins tested, except Venus Pearl, which showed significant differences only in gloss. After polishing, the Filtek Z350 XT, Kalore, and Venus Diamond showed significant increases in Ra, while all composite resin groups except the Filtek Z350 XT and Durafill VS with Sof-Lex showed increases in gloss. After toothbrushing, all composite resin demonstrated increases in Ra and decreases in gloss.

  15. Herbivore species identity and composition affect soil enzymatic activity through altered plant composition in a coastal tallgrass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although single species of herbivores are known to affect soil microbial communities, the effects of herbivore species identity and functional composition on soil microbes is unknown. We tested the effects of single species of orthopterans and multiple species combinations on soil enzymatic activity...

  16. Regionally distinct alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Wirth

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to map the microbiota distribution along the gut and establish whether colon/faecal samples from diabetic rats adequately reflect the diabetic alterations in the microbiome. Streptozotocin-treated rats were used to model type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D. Segments of the duodenum, ileum and colon were dissected, and the microbiome of the lumen material was analysed by using next-generation DNA sequencing, from phylum to genus level. The intestinal luminal contents were compared between diabetic, insulin-treated diabetic and healthy control rats. No significant differences in bacterial composition were found in the luminal contents from the duodenum of the experimental animal groups, whereas distinct patterns were seen in the ileum and colon, depending on the history of the luminal samples. Ileal samples from diabetic rats exhibited particularly striking alterations, while the richness and diversity obscured some of the modifications in the colon. Characteristic rearrangements in microbiome composition and diversity were detected after insulin treatment, though the normal gut flora was not restored. The Proteobacteria displayed more pronounced shifts than those of the predominant phyla (Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the rat model of T1D. Diabetes and insulin replacement affect the composition of the gut microbiota in different, gut region-specific manners. The luminal samples from the ileum appear more suitable for diagnostic purposes than the colon/faeces. The Proteobacteria should be at the focus of diagnosis and potential therapy. Klebsiella are recommended as biomarkers of T1D.

  17. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Tatiana A; Morgado, Luis N; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic richness of soil ascomycetes in dry and moist tundra types. Using deep Ion Torrent sequencing, we quantified how OTU assemblage and richness of different orders of Ascomycota changed in response to summer warming. Experimental warming significantly altered ascomycete communities with stronger responses observed in the moist tundra compared with dry tundra. The proportion of several lichenized and moss-associated fungi decreased with warming, while the proportion of several plant and insect pathogens and saprotrophic species was higher in the warming treatment. The observed alterations in both taxonomic and ecological groups of ascomycetes are discussed in relation to previously reported warming-induced shifts in arctic plant communities, including decline in lichens and bryophytes and increase in coverage and biomass of shrubs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Response of the photosynthetic system to altered protein composition and changes in environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, T.

    2014-01-01

    The photosynthetic thylakoid membrane has a hierarchically ordered structure containing pigment-protein complexes that capture solar radiation and convert it into chemical energy. Its highly dynamic structure is capable to continuously respond to the altered environmental conditions, e.g., light

  19. Improvement of Lipid Profile Is Accompanied by Atheroprotective Alterations in High-Density Lipoprotein Composition Upon Tumor Necrosis Factor Blockade A Prospective Cohort Study in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van I.C.; Vries, de M.K.; Levels, J.H.M.; Peters, M.J.L.; Huizer, E.E.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Horst - Bruinsma, van der I.E.; Hazenberg, B.P.C.; Stadt, van de R.J.; Wolbink, G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Cardiovascular mortality is increased in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and inflammation plays an important role. Inflammation deteriorates the lipid profile and alters high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) composition, reflected by increased concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA)

  20. Molecular composition of soil organic matter with land-use change along a bi-continental mean annual temperature gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Oliva; Haddix, Michelle L; Conant, Richard T; Paul, Eldor A; Simpson, Myrna J

    2016-12-15

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is critical for maintaining soil fertility and long-term agricultural sustainability. The molecular composition of SOM is likely altered due to global climate and land-use change; but rarely are these two aspects studied in tandem. Here we used molecular-level techniques to examine SOM composition along a bi-continental (from North to South America) mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient from seven native grassland/forest and cultivated/pasture sites. Biomarker methods included solvent extraction, base hydrolysis and cupric (II) oxide oxidation for the analysis of free lipids of plant and microbial origin, ester-bound lipids from cutin and suberin, and lignin-derived phenols, respectively. Solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to examine the overall composition of SOM. Soil cultivation was found to increase the amount of microbial-derived compounds at warmer temperatures (up to 17% increase). The cultivated soils were characterized by much lower contributions of plant-derived SOM components compared to the native soils (up to 64% lower at the coldest site). In addition, cultivation caused an increase in lignin and cutin degradation (up to 68 and 15% increase, respectively), and an increase in the amount of suberin-derived inputs (up to 54% increase). Clear differences in the molecular composition of SOM due to soil cultivation were observed in soils of varying mineral composition and were attributed to disturbance, different vegetation inputs, soil aggregate destruction and MAT. A high organic allophanic tropical soil was characterized by its protection of carbohydrates and nitrogen-containing compounds. The conversion of native to cultivated land shows significant shifts in the degradation stage of SOM. In particular, cutin-derived compounds which are believed to be part of the stable SOM pool may undergo enhanced degradation with long-term cultivation and disruption of soil aggregates. On a per year basis, the total

  1. Physical disturbance to ecological niches created by soil structure alters community composition of methanotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, Deepak; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Abell, Guy C J; Bodrossy, Levente; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-10-01

    Aggregates of different sizes and stability in soil create a composite of ecological niches differing in terms of physico-chemical and structural characteristics. The aim of this study was to identify, using DNA-SIP and mRNA-based microarray analysis, whether shifts in activity and community composition of methanotrophs occur when ecological niches created by soil structure are physically perturbed. Landfill cover soil was subject to three treatments termed: 'control' (minimal structural disruption), 'sieved' (sieved soil using 2 mm mesh) and 'ground' (grinding using mortar and pestle). 'Sieved' and 'ground' soil treatments exhibited higher methane oxidation potentials compared with the 'control' soil treatment. Analysis of the active community composition revealed an effect of physical disruption on active methanotrophs. Type I methanotrophs were the most active methanotrophs in 'sieved' and 'ground' soil treatments, whereas both Type I and Type II methanotrophs were active in the 'control' soil treatment. The result emphasize that changes to a particular ecological niche may not result in an immediate change to the active bacterial composition and change in composition will depend on the ability of the bacterial communities to respond to the perturbation. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Alteration of chemical composition and the oxidative stability of bleached pomace-olive oil on activated clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahouach, W; Essid, K; Trabelsi, M; Frikha, M H

    2006-09-20

    This work is a contribution to the study of the bleaching process, which is a very important stage in the refining process of vegetable oils and used to reduce or convert undesired constituents to harmless ones from fats and oils. The virgin olive oil, taken as reference, and the pomace-olive oil were bleached in the optimal conditions using Tunisian bleaching earths (South of Tunisia) which were activated in our laboratory and compared with commercial clays. It was shown that activated Tunisian clays are characterized by a very important adsorptive capacity, comparable to that of commercial clays. Also, the physicochemical stability of bleached oils was studied. The fatty acid composition (GC), the triacylglycerol composition (HPLC), and the oxidative stability (UV spectrometry) allowed us to conclude that oils, bleached with the Tunisian activated clays, do not undergo considerable physicochemical alterations and remain corresponding to the international standards for refined oils for human consumption.

  3. Cell wall composition and digestibility alterations in Brachypodium distachyon achieved through reduced expression of the UDP-arabinopyranose mutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Rancour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-activated sugars are essential substrates for plant cell-wall carbohydrate-polymer biosynthesis. The most prevalent grass cell wall sugars are glucose (Glc, xylose (Xyl, and arabinose (Ara. These sugars are biosynthetically related via the UDP-sugar interconversion pathway. We sought to target and generate UDP-sugar interconversion pathway transgenic Brachypodium distachyon lines resulting in cell wall carbohydrate composition changes with improved digestibility and normal plant stature. Both RNAi-mediated gene-suppression and constitutive gene-expression approaches were performed. Cell walls from 336 T0 transgenic plants with normal appearance were screened for complete carbohydrate composition. RNAi mutants of BdRGP1, a UDP-arabinopyranose mutase, resulted in large alterations in cell wall carbohydrate composition with significant decreases in cell wall Ara content but with minimal change in plant stature. Five independent RNAi-RGP1 T1 plant lines were used for in-depth analysis of plant cell walls. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that gene expression levels for BdRGP1, BdRGP2 and BdRGP3 were reduced in RNAi-RGP1 plants to 15-20% of controls. Cell wall Ara content was reduced by 23-51% of control levels. No alterations in cell wall Xyl and Glc content were observed. Corresponding decreases in cell wall ferulic acid (FA and ferulic acid-dimers (FA-dimers were observed. Additionally, cell wall p-coumarates (pCA were decreased. We demonstrate the cell wall pCA decrease corresponds to Ara-coupled pCA. Xylanase-mediated digestibility of RNAi-RGP1 Brachypodium cell walls resulted in a near two-fold increase of released total carbohydrate. However, cellulolytic hydrolysis of cell wall material was inhibited in leaves of RNAi-RGP1 mutants. Our results indicate that targeted manipulation of UDP-sugar biosynthesis can result in biomass with substantially altered compositions and highlights the complex effect cell wall composition has on

  4. Sulfur dioxide addition at crush alters Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain composition in spontaneous fermentations at two Canadian wineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sydney C; Scholl, Chrystal M; Benson, Natasha L; Stone, Morgan L; Durall, Daniel M

    2017-03-06

    During winemaking, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is often added prior to the onset of alcoholic fermentation to prevent the growth of spoilage microorganisms and to create an environment that promotes the rapid colonization of the grape must by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most recent research has focused on the impacts of SO 2 additions on spoilage microorganisms or on the yeast community at a species level, but less is known about the impacts that SO 2 additions have on S. cerevisiae populations. We investigated whether different levels of SO 2 addition at crush (0, 20, or 40mg/L SO 2 ) have an effect upon the relative abundance and composition of S. cerevisiae strains conducting spontaneous fermentations of two grape varietals at two commercial wineries. Yeast isolates collected from fermentations were identified to the strain level using microsatellite analysis. Commercial strains made up the majority (64-98%) of the S. cerevisiae strains isolated during fermentation, and most of these commercial strains were used as inoculants by their respective wineries. Different SO 2 additions were found to significantly alter S. cerevisiae strain compositions at both wineries (p≤0.002). The results of this study demonstrate that initial SO 2 addition significantly alters the S. cerevisiae strain composition in spontaneous fermentations, and highlights the dominance of commercial strains in commercial winery environments. Because different yeast strains are known to produce different chemical and sensory profiles, our findings have important implications for winemakers. In addition, adding different concentrations of SO 2 may be a way for winemakers to manage or control the strain composition during spontaneous fermentations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Toothbrushing alters the surface roughness and gloss of composite resin CAD/CAM blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Lauvahutanon, Sasipin; Takahashi, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the surface roughness and gloss of composite resin CAD/CAM blocks after toothbrushing. Five composite resin blocks (Block HC, Cerasmart, Gradia Block, KZR-CAD Hybrid Resin Block, and Lava Ultimate), one hybrid ceramic (Vita Enamic), one feldspar ceramic (Vitablocs Mark II), one PMMA block (Telio CAD), and one conventional composite resin (Filtek Z350 XT) were evaluated. Surface roughness (Ra) and gloss were determined for each group of materials (n=6) after silicon carbide paper (P4000) grinding, 10k, 20k, and 40k toothbrushing cycles. One-way repeated measures ANOVA indicated significant differences in the Ra and gloss of each material except for the Ra of GRA. After 40k toothbrushing cycles, the Ra of BLO and TEL showed significant increases, while CER, KZR, ULT, and Z350 showed significant decreases. GRA, ENA, and VIT maintained their Ra. All of the materials tested, except CER, demonstrated significant decreases in gloss after 40k toothbrushing cycles.

  6. Night-time lighting alters the composition of marine epifaunal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Thomas W.; Coleman, Matthew; Griffith, Katherine M.; Jenkins, Stuart R.

    2015-01-01

    Marine benthic communities face multiple anthropogenic pressures that compromise the future of some of the most biodiverse and functionally important ecosystems in the world. Yet one of the pressures these ecosystems face, night-time lighting, remains unstudied. Light is an important cue in guiding the settlement of invertebrate larvae, and altering natural regimes of nocturnal illumination could modify patterns of recruitment among sessile epifauna. We present the first evidence of night-tim...

  7. Cinnamon improves insulin sensitivity and alters body composition in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols from cinnamon (CN) have been described recently as insulin sensitizers and antioxidants, but their effects on the glucose/insulin system in vivo have not been totally investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of CN on insulin resistance and body composition, using ...

  8. Urbanization alters the functional composition, but not taxonomic diversity, of the soil nematode community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell A. Pavao-Zuckerman; David C. Coleman

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the response of riparian forest soil nematode community structure to the physico-chemical environment associated with urban land use. Soils were sampled seasonally between December 2000 and October 2002 along an urban-rural transect in Asheville, North Carolina. We characterized the taxonomic (to genus) and functional composition (trophic groups) of the...

  9. Soil Fauna Alter the Effects of Litter Composition on Nitrogen Cycling in a Mineral Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant chemical composition and the soil community are known to influence litter and soil organic matter decomposition. Although these two factors are likely to interact, their mechanisms and outcomes of interaction are not well understood. Studies of their interactive effects are...

  10. A comparison of chemical compositions of reported altered oceanic crusts and global MORB data set: implication for isotopic heterogeneity of recycled materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, G.; Kogiso, T.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical composition of altered oceanic crust is one of important constraints to delineate chemical heterogeneity of the mantle. Accordingly, many researchers have been studied to determine bulk chemical composition of altered oceanic crust mainly based on chemical compositions of old oceanic crusts at Site 801 and Site 417/418, and young crust at Site 504 (e.g., Staudigel et al., 1996; Bach et al. 2003; Kuo et al., 2016). Their careful estimation provided reliable bulk chemical compositions of these Sites and revealed common geochemical feature of alteration. To assess effect of recycling of altered oceanic crust on chemical evolution of the mantle, it might be meaningful to discuss whether the reported chemical compositions of altered oceanic crusts can represent chemical composition of globally subducted oceanic crusts. Reported chemical compositions of fresh glass or less altered samples from Site 801, 417/418 and 504 were highly depleted compared to that of global MORB reported by Gale et al. (2013), suggesting that there might be sampling bias. Hence, it could be important to consider chemical difference between oceanic crusts of these three Sites and global MORB to discuss effect of recycling of oceanic crust on isotopic heterogeneity of the mantle. It has been suggested that one of controlling factors of chemical variation of oceanic crust is crustal spreading rate because different degree of partial melting affects chemical composition of magmas produced at a mid-ocean ridge. Crustal spreading rate could also affect intensity of alteration. Namely, oceanic crusts produced at slow-spreading ridges may prone to be altered due to existence of larger displacement faults compared to fast spreading ridges which have relatively smooth topography. Thus, it might be significant to evaluate isotopic evolution of oceanic crusts those were produced at different spreading rates. In this presentation, we will provide a possible chemical variation of altered oceanic

  11. Influence of composition variations on the initial alteration rate of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugier, P; Godon, N; Vernaz, E; Larché, F

    2002-01-01

    rich in chromium, zinc, aluminum, magnesium and iron formed quickly on cooling, and accounted for about 2 vol% of the final material. Gehelenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) crystallized massively in some vitrified materials, accounting for more than half the final product and giving it a rock-like appearance. The effect of composition alone must therefore be distinguished from the effect of crystallization on the leaching behavior. Soxhlet tests were conducted for 14 days according to a protocol based on that of the French AFNOR draft standard NF-M 60313 to determine the maximum alteration rate in pure water at 100 degrees C. The measured rate ranged from 4 to 40 gm(-2) day(-1), illustrating the crucial role of the silicon concentration: within the test composition range, a low silicon content (< 30 wt%) tended to result in a significantly higher initial rate. However, the initial rate alone is not sufficient to assess the chemical durability of the material. Further tests will be carried out at 25 degrees C under conditions approximating those of a proposed disposal site to highlight the role of the alteration layer and the effect of rising concentrations in solution on the decreasing alteration rate.

  12. Land use intensification alters ecosystem multifunctionality via loss of biodiversity and changes to functional composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Eric; Manning, Pete; Alt, Fabian; Binkenstein, Julia; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Böhm, Stefan; Grassein, Fabrice; Hölzel, Norbert; Klaus, Valentin H; Kleinebecker, Till; Morris, E Kathryn; Oelmann, Yvonne; Prati, Daniel; Renner, Swen C; Rillig, Matthias C; Schaefer, Martin; Schloter, Michael; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Solly, Emily; Sorkau, Elisabeth; Steckel, Juliane; Steffen-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Tschapka, Marco; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Fischer, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Global change, especially land-use intensification, affects human well-being by impacting the delivery of multiple ecosystem services (multifunctionality). However, whether biodiversity loss is a major component of global change effects on multifunctionality in real-world ecosystems, as in experimental ones, remains unclear. Therefore, we assessed biodiversity, functional composition and 14 ecosystem services on 150 agricultural grasslands differing in land-use intensity. We also introduce five multifunctionality measures in which ecosystem services were weighted according to realistic land-use objectives. We found that indirect land-use effects, i.e. those mediated by biodiversity loss and by changes to functional composition, were as strong as direct effects on average. Their strength varied with land-use objectives and regional context. Biodiversity loss explained indirect effects in a region of intermediate productivity and was most damaging when land-use objectives favoured supporting and cultural services. In contrast, functional composition shifts, towards fast-growing plant species, strongly increased provisioning services in more inherently unproductive grasslands. © 2015 The Authors Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  13. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining.

  14. Alteration of the Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Composition in the Martian Surface Rocks Due to Cosmic Ray Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. A.; Pavlov, A. K.; Ostryakov, V. M.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Mahaffy, P.; Steele, A.

    2014-01-01

    C-13/C-12 and N-15/N-14 isotopic ratios are pivotal for our understanding of the Martian carbon cycle, history of the Martian atmospheric escape, and origin of the organic compounds on Mars. Here we demonstrate that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the surface rocks on Mars can be significantly altered by the continuous exposure of Martian surface to cosmic rays. Cosmic rays can effectively produce C-13 and N-15 isotopes via spallation nuclear reactions on oxygen atoms in various Martian rocks. We calculate that in the top meter of the Martian rocks, the rates of production of both C-13 and N-15 due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) exposure can vary within 1.5-6 atoms/cm3/s depending on rocks' depth and chemical composition. We also find that the average solar cosmic rays can produce carbon and nitrogen isotopes at a rate comparable to GCRs in the top 5-10 cm of the Martian rocks. We demonstrate that if the total carbon content in a surface Martian rock is rocks with relatively short exposure ages (e.g., 100 million years), cosmogenic changes in N-15/N-14 ratio are still very significant. We also show that a short exposure to cosmic rays of Allan Hills 84001 while on Mars can explain its high-temperature heavy nitrogen isotopic composition (N-15/N-14). Applications to Martian meteorites and the current Mars Science Laboratory mission are discussed.

  15. Elevated carbon dioxide alters the plasma composition and behaviour of a shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Leon; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2014-09-01

    Increased carbon emissions from fossil fuels are increasing the pCO2 of the ocean surface waters in a process called ocean acidification. Elevated water pCO2 can induce physiological and behavioural effects in teleost fishes, although there appear to be large differences in sensitivity between species. There is currently no information available on the possible responses to future ocean acidification in elasmobranch fishes. We exposed small-spotted catsharks (Scyliorhinus canicula) to either control conditions or a year 2100 scenario of 990 μatm pCO2 for four weeks. We did not detect treatment effects on growth, resting metabolic rate, aerobic scope, skin denticle ultrastructure or skin denticle morphology. However, we found that the elevated pCO2 group buffered internal acidosis via [Formula: see text] accumulation with an associated increase in Na(+), indicating that the blood chemistry remained altered despite the long acclimation period. The elevated pCO2 group also exhibited a shift in their nocturnal swimming pattern from a pattern of many starts and stops to more continuous swimming. Although CO2-exposed teleost fishes can display reduced behavioural asymmetry (lateralization), the CO2-exposed sharks showed increased lateralization. These behavioural effects may suggest that elasmobranch neurophysiology is affected by CO2, as in some teleosts, or that the sharks detect CO2 as a constant stressor, which leads to altered behaviour. The potential direct effects of ocean acidification should henceforth be considered when assessing future anthropogenic effects on sharks. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-10-14

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host.

  17. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. © FEMS 2015.

  18. Blood pressure during pregnancy, neonatal size and altered body composition: the Healthy Start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, A P; Shapiro, A L B; Sauder, K A; Kaar, J L; Ringham, B M; Glueck, D H; Galan, H L; Dabelea, D

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate associations between changes in maternal arterial pressure during normotensive pregnancies and offspring birth weight and body composition at birth. Prospective study of 762 pregnant normotensive Colorado women, recruited from outpatient obstetrics clinics. Repeated arterial pressure measurements during pregnancy were averaged within the second and third trimesters, respectively. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between second to third trimester changes in arterial pressure and small-for-gestational-age birth weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and percent body fat. A greater second to third trimester increase in maternal arterial pressure was associated with greater odds of small-for-gestational-age birth weight. Greater increases in maternal diastolic blood pressure were associated with reductions in offspring percent body fat (-1.1% in highest vs lowest quartile of increase, 95% confidence interval: -1.9%, -0.3%). Mid-to-late pregnancy increases in maternal arterial pressure, which do not meet clinical thresholds for hypertension are associated with neonatal body size and composition.

  19. Postnatal events in intestinal gene expression and splenic cell composition is altered in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov

    2013-01-01

    , cellular composition in spleen and liver. At PND1 and 2, the number of Ly-6G and CD11b positive cells in NOD mice was significantly (p=0.05) higher as compared to C57/bl6. Furthermore, gene expression analyses of liver, spleen and intestine showed differences between the two mouse strains in the early...... microbiota seems to play an important role in the development and control of T1D. We hypothesized that NOD mice in the perinatal period respond differently than mice not prone to develop T1D (C57/Bl6), and we investigated the differences in postnatal expression of genes in gut, spleen, liver and pancreas...... postnatal expression of Cxcl2 and the antibacterial lectin encoding RegIIIγ gene. Additionally histopathology findings of the liver showed significant differences of granulocyte infiltration between the two groups in the same period. Our findings suggest that very early postnatal microbiota dependent events...

  20. Altered Gut Microbiome Composition and Tryptic Activity of the 5xFAD Alzheimer's Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandscheid, Carolin; Schuck, Florian; Reinhardt, Sven; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Pietrzik, Claus U; Grimm, Marcus; Hartmann, Tobias; Schwiertz, Andreas; Endres, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of physiological gut functions such as peristalsis or secretion of digestive enzymes by the central nervous system via the Nervus vagus is well known. Recent investigations highlight that pathological conditions of neurological or psychiatric disorders might directly interfere with the autonomous neuronal network of the gut - the enteric nervous system, or even derive from there. By using a murine Alzheimer's disease model, we investigated a potential influence of disease-associated changes on gastrointestinal properties. 5xFAD mice at three different ages were compared to wild type littermates in regard to metabolic parameters and enzymes of the gut by fluorimetric enzyme assay and western blotting. Overexpression of human amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) within the gut was assessed by qPCR and IHC; fecal microbiome analysis was conducted by 16SrRNA quantitation of selected phyla and species. While general composition of fecal samples, locomotion, and food consumption of male 5xFAD animals were not changed, we observed a reduced body weight occurring at early pathological stages. Human AβPP was not only expressed within the brain of these mice but also in gut tissue. Analysis of fecal proteins revealed a reduced trypsin amount in the 5xFAD model mice as compared to the wild type. In addition, we observed changes in fecal microbiota composition along with age. We therefore suggest that the presence of the mutated transgenes (AβPP and PS1), which are per se the basis for the genetic form of Alzheimer's disease in humans, directly interferes with gut function as shown here for the disease model mice.

  1. Alteration of Chemical Composition of Soil-leached Dissolved Organic Matter under Cryogenic Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Bianchi, T. S.; Schuur, E.

    2016-02-01

    Arctic permafrost thawing has drawn great attention because of the large amount of organic carbon (OC) storage in Arctic soils that are susceptible to increasing global temperatures. Due to microbial activities, some of the OC pool is converted in part to greenhouse gases, like CH4 and CO2 gas, which can result in a positive feedback on global warming. In Artic soils, a portion of OC can be mobilized by precipitation, drainage, and groundwater circulation which can in some cases be transported to rivers and eventually the coastal margins. To determine some of the mechanisms associated with the mobilization of OC from soils to aquatic ecosystems, we conducted a series of laboratory soil leaching experiments. Surface soil samples collected from Healy, Alaska were eluted with artificial rain at a constant rate. Leachates were collected over time and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. Concentrations began from 387-705 mg/L and then dropped to asymptote states to 25-219 mg/L. High-resolution spectroscopy was used to characterize colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and CDOM fluorescence intensity also dropped with time. Fluorescence maximum intensity (Fmax) for peak C ranged from 0.7-4.2 RU, with Exmax/Emmax = 310/450 nm. Fmax for peak T ranged from 0.5-3.2 RU, with Exmax/Emmax = 275/325 nm. Peak C: peak T values indicated preferential leaching of humic-like components over protein-like components. After reaching asymptotic levels, samples were stored frozen and then thawed to study the cryogenic impact on OC composition. CDOM intensity and DOC concentration increased after the freeze-thaw cycle. It was likely that cryogenic processes promoted the breakdown of OC and the releases of more DOC from soils. PARAFAC of CDOM excitation and emission matrices (EEMs) will be used to analyze CDOM composition of the soil leachates.

  2. Oxygen Isotope Compositions of the Kaidun Meteorite - Indications for Aqeuous Alteration of E-Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, K.; Zolensky, M.; Young, E. D.; Ivanov, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Kaidun microbreccia is a unique meteorite due to the diversity of its constituent clasts. Fragments of various types of carbonaceous (CI, CM, CV, CR), enstatite (EH, EL), and ordinary chondrites, basaltic achondrites, and impact melt products have been described, and also several unknown clasts [1, and references therein]. The small mm-sized clasts represent material from different places and times in the early solar system, involving a large variety of parent bodies [2]; meteorites are of key importance to the study of the origin and evolution of the solar system, and Kaidun is a collection of a range of bodies evidently representing samples from across the asteroid belt. The parent-body on which Kaidun was assembled is believed to be a C-type asteroid, and 1-Ceres and the martian moon Phobos have been proposed [1-4]. Both carbonaceous (most oxidized) and enstatite (most reduced) chondrite clasts in Kaidun show signs of aqueous alterations that vary in type and degree and are most likely of pre-Kaidun origin [1, 4].

  3. Land use influences macroinvertebrate community composition in boreal headwaters through altered stream conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Micael; Burrows, Ryan M; Lidman, Johan; Fältström, Emma; Laudon, Hjalmar; Sponseller, Ryan A

    2017-04-01

    Land use is known to alter the nature of land-water interactions, but the potential effects of widespread forest management on headwaters in boreal regions remain poorly understood. We evaluated the importance of catchment land use, land cover, and local stream variables for macroinvertebrate community and functional trait diversity in 18 boreal headwater streams. Variation in macroinvertebrate metrics was often best explained by in-stream variables, primarily water chemistry (e.g. pH). However, variation in stream variables was, in turn, significantly associated with catchment-scale forestry land use. More specifically, streams running through catchments that were dominated by young (11-50 years) forests had higher pH, greater organic matter standing stock, higher abundance of aquatic moss, and the highest macroinvertebrate diversity, compared to streams running through recently clear-cut and old forests. This indicates that catchment-scale forest management can modify in-stream habitat conditions with effects on stream macroinvertebrate communities and that characteristics of younger forests may promote conditions that benefit headwater biodiversity.

  4. Alterations in peripheral fatty acid composition in bipolar and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, Gustavo; Versace, Amelia; Metherel, Adam H; Monsalve-Castro, Luz A; Phillips, Mary L; Bazinet, Richard P; Andreazza, Ana C

    2018-06-01

    Lipid metabolism has been shown to play an important role in unipolar and bipolar depression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate levels of fatty acids in patients with unipolar (MDD) and bipolar depression (BDD) in comparison to patients with bipolar disorder in euthymia (BDE) and non-psychiatric controls. Levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were assessed in serum of (87) patients with BD (31 euthymic, 22 depressive) or MDD (34) and (31) non-psychiatric controls through GC-FID. No significant difference in total levels of PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids), SFAs (saturated fatty acids), MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids) and total fatty acids were found between groups. Our results demonstrated higher levels AA: EPA and AA: EPA+DHA in patients with BDD. Additionally, we observed that overall omega-6 present a positive correlation with illness duration in patients with BDD and AA: EPA ratio positively associated with illness duration in MDD group. Depression severity was positively associated with AA: EPA+DHA ratio in all participants. Together, our results support the relevance for the balance of omega-3 and omega-6 in BDD. Also, our results suggest a potential subset of stage-related lipid biomarkers that further studies are needed to help clarify the dynamics of lipid alteration in BD and MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Black Raspberries and Their Anthocyanin and Fiber Fractions Alter the Composition and Diversity of Gut Microbiota in F-344 Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Lam, Vy; Salzman, Nita; Huang, Yi-Wen; Yu, Jianhua; Zhang, Jianying; Wang, Li-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed. We observed distinct patterns of microbiota from different diet groups. Beta diversity analysis suggested that all diet groups exerted time-dependent changes in the bacterial diversity. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that post-diet fecal microbiota was segregated from baseline fecal microbiota within each diet. It is interesting to note that fractions of BRBs induced different changes in gut bacteria compared to whole BRBs. The abundance of specific microbial species known to have anti-inflammatory effects, such as Akkermansia and Desulfovibrio, was increased by whole BRBs and their residue. Further, butyrate-producing bacteria, e.g., Anaerostipes, were increased by whole BRBs. Our results suggest that whole BRBs and their fractions alter the gut microbiota in ways that could significantly influence human health.

  6. Redox Control of Aphid Resistance through Altered Cell Wall Composition and Nutritional Quality1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Brwa; Marcus, Sue E.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underpinning plant perception of phloem-feeding insects, particularly aphids, remain poorly characterized. Therefore, the role of apoplastic redox state in controlling aphid infestation was explored using transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants that have either high (PAO) or low (TAO) ascorbate oxidase (AO) activities relative to the wild type. Only a small number of leaf transcripts and metabolites were changed in response to genotype, and cell wall composition was largely unaffected. Aphid fecundity was decreased significantly in TAO plants compared with other lines. Leaf sugar levels were increased and maximum extractable AO activities were decreased in response to aphids in all genotypes. Transcripts encoding the Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog F, signaling components involved in ethylene and other hormone-mediated pathways, photosynthetic electron transport components, sugar, amino acid, and cell wall metabolism, were increased significantly in the TAO plants in response to aphid perception relative to other lines. The levels of galactosylated xyloglucan were decreased significantly in response to aphid feeding in all the lines, the effect being the least in the TAO plants. Similarly, all lines exhibited increases in tightly bound (1→4)-β-galactan. Taken together, these findings identify AO-dependent mechanisms that limit aphid infestation. PMID:28743764

  7. Redox Control of Aphid Resistance through Altered Cell Wall Composition and Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Brwa; McGowan, Jack; Pastok, Daria; Marcus, Sue E; Morris, Jenny A; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Hancock, Robert D; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-09-01

    The mechanisms underpinning plant perception of phloem-feeding insects, particularly aphids, remain poorly characterized. Therefore, the role of apoplastic redox state in controlling aphid infestation was explored using transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) plants that have either high (PAO) or low (TAO) ascorbate oxidase (AO) activities relative to the wild type. Only a small number of leaf transcripts and metabolites were changed in response to genotype, and cell wall composition was largely unaffected. Aphid fecundity was decreased significantly in TAO plants compared with other lines. Leaf sugar levels were increased and maximum extractable AO activities were decreased in response to aphids in all genotypes. Transcripts encoding the Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog F, signaling components involved in ethylene and other hormone-mediated pathways, photosynthetic electron transport components, sugar, amino acid, and cell wall metabolism, were increased significantly in the TAO plants in response to aphid perception relative to other lines. The levels of galactosylated xyloglucan were decreased significantly in response to aphid feeding in all the lines, the effect being the least in the TAO plants. Similarly, all lines exhibited increases in tightly bound (1→4)-β-galactan. Taken together, these findings identify AO-dependent mechanisms that limit aphid infestation. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Alterations in polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of Voandzeia subterranea seeds upon gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianarison, R.H.; Rakotoarisoa, Z.; Tixier, M.; Beneytout, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of V. subterranea seeds, a herbaceous plant from Madagascar belonging to the family of legumes, to gamma irradiation resulted in a polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease associated with the formation of UV-absorbing substances. The finding that products containing conjugated diene structure are formed during lipid extract irradiation indicates that hydroperoxy fatty acids may arise not only by enzymatic reactions but also by nonenzymatic oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids promoted by ionizing radiation. Dehulled green seeds, flour made from dehulled green seeds, and lipid extract were studied for irradiation dose dependent changes in fatty acids compositions and hydroperoxydiene synthesis. The irradiation dose is more efficient in lipid extract than in dehulled green seeds or in flour made from these seeds, suggesting that the formation of UV-absorbing products is not a reliable clue for enzyme activity owing to the absence of protein in lipid extract. A homolytic pathway for the biogenesis of hydroperoxy fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids is proposed. This involves an initiating radical which promotes a chain mechanism in which the O2 adsorbed is converted to hydroperoxide. Conclusively, preservation of fatty acid oxygenation should be a primary goal in the ionizing radiation processes of V. subterranea seeds and generally in the preservation of food of plant origin by ionizing radiation

  9. Mutations in PMR5 result in powdery mildew resistance and altered cell wall composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, John P; Raab, Theodore K; Somerville, Chris R; Somerville, Shauna C

    2004-12-01

    Powdery mildews and other obligate biotrophic pathogens are highly adapted to their hosts and often show limited host ranges. One facet of such host specialization is likely to be penetration of the host cell wall, a major barrier to infection. A mutation in the pmr5 gene rendered Arabidopsis resistant to the powdery mildew species Erysiphe cichoracearum and Erysiphe orontii, but not to the unrelated pathogens Pseudomonas syringae or Peronospora parasitica. PMR5 belongs to a large family of plant-specific genes of unknown function. pmr5-mediated resistance did not require signaling through either the salicylic acid or jasmonic acid/ethylene defense pathways, suggesting resistance in this mutant may be due either to the loss of a susceptibility factor or to the activation of a novel form of defense. Based on Fourier transform infrared analysis, the pmr5 cell walls were enriched in pectin and exhibited a reduced degree of pectin modification relative to wild-type cell walls. In addition, the mutant had smaller cells, suggesting a defect in cell expansion. A double mutant with pmr6 (defective in a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored pectate lyase-like gene) exhibited a strong increase in total uronic acid content and a more severe reduction in size, relative to the single mutants, suggesting that the two genes affect pectin composition, either directly or indirectly, via different mechanisms. These two mutants highlight the importance of the host cell wall in plant-microbe interactions.

  10. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  11. Annual Glyphosate Treatments Alter Growth of Unaffected Bentgrass (Agrostis) Weeds and Plant Community Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W.; Auer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB) and redtop (RT), where the glyphosate resistance (GR) trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities. PMID:23226530

  12. Serum-free culture alters the quantity and protein composition of neuroblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghuan Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs play a significant role in cell–cell communication in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, and offer promise as novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for genetic diseases. Many recent studies have described different molecular mechanisms that contribute to EV biogenesis and release from cells. However, little is known about how external stimuli such as cell culture conditions can affect the quantity and content of EVs. While N2a neuroblastoma cells cultured in serum-free (OptiMEM conditions did not result in EVs with significant biophysical or size differences compared with cells cultured in serum-containing (pre-spun conditions, the quantity of isolated EVs was greatly increased. Moreover, the expression levels of certain vesicular proteins (e.g. small GTPases, G-protein complexes, mRNA processing proteins and splicing factors, some of which were previously reported to be involved in EV biogenesis, were found to be differentially expressed in EVs under different culture conditions. These data, therefore, contribute to the understanding of how extracellular factors and intracellular molecular pathways affect the composition and release of EVs.

  13. Altered inorganic composition of dental enamel and dentin in primary teeth from girls with Turner syndrome.

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    Rizell, Sara; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Dietz, Wolfram; Norén, Jörgen G; Lundgren, Ted

    2010-04-01

    In Turner syndrome (TS) one X-chromosome is missing or defective. The amelogenin gene, located on the X-chromosome, plays a key role during the formation of dental enamel. The aim of this study was to find support for the hypothesis that impaired expression of the X-chromosome influences mineral incorporation during amelogenesis and, indirectly, during dentinogenesis. Primary tooth enamel and dentin from girls with TS were analysed and compared with the enamel and dentin of primary teeth from healthy girls. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the composition of TS enamel were found, in addition to morphological differences. Higher frequencies of subsurface lesions and rod-free zones were seen in TS enamel using polarized light microscopy. Similarly, scanning electron microscopy showed that the enamel rods from TS teeth were of atypical sizes and directions. Using X-ray microanalysis, high levels of calcium and phosphorus, and low levels of carbon, were found in both TS enamel and dentin. Using microradiography, a lower degree of mineralization was found in TS enamel. Rule induction analysis was performed to identify characteristic element patterns for TS. Low values of carbon were the most critical attributes for the outcome TS. The conclusion was that impaired expression of the X-chromosome has an impact on dental hard tissue formation.

  14. Type 2 diabetes alters mesenchymal stem cell secretome composition and angiogenic properties.

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    Ribot, Jonathan; Caliaperoumal, Guavri; Paquet, Joseph; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine; Petite, Herve; Anagnostou, Fani

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) secretome and angiogenic properties. BMMSCs from Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF) (a T2DM model) and Zucker LEAN littermates (control) were cultured. The supernatant conditioned media (CM) from BMMSCs of diabetic and control rats were collected and analysed. Compared to results obtained using CM from LEAN-BMMSCs, the bioactive content of ZDF-BMMSC CM (i) differently affects endothelial cell (HUVEC) functions in vitro by inducing increased (3.5-fold; P CATD, FMOD LTBP1 and LTBP2, which are involved in angiogenesis and/or extracellular matrix composition. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against IGF-1, LTBP1 or LTBP2 in the CM of BMMSCs from diabetic rats decreased its stimulatory effect on HUVEC migration by approximately 60%, 40% or 40%, respectively. These results demonstrate that BMMSCs from T2DM rats have a unique secretome with distinct angiogenic properties and provide new insights into the role of BMMSCs in aberrant angiogenesis in the diabetic milieu. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. Casparian bands and suberin lamellae in exodermis of lateral roots: an important trait of roots system response to abiotic stress factors.

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    Tylová, Edita; Pecková, Eva; Blascheová, Zuzana; Soukup, Aleš

    2017-07-01

    Root absorptive characteristics rely on the presence of apoplastic barriers. However, little is known about the establishment of these barriers within a complex root system, particularly in a major portion of them - the lateral roots. In Zea mays L., the exodermis differentiates under the influence of growth conditions. Therefore, the species presents a suitable model to elucidate the cross-talk among environmental conditions, branching pattern and the maturation of barriers within a complex root system involved in the definition of the plant-soil interface. The study describes the extent to which lateral roots differentiate apoplastic barriers in response to changeable environmental conditions. The branching, permeability of the outer cell layers and differentiation of the endo- and exodermis were studied in primary roots and various laterals under different types of stress of agronomic importance (salinity, heavy metal toxicity, hypoxia, etc.). Histochemical methods, image analysis and apoplastic tracer assays were utilized. The results show that the impact of growth conditions on the differentiation of both the endodermis and exodermis is modulated according to the type/diameter of the root. Fine laterals clearly represent that portion of a complex root system with a less advanced state of barrier differentiation, but with substantial ability to modify exodermis differentiation in response to environmental conditions. In addition, some degree of autonomy in exodermal establishment of Casparian bands (CBs) vs. suberin lamellae (SLs) was observed, as the absence of lignified exodermal CBs did not always fit with the lack of SLs. This study highlights the importance of lateral roots, and provides a first look into the developmental variations of apoplastic barriers within a complex root system. It emphasizes that branching and differentiation of barriers in fine laterals may substantially modulate the root system-rhizosphere interaction. © The Author 2017

  16. Serum phospholipid monounsaturated fatty acid composition and Δ-9-desaturase activity are associated with early alteration of fasting glycemic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Sun; Baek, Seung Han; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2014-09-01

    Because alterations in blood fatty acid (FA) composition by dietary lipids are associated with insulin resistance and related metabolic disorders, we hypothesized that serum phospholipid FA composition would reflect the early alteration of fasting glycemic status, even in people without metabolic syndrome (MetS). To examine this hypothesis, serum phospholipid FA, desaturase activities, fasting glycemic status, and cardiometabolic parameters were measured in study participants (n = 1022; 30-69 years; male, n = 527; female, n = 495; nondiabetics without disease) who were stratified into normal fasting glucose (NFG) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) groups. Total monounsaturated FA (MUFA), oleic acid (OA; 18:1n-9), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), Δ-9-desaturase activity (D9D; 18:1n-9/18:0), and DGLA/linoleic acid (20:3n-6/18:2n-6) in serum phospholipids were significantly higher in IFG subjects than NFG controls. Study subjects were subdivided into 4 groups, based on fasting glucose levels and MetS status. Palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) was highest in IFG-MetS and lowest in NFG-non-MetS subjects. Oleic acid and D9D were higher in IFG-MetS than in the other 3 groups. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and DGLA/linoleic acid were higher in MetS than in non-MetS, regardless of fasting glucose levels. The high-sensitivity C-reactive proteins (hs-CRPs) and 8-epi-prostaglandin-F2α were higher in IFG than in NFG, regardless of MetS status. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins were higher in IFG-MetS than in the other 3 groups. Total MUFAs, OA, and D9D were positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, fasting glucose, triglyceride, hs-CRP, and 8-epi-prostaglandin-F2α. Palmitoleic acid was positively correlated with triglyceride and hs-CRP. Lastly, total MUFA, OA, palmitoleic acid, and D9D were associated with early alteration of fasting glycemic status, therefore suggesting that these may be useful markers for predicting the risk of type 2

  17. Coupled long-term summer warming and deeper snow alters species composition and stimulates gross primary productivity in tussock tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, A Joshua; Klein, Eric S; Oberbauer, Steven F; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2016-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase summer temperature and winter precipitation throughout the Arctic. The long-term implications of these changes for plant species composition, plant function, and ecosystem processes are difficult to predict. We report on the influence of enhanced snow depth and warmer summer temperature following 20 years of an ITEX experimental manipulation at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Winter snow depth was increased using snow fences and warming was accomplished during summer using passive open-top chambers. One of the most important consequences of these experimental treatments was an increase in active layer depth and rate of thaw, which has led to deeper drainage and lower soil moisture content. Vegetation concomitantly shifted from a relatively wet system with high cover of the sedge Eriophorum vaginatum to a drier system, dominated by deciduous shrubs including Betula nana and Salix pulchra. At the individual plant level, we observed higher leaf nitrogen concentration associated with warmer temperatures and increased snow in S. pulchra and B. nana, but high leaf nitrogen concentration did not lead to higher rates of net photosynthesis. At the ecosystem level, we observed higher GPP and NEE in response to summer warming. Our results suggest that deeper snow has a cascading set of biophysical consequences that include a deeper active layer that leads to altered species composition, greater leaf nitrogen concentration, and higher ecosystem-level carbon uptake.

