WorldWideScience

Sample records for alters pulmonary structure

  1. Pulmonary alterations in Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aims to demonstrate pulmonary alterations (PA) in patients with Behcet's disease by using CT. Materials and methods: CTs of 50 patients with Behcet's disease and 20 others in a control group have been evaluated retrospectively for PA (septal, reticular, nodular, atelectatic opacities). Results: Eight out of 50 patients (16%) with Behcet's disease showed PA. Three out of 20 (15%) in the control group showed PA. No differences were observed between Behcet's disease patients and the control group regarding pulmonary alterations (p = 0.917). No differences were observed in the disease duration, ages and sex in either group in those with and without PA. Conclusion: Pulmonary alterations can be seen in patients with Behcet's disease, but these alterations are not significant.

  2. Neonatal hyperoxia alters the pulmonary alveolar and capillary structure of 40-day-old rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Randell, S. H.; Mercer, R.R.; Young, S L

    1990-01-01

    High inspired oxygen concentrations during the neonatal period profoundly inhibit rat lung development, an effect that is partly reversed during recovery in air. Persistent effects of neonatal hyperoxia on the size and number of alveoli or the structure of pulmonary capillaries have not been well defined. Using light and electron microscopic morphometry plus quantitative three-dimensional reconstructions of alveoli, we examined the lungs of 40-day-old rats that were exposed to more than 95% o...

  3. Regional structural and biomechanical alterations of the ovine main pulmonary artery during postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fata, Bahar; Carruthers, Christopher A; Gibson, Gregory; Watkins, Simon C; Gottlieb, Danielle; Mayer, John E; Sacks, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    The engineering foundation for novel approaches for the repair of congenital defects that involve the main pulmonary artery (PA) must rest on an understanding of changes in the structure-function relationship that occur during postnatal maturation. In the present study, we quantified the postnatal growth patterns in structural and biomechanical behavior in the ovine PA in the juvenile and adult stages. The biaxial mechanical properties and collagen and elastin fiber architecture were studied in four regions of the PA wall, with the collagen recruitment of the medial region analyzed using a custom biaxial mechanical-multiphoton microscopy system. Circumferential residual strain was also quantified at the sinotubular junction and bifurcation locations, which delimit the PA. The PA wall demonstrated significant mechanical anisotropy, except in the posterior region where it was nearly isotropic. Overall, we observed only moderate changes in regional mechanical properties with growth. We did observe that the medial and lateral locations experience a moderate increase in anisotropy. There was an average of about 24% circumferential residual stain present at the luminal surface in the juvenile stage that decreased to 16% in the adult stage with a significant decrease at the bifurcation, implying that the PA wall remodels toward the bifurcation with growth. There were no measurable changes in collagen and elastin content of the tunica media with growth. On average, the collagen fiber recruited more rapidly with strain in the adult compared to the juvenile. Interestingly, the PA thickness remained constant with growth. When this fact is combined with the observed stable overall mechanical behavior and increase in vessel diameter with growth, a simple Laplace Law wall stress estimate suggests an increase in effective PA wall stress with postnatal maturation. This observation is contrary to the accepted theory of maintenance of homeostatic stress levels in the regulation of

  4. Alteration in pulmonary perfusion due to iatrogenic pulmonary vein stenosis: A mimicker of pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ostwani, Wesam; Arabi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Iatrogenic pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a known, yet rare, complication of atrial radiofrequency ablation. Alterations in pulmonary perfusion may mimic massive pulmonary embolism on a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy. This is particularly important due to the overlap in presenting clinical symptoms. The present case illustrates the functional significance of PVS and the changes in perfusion in response to angioplasty.

  5. Alteration of pulmonary function in diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiee, Gita; Khamseh, Mohammad E.; Rezaei, Nader; Aghili, Rokhsareh; MALEK, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide with an alarming rate. It is associated with the development of various chronic complications. The aim of this study was to explore the alteration of pulmonary function, and its association with renal complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on three groups; 40 diabetic subjects without nephropathy (urinary albumin300 mg/day) .Diabetic subjects were matched to the control...

  6. Reconciling paradigms of abnormal pulmonary blood flow and quasi-malignant cellular alterations in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, C M; Szulcek, R; Voelkel, N F; Bogaard, H J

    2016-08-01

    In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) structural and functional abnormalities of the small lung vessels interact and lead to a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure. A current pathobiological concept characterizes PAH as a 'quasi-malignant' disease focusing on cancer-like alterations in endothelial cells (EC) and the importance of their acquired apoptosis-resistant, hyper-proliferative phenotype in the process of vascular remodeling. While changes in pulmonary blood flow (PBF) have been long-since recognized and linked to the development of PAH, little is known about a possible relationship between an altered PBF and the quasi-malignant cell phenotype in the pulmonary vascular wall. This review summarizes recognized and hypothetical effects of an abnormal PBF on the pulmonary vascular bed and links these to quasi-malignant changes found in the pulmonary endothelium. Here we describe that abnormal PBF does not only trigger a pulmonary vascular cell growth program, but may also maintain the cancer-like phenotype of the endothelium. Consequently, normalization of PBF and EC response to abnormal PBF may represent a treatment strategy in patients with established PAH. PMID:26804008

  7. Radiodiagnosis of pulmonary alterations in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray examination was carried out in 170 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Certain parameters of specific immunity were studied in 60 of them, while X-ray data were compared with morphological findings on autopsy in 20 cases. A tendency toward escalation of specific cell and humoral parameters was discovered in pulmonary lesion, predetermined by vasculitis and perivasculitis, as well as inflammatory and fibrotic alterations in the interstitial tissue

  8. Molecular mechanisms of hypoxia-inducible factor-induced pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell alterations in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veith, Christine; Schermuly, Ralph T; Brandes, Ralf P; Weissmann, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen (O2) is essential for the viability and function of most metazoan organisms and thus is closely monitored at both the organismal and the cellular levels. However, alveoli often encounter decreased O2 levels (hypoxia), leading to activation of physiological or pathophysiological responses in the pulmonary arteries. Such changes are achieved by activation of transcription factors. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are the most prominent hypoxia-regulated transcription factors in this regard. HIFs bind to hypoxia-response elements (HREs) in the promoter region of target genes, whose expression and translation allows the organism, amongst other factors, to cope with decreased environmental O2 partial pressure (pO2). However, prolonged HIF activation can contribute to major structural alterations, especially in the lung, resulting in the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH is characterized by a rise in pulmonary arterial pressure associated with pulmonary arterial remodelling, concomitant with a reduced intravascular lumen area. Patients with PH develop right heart hypertrophy and eventually die from right heart failure. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms of HIF regulation in PH is critical for the identification of novel therapeutic strategies. This review addresses the relationship of hypoxia and the HIF system with pulmonary arterial dysfunction in PH. We particularly focus on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the HIF-driven pathophysiological processes. PMID:26228924

  9. Alteration of biophysical activity of pulmonary surfactant by aluminosilicate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondej, Dorota; Sosnowski, Tomasz R

    2013-02-01

    The influence of five different types of aluminosilicate nanoparticles (NPs) on the dynamic surface activity of model pulmonary surfactant (PS) (Survanta) was studied experimentally using oscillating bubble tensiometry. Bentonite, halloysite and montmorillonite (MM) NPs, which are used as fillers of polymer composites, were characterized regarding the size distribution, morphology and surface area. Particle doses applied in the studies were estimated based on the inhalation rate and duration, taking into account the expected aerosol concentration and deposition efficiency after penetration of NPs into the alveolar region. The results indicate that aluminosilicate NPs at concentrations in the pulmonary liquid above 0.1 mg cm(-3) are capable of promoting alterations of the original dynamic biophysical activity of the PS. This effect is indicated by deviation of the minimum surface tension, stability index and the size of surface tension hysteresis. Such response is dependent on the type of NPs present in the system and is stronger when particle concentration increases. It is suggested that interactions between NPs and the PS must be related to the surfactant adsorption on the suspended particles, while in the case of surface-modified clay NPs the additional washout of surface-active components may be expected. It is speculated that observed changes in surface properties of the surfactant may be associated with undesired health effects following extensive inhalation of aluminosilicate NPs in the workplace. PMID:23363039

  10. Pleural and pulmonary alterations caused by rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary complications caused by rheumatoid arthritis are a clinically relevant aspect of this chronic arthropathy. This article reviews pulmonary abnormalities induced by rheumatoid arthritis and their clinical and radiological findings. In addition, the role of different imaging modalities in the diagnostic work-up of pulmonary complications caused by rheumatoid arthritis is discussed. (orig./MG)

  11. Pulmonary vascular-bronchial interactions: acute reduction in pulmonary blood flow alters lung mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze-Neick, I; Penny, D; Derrick, G; Dhillon, R; Rigby, M.; Kelleher, A.; Bush, A; Redington, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Postoperative pulmonary hypertension in children after congenital heart surgery is a risk factor for death and is associated with severe acute changes in both pulmonary vascular resistance and lung mechanics.
OBJECTIVE—To examine the impact of changes in pulmonary blood flow on lung mechanics in preoperative children with congenital heart disease, in order to assess the cause-effect relation of pulmonary vascular-bronchial interactions.
DESIGN—Prospective, cross sectional study.
SE...

  12. Small pulmonary vascular alteration and acute exacerbations of COPD: quantitative computed tomography analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyue; Chen, Xuesong; Liu, Kouying; Xie, Weiping; Wang, Hong; Wei, Yongyue; Tang, Lijun; Zhu, Yinsu

    2016-01-01

    The morphologic alterations of pulmonary small vessels measured by computed tomography (CT) have been used to evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between small pulmonary vascular alteration and acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessel alterations measured on CT images and investigate its relationship with the COPD severity staged by the degree of airflow limitation and the occurrence of AECOPD. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans, clinical characteristics, and pulmonary function test results of 153 patients with COPD. All the patients were divided into AECOPD and non-AECOPD group according to the COPD staging and pulmonary function test results. The percentages of the total CSA less than 5 mm2 and equal to 5–10 mm2 over the lung area (%CSA<5 and %CSA5–10, respectively) were measured. The %CSA<5 steadily decreased in relation to the increase of COPD severity. In addition, %CSA<5 of the AECOPD group was significantly lower than that of the non-AECOPD group (0.41±0.13 versus 0.68±0.18, P<0.001), and the optimal cutoff value was 0.56 (sensitivity, 0.863; specificity, 0.731). Therefore, small pulmonary vascular alteration, as measured by %CSA<5, could indicate not only the degree of COPD severity, but also the occurrence of AECOPD. PMID:27578971

  13. Alterations of pulmonary defense mechanisms by protein depletion diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakab, G J; Warr, G A; Astry, C L

    1981-01-01

    Pulmonary defense mechanisms were quantitated in mice that were fed a protein-free diet (PFD) for periods of 2 and 3 weeks. Despite the severe weight loss and emaciation induced by the diet, the bactericidal mechanisms in their lungs were preserved against aerogenic challenges with staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Listeria monocytogenes. Phagocytic assays of alveolar macrophages that were retrieved by pulmonary lavage from PFD-fed animals showed a decrease in Fc receptor-mediated...

  14. Alteration of pulmonary blood flow in tetralogy of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulmonary blood distribution was examined in 17 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) pre and postoperatively with macroaggregates of 99mTC-labeled human serum albumin. Most of the patients with TOF demonstrated an abnormal preoperative distribution pattern. The abnormalities included not only an unbalanced distribution between the right and left lungs but also a maldistribution of peripheral vessels in each lung. The right/left lung counts ratio and pulmonary peripheral index (calculated in order to express the severity of peripheral maldistribution) correlated neither to the diameter nor the cross-sectional area of either right or left pulmonary arteries which were measured angiographically. Postoperatively, the pulmonary blood was shunted toward the developed side of the lung which further contributed to maldistribution of blood flow and unbalanced pulmonary growth. Since the patients with an unbalanced pulmonary blood distribution demonstrated a higher right ventricular pressure one year after the operation, a palliative operation facilitating the growth of the underdeveloped side of the lung might be considered as an effective procedure to precede intracardiac repair. (author)

  15. Alterations in the alveolar epithelium after injury leading to pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kasper, M; Haroske, G.

    1996-01-01

    This review discusses current knowledge of the involvement of the alveolar epithelium in tissue remodelling during fibrogenesis. The purpose of the present paper is to give an overview, including the authors' own results, of knowledge of ultrastructural alterations, proliferation kinetics and phenotypic changes of pneumocytes in experimental and clinical pathology of pulmonary fibrosis. After lung injury, the alveolar epithelial cells show ultrastructural alter...

  16. Computed tomography evaluation of pulmonary alterations after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of 15 patients with primary tumors, 13 of the lung and 2 breast cancers, treated in the Hospital Santa Cruz/Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Niteroi, RJ, in the period comprised from February 1991 to October 1996, was done. The pulmonary radiotherapy effects were observed in two clinical presentations - acute (radiation pneumonitis) and chronic (radiation fibrosis) -, both depending upon the radiotherapy doses, the radiation area, the individual susceptibility and the previous chemotherapy. Signs of pulmonary fibrosis were found in 73.3% of the patients, pneumonitis in 20.0% and absence of changes after radiation in 6.6%. Computed tomography was an excellent noninvasive diagnostic method in demonstrating radiotherapy-induced pulmonary changes, more evident in high-resolution technique scans. (author)

  17. Pulmonary alterations associated with inhalation of occupational and environmental irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castranova, V; Frazer, D G; Manley, L K; Dey, R D

    2002-02-01

    Many gases, vapors, or particles found in occupational and/or environmental settings can act as irritants. In the present study, sensory irritants are characterized by the stimulation of neuropeptide release from sensory nerves in the nasal mucosa, while pulmonary irritants are characterized by recruitment of PMN into bronchoalveolar airspaces, elevation of breathing frequency, and neuropeptide release from sensory fibers innervating the epithelium of the conducting airways. A review of data from our laboratory as well as results from others indicate that asphalt fume is a sensory irritant; toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methyl isocyanate, and machining fluid act as both sensory and pulmonary irritants; while cotton dust, agricultural dusts, microbial products, leather conditioner, and ozone exhibit responses characteristic of pulmonary irritants. PMID:11811921

  18. STRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS OF SKELETAL MUSCLE IN COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita eMathur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a respiratory disease associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Peripheral muscle dysfunction has been well characterized in individuals with COPD and results from a complex interaction between systemic and local factors. Objective: In this narrative review, we will describe muscle wasting in people with COPD, the associated structural changes, muscle regenerative capacity and possible mechanisms for muscle wasting. We will also discuss how structural changes relate to impaired muscle function and mobility in people with COPD. Key Observations: Approximately 30-40% of individuals with COPD experience muscle mass depletion. Furthermore, muscle atrophy is a predictor of physical function and mortality in this population. Associated structural changes include a decreased proportion and size of type-I fibers, reduced oxidative capacity and mitochondrial density mainly in the quadriceps. Observations related to impaired muscle regenerative capacity in individuals with COPD include a lower proportion of central nuclei in the presence or absence of muscle atrophy and decreased maximal telomere length, which has been correlated with reduced muscle cross-sectional area. Potential mechanisms for muscle wasting in COPD may include excessive production of reactive oxygen species, altered amino acid metabolism and lower expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma-coactivator 1-alpha mRNA. Despite a moderate relationship between muscle atrophy and function, impairments in oxidative metabolism only seems weakly related to muscle function. Conclusion: This review article demonstrates the cellular modifications in the peripheral muscle of people with COPD and describes the evidence of its relationship to muscle function. Future research will focus on rehabilitation strategies to improve muscle wasting and maximize function.