  18. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H; Nielsen, Trine; Hansen, Tue H; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-05-10

    The effects of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota composition in healthy adults have not been well established. We aimed to provide a systematic review of the potential evidence for an effect of probiotic supplementation on the composition of human fecal microbiota as assessed by high-throughput molecular approaches in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of healthy adults. The survey of peer-reviewed papers was performed on 17 August 2015 by a literature search through PubMed, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science. Additional papers were identified by checking references of relevant papers. Search terms included healthy adult, probiotic, bifidobacterium, lactobacillus, gut microbiota, fecal microbiota, intestinal microbiota, intervention, and (clinical) trial. RCTs of solely probiotic supplementation and placebo in healthy adults that examined alteration in composition of overall fecal microbiota structure assessed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, or phylogenetic microarray methods were included. Independent collection and quality assessment of studies were performed by two authors using predefined criteria including methodological quality assessment of reports of the clinical trials based on revised tools from PRISMA/Cochrane and by the Jadad score. Seven RCTs investigating the effect of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota in healthy adults were identified and included in the present systematic review. The quality of the studies was assessed as medium to high. Still, no effects were observed on the fecal microbiota composition in terms of α-diversity, richness, or evenness in any of the included studies when compared to placebo. Only one study found that probiotic supplementation significantly modified the overall structure of the fecal bacterial community in terms of β-diversity when compared to placebo. This systematic review of the pertinent literature demonstrates a lack of evidence for an impact of probiotics on

  19. Increased Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Is Associated With Altered Gut Microbiota Composition and Butyrate Production in Early Pregnancy.

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    Gomez-Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Morrison, Mark; Dekker Nitert, Marloes

    2016-10-01

    The risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia is higher in obese pregnant women. In obesity, the composition of the gut microbiota is altered. Obesity is also associated with low-grade inflammation. Metabolites from the gut microbiota may contribute to both hypertension and inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese pregnant women is associated with blood pressure and levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The composition of the gut microbiota was determined with 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing in 205 women at 16 weeks gestation from the SPRING study (the Study of Probiotics in Gestational Diabetes). Expression of butyrate-producing genes in the gut microbiota was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were measured in fasting serum of a subset of 70 women. Blood pressure was slightly but significantly higher in obese compared with overweight women. The abundance of the butyrate-producing genus Odoribacter was inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Butyrate production capacity was decreased, but plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations increased in obese pregnant women. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were inversely correlated with expression of butyrate kinase and Odoribacter abundance. This study shows that in overweight and obese pregnant women at 16 weeks gestation, the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate production in the gut microbiota is significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Increasing butyrate-producing capacity may contribute to maintenance of normal blood pressure in obese pregnant women. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Alteration of the Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Composition in the Martian Surface Rocks Due to Cosmic Ray Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. A.; Pavlov, A. K.; Ostryakov, V. M.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Mahaffy, P.; Steele, A.

    2014-01-01

    C-13/C-12 and N-15/N-14 isotopic ratios are pivotal for our understanding of the Martian carbon cycle, history of the Martian atmospheric escape, and origin of the organic compounds on Mars. Here we demonstrate that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the surface rocks on Mars can be significantly altered by the continuous exposure of Martian surface to cosmic rays. Cosmic rays can effectively produce C-13 and N-15 isotopes via spallation nuclear reactions on oxygen atoms in various Martian rocks. We calculate that in the top meter of the Martian rocks, the rates of production of both C-13 and N-15 due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) exposure can vary within 1.5-6 atoms/cm3/s depending on rocks' depth and chemical composition. We also find that the average solar cosmic rays can produce carbon and nitrogen isotopes at a rate comparable to GCRs in the top 5-10 cm of the Martian rocks. We demonstrate that if the total carbon content in a surface Martian rock is <10 ppm, then the "light," potentially "biological" C-13/C-12 ratio would be effectively erased by cosmic rays over 3.5 billion years of exposure. We found that for the rocks with relatively short exposure ages (e.g., 100 million years), cosmogenic changes in N-15/N-14 ratio are still very significant. We also show that a short exposure to cosmic rays of Allan Hills 84001 while on Mars can explain its high-temperature heavy nitrogen isotopic composition (N-15/N-14). Applications to Martian meteorites and the current Mars Science Laboratory mission are discussed.

  1. Diseased muscles that lack dystrophin or laminin-α2 have altered compositions and proliferation of mononuclear cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Jeffrey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple types of mononucleate cells reside among the multinucleate myofibers in skeletal muscles and these mononucleate cells function in muscle maintenance and repair. How neuromuscular disease might affect different types of muscle mononucleate cells had not been determined. In this study, therefore, we examined how two neuromuscular diseases, dystrophin-deficiency and laminin-α2-deficiency, altered the proliferation and composition of different subsets of muscle-derived mononucleate cells. Methods We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting combined with bromodeoxyuridine labeling to examine proliferation rates and compositions of mononuclear cells in diseased and healthy mouse skeletal muscle. We prepared mononucleate cells from muscles of mdx (dystrophin-deficient or Lama2-/- (laminin-α2-deficient mice and compared them to cells from healthy control muscles. We enumerated subsets of resident muscle cells based on Sca-1 and CD45 expression patterns and determined the proliferation of each cell subset in vivo by BrdU incorporation. Results We found that the proliferation and composition of the mononucleate cells in dystrophin-deficient and laminin-α2-deficient diseased muscles are different than in healthy muscle. The mdx and Lama2-/- muscles showed similar significant increases in CD45+ cells compared to healthy muscle. Changes in proliferation, however, differed between the two diseases with proliferation increased in mdx and decreased in Lama2-/- muscles compared to healthy muscles. In particular, the most abundant Sca-1-/CD45- subset, which contains muscle precursor cells, had increased proliferation in mdx muscle but decreased proliferation in Lama2-/- muscles. Conclusion The similar increases in CD45+ cells, but opposite changes in proliferation of muscle precursor cells, may underlie aspects of the distinct pathologies in the two diseases.

  2. Distillation time alters essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of male Juniperus scopulorum trees.

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    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Schlegel, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 15 distillation times (DT), ranging from 1.25 to 960 min, on oil yield, essential oil profiles, and antioxidant capacity of male J. scopulorum trees. Essential oil yields were 0.07% at 1.25 min DT and reached a maximum of 1.48% at 840 min DT. The concentrations of alpha-thujene (1.76-2.75%), alpha-pinene (2.9-8.7%), sabinene (45-74.7%), myrcene (2.4-3.4%), and para-cymene (0.8-3.1%) were highest at the shortest DT (1.5 to 5 min) and decreased with increasing DT. Cis-sabinene hydrate (0.5-0.97%) and linalool plus trans-sabinene (0.56-1.6%) reached maximum levels at 40 min DT. Maximum concentrations of limonene (2.3-2.8%) and pregeijerene-B (0.06-1.4%) were obtained at 360-480 min DT, and 4-terpinenol (0.7-5.7%) at 480 min DT. Alpha-terpinene (0.16-2.9%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-4.9%) and terpinolene (0.3-1.4%) reached maximum at 720 min DT. The concentrations of delta-cadinene (0.06-1.65%), elemol (0-6.0%), and 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol (0-4.4%) reached maximum at 840 min DT. The yield of the essential oil constituents increased with increasing DT. Only linalool/transsabinene hydrate reached a maximum yield at 360 min DT. Maximum yields of the following constituents were obtained at 720 min DT: alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, alpha-terpinene, para-cimene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, and 4-terpinenol. At 840 min DT, cis-sabinene hydrate, prejeijerene-B, gamma muurolene, delta-cadinene, reached maximum. At 960 min DT, maximum yields of beta-pinene, elemol, alphaeudesmol/betaeudesmol, 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol were reached. These changes were adequately modeled by either the Michaelis-Menten or the Power (Convex) nonlinear regression models. Oils from the 480 min DT showed higher antioxidant activity compared to samples collected at 40, 160, or 960 min DT. These results show the potential for obtaining essential oils with various compositions and antioxidant capacity from male J

  3. Homozygous and heterozygous GH transgenesis alters fatty acid composition and content in the liver of Amago salmon (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae

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    Manabu Sugiyama

    2012-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH transgenic Amago (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae, containing the sockeye GH1 gene fused with metallothionein-B promoter from the same species, were generated and the physiological condition through lipid metabolism compared among homozygous (Tg/Tg and heterozygous GH transgenic (Tg/+ Amago and the wild type control (+/+. Previously, we have reported that the adipose tissue was generally smaller in GH transgenic fish compared to the control, and that the Δ-6 fatty acyl desaturase gene was down-regulated in the Tg/+ fish. However, fatty acid (FA compositions have not been measured previously in these fish. In this study we compared the FAs composition and content in the liver using gas chromatography. Eleven kinds of FA were detected. The composition of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA and MUFA such as myristic acid (14:0, palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7, and cis-vaccenic acid (cis-18:1n-7 was significantly (P<0.05 decreased in GH transgenic Amago. On the other hand, the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as linoleic acid (18:2n-6, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3 was significantly (P<0.05 increased. Levels of serum glucose and triacylglycerol were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in the GH transgenics compared with +/+ fish. Furthermore, 3′-tag digital gene expression profiling was performed using liver tissues from Tg/Tg and +/+ fish, and showed that Mid1 interacting protein 1 (Mid1ip1, which is an important factor to activate Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, was down-regulated in Tg/Tg fish, while genes involved in FA catabolism were up-regulated, including long-chain-fatty-acid–CoA ligase 1 (ACSL1 and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 3 (ACOX3. These data suggest that liver tissue from GH transgenic Amago showed starvation by alteration in glucose and lipid metabolism due to GH overexpression. The decrease of serum glucose suppressed Mid1ip1, and caused a decrease of de novo FA synthesis, resulting

  4. ACH-806, an NS4A antagonist, inhibits hepatitis C virus replication by altering the composition of viral replication complexes.

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    Yang, Wengang; Sun, Yongnian; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yongsen; Fabrycki, Joanne; Chen, Dawei; Wang, Xiangzhu; Agarwal, Atul; Phadke, Avinash; Deshpande, Milind; Huang, Mingjun

    2013-07-01

    Treatment of hepatitis C patients with direct-acting antiviral drugs involves the combination of multiple small-molecule inhibitors of distinctive mechanisms of action. ACH-806 (or GS-9132) is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor specific for hepatitis C virus (HCV). It inhibits viral RNA replication in HCV replicon cells and was active in genotype 1 HCV-infected patients in a proof-of-concept clinical trial (1). Here, we describe a potential mechanism of action (MoA) wherein ACH-806 alters viral replication complex (RC) composition and function. We found that ACH-806 did not affect HCV polyprotein translation and processing, the early events of the formation of HCV RC. Instead, ACH-806 triggered the formation of a homodimeric form of NS4A with a size of 14 kDa (p14) both in replicon cells and in Huh-7 cells where NS4A was expressed alone. p14 production was negatively regulated by NS3, and its appearance in turn was associated with reductions in NS3 and, especially, NS4A content in RCs due to their accelerated degradation. A previously described resistance substitution near the N terminus of NS3, where NS3 interacts with NS4A, attenuated the reduction of NS3 and NS4A conferred by ACH-806 treatment. Taken together, we show that the compositional changes in viral RCs are associated with the antiviral activity of ACH-806. Small molecules, including ACH-806, with this novel MoA hold promise for further development and provide unique tools for clarifying the functions of NS4A in HCV replication.

  5. Carbon nanomaterials alter plant physiology and soil bacterial community composition in a rice-soil-bacterial ecosystem.

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    Hao, Yi; Ma, Chuanxin; Zhang, Zetian; Song, Youhong; Cao, Weidong; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Guopeng; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Liming; Xing, Baoshan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity effects of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), namely fullerene (C 60 ), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), on a mini-ecosystem of rice grown in a loamy potted soil. We measured plant physiological and biochemical parameters and examined bacterial community composition in the CNMs-treated plant-soil system. After 30 days of exposure, all the three CNMs negatively affected the shoot height and root length of rice, significantly decreased root cortical cells diameter and resulted in shrinkage and deformation of cells, regardless of exposure doses (50 or 500 mg/kg). Additionally, at the high exposure dose of CNM, the concentrations of four phytohormones, including auxin, indoleacetic acid, brassinosteroid and gibberellin acid 4 in rice roots significantly increased as compared to the control. At the high exposure dose of MWCNTs and C 60 , activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in roots increased significantly. High-throughput sequencing showed that three typical CNMs had little effect on shifting the predominant soil bacterial species, but the presence of CNMs significantly altered the composition of the bacterial community. Our results indicate that different CNMs indeed resulted in environmental toxicity to rice and soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere and suggest that CNMs themselves and their incorporated products should be reasonably used to control their release/discharge into the environment to prevent their toxic effects on living organisms and the potential risks to food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests.

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    Havik, Gilles; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Holmgren, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not.

  7. Does respondent driven sampling alter the social network composition and health-seeking behaviors of illicit drug users followed prospectively?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby E Rudolph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Respondent driven sampling (RDS was originally developed to sample and provide peer education to injection drug users at risk for HIV. Based on the premise that drug users' social networks were maintained through sharing rituals, this peer-driven approach to disseminate educational information and reduce risk behaviors capitalizes and expands upon the norms that sustain these relationships. Compared with traditional outreach interventions, peer-driven interventions produce greater reductions in HIV risk behaviors and adoption of safer behaviors over time, however, control and intervention groups are not similarly recruited. As peer-recruitment may alter risk networks and individual risk behaviors over time, such comparison studies are unable to isolate the effect of a peer-delivered intervention. This analysis examines whether RDS recruitment (without an intervention is associated with changes in health-seeking behaviors and network composition over 6 months. New York City drug users (N = 618 were recruited using targeted street outreach (TSO and RDS (2006-2009. 329 non-injectors (RDS = 237; TSO = 92 completed baseline and 6-month surveys ascertaining demographic, drug use, and network characteristics. Chi-square and t-tests compared RDS- and TSO-recruited participants on changes in HIV testing and drug treatment utilization and in the proportion of drug using, sex, incarcerated and social support networks over the follow-up period. The sample was 66% male, 24% Hispanic, 69% black, 62% homeless, and the median age was 35. At baseline, the median network size was 3, 86% used crack, 70% used cocaine, 40% used heroin, and in the past 6 months 72% were tested for HIV and 46% were enrolled in drug treatment. There were no significant differences by recruitment strategy with respect to changes in health-seeking behaviors or network composition over 6 months. These findings suggest no association between RDS recruitment and changes in

  8. Fuel-reduction management alters plant composition, carbon and nitrogen pools, and soil thaw in Alaskan boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, April M.; Celis, Gerardo; Johnstone, Jill F.; McGuire, A. David; Genet, Helene; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Rupp, T. Scott; Mack, Michelle C.

    2018-01-01

    that fuel-reduction management alters plant community composition, C and N pools, and soil thaw depth, with consequences for ecosystem structure and function beyond those intended for fire management.

  9. Perinatal Lead Exposure Alters Gut Microbiota Composition and Results in Sex-specific Bodyweight Increases in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wen, Xiaoquan William; Faulk, Christopher; Boehnke, Kevin; Zhang, Huapeng; Dolinoy, Dana C; Xi, Chuanwu

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a principle source of environmental contamination. Epidemiological and animal data suggest that early life lead (Pb) exposure results in critical effects on epigenetic gene regulation and child and adult weight trajectories. Using a mouse model of human-relevant exposure, we investigated the effects of perinatal Pb exposure on gut microbiota in adult mice, and the link between gut microbiota and bodyweight changes. Following Pb exposure during gestation and lactation via maternal drinking water, bodyweight in A(vy) strain wild-type non-agouti (a/a) offspring was tracked through adulthood. Gut microbiota of adult mice were characterized by deep DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Data analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for litter effects. A Bayesian variable selection algorithm was used to analyze associations between bacterial operational taxonomic units and offspring adult bodyweight. Perinatal Pb exposure was associated with increased adult bodyweight in male (P compositions were significantly different (analysis of molecular variance, P gut microbiota were highly associated with adult bodyweight (P = .028; effect size = 2.59). Thus, perinatal Pb exposure results in altered adult gut microbiota regardless of sex, and these changes are highly correlated with increased bodyweight in males. Adult gut microbiota can be shaped by early exposures and may contribute to disease risks in a sex-specific manner. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Havik

    Full Text Available Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not.

  11. Stacking transgenic event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 alters maize composition less than traditional breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Fast, Brandon J; Scherer, Peter N; Brune, Alyssa M; de Cerqueira, Denise T; Schafer, Barry W; Ekmay, Ricardo D; Harrigan, George G; Bradfisch, Greg A

    2017-10-01

    The impact of crossing ('stacking') genetically modified (GM) events on maize-grain biochemical composition was compared with the impact of generating nonGM hybrids. The compositional similarity of seven GM stacks containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1, and their matched nonGM near-isogenic hybrids (iso-hybrids) was compared with the compositional similarity of concurrently grown nonGM hybrids and these same iso-hybrids. Scatter plots were used to visualize comparisons among hybrids and a coefficient of identity (per cent of variation explained by line of identity) was calculated to quantify the relationships within analyte profiles. The composition of GM breeding stacks was more similar to the composition of iso-hybrids than was the composition of nonGM hybrids. NonGM breeding more strongly influenced crop composition than did transgenesis or stacking of GM events. These findings call into question the value of uniquely requiring composition studies for GM crops, especially for breeding stacks composed of GM events previously found to be compositionally normal. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Petrography and Mineral Chemistry of Magmatic and Hydrothermal Biotite in Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: A Tool for Understanding Mineralizing Fluid Compositional Changes During Alteration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.5.1.47-64This study aims to understand the petrography and chemistry of both magmatic and hydrothermal biotites in porphyry copper-gold deposits, and to evaluate the fluid compositional changes during alteration processes. A total of 206 biotite grains from selected rock samples taken from the Batu Hijau porphyry Cu-Au deposit was analyzed. Detailed petrography and biotite chemistry analysis were performed on thin sections and polished thin sections, respectively, representing various rocks and alteration types. A JEOL JXA-8900R electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA was used for the chemistry analysis. The biotite is texturally divided into magmatic and hydrothermal types. Ti, Fe, and F contents can be used to distinguish the two biotite types chemically. Some oxide and halogen contents of biotite from various rocks and alteration types demonstrate a systematic variation in chemical composition. Biotite halogen chemistry shows a systematic increase in log (XCl/XOH and decrease in log (XF/XOH values from biotite (potassic through chlorite-sericite (intermediate argillic to actinolite (inner propylitic zones. The y-intercepts on the log (XCl/XOH vs. XMg and log (XF/XOH vs. XFe plotted for biotite from potassic and intermediate argillic zones are similar or slightly different. In contrast, the y-intercepts on the log (XCl/XOH vs. XMg and log (XF/XOH vs. XFe plotted for biotite from inner propylitic zone display different values in comparison to the two alteration zones. Halogen (F,Cl fugacity ratios in biotite show a similar pattern: in the potassic and intermediate argillic zones they show little variation, whereas in the inner propylitic zone they are distinctly different. These features suggest the hydrothermal fluid composition remained fairly constant in the inner part of the deposit during the potassic and intermediate argillic alteration events, but changed significantly towards the outer part affected by inner propylitic

  13. Plant species composition alters the sign and strength of an emergent multi-predator effect by modifying predator foraging behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wilby

    Full Text Available The prediction of pest-control functioning by multi-predator communities is hindered by the non-additive nature of species functioning. Such non-additivity, commonly termed an emergent multi-predator effect, is known to be affected by elements of the ecological context, such as the structure and composition of vegetation, in addition to the traits of the predators themselves. Here we report mesocosm experiments designed to test the influence of plant density and species composition (wheat monoculture or wheat and faba bean polyculture on the emergence of multi-predator effects between Adalia bipunctata and Chrysoperla carnea, in their suppression of populations of the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum. The mesocosm experiments were followed by a series of behavioural observations designed to identify how interactions among predators are modified by plant species composition and whether these effects are consistent with the observed influence of plant species composition on aphid population suppression. Although plant density was shown to have no influence on the multi-predator effect on aphid population growth, plant composition had a marked effect. In wheat monoculture, Adalia and Chrysoperla mixed treatments caused greater suppression of M. dirhodum populations than expected. However this positive emergent effect was reversed to a negative multi-predator effect in wheat and faba bean polyculture. The behavioural observations revealed that although dominant individuals did not respond to the presence of faba bean plants, the behaviour of sub-dominants was affected markedly, consistent with their foraging for extra-floral nectar produced by the faba bean. This interaction between plant composition and predator community composition on the foraging behaviour of sub-dominants is thought to underlie the observed effect of plant composition on the multi-predator effect. Thus, the emergence of multi-predator effects is shown to be strongly influenced by

  14. Plant species composition alters the sign and strength of an emergent multi-predator effect by modifying predator foraging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Andrew; Anglin, Linda Anderson; Nesbit, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of pest-control functioning by multi-predator communities is hindered by the non-additive nature of species functioning. Such non-additivity, commonly termed an emergent multi-predator effect, is known to be affected by elements of the ecological context, such as the structure and composition of vegetation, in addition to the traits of the predators themselves. Here we report mesocosm experiments designed to test the influence of plant density and species composition (wheat monoculture or wheat and faba bean polyculture) on the emergence of multi-predator effects between Adalia bipunctata and Chrysoperla carnea, in their suppression of populations of the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum. The mesocosm experiments were followed by a series of behavioural observations designed to identify how interactions among predators are modified by plant species composition and whether these effects are consistent with the observed influence of plant species composition on aphid population suppression. Although plant density was shown to have no influence on the multi-predator effect on aphid population growth, plant composition had a marked effect. In wheat monoculture, Adalia and Chrysoperla mixed treatments caused greater suppression of M. dirhodum populations than expected. However this positive emergent effect was reversed to a negative multi-predator effect in wheat and faba bean polyculture. The behavioural observations revealed that although dominant individuals did not respond to the presence of faba bean plants, the behaviour of sub-dominants was affected markedly, consistent with their foraging for extra-floral nectar produced by the faba bean. This interaction between plant composition and predator community composition on the foraging behaviour of sub-dominants is thought to underlie the observed effect of plant composition on the multi-predator effect. Thus, the emergence of multi-predator effects is shown to be strongly influenced by plant species

  15. Exercise is More Effective at Altering Gut Microbial Composition and Producing Stable Changes in Lean Mass in Juvenile versus Adult Male F344 Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mika

    Full Text Available The mammalian intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem that influences many aspects of host physiology. Exposure to specific microbes early in development affects host metabolism, immune function, and behavior across the lifespan. Just as the physiology of the developing organism undergoes a period of plasticity, the developing microbial ecosystem is characterized by instability and may also be more sensitive to change. Early life thus presents a window of opportunity for manipulations that produce adaptive changes in microbial composition. Recent insights have revealed that increasing physical activity can increase the abundance of beneficial microbial species. We therefore investigated whether six weeks of wheel running initiated in the juvenile period (postnatal day 24 would produce more robust and stable changes in microbial communities versus exercise initiated in adulthood (postnatal day 70 in male F344 rats. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the microbial composition of juvenile versus adult runners and their sedentary counterparts across multiple time points during exercise and following exercise cessation. Alpha diversity measures revealed that the microbial communities of young runners were less even and diverse, a community structure that reflects volatility and malleability. Juvenile onset exercise altered several phyla and, notably, increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes, a configuration associated with leanness. At the genus level of taxonomy, exercise altered more genera in juveniles than in the adults and produced patterns associated with adaptive metabolic consequences. Given the potential of these changes to contribute to a lean phenotype, we examined body composition in juvenile versus adult runners. Interestingly, exercise produced persistent increases in lean body mass in juvenile but not adult runners. Taken together, these results indicate that the impact of exercise on gut microbiota

  16. Expressing yeast SAMdc gene confers broad changes in gene expression and alters fatty acid composition in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotilin, Igor; Koltai, Hinanit; Bar-Or, Carmiya; Chen, Lea; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Levin, Ilan; Reuveni, Moshe

    2011-07-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits expressing a yeast S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) gene under control of a ripening-induced promoter show altered phytonutrient content and broad changes in gene expression. Genome-wide transcriptional alterations in pericarp tissues of the ySAMdc-expressing fruits are shown. Consistent with the ySAMdc expression pattern from the ripening-induced promoter, very minor transcriptional alterations were detected at the mature green developmental stage. At the breaker and red stages, altered levels of numerous transcripts were observed with a general tendency toward upregulation in the transgenic fruits. Ontological analysis of up- and downregulated transcript groups revealed various affected metabolic processes, mainly carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis, which appeared to be intensified in the ripening transgenic fruits. Other functional ontological categories of altered transcripts represented signal transduction, transcription regulation, RNA processing, molecular transport and stress response, as well as metabolism of lipids, glycans, xenobiotics, energy, cofactors and vitamins. In addition, transcript levels of genes encoding structural enzymes for several biosynthetic pathways showed strong correlations to levels of specific metabolites that displayed altered levels in transgenic fruits. Increased transcript levels of fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes were accompanied by a change in the fatty acid profile of transgenic fruits, most notably increasing ω-3 fatty acids at the expense of other lipids. Thus, SAMdc is a prime target in manipulating the nutritional value of tomato fruits. Combined with analyses of selected metabolites in the overripe fruits, a model of enhanced homeostasis of the pericarp tissue in the polyamine-accumulating tomatoes is proposed. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  17. Belowground carbon allocation by trees drives seasonal patterns of extracellular enzyme activities by altering microbial community composition in a beech forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Koranda, Marianne; Kitzler, Barbara; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Schnecker, Jörg; Schweiger, Peter; Rasche, Frank; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sessitsch, Angela; Richter, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    *Plant seasonal cycles alter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability for soil microbes, which may affect microbial community composition and thus feed back on microbial decomposition of soil organic material and plant N availability. The temporal dynamics of these plant-soil interactions are, however, unclear. *Here, we experimentally manipulated the C and N availability in a beech forest through N fertilization or tree girdling and conducted a detailed analysis of the seasonal pattern of microbial community composition and decomposition processes over 2 yr. *We found a strong relationship between microbial community composition and enzyme activities over the seasonal course. Phenoloxidase and peroxidase activities were highest during late summer, whereas cellulase and protease peaked in late autumn. Girdling, and thus loss of mycorrhiza, resulted in an increase in soil organic matter-degrading enzymes and a decrease in cellulase and protease activity. *Temporal changes in enzyme activities suggest a switch of the main substrate for decomposition between summer (soil organic matter) and autumn (plant litter). Our results indicate that ectomycorrhizal fungi are possibly involved in autumn cellulase and protease activity. Our study shows that, through belowground C allocation, trees significantly alter soil microbial communities, which may affect seasonal patterns of decomposition processes.

  18. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Weigand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each, were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ and 22% cocoa butter (CB or 22% safflower oil (SF for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control. The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  19. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Edgar; Egenolf, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  20. Fe isotope composition of bulk chondrules from Murchison (CM2): Constraints for parent body alteration, nebula processes and chondrule-matrix complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Dominik C.; Wilden, Johanna S.; Becker, Daniel; Steinbach, Sonja; Wombacher, Frank; Harak, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Chondrules are a major constituent of primitive meteorites. The formation of chondrules is one of the most elusive problems in cosmochemistry. We use Fe isotope compositions of chondrules and bulk chondrites to constrain the conditions of chondrule formation. Iron isotope compositions of bulk chondrules are so far only known from few studies on CV and some ordinary chondrites. We studied 37 chondrules from the CM chondrite Murchison. This is particularly challenging, as CM chondrites contain the smallest chondrules of all chondrite groups, except for CH chondrites. Bulk chondrules have δ56Fe between -0.62 and +0.24‰ relative to the IRMM-014 standard. Bulk Murchison has as all chondrites a δ56Fe of 0.00‰ within error. The δ56Fe distribution of the Murchison chondrule population is continuous and close to normal. The width of the δ56Fe distribution is narrower than that of the Allende chondrule population. Opaque modal abundances in Murchison chondrules is in about 67% of the chondrules close to 0 vol.%, and in 33% typically up to 6.5 vol.%. Chondrule Al/Mg and Fe/Mg ratios are sub-chondritic, while bulk Murchison has chondritic ratios. We suggest that the variable bulk chondrule Fe isotope compositions were established during evaporation and recondensation prior to accretion in the Murchison parent body. This range in isotope composition was likely reduced during aqueous alteration on the parent body. Murchison has a chondritic Fe isotope composition and a number of chondritic element ratios. Chondrules, however, have variable Fe isotope compositions and chondrules and matrix have complementary Al/Mg and Fe/Mg ratios. In combination, this supports the idea that chondrules and matrix formed from a single reservoir and were then accreted in the parent body. The formation in a single region also explains the compositional distribution of the chondrule population in Murchison.

  1. High saturated fat diet alters the lipid composition of triacylglycerol and polar lipids in the femur of dam and offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Paula M; Castelli, Laura M; Amoye, Foyinsola; Ward, Wendy E; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2015-06-01

    Previous work has shown that dietary lipids alter femur lipid composition. Specifically, we have shown that exposure to high saturated fatty acid (SFA) diets in utero, during suckling, or post-weaning alters femur total lipid composition, resulting in higher percent bone mass in males and females and bone mineral density (BMD) in female offspring with no effect on bone mineral outcomes in dams. Comparatively, high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diets increase femur polar (PL) lipid n-3 content, which has been associated with increased bone mineral content and strength. However, the extent that PL or triacylglycerol (TAG) lipids change with high SFA diets is unknown. The current investigation examined the influence of a high SFA diet (20 % lard by weight) on femur PL and TAG lipid composition in 5-month old female Wistar rats (fed high SFA diet from age 28 days onwards; dams) and their 19-day old offspring (exposed to high SFA in utero and during suckling; pups). High SFA exposure resulted in increased monounsaturates and decreased n-3 and n-6 PUFA in the TAG fraction in both dams and pups, and higher SFA and n-6:n-3 ratio in dams only. The PL fraction showed decreased n-6 PUFA in both dams and pups. The magnitude of the diet-mediated responses, specifically TAG 18:1 and PL n-6 PUFA, may have contributed to the previously reported altered BMD, which was supported with correlation analysis. Future research should investigate the relationship of diet-induced changes in bone lipids on bone structure, as quantified through micro-computed tomography.

  2. Age and haplotype variations within FADS1 interact and associate with alterations in fatty acid composition in human male cortical brain tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freemantle

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA play an integral role in brain function and alterations have been implicated in a variety of complex neurological disorders. Several recent genomic studies have highlighted genetic variability in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS1/2/3 gene cluster as an important contributor to FA alterations in serum lipids as well as measures of FA desaturase index estimated by ratios of relevant FAs. The contribution to alterations of FAs within the brain by local synthesis is still a matter of debate. Thus, the impact of genetic variants in FADS genes on gene expression and brain FA levels is an important avenue to investigate.Analyses were performed on brain tissue from prefrontal cortex Brodmann area 47 (BA47 of 61 male subjects of French Canadian ancestry ranging in age from young adulthood to middle age (18-58 years old, with the exception of one teenager (15 years old. Haplotype tagging SNPs were selected using the publicly available HapMap genotyping dataset in conjunction with Haploview. DNA sequencing was performed by the Sanger method and gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. FAs in brain tissue were analysed by gas chromatography. Variants in the FADS1 gene region were sequenced and analyzed for their influence on both FADS gene expression and FAs in brain tissue.Our results suggest an association of the minor haplotype with alteration in estimated fatty acid desaturase activity. Analysis of the impact of DNA variants on expression and alternative transcripts of FADS1 and FADS2, however, showed no differences. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between haplotype and age on certain brain FA levels.This study suggests that genetic variability in the FADS genes cluster, previously shown to be implicated in alterations in peripheral FA levels, may also affect FA composition in brain tissue, but not likely by local synthesis.

  3. Bone marrow stroma in childhood myelodysplastic syndrome: composition, ability to sustain hematopoiesis in vitro, and altered gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borojevic, Radovan; Roela, Rosimeire A; Rodarte, Renato S; Thiago, Leandro S; Pasini, Fátima S; Conti, Fabiana M; Rossi, Maria Isabel D; Reis, Luiz F L; Lopes, Luiz F; Brentani, M Mitzi

    2004-08-01

    We studied bone marrow stromal cell cultures from patients with childhood myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS, refractory anemia with excess of blasts, RAEB) and from matched normal donors. Stromal cell monolayers were characterized as myofibroblasts by the expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin, collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin. When normal cord blood cells were plated onto myelodysplastic stromas, a pathologic cell differentiation was observed, indicating altered myelosupportive properties. cDNA array analysis showed that patient stromas expressed increased levels of thrombospondin-1, collagen-I alpha2-chain, osteoblast-specific factor-2 and osteonectin, indicating the presence of increased osteoblast content, as confirmed by enhanced alkaline phosphatase synthesis. Alterations in the myelodysplastic stroma environment might contribute to abnormal hematopoiesis in this pathology.

  4. Alteration of the superconducting properties of A15 compounds and elementary composite superconductors by non-hydrostatic elastic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.O.

    1979-01-01

    Elastic strains alter (usually, but not always, adversely) the critical temperatures, magnetic fields, and current densities of superconducting A15 compounds; non-hydrostatic strain states are particularly effective in this regard. This paper is a review of the experimental evidence, obtained by a variety of techniques, concerning the strain dependence of the critical properties of a number of A15 compounds and a discussion of theoretical models for describing such effects

  5. Alteration of Wax Ester Content and Composition in Euglena gracilis with Gene Silencing of 3-ketoacyl-CoA Thiolase Isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masami; Andoh, Hiroko; Koyama, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Yomi; Nakai, Takeo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2015-05-01

    Euglena gracilis produces wax ester under hypoxic and anaerobic culture conditions with a net synthesis of ATP. In wax ester fermentation, fatty acids are synthesized by reversing beta-oxidation in mitochondria. A major species of wax ester produced by E. gracilis is myristyl myristate (14:0-14:0Alc). Because of its shorter carbon chain length with saturated compounds, biodiesel produced from E. gracilis wax ester may have good cold flow properties with high oxidative stability. We reasoned that a slight metabolic modification would enable E. gracilis to produce a biofuel of ideal composition. In order to produce wax ester with shorter acyl chain length, we focused on isozymes of the enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT), a condensing enzyme of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway in E. gracilis. We performed a gene silencing study of KAT isozymes in E. gracilis. Six KAT isozymes were identified in the E. gracilis EST database, and silencing any three of them (EgKAT1-3) altered the wax ester amount and composition. In particular, silencing EgKAT1 induced a significant compositional shift to shorter carbon chain lengths in wax ester. A model fuel mixture inferred from the composition of wax ester in EgKAT1-silenced cells showed a significant decrease in melting point compared to that of the control cells.

  6. Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David J; Stote, Kim S; Paul, David R; Harris, G Keith; Rumpler, William V; Clevidence, Beverly A

    2011-08-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of consumption of supplemental whey protein (WP), soy protein (SP), and an isoenergetic amount of carbohydrate (CHO) on body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese but otherwise healthy participants. Ninety overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups for 23 wk: 1) WP; 2) SP (each providing ~56 g/d of protein and 1670 kJ/d); or 3) an isoenergetic amount of CHO. Supplements were consumed as a beverage twice daily. Participants were provided no dietary advice and continued to consume their free-choice diets. Participants' body weight and composition data were obtained monthly. Dietary intake was determined by 24-h dietary recalls collected every 10 d. After 23 wk, body weight and composition did not differ between the groups consuming the SP and WP or between SP and CHO; however, body weight and fat mass of the group consuming the WP were lower by 1.8 kg (P body mass did not differ among any of the groups. Waist circumference was smaller in the participants consuming WP than in the other groups (P dietary protein may differentially facilitate weight loss and affect body composition. Dietary recommendations, especially those that emphasize the role of dietary protein in facilitating weight change, should also address the demonstrated clinical potential of supplemental WP.

  7. Characterization of the glucansucrase GTF180 W1065 mutant enzymes producing polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with altered linkage composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Xiangfeng; Pijning, Tjaard; Tietema, Martin; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; Yin, Huifang; Gerwig, Gerrit J; Kralj, Slavko; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2017-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria are extensively used for food applications. Glucansucrase enzymes of lactic acid bacteria use sucrose to catalyze the synthesis of α-glucans with different linkage compositions, size and physico-chemical properties. Crystallographic studies of

  8. Alteration of biomass composition in response to changing substrate particle size and the consequences for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn bran is a by-product from corn starch processing. This work examined the effects of changing substrate particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of both raw and pretreated destarched corn bran. The biomass composition of the corn bran varied between particle size fractions: The largest particles...

  9. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, G.; Catenazzi, A.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing

  10. Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hanqing; Guo, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was a literature study concerning composites. With composites becoming increasingly popular in various areas such as aerospace industry and construction, the research about composites has a significant meaning accordingly. This thesis was aim at introducing some basic information of polymer matrix composites including raw mate-rial, processing, testing, applications and recycling to make a rough understanding of this kind of material for readers. Polymeric matrices, fillers,...

  11. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  12. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  13. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

  14. Combined elevated temperature and soil waterlogging stresses inhibit cell elongation by altering osmolyte composition of the developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinglong; Wang, Haimiao; Hu, Wei; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Youhua; Snider, John L; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-03-01

    Soil waterlogging events and high temperature conditions occur frequently in the Yangtze River Valley, yet the effects of these co-occurring stresses on fiber elongation have received little attention. In the current study, the combined effect of elevated temperature (ET) and soil waterlogging (SW) more negatively affected final fiber length (reduced by 5.4%-11.3%) than either stress alone by altering the composition of osmotically active solutes (sucrose, malate, and K + ), where SW had the most pronounced effect. High temperature accelerated early fiber development, but limited the duration of elongation, thereby limiting final fiber length. Treatment of ET alone altered fiber sucrose content mainly through decreased source strength and the expression of the sucrose transporter gene GhSUT-1, making sucrose availability the primary determinant of final fiber length under ET. Waterlogging stress alone decreased source strength, down-regulated GhSUT-1 expression and enhanced SuSy catalytic activity for sucrose reduction. Waterlogging treatment alone also limited fiber malate production by down-regulating GhPEPC-1 & -2. However, combined elevated temperature and waterlogging limited primary cell wall synthesis by affecting GhCESAs genes and showed a negative impact on all three major osmotic solutes through the regulation of GhSUT-1, GhPEPC-1 & -2 and GhKT-1 expression and altered SuSy activity, which functioned together to produce a shorter fiber length. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Silencing of BnTT1 family genes affects seed flavonoid biosynthesis and alters seed fatty acid composition in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianping; Lu, Xiaochun; Yin, Nengwen; Ma, Lijuan; Lu, Jing; Liu, Xue; Li, Jiana; Lu, Jun; Lei, Bo; Wang, Rui; Chai, Yourong

    2017-01-01

    TRANSPARENT TESTA1 (TT1) is a zinc finger protein that contains a WIP domain. It plays important roles in controlling differentiation and pigmentation of the seed coat endothelium, and can affect the expression of early biosynthetic genes and late biosynthetic genes of flavonoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Brassica napus (AACC, 2n=38), the functions of BnTT1 genes remain unknown and few studies have focused on their roles in fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis. In this study, BnTT1 family genes were silenced by RNA interference, which resulted in yellow rapeseed, abnormal testa development (a much thinner testa), decreased seed weight, and altered seed FA composition in B. napus. High-throughput sequencing of genes differentially expressed between developing transgenic B. napus and wild-type seeds revealed altered expression of numerous genes involved in flavonoid and FA biosynthesis. As a consequence of this altered expression, we detected a marked decrease of oleic acid (C18:1) and notable increases of linoleic acid (C18:2) and α-linolenic acid (C18:3) in mature transgenic B. napus seeds by gas chromatography and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Meanwhile, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed reduced accumulation of flavonoids in transgenic seeds. Therefore, we propose that BnTT1s are involved in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, and may also play a role in FA biosynthesis in B. napus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil organic carbon stocks and composition under grazed and ungrazed Kobresia pygmaea pasture of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbach, Andreas; Schleuß, Per; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Guggenberger, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Kobresia pastures represent the world's largest alpine ecosystem and an important sink but also a potential source of CO2. Specific features of Kobresia root mats provide unique mechanisms protecting against degradation even by moderate overgrazing and leading to large carbon storage in soil. Thus it is necessary to analyse how management- and/or climate-induced changes in above and belowground litter production affect the OC stock and composition in these grassland soils. We analyzed soils from a grazing exclosure experiment to study alterations using elemental analysis and analysis of solvent extractable as well as hydrolysable aliphatic lipids (e.g. n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, as well as cutin- and suberin-derived hydroxy-fatty acids). We investigated bulk soils and density fractions taken from three different depth increments (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm and 15-35 cm) from two grazed and two ungrazed plots. Grazing exclosure resulted in an OC gain up to 1.0 kg m-2 at the site where plant community changes after grazing cessation were most pronounced. These OC gains were caused by increased stocks of OC in the particulate fraction of the two deeper soil increments whereas the OC of the mineral associated fraction and the depth increment 0-5 cm showed no changes. Moreover, the concentration of solvent extractable C16 and C18 acids decreased in the particulate fraction whereas the concentration of C24 and C26 acids increased. Our results show that seven years of grazing cessation increased the OC-pool with short turnover rates and changed its chemical composition, but had no major impact on the more stable OC pools of the mineral soil.

  17. Small changes in environmental parameters lead to alterations in antibiotic resistance, cell morphology and membrane fatty acid composition in Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J Crompton

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus lugdunensis has emerged as a major cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. This bacterium can rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions to survive and capitalize on opportunities to colonize and infect through wound surfaces. It was proposed that S. lugdunensis would have underlying alterations in metabolic homeostasis to provide the necessary levels of adaptive protection. The aims of this project were to examine the impacts of subtle variations in environmental conditions on growth characteristics, cell size and membrane fatty acid composition in S. lugdunensis. Liquid broth cultures of S. lugdunensis were grown under varying combinations of pH (6-8, temperature (35-39°C and osmotic pressure (0-5% sodium chloride w/w to reflect potential ranges of conditions encountered during transition from skin surfaces to invasion of wound sites. The cells were harvested at the mid-exponential phase of growth and assessed for antibiotic minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, generation time, formation of small colony variants, cell size (by scanning electron microscopy and membrane fatty acid composition. Stress regimes with elevated NaCl concentrations resulted in significantly higher antibiotic resistance (MIC and three of the combinations with 5% NaCl had increased generation times (P<0.05. It was found that all ten experimental growth regimes, including the control and centroid cultures, yielded significantly different profiles of plasma membrane fatty acid composition (P<0.0001. Alterations in cell size (P<0.01 were also observed under the range of conditions with the most substantial reduction occurring when cells were grown at 39°C, pH 8 (514±52 nm, mean ± Standard Deviation compared with cells grown under control conditions at 37°C with pH 7 (702±76 nm, P<0.01. It was concluded that S. lugdunensis responded to slight changes in environmental conditions by altering plasma membrane fatty acid composition

  18. Diarrhea in young children from low-income countries leads to large-scale alterations in intestinal microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Mihai; Walker, Alan W; Paulson, Joseph; Lindsay, Brianna; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, M Anowar; Oundo, Joseph; Tamboura, Boubou; Mai, Volker; Astrovskaya, Irina; Corrada Bravo, Hector; Rance, Richard; Stares, Mark; Levine, Myron M; Panchalingam, Sandra; Kotloff, Karen; Ikumapayi, Usman N; Ebruke, Chinelo; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Ahmed, Dilruba; Ahmed, Firoz; Alam, Meer Taifur; Amin, Ruhul; Siddiqui, Sabbir; Ochieng, John B; Ouma, Emmanuel; Juma, Jane; Mailu, Euince; Omore, Richard; Morris, J Glenn; Breiman, Robert F; Saha, Debasish; Parkhill, Julian; Nataro, James P; Stine, O Colin

    2014-06-27

    Diarrheal diseases continue to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in infants and young children in developing countries. There is an urgent need to better understand the contributions of novel, potentially uncultured, diarrheal pathogens to severe diarrheal disease, as well as distortions in normal gut microbiota composition that might facilitate severe disease. We use high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to compare fecal microbiota composition in children under five years of age who have been diagnosed with moderate to severe diarrhea (MSD) with the microbiota from diarrhea-free controls. Our study includes 992 children from four low-income countries in West and East Africa, and Southeast Asia. Known pathogens, as well as bacteria currently not considered as important diarrhea-causing pathogens, are positively associated with MSD, and these include Escherichia/Shigella, and Granulicatella species, and Streptococcus mitis/pneumoniae groups. In both cases and controls, there tend to be distinct negative correlations between facultative anaerobic lineages and obligate anaerobic lineages. Overall genus-level microbiota composition exhibit a shift in controls from low to high levels of Prevotella and in MSD cases from high to low levels of Escherichia/Shigella in younger versus older children; however, there was significant variation among many genera by both site and age. Our findings expand the current understanding of microbiota-associated diarrhea pathogenicity in young children from developing countries. Our findings are necessarily based on correlative analyses and must be further validated through epidemiological and molecular techniques.

  19. Gender and Age - Dependent effect of type 1 diabetes on obesity and altered body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Madej, Anna; Ziółkowska, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Małgorzata; Jeziorny, Krzysztof; Mianowska, Beata; Pietrzak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence of overweight and obesity, body composition and fatty tissue distribution in young adults with type 1 diabetes. 197 patients with type 1 diabetes aged 20-40 years participated in the study. The control group consisted of 138 healthy adults. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Analysis of body mass composition was performed using the bioimpedance. Study groups were stratified into cohorts aged obesity were diagnosed in 35.5% and 13.2% of diabetic patients and in 26.1% and 7.3% of the control group, respectively (p=0.016). In the whole study group, advanced age (OR=1.10; pobesity, but a trend toward excessive body mass was observed in diabetic females (OR=1.18; p=0.181). Diabetic females more often had abdominal obesity than control females (mean difference - 19.2%; p=0.020). Higher total body fat mass was found in the diabetic group (p=0.037). Diabetic females had a higher amount of absolute (pobesity in early adulthood more frequently than the general population and are characterized by higher body fat mass. Gender-related differences in body weight and composition in young type 1 diabetic adults were found.

  20. Cigarette smokers develop altered erythrocyte membrane composition: an investigation unmasking the role of membrane bound integral protein GLUT 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Jyotirmoy; Seal, Paromita; Roy, Amartya; Haldar, Rajen

    2017-04-01

    Erythrocytes in cigarette smokers are prone to oxidative damage. Here, we sought to elucidate the facts behind modifications and possible defense system developed in erythrocyte of cigarette smokers. We observed significant increase in stomatocytes and spherocytes, and osmotic fragility of erythrocyte, along with reduced level of protein thiol and increased fluorescence anisotropy in isolated membrane. Denaturing gel electrophoresis indicated alterations in band 3, band 4.2 and band 4.5. Among those, Glut 1 (i.e. band 4.5), which transports glucose (insulin independent) and dehydroascorbate (DHA), was selectively chosen for its long history in reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The increased Glut 1 level in smokers was confirmed by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Furthermore, smokers showed significantly higher glucose uptake in whole blood. The intracellular (Ic) ROS (as indicated by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin) was significantly higher in smokers as evidenced by flow cytometric assay. Glucose and DHA alone or together significantly reduced IcROS at higher rate in smokers. However, in presence of Glut 1 specific blocker, phloretin, neither glucose nor DHA could reduce IcROS in both non-smokers and smokers. This confirms that Glut 1 by transporting glucose or DHA attenuates IcROS. Therefore, we conclude that erythrocytes, although altered morphologically, also develop a defense system by upregulating Glut 1 to combat with enhanced Ic oxidative insult in cigarette smokers.

  1. Altered faecal and mucosal microbial composition in post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome patients correlates with mucosal lymphocyte phenotypes and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, J; Rangel, I; Fuentes, S; Heikamp-de Jong, I; Hultgren-Hörnquist, E; de Vos, W M; Brummer, R J

    2015-02-01

    A subset of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients, denoted post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS), develop symptoms after an enteric infection. Bacterial dysbiosis and mucosal inflammation have been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of this entity. To characterise the mucosal and faecal microbiota in PI-IBS, general IBS and healthy controls, and to investigate associations between the microbiota and the mucosal immune system. Mucosal biopsies and faeces were collected from 13 PI-IBS patients, 19 general IBS patients and 16 healthy controls. Global bacterial composition was determined by generating 16S rRNA amplicons that were examined by phylogenetic microarray hybridisation, principal component and redundancy analysis. We correlated previously reported lymphocyte proportions with the microbiota. Faecal microbiota composition of PI-IBS patients differed significantly from both general IBS patients and healthy controls (P intestinal microbiota of PI-IBS patients from that of both general IBS patients and HC. The microbial composition is significantly associated with the HADs score and alterations in lymphocyte subsets proportions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ghrelin and measures of satiety are altered in polycystic ovary syndrome but not differentially affected by diet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, L J; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M; Wittert, G A; Tomlinson, L; Galletly, C; Luscombe, N D; Norman, R J

    2004-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition in women of reproductive age associated with obesity. It may involve dysregulation of ghrelin, a hormone implicated in appetite regulation. The effect of diet composition on ghrelin is unclear. Overweight women with and without PCOS were randomized to a high-protein (40% carbohydrate, 30% protein; 10 PCOS, six non-PCOS) or standard protein diet (55% carbohydrate, 15% protein; 10 PCOS, six non-PCOS) for 12 wk of energy restriction and 4 wk of weight maintenance. Diet composition had no effect on fasting or postprandial ghrelin or measures of satiety. Non-PCOS subjects had a 70% higher fasting baseline ghrelin (P = 0.011), greater increase in fasting ghrelin (57.5 vs. 34.0%, P = 0.033), and greater maximal decrease in postprandial ghrelin after weight loss (-144.1 +/- 58.4 vs. -28.9 +/- 14.2 pg/ml, P = 0.02) than subjects with PCOS. Subjects with PCOS were less satiated (P = 0.001) and more hungry (P = 0.007) after a test meal at wk 0 and 16 than subjects without PCOS. Appetite regulation, as measured by subjective short-term hunger and satiety and ghrelin homeostasis, may be impaired in PCOS.

  3. Soil-foraging animals alter the composition and co-occurrence of microbial communities in a desert shrubland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, David J; Woodhouse, Jason N; Curlevski, Nathalie J A; Hayward, Matthew; Brown, Mark V; Neilan, Brett A

    2015-12-01

    Animals that modify their physical environment by foraging in the soil can have dramatic effects on ecosystem functions and processes. We compared bacterial and fungal communities in the foraging pits created by bilbies and burrowing bettongs with undisturbed surface soils dominated by biocrusts. Bacterial communities were characterized by Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, and fungal communities by Lecanoromycetes and Archaeosporomycetes. The composition of bacterial or fungal communities was not observed to vary between loamy or sandy soils. There were no differences in richness of either bacterial or fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the soil of young or old foraging pits, or undisturbed soils. Although the bacterial assemblage did not vary among the three microsites, the composition of fungi in undisturbed soils was significantly different from that in old or young foraging pits. Network analysis indicated that a greater number of correlations between bacterial OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils and old pits, whereas a greater number of correlations between fungal OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils. Our study suggests that digging by soil-disturbing animals is likely to create successional shifts in soil microbial and fungal communities, leading to functional shifts associated with the decomposition of organic matter and the fixation of nitrogen. Given the primacy of organic matter decomposition in arid and semi-arid environments, the loss of native soil-foraging animals is likely to impair the ability of these systems to maintain key ecosystem processes such as the mineralization of nitrogen and the breakdown of organic matter, and to recover from disturbance.

  4. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters from the Otobaru landslide in the area of hydrothermal alteration, Beppu City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Kitaoka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Kokichi

    1989-01-01

    The landslide at the Otobaru area, Beppu City, occurred twice in 1943 and 1969. A part of this area, even now, is affected considerably by thermal activities. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Otobaru area and its vicinity were investigated from 1977 to 1983 and 1986 to 1987. The results are as follows: (1) electric conductivity data suggest that the two kinds of low-concentration water and high-concentration water exist in the landslide area, (2) the existence-of two groundwater aquifer in the landslide area and its vicinity is inferred from tritium data, (3) variations chemical composition of waters from the horizontal borehole are accompanied by the rise and decline of water table, (4) the waters from the landslide area and its vicinity are in equilibrium with montmorillonite, (5) the most waters under 10 -1 atm. of P co2 are saturated or supersaturated with calcite, and (6) there is no detectable contribution of geothermal water to the waters from the landslide and its vicinity. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of calcium sulfate type water is also presented. (author)

  5. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Christopher B.; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J., E-mail: Gow@rci.rutgers.edu

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl{sub 2} exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl{sub 2} inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl{sub 2} dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO{sub 3}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl{sub 2} inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl{sub 2} gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor.

  6. Long-term nickel exposure altered the bacterial community composition but not diversity in two contrasting agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yu-Rong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Nickel pollution imposes deleterious effects on soil ecosystem. The responses of soil microorganisms to long-term nickel pollution under field conditions remain largely unknown. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to elucidate the impacts of long-term nickel pollution on soil bacterial communities in two contrasting agricultural soils. Our results found that the soil microbial biomass carbon consistently decreased along the nickel gradients in both soils. Nickel pollution selectively favored or impeded the prevalence of several dominant bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes displayed sensitivity. Despite the apparent shifts in the bacterial community composition, no clear tendency in the bacterial diversity and abundance was identified along the nickel gradients in either soil. Collectively, we provide evidence that long-term nickel pollution shifted the soil bacterial communities, resulting in the decrease of microbial biomass although the bacterial diversity was not significantly changed.

  7. Postsedimentary Alterations of Coal-bearing Rocks and New Factors Affecting their Quality and Ingredient Composition as Exemplified by the Akhaltsikhe Brown Coal Deposit (Georgia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghalashvili, G.

    2008-01-01

    It has been established that in the case when coal-bearing rocks are represented by bentonitic clays, coal undergoes significant alterations, for the bentonitic clays, as a strong absorbent, absorb from the coal under conditions of natural humidity part of organics (humic acids, gums and other moving composite substances) thus depleting the coal, increasing its ash content and accordingly decreasing its calorific capacity. In this case it is expedient to exploit the coal and ''black'' or organics-saturated rocks selectively. It has also been established that the organics-saturated ''black'' bentonite is an excellent organic and mineral fertilizer that has been tested by the autor in the patented man-made soil. At the same time, in the case of coal briquetting, it may be used as a bonding material. (author)

  8. High-grain diet feeding altered the composition and functions of the rumen bacterial community and caused the damage to the laminar tissues of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R Y; Jin, W; Feng, P F; Liu, J H; Mao, S Y

    2018-03-19

    In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (Pdiet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (Pbacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.

  9. Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lindheim

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common female endocrinopathy of unclear origin characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Women with PCOS frequently display overweight, insulin resistance, and systemic low-grade inflammation. We hypothesized that endotoxemia resulting from a leaky gut is associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, fat accumulation, and hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. In this pilot study, we compared the stool microbiome, gut permeability, and inflammatory status of women with PCOS and healthy controls.16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was performed on stool samples from 24 PCOS patients and 19 healthy controls. Data processing and microbiome analysis were conducted in mothur and QIIME using different relative abundance cut-offs. Gut barrier integrity, endotoxemia, and inflammatory status were evaluated using serum and stool markers and associations with reproductive, metabolic, and anthropometric parameters were investigated.The stool microbiome of PCOS patients showed a lower diversity and an altered phylogenetic composition compared to controls. We did not observe significant differences in any taxa with a relative abundance>1%. When looking at rare taxa, the relative abundance of bacteria from the phylum Tenericutes, the order ML615J-28 (phylum Tenericutes and the family S24-7 (phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly lower and associated with reproductive parameters in PCOS patients. Patients showed alterations in some, but not all markers of gut barrier function and endotoxemia.Patients with PCOS have a lower diversity and an altered phylogenetic profile in their stool microbiome, which is associated with clinical parameters. Gut barrier dysfunction and endotoxemia were not driving factors in this patient cohort, but may contribute to the clinical phenotype in certain PCOS patients.

  10. Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheim, Lisa; Bashir, Mina; Münzker, Julia; Trummer, Christian; Zachhuber, Verena; Leber, Bettina; Horvath, Angela; Pieber, Thomas R; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrinopathy of unclear origin characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Women with PCOS frequently display overweight, insulin resistance, and systemic low-grade inflammation. We hypothesized that endotoxemia resulting from a leaky gut is associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, fat accumulation, and hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. In this pilot study, we compared the stool microbiome, gut permeability, and inflammatory status of women with PCOS and healthy controls. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was performed on stool samples from 24 PCOS patients and 19 healthy controls. Data processing and microbiome analysis were conducted in mothur and QIIME using different relative abundance cut-offs. Gut barrier integrity, endotoxemia, and inflammatory status were evaluated using serum and stool markers and associations with reproductive, metabolic, and anthropometric parameters were investigated. The stool microbiome of PCOS patients showed a lower diversity and an altered phylogenetic composition compared to controls. We did not observe significant differences in any taxa with a relative abundance>1%. When looking at rare taxa, the relative abundance of bacteria from the phylum Tenericutes, the order ML615J-28 (phylum Tenericutes) and the family S24-7 (phylum Bacteroidetes) was significantly lower and associated with reproductive parameters in PCOS patients. Patients showed alterations in some, but not all markers of gut barrier function and endotoxemia. Patients with PCOS have a lower diversity and an altered phylogenetic profile in their stool microbiome, which is associated with clinical parameters. Gut barrier dysfunction and endotoxemia were not driving factors in this patient cohort, but may contribute to the clinical phenotype in certain PCOS patients.

  11. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  12. Reduced diversity and altered composition of the gut microbiome in individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloteaux, Ludovic; Goodrich, Julia K; Walters, William A; Levine, Susan M; Ley, Ruth E; Hanson, Maureen R

    2016-06-23

    Gastrointestinal disturbances are among symptoms commonly reported by individuals diagnosed with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). However, whether ME/CFS is associated with an altered microbiome has remained uncertain. Here, we profiled gut microbial diversity by sequencing 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes from stool as well as inflammatory markers from serum for cases (n = 48) and controls (n = 39). We also examined a set of inflammatory markers in blood: C-reactive protein (CRP), intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS-binding protein (LBP), and soluble CD14 (sCD14). We observed elevated levels of some blood markers for microbial translocation in ME/CFS patients; levels of LPS, LBP, and sCD14 were elevated in ME/CFS subjects. Levels of LBP correlated with LPS and sCD14 and LPS levels correlated with sCD14. Through deep sequencing of bacterial rRNA markers, we identified differences between the gut microbiomes of healthy individuals and patients with ME/CFS. We observed that bacterial diversity was decreased in the ME/CFS specimens compared to controls, in particular, a reduction in the relative abundance and diversity of members belonging to the Firmicutes phylum. In the patient cohort, we find less diversity as well as increases in specific species often reported to be pro-inflammatory species and reduction in species frequently described as anti-inflammatory. Using a machine learning approach trained on the data obtained from 16S rRNA and inflammatory markers, individuals were classified correctly as ME/CFS with a cross-validation accuracy of 82.93 %. Our results indicate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in this disease and further suggest an increased incidence of microbial translocation, which may play a role in inflammatory symptoms in ME/CFS.

  13. Defective ceramide synthases in mice cause reduced amplitudes in electroretinograms and altered sphingolipid composition in retina and cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggen, Bianca; Kremser, Christiane; Bickert, Andreas; Ebel, Philipp; Vom Dorp, Katharina; Schultz, Konrad; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus; Dedek, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Complex sphingolipids are strongly expressed in neuronal tissue and contain ceramides in their backbone. Ceramides are synthesized by six ceramide synthases (CerS1-6). Although it is known that each tissue has a unique profile of ceramide synthase expression and ceramide synthases are implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders, the expression of ceramide synthase isoforms has not been investigated in the retina. Here we demonstrate CerS1, CerS2 and CerS4 expression in mouse retina and cornea, with CerS4 ubiquitously expressed in all retinal neurons and Müller cells. To test whether ceramide synthase deficiency affects retinal function, we compared electroretinograms and retina morphology between wild-type and CerS1-, CerS2- and CerS4-deficient mice. Electroretinograms were strongly reduced in amplitude in ceramide synthase-deficient mice, suggesting that signalling in the outer retina is affected. However, the number of photoreceptors and cone outer segment length were unaltered and no changes in retinal layer thickness or synaptic structures were found. Mass spectrometric analyses of ceramides, hexosyl-ceramides and sphingomyelins showed that C20 to C24 acyl-containing species were decreased whereas C16-containing species were increased in the retina of ceramide synthase-deficient mice. Similar but smaller changes were also found in the cornea. Thus, we hypothesize that the replacement of very long-chain fatty acyl residues by shorter C16 residues may affect the electrical properties of retina and cornea, and alter receptor-mediated signal transduction, vesicle-mediated synaptic transmission or corneal light transmission. Future studies need to identify the molecular targets of ceramides or derived sphingolipids in light signal transduction and transmission in the eye. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Christopher B; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L; Gow, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl2 exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl2 inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60ppm-hour Cl2 dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24h. Cl2 exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO3(-) or NO2(-). Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl2 exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl2 inhalation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered lipid composition and enhanced lipid production in green microalga by introduction of brassica diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Irshad; Sharma, Anil K; Daniell, Henry; Kumar, Shashi

    2015-05-01

    Higher lipid biosynthesis and accumulation are important to achieve economic viability of biofuel production via microalgae. To enhance lipid content, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was genetically engineered with a key enzyme diacylglycerol acyltransferase (BnDGAT2) from Brassica napus, responsible for neutral lipid biosynthesis. The transformed colonies harbouring aph7 gene, screened on hygromycin-supplemented medium, achieved transformation frequency of ~120 ± 10 colonies/1 × 10(6) cells. Transgene integration and expression were confirmed by PCR, Southern blots, staining lipid droplets, proteins and spectro-fluorometric analysis of Nile red-stained cells. The neutral lipid is a major class (over 80% of total lipids) and most significant requirement for biodiesel production; this was remarkably higher in the transformed alga than the untransformed control. The levels of saturated fatty acids in the transformed alga decreased to about 7% while unsaturated fatty acids increased proportionately when compared to wild type cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid, an essential omega-3 fatty acid, were enhanced up to 12% in the transformed line. Nile red staining confirmed formation of a large number of lipid globules in the transformed alga. Evaluation of long-term stability and vitality of the transgenic alga revealed that cryopreservation produced significantly higher quantity of lipid than those maintained continuously over 128 generations on solid medium. The overexpression of BnDGAT2 significantly altered the fatty acids profile in the transformed alga. Results of this study offer a valuable strategy of genetic manipulation for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acids and neutral lipids for biofuel production in algae. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of factors related to increased zooplankton biomass and altered species composition following impoundment of a Newfoundland reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.E.; Knoechel, R.; Copeman, D.

    1998-01-01

    An 11-year study of the zooplankton community in Cat Arm Hydroelectric Reservoir in Newfoundland was conducted to assess long-term zooplankton community dynamics in a subarctic system. Zooplankton biomass and species compositions were monitored from 1983 to 1993. The monitoring program documented the trophic evolution of the Cat Arm system as it changed from a shallow lake with short water retention time to a deep reservoir with a much lower flushing rate. Zooplankton biomass increased approximately 19-fold in the oligotrophic hydroelectric reservoir following impoundment in 1984, relative to biomass in the preexisting lake. During the first three years of impoundment, there were no increases in either phytoplankton biomass or primary productivity. Natality of the dominant cladoceran (Daphnia catawba) did not increase. Summer water retention time increased from pre-impoundment levels of 4 days in 1983 to 338 days in 1993. The study showed that zooplankton biomass was greatly correlated with water retention time, and showed no major correlation with phytoplankton biomass, primary productivity, nutrient concentrations, pH, colour, or epilimnetic temperature. It was concluded that changes in the zooplankton community in the hydroelectric reservoir were a result of decreases in losses due to washout. 41 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Preliminary Study on Effect of Chemical Composition Alteration on Elastic Recovery and Stress Recovery of Nitrile Gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kai Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrile gloves are widely used in the medical and automobile field due to its superiority in hypo-allergic component and chemical resistance over natural latex gloves. However, poor elastic recovery of nitrile glove to compressive force also creates an aesthetic issue for customers with high levels of wrinkling after removing from glove box. This paper demonstrates the preliminary study on the varies chemical composition such as crosslinking agents, sulphur and zinc oxide, the accelerator agent added during curing process, and the rubber filler Titanium Dioxide, on the elastic recovery and stress relaxation in nitrile gloves manufacturing. These chemical were studied at different concentration level comparing the high and low level versus the normal production range. Due to the inconsistency in the analysis technique on the surface imaging, the elastic recovery result was unable to be quantified and was not conclusive at this point. The cross linking agents, sulphur and zinc oxide, and the accelerator agent, played a significant role in the mechanical strength of the gloves. Increment of these chemicals result in higher tensile strength, but a reduction in the elasticity of the materials in which causes a lesser elongation at break percentage for the gloves. Both cross-linkers demonstrate different behaviour where higher sulphur content, provide higher stress relaxation (SR% yet zinc oxide shows otherwise.

  18. Assessments of world and national level wrestling teams at a pre world championship competition: hydration, body composition and body mass alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, M; Demirkan, E; Özbek, M E

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the changes in hydration status, body composition and body mass alterations during the camping period a pre world championship, World (N.=14) and National (N.=38) senior wrestlers (N.=52) preparing for the World Championships. Urine specific gravity, conductivity and color measurements with, body composition analyses were conducted at the beginning of the camp and the end of the camp. In general, no significant differences were obtained between the world and national wrestlers in body mass and fat percentage (83.3±20-84.9±18 kg; 12±6%-11.2±4%, respectively). However, a significant difference was detected in the changes of body mass between groups (world decreased [800±1 g] - national increased [600±1 g] [P0.05). No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between pre- and post-test values of urine specific gravity, conductivity or color for both national team wrestlers. Wrestlers achieved to adjust to weight category in a close of period through competition weigh in. Dehydration training programs should be sustained during the whole camp seasons including the last days before the weighing process for matches.

  19. Nutrient enrichment is associated with altered nectar and pollen chemical composition in Succisa pratensis Moench and increased larval mortality of its pollinator Bombus terrestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ceulemans

    Full Text Available Pollinators are declining worldwide and possible underlying causes include disease, invasive pest species and large scale land use changes resulting in habitat loss and degradation. One particular cause of habitat degradation is the increased inflow of nutrients due to anthropogenic combustion processes and large scale application of agricultural fertilizers. This nutrient pollution has been shown to affect pollinators through the loss of nectar and pollen-providing plant species. However, it may also affect pollinators through altering the nectar and pollen chemical composition of plant species, hence influencing pollinator food quality. Here, we experimentally investigated the effect of nutrient enrichment on amino acid and sugar composition of nectar and pollen in the grassland plant Sucissa pratensis, and the subsequent colony size and larval mortality of the pollinating bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found less of the essential amino acids glycine and arginine in the pollen of fertilized plants, and more arginine, ornithine and threonine in the pollen of control plants. Nectar glucose and pollen fructose levels were lower in fertilized plants as compared to control plants. Furthermore, bumblebee colonies visiting fertilized plants showed more dead larvae than colonies visiting control plants. Our results suggest that the fitness of bumblebees can be negatively affected by changes in their food quality following nutrient pollution. If similar patterns hold for other plant and pollinator species, this may have far reaching implications for the maintenance of pollination ecosystem services, as nutrient pollution continues to rise worldwide.

  20. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the fatty acid composition of hepatic and plasma bioactive lipids in C57BL/6 mice: a lipidomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode A Balogun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are converted to bioactive lipid components that are important mediators in metabolic and physiological pathways; however, which bioactive compounds are metabolically active, and their mechanisms of action are still not clear. We investigated using lipidomic techniques, the effects of diets high in n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of various bioactive lipids in plasma and liver. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20% w/w fat containing varying amounts of n-3 PUFA before mating, during gestation and lactation, and until weaning. Male offspring were continued on their mothers' diets for 16 weeks. Hepatic and plasma lipids were extracted in the presence of non-naturally occurring internal standards, and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods were used to measure the fatty acyl compositions. There was no significant difference in total concentrations of phospholipids in both groups. However, there was a significantly higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, and cholesteryl esters (CE (p < 0.01 in the high n-3 PUFA group compared to the low n-3 PUFA group in both liver and plasma. Plasma and liver from the high n-3 PUFA group also had a higher concentration of free n-3 PUFA (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of different fatty acyl species of phosphatidylethanolamine, triglycerides, sphingomyelin and ceramides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal for the first time that a diet high in n-3 PUFA caused enrichment of n-3 PUFA in PC, LPC, CE and free fatty acids in the plasma and liver of C57BL/6 mice. PC, LPC, and unesterified free n-3 PUFA are important bioactive lipids, thus altering their fatty acyl composition will have important metabolic and physiological roles.

  1. Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communication: Journalism Education Today, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Considers how photography is more than just pointing a camera in the right direction. Explains that good pictures use elements of composition such as the Rule of Thirds, leading lines, framing and repetition of shapes. Presents 16 photographs from college and secondary school publications, and describes the techniques that makes them effective.…

  2. Alterations in geometry, biomechanics, and mineral composition of juvenile rat femur induced by nonplanar PCB-155 and/or planar PCB-169.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankovič, Jana; Jovanovski, Sašo; Jevnikar, Peter; Hofmeister, Alexander; Reininger-Gutmann, Birgit; Jan, Janja; Grošelj, Maja; Osredkar, Joško; Uršič, Matjaž; Fazarinc, Gregor; Pogačnik, Azra; Vrecl, Milka

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to widespread lipophilic and bioaccumulative polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induces diverse biochemical and toxicological responses in various organs, including the bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in growth rate, geometry, serum, and bone biochemical parameters and biomechanics of juvenile rat femur induced by lactational exposure to nonplanar PCB-155 and planar PCB-169 individually and in combination. Fifteen lactating Wistar rats were divided into four groups (PCB-169, PCB-155, PCB-155+169, and control), and PCBs were administered intraperitoneally at different time points after delivery. Femurs from 22-day-old offspring were analyzed by microCT, three-point bending test and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to obtain data on bone geometry, biomechanics and mineral composition. The serum levels of calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were also determined. Lactational exposure to planar PCB-169 resulted in shorter and thinner femurs, reduced endosteal and periosteal perimeters, smaller total cross-sectional and medullary areas, and lowered serum bone marker levels and calcium levels in the bone, while femur mechanical properties were not significantly altered. The changes observed in the combination exposure (PCB-155+169) group were similar to those observed in the PCB-169 group but were less pronounced. In summary, our results demonstrate that alterations in lactationally exposed offspring were primarily induced by planar PCB-169. The milder outcome in the combined group suggested that the PCB-169-mediated toxic effects on the bone might be reduced by a nonplanar PCB-155 congener. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1135-1146, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blijdorp (Karin); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); R. Pieters (Rob); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); J.P. Sluimer (Johanna); A. van der Lelij (Allegonda); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group.

  4. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke; Sluimer, Johanna; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. Procedure We

  5. Altered composition of bone as triggered by irradiation facilitates the rapid erosion of the matrix by both cellular and physicochemical processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Green

    Full Text Available Radiation rapidly undermines trabecular architecture, a destructive process which proceeds despite a devastated cell population. In addition to the 'biologically orchestrated' resorption of the matrix by osteoclasts, physicochemical processes enabled by a damaged matrix may contribute to the rapid erosion of bone quality. 8w male C57BL/6 mice exposed to 5 Gy of Cs(137 γ-irradiation were compared to age-matched control at 2d, 10d, or 8w following exposure. By 10d, irradiation had led to significant loss of trabecular bone volume fraction. Assessed by reflection-based Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI, chemical composition of the irradiated matrix indicated that mineralization had diminished at 2d by -4.3±4.8%, and at 10d by -5.8±3.2%. These data suggest that irradiation facilitates the dissolution of the matrix through a change in the material itself, a conclusion supported by a 13.7±4.5% increase in the elastic modulus as measured by nanoindentation. The decline in viable cells within the marrow of irradiated mice at 2d implies that the immediate collapse of bone quality and inherent increased risk of fracture is not solely a result of an overly-active biologic process, but one fostered by alterations in the material matrix that predisposes the material to erosion.

  6. Alteration in membrane fluidity and lipid composition, and modulation of H(+)-ATPase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae caused by decanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, H; Mathieu, B; Charpentier, C

    1996-03-01

    Decanoic acid, a lipophilic agent, inhibited in vitro the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in YPD medium. Conversely, when decanoic acid (35 microM) was present in the growth medium, the measured H(+)-ATPase activity was four times higher than that of control cells. Km, and pH and orthovanadate sensitivity were the same for the two growth conditions, which indicated that H(+)-ATPase activation was not due to conformational changes in the enzyme. The activation process was not entirely reversible which showed that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activation is due to several mechanisms. 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene anisotropy performed on protoplasts from cells grown in YPD revealed that as decanoic acid concentration was increased, anisotropy significantly decreased, i.e. membrance fluidity increased. Cells grown in media containing decanoic acid exhibited greater membrane fluidity compared with control cells. Furthermore, these cells did not show any fluidifying effect when increased concentrations of decanoic acid were added. Chemical analysis of cell membrane lipid composition revealed a modification in the distribution of the phospholipid fatty acids and sterols in cells grown in the presence of 35 microM decanoic acid compared with control cells. Our results support the view that the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activation induced by decanoic acid is correlated with an alteration in membrane lipid constituents.

  7. Composition, Alteration, and Texture of Fault-Related Rocks from Safod Core and Surface Outcrop Analogs: Evidence for Deformation Processes and Fluid-Rock Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kelly K.; Davis, Colter R.; Shervais, John W.; Janecke, Susanne U.; Evans, James P.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the fine-scale variations in mineralogical composition, geochemical alteration, and texture of the fault-related rocks from the Phase 3 whole-rock core sampled between 3,187.4 and 3,301.4 m measured depth within the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole near Parkfield, California. This work provides insight into the physical and chemical properties, structural architecture, and fluid-rock interactions associated with the actively deforming traces of the San Andreas Fault zone at depth. Exhumed outcrops within the SAF system comprised of serpentinite-bearing protolith are examined for comparison at San Simeon, Goat Rock State Park, and Nelson Creek, California. In the Phase 3 SAFOD drillcore samples, the fault-related rocks consist of multiple juxtaposed lenses of sheared, foliated siltstone and shale with block-in-matrix fabric, black cataclasite to ultracataclasite, and sheared serpentinite-bearing, finely foliated fault gouge. Meters-wide zones of sheared rock and fault gouge correlate to the sites of active borehole casing deformation and are characterized by scaly clay fabric with multiple discrete slip surfaces or anastomosing shear zones that surround conglobulated or rounded clasts of compacted clay and/or serpentinite. The fine gouge matrix is composed of Mg-rich clays and serpentine minerals (saponite ± palygorskite, and lizardite ± chrysotile). Whole-rock geochemistry data show increases in Fe-, Mg-, Ni-, and Cr-oxides and hydroxides, Fe-sulfides, and C-rich material, with a total organic content of >1 % locally in the fault-related rocks. The faults sampled in the field are composed of meters-thick zones of cohesive to non-cohesive, serpentinite-bearing foliated clay gouge and black fine-grained fault rock derived from sheared Franciscan Formation or serpentinized Coast Range Ophiolite. X-ray diffraction of outcrop samples shows that the foliated clay gouge is composed primarily of saponite and serpentinite, with localized

  8. Effect of therapeutic concentration of lithium on live HEK293 cells; increase of Na+/K+-ATPase, change of overall protein composition and alteration of surface layer of plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Ujcikova, Hana; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Brejchova, Jana; Roubalova, Lenka; Alda, Martin; Svoboda, Petr

    2017-05-01

    The effect of long-term exposure of live cells to lithium cations (Li) was studied in HEK293 cells cultivated in the presence of 1mM LiCl for 7 or 21days. The alteration of Na + /K + -ATPase level, protein composition and biophysical state of plasma membrane was determined with the aim to characterize the physiological state of Li-treated cells. Na + /K + -ATPase level was determined by [ 3 H]ouabain binding and immunoblot assays. Overall protein composition was determined by 2D electrophoresis followed by proteomic analysis by MALDI-TOF MS/MS and LFQ. Li interaction with plasma membrane was characterized by fluorescent probes DPH, TMA-DPH and Laurdan. Na + /K + -ATPase was increased in plasma membranes isolated from cells exposed to Li. Identification of Li-altered proteins by 2D electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF MS/MS and LFQ suggests a change of energy metabolism in mitochondria and cytosol and alteration of cell homeostasis of calcium. Measurement of Laurdan generalized polarization indicated a significant alteration of surface layer of isolated plasma membranes prepared from both types of Li-treated cells. Prolonged exposure of HEK293 cells to 1mM LiCl results in up-regulation of Na + /K + -ATPase expression, reorganization of overall cellular metabolism and alteration of the surface layer/polar head-group region of isolated plasma membranes. Our findings demonstrate adaptation of live HEK293 cell metabolism to prolonged exposure to therapeutic concentration of Li manifested as up-regulation of Na + /K + -ATPase expression, alteration of protein composition and change of the surface layer of plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mineralogical textural and compositional data on the alteration of basaltic glass from Kilauea, Hawaii to 300 degrees C: Insights to the corrosion of a borosilicate glass waste-form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Mineralogical, textural and compositional data accompanying greenschist facies metamorphism (to 300 degrees C) of basalts of the East Rift Zone (ERZ), Kilauea, Hawaii may be evaluated relative to published and experimental results for the surface corrosion of borosilicate glass. The ERZ alteration sequence is dominated by intermittent palagonite, interlayered smectite-chlorite, chlorite, and actinolite-epidote-anhydrite. Alteration is best developed in fractures and vesicles where surface reaction layers root on the glass matrix forming rinds in excess of 100 microns thick. Fractures control fluid circulation and the alteration sequence. Proximal to the glass surface, palagonite, Fe-Ti oxides and clays replace fresh glass as the surface reaction layer migrates inwards; away from the surface, amphibole, anhydrite, quartz and calcite crystallize from hydrothermal fluids in contact with the glass. The texture and composition of basaltic glass surfaces are similar to those of a SRL-165 glass leached statically for sixty days at 150 degrees C. While the ERZ reservoir is a complex open system, conservative comparisons between the alteration of ERZ and synthetic borosilicate glass are warranted. 31 refs., 2 figs

  10. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  11. Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Donnelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. OBJECTIVE: TO ADDRESS THE QUESTION: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-January 2013 for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies were included. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete adults (mean age 18-64 years. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. RESULTS: No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17, 69% of acute (n = 40, 50% of short-term (n = 10, 92% of non-randomized (n = 12 and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24. Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. LIMITATIONS: The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or

  12. The composition of dietary fat alters the transcriptional profile of pathways associated with lipid metabolism in the liver and adipose tissue in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Gabler, N K; Patience, J F

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the of effect chemical composition of dietary fat on transcription of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and the liver via transcriptional profiling in growing pigs. A total of 48 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) barrows (initial BW of 44.1 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 5% cornstarch (control; CNTR), animal-vegetable blend (AV), coconut oil (COCO), corn oil (COIL), fish oil (FO), or tallow (TAL). Pigs were sacrificed on d 10 (final BW of 51.2 ± 1.7 kg) to collect tissues. Expression normalization across samples was performed by calculating a delta cycle threshold (ΔCt) value using . Delta delta cycle threshold (ΔΔCt) values were expressed relative to the CNTR treatment. In adipose tissue, adding dietary fat, regardless of the source, decreased the mRNA abundance of compared with the CNTR ( = 0.014). Pigs fed a COIL-based diet tended to have greater adipose tissue expression of ( = 0.071) than pigs fed the other dietary fat sources tested. Abundance of mRNA was greater in adipose tissue of barrows a fed COIL-based diet than barrows fed CNTR or FO-based diets ( = 0.047). In the liver, adding dietary fat, regardless of source, increased the mRNA abundance of , , , , , and ( ≤ 0.020) and tended to increase the abundance of ( = 0.071) and ( = 0.086) compared with the CNTR. Pigs fed a TAL-based diet had greater hepatic transcription of than pigs fed CNTR-, COCO-, or FO-based diets ( = 0.013). Hepatic transcription of tended to be greater in pigs fed COCO than in pigs fed other dietary fat sources ( = 0.074). Dietary omega-3 fatty acid content tended to negatively correlate with mRNA abundance of ( = 0.065) in adipose tissue and ( = 0.063) in the liver. Dietary fat SFA content was negatively correlated with in the liver ( ≤ 0.039). Dietary fat MUFA content tended to be

  13. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  14. The role of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in altering the metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging activities of Coleus forskohlii, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2016-04-01

    The effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B (s-UV-B; 3.6 kJ m(-2) day(-1) above ambient) radiation were investigated on plant metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging capacities of methanolic extracts of Coleus forskohlii (an indigenous medicinal plant) grown under field conditions. Essential oil was isolated using hydrodistillation technique while alterations in metabolite profile and oil composition were determined via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Leaf and root methanolic extracts were investigated via various in vitro assays for their DPPH radical-, superoxide radical-, hydrogen peroxide-, hydroxyl radical-, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating activity, and reducing power. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Oil content was found to be reduced (by ∼7 %) in supplemental UV-B (s-UV-B) treated plants; the composition of the plant extracts as well as essential oil was also considerably altered. Methanolic extracts from treated plant organs showed more potency as free radical scavengers (their EC50 values being lower than their respective controls). Anomalies were observed in Fe(2+) chelating activity for both leaves and roots. The present study concludes that s-UV-B adversely affects oil content in C. forskohlii and also alters the composition and contents of metabolites in both plant extracts and oil. The results also denote that s-UV-B treated plant organs might be more effective in safeguarding against oxidative stress, though further studies are required to authenticate these findings.

  15. Cross-talk between the heart and adipose tissue in cachectic heart failure patients with respect to alterations in body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Marie; Kistorp, Caroline; Schou, Morten

    2014-01-01

    composition in CC and that a progressive loss of fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) takes place. METHODS: Body composition with regard to FFM, FM, and body fat distribution was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 19 non-diabetic patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and CC and 38...

  16. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)-induced valvulopathy: compositional valvular alterations are associated with 5HT2B receptor and 5HT transporter transcript changes in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangbam, Chandikumar S; Job, Lauren E; Zadrozny, Leah M; Barton, Joanna C; Yoon, Lawrence W; Gates, Lisa D; Slocum, Nikki

    2008-08-01

    Several drugs have been linked to valvulopathy in humans, including therapeutic agents for obesity, Parkinson's disease and migraine. There is increasing evidence that the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B receptor (5HT2BR) activation and/or increased circulating 5HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced valvulopathy. In the present study, we investigated whether 7-day 5HT subcutaneous injections led to structural and compositional abnormalities in conjunction with transcriptomic modulation of 5HT2BR and 5HT transporter (5HTT) genes in the aortic and mitral valves of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Subcutaneous injections of 5HT for 7 days resulted in thickening and compositional alteration of aortic and mitral valves in SD rats. More specifically, valve-leaflets from 5HT-treated rats had greater valve thickness, a higher amount of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and a lower amount of collagen. The compositional alteration was associated with up-regulation and down-regulation of 5HT2BR and 5HTT genes, respectively. The present study strongly suggests that the activation of 5HT2BR and inhibition of 5HTT played a significant role in the pathogenesis of 5HT-induced valvulopathy in SD rats. Thus, these findings further highlight the necessity and/or utilization of animal models to screen potential valvular effects of serotonergic compounds.

  17. Emotional Support, Depressive Symptoms, and Age-Related Alterations in Male Body Composition: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Men's Health 40+ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Andreas; Philipp, Michel; Lozza, Niclà; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    More depressive symptoms and low emotional support have been related to worse body composition. Body composition significantly deteriorates in aging men. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether high emotional support and low depressive symptoms are associated with better body composition and a decelerated age-related deterioration of body composition in aging men. A cross-sectional analysis including 269 self-reporting healthy men aged between 40 and 75 years living in the German-speaking part of Switzerland was conducted. Participants completed questionnaires on emotional support and depressive symptoms. The depression screening instrument was used to form a group with low ( N = 225) and moderate ( N = 44) depressive symptoms. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured, and cell proportion (CP), fat mass (FM), and water balance (WB) were obtained using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Age-related associations emerged for WHR, CP, FM, and WB, but not for BMI. Emotional support was negatively associated with BMI, WHR, and WB, and only trend-wise with CP and FM. Group comparisons revealed that more depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of CP and higher levels of WB. Both emotional support and depressive symptoms were significant moderators of the association between age and specific measures of body composition such as CP, FM, and WB. However, after correction for multiple testing for moderation analyses only the moderation effects of depressive symptoms on the association between age and WB and CP remained significant. Low depressive symptoms were associated with a better body composition as well as a decelerated decline in body composition and the role of emotional support acting as a buffer against age-related deterioration of body composition merits further investigation.

  18. Streptozotocin-induced type-1-diabetes disease onset in Sprague-Dawley rats is associated with an altered intestinal microbiota composition and decreased diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Elaine; Marques, Tatiana M; O'Sullivan, Orla; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that microbiota composition can significantly affect host health and play a role in disease onset and progression. This study assessed the impact of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1-diabetes (T1D) on intestinal microbiota composition and diversity in Sprague-Dawley rats, compared with healthy controls over time. T1D was induced by injection of a single dose (60 mg STZ kg(-1)) of STZ, administered via the intraperitoneal cavity. Total DNA was isolated from faecal pellets at weeks 0 (pre-STZ injection), 1, 2 and 4 and from caecal content at week 5 from both healthy and T1D groups. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to investigate intestinal microbiota composition. The data revealed that although intestinal microbiota composition between the groups was similar at week 0, a dramatic impact of T1D development on the microbiota was apparent post-STZ injection and for up to 5 weeks. Most notably, T1D onset was associated with a shift in the Bacteroidetes : Firmicutes ratio (Pmicrobiota composition and reduced microbial diversity over time. © 2015 The Authors.