  19. Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema Alters Physiology but Has Similar Mortality to Pulmonary Fibrosis Without Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowich, Matthew D.; Rounds, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Studies have described individuals with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), with preserved lung volumes, significant reductions in gas exchange, and high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. While physiologic changes in CPFE are well documented, there is little mortality data in the CPFE population compared to appropriate controls. A study was performed to determine the features and outcomes of a group of individuals with imaging and/or pathologic evidence of CPFE to determine ...

  20. Vitamin A deficiency alters the pulmonary parenchymal elastic modulus and elastic fiber concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Amey J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.

  1. Pathophysiological roles of microvascular alterations in pulmonary inflammatory diseases: possible implications of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and CXC chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Orihara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Kanami Orihara, Akio MatsudaDepartment of Allergy and Immunology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and bronchial asthma are common respiratory diseases that are caused by chronic infl ammation of the airways. Although these diseases are mediated by substantially distinct immunological reactions, especially in mild cases, they both show increased numbers of neutrophils, increased production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and poor responses to corticosteroids, particularly in patients with severe diseases. These immunological alterations may contribute strongly to airway structural changes, commonly referred to as airway remodeling. Microvascular alterations, a component of airway remodeling and caused by chronic inflammation, are observed and appear to be clinically involved in both diseases. It has been well established that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays important roles in the airway microvascular alterations in mild and moderate cases of both diseases, but any role that VEGF might play in severe cases of these diseases remains unclear. Here, we review recent research findings, including our own data, and discuss the possibility that TNF-α and its associated CXC chemokines play roles in microvascular alterations that are even more crucial than those of VEGF in patients with severe COPD or asthma.Keywords: TNF-α, CXC chemokines, corticosteroid, pulmonary microvessels, COPD, asthma

  2. Structural alterations in irradiated myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of radiation on the structure-function relationship of myoglobin molecule have been extensively studied. It was observed that even though myoglobins from various species are structurally similar, offering two major sites for radiation damage - viz., protoporphyrin nucleus and the apoglobin moiety, they differ greatly in their responses to radiation. In the case of fish myoglobins known to contain sulphydryl groups, metmyoglobin was converted to oxymyoglobin as a result of irradiation (50 and 100 Krad), as evidenced by their spectral pattern. On the other hand, lamb meat myoglobin devoid of sulphydryl groups, showed anomalous spectral behaviour when subjected to different doses of radiation. Differences were also observed in the occurrence of microheterogeneity; lamb meat myoglobin separating into two coloured fractions (LM I and LM II) on sephadex G-100 column, each of these fractions resolving further into 3 - 4 bands on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Indian salmon and black pomfret myoglobins did not exhibit microheterogeneity. The effects of radiation on the catalytic function of myoglobin in autoxidation have also been discussed. (author)

  3. Impairment of pulmonary function and changes in the right cardiac structure of pneumoconiotic coal workers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Qin Bian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Information on the changes of pulmonary function and the right cardiac structure in patients with coal worker’s pneumoconiosis in China is very scarce. This study was performed to clarify the changes of pulmonary function and right cardiac structure in patients with coal worker’s pneumoconiosis in China. Material and methods Pulmonary function, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, and the right cardiac structure were evaluated by spirometry and color Doppler echocardiography. Results The pulmonary artery systolic pressure of patients with coal worker’s pneumoconiosis was increased with disease severity. Patients with coal worker’s pneumoconiosis also exhibited an impaired pulmonary function and altered right cardiac structure compared with control subjects. A significant linear correlation of the variables of pulmonary ventilation and diffusion function with the indicators of the right cardiac structure was found in patients with coal worker’s pneumoconiosis in China. Conclusions This study elucidated a deterioration of pulmonary function and right cardiac structure in patients with coal worker’s pneumoconiosis in China.

  4. Correlation of Histologic Subtypes and Molecular Alterations in Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma: Therapeutic and Prognostic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoon; Jang, Se Jin; Choi, Chang Min; Ro, Jae Y

    2016-09-01

    Major driver mutations of pulmonary adenocarcinomas have been identified and highlighted as actionable targets for precision cancer medicine. As phenotype is largely determined by genotype, genetic changes associated with morphologic features have recently received more attention from both pathologists and clinicians. The morphologic features of adenocarcinomas with mutations in EGFR or KRAS, or translocated ALK, have rarely been described. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations, the most common driver mutation encountered in Asian patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma, show lepidic or papillary organotypic growth patterns. KRAS-mutated adenocarcinomas demonstrate nonorganotypic growth patterns, especially mucin-containing cells. P53 mutations are associated with aggressiveness rather than growth patterns. HER2 mutations are observed in mucinous adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma with micropapillary features. The histologic features of BRAF-mutated adenocarcinomas have not yet been established, but papillary, lepidic, solid, and acinar patterns have been observed. Adenocarcinomas with rearrangement of ALK, ROS1, and RET genes share similar histologic features, such as solid signet-ring cells and cribriform formation. However, adenocarcinomas with NRG1 rearrangements frequently show mucinous morphology. The histologic features and related mutations of adenocarcinomas with expression of programmed cell death-1 and programmed cell death ligands-1 may be helpful in guiding immunotherapeutic treatment. This review describes histopathologic features of adenocarcinomas and their correlation with molecular alterations. PMID:27403614

  5. Effects of altered ventilatory patterns of rabbit pulmonary endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme function, in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because alveolar pressure can influence pulmonary blood flow, volume and surface area, the authors have studied the effects of airway pressure on endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) function in rabbit lungs in vivo, utilizing indicator dilution techniques with 3H-Benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (BPAP) as substate. Static inclation of the lungs to a pressure of 0 or 5 mmHg did not change percent transpulmonary metabolism and Amax/Km ratio in comparison to control measurements during conventional mechanical ventilation. When the inflation pressure was increased to 10 mmHg, percent metabolism of 3H-BPAP remained unaltered but Amax/Km decreased over 40% from control. This decrease was in close relation to the reduction in pulmonary blood flow. Addition of 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the mechanical ventilation also decreased Amax/Km values and pulmonary blood flow but did not influence percent metabolism of 3H-BPAP. These results suggest that the detected alterations in ACE kinetics were more likely due to hemodynamic changes than enzyme dysfunction. The authors propose that high static alveolar pressures as well as PEEP did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme function, but reduced the fraction of perfused microvessels reflected in changes in Amax/Km ratios

  6. Disease-associated mutations that alter the RNA structural ensemble.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Halvorsen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS often identify disease-associated mutations in intergenic and non-coding regions of the genome. Given the high percentage of the human genome that is transcribed, we postulate that for some observed associations the disease phenotype is caused by a structural rearrangement in a regulatory region of the RNA transcript. To identify such mutations, we have performed a genome-wide analysis of all known disease-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD that map to the untranslated regions (UTRs of a gene. Rather than using minimum free energy approaches (e.g. mFold, we use a partition function calculation that takes into consideration the ensemble of possible RNA conformations for a given sequence. We identified in the human genome disease-associated SNPs that significantly alter the global conformation of the UTR to which they map. For six disease-states (Hyperferritinemia Cataract Syndrome, beta-Thalassemia, Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia, Retinoblastoma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, and Hypertension, we identified multiple SNPs in UTRs that alter the mRNA structural ensemble of the associated genes. Using a Boltzmann sampling procedure for sub-optimal RNA structures, we are able to characterize and visualize the nature of the conformational changes induced by the disease-associated mutations in the structural ensemble. We observe in several cases (specifically the 5' UTRs of FTL and RB1 SNP-induced conformational changes analogous to those observed in bacterial regulatory Riboswitches when specific ligands bind. We propose that the UTR and SNP combinations we identify constitute a "RiboSNitch," that is a regulatory RNA in which a specific SNP has a structural consequence that results in a disease phenotype. Our SNPfold algorithm can help identify RiboSNitches by leveraging GWAS data and an analysis of the mRNA structural ensemble.

  7. Altered serum microRNAs as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yuhua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB is a highly lethal infectious disease and early diagnosis of TB is critical for the control of disease progression. The objective of this study was to profile a panel of serum microRNAs (miRNAs as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pulmonary TB infection. Methods Using TaqMan Low-Density Array (TLDA analysis followed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR validation, expression levels of miRNAs in serum samples from 30 patients with active tuberculosis and 60 patients with Bordetella pertussis (BP, varicella-zoster virus (VZV and enterovirus (EV were analyzed. Results The Low-Density Array data showed that 97 miRNAs were differentially expressed in pulmonary TB patient sera compared with healthy controls (90 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated. Following qRT-PCR confirmation and receiver operational curve (ROC analysis, three miRNAs (miR-361-5p, miR-889 and miR-576-3p were shown to distinguish TB infected patients from healthy controls and other microbial infections with moderate sensitivity and specificity (area under curve (AUC value range, 0.711-0.848. Multiple logistic regression analysis of a combination of these three miRNAs showed an enhanced ability to discriminate between these two groups with an AUC value of 0.863. Conclusions Our study suggests that altered levels of serum miRNAs have great potential to serve as non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of pulmonary TB infection.

  8. Parametric modeling for quantitative analysis of pulmonary structure to function relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Clifton R.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Holmes, David R., III; Camp, Jon J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2005-04-01

    While lung anatomy is well understood, pulmonary structure-to-function relationships such as the complex elastic deformation of the lung during respiration are less well documented. Current methods for studying lung anatomy include conventional chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging with polarized gases (MRI scan). Pulmonary physiology can be studied using spirometry or V/Q nuclear medicine tests (V/Q scan). V/Q scanning and MRI scans may demonstrate global and regional function. However, each of these individual imaging methods lacks the ability to provide high-resolution anatomic detail, associated pulmonary mechanics and functional variability of the entire respiratory cycle. Specifically, spirometry provides only a one-dimensional gross estimate of pulmonary function, and V/Q scans have poor spatial resolution, reducing its potential for regional assessment of structure-to-function relationships. We have developed a method which utilizes standard clinical CT scanning to provide data for computation of dynamic anatomic parametric models of the lung during respiration which correlates high-resolution anatomy to underlying physiology. The lungs are segmented from both inspiration and expiration three-dimensional (3D) data sets and transformed into a geometric description of the surface of the lung. Parametric mapping of lung surface deformation then provides a visual and quantitative description of the mechanical properties of the lung. Any alteration in lung mechanics is manifest by alterations in normal deformation of the lung wall. The method produces a high-resolution anatomic and functional composite picture from sparse temporal-spatial methods which quantitatively illustrates detailed anatomic structure to pulmonary function relationships impossible for translational methods to provide.

  9. The dose–response association of urinary metals with altered pulmonary function and risks of restrictive and obstructive lung diseases: a population-based study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Wei; Huang, Xiji; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Chuanyao; Cui, Xiuqing; Zhou, Yun; Sun, Huizhen; Qiu, Gaokun; Guo, Huan; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong; WU, TANGCHUN

    2015-01-01

    Objective Reduced pulmonary function is an important predictor of environment-related pulmonary diseases; however, evidence of an association between exposures to various metals from all possible routes and altered pulmonary function is limited. We aimed to investigate the association of various metals in urine with pulmonary function, restrictive lung disease (RLD) and obstructive lung disease (OLD) risks in the general Chinese population. Design A cross-sectional investigation in the Wuhan ...

  10. Effect of L-Arginine on Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis in Rats with Hypoxic Pulmonary Vascular Structural Remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingrid Karmane SUMOU; Jun-Bao DU; Bing WEI; Chun-Yu ZHANG; Jian-Guang QI; Chao-Shu TANG

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of L-arginine (L-Arg) on the apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) in rats with hypoxic pulmonary vascular structural remodeling, and its mechanisms. Seventeen Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=5), a hypoxia group (n=7), and a hypoxia+L-Arg group (n=5). The morphologic changes of lung tissues were observed under optical microscope. Using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphatebiotin nick end labeling assay, the apoptosis of PASMC was examined. Fas expression in PASMC was examined using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the percentage of muscularized artery in small pulmonary vessels, and the relative medial thickness and relative medial area of the small and median pulmonary muscularized arteries in the hypoxic group were all significantly increased. Pulmonary vascular structural remodeling developed after hypoxia. Apoptotic smooth muscle cells of the small and median pulmonary arteries in the hypoxia group were significantly less than those in the control group. After 14 d of hypoxia, Fas expression by smooth muscle cells of median and small pulmonary arteries was significantly inhibited. L-Arg significantly inhibited hypoxic pulmonary vascular structural remodeling in association with an augmentation of apoptosis of smooth muscle cells as well as Fas expression in PASMC. These results showed that L-Arg could play an important role in attenuating hypoxic pulmonary vascular structural remodeling by upregulating Fas expression in PASMC, thus promoting the apoptosis of PASMC.

  11. Review: Chemical and structural modifications of pulmonary collectins and their functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N; Beers, Michael F; Gow, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    The lung is continuously exposed to inhaled pathogens (toxic pollutants, micro-organisms, environmental antigens, allergens) from the external environment. In the broncho-alveolar space, the critical balance between a measured protective response against harmful pathogens and an inappropriate inflammatory response to harmless particles is discerned by the innate pulmonary immune system. Among its many components, the surfactant proteins and specifically the pulmonary collectins (surfactant proteins A [SP-A] and D [SP-D]) appear to provide important contributions to the modulation of host defense and inflammation in the lung. Many studies have shown that multimerization of SP-A and SP-D are important for efficient local host defense including neutralization and opsonization of influenza A virus, binding Pneumocystis murina and inhibition of LPS-induced inflammatory cell responses. These observations strongly imply that oligomerization of collectins is a critical feature of its function. However, during the inflammatory state, despite normal pool sizes, chemical modification of collectins can result in alteration of their structure and function. Both pulmonary collectins can be altered through proteolytic inactivation, nitration, S-nitrosylation, oxidation and/or crosslinking as a consequence of the inflammatory milieu facilitated by cytokines, nitric oxide, proteases, and other chemical mediators released by inflammatory cells. Thus, this review will summarize recent developments in our understanding of the relationship between post-translational assembly of collectins and their modification by inflammation as an important molecular switch for the regulation of local innate host defense. PMID:20423921

  12. Interstitial pulmonary alterations in visceral leishmaniasis: evaluation with high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visceral leishmaniasis, also called kala-azar, is a disease caused by a protozoan, the Leishmania donovani chagasi, that comprises reticuloendothelial system with involvement of the liver, spleen and bone marrow. It is endemic in some areas of northeastern Brazil and other countries of Latin America and Africa. The pathogenesis is related to the immunologic system of patients that present with the inability to activate the phagocytosis of the macrophages. As occurs in the liver and kidneys, the lungs are also involved with interstitial abnormalities caused by Leishmania that are not dependent upon the presence of the parasite.The histopathologic changes described are the involvement of inter alveolar septal in three different phases, irregularly and diffusely throughout the whole pulmonary parenchyma. This work analyzed high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax in 17 patients with visceral leishmaniasis in order to detect and characterize the abnormalities described in the anatomo pathologic findings reported in the literature. The HRCT is being used to evaluate chronic interstitial lung disease in a good correlation with histologic findings. THe mos common findings detected by HRCT were the reticular opacities that include peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and interlobular septal thickening an ground-glass opacity. The HRCT suggests that similar changes to that found in alveolar structures may occur int he secondary pulmonary lobule and that the involvement in the parenchymal interstitium represents the findings reported by pathological studies in visceral leishmaniasis. (author)

  13. Patent ductus arteriosus ligation alters pulmonary gene expression in preterm baboons

    OpenAIRE

    Waleh, Nahid; McCurnin, Donald C.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Shaul, Philip W.; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2011-01-01

    Ibuprofen-induced ductus closure improves pulmonary mechanics and increases alveolar surface area in premature baboons compared with baboons with a persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Ibuprofen-treatment has no effect on the expression of genes that regulate pulmonary inflammation but does increase the expression of alpha-ENaC (the transepithelial sodium channel that is critical for alveolar water clearance). Although ligation eliminates the PDA, it does not improve pulmonary mechanics...