  19. Gender and Age – Dependent effect of type 1 diabetes on obesity and altered body composition in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szadkowska

    2015-02-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes develop overweight and obesity in early adulthood more frequently than the general population and are characterized by higher body fat mass. Gender-related differences in body weight and composition in young type 1 diabetic adults were found.

  20. Perinatal BPA exposure alters body weight and composition in a dose specific and sex specific manner: The addition of peripubertal exposure exacerbates adverse effects in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Beverly S; Paranjpe, Maneesha; DaFonte, Tracey; Schaeberle, Cheryl; Soto, Ana M; Obin, Martin; Greenberg, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    Body weight (BW) and body composition were examined in CD-1 mice exposed perinatally or perinatally and peripubertally to 0, 0.25, 2.5, 25, or 250μg BPA/kg BW/day. Our goal was to identify the BPA dose (s) and the exposure window(s) that increased BW and adiposity, and to assess potential sex differences in this response. Both perinatal exposure alone and perinatal plus peripubertal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BPA resulted in lasting effects on body weight and body composition. The effects were dose specific and sex specific and were influenced by the precise window of BPA exposure. The addition of peripubertal BPA exposure following the initial perinatal exposure exacerbated adverse effects in the females but appeared to reduce differences in body weight and body composition between control and BPA exposed males. Some effects of BPA on body weight and body composition showed a non-linear dose response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats

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    Shim Eugene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO, olive oil (OO, and beef tallow (BT on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Results Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Conclusions Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  2. Cross-talk between the heart and adipose tissue in cachectic heart failure patients with respect to alterations in body composition: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Heidi Marie; Kistorp, Caroline; Schou, Morten; Keller, Niels; Zerahn, Bo; Frystyk, Jan; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Faber, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac cachexia (CC) is associated with changes in body composition. Lipolysis and increased energy expenditure caused by A- and B natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been suggested to play a role in CC. We tested the hypothesis that neurohormones and adipokines are associated with body composition in CC and that a progressive loss of fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) takes place. Body composition with regard to FFM, FM, and body fat distribution was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 19 non-diabetic patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and CC and 38 controls (non-cachectic CHF and individuals with prior myocardial infarction-both n = 19) who were followed for 12 months. Biomarkers of neurohormonal stimulation, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction were measured. N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), midregional proANP (MR-proANP), and total adiponectin were elevated in CHF (p<0.001) and correlated inversely to BMI and FM. An inverse correlation was observed between pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and FFM. During follow up body weight was unaltered in all groups even though FM increased by 1.35 kg (p<0.05) and FFM decreased by 0.5 kg (p<0.05) in CC patients. The latter correlated inversely to baseline NT-proBNP, MR-proANP, and MR-proADM (p<0.05). No correlation to changes in FM was found. FM was associated with plasma NPs and total adiponectin at baseline; whereas changes in FM and FFM did not correlate to changes in NPs or adiponectin during follow up. Prospectively, FFM decreased but FM increased, despite stable body weight in CC. © 2013.

  3. Sulfur-bearing coatings on fly ash from a coal-fired power plant: Composition, origin, and influence on ash alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, N.S.; Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Johnson, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Fly ash samples collected from two locations in the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant differ markedly with respect to the abundance of thin (???0.1 ??m) sulfur-rich surface coatings that are observable by scanning electron microscopy. The coatings, tentatively identified as an aluminum-potassium-sulfate phase, probably form upon reaction between condensed sulfuric acid aerosols and glass surfaces, and are preferentially concentrated on ash exposed to exhaust stream gases for longer. The coatings are highly soluble and if sufficiently abundant, can impart an acidic pH to solutions initially in contact with ash. These observations suggest that proposals for ash use and predictions of ash behavior during disposal should consider the transient, acid-generating potential of some ash fractions and the possible effects on initial ash leachability and alteration. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Whey Protein but Not Soy Protein Supplementation Alters Body Weight and Composition in Free-Living Overweight and Obese Adults 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Baer, David J.; Stote, Kim S.; Paul, David R.; Harris, G. Keith; Rumpler, William V.; Clevidence, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of consumption of supplemental whey protein (WP), soy protein (SP), and an isoenergetic amount of carbohydrate (CHO) on body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese but otherwise healthy participants. Ninety overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups for 23 wk: 1) WP; 2) SP (each providing ~56 g/d of protein and 1670 kJ/d); or 3) an isoenergetic amount of...

  5. Throughfall-mediated alterations to soil microbial community structure in a forest plot of homogenous soil texture, litter, and plant species composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John; Rosier, Carl; Moore, Leslie; Gay, Trent; Reichard, James; Wu, Tiehang; Kan, Jinjun

    2015-04-01

    Identifying spatiotemporal influences on soil microbial community (SMC) structure is critical to our understanding of patterns in biogeochemical cycling and related ecological services (e.g., plant community structure, water quality, response to environmental change). Since forest canopy structure alters the spatiotemporal patterning of precipitation water and solute supplies to soils (via "throughfall"), is it possible that changes in SMC structure could arise from modifications in canopy elements? Our study investigates this question by monitoring throughfall water and dissolved ion supply to soils beneath a continuum of canopy structure: from large gaps (0% cover), to bare Quercus virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) canopy (~50-70%), to heavy Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) canopy (>90% cover). Throughfall water supply diminished with increasing canopy cover, yet increased washoff/leaching of Na+, Cl-, PO43-, and SO42- from the canopy to the soils. Presence of T. usneoides diminished throughfall NO3-, but enhanced NH4+, concentrations supplied to subcanopy soils. The mineral soil horizon (0-10 cm) sampled in triplicate from locations receiving throughfall water and solutes from canopy gaps, bare canopy, and T. usneoides-laden canopy significantly differed in soil chemistry parameters (pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, CEC). Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) banding patterns beneath similar canopy covers (experiencing similar throughfall dynamics) also produced high similarities per ANalyses Of SIMilarity (ANO-SIM), and clustered together when analyzed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). These results suggest that modifications of forest canopy structures are capable of affecting mineral-soil horizon SMC structure via throughfall when canopies' biomass distribution is highly heterogeneous. As SMC structure, in many instances, relates to functional diversity, we suggest that future research seek to identify functional

  6. Bark anatomy, chemical composition and ethanol-water extract composition of Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Caroline J.; Miranda, Isabel; Quilhó, Teresa; Mori, Fábio Akira; Pereira, Helena

    2017-01-01

    The bark of Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan were characterized in relation to anatomical and chemical features. The barks were similar and included a thin conducting phloem, a largely dilated and sclerified non-conducting phloem, and a rhyridome with periderms with thin phellem interspersed by cortical tissues. Only small differences between species were observed that cannot be used alone for taxonomic purposes. The summative chemical composition of A. peregrina and A. colubrina was respectively: 8.2% and 7.7% ash; 28.8% and 29.3% extractives; 2.4% and 2.6% suberin; and 18.9% lignin. The monosaccharide composition showed the predominance of glucose (on average 82% of total neutral sugars) and of xylose (9%). The ethanol-water extracts of A. peregrina and A. colubrina barks included a high content of phenolics, respectively: total phenolics 583 and 682 mg GAE/g extract; 148 and 445 mg CE/g extract; tannins 587 and 98 mg CE/g extract. The antioxidant activity was 238 and 269 mg Trolox/g extract. The barks of the Anadenanthera species are a potential source of polar extractives that will represent an important valorization and therefore contribute to improve the overall economic potential and sustainability of A. peregrina and A. colubrina PMID:29281656

  7. Dietary α-linolenic acid supplementation alters skeletal muscle plasma membrane lipid composition, sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 abundance, and palmitate transport rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorner, Zane; Barbeau, Pierre-Andre; Castellani, Laura; Wright, David C; Chabowski, Adrian; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-12-01

    The cellular processes influenced by consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids remains poorly defined. Within skeletal muscle, a rate-limiting step in fatty acid oxidation is the movement of lipids across the sarcolemmal membrane, and therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of consuming flaxseed oil high in α-linolenic acid (ALA), on plasma membrane lipid composition and the capacity to transport palmitate. Rats fed a diet supplemented with ALA (10%) displayed marked increases in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) within whole muscle and sarcolemmal membranes (approximately five-fold), at the apparent expense of arachidonic acid (-50%). These changes coincided with increased sarcolemmal palmitate transport rates (+20%), plasma membrane fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36; +20%) abundance, skeletal muscle triacylglycerol content (approximately twofold), and rates of whole body fat oxidation (~50%). The redistribution of FAT/CD36 to the plasma membrane could not be explained by increased phosphorylation of signaling pathways implicated in regulating FAT/CD36 trafficking events (i.e., phosphorylation of ERK1/2, CaMKII, AMPK, and Akt), suggesting the increased n-3 PUFA composition of the plasma membrane influenced FAT/CD36 accumulation. Altogether, the present data provide evidence that a diet supplemented with ALA increases the transport of lipids into resting skeletal muscle in conjunction with increased sarcolemmal n-3 PUFA and FAT/CD36 contents. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mike D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON a no diet + exercise control (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP] in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non

  9. Alterations in hemostatic parameters during hemodialysis with dialyzers of different membrane composition and flow design. Platelet activation and factor VIII-related von Willebrand factor during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, G W; Moake, J L; Rudy, C K; Vicks, S L; Hamburger, R J

    1987-09-01

    The effect of dialyzer membrane and design on hemostatic parameters during hemodialysis were evaluated in a prospective controlled study. This study demonstrated that hemodialysis is associated with significant platelet activation and loss, which are influenced by both dialyzer configuration and membrane composition. In addition, use of the cuprophan membrane is associated with greater perturbations of the vascular endothelium, as reflected in changes in factor VIII-related von Willebrand factor and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha concentrations not seen with the polyacrylonitrile membrane. Of the dialyzers studied, the polyacrylonitrile membrane in a hollow-fiber configuration appears to minimize platelet loss and activation, and to minimize increases in factor VIII-related von Willebrand factor and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha.

  10. Adaptive alterations in the fatty acids composition under induced oxidative stress in heavy metal-tolerant filamentous fungus Paecilomyces marquandii cultured in ascorbic acid presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słaba, Mirosława; Gajewska, Ewa; Bernat, Przemysław; Fornalska, Magdalena; Długoński, Jerzy

    2013-05-01

    The ability of the heavy metal-tolerant fungus Paecilomyces marquandii to modulate whole cells fatty acid composition and saturation in response to IC50 of Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu was studied. Cadmium and nickel caused the most significant growth reduction. In the mycelia cultured with all tested metals, with the exception of nickel, a rise in the fatty acid unsaturation was noted. The fungus exposure to Pb, Cu, and Ni led to significantly higher lipid peroxidation. P. marquandii incubated in the presence of the tested metals responded with an increase in the level of linoleic acid and escalation of electrolyte leakage. The highest efflux of electrolytes was caused by lead. In these conditions, the fungus was able to bind up to 100 mg g(-1) of lead, whereas the content of the other metals in the mycelium was significantly lower and reached from 3.18 mg g(-1) (Cu) to 15.21 mg g(-1) (Zn). Additionally, it was shown that ascorbic acid at the concentration of 1 mM protected fungal growth and prevented the changes in the fatty acid composition and saturation but did not alleviate lipid peroxidation or affect the increased permeability of membranes after lead exposure. Pro-oxidant properties of ascorbic acid in the copper-stressed cells manifested strong growth inhibition and enhanced metal accumulation as a result of membrane damage. Toxic metals action caused cellular modulations, which might contributed to P. marquandii tolerance to the studied metals. Moreover, these changes can enhance metal removal from contaminated environment.

  11. Altering bio-oil composition by catalytic treatment of pinewood pyrolysis vapors over zeolites using an auger - packed bed integrated reactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamshi Krishna Guda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pine wood pyrolysis vapors were catalytically treated using Zeolite catalysts. An auger fed reactor was used for the pinewood pyrolysis while a packed bed reactor mounted on the top of the auger reactor housed the catalyst for the treatment of pinewood pyrolytic vapors. The pyrolytic vapors produced at 450 oC were passed through zeolite catalysts maintained at 425 oC at a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV of 12 h-1. Five zeolites, including ZSM-5, mordenite, ferrierite, Zeolite-Y, and Zeolite-beta (all in H form, were used to study the effect of catalyst properties such as acidity, pore size, and pore structure on catalytic cracking of pinewood pyrolysis vapors. Product bio-oils were analyzed for their chemical composition using GC-MS, water content, density, viscosity, acid value, pH, and elemental compositions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was performed to analyze the extent of coking on zeolite catalysts. Application of catalysis to biomass pyrolysis increased gas product yields at the expense of bio-oil yields. While all the zeolites deoxygenated the pyrolysis vapors, ZSM-5 was found to be most effective. The ZSM-5 catalyzed bio-oil, rich in phenolics and aromatic hydrocarbons, was less viscous, had relatively lower acid number and high pH, and possessed oxygen content nearly half that of un-catalyzed bio-oil. Brønsted acidity, pore size, and shape-selective catalysis of ZSM-5 catalyst proved to be the determining factors for its activity. TGA results implied that the pore size of catalysts highly influenced coking reactions. Regeneration of the used catalysts was successfully completed at 700 oC.

  12. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bresciani M. De Andrade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3 which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3, and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2, (ii slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development.We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. Energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and likely contribute to catch-up fat.

  13. Altered duodenal microbiota composition in celiac disease patients suffering from persistent symptoms on a long-term gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacklin, Pirjo; Laurikka, Pilvi; Lindfors, Katri; Collin, Pekka; Salmi, Teea; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Saavalainen, Päivi; Mäki, Markku; Mättö, Jaana; Kurppa, Kalle; Kaukinen, Katri

    2014-12-01

    A significant fraction of celiac disease patients suffer from persistent symptoms despite a long-term gluten-free diet (GFD) and normalized small bowel mucosa. The commonly suggested reasons, such as inadvertent gluten-intake or presence of other gastrointestinal disease, do not explain the symptoms in all these patients. Recently, alterations in intestinal microbiota have been associated with autoimmune disorders, including celiac disease. This led us to test a hypothesis that abnormal intestinal microbiota may be associated with persisting gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients. Duodenal microbiota was analyzed in 18 GFD-treated patients suffering from persistent symptoms and 18 treated patients without symptoms by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The celiac disease patients had been following a strict GFD for several years and had restored small bowel mucosa and negative celiac autoantibodies. Their symptoms on GFD were assessed with Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. The results of several clustering methods showed that the treated celiac disease patients with persistent symptoms were colonized by different duodenal microbiota in comparison with patients without symptoms. The treated patients with persistent symptoms had a higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P=0.04) and a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (P=0.01) and Firmicutes (P=0.05). Moreover, their microbial richness was reduced. The results indicated intestinal dysbiosis in patients with persistent symptoms even while adhering to a strict GFD. Our findings indicate that dysbiosis of microbiota is associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients and open new possibilities to treat this subgroup of patients.

  14. Regulatory-associated protein of TOR (RAPTOR) alters the hormonal and metabolic composition of Arabidopsis seeds, controlling seed morphology, viability and germination potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed A; Li, Yan; Wiszniewski, Andrew; Giavalisco, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is a positive regulator of growth and development in all eukaryotes, which positively regulates anabolic processes like protein synthesis, while repressing catabolic processes, including autophagy. To better understand TOR function we decided to analyze its role in seed development and germination. We therefore performed a detailed phenotypic analysis using mutants of the REGULATORY-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN OF TOR 1B (RAPTOR1B), a conserved TOR interactor, acting as a scaffold protein, which recruits substrates for the TOR kinase. Our results show that raptor1b plants produced seeds that were delayed in germination and less resistant to stresses, leading to decreased viability. These physiological phenotypes were accompanied by morphological changes including decreased seed-coat pigmentation and reduced production of seed-coat mucilage. A detailed molecular analysis revealed that many of these morphological changes were associated with significant changes of the metabolic content of raptor1b seeds, including elevated levels of free amino acids, as well as reduced levels of protective secondary metabolites and storage proteins. Most of these observed changes were accompanied by significantly altered phytohormone levels in the raptor1b seeds, with increases in abscisic acid, auxin and jasmonic acid, which are known to inhibit germination. Delayed germination and seedling growth, observed in the raptor1b seeds, could be partially restored by the exogenous supply of gibberellic acid, indicating that TOR is at the center of a regulatory hub controlling seed metabolism, maturation and germination. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  16. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  17. A soluble starch synthase I gene, IbSSI, alters the content, composition, granule size and structure of starch in transgenic sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yannan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Huan; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-05-24

    Soluble starch synthase I (SSI) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of plant amylopectin. In this study, the gene named IbSSI, was cloned from sweet potato, an important starch crop. A high expression level of IbSSI was detected in the leaves and storage roots of the sweet potato. Its overexpression significantly increased the content and granule size of starch and the proportion of amylopectin by up-regulating starch biosynthetic genes in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants (WT) and RNA interference plants. The frequency of chains with degree of polymerization (DP) 5-8 decreased in the amylopectin fraction of starch, whereas the proportion of chains with DP 9-25 increased in the IbSSI-overexpressing plants compared with WT plants. Further analysis demonstrated that IbSSI was responsible for the synthesis of chains with DP ranging from 9 to 17, which represents a different chain length spectrum in vivo from its counterparts in rice and wheat. These findings suggest that the IbSSI gene plays important roles in determining the content, composition, granule size and structure of starch in sweet potato. This gene may be utilized to improve the content and quality of starch in sweet potato and other plants.

  18. Long-term nutrient addition differentially alters community composition and diversity of genes that control nitrous oxide flux from salt marsh sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Patrick J.; Angell, John H.; Feinman, Sarah G.; Bowen, Jennifer L.

    2015-03-01

    Enrichment of natural waters, soils, and sediments by inorganic nutrients, including nitrogen, is occurring at an increasing rate and has fundamentally altered global biogeochemical cycles. Salt marshes are critical for the removal of land-derived nitrogen before it enters coastal waters. This is accomplished via multiple microbially mediated pathways, including denitrification. Many of these pathways, however, are also a source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). We used clone libraries and quantative PCR (qPCR) to examine the effect of fertilization on the diversity and abundance of two functional genes associated with denitrification and N2O production (norB and nosZ) in experimental plots at the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh (Falmouth, MA, USA) that have been enriched with nutrients for over 40 years. Our data showed distinct nosZ and norB community structures at different nitrogen loads, especially at the highest level of fertilization. Furthermore, calculations of the Shannon Diversity Index and Chao1 Richness Estimator indicated that nosZ gene diversity and richness increased with increased nitrogen supply, however no such relationship existed with regard to richness and diversity of the norB gene. Results from qPCR demonstrated that nosZ gene abundance was an order of magnitude lower in the extra-highly fertilized plots compared to the other plots, but the abundance of norB was not affected by fertilization. The majority of sequences obtained from the marsh plots had no close cultured relatives and they were divergent from previously sequenced norB and nosZ fragments. Despite their divergence from any cultured representatives, most of the norB and nosZ sequences appeared to be from members of the Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting that these classes are particularly important in salt marsh nitrogen cycling. Our results suggest that both norB and nosZ containing microbes are affected by fertilization and that the Great Sippewissett Marsh may

  19. A Difference in Fatty Acid Composition of Isocaloric High-Fat Diets Alters Metabolic Flexibility in Male C57BL/6JOlaHsd Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes P M Duivenvoorde

    Full Text Available Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be healthier than saturated fatty acids (SFAs, but others postulate that especially the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs (n6/n3 ratio determines health. Health can be determined with biomarkers, but functional health status is likely better reflected by challenge tests that assess metabolic flexibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions, but similar n6/n3 ratio, on metabolic flexibility. Therefore, adult male mice received isocaloric high-fat diets with either predominantly PUFAs (HFpu diet or predominantly SFAs (HFs diet but similar n6/n3 ratio for six months, during and after which several biomarkers for health were measured. Metabolic flexibility was assessed by the response to an oral glucose tolerance test, a fasting and re-feeding test and an oxygen restriction test (OxR; normobaric hypoxia. The latter two are non-invasive, indirect calorimetry-based tests that measure the adaptive capacity of the body as a whole. We found that the HFs diet, compared to the HFpu diet, increased mean adipocyte size, liver damage, and ectopic lipid storage in liver and muscle; although, we did not find differences in body weight, total adiposity, adipose tissue health, serum adipokines, whole body energy balance, or circadian rhythm between HFs and HFpu mice. HFs mice were, furthermore, less flexible in their response to both fasting- re-feeding and OxR, while glucose tolerance was indistinguishable. To conclude, the HFs versus the HFpu diet increased ectopic fat storage, liver damage, and mean adipocyte size and reduced metabolic flexibility in male mice. This study underscores the physiological relevance of indirect calorimetry-based challenge tests.

  20. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. - and Cross-Polarization 13C NMR Evidence of Alterations in Molecular Composition of Humic Substances Following Afforestation with Eucalypt in Distinct Brazilian Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I. R.; Soares, E. M.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.; Novais, R.; Barros, N.; Fernandes, S.

    2010-12-01

    The effect of planting fast growing tree species on SOM quality in tropical regions has been overlooked. In the present study 13C-NMR approaches were used to evaluate the impact of eucalypt cultivation on humic and fulvic acids molecular composition. The results indicate that the replacement of native vegetation by eucalypt plantations increased the relative contribution of aliphatic groups in HA from soils previously under Atlantic Forest, Grassland, and the Cerrado (Curvelo site only). The same trend was observed for FA, except in the Curvelo site. A trend for degradation and smaller contribution of O-alkyl C (carbohydrates) in HA was observed in soils under eucalyptus in Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. For FA such decreases were seen in Cerrado and Grassland biomes after eucalypt planting. In the area cultivated with pasture in the Atlantic Forest biome and in the Grassland soil, the largest contributions of lignin-derived compounds were detected in HA. The HA from the Cerrado at the Curvelo site, where the woody vegetation is virtually devoid of grassy species, showed the lowest intensity of lignin signal then those from the Cerrado sensu stricto in Itacambira, where grass species are more abundant. At our study sites, charred material are most likely derived from burning of the native vegetation, as naturally occurs in the Cerrado region, or anthropogenic fires in the Grassland biome. Burning of harvest residues in eucalypt fields was also a common practice in the early rotations. The replacement of native vegetation by eucalypt plantations increases the relative contribution of nonpolar alkyl groups in HA from soils previously under Atlantic Forest, Grassland, and the Cerrado (Curvelo site only) biomes. There is evidence of substantial contribution of lignin-derived C to HA and FA, especially in sites planted with Brachiaria sp pastures. Eucalypt introduction decreases the relative contribution of carbohydrates in HA and FA. 13C DP/MAS NMR functional groups in

  2. Alterations in microbial community composition with increasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crawfurd, K.J.; Alvarez-Fernandez, S.; Mojica, K.D.A.; Riebesell, U.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification resulting from the uptake ofanthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) by the ocean is considereda major threat to marine ecosystems. Here we examinedthe effects of ocean acidification on microbial communitydynamics in the eastern Baltic Sea during the summerof 2012 when inorganic

  3. Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 alter mitochondrial membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Total phospholipids were extracted and their fatty acyl composition was analysed. Expression of hUCP2 and hUCP3 significantly altered the mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition. Palmitoleoyl groups (16:1(n-7)) ...

  4. Methods and compositions for altering lignin composition in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Avinash C.; Tang, Yuhong; Blancaflor, Elison

    2018-03-06

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content in plants by reducing expression of a folylpolyglutamate synthetase 1 (FPGS1) coding sequence in the plant. Also provided are methods for reducing lignin content in a plant by down-regulation of FPGS1 expression in the plant. Nucleic acid molecules for modulation of FPGS1 expression and transgenic plants the same are also provided. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing biofuels by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  5. Composite Transport Model and Water and Solute Transport across Plant Roots: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmin X. Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM. It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots – apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs, which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM. The contribution of the plasma membrane bound AQPs for the overall water transport in the whole plant level was varying depending on the plant species, age of roots with varying developmental stages of apoplastic barriers, and driving forces (hydrostatic vs. osmotic. Many studies have demonstrated that the apoplastic barriers, such as Casparian bands in the primary anticlinal walls and suberin lamellae in the secondary cell walls, in the endo- and exodermis are not perfect barriers and unable to completely block the transport of water and some solute transport into the stele. Recent research on water and solute transport of roots with and without exodermis triggered the importance of the extension of conventional CTM adding resistances that arrange in series (epidermis, exodermis, mid-cortex, endodermis, and pericycle. The extension of the model may answer current questions about the applicability of CTM for composite water and solute transport of roots that contain complex anatomical structures with heterogeneous cell layers.

  6. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Karnaouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, 13C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes.

  7. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool for Theobroma cacao improvement and propagation. Depending on culture medium composition, different morphogenetic structures (including somatic embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns and biochemical changes. The effect of SO42- ion deficiency ...

  8. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the salt stress tolerance of Brassica napus L. by modifying the formation of root apoplastic barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Zhang, Weilan; Ma, Xingmao

    2017-10-01

    Rapidly growing global population adds significant strains on the fresh water resources. Consequently, saline water is increasingly tapped for crop irrigation. Meanwhile, rapid advancement of nanotechnology is introducing more and more engineered nanoparticles into the environment and in agricultural soils. While some negative effects of ENPs on plant health at very high concentrations have been reported, more beneficial effects of ENPs at relatively low concentrations are increasingly noticed, opening doors for potential applications of nanotechnology in agriculture. In particular, we found that cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) improved plant photosynthesis in salt stressed plants. Due to the close connections between salt stress tolerance and the root anatomical structures, we postulated that CeO 2 NPs could modify plant root anatomy and improve plant salt stress tolerance. This study aimed at testing the hypothesis with Brassica napus in the presence of CeO 2 NPs (0, 500 mg kg -1 dry sand) and/or NaCl (0, 50 mM) in a growth chamber. Free hand sections of fresh roots were taken every seven days for three weeks and the suberin lamellae development was examined under a fluorescence microscope. The results confirmed the hypothesis that CeO 2 NPs modified the formation of the apoplastic barriers in Brassica roots. In salt stressed plants, CeO 2 NPs shortened the root apoplastic barriers which allowed more Na + transport to shoots and less accumulation of Na + in plant roots. The altered Na + fluxes and transport led to better physiological performance of Brassica and may lead to new applications of nanotechnology in agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  10. Mapping hydrothermal altered mineral deposits using Landsat 7 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The colour composite and band ratio methods showed very clearly the hydrothermal altered deposits of clay minerals, iron oxides and ferric oxides around the fumaroles. The principal component analysis using the Crosta technique also enabled us to represent undoubtedly the altered hydroxyl and iron-oxide mineral ...

  11. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  12. Luxurious Nitrogen Fertilization of Two Sugar Cane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Composition Causes Changes in the Stem Proteome Related to Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxidant Metabolism but Does Not Alter Lignin Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, Fernanda; Wilson, Rashaun; Portilla Llerena, Juan Pablo; Kiyota, Eduardo; Lima Reis, Karina; Boaretto, Luis Felipe; Balbuena, Tiago S; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Thelen, Jay J; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2017-10-06

    Sugar cane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production. Its lignocellulosic biomass represents a promising option as feedstock for second-generation ethanol production. Nitrogen fertilization can affect differently tissues and its biopolymers, including the cell-wall polysaccharides and lignin. Lignin content and composition are the most important factors associated with biomass recalcitrance to convert cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. Thus it is important to understand the metabolic relationship between nitrogen fertilization and lignin in this feedstock. In this study, a large-scale proteomics approach based on GeLC-MS/MS was employed to identify and relatively quantify proteins differently accumulated in two contrasting genotypes for lignin composition after excessive nitrogen fertilization. From the ∼1000 nonredundant proteins identified, 28 and 177 were differentially accumulated in response to nitrogen from IACSP04-065 and IACSP04-627 lines, respectively. These proteins were associated with several functional categories, including carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism, protein turnover, and oxidative stress. Although nitrogen fertilization has not changed lignin content, phenolic acids and lignin composition were changed in both species but not in the same way. Sucrose and reducing sugars increased in plants of the genotype IACSP04-065 receiving nitrogen.

  13. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  14. Geochronology, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic compositions of the granitoids in the Yemaquan orefield, East Kunlun orogenic belt, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Implications for magmatic fractional crystallization and sub-solidus hydrothermal alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuo; Ma, Changqian; Xu, Jiannan

    2017-12-01

    A general consensus has emerged that high field strength elements (HFSE) can mobile to some extent in a hydrothermal fluid. However, there are hot debates on whether sub-solidus hydrothermal alteration can lower the Nb/Ta ratio in evolved melts. In this study, we present petrography, geochronology and geochemistry of the barren and mineralized rocks in the Yemaquan skarn iron deposit, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to probe magmatic-hydrothermal transition. The barren rocks consist of diorites, granodiorites, granites and syenogranites, whereas the porphyritic granodiorites are associated with mineralization for an excellent consistency between the magmatic zircon U-Pb age (225 ± 2 Ma) and the hydrothermal phlogopite 40Ar-39Ar age (225 ± 1.5 Ma). The Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic data demonstrate that the Yemaquan granitoids are originated from a relatively homogenous enriched mantle with different degrees of crust contamination (assimilation fractional crystallization, AFC). Trace elements signatures indicate that the porphyritic granodiorites related to mineralization display amphibole crystallization for high water contents, whereas the barren granites have gone through biotite crystallization due to potassium enrichment by continuous upper crust contamination, both of which are responsible for their Nb/Ta ratios, respectively. Modeling results suggest that a basaltic melt with Nb/Ta ratio of 15.3 can reach a minimum Nb/Ta ratio of 12 in the producing granodioritic melt by amphibole fractional crystallization based on partition coefficients of Nb and Ta between amphibole and melts from previous experiments. This may explain the average Nb/Ta ratio (13.7) of the barren granodiorites, while it cannot account for the average Nb/Ta ratio (8.4) of the mineralized porphyritic granodiorites, and it is even lower than that of the granites (10.3) with biotite fractional crystallization. Exsolution of a magmatic-hydrothermal fluid is inevitable when a water saturated magma

  15. Mortar alteration: experimental study and ancient analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, Francois

    1987-01-01

    As the durability of cemented matrices is a matter of great importance in numerous domains, notably for the long term reliability of surface storages of radioactive wastes, the objective of this research thesis is to define mechanisms of evolution of cemented matrices when in contact with diluted aqueous solutions. The author notably studied the influence of the lixiviation mode on the evolution of two mortars having different compositions (pH, CO 2 pressure, system containment, and cement mineralogical nature appear to be the main governing parameters), the alteration (dissolution is the prevailing process in the interaction between cemented matrices and a diluted solution such as rain water), and ancient binders (archaeological binders containing mineral phases such as hydrated calcium silicates or hydro-grossulars). The obtained results lead to the definition of alteration mechanisms in modern cements, and highlight factors governing the durability of these materials when submitted to meteoric alteration [fr

  16. A new approach to the modification of cell membrane glycosphingolipids: Ganglioside composition of JTC-12 P3 cells altered by feeding with galactose as a sole carbohydrate source in protein- and lipid-free synthetic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Takaoka, Toshiko; Yoshida, Eiko; Iwamori, Masao; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Takatsuki, Kiyoshi

    1988-01-01

    A significant difference in the glycosphingolipid composition of JTC-12 P3 cells established from monkey kidney tissue was observed when cells cultured in a protein- and lipid-free synthetic medium containing glucose (DM-160) as a sole carbohydrate source were transferred and cultured in the same medium containing galactose and pyruvic acid (DM-170) in place of glucose. In particular, the amounts of gangliosides GM3, GM2, and GD3 in the cells cultured in DM-170 were 5.3-, 17.8-, and more than 8-fold those in the cells cultured in DM-160, respectively, indicating that anabolism of gangliosides is greatly enhanced in cells cultured in the presence of galactose and pyruvic acid, as compared with cells cultured in the presence of glucose. In fact, after cultivation of cells in the medium with N-acetyl-D-[ 14 C]mannosamine for 96 h, the radioactivity incorporated into the gangliosides of the cells in DM-170 was 10-fold that of the cells in DM-160. Among the gangliosides of the cells in DM-170, highly sialylated molecules such as GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b were preferentially labeled, indicating that the sialytransferases responsible for the synthesis of gangliosides are significantly more activated in cells cultured in DM-170 than in DM-160. These observations reveal that the glycosphingolipid composition of the plasma membrane can be modified epigenetically under well-defined conditions and provide important clues for clarifying the roles of glycosphingolipids associated with particular cell functions

  17. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  18. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Megan R; Nonnecke, Eric B; Linderholm, A L; Cajka, Tomas; Sa, Michael R; Lönnerdal, Bo; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Fiehn, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose), or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose) for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  19. Ex vivo proteomics of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 reveal that FabG affects fatty acid composition to alter bacterial growth fitness in the chicken gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Keiko; Murakami, Satoshi; Tachibana, Masato; Kurazono, Hisao; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of foodborne gastrointestinal illness worldwide. Here we performed ex vivo proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 81-176 in chicken, a main reservoir for human infection. At 0, 1 and 4 weeks post-infection (p.i.) with the GFP-expressing 81-176 strain, inocula were recovered from chicken ceca by cell sorting using flow cytometry. iTRAQ-coupled 2D-LC-MS/MS analyses that detected 55 C. jejuni proteins, among which either 3 (FabG, HydB, CJJ81176_0876) or 7 (MscS, CetB, FlhF, PurH, PglJ, LpxC, Icd) proteins exhibited >1.4-fold-increased expression at 1 or 4 week(s) p.i. compared with those at 0 weeks p.i., respectively. Deletion of the fabG gene clearly decreased the proportion of bacterial unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and chicken colonization. The UFA proportion of the parental strain was not altered when grown at 42 °C. These findings suggest that FabG might play a pivotal role in UFA production, linked to bacterial adaptation in the poultry host. To our knowledge, this is the first example of ex vivo C. jejuni proteomics, in which fatty acid metabolism might affect bacterial adaptation to the chicken host. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The association of yogurt starters with Lactobacillus casei DN 114.001 in fermented milk alters the composition and metabolism of intestinal microflora in germ-free rats and in human flora-associated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouzi, Z; Andrieux, C; Degivry, M C; Bouley, C; Szylit, O

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of milk and of various fermented milks on the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora. Groups of eight rats were fed for 6 wk a diet containing 30% nonfermented milk (M), yogurt (Y), milk fermented with Lactobacillus casei (LcFM) or milk fermented with the association of L. casei DN 114.001 and yogurt starters (LcYFM). In the first study, the survival of the lactic acid bacteria from the fermented milks was assessed by bacterial enumeration in feces of germ-free rats (GF rats) fed milk or fermented milks. The metabolic activities of the lactic acid bacteria were studied in these rats by the measurement of glycolytic activities and products of bacterial fermentation, i.e., acetate and lactate (isoforms L and D). In a second study, the effects of fermented milks on the composition and metabolism [gas, glycolytic activities, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), alcohol and ammonia] of human flora were studied using human flora-associated rats (HF rats). In GF rats, the survival of L. casei in the feces did not differ between those fed the LcFM and LcYFM diets. L. bulgaricus was detected in the feces of the rats fed Y, whereas Streptoccus thermophilus was found in the feces of the LcYFM group. In HF rats, fecal concentration of Bifidobacteria was greater in the LcFM group than in the others. beta-Glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) activity was lower in rats fed LcFM and Y than in those fed M and LcYFM, whereas beta-galactosidase (3.2.1.23), alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1 20) and beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) activities were higher in the LcYFM group compared with the others. Methane excretion was higher in rats fed Y than in other groups. Cecal SCFA concentrations did not differ in LcFM, Y and M groups, but total SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate were significantly greater in the LcYFM group. These results suggest that milk fermented with the combination of L. casei and yogurt starters leads to specific

  1. Change in land use alters the diversity and composition of Bradyrhizobium communities and led to the introduction of Rhizobium etli into the tropical rain forest of Los Tuxtlas (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel-Hernández, Marco A; Lloret, Lourdes; López-López, Aline; Martínez, Julio; Barois, Isabelle; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-05-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the Bradyrhizobium genus are major symbionts of legume plants in American tropical forests, but little is known about the effects of deforestation and change in land use on their diversity and community structure. Forest clearing is followed by cropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize as intercropped plants in Los Tuxtlas tropical forest of Mexico. The identity of bean-nodulating rhizobia in this area is not known. Using promiscuous trap plants, bradyrhizobia were isolated from soil samples collected in Los Tuxtlas undisturbed forest, and in areas where forest was cleared and land was used as crop fields or as pastures, or where secondary forests were established. Rhizobia were also trapped by using bean plants. Bradyrhizobium strains were classified into genospecies by dnaK sequence analysis supported by recA, glnII and 16S-23S rDNA IGS loci analyses. A total of 29 genospecies were identified, 24 of which did not correspond to any described taxa. A reduction in Bradyrhizobium diversity was observed when forest was turned to crop fields or pastures. Diversity seemed to recover to primary forest levels in secondary forests that derived from abandoned crop fields or pastures. The shifts in diversity were not related to soil characteristics but seemingly to the density of nodulating legumes present at each land use system (LUS). Bradyrhizobium community composition in soils was dependent on land use; however, similarities were observed between crop fields and pastures but not among forest and secondary forest. Most Bradyrhizobium genospecies present in forest were not recovered or become rare in the other LUS. Rhizobium etli was found as the dominant bean-nodulating rhizobia present in crop fields and pastures, and evidence was found that this species was introduced in Los Tuxtlas forest.

  2. A Corn Tissue Culture Cell Line with Altered Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-ie C, Hsing; Jack M, Widholm; Robert W, Rinne; Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica; Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana; Plant Physiology and Genetics Research Unit, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service and Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana

    1991-01-01

    A variant corn callus line derived from callus which originated from etiolated leaves of Illinois High Oil corn (Zea mays L.) has been identified. The variant corn callus line had increased lipid content concomitant with increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and altered biotin-containing protein patterns relative to the wild type callus. The variant callus line also had altered fatty acid composition concomitant with decreased oleate desaturase activity compared to the wild type callus. T...

  3. Altered metabolism in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locasale Jason W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer cells have different metabolic requirements from their normal counterparts. Understanding the consequences of this differential metabolism requires a detailed understanding of glucose metabolism and its relation to energy production in cancer cells. A recent study in BMC Systems Biology by Vasquez et al. developed a mathematical model to assess some features of this altered metabolism. Here, we take a broader look at the regulation of energy metabolism in cancer cells, considering their anabolic as well as catabolic needs. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/4/58/

  4. Animal factors affecting fatty acid composition of cow milk fat: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , cow individuality, parity and stage of lactation) on fatty acid (FA) composition of milk fat. Genetic parameters affecting the composition of the FAs in milk are reviewed and the possibilities for altering milk fat composition are discussed.

  5. Proton pump inhibitors alter the composition of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew A; Goodrich, Julia K; Maxan, Maria-Emanuela; Freedberg, Daniel E; Abrams, Julian A; Poole, Angela C; Sutter, Jessica L; Welter, Daphne; Ley, Ruth E; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Tim D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-05-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are drugs used to suppress gastric acid production and treat GI disorders such as peptic ulcers and gastro-oesophageal reflux. They have been considered low risk, have been widely adopted, and are often over-prescribed. Recent studies have identified an increased risk of enteric and other infections with their use. Small studies have identified possible associations between PPI use and GI microbiota, but this has yet to be carried out on a large population-based cohort. We investigated the association between PPI usage and the gut microbiome using 16S ribosomal RNA amplification from faecal samples of 1827 healthy twins, replicating results within unpublished data from an interventional study. We identified a significantly lower abundance in gut commensals and lower microbial diversity in PPI users, with an associated significant increase in the abundance of oral and upper GI tract commensals. In particular, significant increases were observed in Streptococcaceae. These associations were replicated in an independent interventional study and in a paired analysis between 70 monozygotic twin pairs who were discordant for PPI use. We propose that the observed changes result from the removal of the low pH barrier between upper GI tract bacteria and the lower gut. Our findings describe a significant impact of PPIs on the gut microbiome and should caution over-use of PPIs, and warrant further investigation into the mechanisms and their clinical consequences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Study on the alteration of bubaline blood biochemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bubaline blood biochemistry as affected by slaughter was the agenda for this work. Blood samples were collected from 30 buffaloes from abattoirs before and at slaughter. After biochemical and statistical analysis (mean was compared with t-test), it was observed that the albumin, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase ...

  7. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  8. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  9. Music alters visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-04-21

    Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  10. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  11. Composition: PHHS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2012-01-01

    PHHS is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance...

  12. Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Giovanni; Merlini, Anna

    2012-09-01

    The renewed interest in chromite ore deposits is directly related to the increase in Cr price ruled by international market trends. Chromite, an accessory mineral in peridotites, is considered to be a petrogenetic indicator because its composition reflects the degree of partial melting that the mantle experienced while producing the chromium spinel-bearing rock (Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993). However, the understanding of chromite alteration and metamorphic modification is still controversial (e.g. Evans and Frost in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:959-972, 1975; Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993; Oze et al. in Am J Sci 304:67-101, 2004). Metamorphic alteration leads to major changes in chromite chemistry and to the growth of secondary phases such as ferritchromite and chlorite. In this study, we investigate the Vourinos complex chromitites (from the mines of Rizo, Aetoraches, Xerolivado and Potamia) with respect to textural and chemical analyses in order to highlight the most important trend of alteration related to chromite transformation. The present study has been partially funded by the Aliakmon project in collaboration between the Public Power Corporation of Greece and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Kozani.

  13. Aerospace Composite Materials Delivery Order 0003: Nanocomposite Polymeric Resin Enhancements for Improved Composite Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Chenggang

    2002-01-01

    .... The addition of clays does not significantly alter the viscosity or cure kinetics so that the modified resin will still be suitable for liquid composite molding techniques such as resin transfer molding...

  14. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration on Primordial Noble Gases in CM Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, D.; Busemann, H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Maden, C.

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed 32 CM chondrites for their noble gas contents and isotopic compositions and calculated CRE ages. Correlated effects of parent body aqueous alteration with primordial noble gas contents were detected.