  14. Right ventricular Hemodynamic Alteration after Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Bigdelian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  In patients who underwent surgery to repair Tetralogy of Fallot, right ventricular dilation from pulmonary regurgitation may be result in right ventricular failure, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Hence, pulmonary valve replacement may be necessary to reduce right ventricular volume overload. The aim of present study was to assess the effects of pulmonary valve replacement on right ventricular function after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot.   Materials and  Method:  This retrospective study was carried out between July 2011 and October 2013 on 21 consecutive patients in Chamran Heart Center (Esfahan. The study included 13 male (61.9% and 8 female (38.1%. Cardiac magnetic resonance was performed before, 6 and 12 months after pulmonary valve replacement in all patients (Babak Imaging Center, Tehran with the 1.5 Tesla system. The main reason for surgery at Tetralogy of Fallot repaired time was Tetralogy of Fallot + Pulmonary insufficiency (17 cases and Tetralogy of Fallot + Pulmonary atresia (4 cases. Right ventricular function was assessed before and after pulmonary valve replacement with Two-dimensional echocardiography and ttest was used to evaluate follow-up data.   Results:  Right ventricular end-diastolic volume, right ventricular end- systolic volume significantly decreased (P value ˂ 0.05.Right ventricular ejection fraction had a significant increase (P value ˂ 0.05. Right ventricular mass substantially shrank after pulmonary valve replacement. Moreover, pulmonary regurgitation noticeably decreased in patients. The other hemodynamic parameter such as left ventricular ejection fraction improved but was not significant (P value= 0.79. Conclusion:  Pulmonary valve replacement can successfully restores the impaired hemodynamic function of right ventricle which is caused by direct consequence of volume unloading in patient. Pulmonary valve surgery in children with Tetralogy of Fallot who have moderate to severe pulmonary

  15. Altered prostanoid production by fibroblasts cultured from the lungs of human subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierson Richard

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostanoids are known to participate in the process of fibrogenesis. Because lung fibroblasts produce prostanoids and are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, we hypothesized that fibroblasts (HF cultured from the lungs of patients with IPF (HF-IPF have an altered balance between profibrotic (thromboxane [TX]A2 and antifibrotic (prostacyclin [PGI2] prostaglandins (PGs when compared with normal human lung fibroblasts (HF-NL. Methods We measured inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2 gene and protein expression, and a profile of prostanoids at baseline and after IL-1β stimulation. Results In both HF-IPF and HF-NL COX-2 expression was undetectable at baseline, but was significantly upregulated by IL-1β. PGE2 was the predominant COX product in IL-1β-stimulated cells with no significant difference between HF-IPF and HF-NL (28.35 [9.09–89.09] vs. 17.12 [8.58–29.33] ng/106 cells/30 min, respectively; P = 0.25. TXB2 (the stable metabolite of TXA2 production was significantly higher in IL-1β-stimulated HF-IPF compared to HF-NL (1.92 [1.27–2.57] vs. 0.61 [0.21–1.64] ng/106 cells/30 min, respectively; P = 0.007 and the ratio of PGI2 (as measured by its stable metabolite 6-keto-PGF1α to TXB2 was significantly lower at baseline in HF-IPF (0.08 [0.04–0.52] vs. 0.12 [0.11–0.89] in HF-NL; P = 0.028 and with IL-1β stimulation (0.24 [0.05–1.53] vs. 1.08 [0.51–3.79] in HF-NL; P = 0.09. Conclusion An alteration in the balance of profibrotic and antifibrotic PGs in HF-IPF may play a role in the pathogeneses of IPF.

  16. Soluble metals in residual oil fly ash alter innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses to bacterial infection in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soluble metals of the pollutant, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), have been shown to alter pulmonary bacterial clearance in rats. The goal of this study was to determine the potential effects on both the innate and adaptive lung immune responses after bacterial infection in rats pre-exposed to the soluble metals in ROFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally dosed (i.t.) at day 0 with ROFA (R-Total) (1.0 mg/100 g body weight), the soluble fraction of ROFA (R-Soluble), the soluble sample subject to a chelator (R-Chelex), or phosphate-buffered saline (Saline). On day 3, rats were administered an i.t. dose of 5 x 104 Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, bacterial pulmonary clearance was monitored and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on days 3 (pre-infection), 6, 8, and 10. A concentrated first fraction of lavage fluid was retained for analysis of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin to assess lung injury. BAL cell number, phenotype, and production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) were assessed, and a variety of cytokines were measured in the BAL fluid. Rats pre-treated with R-Soluble showed elevated lung injury/cytotoxicity and increased cellular influx into the lungs. R-Soluble-treatment also altered ROS, RNS, and cytokine levels, and caused a degree of macrophage and T cell inhibition. These effects of R-Soluble result in increased pulmonary bacterial burden after infection. The results suggest that soluble metals in ROFA increase lung injury and inflammation, and alter both innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses

  17. Alterations of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Activated K2P Channels in Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Gorm; Wandall-Frostholm, Christine; Sadda, Veeranjaneyulu; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Lloyd, Eric E.; Bryan, Robert M.; Simonsen, Ulf; Köhler, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-activated two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P) have been proposed to be expressed in the pulmonary vasculature. However, their physiological or pathophysiological roles are poorly defined. Here we tested the hypothesis that PUFA-activated K2P are involved in pulmonary vasorelaxation and that alterations of channel expression are pathophysiologically linked to pulmonary hypertension. Expression of PUFA-activated K2P in the murine lung was investigated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), by patch clamp (PC), and myography. K2P-gene expression was examined in chronic hypoxic mice. QRT-PCR showed that the K2P2.1 and K2P6.1 were the predominantly expressed K2P in the murine lung. IHC revealed protein expression of K2P2.1 and K2P6.1 in the endothelium of pulmonary arteries and of K2P6.1 in bronchial epithelium. PC showed pimozide-sensitive K2P-like K+-current activated by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in freshly isolated endothelial cells as well as DHA-induced membrane hyperpolarization. Myography on pulmonary arteries showed that DHA-induced concentration-dependent and instantaneous relaxations that were resistant to endothelial removal and inhibition of NO and prostacyclin synthesis and to a cocktail of blockers of calcium-activated K+ channels but were abolished by high extracellular (30 mM) K+-concentration. Gene expression and protein of K2P2.1 were not altered in chronic hypoxic mice while K2P6.1 was up-regulated by fourfold. In conclusion, the PUFA-activated K2P2.1 and K2P6.1 are expressed in murine lung and functional K2P-like channels contribute to endothelium-hyperpolarization and pulmonary artery relaxation. The increased K2P6.1-gene expression may represent a novel counter-regulatory mechanism in pulmonary hypertension, and suggest that arterial K2P2.1 and K2P6.1 could be novel therapeutic targets. PMID:23724868

  18. Alterations of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-activated K2P channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gorm; Wandall-Frostholm, Christine; Sadda, Veeranjaneyulu; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Lloyd, Eric E; Bryan, Robert M; Simonsen, Ulf; Köhler, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-activated two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P ) have been proposed to be expressed in the pulmonary vasculature. However, their physiological or pathophysiological roles are poorly defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PUFA-activated K2P are involved in...... pulmonary vasorelaxation and that alterations of channel expression are pathophysiologically linked to pulmonary hypertension. Expression of PUFA-activated K2P in the murine lung was investigated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), by patch...... clamp (PC) and myography. K2P -gene expression was examined in chronic hypoxic mice. qRT-PCR showed that the K2P 2.1 and K2P 6.1 were the predominantly expressed K2P in the murine lung. IHC revealed protein expression of K2P 2.1 and K2P 6.1 in the endothelium of pulmonary arteries and of K2P 6.1 in...

  19. Rare earth impact on glass structure and alteration kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is related to the question of the geological deep repository of high-level waste glass. These wastes include fission products and minor actinides, elements which can be simulated by rare earths. As new glass compositions could enable increased rare earth concentrations, it is crucial to know and understand rare earth impact on glass structure on the one hand, and on glass alteration kinetics or their incorporation into an altered layer. This work studied simplified borosilicate glasses in order to limit synergetic effects between rare earths and other elements. Various complementary techniques were used to characterize pristine and altered glasses (solid-high resolution NMR, Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence, SIMS, SAXS). Firstly, the structural role of a rare earth is discussed and is compared to a calcium cation. The local environment of rare earths is also probed. Secondly, rare earth (nature and concentration) impact on several alteration regimes was studied (initial rate, rate drop). Then, after alteration, rare earth elements being retained within the altered layer, the structural impact of rare earth elements (and their local environment) in this alteration layer was also investigated. (author)

  20. Infant formula alters surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-B expression in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maurice G; Atkins, Constance L; Bruce, Shirley R; Khan, Amir M; Liu, Yuying; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2011-09-01

    Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and SP-B are critical in the ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension and provide innate immunity. Aspiration of infant milk formula can lead to lung dysfunction, but direct effects of aspirated formula on surfactant protein expression in pulmonary cells have not been described. The hypothesis that infant formula alters surfactant protein homeostasis was tested in vitro by assessing surfactant protein gene expression in cultured pulmonary epithelial cell lines expressing SP-A and SP-B that were transiently exposed (6 hr) to infant formula. Steady-state levels of SP-A protein and mRNA and SP-B mRNA in human bronchiolar (NCI-H441) and mouse alveolar (MLE15) epithelial cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner 18 hr after exposure to infant formula. SP-A mRNA levels remained reduced 42 hr after exposure, but SP-B mRNA levels increased 10-fold. Neither soy formula nor non-fat dry milk affected steady-state SP-A and SP-B mRNA levels; suggesting a role of a component of infant formula derived from cow milk. These results indicate that infant formula has a direct, dose-dependent effect to reduce surfactant protein gene expression. Ultimately, milk aspiration may potentially result in a reduced capacity of the lung to defend against environmental insults. PMID:21520433

  1. An alteration of the gut-liver axis drives pulmonary inflammation after intoxication and burn injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael M; Zahs, Anita; Brown, Mary M; Ramirez, Luis; Turner, Jerrold R; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2014-10-01

    Approximately half of all adult burn patients are intoxicated at the time of their injury and have worse clinical outcomes than those without prior alcohol exposure. This study tested the hypothesis that intoxication alters the gut-liver axis, leading to increased pulmonary inflammation mediated by burn-induced IL-6 in the liver. C57BL/6 mice were given 1.2 g/kg ethanol 30 min prior to a 15% total body surface area burn. To restore gut barrier function, the specific myosin light chain kinase inhibitor membrane-permeant inhibitor of kinase (PIK), which we have demonstrated to reduce bacterial translocation from the gut, was administered 30 min after injury. Limiting bacterial translocation with PIK attenuated hepatic damage as measured by a 47% reduction in serum alanine aminotransferase (P intoxicated and burn-injured mice without PIK. This mitigation of hepatic damage was associated with a 49% decline in pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (P antibiotics before intoxication and burn injury. Overall, these data suggest that the gut-liver axis is deranged when intoxication precedes burn injury and that limiting bacterial translocation in this setting attenuates hepatic damage and pulmonary inflammation. PMID:25104501

  2. Endothelial cells and pulmonary arterial hypertension: apoptosis, proliferation, interaction and transdifferentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Sakao Seiichiro; Tatsumi Koichiro; Voelkel Norbert F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, whether idiopathic or secondary, is characterized by structural alterations of microscopically small pulmonary arterioles. The vascular lesions in this group of pulmonary hypertensive diseases show actively proliferating endothelial cells without evidence of apoptosis. In this article, we review pathogenetic concepts of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and explain the term "complex vascular lesion ", commonly named "plexiform lesion", wit...

  3. Does acute exposure to aldehydes impair pulmonary function and structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Mariana de; Neto, Alcendino Cândido; Carvalho, Giovanna; Casquillo, Natalia Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Niedja; Okuro, Renata; Ribeiro, Gabriel C Motta; Machado, Mariana; Cardozo, Aléxia; Silva, Aline Santos E; Barboza, Thiago; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo; Rodrigues, Danielle Araujo; Camilo, Luciana; Carneiro, Leticia de A M; Jandre, Frederico; Pino, Alexandre V; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A; Corrêa, Leonardo Holanda Travassos; Souza, Marcio Nogueira de; Carvalho, Alysson R

    2016-07-15

    Mixtures of anhydrous ethyl alcohol and gasoline substituted for pure gasoline as a fuel in many Brazilian vehicles. Consequently, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ketones, other organic compounds, and particularly aldehydes increased in many Brazilian cities. The current study aims to investigate whether formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or mixtures of both impair lung function, morphology, inflammatory and redox responses at environmentally relevant concentrations. For such purpose, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either medical compressed air or to 4 different mixtures of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Eight hours later animals were anesthetized, paralyzed and lung mechanics and morphology, inflammatory cells and IL-1β, KC, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, MCP-1 contents, superoxide dismutase and catalalase activities were determined. The extra pulmonary respiratory tract was also analyzed. No differences could be detected between any exposed and control groups. In conclusion, no morpho-functional alterations were detected in exposed mice in relation to the control group. PMID:27102012

  4. Structure-function relationships in pulmonary surfactant membranes: from biophysics to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is an essential lipid-protein complex to maintain an operative respiratory surface at the mammalian lungs. It reduces surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface to stabilise the lungs against physical forces operating along the compression-expansion breathing cycles. At the same time, surfactant integrates elements establishing a primary barrier against the entry of pathogens. Lack or deficiencies of the surfactant system are associated with respiratory pathologies, which treatment often includes supplementation with exogenous materials. The present review summarises current models on the molecular mechanisms of surfactant function, with particular emphasis in its biophysical properties to stabilise the lungs and the molecular alterations connecting impaired surfactant with diseased organs. It also provides a perspective on the current surfactant-based strategies to treat respiratory pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. PMID:24525076

  5. Age-dependent alterations in the inflammatory response to pulmonary challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, Helena M; Ochani, Kanta; Lin, Ke; Lee, Ji Young; Miller, Edmund J

    2015-12-01

    The aging lung is increasingly susceptible to infectious disease. Changes in pulmonary physiology and function are common in older populations, and in those older than 60 years, pneumonia is the major cause of infectious death. Understanding age-related changes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and how they affect both pulmonary and systemic responses to pulmonary challenge are critical to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the elderly patient. In this observational study, we examined age-associated differences in inflammatory responses to pulmonary challenge with cell wall components from Gram-positive bacteria. Thus, male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 6 months or greater than 18 months (approximating humans of 20 and 55-65 years), were challenged, intratracheally, with lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan. Cellular and cytokine evaluations were performed on both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and plasma, 24 h post-challenge. The plasma concentration of free thyroxine, a marker of severity in non-thyroidal illness, was also evaluated. The older animals had an increased chemotactic gradient in favor of the airspaces, which was associated with a greater accumulation of neutrophils and protein. Furthermore, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory mediator and putative biomarker in acute lung injury, was increased in both the plasma and BAL of the older, but not young animals. Conversely, plasma free thyroxine, a natural inhibitor of MIF, was decreased in the older animals. These findings identify age-associated inflammatory/metabolic changes following pulmonary challenge that it may be possible to manipulate to improve outcome in the older, critically ill patient. PMID:26318747

  6. Impairment of pulmonary function and changes in the right cardiac structure of pneumoconiotic coal workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-Qin Bian; Yue Zhang; Rong Jiang; Ling Mao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Information on the changes of pulmonary function and the right cardiac structure in patients with coal worker’s pneumoconiosis in China is very scarce. This study was performed to clarify the changes of pulmonary function and right cardiac structure in patients with coal worker’s pneumoconiosis in China. Material and methods Pulmonary function, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, and the right cardiac structure were evaluated by spirometry and color Doppler echocardiography. Resu...