  15. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  16. Triclosan alterations of estuarine phytoplankton community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, James L; Thompson, Laura; Hylton, Sarah

    2017-06-15

    Antimicrobial additives in pharmaceutical and personal care products are a major environmental concern due to their potential ecological impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Triclosan (TCS) has been used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and preservative in various media. The sublethal and lethal effects of TCS on estuarine phytoplankton community composition were investigated using bioassays of natural phytoplankton communities to measure phytoplankton responses to different concentrations of TCS ranging from 1 to 200μgl -1 . The EC 50 (the concentration of an inhibitor where the growth is reduced by half) for phytoplankton groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, cryptophytes) examined in this ranged from 10.7 to 113.8μg TCS l -1 . Exposures resulted in major shifts in phytoplankton community composition at concentrations as low as 1.0μg TCS l -1 . This study demonstrates estuarine ecosystem sensitivity to TCS exposure and highlights potential alterations in phytoplankton community composition at what are typically environmental concentrations of TCS in urbanized estuaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rare earth impact on glass structure and alteration kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molieres, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work is related to the question of the geological deep repository of high-level waste glass. These wastes include fission products and minor actinides, elements which can be simulated by rare earths. As new glass compositions could enable increased rare earth concentrations, it is crucial to know and understand rare earth impact on glass structure on the one hand, and on glass alteration kinetics or their incorporation into an altered layer. This work studied simplified borosilicate glasses in order to limit synergetic effects between rare earths and other elements. Various complementary techniques were used to characterize pristine and altered glasses (solid-high resolution NMR, Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence, SIMS, SAXS). Firstly, the structural role of a rare earth is discussed and is compared to a calcium cation. The local environment of rare earths is also probed. Secondly, rare earth (nature and concentration) impact on several alteration regimes was studied (initial rate, rate drop). Then, after alteration, rare earth elements being retained within the altered layer, the structural impact of rare earth elements (and their local environment) in this alteration layer was also investigated. (author) [fr

  18. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...... materials. Numerical procedures are outlined which facilitate the practical analysis of any feature considered in this book. Examples are presented which illustrate the analysis of well-known materials such as concrete, hardening cement paste, ceramics, tile, wood, impregnated and reinforced materials...

  19. The compositional classification of chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallemeyn, G.W.; Wasson, J.T.; California Univ., Los Angeles; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1985-01-01

    Six specimens of unusual chondritic materials were analyzed by neutron activation for 30 elements in order to assess their degree of chondritic compositional pristinity and to search for evidence of genetic links to other chondrites. Five have highly recrystallized textures: the other, the Cumberland Falls chondrite, has suffered minor metamorphic recrystallization. Acapulco and Allan Hills A77081, are closely related and have subpristine compositions; they are more distantly related to Enon which has an altered composition. Udei Station appears to be a IAB meteorite even though its FeO/(FeO + MgO) ratio is slightly above the IAB field. The highly weathered meteorite Tierra Blanca is closely related to IAB but has a delta 18 O value 5 standard deviations higher than the IAB mean, and is designated ungrouped. Udei Station and Tierra Blanca have altered compositions; rare earth element patterns indicate loss of a phosphate phase. The elemental composition of the Cumberland Falls chondrite is virtually identical to that of LL chondrites, and its O-isotope composition is closely similar to those of some unequilibrated ordinary chondrites including LL Semarkona. The FeO/(FeO + MgO) ratios in its olivine are generally much lower than those in pyroxene. (author)

  20. Genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Chul; Kang, Tae Woong; Lee, Jin Oh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studied the alteration of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. We found that alteration of Rb gene, APC were 33 %, 13 % respectively. But alterations of oncogenes such as myc, ras and mdm2 were rarely found. Our results suggests that HBV may act as oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis instead of oncogenes. 6 figs, 2 tabs. (Author).

  1. Chemistry of diagenetically altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.; Warren, R.G.; Hagan, R.C.; Luedemann, G.

    1986-10-01

    The chemistry of diagenetically altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada is described. These tuffs contain substantial amounts of zeolites that are highly sorptive of certain radionuclides. Because of their widespread distribution, the zeolitic tuffs could provide important barriers to radionuclide migration. Physical properties of these tuffs and of their constituent zeolites are influenced by their chemical compositions. This study defines the amount of chemical variability within diagenetically altered tuffs and within diagenetic minerals at Yucca Mountain. Zeolitic tuffs at Yucca Mountain formed by diagenetic alteration of rhyolitic vitric tuffs. Despite their similar starting compositions, these tuffs developed compositions that vary both vertically and laterally. Widespread chemical variations were the result of open-system chemical diagenesis in which chemical components of the tuffs were mobilized and redistributed by groundwaters. Alkalies, alkaline earths, and silica were the most mobile elements during diagenesis. The zeolitic tuffs can be divided into three compositional groups: (1) calcium- and magnesium-rich tuffs associated with relatively thin zones of alteration in the unsaturated zone; (2) tuffs in thick zones of alteration at and below the water table that grade laterally from sodic compositions on the western side of Yucca Mountain to calcic compositions on the eastern side; and (3) potassic tuffs at the north end of Yucca Mountain. Physical properties of tuffs and their consistuent zeolites at Yucca Mountain may be affected by variations in compositions. Properties important for assessment of repository performance include behavior and ion exchange

  2. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables

  3. Composite Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    and assembly of the fibre reinforced composite structure Composite Territories, in which the property of bending is activated and varied so as to match solely through material means a desired form. This case study demonstrates how one might extend the geometric model so that it is able to engage and reconcile...

  4. The oxygen isotopic composition of water extracted from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, L.; Franchi, I.A.; Wright, I.P.; Pillinger, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of water extracted from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrites Semarkona and Bishunpur reveals differences in alteration mineralogy and levels of isotopic enrichment – reflecting key parameters in the alteration process.

  5. Morphology of altered layers of glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deruelle, O. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Spalla, O.; Lambard, J. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur l' Etat Condense les Atomes et les Molecules, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Barboux, Ph.; Ricol, St. [Ecole Polytechnique, PMC, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Ricol, St.; Vernaz, E. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, DEN, 30 - Marcoule (France)

    1997-07-01

    The alteration of the french nuclear waste glass R7T7 has been studied through chemical analysis, thermo-poro-metry and X-ray scattering. Pseudo-dynamic leaching was used, with daily renewal of the leaching solution. The behavior of the R77 glass has been compared to cesium borosilicate glasses with small amounts of Ca and Zr added. As compared to these simplified compositions, the R7T7 glass has a quasi-congruent leaching of Na, B and Si and strongly retains Ca and Zr. The altered layers are very porous (porosity > 40% ). The pore size increases with time to reach a constant value that is independent of the nature of the glass but that strongly depends on the method used for leaching. The pore radii are about 4 nm in pseudo-dynamic mode and 2 nm in static conditions. X-ray scattering indicate that the pores are compact with a sharp interface. Their origin is related to the quasi-equilibrium reaction of hydrolysis redeposition of silica. (authors)

  6. Composite Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    for the varied composition of material, an extension of the digital chain that foregrounds a new need to engage materials at multiple scales within the design process. Recognising that the process of making materials affords perspectives not available with found materials, this paper reports the design...... and assembly of the fibre reinforced composite structure Composite Territories, in which the property of bending is activated and varied so as to match solely through material means a desired form. This case study demonstrates how one might extend the geometric model so that it is able to engage and reconcile...

  7. Computational composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Redström, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Computational composite is introduced as a new type of composite material. Arguing that this is not just a metaphorical maneuver, we provide an analysis of computational technology as material in design, which shows how computers share important characteristics with other materials used in design...... and architecture. We argue that the notion of computational composites provides a precise understanding of the computer as material, and of how computations need to be combined with other materials to come to expression as material. Besides working as an analysis of computers from a designer’s point of view......, the notion of computational composites may also provide a link for computer science and human-computer interaction to an increasingly rapid development and use of new materials in design and architecture....

  8. Preliminary study of hydrothermal alteration associated with hot spring activity, Gerlach area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, S.B.

    1978-07-01

    Alteration of surficial rocks by thermal waters is a phenomenon that may be used to study and understand subsurface geothermal systems. At Gerlach, Nevada, present hot springs occur along fault scarps in recent valley alluvium. In general, alteration is that to be expected when hot, slightly acid, aqueous solutions come in contact with rocks of granodiorite composition. Silicification is widespread in alteration, indicating silica has been introduced. However, this silica need not have a deep-seated source, but could have been derived locally. No limits can be placed on temperatures of the altering solutions.

  9. Global geologic context for rock types and surface alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, M.B.; McSween, H.Y.; Tanaka, K.L.; Head, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Petrologic interpretations of thermal emission spectra from Mars orbiting spacecraft indicate the widespread occurrence of surfaces having basaltic and either andesitic or partly altered basalt compositions. Global concentration of ice-rich mantle deposits and near-surface ice at middle to high latitudes and their spatial correlation with andesitic or partly altered basalt materials favor the alteration hypothesis. We propose the formation of these units through limited chemical weathering from basalt interactions with icy mantles deposited during periods of high obliquity. Alteration of sediments in the northern lowlands depocenter may have been enhanced by temporary standing bodies of water and ice. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  10. On the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.

    1982-01-01

    The notions ''normal'' and ''pathologically altered pulmonary pattern'' are specified. A grouping of lung pattern alterations based on morphopathogenetic features is provided: blood and lymphatic vascular alterations, changes in the bronchi, lung stroma, and combined alterations. Radiologic appearance of the altered pulmonary pattern is classified in keeping with the basic principles of an X-ray shade examination. The terms, such as ''enriching'', ''strengthening'', ''deformation'', etc., used for describing the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern are defined

  11. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  12. Composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O' Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  13. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  14. The use of positrons to survey alteration layers on synthetic nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, Joelle T.; Parruzot, Benjamin; Weber, Marc H.; Ryan, Joseph V.; McCloy, John S.; Wall, Nathalie A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to safeguard society and the environment, understanding radioactive waste glass alteration mechanisms in interactions with solutions and near-field materials, such as Fe, is essential to nuclear waste repository performance assessments. Alteration products are formed at the surface of glasses after reaction with solution. In this study, glass altered in the presence of Fe 0 in aqueous solution formed two alteration layers: one embedded with Fe closer to the surface and one without Fe found deeper in the sample. Both layers were found to be thinner than the alteration layer found in glass altered in aqueous solution only. For the first time, Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (DB-PAS) is used to non-destructively characterize the pore structures of glass altered in the presence of Fe 0 . Advantages and disadvantages of DB-PAS compared to other techniques used to analyze pore structures for altered glass samples are discussed. Ultimately, DB-PAS has shown to be an excellent choice for pore structure characterization for glasses with multiple alteration layers. Monte Carlo modeling predicted positron trajectories through the layers, and helped explain DB-PAS data, which showed that the deeper alteration layer without Fe had a similar composition and pore structure to layers on glass altered in water only.

  15. The use of positrons to survey alteration layers on synthetic nuclear waste glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Joelle T.; Parruzot, Benjamin; Weber, Marc H.; Ryan, Joseph V.; McCloy, John S.; Wall, Nathalie A.

    2017-07-01

    In order to safeguard society and the environment, understanding radioactive waste glass alteration mechanisms in interactions with solutions and near-field materials, such as Fe, is essential to nuclear waste repository performance assessments. Alteration products are formed at the surface of glasses after reaction with solution. In this study, glass altered in the presence of Fe0 in aqueous solution formed two alteration layers: one embedded with Fe closer to the surface and one without Fe found deeper in the sample. Both layers were found to be thinner than the alteration layer found in glass altered in aqueous solution only. For the first time, Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (DB-PAS) is used to non-destructively characterize the pore structures of glass altered in the presence of Fe0. Advantages and disadvantages of DB-PAS compared to other techniques used to analyze pore structures for altered glass samples are discussed. Ultimately, DB-PAS has shown to be an excellent choice for pore structure characterization for glasses with multiple alteration layers. Monte Carlo modeling predicted positron trajectories through the layers, and helped explain DB-PAS data, which showed that the deeper alteration layer without Fe had a similar composition and pore structure to layers on glass altered in water only.

  16. Systemic dystrophic alterations of skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    A roentgenologic picture of dystrophic alterations of bones following hard, acute and chronic infections diseases, distinct disorders of vitanium balance, diseases of endocrine system, disorder of metabolism and diet, long-term exogenous intoxications including medicinal is given. Distinct dystrophic disorders are characterized both by quantitative and qualitative deviations in physiological change of bones

  17. Art as Alterity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  18. Peary, Verifiability, and Altered Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Robert Peary's alleged 1909 sledge-achievement of the North Pole is critically examined for credibility and consistency, with respect to terrestrial magnetism, solar-altitude, drift, and written & eyewitness testimony. Several alterations of the record are detected, and the dubiousness of navigation without determining longitude is emphasized.

  19. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  20. Alteration and alterability of the anorthosite from Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Simão, J.; Silva, Z. C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Siliceous rocks are widely used as dimension stone but the last decades have registered an increase rate of their alteration when exposed to polluted environments. Anorthosites were treated by acidified solutions of HCl, HN03 and H2S04 simulating acid rain and the response was recorded through different experiments such as on the surface of the polished rock and on the surface of uncovered thin sections. The main components, plagioclase and olivine, both responded in similar ways to each acid...

  1. Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, Gregg A.; Clark, Roger N.; Goetz, Alexander F.H.; Livo, K. Eric; Breit, George N.; Kruse, Fred A.; Sutley, Stephen J.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Lowers, Heather A.; Post, James L.; Stoffregen, Roger E.; Ashley, Roger P.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral maps based on Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used to study late Miocene advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada. Distributions of Fe-bearing minerals, clays, micas, sulfates, and carbonates were mapped using the Tetracorder spectral-shape matching system. The Al content of white micas increases toward altered areas and near intrusive rocks. Alunite composition varies from pure K to intimate mixtures of Na-K endmembers with subpixel occurrences of huangite, the Ca analogue of alunite. Intimately mixed Na-K alunite marks areas of relatively lower alteration temperature, whereas co-occurring Na-alunite and dickite may delineate relict hydrothermal conduits. The presence of dickite, halloysite, and well-ordered kaolinite, but absence of disordered kaolinite, is consistent with acidic conditions during hydrothermal alteration. Partial lichen cover on opal spectrally mimics chalcedony, limiting its detection to lichen-free areas. Pods of buddingtonite are remnants of initial quartz-adularia-smectite alteration. Thus, spectral maps provide a synoptic view of the surface mineralogy, and define a previously unrecognized early steam-heated hydrothermal event.Faulting and episodes of hydrothermal alteration at Cuprite were intimately linked to upper plate movements above the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain detachment and growth, collapse, and resurgence of the nearby Stonewall Mountain volcanic complex between 8 and 5 Ma. Isotopic dating indicates that hydrothermal activity started at least by 7.61 Ma and ended by about 6.2 Ma. Spectral and stable isotope data suggest that Cuprite is a late Miocene low-sulfidation adularia-sericite type hot spring deposit overprinted by late-stage, steam-heated advanced argillic alteration formed along the margin of the Stonewall Mountain caldera.

  2. Alteration of medieval stained-glasses. Contribution to the long-term behaviour of vitrified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpenich, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the behaviour of glasses during alteration have been studied in two different ways: 1)study of the alteration of medieval stained-glasses 2)experimental leaching of modelled glasses. Medieval stained-glasses have a silico-calcic and alkaline composition. It appears three different alteration modes for these glasses: 1)by condensation waters 2)by atmospheric agents 3)by porosity waters and humic acids. A chemical study of the altered areas has allowed to understand the alteration behaviour of a lot of elements: in particular transition elements, heavy metals and some rare earths. On the other hand, two vitrified wastes and a glass having the same composition of the potassic medieval stained-glasses have been leached in a static mode (pH=1 to 10, T=20 to 80 degrees Celsius, T=12 hours to 6 months). These experiments have revealed that the alteration mechanisms depend on the pH of the solution and on the chemical composition of the glass. An increasing durability of glasses in terms of the global polymerization degree has been revealed too. At last, the behaviours of glasses during alteration, observed with natural and experimental conditions, show that it is necessary to study natural analogous for predicting the long-term behaviour of vitrified wastes. (O.M.)

  3. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Yen, William; Yen, Laurel C.; Jia, George D.

    2012-12-04

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

  4. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, George D.; Lewis, Linda; Yen, Laurel C.

    2014-06-24

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

  5. Hydrothermal alteration in oceanic ridge volcanics: A detailed study at the Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, W.I.; Perfit, M.R.; Josnasson, I.R.; Smith, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field is composed of altered oceanic crust and extinct hydrothermal vents within the eastern Galapagos Rift between 85??49???W and 85??55???W. The discharge zone of the hydrothermal system is revealed along scarps, thus providing an opportunity to examine the uppermost mineralized, and highly altered interior parts of the crust. Altered rocks collected in situ by the submersible ALVIN show complex concentric alteration zones. Microsamples of individual zones have been analysed for major/minor, trace elements, and strontium isotopes in order to describe the complex compositional details of the hydrothermal alteration. Interlayered chlorite-smectite and chlorite with disequilibrium compositions dominate the secondary mineralogy as replacement phases of primary glass and acicular pyroxene. Phenocrysts and matrix grains of plagioclase are unaffected during alteration. Using a modification of the Gresens' equation we demonstrate that the trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively immobile, and calculate degrees of enrichment and depletion in other elements. Strontium isotopic ratios increase as Sr concentrations decrease from least-altered cores to most-altered rims and cross-cutting veins in individual samples, and can be modeled by open system behaviour under low fluid-rock ratio (< 10) conditions following a period of lower-temperature weathering of volcanics within the rift zone. The complex patterns of element enrichment and depletion and strontium isotope variations indicate mixing between pristine seawater and ascending hot fluids to produce a compositional spectrum of fluids. The precipitation of base-metal sulfides beneath the seafloor is probably a result of fluid mixing and cooling. If, as suggested here, the discharge zone alteration occurred under relatively low fluid-rock ratios, then this shallow region must play an important role in determining the exit composition of vent fluids in marine hydrothermal systems

  6. Histologic and biochemical alterations predict pulmonary mechanical dysfunction in aging mice with chronic lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Massa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Both aging and chronic inflammation produce complex structural and biochemical alterations to the lung known to impact work of breathing. Mice deficient in surfactant protein D (Sftpd develop progressive age-related lung pathology characterized by tissue destruction/remodeling, accumulation of foamy macrophages and alteration in surfactant composition. This study proposes to relate changes in tissue structure seen in normal aging and in chronic inflammation to altered lung mechanics using a computational model. Alterations in lung function in aging and Sftpd -/- mice have been inferred from fitting simple mechanical models to respiratory impedance data (Zrs, however interpretation has been confounded by the simultaneous presence of multiple coexisting pathophysiologic processes. In contrast to the inverse modeling approach, this study uses simulation from experimental measurements to recapitulate how aging and inflammation alter Zrs. Histologic and mechanical measurements were made in C57BL6/J mice and congenic Sftpd-/- mice at 8, 27 and 80 weeks of age (n = 8/group. An anatomic computational model based on published airway morphometry was developed and Zrs was simulated between 0.5 and 20 Hz. End expiratory pressure dependent changes in airway caliber and recruitment were estimated from mechanical measurements. Tissue elements were simulated using the constant phase model of viscoelasticity. Baseline elastance distribution was estimated in 8-week-old wild type mice, and stochastically varied for each condition based on experimentally measured alteration in elastic fiber composition, alveolar geometry and surfactant composition. Weighing reduction in model error against increasing model complexity allowed for identification of essential features underlying mechanical pathology and their contribution to Zrs. Using a maximum likelihood approach, alteration in lung recruitment and diminished elastic fiber density were shown predictive of mechanical

  7. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available balance between the inherent advantages and disadvantages. Also, using a hybrid composite that contains two or more types of fibre, the advantages of one type of fibre could complement with what are lacking in the other. As a consequence, a balance in cost...

  8. BODY COMPOSITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A knowledge of the exact chemical composition of .he live animal at any given stage would therefore not only permit a more precise evaluation of feeds, but it could conceivably be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock and would undoubtedly be a use- ful diagnostic tool of metabolic and physiological dis- orders.

  9. Music Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, music programs in K-12 schools have emphasized performance opportunities for children and young people. Until the release of the 1994 National Standards in Music, targeted instruction in composition was frequently overlooked due to the emphasis on performance as well as the expectations of what a school music program ought to produce…

  10. Composition decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyson, Mark

    2003-01-01

    . Not only have design tools changed character, but also the processes associated with them. Today, the composition of problems and their decomposition into parcels of information, calls for a new paradigm. This paradigm builds on the networking of agents and specialisations, and the paths of communication...

  11. Stable isotopes and amphibole chemistry on hydrothermally altered granitoids in the North Chilean Precordillera: a limited role for meteoric water?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agemar, T.; Wörner, G.; Heumann, A.

    1999-01-01

    Whole rock and mineral stable isotope and microprobe analyses are presented from granitoids of the North Chilean Precordillera. The Cretaceous to Tertiary plutonic rocks contain important ore deposits and frequently display compositional and textural evidence of hydrothermal alteration even in

  12. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoshuk, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  13. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    . The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior......, viscoelastic behavior, and internal stress states. Other physical properties considered are thermal and electrical conductivities, diffusion coefficients, dielectric constants and magnetic permeability. Special attention is given to the effect of pore shape on the mechanical and physical behavior of porous...... materials. Numerical procedures are outlined which facilitate the practical analysis of any feature considered in this book. Examples are presented which illustrate the analysis of well-known materials such as concrete, hardening cement paste, ceramics, tile, wood, impregnated and reinforced materials...

  14. Composite models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    If quarks and leptons are composite, it should be possible eventually to calculate their mass spectrum and understand the reasons for the observed family replications, questions which lie beyond the standard model. Alas, all experimental evidence to date points towards quark and lepton elemenarity with the typical momentum scale Λsub(comp), beyond which effects of inner structure may be seen, probably being greater than ITeV. One supersymmetric preon model explained provides a new dynamical alternative for obtaining light fermions which is that these states are quasi Goldstone fermions. This, and similar models are discussed. Although quasi Goldstone fermions provide an answer to the 0sup(th)-order question of composite models the questions of how masses and families are generated remain unanswered. (U.K.)

  15. Composites Strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    measurement of composite strengthening is that tht interface the interfacial bond shear strength in Al-SiC transfers the load from the matrix into...effort was made to perform among other factors, the bond integrity and a punch test using aluminum disks with the efficiency of the load transfer from...cnisuite construit un modilc theoriquc, base sur la rnthodc d’Eshelby. pour pr~dire Ics contraintes thermiques r~siducllcs Acy. Nous avons obtenu un tr

  16. Grinding-induced metallurgical alterations in the binder phase of WC-Co cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jing; Roa Rovira, Joan Josep; Schwind, Martin; Odén, M.; Johansonn Joesaar, M. P.; Llanes Pitarch, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The metallic binder phase dictates the toughening behavior of WC-Co cemented carbides (hardmetals), even though it occupies a relative small fraction of the composite. Studies on deformation and phase transformation of the binder constituent are scarce. Grinding represents a key manufacturing step in machining of hardmetal tools, and is well-recognized to induce surface integrity alterations. In this work, metallurgical alterations of the binder phase in ground WC-Co cemented carbides have be...

  17. High-fat diet alters gut microbiota physiology in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hannelore; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Berry, David; Desmarchelier, Charles; Hahne, Hannes; Loh, Gunnar; Mondot, Stanislas; Lepage, Patricia; Rothballer, Michael; Walker, Alesia; Böhm, Christoph; Wenning, Mareike; Wagner, Michael; Blaut, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is known to regulate host energy homeostasis and can be influenced by high-calorie diets. However, changes affecting the ecosystem at the functional level are still not well characterized. We measured shifts in cecal bacterial communities in mice fed a carbohydrate or high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks at the level of the following: (i) diversity and taxa distribution by high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing; (ii) bulk and single-cell chemical composition by Fourier-transform infrared- (FT-IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy and (iii) metaproteome and metabolome via high-resolution mass spectrometry. High-fat diet caused shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria and altered the proportion of Ruminococcaceae (decrease) and Rikenellaceae (increase). FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the impact of the diet on cecal chemical fingerprints is greater than the impact of microbiota composition. Diet-driven changes in biochemical fingerprints of members of the Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae were also observed at the level of single cells, indicating that there were distinct differences in cellular composition of dominant phylotypes under different diets. Metaproteome and metabolome analyses based on the occurrence of 1760 bacterial proteins and 86 annotated metabolites revealed distinct HF diet-specific profiles. Alteration of hormonal and anti-microbial networks, bile acid and bilirubin metabolism and shifts towards amino acid and simple sugars metabolism were observed. We conclude that a HF diet markedly affects the gut bacterial ecosystem at the functional level. PMID:24030595

  18. Rapid oxygen diffusion during high temperature alteration of zircon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nick M W; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Santosh, M

    2018-02-26

    The mineral zircon through its isotopic and elemental signatures comprises the greatest archive recording the evolution of Earth's continental crust. Recognising primary from secondary zircon compositional signatures is thus important for the accurate interpretation of this archive. We report two examples of metasedimentary rocks from high-grade shear zones within the Southern Granulite Belt of India, where anomalously high and homogeneous oxygen isotope signatures indicate disturbance of this isotopic system. Utilising the combined U-Pb-Hf-O and trace element signatures from these zircon grains, we postulate that fluid-assisted alteration has led to complete resetting of the oxygen isotope signatures. This case study presents a rarely observed natural example of potentially fast diffusion of oxygen under hydrous conditions. Given the pervasive nature of fluid interaction within high-grade and highly deformed rocks, we expect that such isotopic disturbance might be more common to nature than is currently reported. A lack of correlation between isotopic disturbance with cathodoluminescence or Th/U values, suggests that these altered zircon grains would not clearly be classified as metamorphic, in which case they would be expected to yield primary compositions. Caution is therefore advised when using detrital δ 18 O zircon compilations without a high level of scrutiny for primary versus secondary compositions.

  19. Altering prolactin concentrations in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C

    2016-07-01

    Prolactin has a multiplicity of actions, but it is of particular importance in gestating and lactating animals. In sows, it is involved in the control of mammary development and also holds essential roles in the lactogenic and galactopoietic processes. Furthermore, low circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with the agalactia syndrome. The crucial role of prolactin makes it important to understand the various factors that can alter its secretion. Regulation of prolactin secretion is largely under the negative control of dopamine, and dopamine agonists consistently decrease prolactin concentrations in sows. On the other hand, injections of dopamine antagonists can enhance circulating prolactin concentrations. Besides pharmacologic agents, many other factors can also alter prolactin concentrations in sows. The use of Chinese-derived breeds, for instance, leads to increased prolactin concentrations in lactating sows compared with standard European white breeds. Numerous husbandry and feeding practices also have a potential impact on prolactin concentrations in sows. Factors, such as provision of nest-building material prepartum, housing at farrowing, high ambient temperature, stress, transient weaning, exogenous thyrotropin-releasing factor, exogenous growth hormone-releasing factor, nursing frequency, prolonged photoperiod, fasting, increased protein and/or energy intake, altered energy sources, feeding high-fiber diets, sorghum ergot or plant extracts, were all studied with respect to their prolactinemic properties. Although some of these practices do indeed affect circulating prolactin concentrations, none leads to changes as drastic as those brought about by dopamine agonists or antagonists. It appears that the numerous factors regulating prolactin concentrations in sows are still not fully elucidated, and that studies to develop novel applicable ways of increasing prolactin concentrations in sows are warranted. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published

  20. Dietary magnesium deficiency alters gut microbiota and leads to depressive-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Gudrun; Pyndt Jørgensen, Betina M; Elfving, Betina; Nielsen, Denis Sandris; Kihl, Pernille; Lund, Sten; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Wegener, Gregers

    2015-06-01

    Gut microbiota (GM) has previously been associated with alterations in rodent behaviour, and since the GM is affected by the diet, the composition of the diet may be an important factor contributing to behavioural changes. Interestingly, a magnesium restricted diet has been shown to induce anxiety and depressive-like behaviour in humans and rodents, and it could be suggested that magnesium deficiency may mediate the effects through an altered GM. The present study therefore fed C57BL/6 mice with a standard diet or a magnesium deficient diet (MgD) for 6 weeks, followed by behavioural testing in the forced swim test (FST) to evaluate depressive-like behaviour. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed 2 day after the FST to assess metabolic alterations. Neuroinflammatory markers were analysed from hippocampus. GM composition was analysed and correlated to the behaviour and hippocampal markers. It was found that mice exposed to MgD for 6 weeks were more immobile than control mice in the FST, suggesting an increased depressive-like behaviour. No significant difference was detected in the GTT. GM composition correlated positively with the behaviour of undisturbed C57BL/6 mice, feeding MgD diet altered the microbial composition. The altered GM correlated positively to the hippocampal interleukin-6. In conclusion, we hypothesise that imbalances of the microbiota-gut-brain axis induced by consuming a MgD diet, contributes to the development of depressive-like behaviour.

  1. The varieties of surface alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    Four aspects of ion-beam modification are reviewed: structural changes, in which crystalline phases are converted to amorphous, amorphous phases are converted to crystalline, or ordered crystalline forms evolve to random crystalline forms; topographical changes, which include the development of facets on flat surfaces, the development of cliffs at grain boundaries, the development of ripples on obliquely bombarded surfaces, and the evolution of blunt asperities, foreign particles, or vertical surfaces into cones or pyramids; bombardment-induced electronic changes, which include the consequences of chemical changes due to the composition of the incident beam, carrier injection due to energy deposition, chemical changes due to recoil implantation, and chemical changes due to preferential sputtering; and compositional changes, which in binary alloys consist mainly of a preferential loss of the component with the lower surface binding energy or larger size. 122 refs.; 32 figs.; 9 tabs

  2. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Div. (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests.

  3. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March 20, 2014 A new study adds to the copious existing evidence that chronic exposure to addictive drugs alters the brain in ways that make ...

  4. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2014-10-09

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage.

  5. Thermal alteration of aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.W.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    The studies summarized emphasize that heated effluents may function to enrich or to stress an ecosystem, depending upon the biological feature examined. However, the potential for negative impact on aquatic environments must not be underestimated. The ultimate consequences of the sometimes drastic alteration of behavior patterns and life-history phenomena in the surviving inhabitants of thermal areas have yet to be assessed. The relatively short time span of thermal field studies has not allowed thorough understanding of the biological chain reactions that may take place as physiological and genetic adjustments are made. Ensuing changes in species interactions, practically uninvestigated at this time, may create heretofore unsuspected ecosystem changes. Man's challenge for the future is to gain a more thorough comprehension of thermal ecology and to determine how waste heat may be used as an energy subsidy rather than a stress to aquatic systems. These and subsequent studies may assist in understanding how natural ecosystems respond to temperature elevation and will lead to the development of concepts and principles pertaining to thermally altered environmental systems. (U.S.)

  6. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Green, Stefan J; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  7. Concrete compositions and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua

    2015-06-23

    Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.

  8. Delineating the role of alterations in lipid metabolism to the pathogenesis of inherited skeletal and cardiac muscle disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saini-Chohan, Harjot K.; Mitchell, Ryan W.; Vaz, Frédéric M.; Zelinski, Teresa; Hatch, Grant M.

    2012-01-01

    As the specific composition of lipids is essential for the maintenance of membrane integrity, enzyme function, ion channels, and membrane receptors, an alteration in lipid composition or metabolism may be one of the crucial changes occurring during skeletal and cardiac myopathies. Although the

  9. The Effect of Compositional Tailoring on the Thermal Expansion and Tribological Properties of PS300: A Solid Lubricant Composite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, C.; Fellenstein, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a research program in which the goal is to alter the thermal expansion coefficient of a composite solid lubricant coating, PS300, by compositional tailoring. PS300 is a plasma sprayed coating consisting of chrome oxide, silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic in NiCr binder. By adjusting the composition, the thermal expansion coefficient can be altered, and hence chosen, to more closely match a selected substrate preventing coating spallation at extreme temperatures. Thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) for a variety of compositions were measured from 25 to 800 C using a commercial dilatometer. The CTE's ranged from 7.0 to 13 x lO(exp -6)/deg C depending on the binder content. Subsequent tribological testing of a modified composition indicated that friction and wear properties were relatively insensitive to compositional tailoring.

  10. Composition: 3 Piano Pieces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2017-01-01

    3 Piano Pieces is a collection of open composition to be realised by an improvising pianist. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction".......3 Piano Pieces is a collection of open composition to be realised by an improvising pianist. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction"....

  11. Epigenetic alterations underlying autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Karami, Jafar; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Malekshahi, Zahra; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in genetic explorations have extended our understanding through discovery of genetic patterns subjected to autoimmune diseases (AID). Genetics, on the contrary, has not answered all the conundrums to describe a comprehensive explanation of causal mechanisms of disease etiopathology with regard to the function of environment, sex, or aging. The other side of the coin, epigenetics which is defined by gene manifestation modification without DNA sequence alteration, reportedly has come in to provide new insights towards disease apprehension through bridging the genetics and environmental factors. New investigations in genetic and environmental contributing factors for autoimmunity provide new explanation whereby the interactions between genetic elements and epigenetic modifications signed by environmental agents may be responsible for autoimmune disease initiation and perpetuation. It is aimed through this article to review recent progress attempting to reveal how epigenetics associates with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  12. Window to 'Clovis's' Altered Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole (center) into it with its rock abrasion tool. An analysis of the interior of the hole with the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer found higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine compared to basaltic, or volcanic, rocks at Gusev. This might indicate that Clovis was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004).

  13. Self-alteration in HRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamazaki, Ryuji; Nørskov, Marco

    Humanlike androids are being developed with the ambition to be immersed into our daily life and meet us on an equal level in social interaction. The possibilities and limitations of these types of robots can potentially change societies and Human-Robot Interaction might affect the very way in which...... and Denmark, we examine how Telenoid, a new type of teleoperated android robot designed as a minimalistic human, affect people in the real world. We introduce Telenoid to real-world as the fields of elderly care and child education by focusing on the social aspects of the android robot that might facilitate...... the ways in which our subjectivity can be innerly transformed, decentred, in other words, self-altered. In our trials so far, we have been investigating the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting pilot studies in Japan...

  14. Planetary compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The present study of the density, major-element and trace-element compositions, oxygen isotopes, and noble gases of the metal, sulfide, and silicate components of meteorites shows that these properties do not match those of the terrestrial planets, and thereby suggests that there was not much lateral mixing in the solar nebula during planetary accretion. The planets would then have accumulated from narrow concentric zones, and the current zonal structure of the asteroid belt may be analogous to the structure of the inner portions of the solar nebula during the terrestrial planets' accretion. Localized heating during the material's infall to the median plane of the nebula is suggested to have occurred. 64 references

  15. Acrylic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Ozeki, Takao; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo; Meda, Yutaka.

    1969-01-01

    An acrylic composition and a process for the production of an easily hardenable coating material by irradiating with active energy, particularly electron beams and ultraviolet light, are provided using a mixture of 10%-100% by weight of an unsaturated compound and 90%-0% of a vinyl monomer. The composition has a high degree of polymerization, low volatility, low viscosity and other properties similar to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resins. The aforesaid unsaturated compound is produced by primarily reacting saturated cyclocarboxylic anhydride and/or alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic anhydride and by secondarily reacting an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer by addition reaction with polyhydric alcohols. Each reaction is conducted in the presence of a tertiary amino radical-containing vinyl monomer as a catalyst. The cross-linking is effected generally with an electron beam accelerator of 0.1-2.0 MeV or with a light beam in the 2,000-8,000A range in the presence of a photosensitive agent. In one example, 62 parts of ethylene glycol and 196 parts of maleic anhydride were dissolved in a mixture consisting of 100 parts of n-butyl methacrylate and 30 parts of styrene. To the mixture were added 5 parts of 2-methyl 5 vinyl piridine and 0.005 part of hydroquinone monomethyl ether. After the reaction at 90 0 C for 3 hours, a compound HOC:O-CH=CHC:OCH 2 CH 2 C:OOH was produced. To this solution were added 285 parts of glycidyl methacrylate. After the reaction at 90 0 C for 6 hours, 95% of the carboxylic acids reacted with epoxy radicals. Fourteen examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. Study of Mururoa's basaltic massif alteration (French Polynesia): solid and fluid phases analysis and thermodynamical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destrigneville, Christine

    1991-01-01

    The alteration processes occurring in the volcanics of Mururoa have been studied using petrological data on secondary minerals, chemical analyses of the interstitial fluids and isotopic analyses on both minerals and fluids. Chemical and isotopic exchanges were first modelled, then thermodynamical modeling characterized the chemical evolution during the alteration of the secondary assemblage and of the fluid. The main secondary sequences which have been observed in Mururoa volcanics result from the alteration occurring during the lavas setting. Two different processes have been evidenced. The first one is the deuteric alteration with the CO 2 -rich magmatic fluid exsolved from the magma and trapped in the vesicles and the olivine microcracks of the lava intrusions. This alteration in a closed system is dominated by the solid phases when the CO 2 molar fraction in the fluid is higher than 0.25. The second process is the alteration of the lavas by seawater or a meteoric fluid. The basaltic flows present alteration assemblages composed of clay minerals and zeolites whose chemical composition has been forced by the fluid composition. Shallowness emissions of lavas result in completely argillized levels. The present interstitial fluids chemistry result from the percolation of seawater in the volcano. In the argillized levels the fluids have interacted with the clay minerals and their chemical compositions have been modified. The important chemical changes in the present interstitial fluids show that the present alteration in the volcano is higher than the fluids circulation. (author) [fr

  17. Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A. Stuart; Reed, Sasha; Cleveland, Cory

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptual models predict that changes in plant litter chemistry during decomposition are primarily regulated by both initial litter chemistry and the stage-or extent-of mass loss. Far less is known about how variations in decomposer community structure (e.g., resulting from different ecosystem management types) could influence litter chemistry during decomposition. Given the recent agricultural intensification occurring globally and the importance of litter chemistry in regulating soil organic matter storage, our objectives were to determine the potential effects of agricultural management on plant litter chemistry and decomposition rates, and to investigate possible links between ecosystem management, litter chemistry and decomposition, and decomposer community composition and activity. We measured decomposition rates, changes in litter chemistry, extracellular enzyme activity, microarthropod communities, and bacterial versus fungal relative abundance in replicated conventional-till, no-till, and old field agricultural sites for both corn and grass litter. After one growing season, litter decomposition under conventional-till was 20% greater than in old field communities. However, decomposition rates in no-till were not significantly different from those in old field or conventional-till sites. After decomposition, grass residue in both conventional- and no-till systems was enriched in total polysaccharides relative to initial litter, while grass litter decomposed in old fields was enriched in nitrogen-bearing compounds and lipids. These differences corresponded with differences in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate that agricultural intensification can increase litter decomposition rates, alter decomposer communities, and influence litter chemistry in ways that could have important and long-term effects on soil organic matter dynamics. We suggest that future

  18. Alterations of the Gut Microbiome in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulong Yan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human gut microbiota is believed to be directly or indirectly involved in cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. However, the identification and functional status of the hypertension-related gut microbe(s have not yet been surveyed in a comprehensive manner.Methods: Here we characterized the gut microbiome in hypertension status by comparing fecal samples of 60 patients with primary hypertension and 60 gender-, age-, and body weight-matched healthy controls based on whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing.Results: Hypertension implicated a remarkable gut dysbiosis with significant reduction in within-sample diversity and shift in microbial composition. Metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS revealed 53,953 microbial genes that differ in distribution between the patients and healthy controls (false discovery rate, 0.05 and can be grouped into 68 clusters representing bacterial species. Opportunistic pathogenic taxa, such as, Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp., and Parabacteroides merdae were frequently distributed in hypertensive gut microbiome, whereas the short-chain fatty acid producer, such as, Roseburia spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, were higher in controls. The number of hypertension-associated species also showed stronger correlation to the severity of disease. Functionally, the hypertensive gut microbiome exhibited higher membrane transport, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and steroid degradation, while in controls the metabolism of amino acid, cofactors and vitamins was found to be higher. We further provided the microbial markers for disease discrimination and achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC of 0.78, demonstrating the potential of gut microbiota in prediction of hypertension.Conclusion: These findings represent specific alterations in microbial diversity, genes, species and functions of the hypertensive gut microbiome. Further studies on the causality relationship between

  19. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF

  20. The importance of disturbance versus physiography in defining vegetation composition and predicting possible successional trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner; David W. McGill

    2018-01-01

    Regional (climate/soils) and local (aspect) physiography determine plant community composition. However, changes in initial floristic composition after a disturbance may be severe enough to alter the successional trajectory predicted by physiography. We addressed the question of which is more important, disturbance or physiography, in determining vegetation composition...

  1. Altered Chloride Homeostasis Decreases the Action Potential Threshold and Increases Hyperexcitability in Hippocampal Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Ledri, Marco; Melis, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    neurons, and promote AP generation. It is generally recognized that altered chloride homeostasis per se has no effect on the AP threshold. Here, we demonstrate that chloride overload of mouse principal CA3 pyramidal neurons not only makes these cells more excitable through GABAA receptor activation...... homeostasis. This finding further broadens the spectrum of neuronal plasticity regulated by ionic compositions across the cellular membrane....

  2. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  3. Alterations of the murine gut microbiome in allergic airway disease are independent of surfactant protein D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K. Barfod

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Our results show that the composition of the microbiota is not influenced by the SP-D deficient genotype under naïve or OVA induced airway disease. However, OVA sensitization and pulmonary challenge did alter the gut microbiota, supporting a bidirectional lung-gut crosstalk. Future mechanistic investigations of the influence of induced allergic airway disease on gut microbiota are warranted.

  4. Dietary magnesium deficiency alters gut microbiota and leads to depressive-like behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Gudrun; Jørgensen, Betina M. Pyndt; Elfving, Betina

    2015-01-01

    by behavioural testing in the forced swim test (FST) to evaluate depressive-like behaviour. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed 2 day after the FST to assess metabolic alterations. Neuroinflammatory markers were analysed from hippocampus. GM composition was analysed and correlated...

  5. Altered genotypic and phenotypic frequencies of aphid populations under enriched CO2 and O3 atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward B. Mondor; Michelle N. Tremblay; Caroline S. Awmack; Richard L. Lindroth

    2005-01-01

    Environmental change is anticipated to negatively affect both plant and animal populations. As abiotic factors rapidly change habitat suitability, projections range from altered genetic diversity to wide-spread species loss. Here, we assess the degree to which changes in atmospheric composition associated with environmental change will influence not only the abundance...

  6. Alteration of non-swelling clay minerals and magadiite by acid activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steudel, A.; Batenburg, L.F.; Fischer, H.R.; Weidler, P.G.; Emmerich, K.

    2009-01-01

    The bulk material of three kaolins, a sepiolite, an illite and one magadiite were treated with 1, 5 and 10 M H2SO4 at 80 °C for several hours. The alteration of the non-swelling clay mineral structures was controlled by the individual character of each mineral (chemical composition and initial

  7. Mechanisms of hydrothermal alteration in a granitic rock. Consequences for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parneix, J.C.