  7. Aged mice display an altered pulmonary host response to Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) infections

    OpenAIRE

    CA, Mares; SS, Ojeda; Q., Li; EG, Morris; JJ, Coalson; JM, Teale

    2009-01-01

    Aging is a complex phenomenon that has been shown to affect many organ systems including the innate and adaptive immune systems. The current study was designed to examine the potential effect of immunosenescence on the pulmonary immune response using a Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) inhalation infection model. F. tularensis is a gram-negative intracellular pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia.In this study both young (8-12 week old) and aged (20-24 month old) mice were...

  8. IKK NBD peptide inhibits LPS induced pulmonary inflammation and alters sphingolipid metabolism in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bismarck, Philipp; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Herzberg, Mona; Uhlig, Ulrike; Schütze, Stefan; Lucius, Ralph; Krause, Martin F

    2012-06-01

    Airway epithelial NF-κB is a key regulator of host defence in bacterial infections and has recently evolved as a target for therapeutical approaches. Evidence is accumulating that ceramide, generated by acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1-P) are important mediators in host defence as well as in pathologic processes of acute lung injury. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of pulmonary sphingolipid metabolism in bacterial infections of the lung. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of NF-κB on sphingolipid metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. In a murine acute lung injury model with intranasal Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS we investigated TNF-α, KC (murine IL-8), IL-6, MCP-1 and neutrophilic infiltration next to aSMase activity and ceramide and S1-P lung tissue concentrations. Airway epithelial NF-κB was inhibited by topically applied IKK NBD, a cell penetrating NEMO binding peptide. This treatment resulted in significantly reduced inflammation and suppression of aSMase activity along with decreased ceramide and S1-P tissue concentrations down to levels observed in healthy animals. In conclusion our results confirm that changes in sphingolipid metabolim due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS inhalation are regulated by NF-κB translocation. This confirms the critical role of airway epithelial NF-κB pathway for the inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens and underlines the impact of sphingolipids in inflammatory host defence mechanisms. PMID:22469869

  9. Dietary vitamin E and pulmonary biochemical and morphological alterations of rats exposed to 0. 1 ppM ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, C.K. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington); Plopper, C.G.; Chiu, M.; Dungworth, D.L.

    1981-04-01

    Three groups of 28 1-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats each were fed a basal vitamin E-deficient diet and supplemented with either 0, 11, or 110 ppM vitamin E for 38 days, and were then exposed to 0 or 0.1 ppM ozone continuously for 7 days. Following ozone exposure, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but not of malic dehydrogenase, were significantly elevated in the lungs of rats fed the vitamin E deficient diet. The level of GSH and activities of GSH peroxidase and G-6-PD were also significantly increased in the lungs of the animal group fed the 11 ppM vitamin E diet, while none of the biochemical measurements made was significantly altered by ozone in the 110-ppM vitamin E diet fed rats. Scanning electron microscope examination revealed that five out of six rats on the vitamin E-deficient diet and four out of six from the 11-ppM vitamin E diet had detectable lesions following ozone exposure, as compared with only one of the six exposed animals from the 110-ppM vitamin E diet. The lesion was restricted to bronchiolar epithelium and alveoli immediately adjacent to the bronchiole-alveolar duct junction. None of the control animals had detectable lesions. The results suggest that exposure to ozone at 0.1-ppM level can produce detectable pulmonary damage, and that dietary vitamin E alters pulmonary susceptibility to ozone exposure.

  10. Fluid-Structure Interactions and Microparticle Transport in Pulmonary Alveoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiali, Samir

    2005-11-01

    The transport of micron-size particles in the lung has important implications for both respiratory disorders and drug delivery systems. During breathing, the expansion of pulmonary alveoli produces sub-ambient pressures that draw airflow into the lung. The fate of inhaled microparticles during breathing will depend on both particle properties and the complex transient flow fields generated by alveolar wall motion. In this study, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models are used to evaluate the effects of breathing rates, particle size, tissue viscoelasticity and surface tension forces on microparticle transport. In addition to fluid and solid dynamic equations, these models solve a particle equation of motion that includes both Brownian diffusion and gravitational terms. Our results indicate that Brownian diffusion is the dominant mechanism of transport for particles smaller than one micron and that the elastic properties of alveolar tissues can significantly affect particle deposition. Particles larger than 0.5 microns also experience significant gravitational sedimentation, while convection forces become increasingly dominant for larger particles and faster breathing rates. These results may be useful in designing improved drug delivery systems and in establishing new threshold levels for exposure to viral agents. Supported by the NSF and Parker B. Francis Foundation.

  11. Imaging diagnosis for intralobar pulmonary sequestration by subclassification of CT findings in bronchoalveolar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the chest CT findings in 12 cases of intralobar pulmonary sequestration. We classified 4 subtypes by evaluating bronchial and alveolar structures, thus: type A (3 cases), mild cylindrical dilatation of the bronchial structure and hyperlucent alveolar structure; type B (3 cases), marked cylindrical dilatation of the bronchial structure and hyperlucent alveolar structure; type C (2 cases), multicystic dilatation of the bronchial structure and alveolar structure without hyperlucency; and type D (4 cases), multicystic dilatation of the bronchial structure and absence of any alveolar structure. All 77 cases (present and previously reported cases) with CT-documented intralobar pulmonary sequestration could be classified into 4 subtypes: type A 9%, type B 34%, type C 19%, and type D 38%. We concluded that these 4 types were useful for the radiological diagnosis of intralobar pulmonary sequestration. (author)

  12. Functional and structural alterations induced by copper in xanthine oxidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahnaz Hadizadeh; Ezzatollah Keyhani; Jacqueline Keyhani; Cyrus Khodadadi

    2009-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO),a key enzyme in purine metab-olism,produces reactive oxygen species causing vascu-lar injuries and chronic heart failure.Here,copper's ability to alter XO activity and structure was investi-gated in vitro after pre-incubation of the enzyme with increasing Cu2+ concentrations for various periods of time.The enzymatic activity was measured by following XO-catalyzed xanthine oxidation to uric acid under steady-state kinetics conditions.Structural alterations were assessed by electronic absorption,fluorescence,and circular dichroism spectroscopy.Results showed that Cu2+ either stimulated or inhibited XO activity,depending on metal concentration and pre-incubation length,the latter also determining the inhibition type.Cu2+-XO complex formation was characterized by modifications in XO electronic absorption bands,intrinsic fluorescence,and α-helical and β-sheet content.Apparent dissociation constant values implied high- and low-affinity Cu2+ binding sites in the vicinity of the enzyme's reactive centers.Data indicated that Cu2+ binding to high-affinity sites caused alterations around XO molybdenum and flavin adenine dinucleo-tide centers,changes in secondary structure,and mod-erate activity inhibition;binding to low affinity sites caused alterations around all XO reactive centers including FeS,changes in tertiary structure as reflected by alterations in spectral properties,and drastic activity inhibition.Stimulation was attributed to transient stabilization of XO optimal conformation.Results also emphasized the potential role of copper in the regu-lation of XO activity stemming from its binding properties.

  13. Macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12 deficiency does not alter bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boichot Elisabeth

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in the interstitium resulting in respiratory failure. The role of remodeling mediators such as metalloproteinases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs in the fibrogenic process remains misunderstood. In particular, macrophage metalloelastase, also identified as MMP-12, is known to be involved in remodeling processes under pathological conditions. However, MMP-12 involvement in pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. Here we investigated fibrotic response to bleomycin in MMP-12 deficient mice. Materials and methods C57BL/6 mice, Balb/c mice and MMP-12 -/- mice with a C57BL/6 background received 0.3 mg bleomycin by intranasal administration. 14 days after, mice were anesthetized and underwent either bronchoalveolear lavage (BAL or lung removal. Collagen deposition in lung tissue was determined by Sircol™ collagen assay, MMP activity in BAL fluid was analyzed by zymography, and other mediators were quantified in BAL fluid by ELISA. Real time PCR was performed to assess gene expression in lung removed one or 14 days after bleomycin administration. Student t test or Mann & Whitney tests were used when appropriate for statistical analysis. Results The development of pulmonary fibrosis in "fibrosis prone" (C57BL/6 mice was associated with prominent MMP-12 expression in lung, whereas MMP-12 expression was weak in lung tissue of "fibrosis resistant" (Balb/c mice. MMP-12 mRNA was not detected in MMP-12 -/- mice, in conformity with their genotype. Bleomycin elicited macrophage accumulation in BAL of MMP-12 -/- and wild type (WT mice, and MMP-12 deficiency had no significant effect on BAL cells composition. Collagen content of lung was increased similarly in MMP-12 -/- and WT mice 14 days after bleomycin administration. Bleomycin elicit a raise of TGF-β protein, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 protein and mRNA in BAL fluids and lung respectively, and no significant difference

  14. Mechanisms underlying gas exchange alterations in an experimental model of pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H.T. Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the ventilation/perfusion ratio that contributes to hypoxemia in pulmonary embolism by analyzing blood gases and volumetric capnography in a model of experimental acute pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary embolization with autologous blood clots was induced in seven pigs weighing 24.00 ± 0.6 kg, anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Significant changes occurred from baseline to 20 min after embolization, such as reduction in oxygen partial pressures in arterial blood (from 87.71 ± 8.64 to 39.14 ± 6.77 mmHg and alveolar air (from 92.97 ± 2.14 to 63.91 ± 8.27 mmHg. The effective alveolar ventilation exhibited a significant reduction (from 199.62 ± 42.01 to 84.34 ± 44.13 consistent with the fall in alveolar gas volume that effectively participated in gas exchange. The relation between the alveolar ventilation that effectively participated in gas exchange and cardiac output (V Aeff/Q ratio also presented a significant reduction after embolization (from 0.96 ± 0.34 to 0.33 ± 0.17 fraction. The carbon dioxide partial pressure increased significantly in arterial blood (from 37.51 ± 1.71 to 60.76 ± 6.62 mmHg, but decreased significantly in exhaled air at the end of the respiratory cycle (from 35.57 ± 1.22 to 23.15 ± 8.24 mmHg. Exhaled air at the end of the respiratory cycle returned to baseline values 40 min after embolism. The arterial to alveolar carbon dioxide gradient increased significantly (from 1.94 ± 1.36 to 37.61 ± 12.79 mmHg, as also did the calculated alveolar (from 56.38 ± 22.47 to 178.09 ± 37.46 mL and physiological (from 0.37 ± 0.05 to 0.75 ± 0.10 fraction dead spaces. Based on our data, we conclude that the severe arterial hypoxemia observed in this experimental model may be attributed to the reduction of the V Aeff/Q ratio. We were also able to demonstrate that V Aeff/Q progressively improves after embolization, a fact attributed to the alveolar ventilation redistribution

  15. Acute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for Society of Toxicology, March 22-25, 2015, San Diego, CAAcute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II DiabetesS.J. Snow1,3, D. Miller2, V. Bass2, M. Schladweiler3, A. Ledbetter3, J. Richards3, C...

  16. Quadriceps exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the potential role of altered skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Jayson R; Trinity, Joel D; Layec, Gwenael; Garten, Ryan S; Park, Song-Young; Rossman, Matthew J; Larsen, Steen; Dela, Flemming; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-10-15

    This study sought to determine if qualitative alterations in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration, associated with decreased mitochondrial efficiency, contribute to exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using permeabilized muscle fibers from the vastus lateralis of 13 patients with COPD and 12 healthy controls, complex I (CI) and complex II (CII)-driven State 3 mitochondrial respiration were measured separately (State 3:CI and State 3:CII) and in combination (State 3:CI+CII). State 2 respiration was also measured. Exercise tolerance was assessed by knee extensor exercise (KE) time to fatigue. Per milligram of muscle, State 3:CI+CII and State 3:CI were reduced in COPD (P respiration represented qualitative changes in mitochondrial function, respiration states were examined as percentages of peak respiration (State 3:CI+CII), which revealed altered contributions from State 3:CI (Con 83.7 ± 3.4, COPD 72.1 ± 2.4%Peak, P respiration, but not State 2 respiration in COPD. Importantly, a diminished contribution of CI-driven respiration relative to the metabolically less-efficient CII-driven respiration (CI/CII) was also observed in COPD (Con 1.28 ± 0.09, COPD 0.81 ± 0.05, P exercise tolerance of the patients (r = 0.64, P respiration, which potentially contributes to the exercise intolerance associated with this disease. PMID:26272320

  17. Streptomycin treatment alters the intestinal microbiome, pulmonary T cell profile and airway hyperresponsiveness in a cystic fibrosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazett, Mark; Bergeron, Marie-Eve; Haston, Christina K

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator deficient mouse models develop phenotypes of relevance to clinical cystic fibrosis (CF) including airway hyperresponsiveness, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and an altered intestinal microbiome. As dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been recognized as an important contributor to many systemic diseases, herein we investigated whether altering the intestinal microbiome of BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) mice and wild-type littermates, through treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin, affects the CF lung, intestinal and bone disease. We demonstrate that streptomycin treatment reduced the intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Cftr(tm1UNC) mice and altered the intestinal microbiome similarly in Cftr(tm1UNC) and wild-type mice, principally by affecting Lactobacillus levels. Airway hyperresponsiveness of Cftr(tm1UNC) mice was ameliorated with streptomycin, and correlated with Lactobacillus abundance in the intestine. Additionally, streptomycin treated Cftr(tm1UNC) and wild-type mice displayed an increased percentage of pulmonary and mesenteric lymph node Th17, CD8 + IL-17+ and CD8 + IFNγ+ lymphocytes, while the CF-specific increase in respiratory IL-17 producing γδ T cells was decreased in streptomycin treated Cftr(tm1UNC) mice. Bone disease and intestinal phenotypes were not affected by streptomycin treatment. The airway hyperresponsiveness and lymphocyte profile of BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) mice were affected by streptomycin treatment, revealing a potential intestinal microbiome influence on lung response in BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) mice. PMID:26754178

  18. Local Reasoning about Programs that Alter Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hearn, Peter W.; Reynolds, John Clifton; Yang, Hongseok

    2001-01-01

    We describe an extension of Hoare's logic for reasoning about programs that alter data structures. We consider a low-level storage model based on a heap with associated lookup, update, allocation and deallocation operations, and unrestricted address arithmetic. The assertion language is based....... Through these and a number of examples we show that the formalism supports local reasoning: A speci-cation and proof can concentrate on only those cells in memory that a program accesses. This paper builds on earlier work by Burstall, Reynolds, Ishtiaq and O'Hearn on reasoning about data structures....

  19. Revealing alteration of membrane structures during ischema using impedance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Gheorghiu

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of membrane structure and function are essential characteristics of cells undergoing ischemia. Noninvasive monitoring of tissue alterations during ischemia and the estimation of the reversibility domain (corresponding to organ capability to fully recover its functions after shifting back to normal blood perfusion are important for biomedical applications allowing better time management during surgical interventions, especially in organ transplantation. Due to it’s capability to reveal inhomogeneities, as well as it’s noninvasive character, impedance spectroscopy was used for continuous monitoring of the progression of excised tissue samples during ischemia. We have developed a fast, noninvasive, automated method for quantitative analysis of impedance spectra of tissue samples, capable of revealing, through characteristic parameters (dispersion amplitudes, time constants and distribution parameters membrane based microscopic processes like the closure ofgap-junctions (a characteristic of the early alterations of ischemic tissues in the reversibility phase. Microscopic and equivalent circuit modeling was used to probe the effect of closure of cell connections and of changes in electrical properties of cell constituents on impedance spectra. We have developed a normalizing procedure emphasizing the pattern of ischemic alterations and enabling the comparison of different data sets.

  20. Preterm birth and structural brain alterations in early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nosarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM and white matter (WM maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and gestational age. Structural MRI data were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla system and analysed using the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 with a customized study-specific template. Similarly to results obtained at adolescent assessment, VPT young adults compared to controls demonstrated reduced GM volume in temporal, frontal, insular and occipital areas, thalamus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Increases in GM volume were noted in medial/anterior frontal gyrus. Smaller subcortical WM volume in the VPT group was observed in temporal, parietal and frontal regions, and in a cluster centred on posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix. Larger subcortical WM volume was found predominantly in posterior brain regions, in areas beneath the parahippocampal and occipital gyri and in cerebellum. Gestational age was associated with GM and WM volumes in areas where VPT individuals demonstrated GM and WM volumetric alterations, especially in temporal, parietal and occipital regions. VPT participants scored lower than controls on measures of IQ, executive function and non-verbal memory. When investigating GM and WM alterations and cognitive outcome scores, subcortical WM volume in an area beneath the left inferior frontal gyrus accounted for 14% of the variance of full-scale IQ (F = 12.9, p < 0.0001. WM volume in posterior corpus

  1. Alterations in rat pulmonary macrophage function by the immunosuppressive agents cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Kahan, B D

    1983-06-01

    Disturbances of the immune response of the lung induced by the action of immunosuppressive agents on the functional abilities of rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were analyzed following in vitro incubation or in vivo administration (for 30 days) of cyclosporinea, (CsA) azathioprine (Az) or prednisolone (Pr). Two major parameters were analyzed: oxygen consumption and superoxide release as indices of the overall state of oxygen metabolism of these cells reflecting the integrity of PAM oxidative mechanisms of microbicidal activity, and chemotaxis, an event clinically important for normal defense to infection. In vitro incubation with cyclosporine at concentrations as low as 10(-9) M caused a 52% inhibition of PAM superoxide release, but Az had no effect at concentrations up to 10(-6) M. Prednisolone caused a 38% inhibition of superoxide release; comparable levels of inhibition with Pr required concentrations at least 10-fold greater than with cyclosporine. Further experiments indicated that cyclosporine induced a 40% inhibition after contact with PAM for only 30 min. In vivo experiments indicated that cyclosporine (5 mg/kg), Az (20 mg/kg), or Pr (2 or 0.5 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally had no effect on the number of PAM available for host defense, PAM oxygen consumption, or PAM superoxide release. However, PAM from cyclosporine-treated animals demonstrated complete inhibition of active migration or chemotaxis in modified Boyden chambers upon incubation with formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). The effect was apparently dampened by simultaneous administration of Pr with cyclosporine. These experiments suggest that with the exception of a marked effect on chemotaxis the in vivo effects of physiologic amounts of cyclosporine on PAM function are modest compared with the marked depression after in vitro addition. PMID:6306880

  2. Alterations in pulmonary surfactant protein a metabolism and its diagnostic value in onset of radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a serious disorder caused by radiation therapy, for the detection of which there exists no simple and sensitive clinical examination. In this study, we examined whether the measurement of serum pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) levels could be effective for detecting the onset of RP. Of the 18 patients included in the study, 9 suffered RP complication after radiation therapy. Serum SP-A levels in patients with RP (64.1±6.5 ng/ml) were 1.82 times as high as those of pre-radiation (36.2±4.0 ng/ml). The difference between them was significant (p=0.0003), while the SP-A value in patients without RP after radiation therapy was almost the same as the pre-radiation level. To study the mechanisms of these elevations, we developed a model of whole lung irradiation (20 Gy) in adult rats. Prior to alveolitis, which was a histological change seen at day 28, levels of SP-A in lung tissue homogenates and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid had become elevated by day 21. Serum SP-A levels in the irradiated rats were significantly elevated by day 21, peaking at day 35, and then declined. Hydroxyproline contents in lung tissues were elevated by day 42 and remained so through day 56. Therefore, the increase in serum SP-A level may be reflected by alveolitis but not fibrosis. In conclusion, determination of serum SP-A could be helpful in detecting the onset of RP. (author)

  3. Structural brain alterations associated with dyslexia predate reading onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Chang, Maria; Gaab, Nadine

    2011-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported reduced activation in parietotemporal and occipitotemporal areas in adults and children with developmental dyslexia compared to controls during reading and reading related tasks. These patterns of regionally reduced activation have been linked to behavioral impairments of reading-related processes (e.g., phonological skills and rapid automatized naming). The observed functional and behavioral differences in individuals with developmental dyslexia have been complemented by reports of reduced gray matter in left parietotemporal, occipitotemporal areas, fusiform and lingual gyrus and the cerebellum. An important question for education is whether these neural differences are present before reading is taught. Developmental dyslexia can only be diagnosed after formal reading education starts. However, here we investigate whether the previously detected gray matter alterations in adults and children with developmental dyslexia can already be observed in a small group of pre-reading children with a family-history of developmental dyslexia compared to age and IQ-matched children without a family-history (N = 20/mean age: 5:9 years; age range 5:1-6:5 years). Voxel-based morphometry revealed significantly reduced gray matter volume indices for pre-reading children with, compared to children without, a family-history of developmental dyslexia in left occipitotemporal, bilateral parietotemporal regions, left fusiform gyrus and right lingual gyrus. Gray matter volume indices in left hemispheric occipitotemporal and parietotemporal regions of interest also correlated positively with rapid automatized naming. No differences between the two groups were observed in frontal and cerebellar regions. This discovery in a small group of children suggests that previously described functional and structural alterations in developmental dyslexia may not be due to experience-dependent brain changes but may be present at birth or

  4. Altered adipocyte structure and function in nutritionally programmed microswine offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPriest, E A; Kupfer, P; Lin, B; Sekiguchi, K; Morgan, T K; Saunders, K E; Chatkupt, T T; Denisenko, O N; Purnell, J Q; Bagby, S P

    2012-06-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction links obesity of any cause with cardiometabolic disease, but whether early-life nutritional deficiency can program adipocyte dysfunction independently of obesity is untested. In 3-5-month-old juvenile microswine offspring exposed to isocaloric perinatal maternal protein restriction (MPR) and exhibiting accelerated prepubertal fat accrual without obesity, we assessed markers of acquired obesity: adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels and adipocyte size in intra-abdominal (ABD-AT) and subcutaneous (SC-AT) adipose tissues. Plasma cortisol, leptin and insulin levels were measured in fetal, neonatal and juvenile offspring. In juvenile low-protein offspring (LPO), adipocyte size in ABD-AT was reduced 22% (P = 0.011 v. controls), whereas adipocyte size in SC-AT was increased in female LPO (P = 0.05) and normal in male LPO; yet, adiponectin mRNA in LPO was low in both sexes and in both depots (P programming of adipocyte size and gene expression and subtly altered glucose homeostasis. Reduced adiponectin mRNA and adipokine dysregulation in juvenile LPO following accelerated growth occurred independently of obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy or inflammatory markers; thus, perinatal MPR and/or growth acceleration can alter adipocyte structure and disturb adipokine homeostasis in metabolically adverse patterns predictive of enhanced disease risk. PMID:25102010

  5. Alterations in Fibrin Structure in Patients with Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisman, Ton; Ariëns, Robert A S

    2016-06-01

    The hemostatic balance in patients with liver diseases is relatively well preserved due to concomitant alterations in pro- and antihemostatic pathways. Thrombin generation studies support the notion of hemostatic competence in liver diseases, but in such tests alterations in fibrinogen level and function are not taken into account. We have recently studied structural and functional properties of the fibrin clot in patients with liver diseases. Although we have confirmed previous findings that hypersialylation of the fibrinogen molecule in patients with liver diseases contributes to a defective fibrinogen-to-fibrin conversion, we have found that once the clot has been formed, it has a thrombogenic nature as assessed by permeability assays. These thrombogenic properties of the fibrin clot in cirrhosis relate to incompletely characterized intrinsic changes in the fibrinogen molecule, which may include oxidation and hypersialylation. In addition, in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease thrombogenic properties of the fibrin clot are not only due to liver disease but also to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. During liver transplantation, the clot normalizes and becomes increasingly permeable, and the functional properties of the fibrin clot are markedly normalized by fibrinogen concentrate, when added to plasma samples in vitro. These new insights in the functional properties of the fibrin clot in patients with liver diseases facilitate a more rational approach to treatment and prevention of both bleeding and thrombotic complications. PMID:27071046

  6. Altered PLP1 splicing causes hypomyelination of early myelinating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevelam, Sietske H; Taube, Jennifer R; van Spaendonk, Rosalina M L; Bertini, Enrico; Sperle, Karen; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Tonduti, Davide; Valente, Enza Maria; Travaglini, Lorena; Sistermans, Erik A; Bernard, Geneviève; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Østergaard, John R; Friederich, Richard L; Fawzi Elsaid, Mahmoud; Schieving, Jolanda H; Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Orcesi, Simona; Steenweg, Marjan E; van Berkel, Carola G M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Abbink, Truus E M; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Hobson, Grace M; Wolf, Nicole I

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic etiology of the X-linked disorder “Hypomyelination of Early Myelinating Structures” (HEMS). Methods We included 16 patients from 10 families diagnosed with HEMS by brain MRI criteria. Exome sequencing was used to search for causal mutations. In silico analysis of effects of the mutations on splicing and RNA folding was performed. In vitro gene splicing was examined in RNA from patients’ fibroblasts and an immortalized immature oligodendrocyte cell line after transfection with mutant minigene splicing constructs. Results All patients had unusual hemizygous mutations of PLP1 located in exon 3B (one deletion, one missense and two silent), which is spliced out in isoform DM20, or in intron 3 (five mutations). The deletion led to truncation of PLP1, but not DM20. Four mutations were predicted to affect PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing by creating exonic splicing silencer motifs or new splice donor sites or by affecting the local RNA structure of the PLP1 splice donor site. Four deep intronic mutations were predicted to destabilize a long-distance interaction structure in the secondary PLP1 RNA fragment involved in regulating PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing. Splicing studies in fibroblasts and transfected cells confirmed a decreased PLP1/DM20 ratio. Interpretation Brain structures that normally myelinate early are poorly myelinated in HEMS, while they are the best myelinated structures in Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease, also caused by PLP1 alterations. Our data extend the phenotypic spectrum of PLP1-related disorders indicating that normal PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing is essential for early myelination and support the need to include intron 3 in diagnostic sequencing. PMID:26125040

  7. Addition of electrophilic lipids to actin alters filament structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathophysiological processes associated with oxidative stress lead to the generation of reactive lipid species. Among them, lipids bearing unsaturated aldehyde or ketone moieties can form covalent adducts with cysteine residues and modulate protein function. Through proteomic techniques we have identified actin as a target for the addition of biotinylated analogs of the cyclopentenone prostaglandins 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) and PGA1 in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. This modification could take place in vitro and mapped to the protein C-terminal end. Other electrophilic lipids, like the isoprostane 8-iso-PGA1 and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, also bound to actin. The C-terminal region of actin is important for monomer-monomer interactions and polymerization. Electron microscopy showed that actin treated with 15d-PGJ2 or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal formed filaments which were less abundant and displayed shorter length and altered structure. Streptavidin-gold staining allowed mapping of biotinylated 15d-PGJ2 at sites of filament disruption. These results shed light on the structural implications of actin modification by lipid electrophiles

  8. Selective carboxyl methylation of structurally altered calmodulins in Xenopus oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eucaryotic protein carboxyl methyltransferase specifically modifies atypical D-aspartyl and L-isoaspartyl residues which are generated spontaneously as proteins age. The selectivity of the enzyme for altered proteins in intact cells was explored by co-injecting Xenopus laevis oocytes with S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine and structurally altered calmodulins generated during a 14-day preincubation in vitro. Control experiments indicated that the oocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase was not saturated with endogenous substrates, since protein carboxyl methylation rates could be stimulated up to 8-fold by increasing concentrations of injected calmodulin. The oocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase showed strong selectivities for bovine brain and bacterially synthesized calmodulins which had been preincubated in the presence of 1 mM EDTA relative to calmodulins which had been preincubated with 1 mM CaCl2. Radioactive methyl groups were incorporated into base-stable linkages with recombinant calmodulin as well as into carboxyl methyl esters following its microinjection into oocytes. This base-stable radioactivity most likely represents the trimethylation of lysine 115, a highly conserved post-translational modification which is present in bovine and Xenopus but not in bacterially synthesized calmodulin. Endogenous oocyte calmodulin incorporates radioactivity into both carboxyl methyl esters and into base-stable linkages following microinjection of oocytes with S-adenosyl-[methyl-3H]methionine alone. The rate of oocyte calmodulin carboxyl methylation in injected oocytes is calculated to be similar to that of lysine 115 trimethylation, suggesting that the rate of calmodulin carboxyl methylation is similar to that of calmodulin synthesis. At steady state, oocyte calmodulin contains approximately 0.0002 esters/mol of protein, which turn over rapidly