    1987-06-01

    The study of hydrothermal alteration in the Auriat granitic rock (France, Massif-Central) has evidenced three main events: - a pervasive chloritisation of biotites in some parts of the drill-core, - an alteration localized around subvertical cracks and superimposed on previously chloritized or unaltered granite, - an alteration localized around subhorizontal cracks cross-cutting the preceding ones. The second type of alteration, produced by a geothermal system, gives the most interesting results to be applied to the nuclear radwaste disposal problem. Among primary minerals of granite, only biotite (or chlorite) and oligoclase are intensively altered. Therefore, the chemical composition of these minerals induces the nature of secondary parageneses. These, associated to the subvertical cracks network, indicate a thermal gradient of 150 C/Km. The geochemical code has allowed to corroborate that the thermal gradient was responsible for the occurrence of different parageneses with depth. Moreover, it was shown that the variable mineralogy around cracks was due to a thermal profile established at equilibrium between the rock and the fluid. Therefore, the extent of the alteration was proportional to the thermal power of the fluid. A dissolution and next a precipitation phase of new minerals characterize hydrothermal alteration, which is due to the thermal power emitted by radioactive waste and linked with the evolution of temperature during time. This alteration provokes two favourable events to storage: decrease of rock porosity and increase of sorption capacity [fr

  8. Epigenetic Alterations in Parathyroid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Verdelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid cancers (PCas are rare malignancies representing approximately 0.005% of all cancers. PCas are a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, which is the third most common endocrine disease, mainly related to parathyroid benign tumors. About 90% of PCas are hormonally active hypersecreting parathormone (PTH; consequently patients present with complications of severe hypercalcemia. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult due to clinical features shared with benign parathyroid lesions. Surgery provides the current best chance of cure, though persistent or recurrent disease occurs in about 50% of patients with PCas. Somatic inactivating mutations of CDC73/HRPT2 gene, encoding parafibromin, are the most frequent genetic anomalies occurring in PCas. Recently, the aberrant DNA methylation signature and microRNA expression profile have been identified in PCas, providing evidence that parathyroid malignancies are distinct entities from parathyroid benign lesions, showing an epigenetic signature resembling some embryonic aspects. The present paper reviews data about epigenetic alterations in PCas, up to now limited to DNA methylation, chromatin regulators and microRNA profile.

  9. Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P fluorine groups II and III. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the number of DGGE bands, similarity, and Shannon index of ileal and cecal bacteria were markedly reduced in the high fluorine groups II and III from 21 to 42 days. Sequencing analysis revealed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was altered in the high fluorine groups. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1200 mg/kg obviously altered the bacterial counts, and the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota.

  10. Smectite alteration by anaerobic iron corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, D.; Kaufhold, S.; Hassel, A.W.; Dohrmann, R.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The interaction of smectites with corroding steel/iron represents a crucial topic in the estimation of the long term confinement properties of clay barriers for the encasement of steel/iron containers. Especially in case of engineered clay barriers a possible deterioration of favourable smectite properties as response to corrosion could reduce the barrier capacity. The extent of this reduction is unknown, yet. The essential properties of bentonite clays in this context are on the one hand the relatively high swelling pressure together with low hydraulic conductivity, which results from the well known expandability of smectite interlayers in aqueous environments. On the other hand smectites are cation exchangers being able to long term encase radioactive cations in a way that negative charges of silicate layers are compensated by easily exchangeable hydrated cations. Both properties are directly related to the crystal and chemical composition of smectites. The nature of the corrosion of steel canisters in clay barriers will - after a first short aerobic phase - predominantly be anaerobic resulting in the formation of Fe(II) and two equivalents of hydroxide ions. In a set of exposition experiments anaerobic corroding iron in bentonite gels was studied in order to determine alteration of the smectite fraction. During the exposition a green coloration of the bentonite neighbouring to corroding iron was observed. Upon contact to oxygen in a humid state the bentonite turned reddish indicating the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). This observation is in accordance with reported results indicating the formation of an iron rich smectite. Chemical analysis of the 'green bentonite' reveals an increase of iron fraction e.g. from 3.4% mass to 9.3% mass . The adsorbed iron is predominantly Fe(II) which was proven by chromato-metric titration. The estimated ratio between silicon to increased iron content is Si: Fe ≅ 2

  11. Aqueous Alteration of Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gellert, Ralf; Clark, Benton C.; Morris, Richard V.; Yen, Albert S.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Farrand, William H.; Grant, John A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is exploring Noachian age rocks of the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavour crater. Overlying the pre-impact lithologies and rim breccias is a thin apron of fine-grained sediments, the Grasberg fm, forming annuli on the lower slopes of rim segments. Hesperian Burns fm sandstones overly the Grasberg fm. Grasberg rocks have major element compositions that are distinct from Burns fm sandstones, especially when comparing interior compositions exposed by the Rock Abrasion Tool. Grasberg rocks are also different from Endeavour rim breccias, but have general compositional similarities to them. Grasberg sediments are plausibly fine-grained materials derived from the impact breccias. Veins of CaSO4 transect Grasberg fm rocks demonstrating post-formation aqueous alteration. Minor/trace elements show variations consistent with mobilization by aqueous fluids. Grasberg fm rocks have low Mn and high Fe/Mn ratios compared to the other lithologies. Manganese likely was mobilized and removed from the Grasberg host rock by redox reactions. We posit that Fe2+ from acidic solutions associated with formation of the Burns sulfate-rich sandstones acted as an electron donor to reduce more oxidized Mn to Mn2+. The Fe contents of Grasberg rocks are slightly higher than in other rocks suggesting precipitation of Fe phases in Grasberg materials. Pancam spectra show that Grasberg rocks have a higher fraction of ferric oxide minerals than other Endeavour rim rocks. Solutions transported Mn2+ into the Endeavour rim materials and oxidized and/or precipitated it in them. Grasberg has higher contents of the mobile elements K, Zn, Cl, and Br compared to the rim materials. Similar enrichments of mobile elements were measured by the Spirit APXS on West Spur and around Home Plate in Gusev crater. Enhancements in these elements are attributed to interactions of hydrothermal acidic fluids with the host rocks. Interactions of fluids with the Grasberg fm postdate the genesis

  12. Properties of Extruded Disintegrable Metal Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Bobby; Xu, Zhiyue; Welch, John

    Recently, a lightweight, disintegrable material with high strength and high ductility has been successfully used in oilfield tool applications to save well operation time and cost. The material is a powder metallurgy composite consisting of a metal matrix and mechanical/chemical reinforcements. Warm extrusion was used to produce rods and tubes of the material from cold pressed green preform. Disintegration rates of the extruded materials with different compositions range from 0 - 300 mg/cm2/hr in 3% KCl at 93.3 °C with a strength of > 60 ksi (414 MPa) and ductility of 7 - 15%. This paper presents the micro structure, disintegration, and mechanical properties of the extruded composite. The results prove that disintegration properties can be controlled by altering the chemical composition of the reinforcements while maintaining good strength and ductility.

  13. Process conditions and volumetric composition in composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated...... as a function of the fiber weight fraction, and where parameters are included for the composite microstructure, and the fiber assembly compaction behavior. Based on experimental data of composites manufactured with different process conditions, together with model predictions, different types of process related...... the fiber and matrix volume fractions are only slightly changed. Air entrapment in the matrix due to non-ideal process conditions is found to have a marked effect on the volumetric composition. For composites with such type of matrix porosity, the porosity content is decreased when the fiber content...

  14. Altered mental status from acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Diaz, Gabriel J; Hsia, Renee

    2011-07-01

    Acyclovir is widely used in the treatment of herpes virus infections, particularly herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus. Acyclovir, when given promptly upon the start of a herpes zoster eruption, speeds healing and diminishes acute pain. Because acyclovir is a commonly used medication, it is crucial for health providers to be aware of appropriate dosing as well as possible side effects. We present this case to increase awareness of the potential for inappropriate dosing of acyclovir and the presentations of patients with toxic effects. We report the case of a 65-year-old man with a past medical history significant for chronic kidney disease who presented to the Emergency Department with progressive confusion and ataxia over 2 days. Thorough questioning in the patient's native language revealed that he had recently started a medication for a "rash." Neither he nor his family knew the name of the new medication; further investigation revealed it to be acyclovir. Although other diagnoses were considered in the differential diagnosis for this patient with altered mental status, he was treated for presumed acyclovir toxicity and given prompt dialysis, upon which his symptoms resolved. It is important for physicians to remember that even common medications such as acyclovir can have serious side effects and complications. In this case, renal dosing was not used in a patient on hemodialysis. Acyclovir must be renally dosed and carefully monitored through drug level measurement in patients with limited kidney function to prevent serious side effects, such as the neurological sequelae demonstrated in this case report. Emergency physicians should be aware of the potential for inappropriate dosing of this medication and the presentations of patients with toxic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Processing composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The fabrication of several composite structural articles including DC-10 upper aft rudders, L-1011 vertical fins and composite biomedical appliances are discussed. Innovative composite processing methods are included.

  16. Shaped fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnan, Mark K.; Roach, Dennis P.

    2017-12-05

    A composite article is disclosed that has non-circular fibers embedded in a polymer matrix. The composite article has improved damage tolerance, toughness, bending, and impact resistance compared to composites having traditional round fibers.

  17. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  18. Composites Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose of the Composites Characterization Laboratory is to investigate new and/or modified matrix materials and fibers for advanced composite applications both...

  19. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  20. An Analysis of the Alteration Specialist Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerkel, Elaine; Rehling, Joseph H.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the textile service occupation. The industry needs properly trained alteration specialists, bushelmen and dressmakers, in the repairing, remodeling, altering or renovating of garments. Their personal…

  1. [Epigenetic alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Meneses, María Del Pilar; Pérez-Vera, Patricia

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. It is well-known that genetic alterations constitute the basis for the etiology of ALL. However, genetic abnormalities are not enough for the complete development of the disease, and additional alterations such as epigenetic modifications are required. Such alterations, like DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA regulation have been identified in ALL. DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions is one of the most frequent epigenetic modifications observed in ALL. This modification frequently leads to gene silencing in tumor suppressor genes, and in consequence, contributes to leukemogenesis. Alterations in histone remodeling proteins have also been detected in ALL, such as the overexpression of histone deacetylases enzymes, and alteration of acetyltransferases and methyltransferases. ALL also shows alteration in the expression of miRNAs, and in consequence, the modification in the expression of their target genes. All of these epigenetic modifications are key events in the malignant transformation since they lead to the deregulation of oncogenes as BLK, WNT5B and WISP1, and tumor suppressors such as FHIT, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and TP53, which alter fundamental cellular processes and potentially lead to the development of ALL. Both genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to the development and evolution of ALL. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Altered oral viral ecology in association with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Melissa; Abeles, Shira R; Boehm, Tobias K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Naidu, Mayuri; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha; Pride, David T

    2014-05-20

    The human oral cavity is home to a large and diverse community of viruses that have yet to be characterized in patients with periodontal disease. We recruited and sampled saliva and oral biofilm from a cohort of humans either periodontally healthy or with mild or significant periodontal disease to discern whether there are differences in viral communities that reflect their oral health status. We found communities of viruses inhabiting saliva and the subgingival and supragingival biofilms of each subject that were composed largely of bacteriophage. While there were homologous viruses common to different subjects and biogeographic sites, for most of the subjects, virome compositions were significantly associated with the oral sites from which they were derived. The largest distinctions between virome compositions were found when comparing the subgingival and supragingival biofilms to those of planktonic saliva. Differences in virome composition were significantly associated with oral health status for both subgingival and supragingival biofilm viruses but not for salivary viruses. Among the differences identified in virome compositions was a significant expansion of myoviruses in subgingival biofilm, suggesting that periodontal disease favors lytic phage. We also characterized the bacterial communities in each subject at each biogeographic site by using the V3 hypervariable segment of the 16S rRNA and did not identify distinctions between oral health and disease similar to those found in viral communities. The significantly altered ecology of viruses of oral biofilm in subjects with periodontal disease compared to that of relatively periodontally healthy ones suggests that viruses may serve as useful indicators of oral health status. Little is known about the role or the constituents of viruses as members of the human microbiome. We investigated the composition of human oral viral communities in a group of relatively periodontally healthy subjects or significant

  3. Crystal-chemistry of alteration products of vitrified wastes: Implications on the retention of polluting elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpenich, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    Alteration products of vitrified wastes coming from the incineration of household refuse (MSW) are described. Two vitrified wastes containing 50% and 70% of fly ash and a synthetic stained-glass with a composition close to that of an ancient glass (medieval stained-glass) were altered under different pH conditions (1, 5.5 corresponding to demineralized water and 10) during 181 days. Under acidic condition, the alteration layer is made of an amorphous hydrated silica gel impoverished in most of the initial elements. A minor phase MPO 4 . nH 2 O, where M represents Fe, Ti, Al, Ca and K cations, also constitutes the altered layer of the synthetic stained-glass. Under neutral and basic conditions, the altered layer is made of an amorphous hydrated silica gel and a crystallized calcium phosphate phase. The silica gel is depleted in alkalis and alkali-earth elements but contains significant amounts of aluminium, magnesium and transition elements, whereas the calcium phosphate is a hydroxylapatite-like phase with P-Si substitutions and a Ca/P ratio depending on the pH of the solution. This study shows: (i) the strong influence of pH conditions on the crystal-chemistry of alteration products and thus on the mechanisms of weathering resulting in different trapping of polluting elements, and (ii) that glass alteration does not necessary produce thermodynamically stable phases which has to be taken into account for the prediction of the long-term behavior

  4. Income taxes and the composition of pay

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello, Giorgio; Comi, Simona; Sonedda, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    According to the standard principal-agent model, the optimal composition of pay should balance the provision of incentives with the individual demand for insurance. Do income taxes alter this balance? We show that the relative share of PRP on total pay is reduced by higher average taxes, and is affected in a complex way by higher marginal tax rates. Empirical evidence based on the British Household Panel Survey, which exploits the UK 1999 Tax Reform, supports the theoretical predictions of th...

  5. Compositions and methods for improved plant feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-12-02

    The invention provides methods for modifying lignin content and composition in plants and achieving associated benefits therefrom involving altered expression of newly discovered MYB4 transcription factors. Nucleic acid constructs for modifying MYB4 transcription factor expression are described. By over-expressing the identified MYB4 transcription factors, for example, an accompanying decrease in lignin content may be achieved. Plants are provided by the invention comprising such modifications, as are methods for their preparation and use.

  6. Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B CAI: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of CAIs is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of CAIs in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this CAI consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the CAI (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the CAI, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded CAI primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This CAI also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the CAI, but also penetrates more deeply into the CAI. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the CAI have been extensively metasomatized.

  7. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 deficiency alters the gut microbiome response to Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jethro S; Opiyo, Monica N; Thomson, Marian; Gharbi, Karim; Seckl, Jonathan R; Heger, Andreas; Chapman, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) interconverts active glucocorticoids and their intrinsically inert 11-keto forms. The type 1 isozyme, 11β-HSD1, predominantly reactivates glucocorticoids in vivo and can also metabolise bile acids. 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show altered inflammatory responses and are protected against the adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet. However, the impact of 11β-HSD1 on the composition of the gut microbiome has not previously been investigated. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to characterise the gut microbiome of 11β-HSD1-deficient and C57Bl/6 control mice, fed either a standard chow diet or a cholesterol- and fat-enriched 'Western' diet. 11β-HSD1 deficiency significantly altered the composition of the gut microbiome, and did so in a diet-specific manner. On a Western diet, 11β-HSD1 deficiency increased the relative abundance of the family Bacteroidaceae, and on a chow diet, it altered relative abundance of the family Prevotellaceae Our results demonstrate that (i) genetic effects on host-microbiome interactions can depend upon diet and (ii) that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome may contribute to the aspects of the metabolic and/or inflammatory phenotype observed with 11β-HSD1 deficiency. © 2017 The authors.

  8. Reinforcement Learning Based Web Service Compositions for Mobile Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Chen, Shouming

    In this paper, we propose a new solution to Reactive Web Service Composition, via molding with Reinforcement Learning, and introducing modified (alterable) QoS variables into the model as elements in the Markov Decision Process tuple. Moreover, we give an example of Reactive-WSC-based mobile banking, to demonstrate the intrinsic capability of the solution in question of obtaining the optimized service composition, characterized by (alterable) target QoS variable sets with optimized values. Consequently, we come to the conclusion that the solution has decent potentials in boosting customer experiences and qualities of services in Web Services, and those in applications in the whole electronic commerce and business sector.

  9. Low Light Availability Alters Root Exudation and Reduces Putative Beneficial Microorganisms in Seagrass Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda C. Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass roots host a diverse microbiome that is critical for plant growth and health. Composition of microbial communities can be regulated in part by root exudates, but the specifics of these interactions in seagrass rhizospheres are still largely unknown. As light availability controls primary productivity, reduced light may impact root exudation and consequently the composition of the root microbiome. Hence, we analyzed the influence of light availability on root exudation and community structure of the root microbiome of three co-occurring seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis and Cymodocea serrulata. Plants were grown under four light treatments in mesocosms for 2 weeks; control (100% surface irradiance (SI, medium (40% SI, low (20% SI and fluctuating light (10 days 20% and 4 days 100%. 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing revealed that microbial diversity, composition and predicted function were strongly influenced by the presence of seagrass roots, such that root microbiomes were unique to each seagrass species. Reduced light availability altered seagrass root exudation, as characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, and altered the composition of seagrass root microbiomes with a reduction in abundance of potentially beneficial microorganisms. Overall, this study highlights the potential for above-ground light reduction to invoke a cascade of changes from alterations in root exudation to a reduction in putative beneficial microorganisms and, ultimately, confirms the importance of the seagrass root environment – a critical, but often overlooked space.

  10. Volumetric composition in composites and historical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is of importance for the prediction of mechanical and physical properties, and in particular to assess the best possible (normally the highest) values for these properties. The volumetric model for the composition of (fibrous) composites gives...... guidance to the optimal combination of fibre content, matrix content and porosity content, in order to achieve the best obtainable properties. Several composite materials systems have been shown to be handleable with this model. An extensive series of experimental data for the system of cellulose fibres...... and polymer (resin) was produced in 1942 – 1944, and these data have been (re-)analysed by the volumetric composition model, and the property values for density, stiffness and strength have been evaluated. Good agreement has been obtained and some further observations have been extracted from the analysis....

  11. Alteration of granite stone used in building construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esbert Alemany, R. M.ª

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a synthesis of the different factors involved in the alteration of granite ashlars or cladding used in building construction. Emphasis is placed on the – primarily fissure-like – anisotropies often present in granite, which are usually related to the structural conditions of the quarry where it is mined. Such anisotropies condition the development of certain types of alterations that appear over time, particularly in ashlars. Stone petrography, particularly as regards the chemical composition of the minerals comprising granite, also govern its alteration. Moreover, the commercial term granite often includes other more alkaline rocks generically known as granitoids, whose alterability is higher than in granite per se. The values of some of the physical properties of these rocks, which must be quantified to evaluate their durability, are shown to differ in keeping with their anisotropy. Finally, the forms, causes and mechanisms involved in granite decay are reviewed in the context of its use in building construction.En el artículo se sintetizan los diversos aspectos que inciden en la alteración de las rocas graníticas, cuando estas se utilizan en los edificios, ya sea en forma de sillares o de losetas de revestimiento. Se hace especial hincapié en las anisotropías, fundamentalmente de carácter fisural que suelen presentar los granitos. Estas suelen estar relacionadas con las condiciones estructurales del yacimiento del cual proceden. Dichas anisotropías condicionan el desarrollo de determinadas formas de alteración que con el paso del tiempo se aprecian, sobre todo en los sillares. También se recuerda que la petrografía, y en especial la composición química de los minerales que componen las rocas graníticas, condicionan su alteración, y que dentro del término comercial granito se suelen incluir otras rocas más alcalinas denominadas genéricamente granitoides y más alterables que el granito sensu

  12. Ensemble spontaneous activity alterations detected by CISA approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, Sofiane; Rix, Hervé; Meste, Olivier; Cazals, Yves

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for detecting alterations in the Ensemble Spontaneous Activity (ESA), a random signal representing the composite spontaneous contribution of the auditory nerve recorded on the round window. The proposed method is based on shape analysis of the ESA amplitude histogram. For this task, we use a recent approach, the Corrected Integral Shape Averaging (CISA). Using this approach, a shape clustering algorithm is proposed to classify healthy and pathological ESA signals generated by a recent ESA model. This model allows a precise simulation of neural mechanisms occurring in the auditory nerve. The obtained results demonstrate that this shape analysis is very sensitive for detecting a small number of fibers with correlated firing, supposed to occur during a particular type of tinnitus. In comparison, the classical spectral index fails in this detection.

  13. Approach to syncope and altered mental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Emily C; Vashist, Sudhir

    2013-10-01

    Children who present with an episode of altered mental status, whether transient or persistent, present a diagnostic challenge for practitioners. This article describes some of the more common causes of altered mental status and delineates a rational approach to these patients. This will help practitioners recognize the life-threatening causes of these frightening presentations as well as help avoid unnecessary testing for the more benign causes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

  15. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  16. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  17. Repeated wildfires alter forest recovery of mixed-conifer ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Rumann, Camille; Morgan, Penelope

    2016-09-01

    Most models project warmer and drier climates that will contribute to larger and more frequent wildfires. However, it remains unknown how repeated wildfires alter post-fire successional patterns and forest structure. Here, we test the hypothesis that the number of wildfires, as well as the order and severity of wildfire events interact to alter forest structure and vegetation recovery and implications for vegetation management. In 2014, we examined forest structure, composition, and tree regeneration in stands that burned 1-18 yr before a subsequent 2007 wildfire. Three important findings emerged: (1) Repeatedly burned forests had 15% less woody surface fuels and 31% lower tree seedling densities compared with forests that only experienced one recent wildfire. These repeatedly burned areas are recovering differently than sites burned once, which may lead to alternative ecosystem structure. (2) Order of burn severity (high followed by low severity compared with low followed by high severity) did influence forest characteristics. When low burn severity followed high, forests had 60% lower canopy closure and total basal area with 92% fewer tree seedlings than when high burn severity followed low. (3) Time between fires had no effect on most variables measured following the second fire except large woody fuels, canopy closure and tree seedling density. We conclude that repeatedly burned areas meet many vegetation management objectives of reduced fuel loads and moderate tree seedling densities. These differences in forest structure, composition, and tree regeneration have implications not only for the trajectories of these forests, but may reduce fire intensity and burn severity of subsequent wildfires and may be used in conjunction with future fire suppression tactics. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin D Couch

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis. However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1 an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2 a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3 a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4 a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5 a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6 decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  19. Post-implantation alterations of polypropylene in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternschuss, Gina; Ostergard, Donald R; Patel, Hiren

    2012-07-01

    We reviewed the mechanisms by which polypropylene mesh changes after implantation in the human body. The existing polymer and medical literature was reviewed regarding polypropylene, including its chemical characteristics, and compositional and physical properties, which undergo alteration after implantation at various human body locations. We also reviewed the changes in those physical properties that were demonstrable in explanted specimens. Polypropylene in mesh form is commonly considered inert and without adverse reactions after implantation in humans. The literature suggests otherwise with reports of various degrees of degradation, including depolymerization, cross-linking, oxidative degradation by free radicals, additive leaching, hydrolysis, stress cracking and mesh shrinkage along with infection, chronic inflammation and the stimulation of sclerosis. Many substances added to polypropylene for various purposes during manufacture behave as toxic substances that are released during the degradation process. The material may also absorb various substances. These alterations in the chemical structure of polypropylene are responsible for visibly demonstrable fiber changes, resulting in the loss of structural integrity through material embrittlement. The heat of manufacturing polypropylene fibers begins the degradation process, which is augmented by the post-production heat used to flatten the mesh to prevent curling and attach anchoring appendages. Based on available evidence the polypropylene used for surgical treatment of various structural defects is not inert after implantation in the human body. The quest for the perfect mesh must continue. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Glacial Chemical Alteration of Mars-Like Bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, A. M.; Horgan, B. H. N.; Havig, J. R.; Rampe, E. B.; Scudder, N.; Hamilton, T.

    2017-12-01

    Mars is understood to have had a widespread and long-lived cryosphere, including glaciers and ice sheets, possibly since the Noachian. However, the contribution of glaciers to the observed alteration mineralogy of Mars is unclear. To characterize this alteration, water and rock samples were collected from glaciated volcanic bedrock of a range of compositions in the Cascade Volcanic Arc, USA: Mount Hood (silicic), Mount Adams (intermediate), North Sister (mafic), and Middle Sister (most mafic). We analyzed glacial meltwater using field meters (pH, temperature), portable spectrophotometry (dissolved silica), and ion chromatography (major ions). We analyzed proglacial rock coatings and sediments using scanning and transmission electron microscopies with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM, TEM, EDS), and visible/short-wave-infrared (VSWIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) spectroscopies. Water samples are dominated by dissolved silica across a range of pH values, and dissolved silica increases significantly at more mafic sites. Rock coatings associated with glacial striations on mafic terrains include a major poorly crystalline silica component, as do proglacial sediments. This field study demonstrates that silica cycling is the dominant alteration process at glaciated volcanics, and more mafic glaciovolcanic sites have higher concentrations of dissolved silica compared to more felsic glaciovolcanic sites. Though basalts have lower silica content than more felsic volcanic rocks, they are more susceptible to silica mobility. On Mars, widespread poorly crystalline, high silica deposits have been modeled in Nothern Acidalia and Gusev Crater, and hydrated silica deposits have been identified in Nili Fossae and elsewhere. We hypothesize that these phases may be indicators of a cold climate regime on early Mars such as one dominated by large regional ice sheets. Cryosphere-driven silica cycling on low-carbonate, mafic rocks may be more important than previously thought on Mars.

  1. Basaltic glass alteration in confined media: analogy with nuclear glass in geological disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parruzot, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation concerns basaltic glass alteration mechanisms and rates. Through a better understanding of the processes controlling the basaltic glass durability, this thesis attempts to establish a link between laboratory studies and volcanic glass alteration in natural environment. The methodology used here is similar to the one used for nuclear glasses. Thus, we measured for the first time the residual alteration rate of basaltic glasses. Protective effect of the alteration film is clearly established. Moreover, synthetic glass representativeness is evaluated through a study focused on the effect of iron oxidation degree on the glass structure and leaching properties. A minor effect of Fe II on the forward rate and a negligible effect on the residual rate are shown. The residual rate is extrapolated at 5 C and compared to the mean alteration rate of natural samples of ages ranging from 1900 to 10 7 years. Non-zeolitized natural glasses follow this linear tendency, suggesting a control of the long-term rate by clayey secondary phase precipitation. Natural environments are open environments: a parametric study was performed in order to quantify the water flow rate effect on chemical composition of the alteration layer. When applied to two natural samples, the obtained laws provide coherent results. It seems possible to unify the descriptive approach from the study of natural environments to the mechanistic approach developed at the laboratory. The next step will consist in developing a model to transpose these results to nuclear glasses. (author) [fr

  2. Targeting Hydrothermal Alterations Utilizing LANDSAT-8 Andaster Data in Shahr-E Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M.; Pour, A. B.; Maghsoudi, A.; Hashim, M.

    2017-10-01

    Shahr-e-Babak tract of the Kerman metalogenic belt is one of the most potential segments of Urumieh-Dokhtar (Sahand-Bazman) magmatic arc. This area encompasses several porphyry copper deposits in exploration, development and exploitation hierarchy. The aim of this study is to map hydrothermal alterations caused by early Cenozoic magmatic intrusions in Shahr-e-Babak area. To this purpose, mineral mapping methods including band combinations, ratios and multiplications as well as PCA and MNF data space transforms in SWIR and VNIR for both ASTER and OLI sensors. Alteration zones according to spectral signatures of each type of alteration mineral assemblages such as argillic, phyllic and propylitic are successfully mapped. For enhancing the target areas false color composites and HSI-RGB color space transform are performed on developed band combinations. Previous studies have proven the robust application of ASTER in geology and mineral exploration; nonetheless, the results of this investigation prove applicability of OLI sensor from landsat-8 for alteration mapping. According to the results, evidently OLI sensor data can accurately map alteration zones. Additionally, the 12-bit quantization of OLI data is its privilege over 8-bit data of ASTER in VNIR and SWIR, thus OLI high quality results, which makes it easy to distinguish targets with enhanced color contrast between the altered and unaltered rocks.

  3. TARGETING HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATIONS UTILIZING LANDSAT-8 ANDASTER DATA IN SHAHR-E-BABAK, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shahr-e-Babak tract of the Kerman metalogenic belt is one of the most potential segments of Urumieh–Dokhtar (Sahand-Bazman magmatic arc. This area encompasses several porphyry copper deposits in exploration, development and exploitation hierarchy. The aim of this study is to map hydrothermal alterations caused by early Cenozoic magmatic intrusions in Shahr-e-Babak area. To this purpose, mineral mapping methods including band combinations, ratios and multiplications as well as PCA and MNF data space transforms in SWIR and VNIR for both ASTER and OLI sensors. Alteration zones according to spectral signatures of each type of alteration mineral assemblages such as argillic, phyllic and propylitic are successfully mapped. For enhancing the target areas false color composites and HSI-RGB color space transform are performed on developed band combinations. Previous studies have proven the robust application of ASTER in geology and mineral exploration; nonetheless, the results of this investigation prove applicability of OLI sensor from landsat-8 for alteration mapping. According to the results, evidently OLI sensor data can accurately map alteration zones. Additionally, the 12-bit quantization of OLI data is its privilege over 8-bit data of ASTER in VNIR and SWIR, thus OLI high quality results, which makes it easy to distinguish targets with enhanced color contrast between the altered and unaltered rocks.

  4. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration in Antarctic Carbonaceous Chondrites from Comparative ICP-MS Bulk Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Zolensky, M.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites (CC) indicate that these meteorites have been preserved in or on ice for, at least, tens of thousands of years. Due to the porous structure of these chondrites formed by the aggregation of silicate-rich chondrules, refractory inclusions, metal grains, and fine-grained matrix materials, the effect of pervasive terrestrial water is relevant. Our community defends that pristine CC matrices are representing samples of scarcely processed protoplanetary disk materials as they contain stellar grains, but they might also trace parent body processes. It is important to study the effects of terrestrial aqueous alteration in promoting bulk chemistry changes, and creating distinctive alteration minerals. Particularly because it is thought that aqueous alteration has particularly played a key role in some CC groups in modifying primordial bulk chemistry, and homogenizing the isotopic content of fine-grained matrix materials. Fortunately, the mineralogy produced by parent-body and terrestrial aqueous alteration processes is distinctive. With the goal to learn more about terrestrial alteration in Antarctica we are obtaining reflectance spectra of CCs, but also performing ICP-MS bulk chemistry of the different CC groups. A direct comparison with the mean bulk elemental composition of recovered falls might inform us on the effects of terrestrial alteration in finds. With such a goal, in the current work we have analyzed some members representative of CO and CM chondrite groups.

  5. [Aging of silorane- and methacrylate-based composite resins: effects on color and translucency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Pan, Jie; Lin, Hong; Shen, Song

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the color stability and translucency of silorane-based low shrinkage composite after in vitro aging procedures of thermal cycling and water storage respectively, and to compare with those of conventional methacrylate-based posterior composite. Three light-cured composite resins, dimethacrylate-based composite A (Filtek™ Z350), B (Filtek™ P60) and silorane-based composite C (Filtek™ P90), were tested in this study. Ten specimens (10 mm in diameter, 1 mm in height) of each composite were prepared. The ten specimens in each group were then divided into two subgroups (n = 5). One subgroup underwent thermal cycling [(5.0 ± 0.5)~(55.0 ± 1.0) °C, 10 000 cycles] and the other was stored in 37 C° distilled water for 180 days. With a spectrophotometer, the CIE L * a * b * parameters of the specimens were tested before and after artificial aging against white, medium grey and black backgrounds, respectively. △E, TP and △TP were calculated and data were analyzed using independent-samples t test and partial analysis (P composite showed color alteration above the clinically acceptable levels (△E > 3.3), and also showed higher △E with a statistically significant difference in comparison with the other composites (B and C) (P composite C showed more alteration compared with composite B (P composite underwent greater alteration with regard to color stability and translucency.

  6. Effect of in-office bleaching agents on physical properties of dental composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourouzis, Petros; Koulaouzidou, Elisabeth A; Helvatjoglu-Antoniades, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The physical properties of dental restorative materials have a crucial effect on the longevity of restorations and moreover on the esthetic demands of patients, but they may be compromised by bleaching treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of in-office bleaching agents on the physical properties of three composite resin restorative materials. The bleaching agents used were hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide at high concentrations. Specimens of each material were prepared, cured, and polished. Measurements of color difference, microhardness, and surface roughness were recorded before and after bleaching and data were examined statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD post-hoc test at P composite resin altered after the bleaching procedure (P composite resins tested (P > .05). The silorane-based composite resin tested showed some color alteration after bleaching procedures. The bleaching procedure did not alter the microhardness and the surface roughness of all composite resins tested.

  7. Geochemical behaviour of uranium in the cycle of alteration; Comportement geochimique de l'uranium dans le cycle d'alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chervet, J.; Coulomb, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Soudan, P. [Centre d' Etude de Lalumine, Compagnie Pechiney (France)

    1958-07-01

    The investigation of the genesis of secondary mineralized accumulations, and the prospecting of deposits from microchemical anomalies in the surface material, is requiring a well-developed knowledge of the geochemical properties of the uranium during the alteration phase. In the present work, the authors tried to track the uranium history during a part of his natural creeping. a) They describe some most typical mineralogical observations of alteration phenomena and material migration, picked up in place on the deposits. b) They give experimental results concerning the solubilities of the uranium minerals and the factors affecting this solubility. c) They study the water circulation in granitic batholites, and the influence of the occurrence of the uranium deposits on their composition. d) They observe the amplitude of phenomena restricting the dispersions: fixations, precipitations, etc., and the behaviour of growth in uraniferous areas. e) Finally, the opposition chemical alteration-radioactive equilibrium results in an important imbalance in altered materials. The authors tried to use the measurement of this imbalance to explain geochemical processes. (author) [French] L'etude des conditions de genese des accumulations minerales secondaires, ainsi que la prospection des gisements a partir d'anomalies microchimiques dans les materiaux de surface, necessite une connaissance approfondie des proprietes geochimiques fondamentales de l'uranium dans la phase d'alteration. Nous essayons, dans ce travail, de suivre l'histoire de l'uranium dans une partie de son cheminement naturel. a) Nous decrivons quelques observations mineralogiques particulierement typiques de phenomenes d'alteration et de migration de matiere, prises 'in situ' dans les gisements. b) Nous donnons les resultats d'experiences de laboratoire sur les solubilites de mineraux d'uranium et sur les facteurs influen nt cette solubilite. c) Nous etudions

  8. Hydrothermal Alteration in an Acid-Sulphate Geothermal Field: Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Barrett, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulphur Springs is a vigorous geothermal field associated with the Soufrière Volcanic Centre in southern Saint Lucia. Bubbling hydrothermal pools are rich in sodium-calcium sulphate, with pHs of 3-7 and temperatures of 41-97ºC. Fumaroles have temperatures up to, and at times above, 100°C. Gases from bubbling pools and fumaroles have high contents of CO2 (601-993 mmol/mol) and H2S (3-190 mmol/mol). To investigate the nature and extent of hydrothermal alteration, detailed chemical analysis was carried out on 25 altered rocks, 10 sediments from pools and creeks in the main discharge area, and 15 little-altered rocks up to 2 km away from geothermal field. Eight altered samples were also analysed for stable isotope compositions, with mineralogy determined by X-ray diffraction and mineral liberation analysis. Least-altered host rocks comprise calc-alkaline feldspar-quartz-porphyritic dacites of near-uniform composition that form massive domes and volcaniclastic units. These rocks were emplaced 10-30 Ka ago (Lindsay et al. 2013). Within the geothermal field, the dacites have been highly altered to kaolinite, quartz, cristobalite, alunite, natroalunite, smectite, native sulphur, jarosite, gypsum and amorphous compounds. Muds from grey to blackish hydrothermal pools additionally contain iron sulphides, mainly pyrite. Despite intense alteration of the original dacites, Zr and Ti have remained essentially immobile, allowing the calculation of mass changes. Major depletions of Fe, Mg, Ca, Na and commonly Si occur over an area of at least 200 x 400 m. The most altered rocks also show losses of Al, light REE and Y, implying leaching by highly acidic waters. A few altered rocks have, however, gained Al together with Si and P. Also present are m-scale zones of silica + native sulphur, wherein the silica appears to represent a residue from the leaching of dacite, rather than a hydrothermal addition. Delta-34S values of samples containing mixtures of sulphates, native sulphur and

  9. Cumulative and competitive effects of chemical elements on nuclear glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Helene

    2016-01-01

    This work takes place in the context of the long-term behavior of nuclear glasses under repository conditions. The main objective is to identify, understand and compare the effects of some chemical elements present in the glass composition and/or in the repository media (Zn, Mg, Ni, Co, Fe, Ca, Gd, Ce, K, Cs, Cr and Ag) on the processes involved in glass alteration by water. The cumulative or competitive nature of the effects of these chemical elements was determined. To reach this goal, a 6 oxides simple glass (ISG) has been altered for more than 500 days in a solution containing one or more of the chemical elements of interest. The results indicate that Zn, Mg, Ni, Co and Fe elements increase glass alteration forming secondary phases with the same structure and stoichiometry (tri-octahedral smectites). To form, these silicates consume chemical elements (Si, Al) from the environment and induce a pH decrease until a limiting value of pH. Beyond this pH the precipitation of secondary phases is inhibited and these chemical elements can be integrated into the gel, replacing Ca whose solubility increases at lower pH. As long as they form secondary phases, the effects of these elements are cumulative. Rare earths Gd and Ce also increase glass alteration forming secondary phases but their effects are lower as they contain less silicon. These elements are not integrated in the gel. Chromium increases glass alteration by precipitating with Ca and leading to a less protective gel, depleted in Ca. Silver precipitates as AgCl and has no effect on the alteration of the glass. The chemical elements K, Cs and Ca limit glass alteration by integrating into the gel and slowing down the transport phenomena therein. This integration is competitive: the order of integration (quantity and effectiveness glass alteration limitation) is the following Ca≥≥Cs≥K. Thus, the increase of glass alteration may be proportional to the quantity of elements promoting the precipitation of

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid space alterations in melancholic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Melancholic depression is a biologically homogeneous clinical entity in which structural brain alterations have been described. Interestingly, reports of structural alterations in melancholia include volume increases in Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF spaces. However, there are no previous reports of CSF volume alterations using automated whole-brain voxel-wise approaches, as tissue classification algorithms have been traditionally regarded as less reliable for CSF segmentation. Here we aimed to assess CSF volumetric alterations in melancholic depression and their clinical correlates by means of a novel segmentation algorithm ('new segment', as implemented in the software Statistical Parametric Mapping-SPM8, incorporating specific features that may improve CSF segmentation. A three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI was obtained from seventy patients with melancholic depression and forty healthy control subjects. Although imaging data were pre-processed with the 'new segment' algorithm, in order to obtain a comparison with previous segmentation approaches, tissue segmentation was also performed with the 'unified segmentation' approach. Melancholic patients showed a CSF volume increase in the region of the left Sylvian fissure, and a CSF volume decrease in the subarachnoid spaces surrounding medial and lateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, CSF increases in the left Sylvian fissure were negatively correlated with the reduction percentage of depressive symptoms at discharge. None of these results were replicated with the 'unified segmentation' approach. By contrast, between-group differences in the left Sylvian fissure were replicated with a non-automated quantification of the CSF content of this region. Left Sylvian fissure alterations reported here are in agreement with previous findings from non-automated CSF assessments, and also with other reports of gray and white matter insular alterations in depressive samples using automated approaches

  11. Low-temperature aqueous alteration on the CR chondrite parent body: Implications from in situ oxygen-isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilly-Rehak, Christine E.; Huss, Gary R.; Nagashima, Kazu; Schrader, Devin L.

    2018-02-01

    The presence of hydrated minerals in chondrites indicates that water played an important role in the geologic evolution of the early Solar System; however, the process of aqueous alteration is still poorly understood. Renazzo-like carbonaceous (CR) chondrites are particularly well-suited for the study of aqueous alteration. Samples range from being nearly anhydrous to fully altered, essentially representing snapshots of the alteration process through time. We studied oxygen isotopes in secondary-minerals from six CR chondrites of varying hydration states to determine how aqueous fluid conditions (including composition and temperature) evolved on the parent body. Secondary minerals analyzed included calcite, dolomite, and magnetite. The O-isotope composition of calcites ranged from δ18O ≈ 9 to 35‰, dolomites from δ18O ≈ 23 to 27‰, and magnetites from δ18O ≈ -18 to 5‰. Calcite in less-altered samples showed more evidence of fluid evolution compared to heavily altered samples, likely reflecting lower water/rock ratios. Most magnetite plotted on a single trend, with the exception of grains from the extensively hydrated chondrite MIL 090292. The MIL 090292 magnetite diverges from this trend, possibly indicating an anomalous origin for the meteorite. If magnetite and calcite formed in equilibrium, then the relative 18O fractionation between them can be used to extract the temperature of co-precipitation. Isotopic fractionation in Al Rais carbonate-magnetite assemblages revealed low precipitation temperatures (∼60 °C). Assuming that the CR parent body experienced closed-system alteration, a similar exercise for parallel calcite and magnetite O-isotope arrays yields "global" alteration temperatures of ∼55 to 88 °C. These secondary mineral arrays indicate that the O-isotopic composition of the altering fluid evolved upon progressive alteration, beginning near the Al Rais water composition of Δ17O ∼ 1‰ and δ18O ∼ 10‰, and becoming increasingly

  12. Modeling mineral alterations in shale reservoirs in contact with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Uli; Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing as well as CO2 storage, if in contact with cap rocks, can lead to alterations of the mineral phase of shale reservoirs driven by the changes in fluid composition and pressure. Underlying concepts describing the shifts in geochemical equilibria are discussed for typical shale gas mineral compositions using the geochemical codes Phreeqc and MIN3P, which have recently been upgraded to cope with the conditions of pressure and temperature in deep reservoirs. Models using field data from Heletz oil field (Israel) and the North-west-German sedimentary basins are presented. Alterations of the mineral phase over time are elucidated and their consequences on flow and transport properties of the shale gas formation.

  13. Various electroacoustic compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Various electroacoustic composition performed at Robert Ratcliffe's Energy Flash concert, showcasing works by Robert Ratcliffe and Jon Weinel.......Various electroacoustic composition performed at Robert Ratcliffe's Energy Flash concert, showcasing works by Robert Ratcliffe and Jon Weinel....

  14. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  15. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...

  16. Hypoxia alters the physical properties of the tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkes, Daniele

    Of all the deaths attributed to cancer, 90% are due to metastasis, or the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant organs, and treatments that prevent or cure metastasis remain elusive. Emerging data indicate that low oxygen states within a tumor, termed hypoxia, can alter the chemical and physical parameters of the extracellular matrix (ECM), or scaffold of the tumor tissue. These changes generate a microenvironment that may be more conducive for promoting metastasis. During tumor evolution, changes in the composition and the overall content of the ECM reflect both its biophysical and biological properties and these strongly influence the cells properties, such as cellular proliferation and cell motility. The talk will cover how hypoxia arises within normal tissue and also in tumors. We will cover the role of hypoxia in collagen biogenesis which influences compositional changes to the tumor microenvironment and discuss how these changes lead to a stiffer tumor stroma. The challenges in determining the influence of chemical versus physical cues on cancer progression will also be considered.

  17. Radiation curable adhesive compositions and composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.

    1984-01-01

    This disclosure relates to novel adhesive compositions and composite structures utilizing the same, wherein said adhesive compositions contain an elastomer, a chemically compatible ethylenically unsaturated monomer, a tackifier, an adhesion promoter, and optionally, pigments, fillers, thickeners and flow control agents which are converted from the liquid to the solid state by exposure to high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam. A particularly useful application for such adhesive compositions comprises the assembly of certain composite structures or laminates consisting of, for example, a fiber flocked rubber sheet and a metal base with the adhesive fulfilling the multiple functions of adhering the flocked fiber to the rubber sheet as well as adhering the rubber sheet to the metal base. Optionally, the rubber sheet itself may also be cured at the same time as the adhesive composition with all operations being carried out at ambient temperatures and in the presence of air, with exposure of said assembly to selected dosages of high energy ionizing radiation. These adhesive compositions contain no solvents thereby almost eliminating air pollution or solvent toxicity problems, and offer substantial savings in energy and labor as they are capable of curing in very short time periods without the use of external heat which might damage the substrate

  18. Precursors predicted by artificial neural networks for mass balance calculations: Quantifying hydrothermal alteration in volcanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Sylvain; Mathieu, Lucie; Daigneault, Réal; Faure, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study proposes an artificial neural networks-based method for predicting the unaltered (precursor) chemical compositions of hydrothermally altered volcanic rock. The method aims at predicting precursor's major components contents (SiO2, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O). The prediction is based on ratios of elements generally immobile during alteration processes; i.e. Zr, TiO2, Al2O3, Y, Nb, Th, and Cr, which are provided as inputs to the neural networks. Multi-layer perceptron neural networks were trained on a large dataset of least-altered volcanic rock samples that document a wide range of volcanic rock types, tectonic settings and ages. The precursors thus predicted are then used to perform mass balance calculations. Various statistics were calculated to validate the predictions of precursors' major components, which indicate that, overall, the predictions are precise and accurate. For example, rank-based correlation coefficients were calculated to compare predicted and analysed values from a least-altered test dataset that had not been used to train the networks. Coefficients over 0.87 were obtained for all components, except for Na2O (0.77), indicating that predictions for alkali might be less performant. Also, predictions are performant for most volcanic rock compositions, except for ultra-K rocks. The proposed method provides an easy and rapid solution to the often difficult task of determining appropriate volcanic precursor compositions to rocks modified by hydrothermal alteration. It is intended for large volcanic rock databases and is most useful, for example, to mineral exploration performed in complex or poorly known volcanic settings. The method is implemented as a simple C++ console program.

  19. Climate change effects on plant biomass alter dominance patterns and community evenness in an experimental old-field ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Campany, Courtney E [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Souza, Lara [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Weltzin, Jake [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric and climatic change can alter plant biomass production and plant community composition. However, we know little about how climate change-induced alterations in biomass production affect plant community composition. To better understand how climate change will alter both individual plant species and community biomass we manipulated atmospheric [CO2], air temperature and precipitation in a constructed old-field ecosystem. Specifically, we compared the responses of dominant and subdominant species to our treatments, and explored how changes in plant dominance patterns alter community evenness over two years. Our study resulted in four major findings: 1) All treatments, elevated [CO2], warming and increased precipitation, increased plant biomass and the effects were additive rather than interactive, 2) Plant species differed in their response to the treatments, resulting in shifts in the proportional biomass of individual species, which altered the plant community composition; however, the plant community response was largely driven by the responses of the dominant species, 3) Precipitation explained most of the variation in plant community composition among treatments, and 4) Changes in precipitation caused a shift in the dominant species proportional biomass that resulted in higher community evenness in the dry relative to wet treatments. Interestingly, compositional and evenness responses of the subdominant community to the treatments did not always follow the responses of the whole plant community. Our data suggest that changes in plant dominance patterns and community evenness are an important part of community responses to climate change, and generally, that compositional shifts can have important consequences for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  1. Microgel polymer composite fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Kehren, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis some novel ideas and advancements in the field of polymer composite fibres, specifically microgel-based polymer composite fibres have been achieved. The main task was to investigate and understand the electrospinning process of microgels and polymers and the interplay of parameter influences, in order to fabricate reproducible and continuously homogenous composite fibres. The main aim was to fabricate a composite material which combines the special properties of polymer fibres ...

  2. Nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  3. Two-boson composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichy, Malte C.; Bouvrier, P. Alexander; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Composite bosons made of two bosonic constituents exhibit deviations from ideal bosonic behavior due to their substructure. This deviation is reflected by the normalization ratio of the quantum state of N composites. We find a set of saturable, efficiently evaluable bounds for this indicator, which...... quantifies the bosonic behavior of composites via the entanglement of their constituents. We predict an abrupt transition between ordinary and exaggerated bosonic behavior in a condensate of two-boson composites....

  4. Localized and Areally Extensive Alterations in Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater Rim, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Gellert, Ralf; Van Bommel, Scott; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Clark, Benton C.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Farrand, William H.; Ming, Douglas W.; Schroeder, Christian; Yen, Albert S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is exploring the rim of 22 km diameter, Noachian-aged Endeavour crater. Marathon Valley cuts through the central region of the western rim providing a window into the local lower rim stratigraphic record. Spectra from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars show evidence for the occurrence of Fe-Mg smectite in this valley, indicating areally extensive and distinct lithologic units and/or styles of aqueous alteration. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer has determined the compositions of 59 outcrop targets on untreated, brushed and abraded surfaces. Rocks in the Marathon Valley region are soft breccias composed of mm- to cm-sized darker clasts set in a lighter-toned, finegrained matrix. They are basaltic in non-volatile-element composition and compositionally similar to breccias investigated elsewhere on the rim. Alteration styles recorded in the rocks include: (1) Enrichments in Si, Al, Ti and Cr in more reddish-colored rock, consistent with leaching of more soluble cations and/or precipitation of Si +/- Al, Ti, Cr from fluids. Coprecipitation of Ge-rich phases with Si occurred in the western area only; high water:rock is indicated. Pancam multispectral observations indicate higher nanophase ferric oxide contents, but the rocks have lower Fe contents. The highly localized nature of the red zones indicate they cannot be the source of the widespread smectite signature observed from orbit. (2) Outcrops separated by approximately 65 m show common compositional changes between brushed and abraded (approximately 1 mm deep) targets: increases in S and Mg; decreases in Al, Cl and Ca. These changes are likely due to relatively recent, surface-related alteration of valley rocks and formation of surface coatings under low water:rock. (3) One target, from the center of a region of strong CRISM smectite signature, shows modest differences in composition (higher Si, K; lower Mn) compared to most Marathon Valley rocks, while

  5. Natural fumarolic alteration of fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass, and implications for habitable environments on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausrath, Elisabeth M; Tschauner, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Fumaroles represent a very important potential habitat on Mars because they contain water and nutrients. Global deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols may also have been an important soil-forming process affecting large areas of Mars. Here we identify alteration from the Senator fumarole, northwest Nevada, USA, and in low-temperature environments near the fumarole to help interpret fumarolic and acid vapor alteration of rocks and soils on Mars. We analyzed soil samples and fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass placed at and near the fumarole in in situ mineral alteration experiments designed to measure weathering under natural field conditions. Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we clearly observe hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing fluorapatite as a fumarolic alteration product of the original material, fluorapatite. The composition of apatites as well as secondary phosphates has been previously used to infer magmatic conditions as well as fumarolic conditions on Mars. To our knowledge, the observations reported here represent the first documented instance of formation of hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing apatite from fluorapatite in a field experiment. Retreat of olivine surfaces, as well as abundant NH4-containing minerals, was also characteristic of fumarolic alteration. In contrast, alteration in the nearby low-temperature environment resulted in formation of large pits on olivine surfaces, which were clearly distinguishable from the fumarolic alteration. Raman signatures of some fumarolically impacted surfaces are consistent with detection of the biological molecules chlorophyll and scytenomin, potentially useful biosignatures. Observations of altered minerals on Mars may therefore help identify the environment of formation and understand the aqueous history and potential habitability of that planet.

  6. Adhesive compositions and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Sendijarevic, Vahid; O' Connor, James

    2017-12-05

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesive compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesives derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure:. In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive polyurethane compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  7. Composition: Cue Wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performanc...

  8. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  9. Composition: Four Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance...

  10. Composition: Unity - Diversity series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Unity-Diversity series are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it...

  11. Sarcopenia and body composition in diabetic Charcot osteoarthropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of Charcot osteoarthropathy (COA) requires restricted walking and offloading for several months, which lead to fat re-distribution and increased sarcopenia. OBJECTIVES/AIM: To investigate whether subjects with COA have an altered body composition compared to controls. METHOD...

  12. Moisture Sorption in Artificially aged wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Kristoffer Segerholm; Rebecca E. Ibach; Magnus E.P. Wålinder

    2012-01-01

    Moisture sorption in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) affects their durability and dimensional stability. In certain outdoor exposures, the moisture properties of WPCs are altered due to e.g. cracks induced by swelling and shrinkage of the components, as well as UV degradation or biological attack. The aim of this work was to study the effect of different artificial...

  13. Effect of Diuretics on Salivary Flow, Composition and Oral Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High prevalence was found for caries (P < 0.01), periodontal status (P < 0.001) and mucosal lesions (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our study shows that diuretic medication significantly reduces SFRs (xerostomia) and alters salivary composition which may have an impact on the incidence of dental caries, periodontal diseases and ...

  14. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early...... sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated....... Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated with a greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment...

  15. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated....... Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated with a greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment......Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early...

  16. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Unravelling the depositional origins and diagenetic alteration of carbonate breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Robert H. C.; Wilson, Moyra E. J.; Mihaljević, Morana; Pandolfi, John M.; Welsh, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Carbonate breccias dissociated from their platform top counterparts are little studied despite their potential to reveal the nature of past shallow-water carbonate systems and the sequential alteration of such systems. A petrographic and stable isotopic study allowed evaluation of the sedimentological and diagenetic variability of the Cenozoic Batu Gading Limestone breccia of Borneo. Sixteen lithofacies representing six facies groups have been identified mainly from the breccia clasts on the basis of shared textural and compositional features. Clasts of the breccia are representative of shallow carbonate platform top and associated flank to basinal deposits. Dominant inputs are from rocky (karstic) shorelines or localised seagrass environments, coral patch reef and larger foraminiferal-rich deposits. Early, pre-brecciation alteration (including micritisation, rare dissolution of bioclasts, minor syntaxial overgrowth cementation, pervasive neomorphism and calcitisation of bioclasts and matrix) was mainly associated with marine fluids in a near surface to shallow burial environment. The final stages of pre-brecciation diagenesis include mechanical compaction and cementation of open porosity in a shallow to moderate depth burial environment. Post-brecciation diagenesis took place at increasingly moderate to deep burial depths under the influence of dominantly marine burial fluids. Extensive compaction, circum-clast dissolution seams and stylolites have resulted in a tightly fitted breccia fabric, with some development of fractures and calcite cements. A degree of facies-specific controls are evident for the pre-brecciation diagenesis. Pervasive mineralogical stabilisation and cementation have, however, led to a broad similarity of diagenetic features in the breccia clasts thereby effectively preserving depositional features of near-original platform top and margin environments. There is little intra-clast alteration overprint associated with subsequent clast reworking

  18. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  19. Experimental alterations on ceramic interest basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfeliu-Montolio, T.; Ballbe-Lonch, E.; Querlat-Mitjans, I.; Juan-Abril, A.; Fuente-Cellell, C. de la

    1991-01-01

    This study presents the results and conclusion extracted of the chemical and mineralogical analysis made on 12 samples of recent and subrecent (IV series) Canary Island's basalt, that have been subject to different attack processes in order to cause in them controlled mineralogical alterations. The methods used were: optical analysis, x-ray fluorescence analysis and x-ray diffraction. The object of this work is to determine the alterability of these basaltic rocks that have ceramic interest since it's possible its use in same ceramic manufactures and also as petrurgic raw material. (author)

  20. Questions Regarding Alterity in Social Collaborative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinela Floria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of alterity has become important in the last decades, when talking about the Information Age, which provides acknowledgement to the software development specialists about the importance of understanding the other’s behavior, needs, objectives and beliefs.
    Our main purpose is to bring to attention the question of social representation related to the images of individuals as different entities that are integrated in virtual teams, virtual projects and e-activities. Regarding the consciousness about the other’s alterity, we assert that it opens a dialogical perspective about the Information Society, where it is essential to share and communicate knowledge to the others.

  1. Composite vectorlike fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan A. Dobrescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We study a dynamical mechanism that generates a composite vectorlike fermion, formed by the binding of an N-tuplet of elementary chiral fermions to an N-tuplet of scalars. Deriving the properties of the composite fermion in the large N limit, we show that its mass is much smaller than the compositeness scale when the binding coupling is near a critical value. We compute the contact interactions involving four composite fermions, and find that their coefficients scale as 1/N. Physics beyond the Standard Model may include composite vectorlike fermions arising from this mechanism.

  2. Resistant starch alters gut microbiome and metabolomics profiles concurrent with amelioration of chronic kidney disease in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit profound alterations in the gut environment including shifts in microbial composition, increased fecal pH, and increased blood levels of gut microbe-derived metabolites (xeno-metabolites). The fermentable dietary fiber—high amylose maize...

  3. The main factors controlling petrophysical alteration in hydrothermal systems of the Kuril-Kamchatka island arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, J.; Ladygin, V.; Rychagov, S.; Shanina, V.; Blyumkina, M.

    2009-04-01

    This report is based on the results of petrophysical studies obtained on a number of hydrothermal systems in the Kuril-Kamchatka island arc (Pauzhetsky, Mutnovsky, Koshelevsky, Essovsky, a volcano of Ebeko, Oceansky). Mineral composition and pore-space structure of primary rocks change intensively during hydrothermal process, results in alteration of petrophysical properties - porosity, density, permeability, hygroscopy, sonic velocity, elastic modulus, mechanical properties, thermal and magnetic characteristics. Petrophysical alterations gradually lead to the change of the structure of hydrothermal system, and its hydrodynamic and temperature regime. The tendency of petrophysical alteration can be different. In some cases rocks "improvement" is observed i.e. consolidation, hardening, decrease of porosity and permeability, removal of hygroscopy. In other cases rocks "deterioration" occurs, i.e. formation of secondary porosity and permeability, a decrease of density, strength, and elastic modulus, and occurrence of hygroscopic moisture. The classical example of cardinal petrophysical alteration is the transformation of hard basalts to plastic clays. The opposite example is the transformation of only slightly consolidates porous tuffs to hard and dense secondary quartzite. The character of petrophysical alteration depends on a number of factors including peculiarities of primary rocks, temperature, pressure and composition of thermal fluids, duration of fluid-rock interaction, and condition of fluid (steam, water, boiling water). The contribution of each factor to change of volcanic rocks properties is considered and analyzed in details. In particular, primary rocks controls speed, intensity and character of petrophysical alterations. Factors favorable for alteration are high porosity and permeability, micro crakes, weak cementation, glassy structure, basaltic composition. Kuril-Kamchatka region represents the volcanic island arch so host rocks in hydrothermal

  4. Surfactant assisted surface morphology and thermal properties of polythiophene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijeth, H.; Niranjana, M.; Yesappa, L.; Chapi, Sharanappa; Raghu, S.; Ashokkumar, S. P.; Devendrappa, H.

    2017-06-01

    Conducting polythiophene (PTH)/aluminium oxide (Al2O3) composites was prepared with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) as s anionic surfactant by means of in situ chemical oxidation polymerization. The morphology and material phase of PTH/Al2O3 (PTHA) composites were investigated by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The FESEM image shows alter the size of grain and EDX results consistent with the presence of Al2O3 and CSA chemical composition. Thermal stability of composites was characterized using TGA/DSC, the results indicate that the PTP/Al2O3 composites have higher thermal stability than that of PTP and decompose at higher temperatures due to addition of anionic surfactant.

  5. Effect of Cutting with an Abrasive Saw on Swarf Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsach, Tsadok; Finkelstein, Nir; Israelsohn-Azulay, Osnat

    2018-02-02

    Crime scene investigators are often asked to examine swarf from break-in sites and compare it with swarf found on a suspect. Occasionally, elemental composition of swarf from these two sources does not match. It is generally assumed that cutting metal does not induce changes in chemical composition. However, this study shows that, if a matrix contains iron, chromium, and nickel, composition of swarf produced from cutting the matrix with an abrasive saw may indeed alter. In this study, we cut a stainless steel sheet using a standard cutoff saw. Swarf was sorted and chemically analyzed by EDS/SEM, and the following relationships between chip morphology and modified composition were discovered: elongated chips remained unchanged; changes in the irregular chips appeared to be random, possibly because they are formed in a number of different ways; composition of spherical chips changed with size. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Plutonium alteration phases from lanthanide borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortner, J.A.; Mertz, C.J.; Chamberlain, D.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    A prototype lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass containing 10 mass % plutonium was reacted with water vapor at 200 C for periods of 14 to 56 days. These tests, while not designed to replicate specific conditions that may be found in a potential geologic repository (e.g., Yucca Mountain), have been shown to accelerate alteration phase formation. The surfaces of the glass samples, along with alteration phases, were examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Tests of 14 days produced macroscopic (∼ 20 microm) crystallites of a plutonium-lanthanide silicate. An extensive alteration layer was found on the glass surface containing amorphous aluminosilicate layered with bands of a cryptocrystalline plutonium silicate. After 56 days of testing, additional alteration phases were formed, including a strontium lanthanide oxide phase. One of the options for disposal of surplus plutonium, particularly for impure residues that may be unfit for production of MOX fuel, is vitrification followed by geologic disposal. Since geologic disposal requires a passive system to isolate the radiotoxic elements from the biosphere, it is important to understand the possible corrosion mechanisms of the waste form

  7. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    the pole to the magnetic data aided in mapping of various hydrothermally altered structures that may favour gold mineralisation. The interpretation of the aero data set has enhanced a lot of ... water serves as a concentrating, transporting and depositing agent through faults (structures) to the earth's surface. Hydrothermal ...

  8. Alterations in the human brain in menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishunina, T.A.; Swaab, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    In a series of studies we showed that menopause in women causes alterations not only in the neuronal expression of estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta, but also in local estrogen production in several brain areas and in the rate of neuronal metabolism. Although such changes are clearly brain

  9. Can Molecular Hippocampal Alterations Explain Behavioral ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies in both humans and animals have shown that prenatal stress can alter cognitive function and other neurological behaviors in adult offspring. One possible underlying mechanism for this may lie with alterations in hippocampal gene expression. The present study examined genotypical outcomes in adult male and female offspring of rats exposed to variable stress during pregnancy. Dams (n=15/treatment) were subjected to several non-chemical stressors including intermittent noise, light, crowding, restraint, and altered circadian lighting, from gestational day (GD) 13 to 20. Tail blood was drawn on GD 12, 16 and 20 to verify a stress response. Corticosterone levels were not different between the stressed and non-stressed dams on GD12 but was significantly increased in stressed dams on GD 16 and 20 compared to controls. Dams gave birth on GD22 (postnatal day or PND 0). Several behavioral tests were used to assess the cognitive and behavioral phenotype of the offspring from PND 49 through 86, including the Morris water maze and novel object recognition. Male and female stressed offspring showed reduced reversal learning on the Morris water maze and stressed females did not show a significant preference for the novel object (57 ± 8%) while control females did (71 ± 3%). This indicates altered cognition in prenatally stressed offspring. On PND 91-92, offspring were necropsied and hippocampal tissue was collected. Genotypic outcomes of prenatal stress w

  10. Altered States: Globalization, Sovereignty, and Governance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Altered States, Gordon Smith and Moisés Naím provide practical recommendations for improved governance and for strengthening and reforming the United Nations. They explore the dynamics of globalization and discuss what makes today's globalization distinct. They test the prevailing wisdom about sovereignty and ...

  11. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  12. Genistein Precipitated Hypothyroidism, Altered Leptin and C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genistein Precipitated Hypothyroidism, Altered Leptin and C-Reactive Protein Synthesis in Pregnant Rats. ... Thyroid hormone, C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin assay was carried using the blood samples. Leptin was also assayed in the placenta and amniotic fluid supernatant. Oral exposure of pregnant rats to genistein ...

  13. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Allium sativum extract on the medial prefrontal cortex and neurobehaviour of adult Wistar rats. ... altered spontaneous alternation, while cellular pathologic changes were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex of these test groups in a dose dependent sequence.

  14. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the objective of examining the outer membrane proteins and their involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the response of gram negative bacterial biomembrane alteration was studied using extended ...

  15. Connective tissue alteration in abdominal wall hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Yadete, D H; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of abdominal wall hernia formation is complex. Optimal treatment of hernias depends on a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their formation. The aim of this study was to review the literature on specific collagen alterations...... in abdominal wall hernia formation....

  16. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the ...

  17. Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered Structures That ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study uses geophysical method (aeromagnetic) to identify hydrothermally altered structures which favour the inflow of hydrothermal fluid that usually brings about gold mineralisation in Egbe-Isanlu Schist Belt Area, North Central Nigeria. The application of data enhancement filtering algorithm such as ...

  18. Global alteration of climate - hopes and fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems concerning gaseous emission affecting the global climate alteration connected with hotbed effect are considered. Economical and social-political ways of solution of the problem of minimization of gaseous wastes are described. Role of nuclear power plants and alternative power plants in the hotbed effect are analyzed. International cooperation in environmental protection policy is discussed

  19. Rare endocrine cancers have novel genetic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A molecular characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes and identified several novel genetic mutations as likely mechanisms driving the disease as well as whole genome doubling as a probable driver of the disease.

  20. Altered gut microbiota in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Albanese, Davide; De Felice, Claudio; Donati, Claudio; Hayek, Joussef; Jousson, Olivier; Leoncini, Silvia; Pindo, Massimo; Renzi, Daniela; Rizzetto, Lisa; Stefanini, Irene; Calabrò, Antonio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-07-30

    The human gut microbiota directly affects human health, and its alteration can lead to gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammation. Rett syndrome (RTT), a progressive neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene, is commonly associated with gastrointestinal dysfunctions and constipation, suggesting a link between RTT's gastrointestinal abnormalities and the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of RTT subjects integrating clinical, metabolomics and metagenomics data to understand if changes in the gut microbiota of RTT subjects could be associated with gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammatory status. Our findings revealed the occurrence of an intestinal sub-inflammatory status in RTT subjects as measured by the elevated values of faecal calprotectin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. We showed that, overall, RTT subjects harbour bacterial and fungal microbiota altered in terms of relative abundances from those of healthy controls, with a reduced microbial richness and dominated by microbial taxa belonging to Bifidobacterium, several Clostridia (among which Anaerostipes, Clostridium XIVa, Clostridium XIVb) as well as Erysipelotrichaceae, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Eggerthella, Escherichia/Shigella and the fungal genus Candida. We further observed that alterations of the gut microbiota do not depend on the constipation status of RTT subjects and that this dysbiotic microbiota produced altered short chain fatty acids profiles. We demonstrated for the first time that RTT is associated with a dysbiosis of both the bacterial and fungal component of the gut microbiota, suggesting that impairments of MeCP2 functioning favour the establishment of a microbial community adapted to the costive gastrointestinal niche of RTT subjects. The altered production of short chain fatty acids associated with this microbiota might reinforce the constipation status of RTT

  1. Multiphase Mineral Inclusions in Ferrikaersutite Megacrysts : Implications for Postmagmatic Alteration of the Kaersutite Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhi Nasir

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary multiphase mineral inclusions, without preserved fluid are found in ferrikaersutite megacrysts from the Cenozoic Harrat Ash Sham Volcanic Field in  ٍSyria. Mineral phases in the inclusions are magnetite, hematite, pseudobrookite and pyrrhotite. The kaersutite megacrysts formed from a hydrous basanitic melt at depth. Silicate minerals in the inclusions are olivine, plagioclase, phlogopite, hornblende, clino- and orthopyroxene. These silicate minerals crystallized from melt penetration and infillings of veins and fractures in the kaersutite. Magnetite and pyrrhotite inclusion formed through magmatic crystallization which was followed by low temperature alteration and re-equilibration. Late stage  near-surface alteration resulted in the formation of hematite,  limonite  and fine-grained weathering products  which comprise high-Fe-Si-,  Si-Mg-Al-,  Si-Fe-Al-,  Si-Al- and Si-Ti-Al-Fe-Ca-rich alterations. The composition of these late stage alteration products was governed by low-temperature post-magmatic alteration of kaersutite along cleavage planes and fractures.

  2. Detection of alteration associated with a porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M. J.; Siegal, B. S.

    1977-01-01

    Computer processing of Landsat MSS data was performed using contrast stretching and band-to-band ratioing. A false color ratio composite picture showed color anomalies which coincided with known areas of alteration on and about Red Mountain. A helicopter survey of the study area was undertaken using a portable field reflectance spectrometer. One hundred fifty-six spectra were obtained in the 0.4 to 2.5 micrometer wavelength region. The spectra were digitized, and contour maps for 24 wavelength intervals were produced; no spectral anomalies were evident for the known altered areas. A contour map produced from the 1.6 and 2.2 micrometer ratio generally delineated the alteration areas. The 1.3, 1.6, and 2.2 micrometer wavelength data were canonically transformed using a transformation empirically derived from discriminant function analysis of altered and unaltered materials for the Goldfield, Nevada region, and a contour map was produced for the first canonical variable. The known areas of alteration were clearly defined on the contour map.

  3. Compositionally Constraining Elysium Lava Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunatillake, S.; Button, N. E.; Skok, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Chemical provinces of Mars defined recently [1-3] became possible with the maps of elemental mass fractions generated with Mars Odyssey Gamma and Neutron Spectrometer (GS) data [4,5]. These provide a unique perspective by representing compositional signatures distinctive of the regolith vertically at decimeter depths and laterally at hundreds of kilometer scale. Some provinces overlap compellingly with regions highlighted by other remote sensing observations, such as the Mars Radar Stealth area [3]. The spatial convergence of mutually independent data with the consequent highlight of a region provides a unique opportunity of insight not possible with a single type of remote sensing observation. Among such provinces, previous work [3] highlighted Elysium lava flows as a promising candidate on the basis of convergence with mapped geologic units identifying Elysium's lava fields generally, and Amazonian-aged lava flows specifically. The South Eastern lava flows of Elysium Mons, dating to the recent Amazonian epoch, overlap compellingly with a chemical province of K and Th depletion relative to the Martian midlatitudes. We characterize the composition, geology, and geomorphology of the SE Elysium province to constrain the confluence of geologic and alteration processes that may have contributed to its evolution. We compare this with the North Western lava fields, extending the discussion on chemical products from the thermal evolution of Martian volcanism as discussed by Baratoux et al. [6]. The chemical province, by regional proximity to Cerberus Fossae, may also reflect the influence of recently identified buried flood channels [7] in the vicinity of Orcus Patera. Despite the compelling chemical signature from γ spectra, fine grained unconsolidated sediment hampers regional VNTIR (Visible, Near, and Thermal Infrared) spectral analysis. But some observations near scarps and fresh craters allow a view of small scale mineral content. The judicious synthesis of

  4. Uranium as a possible criterion for the hydro-chemical alteration of betafite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour Khanmiri, Mohammad; Yanson, Svetlana Yu.; Fomin, Edward V.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Grebeniuk, Andrey V.; Polekhovsky, Yury S.; Bogdanov, Roman V.

    2018-01-01

    Hydro-chemical processes significantly alter the original composition of metamict minerals. In the work presented here, an attempt was made to reconstruct the chemical composition of betafite in the earlier stages of its geological history. The time scale is determined by the leaching rate of the isotope 238U, a process that takes its course in line with first-order kinetics, or something close to it. The leaching rate constant of this uranium isotope was assessed. Based on available data in the literature, the hydro-chemical behavior of various atoms in group A of betafite was analyzed. The chemical composition of the mineral was calculated taking into account the total charge of the cations that the betafite had at the time it was formed, or possibly the last time it was completely reformed as a result of diverse endogenic processes.

  5. Petrography, alteration and genesis of iron mineralization in Roshtkhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Biabangard

    2017-07-01

    , diorite porphyry, monzosyenitie porphyry, andesite, basalt and lithic tuff in composition and granular, porphyry, microlitic porphyry and hyalomicrolitic in texture and they consist of plagioclase, K-feldspar, amphibole and pyroxene as main primary minerals. These minerals in altered rocks were replaced by phylosilicates, epidote, carbonates and opaque minerals. There are the following alteration zones in the study area: propylitic, sericitic-propylitic, argillic and silicic. The propylitic alteration is characterized by chlorite and calcite as the dominant hydrothermal minerals and little quartz, sericite, kaolinite, and biotite. Hematie and magnetite occur as the main opaque mineral in this alteration zone. Since the proportion of sericite is relatively high in some parts of this zone, it can be named the propylitic-sericitic alteration zone. The argillic alteration zone occurs intensively in the syenite and it is characterized by clay minerals. The silicic alteration occurs as veinlets, silicic breccias, and other open space fillings and it is characterized by dominant quartz. In this study, we use a simple variation of the Gresens method. This method was redescribed by Grant (2005. The samples that were analyzed are dioritic rocks as less altered rocks, altered rocks and mineralized rocks. Samples from the propylitic-sericitic alteration zone relative to less-altered diorite show enrichment in Cl, Ho, Cr, Nd, Ta, Tb, Er, La, Cs, Cu, Zn, Dy, and Fe and depletion in Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Ba, S, Sr, Ce, Sn, Co, Sm, Mo, Ga, Zr, Th, Ni, Nb, Rb, Yb. Hypogene mineralization in Rhoshtkhar is of two types, i.e. oxide and sulfide mineralization. Oxide mineralization occurs as massive veins mainly in the intrusive rocks and it has been controlled by a fault between the dioritic unit and the diorite porphyry and monzosyenite, and it is characterized by spicularitic hematite and magnetite. The sulfide mineralization mainly occurs as silicic veins and veinlets and it is characterized by

  6. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones, and...

  7. Epigenetic alteration of sedimentary rocks at hydrogenic uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wanlie; Shen Kefeng

    2001-01-01

    The author introduces the concept, the recognition criteria, the genesis and classification of the epigenetic alteration of sedimentary rocks in brief, and expounds the mineral-geochemical indications and characteristics of oxidation and reduction alterations in different geochemical zones in detail, and proposes the two models of ore-controlling zonation of epigenetic alteration. The authors finally introduce research methods of epigenetic alteration

  8. Case study of chondrule alteration with IR spectroscopy in NWA 2086 CV3 meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, A.; Gyollai, I.; Szabó, M.

    2015-02-01

    Analyzing the alteration in an olivine chondrule of the NWA 2086 CV3 meteorite, infrared spectral, electron microprobe and optical microscopic observations were correlated to each other. The intensity and wavelength positions of olivine peaks changed characteristically with the progression of alteration and related Fe/Mg substitution inward of the chondrule. Moderate to good correlations were identified between Fo% composition and positions of 830 and 860 cm-1 IR peaks. The disappearance of 1020 cm-1 peak by structural change happens already at a low level alteration without changing the optical appearance of the mineral. The existence of the 980 cm-1 peak is found to be an indicator of the intact phase of olivine. While profiles perpendicular to the chondrule's perimeter showed that the alteration progressed 15-20 μm distance inward without observable fractures (probablly by some diffusion related process), the "alteration distance" from various obvious fractures inside the chondrule was only 3-5 μm distance. These observations suggest that the substitution was more effective close to the matrix, and also related to some fluids that although were able to circulate along the large internal fractures too, did not produce such strong substitution there, like what happened close to the matrix. It was also demonstrated that the poorly exploited contact mode observations with ATR based reflection method in infrared spectroscopy provide a useful tool to analyze the alteration at micrometer scale without much sample preparation, and enable identifying alterations already at such a low level where the olivines still look optically intact.

  9. Composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from periodically submerged soils in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas as determined by elemental and optical analysis, infrared spectroscopy, pyrolysis-GC-MS and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Kaal, Joeri; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Yaoling; Wei, Shiqiang; Wang, Dingyong; Green, Nelson W

    2017-12-15

    Soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) has a major influence in biogeochemical processes related to contaminant dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions, due to its reactivity and its bridging role between the soil and aquatic systems. Within the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China) area, an extensive water-fluctuation zone periodically submerges the surrounding soils. Here we report a characterization study of soil-derived DOM across the TGR areas, using elemental and optical analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS). The results showed that the soil DOM from the TGR area is a mixture of "allochthonous" (i.e., plant-derived/terrigenous) and "autochthonous" (i.e., microbial) origins. The terrigenous DOM is composed primarily of phenolic and aliphatic structures from lignin and aliphatic biopolymers (i.e. cutin, suberin), respectively. Multivariate statistics differentiated between two fractions of the microbial DOM, i.e. chitin-derived, perhaps from fungi and arthropods in soil, and protein-derived, partially sourced from algal or aquatic organisms. Molecular proxies of source and degradation state were in good agreement with optical parameters such as SUVA 254 , the fluorescence index (FI) and the humification index (HIX). The combined use of elemental analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Py-GC-MS provides rigorous and detailed DOM characterization, whereas THM-GC-MS is useful for more precise but qualitative identification of the different phenolic (cinnamyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, syringyl and tannin-derived) and aliphatic materials. With the multi-methodological approach used in this study, FTIR was the least informative, in part, because of the interference of inorganic matter in the soil DOM samples. The soil DOM from the TGR's water fluctuation zone exhibited considerable compositional diversity, mainly related to the balance between DOM source (microbial- or

  10. Polymer compositions and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.

    2018-02-06

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  11. Polymer compositions and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.

    2016-09-27

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  12. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fareed, Ali [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States); Craig, Phillip A. [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  13. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  14. Vitamin D alteration associated with obesity and bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespessailles, Eric; Toumi, Hechmi

    2017-05-01

    Obesity and severe obesity constitute growing serious health problems reaching epidemic proportion in most countries. Interactions and relationships between obesity and bone tissue and its metabolism are complex but are more and more studied and recognized. Obesity is associated with an altered hormonal profile including particularly bone-regulating hormones like vitamin D. Bariatric surgery procedures, thanks to their effectiveness to achieve therapeutic endpoints for comorbidities associated with obesity, have had an increasing success. However, these surgeries by producing mechanical restriction and or malabsorption syndrome lead to nutritional deficiencies including vitamin D. In this review, we aim to (1) discuss the nutritional deficiency of vitamin D in the obese, (2) to summarize the different surgical options in bariatric surgery and to present the evidence concerning these procedures and their associated profile in vitamin D post-operative insufficiency, (3) to present the different recommendations in clinical practice to prevent or treat vitamin D deficiencies or insufficiencies in patients treated by bariatric surgery and finally to introduce emerging assumptions on the relationship between vitamin D, microbiota composition and circulating bile acids. Impact statement Obesity and severe obesity constitute growing serious health problems reaching epidemic proportion in most countries with a prevalence increasing from 6.4 in 1975 to 14.9% in 2014. This present review summarizes currently available data on vitamin D deficiencies in the obese population before and after bariatric surgery. The important evidence emerging from our evaluation confirms that obese patients are at risk of multiple nutritional deficiencies, especially vitamin D deficiency, before bariatric surgery. Our survey confirms that the precise role of the gut microbiome and its associated changes on the vitamin D metabolism after the different bariatric surgery procedures has not yet been

  15. Pediatric Obesity: Pharmacokinetic Alterations and Effects on Antimicrobial Dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Stephanie; Bradley, John; Nguyen, William Huy; Tran, Tri; Ny, Pamela; La, Kirsten; Vivian, Eva; Le, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Limited data exist for appropriate drug dosing in obese children. This comprehensive review summarizes pharmacokinetic (PK) alterations that occur with age and obesity, and these effects on antimicrobial dosing. A thorough comparison of different measures of body weight and specific antimicrobial agents including cefazolin, cefepime, ceftazidime, daptomycin, doripenem, gentamicin, linezolid, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, tobramycin, vancomycin, and voriconazole is presented. PubMed (1966-July 2015) and Cochrane Library searches were performed using these key terms: children, pharmacokinetic, obesity, overweight, body mass index, ideal body weight, lean body weight, body composition, and specific antimicrobial drugs. PK studies in obese children and, if necessary, data from adult studies were summarized. Knowledge of PK alterations stemming from physiologic changes that occur with age from the neonate to adolescent, as well as those that result from increased body fat, become an essential first step toward optimizing drug dosing in obese children. Excessive amounts of adipose tissue contribute significantly to body size, total body water content, and organ size and function that may modify drug distribution and clearance. PK studies that evaluated antimicrobial dosing primarily used total (or actual) body weight (TBW) for loading doses and TBW or adjusted body weight for maintenance doses, depending on the drugs' properties and dosing units. PK studies in obese children are imperative to elucidate drug distribution, clearance, and, consequently, the dose required for effective therapy in these children. Future studies should evaluate the effects of both age and obesity on drug dosing because the incidence of obesity is increasing in pediatric patients. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  16. Potential surface alteration effects of laser-assisted periodontal surgery on existing dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Evren; Rothrock, James; Migliorati, Erica; Drukteinis, Saulius; Roshkind, David M; Bradley, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Laser-assisted gingivectomies are performed in proximity to teeth, existing restorations, and implants. In case of accidental exposures, a detrimental surface defect may cause failure. Surface interactions should be evaluated for safety margin determination of certain laser-material combinations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the microscopic and visible effects of CO2, Nd:YAG, and 810-nm diode laser irradiations on various dental materials and tooth tissue. Study samples were fabricated (10 x 7.5 mm irradiation surface area, 1 mm thickness) from eight material groups (amalgam, base metal, gold, palladium-silver, composite, ceramic, titanium, and extracted tooth slices). Laser irradiations were performed with CO2, Nd:YAG, and 810-nm diode lasers using the manufacturer's recommended settings for gingivectomy at a 45-degree angle for 30 seconds. Irradiated surfaces were evaluated under SEM at 200x and 1,000x magnifications. Standardized photographs were obtained using a camera mount system (10x high-definition macro lens). The SEM images and photographs were correlated to determine surface interactions. Nd:YAG detrimentally affected all metallic materials and tooth structures. CO2 altered amalgam, gold, and palladium-silver slightly, whereas composite, ceramic, and tooth surfaces were detrimentally altered. The 810-nm diode altered amalgam, gold, titanium, palladium-silver, and composite but only gold and palladium-silver surfaces were barely traceable. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, surface effects were all instant; therefore, even a short accidental exposure may be destructive in some laser-material combinations. During gingivectomies, CO2 near tooth-colored restorations and Nd:YAG near metallic restorations and implants should be used carefully. The 810-nm diode was found to be safer due to its reversible alterations in only some materials. Further in vivo studies are necessary to clinically apply the outcomes of this study.

  17. Composites for Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will devise test and development approaches to support development of large scale composite payload fairing structures, including conducting tests and...

  18. Multifunctional Composite Structure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is developing a Composite Sandwich Habitable Pressurized Structure for deep space travel. Permeability, radiation, & micrometeoroids and orbital...

  19. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either......I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... a watery or a condensed body form, and that in the intermediate taxa the moderately elevated water content is related to buoyancy control and ambush feeding...

  20. Interacting composite fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    nrc762, nrc762

    2016-01-01

    dominates. The interaction between composite fermions in the second Λ level (composite fermion analog of the electronic Landau level) satisfies this property, and recent studies have supported unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect of composite fermions at ν∗=4/3 and 5/3, which manifests...... are conventional. The underlying reason is that the interaction between composite fermions depends substantially on both the number and the direction of the vortices attached to the electrons. I also study in detail the states with different spin polarizations at 6/17 and 6/7 and predict the critical Zeeman...

  1. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  2. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. Thermodynamics of Organic Compound Alteration in Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, E. L.

    2005-12-01

    Organic compounds enter hydrothermal systems through infiltrating surface waters, zones of microbial productivity in the subsurface, extracts of organic matter in surrounding host rocks, and abiotic synthesis. Owing to variations in pH, oxidation state, composition, temperature, and pressure throughout the changing pathways of fluid migration over the duration of the system, organic compounds from all of these sources are introduced to conditions where their relative stabilities and reactivities can be dramatically transformed. If those transformations were predictable, then the extent to which organic alteration reactions have occurred could be used to reveal flowpaths and histories of hydrothermal systems. Speciation and mass transfer calculations permit some insight into the underlying thermodynamic driving forces that result in organic compound alteration. As an example, the speciation of many geochemist's canonical organic matter: CH2O depends strongly on oxidation state, temperature, and total concentration of dissolved organic matter. Calculations show that at oxidation states buffered by iron-bearing mineral assemblages, organic acids dominate the speciation of CH2O throughout hydrothermal systems, with acetic acid (itself equivalent to 2 CH2O by bulk composition) and propanoic acid generally the most abundant compounds. However, at more reduced conditions, which may prevail in organic-rich iron-poor sediments, the drive is to form ketones and especially alcohols at the expense of organic acids. The distribution of organic carbon among the various members of these compound classes is strongly dependent on the total concentration of dissolved organic matter. As an example, at a bulk concentration equivalent to average dissolved organic matter in seawater (45μm), the dominant alcohols at 100°C are small compounds like ethanol and 1-propanol. In contrast, at a higher bulk concentration of 500μm, there is a drive to shift large percentages of dissolved

  4. Composite materials: Testing and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, John D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the analysis of composite structures, composite materials' impact and compression behavior, composite materials characterization methods, composite failure mechanisms, NDE methods for composites, and filament-wound and woven composite materials' fabrication. Attention is given to the automated design of a composite plate for damage tolerance, the effects of adhesive layers on composite laminate impact damage, instability-related delamination growth in thermoset and thermoplastic composites, a simple shear fatigue test for unidirectional E-glass epoxy, the growth of elliptic delaminations in laminates under cyclic transverse shear, and the mechanical behavior of braided composite materials.

  5. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life. © 2013.

  6. Impact of Membrane Phospholipid Alterations in Escherichia coli on Cellular Function and Bacterial Stress Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlett, Veronica W; Mallampalli, Venkata K P S; Karlstaedt, Anja; Dowhan, William; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Margolin, William; Vitrac, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    Bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to sense and rapidly adapt to challenging and ever-changing environmental conditions. The ability to alter membrane lipid composition, a key component of the cellular envelope, is crucial for bacterial survival and adaptation in response to environmental stress. However, the precise roles played by membrane phospholipids in bacterial physiology and stress adaptation are not fully elucidated. The goal of this study was to define the role of membrane phospholipids in adaptation to stress and maintenance of bacterial cell fitness. By using genetically modified strains in which the membrane phospholipid composition can be systematically manipulated, we show that alterations in major Escherichia coli phospholipids transform these cells globally. We found that alterations in phospholipids impair the cellular envelope structure and function, the ability to form biofilms, and bacterial fitness and cause phospholipid-dependent susceptibility to environmental stresses. This study provides an unprecedented view of the structural, signaling, and metabolic pathways in which bacterial phospholipids participate, allowing the design of new approaches in the investigation of lipid-dependent processes involved in bacterial physiology and adaptation. IMPORTANCE In order to cope with and adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions, bacteria have to sense and quickly respond to fluctuating conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of systematic and controlled alterations in bacterial phospholipids on cell shape, physiology, and stress adaptation. We provide new evidence that alterations of specific phospholipids in Escherichia coli have detrimental effects on cellular shape, envelope integrity, and cell physiology that impair biofilm formation, cellular envelope remodeling, and adaptability to environmental stresses. These findings hold promise for future antibacterial therapies that target bacterial lipid biosynthesis

  7. Experimentally altered rainfall regimes and host root traits affect grassland arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveautour, Coline; Donn, Suzanne; Power, Sally; Bennett, Alison E; Powell, Jeff R

    2018-02-14

    Future climate scenarios predict changes in rainfall regimes. These changes are expected to affect plants via effects on the expression of root traits associated with water and nutrient uptake. Associated microorganisms may also respond to these new precipitation regimes, either directly in response to changes in the soil environment or indirectly in response to altered root trait expression. We characterised arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in an Australian grassland exposed to experimentally altered rainfall regimes. We used Illumina sequencing to assess the responses of AM fungal communities associated with four plant species sampled in different watering treatments and evaluated the extent to which shifts were associated with changes in root traits. We observed that altered rainfall regimes affected the composition but not the richness of the AM fungal communities, and we found distinctive communities in the increased rainfall treatment. We found no evidence of altered rainfall regime effects via changes in host physiology because none of the studied traits were affected by changes in rainfall. However, specific root length was observed to correlate with AM fungal richness, while concentrations of phosphorus and calcium in root tissue and the proportion of root length allocated to fine roots were correlated to community composition. Our study provides evidence that climate change and its effects on rainfall may influence AM fungal community assembly, as do plant traits related to plant nutrition and water uptake. We did not find evidence that host responses to altered rainfall drive AM fungal community assembly in this grassland ecosystem. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  10. Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, G.V.; Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Zelenova, O.I.