  9. Alteration in Intrapulmonary Pharmacokinetics of Aerosolized Model Compounds Due to Disruption of the Alveolar Epithelial Barriers Following Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togami, Kohei; Chono, Sumio; Tada, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a lethal lung disease that is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix and a change in lung structure. In this study, intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of aerosolized model compounds were evaluated using rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Aerosol formulations of indocyanine green, 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CF), and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FD; 4.4, 10, 70, and 250 kDa) were administered to rat lungs using a MicroSprayer. Indocyanine green fluorescence signals were significantly weaker in fibrotic lungs than in control lungs and 6-CF and FD concentrations in the plasma of pulmonary fibrotic animals were markedly higher than in the plasma of control animals. Moreover, disrupted epithelial tight junctions, including claudins-1, -3, and -5, were observed in pulmonary fibrotic lesions using immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, destruction of tight junctions on model alveolar epithelial cells (NCI-H441) by transforming growth factor-β1 treatment enhanced the permeability of 6-CF and FDs through NCI-H441 cell monolayers. These results indicate that aerosolized drugs are easily distributed into the plasma after leakage through damaged tight junctions of alveolar epithelium. Therefore, the development of delivery systems for anti-fibrotic agents to improve intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics may be necessary for effective idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis therapy. PMID:26886341

  10. The structure of alteration layers on cast glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alteration layers developed on SRL-165 simulated waste glasses in dilute sodium silicate/bicarbonate leaching solutions have been examined by Secondary Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) using fine-scale, multiple-element depth profiling. Selected samples were examined with an imaging detector system, which demonstrated the horizontal homogeneity of the layer development at all depths within the layer. After 1 day of reaction at 90 degrees C the reaction layer shows depletion of glass elements to a depth of 0.2 μm. The surface of the layer in contact with the solution shows enrichment of Si, Al, and alkali elements even at this short reaction time, suggesting the early stages of development of secondary aluminosilicate phases. With increased reaction time, the layer thickens to about 1.3 μm at 91 days, while the evidence for aluminosilicate development at the surface of the layer becomes more prominent. Penetration of hydrogen into the ''unreacted'' glass proceeds to a depth of about 0.5 μm deeper than the alkali depletion zone. This suggests the mechanism of initial reaction of the glass is by attack of the silicate structure by molecular water or hydroxide ion rather than by alkali-hydrogen ion exchange. The simple structure of the layers developed in the silicate solution is in contrast to the complexity of layer structure found when glasses are reacted in deionized water. Since the conditions for geologic disposal will be closer to those used in the silicate leaching experiments, these results hold promise for the ability to model the system to predict long-term performance after disposal in a repository

  11. Pulmonary vasculature in COPD: The silent component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Isabel; Piccari, Lucilla; Barberà, Joan Albert

    2016-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow obstruction that results from an inflammatory process affecting the airways and lung parenchyma. Despite major abnormalities taking place in bronchial and alveolar structures, changes in pulmonary vessels also represent an important component of the disease. Alterations in vessel structure are highly prevalent and abnormalities in their function impair gas exchange and may result in pulmonary hypertension (PH), an important complication of the disease associated with reduced survival and worse clinical course. The prevalence of PH is high in COPD, particularly in advanced stages, although it remains of mild to moderate severity in the majority of cases. Endothelial dysfunction, with imbalance between vasodilator/vasoconstrictive mediators, is a key determinant of changes taking place in pulmonary vasculature in COPD. Cigarette smoke products may perturb endothelial cells and play a critical role in initiating vascular changes. The concurrence of inflammation, hypoxia and emphysema further contributes to vascular damage and to the development of PH. The use of drugs that target endothelium-dependent signalling pathways, currently employed in pulmonary arterial hypertension, is discouraged in COPD due to the lack of efficacy observed in randomized clinical trials and because there is compelling evidence indicating that these drugs may worsen pulmonary gas exchange. The subgroup of patients with severe PH should be ideally managed in centres with expertise in both PH and chronic lung diseases because alterations of pulmonary vasculature might resemble those observed in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because this condition entails poor prognosis, it warrants specialist treatment. PMID:27028849

  12. Development of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease activity rating scale: reliability, validity and factorial structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Michiko; Takai, Kenichi; Nakajima, Kazuo; Kagawa, Koujiro

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Activity Rating Scale (CARS) to measure life-related activity in patients with COPD, and to confirm its reliability and constructive validity in a factorial structure model. The subjects consisted of 114 patients with COPD. An 88-item life-related activity list, generated previously from a literature review, was administered. The secondary structural model consisted of four factors with 12 items. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis by structural equation modeling showed the fit criteria to be statistically significant. The internal consistency of the 12 items was highly reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.924). The CARS score was correlated with pulmonary function tests, breathlessness, and the health-related quality of life (QOL) scales in Pearson correlation coefficient. The results suggest that the COPD Activity Rating Scale is a valid scale for the assessment of life-related activity in patients with COPD. PMID:12603718

  13. Diet-Induced Alterations in Gut Microflora Contribute to Lethal Pulmonary Damage in TLR2/TLR4-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewei Ji

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intake of Western diet has driven an epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome, but how it induces mortality remains unclear. Here, we show that chronic intake of a high-fat diet (HFD, not a low-fat diet, leads to severe pulmonary damage and mortality in mice deficient in Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (DKO. Diet-induced pulmonary lesions are blocked by antibiotic treatment and are transmissible to wild-type mice upon either cohousing or fecal transplantation, pointing to the existence of bacterial pathogens. Indeed, diet and innate deficiency exert significant impact on gut microbiota composition. Thus, chronic intake of HFD promotes severe pulmonary damage and mortality in DKO mice in part via gut dysbiosis, a finding that may be important for immunodeficient patients, particularly those on chemotherapy or radiotherapy, where gut-microbiota-caused conditions are often life threatening.

  14. 18 CFR 1304.209 - Land-based structures/alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land-based structures... APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS TVA-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.209 Land-based structures/alterations. (a) Except...

  15. Diet-induced alterations in gut microflora contribute to lethal pulmonary damage in TLR2/TLR4 deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yewei Ji; Shengyi Sun; Julia K. Goodrich; Hana Kim; Angela C. Poole; Gerald E. Duhamel; Ruth E. Ley; Ling Qi

    2014-01-01

    Chronic intake of Western diet has driven an epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome, but how it induces mortality remains unclear. Here we show that chronic intake of a high-fat diet (HFD), not a low-fat diet (LFD), leads to severe pulmonary damage and mortality in mice deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 (DKO hereafter). Diet-induced pulmonary lesions are blocked by antibiotics treatment and transmissible to wildtype mice upon either cohousing or fecal transplantation, pointin...

  16. Structural health monitoring (vibration) as a tool for identifying structural alterations of the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawchuk, Gregory N; Hartvigsen, Jan; Edgecombe, Tiffany;

    2016-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an engineering technique used to identify mechanical abnormalities not readily apparent through other means. Recently, SHM has been adapted for use in biological systems, but its invasive nature limits its clinical application. As such, the purpose of this...... project was to determine if a non-invasive form of SHM could identify structural alterations in the spines of living human subjects. Lumbar spines of 10 twin pairs were visualized by magnetic resonance imaging then assessed by a blinded radiologist to determine whether twin pairs were structurally...

  17. Bone marrow-derived stromal cells are invasive and hyperproliferative and alter transforming growth factor-α-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madala, Satish K; Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Schmidt, Stephanie; Davidson, Cynthia; Ikegami, Machiko; Hardie, William D

    2014-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is caused by excessive proliferation and accumulation of stromal cells. Fibrocytes are bone marrow (BM)-derived cells that contribute to pathologic stromal cell accumulation in human lung disease. However, the cellular source for these stromal cells and the degree of fibrocyte contribution to pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. To determine the etiology of stromal cell excess during pulmonary fibrosis, we measured fibrocytes during the progression of fibrosis in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-α transgenic mouse model. Lung epithelial-specific overexpression of TGF-α led to progressive pulmonary fibrosis associated with increased accumulation of fibrocytes in the fibrotic lesions. Although reconstitution of BM cells into TGF-α mice demonstrated accumulation of these cells in fibrotic lesions, the majority of the cells did not express α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting that fibrocytes did not transform into myofibroblasts. To explore the mechanisms of fibrocytes in pulmonary fibrogenesis, adoptive cell-transfer experiments were performed. Purified fibrocytes were transferred intravenously into TGF-α transgenic mice, and fibrosis endpoints were compared with controls. Analysis of lung histology and hydroxyproline levels demonstrated that fibrocyte transfers augment TGF-α-induced lung fibrosis. A major subset of TGF-α-induced fibrocytes expressed CD44 and displayed excessive invasiveness, which is attenuated in the presence of anti-CD44 antibodies. Coculture experiments of resident fibroblasts with fibrocytes demonstrated that fibrocytes stimulate proliferation of resident fibroblasts. In summary, fibrocytes are increased in the progressive, fibrotic lesions of TGF-α-transgenic mice and activate resident fibroblasts to cause severe lung disease. PMID:24199692

  18. The structure of a model pulmonary surfactant as revealed by scanning force microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    von Nahmen, A; Schenk, M.; Sieber, M; Amrein, M

    1997-01-01

    The structures formed by a pulmonary surfactant model system of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), and recombinant surfactant-associated protein C (SP-C) were studied using scanning force microscopy (SFM) on Langmuir-Blodgett films. The films appeared to be phase separated, in agreement with earlier investigations by fluorescence light microscopy. There were smooth polygonal patches of mostly lipid, surrounded by a corrugated rim rich in SP-C. When ...

  19. Compositional and structural characterization of monolayers and bilayers composed of native pulmonary surfactant from wild type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Hansen, Soren; Berzina, Zane;

    2013-01-01

    This work comprises a structural and dynamical study of monolayers and bilayers composed of native pulmonary surfactant from mice. Spatially resolved information was obtained using fluorescence (confocal, wide field and two photon excitation) and atomic force microscopy methods. Lipid mass...

  20. Pulmonary Hypertension and Computed Tomography Measurement of Small Pulmonary Vessels in Severe Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Shin; George R. Washko; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Diaz, Alejandro; Silverman, Edwin K.; Hoffman, Eric; Fessler, Henry E.; Criner, Gerard J.; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Scharf, Steven M; Martinez, Fernando J; Reilly, John J.; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Vascular alteration of small pulmonary vessels is one of the characteristic features of pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The in vivo relationship between pulmonary hypertension and morphological alteration of the small pulmonary vessels has not been assessed in patients with severe emphysema.

  1. Validation of geometric measurements of the left atrium and pulmonary veins for analysis of reverse structural remodeling following ablation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Holmes, D. R., III; Gunawan, M. S.; Ge, X.; Karwoski, R. A.; Breen, J. F.; Packer, D. L.; Robb, R. A.

    2012-03-01

    Geometric analysis of the left atrium and pulmonary veins is important for studying reverse structural remodeling following cardiac ablation therapy. It has been shown that the left atrium decreases in volume and the pulmonary vein ostia decrease in diameter following ablation therapy. Most analysis techniques, however, require laborious manual tracing of image cross-sections. Pulmonary vein diameters are typically measured at the junction between the left atrium and pulmonary veins, called the pulmonary vein ostia, with manually drawn lines on volume renderings or on image cross-sections. In this work, we describe a technique for making semi-automatic measurements of the left atrium and pulmonary vein ostial diameters from high resolution CT scans and multi-phase datasets. The left atrium and pulmonary veins are segmented from a CT volume using a 3D volume approach and cut planes are interactively positioned to separate the pulmonary veins from the body of the left atrium. The cut plane is also used to compute the pulmonary vein ostial diameter. Validation experiments are presented which demonstrate the ability to repeatedly measure left atrial volume and pulmonary vein diameters from high resolution CT scans, as well as the feasibility of this approach for analyzing dynamic, multi-phase datasets. In the high resolution CT scans the left atrial volume measurements show high repeatability with approximately 4% intra-rater repeatability and 8% inter-rater repeatability. Intra- and inter-rater repeatability for pulmonary vein diameter measurements range from approximately 2 to 4 mm. For the multi-phase CT datasets, differences in left atrial volumes between a standard slice-by-slice approach and the proposed 3D volume approach are small, with percent differences on the order of 3% to 6%.

  2. The pulmonary extracellular lining.

    OpenAIRE

    George, G; Hook, G E

    1984-01-01

    The extracellular lining of the lungs is reviewed. The pulmonary extracellular lining is a complex mixture of phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates which is absolutely essential for the maintenance of normal pulmonary functions such as gas exchange. Without the lining the lungs would collapse. Alterations in the pulmonary extracellular lining may underlie some disease conditions induced by toxic agents, especially those which interfere with the formation of pulmonary surfactant. The extra...

  3. Inhalative IL-10 Attenuates Pulmonary Inflammation following Hemorrhagic Shock without Major Alterations of the Systemic Inflammatory Response

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Kobbe; Philipp Lichte; Helen Schreiber; Lucy Kathleen Reiss; Stefan Uhlig; Hans-Christoph Pape; Roman Pfeifer

    2012-01-01

    Several studies report immunomodulatory effects of endogenous IL-10 after trauma. The present study investigates the effect of inhalative IL-10 administration on systemic and pulmonary inflammation in hemorrhagic shock. Male C57/BL6 mice (8 animals per group) were subjected to pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock for 1.5 hrs followed by resuscitation and inhalative administration of either 50  μ L PBS (Shock group) or 50  μ g/kg recombinant mouse IL-10 dissolved in 50  μ L PBS (Shock + IL-10...

  4. Altered cytoskeletal structures in transformed cells exhibiting obviously metastatic capabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZHONGXIANG; WUBINGQUAN; 等

    1990-01-01

    Cytoskeletal changes in transformed cells (LM-51) eshibiting obviously metastatic capabilities were investigated by utilization of double-fluorescent labelling through combinations of:(1) tubulin indirect immunofluorescence plus Rhodamine-phalloidin staining of F-actins;(2) indirect immunofluorescent staining with α-actinin polyclonal-and vinculin monoclonal antibodies.The LM-51 cells which showed metastatic index of >50% were derived from lung metastasis in nude mice after subcutaneous inoculation of human highly metastatic tumor DNA transfected NIH3T3 cell transformants.The parent NIH3T3 cells exhibited well-organized microtubules,prominent stress fibers and adhesion plaques while their transformants showed remarkable cytoskeletal alterations:(1)reduced microtubules but increased MTOC fluorescence;(2)disrupted stress fibers and fewer adhesion plaques with their protein components redistributed in the cytoplasm;(3)Factin-and α-actinin/vinculin aggregates appeared in the cytoplasm.These aggregates were dot-like,varied in size(0.1-0.4μm) and number,located near the ventral surface of the cells.TPA-induced actin/vinculin bodies were studied too.Indications that actin and α-actinin/vinculin redistribution might be important alterations involved in the expression of metastatic capabilities of LM-51 transformed cells were discussed.

  5. Surface based cardiac and respiratory motion extraction for pulmonary structures from multi-phase CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Berg, Jens; Barschdorf, Hans; Blaffert, Thomas; Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian

    2007-03-01

    During medical imaging and therapeutic interventions, pulmonary structures are in general subject to cardiac and respiratory motion. This motion leads potentially to artefacts and blurring in the resulting image material and to uncertainties during interventions. This paper presents a new automatic approach for surface based motion tracking of pulmonary structures and reports on the results for cardiac and respiratory induced motion. The method applies an active shape approach to ad-hoc generated surface representations of the pulmonary structures for phase to phase surface tracking. Input of the method are multi-phase CT data, either cardiac or respiratory gated. The iso-surface representing the transition between air or lung parenchyma to soft tissue, is triangulated for a selected phase p 0. An active shape procedure is initialised in the image of phase p I using the generated surface in p 0. The used internal energy term penalizes shape deformation as compared to p 0. The process is iterated for all phases p i to p i+1 of the complete cycle. Since the mesh topology is the same for all phases, the vertices of the triangular mesh can be treated as pseudo-landmarks defining tissue trajectories. A dense motion field is interpolated. The motion field was especially designed to estimate the error margins for radiotherapy. In the case of respiratory motion extraction, a validation on ten biphasic thorax CT images (2.5mm slice distance) was performed with expert landmarks placed at vessel bifurcations. The mean error on landmark position was below 2.6mm. We further applied the method to ECG gated images and estimated the influence of the heart beat on lung tissue displacement.

  6. Altered intrahemispheric structural connectivity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS is a common developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by tics and frequent psychiatric comorbidities, often causing significant disability. Tic generation has been linked to disturbed networks of brain areas involved in planning, controlling and execution of actions, particularly structural and functional disorders in the striatum and cortico–striato–thalamo–cortical loops. We therefore applied structural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to characterize changes in intrahemispheric white matter connectivity in cortico-subcortical circuits engaged in motor control in 15 GTS patients without psychiatric comorbidities. White matter connectivity was analyzed by probabilistic fiber tractography between 12 predefined cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Connectivity values were combined with measures of clinical severity rated by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS. GTS patients showed widespread structural connectivity deficits. Lower connectivity values were found specifically in tracts connecting the supplementary motor areas (SMA with basal ganglia (pre-SMA–putamen, SMA–putamen and in frontal cortico-cortical circuits. There was an overall trend towards negative correlations between structural connectivity in these tracts and YGTSS scores. Structural connectivity of frontal brain networks involved in planning, controlling and executing actions is reduced in adult GTS patients which is associated with tic severity. These findings are in line with the concept of GTS as a neurodevelopmental disorder of brain immaturity.

  7. Alterations in archaeological bones thermally treated: structure and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological bones found close to Mexico city (Tlatelcomila) have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Small Angle X-ray Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. These techniques, which are not conventionally used in archaeological research, provided useful information. The boiled bones were clearly distinguished from grilled bones. The degree of deterioration of the bone structure was quantified through parameters such as gyration radius or fractal dimension. The morphology followed the structural modifications and changes resulting from thermic exposure. (Author) 23 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  8. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor gene deletion alters bleomycin-induced lung injury, but not development of pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habgood, Anthony N; Tatler, Amanda L; Porte, Joanne; Wahl, Sharon M; Laurent, Geoffrey J; John, Alison E; Johnson, Simon R; Jenkins, Gisli

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, fatal disease with limited treatment options. Protease-mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activation has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism of lung fibrosis. Protease activity in the lung is tightly regulated by protease inhibitors, particularly secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). The bleomycin model of lung fibrosis was used to determine the effect of increased protease activity in the lungs of Slpi(-/-) mice following injury. Slpi(-/-), and wild-type, mice received oropharyngeal administration of bleomycin (30 IU) and the development of pulmonary fibrosis was assessed. Pro and active forms of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were measured. Lung fibrosis was determined by collagen subtype-specific gene expression, hydroxyproline concentration, and histological assessment. Alveolar TGF-β activation was measured using bronchoalveolar lavage cell pSmad2 levels and global TGF-β activity was assessed by pSmad2 immunohistochemistry. The active-MMP-9 to pro-MMP-9 ratio was significantly increased in Slpi(-/-) animals compared with wild-type animals, demonstrating enhanced metalloproteinase activity. Wild-type animals showed an increase in TGF-β activation following bleomycin, with a progressive and sustained increase in collagen type I, alpha 1 (Col1α1), III, alpha 1(Col3α1), IV, alpha 1(Col4α1) mRNA expression, and a significant increase in total lung collagen 28 days post bleomycin. In contrast Slpi(-/-) mice showed no significant increase of alveolar TGF-β activity following bleomycin, above their already elevated levels, although global TGF-β activity did increase. Slpi(-/-) mice had impaired collagen gene expression but animals demonstrated minimal reduction in lung fibrosis compared with wild-type animals. These data suggest that enhanced proteolysis does not further enhance TGF-β activation, and inhibits sustained Col1α1, Col3α1, and Col4α1 gene expression

  9. Altered PLP1 splicing causes hypomyelination of early myelinating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kevelam, Sietske H; Taube, Jennifer R; van Spaendonk, Rosalina M L;

    2015-01-01

    causal mutations. In silico analysis of effects of the mutations on splicing and RNA folding was performed. In vitro gene splicing was examined in RNA from patients' fibroblasts and an immortalized immature oligodendrocyte cell line after transfection with mutant minigene splicing constructs. RESULTS......: All patients had unusual hemizygous mutations of PLP1 located in exon 3B (one deletion, one missense and two silent), which is spliced out in isoform DM20, or in intron 3 (five mutations). The deletion led to truncation of PLP1, but not DM20. Four mutations were predicted to affect PLP1/DM20...... alternative splicing by creating exonic splicing silencer motifs or new splice donor sites or by affecting the local RNA structure of the PLP1 splice donor site. Four deep intronic mutations were predicted to destabilize a long-distance interaction structure in the secondary PLP1 RNA fragment involved in...

  10. Do artificial structures alter marine invertebrate genetic makeup?

    OpenAIRE

    Fauvelot, Cecile; Costantini, Federica; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Abbiati, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Human-made structures are increasingly built in marine coastal habitats for a variety of purposes. Offshore oil and gas production platforms are among the largest examples. Yet, biological effects of these increasing density artificial substrata are under evaluated. The objective of our study is to investigate the possible role of offshore platforms in modifying the genetic composition of populations of natural rocky shores species. The serpulid Pomatoceros triqueter was used as a model, and ...

  11. Altered Structural Brain Networks in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kiho; Ahtam, Banu; Haehn, Daniel; Peters, Jurriaan M; Warfield, Simon K; Sahin, Mustafa; Ellen Grant, P

    2016-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by benign hamartomas in multiple organs including the brain and its clinical phenotypes may be associated with abnormal neural connections. We aimed to provide the first detailed findings on disrupted structural brain networks in TSC patients. Structural whole-brain connectivity maps were constructed using structural and diffusion MRI in 20 TSC (age range: 3-24 years) and 20 typically developing (TD; 3-23 years) subjects. We assessed global (short- and long-association and interhemispheric fibers) and regional white matter connectivity, and performed graph theoretical analysis using gyral pattern- and atlas-based node parcellations. Significantly higher mean diffusivity (MD) was shown in TSC patients than in TD controls throughout the whole brain and positively correlated with tuber load severity. A significant increase in MD was mainly influenced by an increase in radial diffusivity. Furthermore, interhemispheric connectivity was particularly reduced in TSC, which leads to increased network segregation within hemispheres. TSC patients with developmental delay (DD) showed significantly higher MD than those without DD primarily in intrahemispheric connections. Our analysis allows non-biased determination of differential white matter involvement, which may provide better measures of "lesion load" and lead to a better understanding of disease mechanisms. PMID:25750257

  12. Experimental sulfate amendment alters peatland bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickman, R J S; Fulthorpe, R R; Coleman Wasik, J K; Engstrom, D R; Mitchell, C P J

    2016-10-01

    As part of a long-term, peatland-scale sulfate addition experiment, the impact of varying sulfate deposition on bacterial community responses was assessed using 16S tag encoded pyrosequencing. In three separate areas of the peatland, sulfate manipulations included an eight year quadrupling of atmospheric sulfate deposition (experimental), a 3-year recovery to background deposition following 5years of elevated deposition (recovery), and a control area. Peat concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative neurotoxin, were measured, the production of which is attributable to a growing list of microorganisms, including many sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. The total bacterial and Deltaproteobacterial community structures in the experimental treatment differed significantly from those in the control and recovery treatments that were either indistinguishable or very similar to one another. Notably, the relatively rapid return (within three years) of bacterial community structure in the recovery treatment to a state similar to the control, demonstrates significant resilience of the peatland bacterial community to changes in atmospheric sulfate deposition. Changes in MeHg accumulation between sulfate treatments correlated with changes in the Deltaproteobacterial community, suggesting that sulfate may affect MeHg production through changes in the community structure of this group. PMID:27267720

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and altered risk of lung cancer in a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been consistently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, previous studies have had limited ability to determine whether the association is due to smoking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE population-based case-control study recruited 2100 cases and 2120 controls, of whom 1934 cases and 2108 controls reported about diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD (chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema, or asthma more than 1 year before enrollment. We estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using logistic regression. After adjustment for smoking, other previous lung diseases, and study design variables, lung cancer risk was elevated among individuals with a history of chronic bronchitis (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5, emphysema (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.8, or COPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 2.0-3.1. Among current smokers, association between chronic bronchitis and lung cancer was strongest among lighter smokers. Asthma was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in males (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the associations of personal history of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and COPD with increased risk of lung cancer are not entirely due to smoking. Inflammatory processes may both contribute to COPD and be important for lung carcinogenesis.

  14. Altered Right Ventricular Kinetic Energy Work Density and Viscous Energy Dissipation in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Pilot Study Using 4D Flow MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q Joyce Han

    Full Text Available Right ventricular (RV function has increasingly being recognized as an important predictor for morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The increased RV after-load increase RV work in PAH. We used time-resolved 3D phase contrast MRI (4D flow MRI to derive RV kinetic energy (KE work density and energy loss in the pulmonary artery (PA to better characterize RV work in PAH patients.4D flow and standard cardiac cine images were obtained in ten functional class I/II patients with PAH and nine healthy subjects. For each individual, we calculated the RV KE work density and the amount of viscous dissipation in the PA.PAH patients had alterations in flow patterns in both the RV and the PA compared to healthy subjects. PAH subjects had significantly higher RV KE work density than healthy subjects (94.7±33.7 mJ/mL vs. 61.7±14.8 mJ/mL, p = 0.007 as well as a much greater percent PA energy loss (21.1±6.4% vs. 2.2±1.3%, p = 0.0001 throughout the cardiac cycle. RV KE work density and percent PA energy loss had mild and moderate correlations with RV ejection fraction.This study has quantified two kinetic energy metrics to assess RV function using 4D flow. RV KE work density and PA viscous energy loss not only distinguished healthy subjects from patients, but also provided distinction amongst PAH patients. These metrics hold promise as imaging markers for RV function.

  15. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  16. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S Hubbard

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC, whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease

  17. Effect of ageing and pulmonary inflammation on the incidence and number of cross-bridging structures in pneumothorax patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Koji; Aburano, Tamio (Dept. of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical Univ., Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan)), email: tomoaki3est@gmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Background. There is an improved prognosis for T4 non-small-cell lung cancer in patients who show particular patterns of direct mediastinal invasion. The particular patterns suggest the presence of direct pathways other than the pulmonary hilum between each of the lungs and the mediastinum/chest wall. Purpose. To determine the incidence and number of such direct pathways in pneumothorax patients as well as the factors that affect the development of these pathways. Material and Methods. Two radiologists independently analyzed multidetector computed tomographic images of 81 patients with pneumothorax to assess the incidence and distribution pattern of the cross-bridging structures in the pleural cavity. Results. Cross-bridging structures were observed in the right pneumothorax in 34/54 (63%) patients and in the left pneumothorax in 19/32 (59%) patients. The number of cross-bridging structures was found to be positively correlated with ageing and pulmonary disease. The distribution patterns of cross-bridging structures were found to be specific in formation and often in repeated locations, regardless of the presence of pulmonary disease or the age of the patient. Conclusion. Cross-bridging structures in pneumothoraces were found more frequently in older patients and in patients with pulmonary disease. However, some of the cross-bridging structures may have been congenital because of their specific formations and repeated locations

  18. Effect of ageing and pulmonary inflammation on the incidence and number of cross-bridging structures in pneumothorax patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. There is an improved prognosis for T4 non-small-cell lung cancer in patients who show particular patterns of direct mediastinal invasion. The particular patterns suggest the presence of direct pathways other than the pulmonary hilum between each of the lungs and the mediastinum/chest wall. Purpose. To determine the incidence and number of such direct pathways in pneumothorax patients as well as the factors that affect the development of these pathways. Material and Methods. Two radiologists independently analyzed multidetector computed tomographic images of 81 patients with pneumothorax to assess the incidence and distribution pattern of the cross-bridging structures in the pleural cavity. Results. Cross-bridging structures were observed in the right pneumothorax in 34/54 (63%) patients and in the left pneumothorax in 19/32 (59%) patients. The number of cross-bridging structures was found to be positively correlated with ageing and pulmonary disease. The distribution patterns of cross-bridging structures were found to be specific in formation and often in repeated locations, regardless of the presence of pulmonary disease or the age of the patient. Conclusion. Cross-bridging structures in pneumothoraces were found more frequently in older patients and in patients with pulmonary disease. However, some of the cross-bridging structures may have been congenital because of their specific formations and repeated locations

  19. Composition, structure and mechanical properties define performance of pulmonary surfactant membranes and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Elisa; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory surface in the mammalian lung is stabilized by pulmonary surfactant, a membrane-based system composed of multiple lipids and specific proteins, the primary function of which is to minimize the surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface, optimizing the mechanics of breathing and avoiding alveolar collapse, especially at the end of expiration. The goal of the present review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the structure, lipid-protein interactions and mechanical features of surfactant membranes and films and how these properties correlate with surfactant biological function inside the lungs. Surfactant mechanical properties can be severely compromised by different agents, which lead to surfactant inhibition and ultimately contributes to the development of pulmonary disorders and pathologies in newborns, children and adults. A detailed comprehension of the unique mechanical and rheological properties of surfactant layers is crucial for the diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases, either by analyzing the contribution of surfactant impairment to the pathophysiology or by improving the formulations in surfactant replacement therapies. Finally, a short review is also included on the most relevant experimental techniques currently employed to evaluate lung surfactant mechanics, rheology, and inhibition and reactivation processes. PMID:25260665

  20. Interstitial pulmonary alterations in visceral leishmaniasis: evaluation with high-resolution computed tomography; Alteracoes pulmonares intersticiais na leishmaniose visceral: avaliacao pela tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Norma Selma Santos; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, also called kala-azar, is a disease caused by a protozoan, the Leishmania donovani chagasi, that comprises reticuloendothelial system with involvement of the liver, spleen and bone marrow. It is endemic in some areas of northeastern Brazil and other countries of Latin America and Africa. The pathogenesis is related to the immunologic system of patients that present with the inability to activate the phagocytosis of the macrophages. As occurs in the liver and kidneys, the lungs are also involved with interstitial abnormalities caused by Leishmania that are not dependent upon the presence of the parasite. The histopathologic changes described are the involvement of inter alveolar septal in three different phases, irregularly and diffusely throughout the whole pulmonary parenchyma. This work analyzed high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax in 17 patients with visceral leishmaniasis in order to detect and characterize the abnormalities described in the anatomo pathologic findings reported in the literature. The HRCT is being used to evaluate chronic interstitial lung disease in a good correlation with histologic findings. The most common findings detected by HRCT were the reticular opacities that include peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and interlobular septal thickening an ground-glass opacity. The HRCT suggests that similar changes to that found in alveolar structures may occur in the secondary pulmonary lobule and that the involvement in the parenchymal interstitium represents the findings reported by pathological studies in visceral leishmaniasis. (author)

  1. Bedfordshire County Structure Plan. Proposed alterations -Public participation statement. Policy 97: Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document describes steps taken, in accord with the Town and Country Planning Act 1971, by Bedfordshire County Council, submitting proposed Alterations to the County Structure Plan to the Secretary of State for the Environment. When approving the submission the Council decided to add an additional Alteration dealing with nuclear waste: as this had not been the subject of public consultation the Council decided to seek the public's views on the proposal before submitting the Alteration. The arrangements for consultation and a list of persons and organizations consulted are given, together with the arrangements for considering comments. (U.K.)