    1980-01-01

    Notions are explained, and technique for studying epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at uranium deposits is described. Main types of epigenetic transformations and their mineralogic-geochemical characteristics are considered. Rock alterations, accompanying uranium mineralization, can be related to 2 types: oxidation and reduction. The main mineralogic-geochemical property of oxidation transformations is epigenetic limonitization. Stratal limonitization in primary grey-coloured terrigenic rocks and in epigenetically reduced (pyritized) rocks, as well as in rock, subjected to epigenetic gleying, are characterized. Reduction type of epigenetic transformations is subdivided into sulphidic and non-sulphidic (gley) subtypes. Sulphidic transformations in grey-coloured terrigenic rocks with organic substance of carbonic row, in rocks, containing organic substance of oil row, sulphide transformations of sedimentary rocks, as well as gley transformations, are considered

  11. Siliceous microfossil extraction from altered Monterey rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.O.; Casey, R.E.

    1986-04-01

    Samples of altered Monterey rocks of differing lithologies were processed by various methods to develop new techniques for extracting siliceous microfossils. The preliminary use of thin sections made from the same rocks reduced the number of probable samples (samples worth further processing) by about one-third. Most of the siliceous microfossils contained in altered Monterey rocks appear to be highly recrystallized and are extremely fragile; however, some contained silicified and silica-infilled radiolarians and planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, which are very tough. In general the most useful techniques were gently hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, formic acid, monosodium glutamate, and regular siliceous microfossil extraction techniques. Unsuccessful techniques and a new siliceous microfossil flotation technique are also documented.

  12. Alteration of isotope composition of carbon of natural gases in relation to seismic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, A.I.; Kucher, M.I.; Fridman, A.I.

    1979-03-01

    As the result of two-years regime investigation of carbon isotopy (delta/sup 13/C) of methane and carbon dioxide, it was stated that methane carbon lightens extremely several days before the earthquake and becomes heavier at the quake moment. delta/sup 13/C of carbon dioxide varies in the manner opposite to methane in that CO/sub 2/ carbon becomes lighter at the quake moment. Amplitude of the delta/sup 13/C variation correlates to earthquake energy and distance of epicenter from sampling area reaching 1% for near a quake of 14-th energy class.

  13. Cause or effect of arteriogenesis: compositional alterations of microparticles from CAD patients undergoing external counterpulsation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaabi, Ali; Traupe, Tobias; Stutz, Monika; Buchs, Natasha; Heller, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a clinical study on patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) showed that external counterpulsation therapy (ECP) at high (300 mmHg) but not at low inflation pressure (80 mmHg) promoted coronary collateral growth, most likely due to shear stress-induced arteriogenesis. The exact molecular mechanisms behind shear stress-induced arteriogenesis are still obscure. We therefore characterized plasma levels of circulating microparticles (MPs) from these CAD patients because of their ambivalent nature as a known cardiovascular risk factor and as a promoter of neovascularization in the case of platelet-derived MPs. MPs positive for Annexin V and CD31CD41 were increased, albeit statistically significant (Pcollateral flow index (CFI), a measure for collateral growth. MPs from the high inflation pressure group had a more sustained pro-angiogenic effect than the ones from the low inflation pressure group, with the exception of one patient showing also an increased CFI after treatment. A total of 1005 proteins were identified by a label-free proteomics approach from MPs of three patients of each group applying stringent acceptance criteria. Based on semi-quantitative protein abundance measurements, MPs after ECP therapy contained more cellular proteins and increased CD31, corroborating the increase in MPs. Furthermore, we show that MP-associated factors of the innate immune system were decreased, many membrane-associated signaling proteins, and the known arteriogenesis stimulating protein transforming growth factor beta-1 were increased after ECP therapy. In conclusion, our data show that ECP therapy increases platelet-derived MPs in patients with CAD and that the change in protein cargo of MPs is likely in favor of a pro angiogenic/arteriogenic property. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00414297.

  14. Polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic acid displaces proteins from membrane rafts by altering rafts lipid composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuling, T. M.; Huber, J.; Leitinger, N.; Imre, E. M.; Angelisová, Pavla; Nowotny, P.; Waldhaus, W.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 40 (2001), s. 37335-37340 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/99/0349 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : membrane raft * Lck * LAT Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.258, year: 2001

  15. The composition of T cell subtypes in duodenal biopsies are altered in coeliac disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagner Steenholt, Janni; Nielsen, Christian; Baudewijn, Leen

    2017-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of Celiac disease (CD) is intraepithelial lymphocytosis in the small intestine. Until now, investigations to characterize the T cell subpopulations within the epithelial layer have not discriminated between the heterodimeric co-receptor molecule, CD8αβ, and the possibly...

  16. The composition of T cell subtypes in duodenal biopsies are altered in coeliac disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janni V Steenholt

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of Celiac disease (CD is intraepithelial lymphocytosis in the small intestine. Until now, investigations to characterize the T cell subpopulations within the epithelial layer have not discriminated between the heterodimeric co-receptor molecule, CD8αβ, and the possibly immunoregulatory CD8αα homodimer molecule. Besides TCRαβ+ CD4+ cells, no other phenotypes have been shown to be gluten-reactive. Using flow cytometry on lymphocytes from duodenal biopsies, we determined that the number of B cells (CD3- CD19+ and the number of CD3+ CD4- CD8- double-negative (DN T cells were elevated 6-7 fold in children with CD. We next isolated and quantified intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs from biopsies obtained from patients (both children and adults with CD, potential CD and non-CD controls. Flow cytometric analysis of the duodenal T cell subpopulations was performed including the markers TCRαβ, TCRγδ, CD4, CD8α and CD8β. Proportions of γδ T cells and CD8αβ+ cells among IELs were increased in CD patients, whereas proportions of CD4+ CD8αα+ and CD4+ single-positive T cells were decreased. Additionally, two gluten-reactive T cell lines (TCLs derived from CD biopsies were analyzed for changes in proportions of T cell subsets before and after gluten stimulation. In a proliferation assay, dividing cells were tracked with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE, and both αβ and γδ T cells proliferated in response to gluten. Changes in duodenal T cell subpopulations in potential CD patients followed the same pattern as for CD patients, but with less pronounced effect.

  17. High- cholesterol diet does not alter gut microbiota composition in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimova, Lidiya G.; Zlatkov, Nikola; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Western diet containing both saturated fat and cholesterol impairs cardio- metabolic health partly by modulating diversity and function of the microbiota. While diet containing only high fat has comparable effects, it is unclear how diets only enriched in cholesterol impact the

  18. A Single Usage of a Kitchen Degreaser Can Alter Indoor Aerosol Composition for Days.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Jaroslav; Makeš, Otakar; Ondráček, Jakub; Cusack, Michael; Talbot, Nicholas; Vodička, Petr; Kubelová, Lucie; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 11 (2017), s. 5907-5912 ISSN 0013-936X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 - HEXACOMM Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : indoor aerosol * mono-ethanolamine * aerosol transformation Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 6.198, year: 2016

  19. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H

    2016-01-01

    as assessed by high-throughput molecular approaches in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of healthy adults. METHODS: The survey of peer-reviewed papers was performed on 17 August 2015 by a literature search through PubMed, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science. Additional papers were identified by checking...

  20. Alterations in the Immune Cell Composition in Premalignant Breast Tissue that Precede Breast Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnim, Amy C; Hoskin, Tanya L; Arshad, Muhammad; Frost, Marlene H; Winham, Stacey J; Brahmbhatt, Rushin A; Pena, Alvaro; Carter, Jodi M; Stallings-Mann, Melody L; Murphy, Linda M; Miller, Erin E; Denison, Lori A; Vachon, Celine M; Knutson, Keith L; Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: Little is known about the role of the immune system in the earliest stages of breast carcinogenesis. We studied quantitative differences in immune cell types between breast tissues from normal donors and those from women with benign breast disease (BBD). Experimental Design: A breast tissue matched case-control study was created from donors to the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank (KTB) and from women diagnosed with BBD at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) who either subsequently developed cancer (BBD cases) or remained cancer-free (BBD controls). Serial tissue sections underwent immunostaining and digital quantification of cell number per mm 2 for CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages and quantification of positive pixel measure for CD11c (dendritic cells). Results: In 94 age-matched triplets, BBD lobules showed greater densities of CD8 + T cells, CD11c + dendritic cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages compared with KTB normals. Relative to BBD controls, BBD cases had lower CD20 + cell density ( P = 0.04). Nearly 42% of BBD cases had no CD20 + B cells in evaluated lobules compared with 28% of BBD controls ( P = 0.02). The absence of CD20 + cells versus the presence in all lobules showed an adjusted OR of 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-23.1) for subsequent breast cancer risk. Conclusions: Elevated infiltration of both innate and adaptive immune effectors in BBD tissues suggests an immunogenic microenvironment. The reduced B-cell infiltration in women with later breast cancer suggests a role for B cells in preventing disease progression and as a possible biomarker for breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3945-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Compositional alteration of polyimide under high fluence implantation by Co+ and Fe+ ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popok, V. N.; Khaibullin, R. I.; Tóth, A.; Beshliu, V.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Macková, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 532, - (2003), s. 1034-1039 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/01/1324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : ion implantation * radiation damage Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.063, year: 2003

  2. Altered humin compositions under organic and inorganic fertilization on an intensively cultivated sandy loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humin is the largest and also the least understood fraction of soil organic matter. The humin structure and its correlation with microbiological properties are particularly uncertain. We applied advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the structural chan...

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid supplementation alter rat skeletal muscle fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Sun-Young

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPAn-6 are highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, ≥ 20 carbons, ≥ 3 double bonds that differ by a single carbon-carbon double bond at the Δ19 position. Membrane 22:6n-3 may support skeletal muscle function through optimal ion pump activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and electron transport in the mitochondria. Typically n-3 fatty acid deficient feeding trials utilize linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA as a comparison group, possibly introducing a lower level of HUFA in addition to n-3 fatty acid deficiency. The use of 22:5n-6 as a dietary control is ideal for determining specific requirements for 22:6n-3 in various physiological processes. The incorporation of dietary 22:5n-6 into rat skeletal muscles has not been demonstrated previously. A one generation, artificial rearing model was utilized to supply 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 to rats from d2 after birth to adulthood. An n-3 fatty acid deficient, artificial milk with 18:2n-6 was supplemented with 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 resulting in four artificially reared (AR dietary groups; AR-LA, AR-DHA, AR-DPAn-6, AR-DHA+DPAn-6. A dam reared group (DAM was included as an additional control. Animals were sacrificed at 15 wks and soleus, white gastrocnemius and red gastrocnemius muscles were collected for fatty acid analyses. Results In all muscles of the DAM group, the concentration of 22:5n-6 was significantly lower than 22:6n-3 concentrations. While 22:5n-6 was elevated in the AR-LA group and the AR-DPAn-6 group, 20:4n-6 tended to be higher in the AR-LA muscles and not in the AR-DPAn-6 muscles. The AR-DHA+DPAn-6 had a slight, but non-significant increase in 22:5n-6 content. In the red gastrocnemius of the AR-DPAn-6 group, 22:5n-6 levels (8.1 ± 2.8 wt. % did not reciprocally replace the 22:6n-3 levels observed in AR-DHA reared rats (12.2 ± 2.3 wt. % suggesting a specific preference/requirement for 22:6n-3 in red gastrocnemius. Conclusion Dietary 22:5n-6 is incorporated into skeletal muscles and appears to largely compete with 22:6n-3 for incorporation into lipids. In contrast, 18:2n-6 feeding tends to result in elevations of 20:4n-6 and restrained increases of 22:5n-6. As such, 22:5n-6 dietary comparison groups may be useful in elucidating specific requirements for 22:6n-3 to support optimal health and disease prevention.

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid supplementation alter rat skeletal muscle fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Ken D; Lim, Sun-Young; Salem, Norman

    2007-04-25

    Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPAn-6) are highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, > or = 20 carbons, > or = 3 double bonds) that differ by a single carbon-carbon double bond at the Delta19 position. Membrane 22:6n-3 may support skeletal muscle function through optimal ion pump activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and electron transport in the mitochondria. Typically n-3 fatty acid deficient feeding trials utilize linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA) as a comparison group, possibly introducing a lower level of HUFA in addition to n-3 fatty acid deficiency. The use of 22:5n-6 as a dietary control is ideal for determining specific requirements for 22:6n-3 in various physiological processes. The incorporation of dietary 22:5n-6 into rat skeletal muscles has not been demonstrated previously. A one generation, artificial rearing model was utilized to supply 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 to rats from d2 after birth to adulthood. An n-3 fatty acid deficient, artificial milk with 18:2n-6 was supplemented with 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 resulting in four artificially reared (AR) dietary groups; AR-LA, AR-DHA, AR-DPAn-6, AR-DHA+DPAn-6. A dam reared group (DAM) was included as an additional control. Animals were sacrificed at 15 wks and soleus, white gastrocnemius and red gastrocnemius muscles were collected for fatty acid analyses. In all muscles of the DAM group, the concentration of 22:5n-6 was significantly lower than 22:6n-3 concentrations. While 22:5n-6 was elevated in the AR-LA group and the AR-DPAn-6 group, 20:4n-6 tended to be higher in the AR-LA muscles and not in the AR-DPAn-6 muscles. The AR-DHA+DPAn-6 had a slight, but non-significant increase in 22:5n-6 content. In the red gastrocnemius of the AR-DPAn-6 group, 22:5n-6 levels (8.1 +/- 2.8 wt. %) did not reciprocally replace the 22:6n-3 levels observed in AR-DHA reared rats (12.2 +/- 2.3 wt. %) suggesting a specific preference/requirement for 22:6n-3 in red gastrocnemius. Dietary 22:5n-6 is incorporated into skeletal muscles and appears to largely compete with 22:6n-3 for incorporation into lipids. In contrast, 18:2n-6 feeding tends to result in elevations of 20:4n-6 and restrained increases of 22:5n-6. As such, 22:5n-6 dietary comparison groups may be useful in elucidating specific requirements for 22:6n-3 to support optimal health and disease prevention.

  5. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lake, A.D.; Novák, Petr; Shipkova, P.; Aranibar, N.; Robertson, D.; Reily, M.D.; Lu, Z.; Lehman-McKeeman, L.D.; Cherrington, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 2 (2013), s. 132-140 ISSN 0041-008X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bile Acids * Liver * Metabolomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2013

  6. Biliary fibrosis associated with altered bile composition in a mouse model of erythropoietic protoporphyria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, L; Koopen, N R; Bloks, V; van Goor, Harry; Havinga, R; Wolthers, B G; Kramer, Werner; Stengelin, S; Müller, Michael; Kuipers, F; Jansen, P L

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Reduced activity of ferrochelatase in erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) results in protoporphyrin (PP) accumulation in erythrocytes and liver. Liver disease may occur in patients with EPP, some of whom develop progressive liver failure that necessitates transplantation. We

  7. Biliary fibrosis associated with altered bile composition in a mouse model of erythropoietic protoporphyria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, L.; Koopen, N. R.; Bloks, V.; van Goor, H.; Havinga, R.; Wolthers, B. G.; Kramer, W.; Stengelin, S.; Müller, M.; Kuipers, F.; Jansen, P. L.

    1999-01-01

    Reduced activity of ferrochelatase in erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) results in protoporphyrin (PP) accumulation in erythrocytes and liver. Liver disease may occur in patients with EPP, some of whom develop progressive liver failure that necessitates transplantation. We investigated the

  8. Lithium increases ammonium excretion leading to altered urinary acid-base buffer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepiccione, Francesco; Altobelli, Claudia; Capasso, Giovambattista; Christensen, Birgitte Mønster; Frische, Sebastian

    2017-11-24

    Previous reports identify a voltage dependent distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) secondary to lithium (Li + ) salt administration. This was based on the inability of Li + -treated patients to increase the urine-blood (U-B) pCO 2 when challenged with NaHCO 3 and, the ability of sodium neutral phosphate or Na 2 SO 4 administration to restore U-B pCO 2 in experimental animal models. The underlying mechanisms for the Li + -induced dRTA are still unknown. To address this point, a 7 days time course of the urinary acid-base parameters was investigated in rats challenged with LiCl, LiCitrate, NaCl, or NaCitrate. LiCl induced the largest polyuria and a mild metabolic acidosis. Li + -treatment induced a biphasic response. In the first 2 days, proper urine volume and acidification occurred, while from the 3rd day of treatment, polyuria developed progressively. In this latter phase, the LiCl-treated group progressively excreted more NH 4 + and less pCO 2 , suggesting that NH 3 /NH 4 + became the main urinary buffer. This physiological parameter was corroborated by the upregulation of NBCn1 (a marker of increased ammonium recycling) in the inner stripe of outer medulla of LiCl treated rats. Finally, by investigating NH 4 + excretion in ENaC-cKO mice, a model resistant to Li + -induced polyuria, a primary role of the CD was confirmed. By definition, dRTA is characterized by deficient urinary ammonium excretion. Our data question the presence of a voltage-dependent Li + -induced dRTA in rats treated with LiCl for 7 days and the data suggest that the alkaline urine pH induced by NH 3 /NH 4 + as the main buffer has lead to the interpretation dRTA in previous studies.

  9. CO2alters community composition of freshwater phytoplankton: A microcosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoli; Li, Shengnan; Wei, Lijun; Qin, Boqiang; Brookes, Justin D

    2017-12-31

    The effects of CO 2 and related changes in water carbonate chemistry on freshwater phytoplankton were studied in in situ microcosm experiments, performed in East Lake Taihu, in August 2013 and April 2014, respectively. The microcosm treatments represented low (270ppm), present (380ppm), and high (750ppm) pCO 2 conditions. Elevated CO 2 decreased pH and increased aqueous CO 2 concentrations, and did not change alkalinity. The maximum reduction of pH was 0.26 when CO 2 increased from current level to 750ppm at the ending of experiment in the spring. The rise of pCO 2 stimulated the growth of phytoplankton, and the net primary production could increase by 35% when CO 2 was elevated from current level to 750ppm in summer. Interestingly, our results indicated that increasing pCO 2 affected phytoplankton community structure in the microcosms. Cyanobacteria tended to be superior under high pCO 2 , with two species Anabaena circinalis and Anabaena eucompacta benefitting from the rising pCO 2 . The response of chlorophytes and diatoms to the rise of pCO 2 depended on taxa. In contrast, increased CO 2 did not change biomass or productivity of phytoplankton in spring, when biomass was relatively low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterogeneous responses to ozone and nitrogen alter the species composition of Mediterranean annual pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete-Sogo, H; González-Fernández, I; Sanz, J; Elvira, S; Alonso, R; García-Gómez, H; Ibáñez-Ruiz, M A; Bermejo-Bermejo, V

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution represents a threat to biodiversity throughout the world and particularly in the Mediterranean area, where high tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are frequently recorded. Mediterranean annual pastures are among the most important ecosystems in southern Europe due to their high biodiversity and extension. Aiming to study the responses of these communities to the main atmospheric pollutants in the Mediterranean region, an experimental study was performed in an open-top chamber (OTC) facility. A mixture of six species representative of annual pastures was grown under field conditions inside the OTC. Plants were exposed for 39 days to four O3 treatments and three doses of N. The species responded heterogeneously to both factors. Legumes did not react to N but were very sensitive to O3: Trifolium species responded negatively, while Ornithopus responded positively, taking advantage of the greater sensitivity of clovers to O3. The grasses and the herb were more tolerant of O3 and grasses were the most responsive to N. Significant interactions between factors indicated a loss of effectiveness of N in O3-polluted atmospheres and an ability of O3 to counterbalance the damage induced by N input, but both effects were dependent on O3 and N levels. The inclusion of plant competition in the experimental design was necessary to reveal results that would otherwise be missed, such as the positive growth responses under elevated O3 levels. Surprisingly, competition within the legume family played the most important role in the overall response of the annual community to O3. Both tropospheric O3 and N deposition should be considered important drivers of the structure and biodiversity of Mediterranean annual pastures.

  11. Serum-free culture alters the quantity and protein composition of neuroblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jinghuan; Lee, Yi; Johansson, Henrik J; Mäger, Imre; Vader, Pieter; Nordin, Joel Z; Wiklander, Oscar P B; Lehtiö, Janne; Wood, Matthew J A; Andaloussi, Samir El

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a significant role in cell-cell communication in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, and offer promise as novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for genetic diseases. Many recent studies have described different molecular mechanisms that

  12. Serum-free culture alters the quantity and protein composition of neuroblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jinghuan; Lee, Yi; Johansson, Henrik J; Mäger, Imre; Vader, Pieter; Nordin, Joel Z; Wiklander, Oscar P B; Lehtiö, Janne; Wood, Matthew J A; Andaloussi, Samir El

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a significant role in cell–cell communication in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, and offer promise as novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for genetic diseases. Many recent studies have described different molecular mechanisms that contribute to EV biogenesis and release from cells. However, little is known about how external stimuli such as cell culture conditions can affect the quantity and content of EVs. While N2a neurobla...

  13. Diet composition alters the satiety effect of cholecystokinin in lean and obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, C A; Haraczkiewicz, E; Vasselli, J R

    1988-01-01

    Although exogenous administration of the peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) has been shown to reduce food intake in a variety of experimental situations, few studies have examined the influence of dietary content upon CCK's effectiveness, particularly in obese states. To evaluate the effectiveness of CCK administration in animals consuming high fat diets, groups of obese and lean Zucker rats were maintained on laboratory chow (CH), a high fat diet isocaloric to chow (IF), or a hypercaloric fat diet (HF). After a 17 hr fast, rats were given intraperitoneal injections of saline or ascending doses of 0.06 to 2.0 micrograms/kg of the synthetic octapeptide of CCK. On all diets, obese rats required higher doses of CCK to significantly reduce feeding and showed smaller intake reductions than lean rats (p less than 0.001). Despite higher baseline caloric intakes (p less than 0.001), rats of both genotypes maintained on HF displayed larger reductions of intake than those fed IF or CH (p less than 0.001). Intake reductions by either genotype maintained on IF or CH were not reliably different. The manner in which the satiety effect of CCK was enhanced in rats consuming the calorically dense, palatable HF diet is unclear but may be related to orosensory and/or postingestive attributes of the diet.

  14. Altered Protein Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gertow

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: These findings demonstrate that adipose tissue of CKD patients shows signs of inflammation and disturbed functionality, thus potentially contributing to the unfavorable metabolic profile and increased risk of CVD in these patients.

  15. Postnatal events in intestinal gene expression and splenic cell composition is altered in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that colonisation pattern of the gut in the early postnatal period is highly correlated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have recently shown that colonization in SPF mice accelerates gut maturation and that at postnatal day (PND) 1, in comparison with germ...... free mice, certain chemokines, including Cxcl2 encoding macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and involved in attraction of neutrophils was downregulated in the gut epithelium. The non-obese diabetes (NOD) mouse is widely used as a model for studying the pathogenesis of T1D. The neonatal gut...... microbiota seems to play an important role in the development and control of T1D. We hypothesized that NOD mice in the perinatal period respond differently than mice not prone to develop T1D (C57/Bl6), and we investigated the differences in postnatal expression of genes in gut, spleen, liver and pancreas...

  16. Elevated carbon dioxide alters the plasma composition and behaviour of a shark

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Leon; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Increased carbon emissions from fossil fuels are increasing the pCO2 of the ocean surface waters in a process called ocean acidification. Elevated water pCO2 can induce physiological and behavioural effects in teleost fishes, although there appear to be large differences in sensitivity between species. There is currently no information available on the possible responses to future ocean acidification in elasmobranch fishes. We exposed small-spotted catsharks (Scyliorhinus canicula) to either ...

  17. HIV lipodystrophy etiology and pathogenesis. Body composition and metabolic alterations: etiology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Donald P

    2003-04-01

    The results of epidemiologic investigations have clearly indicated that the development of lipodystrophy is multifactorial. Factors related to HIV infection, hormonal influences, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytokine activation related to immune reconstitution, and individual genetic predisposition all have been hypothesized as etiologic. Recent studies suggest that immune dysregulation rather than HIV infection per se may be the predominant factor in the development of lipodystrophy.

  18. Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: the altered auditory feedback paradigm and the glove effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF in musician's dystonia (MD and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004. Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in synchrony with a metronome on a MIDI-piano with 3 auditory feedback conditions: 1. normal feedback; 2. no feedback; 3. constant delayed feedback. Experiment 2 employs synchronization-continuation paradigm: 12 MD patients and 12 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in two phases: first in synchrony with a metronome, secondly continue the established tempo without the metronome. There are 4 experimental conditions, among them 3 are the same altered auditory feedback as in Experiment 1 and 1 is related to altered tactile sensory input. The coefficient of variation of inter-onset intervals of the key depressions was calculated to evaluate fine motor control. Results: In both experiments, the healthy controls and the patients behaved very similarly. There is no difference in the regularity of playing between the two groups under any condition, and neither did AAF nor did altered tactile feedback have a beneficial effect on patients’ fine motor control. Conclusions: The results of the two experiments suggest that in the context of our experimental designs, AAF and altered tactile feedback play a minor role in motor coordination in patients with musicians' dystonia. We propose that altered auditory and tactile feedback do not serve as effective sensory tricks and may not temporarily reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from MD in this experimental context.

  19. Respiratory Disease following Viral Lung Infection Alters the Murine Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen T. Groves

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have profound effects on human health. Consequently, there is great interest in identifying, characterizing, and understanding factors that initiate these changes. Despite their high prevalence, studies have only recently begun to investigate how viral lung infections have an impact on the gut microbiota. There is also considerable interest in whether the gut microbiota could be manipulated during vaccination to improve efficacy. In this highly controlled study, we aimed to establish the effect of viral lung infection on gut microbiota composition and the gut environment using mouse models of common respiratory pathogens respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and influenza virus. This was then compared to the effect of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV vaccination. Both RSV and influenza virus infection resulted in significantly altered gut microbiota diversity, with an increase in Bacteroidetes and a concomitant decrease in Firmicutes phyla abundance. Although the increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was consistent across several experiments, differences were observed at the family and operational taxonomic unit level. This suggests a change in gut conditions after viral lung infection that favors Bacteroidetes outgrowth but not individual families. No change in gut microbiota composition was observed after LAIV vaccination, suggesting that the driver of gut microbiota change is specific to live viral infection. Viral lung infections also resulted in an increase in fecal lipocalin-2, suggesting low-grade gut inflammation, and colonic Muc5ac levels. Owing to the important role that mucus plays in the gut environment, this may explain the changes in microbiota composition observed. This study demonstrates that the gut microbiota and the gut environment are altered following viral lung infections and that these changes are not observed during vaccination. Whether increased mucin levels and gut

  20. Respiratory Disease following Viral Lung Infection Alters the Murine Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Helen T.; Cuthbertson, Leah; James, Phillip; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Cox, Michael J.; Tregoning, John S.

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have profound effects on human health. Consequently, there is great interest in identifying, characterizing, and understanding factors that initiate these changes. Despite their high prevalence, studies have only recently begun to investigate how viral lung infections have an impact on the gut microbiota. There is also considerable interest in whether the gut microbiota could be manipulated during vaccination to improve efficacy. In this highly controlled study, we aimed to establish the effect of viral lung infection on gut microbiota composition and the gut environment using mouse models of common respiratory pathogens respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus. This was then compared to the effect of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccination. Both RSV and influenza virus infection resulted in significantly altered gut microbiota diversity, with an increase in Bacteroidetes and a concomitant decrease in Firmicutes phyla abundance. Although the increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was consistent across several experiments, differences were observed at the family and operational taxonomic unit level. This suggests a change in gut conditions after viral lung infection that favors Bacteroidetes outgrowth but not individual families. No change in gut microbiota composition was observed after LAIV vaccination, suggesting that the driver of gut microbiota change is specific to live viral infection. Viral lung infections also resulted in an increase in fecal lipocalin-2, suggesting low-grade gut inflammation, and colonic Muc5ac levels. Owing to the important role that mucus plays in the gut environment, this may explain the changes in microbiota composition observed. This study demonstrates that the gut microbiota and the gut environment are altered following viral lung infections and that these changes are not observed during vaccination. Whether increased mucin levels and gut inflammation drive

  1. Frictional Behavior of Altered Basement Approaching the Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Rooney, T. O.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    The frictional behavior of basement rocks plays an important role in subduction zone faulting and seismicity. This includes earthquakes seaward of the trench, large megathrust earthquakes where seamounts are subducting, or where the plate interface steps down to basement. In exhumed subduction zone rocks such as the Shimanto complex in Japan, slivers of basalt are entrained in mélange which is evidence of basement involvement in the fault system. Scientific drilling during the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) recovered basement rock from two reference sites (C0011 and C0012) located seaward of the trench offshore the Kii Peninsula during Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 322 and 333. The basement rocks are pillow basalts that appear to be heterogeneously altered, resulting in contrasting dense blue material and more vesicular gray material. Major element geochemistry shows differences in silica, calcium oxides and loss-on-ignition between the two types of samples. Minor element geochemistry reveals significant differences in vanadium, chromium, and barium. X-ray diffraction on a bulk sample powder representing an average composition shows a phyllosilicate content of 20%, most of which is expandable clays. We performed laboratory friction experiments in a biaxial testing apparatus as either intact sample blocks, or as gouge powders. We combine these experiments with measurements of Pennsylvania slate for comparison, including a mixed-lithology intact block experiment. Intact Nankai basement blocks exhibit a coefficient of sliding friction of 0.73; for Nankai basement powder, slate powder, slate blocks and slate-on-basement blocks the coefficient of sliding friction ranges from 0.44 to 0.57. At slip rates ranging from 3x10-8 to 3x10-4 m/s we observe predominantly velocity-strengthening frictional behavior, indicating a tendency for stable slip. At rates of < 1x10-6 m/s some velocity-weakening was observed, specifically in

  2. Ocean acidification alters fish–jellyfish symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pitt, Kylie A.; Rutte, Melchior D.; Geertsma, Robbert C.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships are common in nature, and are important for individual fitness and sustaining species populations. Global change is rapidly altering environmental conditions, but, with the exception of coral–microalgae interactions, we know little of how this will affect symbiotic relationships. We here test how the effects of ocean acidification, from rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, may alter symbiotic interactions between juvenile fish and their jellyfish hosts. Fishes treated with elevated seawater CO2 concentrations, as forecast for the end of the century on a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario, were negatively affected in their behaviour. The total time that fish (yellowtail scad) spent close to their jellyfish host in a choice arena where they could see and smell their host was approximately three times shorter under future compared with ambient CO2 conditions. Likewise, the mean number of attempts to associate with jellyfish was almost three times lower in CO2-treated compared with control fish, while only 63% (high CO2) versus 86% (control) of all individuals tested initiated an association at all. By contrast, none of three fish species tested were attracted solely to jellyfish olfactory cues under present-day CO2 conditions, suggesting that the altered fish–jellyfish association is not driven by negative effects of ocean acidification on olfaction. Because shelter is not widely available in the open water column and larvae of many (and often commercially important) pelagic species associate with jellyfish for protection against predators, modification of the fish–jellyfish symbiosis might lead to higher mortality and alter species population dynamics, and potentially have flow-on effects for their fisheries. PMID:27358374

  3. Silychristin: Skeletal Alterations and Biological Activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Buchta, M.; Holečková, Veronika; Sedlák, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Cvačka, Josef; Bednárová, Lucie; Křenková, Alena; Kuzma, Marek; Škuta, Ctibor; Peikerová, Žaneta; Bartůněk, Petr; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 12 (2016), s. 3086-3092 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27317A; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Silychristin * skeletal alterations * biological activities Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2016

  4. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  5. Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Pollard, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of cancer-associated mutations in genes encoding key metabolic enzymes has provided a direct link between altered metabolism and cancer. Advances in mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance technologies have facilitated high-resolution metabolite profiling of cells and tumors and identified the accumulation of metabolites associated with specific gene defects. Here we review the potential roles of such “oncometabolites” in tumor evolution and as clinical biomarkers for the detection of cancers characterized by metabolic dysregulation. PMID:23999438

  6. Alterations of brain activity in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaddiruk, Passakorn; Paiboonworachat, Sahattaya; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients. Nevertheless, due to few studies, limited knowledge for alterations in brain activities in fibromyalgia is currently available. In this review, the changes in brain activity in various brain areas obtained from reports in fibromyalgia patients are comprehensively summarized. Changes of the grey matter in multiple regions such as the superior temporal gyrus, posterior thalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, SII, caudate and putamen from the MRI as well as the increase of brain activities in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, somatosensory cortex, insula in fMRI studies are presented and discussed. Moreover, evidence from pharmacological interventions offering benefits for fibromyalgia patients by reducing brain activity is presented. Because of limited knowledge regarding the roles of brain activity alterations in fibromyalgia, this summarized review will encourage more future studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the brains of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracellular matrix alterations in the Peyronie's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Marcelo Silva; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachel; Coelho, Natália Lima; Mendes, Aline; Leonel, Monica Luzia Pereira; Mader, Ana Maria; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Glina, Sidney; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2017-07-01

    Peyronie's disease is characterized by fibrous plaque formation of the tunica albuginea, causing penile deformity and fertility problems. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in the extracellular matrix in Peyronie's disease. The study used tissues collected by surgical procedure from individuals that presented a well-established disease, while control samples were obtained by biopsies of fresh cadavers. Immunohistochemistry analysis followed by digital quantification was performed to evaluate TGF-β, heparanases and metalloproteinases (MMPs). The profile of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis, while hyaluronic acid quantification was obtained by an ELISA-like assay. The expression of mRNA was investigated for syndecan-1 proteoglycan (Syn-1), interleukine-6 (IL-6), hyaluronic acid synthases, and hyaluronidases. Pathologic features showed decreased apoptosis and blood vessel number in Peyronie's tissues. TGF-β and IL-6 were significantly enhanced in Peyronie's disease. There was an increased expression of heparanases, though no alteration was observed for MMPs. Hyaluronic acid as well as hyaluronic acid synthases, hyaluronidases, and dermatan sulfate were not changed, while the level of chondroitin sulfate was significantly ( P  = 0.008, Mann-Whitney test) increased in Peyronie's samples. Heparanases and sulfated glycosaminoglycans seem to be involved in extracellular matrix alterations in Peyronie's disease.

  8. Aeroparticles, composition and lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ivan Falcon-Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution is a serious worldwide problem due to its impact on human health. In the past sixty years, growing evidence established a correlation between exposure to air pollutants and the developing of severe respiratory diseases. Recently Particulate matter (PM is drawing more public attention to various aspects including historical backgrounds, physicochemical characteristics and its pathological role. Therefore, this review is focused on these aspects. The most famous air pollution disaster happened in London on December 1952; it has been calculated that more than 4000 deaths occurred during this event. Air pollution is a complex mix of gases and particles. Gaseous pollutants disseminate deeply into the alveoli, allowing its diffusion through the blood-air barrier to several organs. Meanwhile, PM is a mix of solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. PM is deposited at different levels of the respiratory tract, depending on its size: Coarse particles (PM10 in upper airways and fine particles (PM2.5 can be accumulated in the lung parenchyma, inducing several respiratory diseases. Additionally to size, the composition of particulate matter has been associated with different toxicological outcomes on clinical, epidemiological, as well as in vivo and in vitro animal and human studies. PM can be constituted by organic, inorganic and biological compounds. All these compounds are capable of modifying several biological activities including alterations in cytokine production, coagulation factors balance, pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and cardiac function. It can also generate different modifications during its passage through the airways, like inflammatory cells recruitment, with the release of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS. These inflammatory mediators can activate different pathways such as MAP-kinases, NF-B, and stat-1, or induce DNA adducts. All these alterations can mediate obstructive or restrictive

  9. Effects of magnesium minerals representative of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay-stone on borosilicate glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debure, M.

    2012-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses dissolution has been studied in presence of magnesium minerals. Those minerals (dolomite, illite, smectite...) belong to the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay-stone layer, studied in France as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal. Such minerals contain magnesium, an element able to sustain glass alteration when it is available in solution. In the confined media of the wastes disposal, the solids reactivity controls the solution composition and can be the driving force of nuclear glass alteration. Experiments show that magnesium carbonates (hydro-magnesite and dolomite) increase in the glass alteration: the precipitation of magnesium silicates consumes silicon which slows down the formation of the glass passivating layer. The lower the magnesium mineral solubility, the lower the glass alteration. The purified clay phases (illite, smectite...) from the COx layer increase the glass alteration. Half the magnesium was replaced by sodium during the purification process. In such conditions, the effect of clay phases on glass alteration is in part due to the acidic pH-buffering effect of the clay fraction. The GRAAL model implemented in the geochemical transport code HYTEC has confirmed and quantified the mechanisms put in evidence in the experiments. Cells diffusion experiments where the two solids were separated by an inert diffusion barrier allow to valid reactive transport modelling. Such experiments are more representative of the glass package which will be separated from the COx by corrosion products. They show that glass alteration rate is reduced when solids are not close. (author) [fr

  10. The Mars Orbital Catalog of Hydrated Alteration Signatures (MOCHAS): keeping track of ancient Mars's blanketing aqueous alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John

    2016-04-01

    The orbital and in-situ analysis of aqueous minerals on Mars is a recent research field which has given new momentum to the search for past life on Mars. These minerals, if found in preserved geologic contexts, also have the potential to decipher the past climatic conditions of Early Mars and probe its geological evolution. Despite terabytes of data and refined observations accumulated for over a decade, progress in those fields has been tedious. The highly degraded morphologic context, intrinsic limitations of orbital spectroscopy and highly localized nature of in-situ missions are major issues. Many highly detailed geological studies have been carried out at tens of locations on Mars, which have somewhat refined the global paradigm proposed in [Bibring et al., 2006], but no consensus exists as to the timing for the bulk of alteration (Pre/Noachian to LN/EH) nor the state of the water (meteoritic, climate mediated; or dominantly closed-system). In practice, the paucity of clear trends noticeable from the large datasets of near-infrared instruments (OMEGA, CRISM) has hampered efforts to test specific, global-scale alteration hypotheses. Other major fields of Mars research have tackled this issue by providing comprehensive databases with controlled biases, such as for channel networks, open-basin paleo-lakes or anhydrous chloride salts. Here we propose to apply the same approach to the OMEGA and CRISM datasets by providing a global and detailed compositional map of aqueous minerals on Mars. This catalog (MOCHAS) has several goals: i) provide for the first time a statistically viable approach to aqueous mineral detections on Mars, ii) provide regional context to help interpret and broaden the implications of numerous local-scale studies, iii) identify previously un-observed deposits of minerals of interest coupled to a well-preserved geologic context, iv) identify new candidate landing sites for future rovers and foster complementary/higher-resolution observations

  11. Properties of CMR composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) composites form an interesting field of study. The intrinsic CMR ... salient features of the results. Keywords. Manganites; colossal magnetoresistance; composites. 1. ..... susceptibility measurement (done by a Quantum Design MPMS 7 SQUID magnetometer) shows (figure not shown) the ...

  12. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  13. Composite Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    In this chapter, we extend the previous results of Chap. 2 to the more general case of composite finite sums. We describe what composite finite sums are and how their analysis can be reduced to the analysis of simple finite sums using the chain rule. We apply these techniques, next, on numerical integration and on some identities of Ramanujan.

  14. POLYPHENOL CONTAINING COMPOSITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Metselaar, J.M.; Storm, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising polyphenol in the interior of a colloidal carrier, and especially to the use of such compositions in the treatment of cancer or in the inhibition of cancer growth and in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. More

  15. Radiolabelled sucralfate compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, T.E.; Bridges, R.L.; Braunstein, P.; Jansholt, A.

    1984-01-01

    A novel radiopharmaceutical composition comprising an aqueous solution or suspension containing a radiolabelled sucralfate or sucralfate derivative or precursor is claimed. The composition is effective for in vivo scintigraphic imaging of the gastrointestinal muscosal areas in humans. The sucralfate is combined with a radiolabelled albumin or other protein or protein derivative under acidic conditions

  16. Students design composite bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.; Galjaard, J.C.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of recent research on steel-concrete composite bridge design by students of Delft University of Technology doing their master's thesis. Primary objective of this research was to find possibilities for application of steel-concrete composite bridges in the Netherlands,

  17. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  18. Development of Nanoplatelet Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, H. T; Choi, O; Wang, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    ... do. The properties discussed include modulus, strength, fracture toughness, adhesive strength, thermal and electrical conductivities, and dielectric constants. Methods of further exfoliating graphite nanoplatelets are discussed together with the associated benefits on composite properties. Potential applications of graphite nanoplatelet composites are presented to conclude the report.

  19. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  20. Stream hydrological fragmentation drives bacterioplankton community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Fazi

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean intermittent streams, the hydrological fragmentation in summer and the successive water flow re-convergence in autumn allow exploring how local processes shape the microbial community within the same habitat. The objectives of this study were to determine how bacterial community composition responded to hydrological fragmentation in summer, and to evaluate whether the seasonal shifts in community composition predominate over the effects of episodic habitat fragmentation. The bacterial community was assessed along the intermittent stream Fuirosos (Spain, at different levels of phylogenetic resolution by in situ hybridization, fingerprinting, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The hydrological fragmentation of the stream network strongly altered the biogeochemical conditions with the depletion of oxidized solutes and caused changes in dissolved organic carbon characteristics. In the isolated ponds, beta-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria increased their abundance with a gradual reduction of the alpha-diversity as pond isolation time increased. Moreover, fingerprinting analysis clearly showed a shift in community composition between summer and autumn. In the context of a seasonal shift, the temporary stream fragmentation simultaneously reduced the microbial dispersion and affected local environmental conditions (shift in redox regime and quality of the dissolved organic matter tightly shaping the bacterioplankton community composition.