  2. Bedfordshire County Structure Plan. Proposed alterations. Results of public consultation. Policy 97: Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document refers to Alterations to the County Structure Plan, proposed by Bedfordshire County Council and submitted to the Secretary of State for the Environment. An additional Alteration initiated at the County Council's meeting, dealing with nuclear waste, had not been the subject of prior public consultation. Consultation had since been arranged, and the present document summarises the responses that have been received, and describes the next action to be taken. (U.K.)

  3. Organophosphorous pesticide exposure alters sperm chromatin structure in Mexican agricultural workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to evaluate alterations in sperm chromatin structure in men occupationally exposed to a mixture of organophosphorus pesticides (OP) because these alterations have been proposed to compromise male fertility and offspring development. Chromatin susceptibility to in situ acid-induced denaturation structure was assessed by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Urinary levels of alkylphosphates (DAP) were used to assess exposure. Diethylthiophosphate (DETP) was the most frequent OP metabolite found in urine samples indicating that compounds derived from thiophosphoric acid were mainly used. Chromatin structure was altered in most samples. About 75% of semen samples were classified as having poor fertility potential (>30% of Percentage of DNA Fragmentation Index [DFI%]), whereas individuals without OP occupational exposure showed average DFI% values of 9.9%. Most parameters of conventional semen analysis were within normality except for the presence of immature cells (IGC) in which 82% of the samples were above reference values. There were significant direct associations between urinary DETP concentrations and mean DFI and SD-DFI but marginally (P = 0.079) with DFI%, after adjustment for potential confounders, including IGC. This suggests that OP exposure alters sperm chromatin condensation, which could be reflected in an increased number of cells with greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation. This study showed that human sperm chromatin is a sensitive target to OP exposure and may contribute to adverse reproductive outcomes. Further studies on the relevance of protein phosphorylation as a possible mechanism by which OP alter sperm chromatin are required

  4. A REVIEW OF THE STRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS IN THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES OF THE AGING RHESUS MONKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Alan; Kemper, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Like humans, rhesus monkeys show cognitive decline and this review considers what structural age-related changes underlie this decline. Some structural measures do not alter significantly with age. These include brain weight, overall cortical thickness; numbers of cortical neurons; and numbers of astrocytes and microglial cells. Other structural measures change with age, but the change does not correlate with cognitive decline. These changes include nerve fiber loss from some fiber tracts, de...

  5. Alterations in the activity and structure of pectin methylesterase treated by high pressure carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linyan; Wu, Jihong; Hu, Xiaosong; Zhi, Xian; Liao, Xiaojun

    2009-03-11

    The influence of high pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) on the activity and structure of pectin methylesterase (PME) from orange was investigated. The pressures were 8-30 MPa, temperature 55 degrees C and time 10 min. HPCD caused significant inactivation on PME, the lowest residual activity was about 9.3% at 30 MPa. The SDS-PAGE electrophoretic behavior of HPCD-treated PME was not altered, while changes in the secondary and tertiary structures were found. The beta-structure fraction in the secondary structure decreased and the fluorescence intensity increased as HPCD pressures were elevated. After 7-day storage at 4 degrees C, no alteration of its activity and no reversion of its beta-structure fraction were observed, while its fluorescence intensity further decreased. PMID:19256556

  6. Ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers: a scanning electron microscopic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Kasirga, Ugur Baran; Celik, Hakan Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment. PMID:26309532

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging structural alterations in brain of alcohol abusers and its association with impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Samuel; Morales, Julia L; Senabre, Isabel; Romero, Maria J; Beltran, Miguel A; Flores-Bellver, Miguel; Barcia, Jorge M; Romero, Francisco J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the suggestion that impulsivity plays a central role in the transfer from a recreational drug use to a substance use disorder, very few studies focused on neurobiological markers for addiction. This study aimed to identify volumetric alterations in a sample of patients with mild alcohol use disorder with a short history of alcohol use, compared with a control group, and also focused on its association with impulsivity levels. Most magnetic resonance imaging studies have focused on severe alcohol use disorder, formerly called alcohol-dependent patients, showing alcohol-related structural alterations and their association with alcohol use history variables but not with personality parameters like impulsivity. Our hypothesis is that our group of alcohol users may already display structural alterations especially in brain regions related to inhibitory control like medial-prefrontal regions, and that those structural alterations could be more associated to personality traits like impulsivity than to drug use variables. Our results clearly demonstrate that our population showed lower regional grey and white matter volumes in the medial-prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, as well as higher regional white matter volume in the ventral striatum and the internal capsule. Volumetric alterations were associated to the Barratt's impulsivity score: the more impulsive the subjects, the lower the medial-prefrontal cortex grey matter volume. PMID:25988724

  8. Pulmonary vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélot, C; Naeije, R

    2011-04-01

    Diseases of the pulmonary vasculature are a cause of increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and pulmonary arterial hypertension or decreased PVR in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations on hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, portal hypertension, or cavopulmonary anastomosis. All these conditions are associated with a decrease in both arterial PO2 and PCO2. Gas exchange in pulmonary vascular diseases with increased PVR is characterized by a shift of ventilation and perfusion to high ventilation-perfusion ratios, a mild to moderate increase in perfusion to low ventilation-perfusion ratios, and an increased physiologic dead space. Hypoxemia in these patients is essentially explained by altered ventilation-perfusion matching amplified by a decreased mixed venous PO2 caused by a low cardiac output. Hypocapnia is accounted for by hyperventilation, which is essentially related to an increased chemosensitivity. A cardiac shunt on a patent foramen ovale may be a cause of severe hypoxemia in a proportion of patients with pulmonary hypertension and an increase in right atrial pressure. Gas exchange in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations is characterized by variable degree of pulmonary shunting and/or diffusion-perfusion imbalance. Hypocapnia is caused by an increased ventilation in relation to an increased pulmonary blood flow with direct peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation by shunted mixed venous blood flow. PMID:23737196

  9. Pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  10. Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer's disease

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Moosung; Jung, JaeHwang; Yu, Hyeonseung; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Shinhwa; Jeong, Yong; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative label-free imaging of mouse whole brain tissue slices with sub-micrometre resolution, employing holographic microscopy and an automated scanning platform. From the measured light field images, scattering coefficients and anisotropies are quantitatively retrieved, which enables access to structural information about brain tissues. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that these scattering parameters enable us to quantitatively address structural alteration in the brain tissues of mice with Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Altered starch structure is associated with endosperm modification in Quality Protein Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbon, Bryan C.; Wang, Xuelu; Larkins, Brian A

    2003-01-01

    The biochemical basis of modified kernel texture in Quality Protein Maize (QPM) is poorly understood. Proteomic analysis of several QPM lines indicated increased levels of granule-bound starch synthase I in the soluble nonzein protein fraction of these genotypes. Increased extraction of this enzyme reflected a change in starch structure, which was manifested as shorter amylopectin branches and increased starch-granule swelling. In mature kernels, these alterations in starch structure were ass...

  12. Inspiratory muscle training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: structural adaptation and physiologic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Sarmiento, Alba; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Guell, Rosa; Barreiro, Esther; Hernandez, Nuria; Mota, Susana; Sangenis, Merce; Broquetas, Joan M; Casan, Pere; Gea, Joaquim

    2002-12-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of a specific inspiratory muscle training protocol on the structure of inspiratory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fourteen patients (males, FEV1, 24 +/- 7% predicted) were randomized to either inspiratory muscle or sham training groups. Supervised breathing using a threshold inspiratory device was performed 30 minutes per day, five times a week, for 5 consecutive weeks. The inspiratory training group was subjected to inspiratory loading equivalent to 40 to 50% of their maximal inspiratory pressure. Biopsies from external intercostal muscles and vastus lateralis (control muscle) were taken before and after the training period. Muscle samples were processed for morphometric analyses using monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain isoforms I and II. Increases in both the strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles were observed in the inspiratory training group. This improvement was associated with increases in the proportion of type I fibers (by approximately 38%, p < 0.05) and in the size of type II fibers (by approximately 21%, p < 0.05) in the external intercostal muscles. No changes were observed in the control muscle. The study demonstrates that inspiratory training induces a specific functional improvement of the inspiratory muscles and adaptive changes in the structure of external intercostal muscles. PMID:12406842

  13. Compared study of the local structure of alteration products of SON 68 glass and natural gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a contribution in the understanding of the long time behavior of alteration products of the glass SON 68, used to simulate the nuclear glass R7T7. The local structure around Zirconium and iron has been probed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy in altered surface layer of glass SON 68. Alteration products of this glass have been prepared for short (3 hours to 7 days) and long (17 months) time, using various indexes of saturation for the leaching solution with respect to the Si content of the glass (from 0 to 90 %). The evolution of the local structure around Fe has also been studied in recent and old natural ferric gels. Zr, Fe- L2,3 XANES and Zr, Fe-K EXAFS spectroscopies have shown that, in the pristine glass, these elements are connected to the polymeric network. Zr is found in an environment close to that of a zircon-silicate containing Na and Ca. Trivalent Fe is a network former. The leached layer of glass SON 68 is constituted of poorly ordered Zr-and Fe-(oxi-hydr)oxides that may have been formed by a mechanism of dissolution/precipitation; a relict phase with the same Zr local structure as that observed in the pristine glass, probably obtained thanks to in-situ solid condensation. The structural characteristics of the leached layer are observed from the first steps of alteration for Zr and Fe. Conversely to Fe, the structural status of Zr depends on the leaching kinetic as well as the contents of Ca and Si in the solid. Fe-K EXAFS results in recent natural ferri-hydrides present a clear structural similarity with that determined in glass SON 68 leached products. The study of old paleosols (between 1,800 and 200,000 years) has demonstrated the long time stability of ferric gels, although an increase of medium range order around Fe is seen. (author)

  14. The role of intraalveolar fibrosis in the process of pulmonary structural remodeling in patients with diffuse alveolar damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Fukuda(Miyagi University of Education); Ishizaki, M; Masuda, Y; Kimura, G.; Kawanami, O.; Masugi, Y.

    1987-01-01

    For a study of the processes and mechanisms of pulmonary structural remodeling in fibrotic lungs and metaplastic squamous epithelial cells in fibrotic alveoli, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and light-microscopic morphometric observations were made of the lungs in acute and proliferative stages of diffuse alveolar damage (n = 40) obtained from biopsies and autopsies. Morphometry showed that intraalveolar fibrosis developed in the early proliferative stage and was more prominent than in...

  15. Abnormal pulmonary macrophages in lysinuric protein intolerance. Ultrastructural, morphometric, and x-ray microanalytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto, K; Mäki, J; Pelliniemi, L J; Simell, O

    1994-05-01

    Pediatric patients with lysinuric protein intolerance are predisposed to develop alveolar hemorrhage and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. We evaluated the ultrastructural features of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and the potential abnormality of pulmonary macrophages in lysinuric protein intolerance. Lung tissue specimens obtained at autopsy were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Pulmonary macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavages were studied by electron microscopy, morphometry, and x-ray microanalysis and compared with control cells. The macrophages of patients with lysinuric protein intolerance contained significantly more multilamellar structures than did control cells and showed electron-dense material identified to contain excess iron. The predisposition to develop alveolar proteinosis and the abnormal ultrastructure of pulmonary macrophages suggest altered phospholipid metabolism in patients with lysinuric protein intolerance. The marked intramacrophageal accumulations of iron might indicate altered iron metabolism or subclinical hemorrhages in lung tissue. PMID:8192561

  16. Chemical and structural modifications of pulmonary collectins and their functional consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N.; Beers, Michael F.; Gow, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    The lung is continuously exposed to inhaled pathogens (toxic pollutants, micro-organisms, environmental antigens, allergens) from the external environment. In the bronchoalveolar space, the critical balance between a measured protective response against harmful pathogens and an inappropriate inflammatory response to harmless particles is discerned by the innate pulmonary immune system. Among its many components, the surfactant proteins and specifically the pulmonary collectins (surfactant pro...

  17. Changes in the structure-function relationship of elastin and its impact on the proximal pulmonary arterial mechanics of hypertensive calves

    OpenAIRE

    Lammers, Steven R.; Kao, Phil H.; Qi, H. Jerry; Hunter, Kendall; Lanning, Craig; Albietz, Joseph; Hofmeister, Stephen; Mecham, Robert; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Shandas, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular matrix remodeling has been proposed as one mechanism by which proximal pulmonary arteries stiffen during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although some attention has been paid to the role of collagen and metallomatrix proteins in affecting vascular stiffness, much less work has been performed on changes in elastin structure-function relationships in PAH. Such work is warranted, given the importance of elastin as the structural protein primarily responsible for the passive ...

  18. Alterações histopatológicas pulmonares em pacientes com insuficiência respiratória aguda: um estudo em autopsias Pulmonary histopathological alterations in patients with acute respiratory failure: an autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Matos Soeiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar alterações histopatológicas pulmonares encontradas em autopsias de pacientes falecidos por insuficiência respiratória aguda (IRA e verificar se doenças de base e específicos fatores de risco associados aumentam a incidência dessas alterações. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados laudos finais de autopsias e selecionadas 3.030 autopsias de pacientes > 1 ano de idade, com infiltrado pulmonar radiológico, portadores de doença de base e fatores de risco associados, que morreram por alterações pulmonares decorrentes de IRA. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações histopatológicas pulmonares causadoras de morte imediata foram: dano alveolar difuso (DAD; edema pulmonar; pneumonia intersticial linfocítica (PIL e hemorragia alveolar. As principais doenças de base encontradas foram: AIDS; broncopneumonia; sepse; cirrose hepática; tromboembolismo pulmonar; infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM; acidente vascular cerebral; tuberculose; câncer; insuficiência renal crônica e leucemia. Os principais fatores de risco associados foram: idade > 50 anos; hipertensão arterial; insuficiência cardíaca congestiva; doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e diabetes mellitus. Pacientes com esses fatores de risco e AIDS apresentaram alta probabilidade de desenvolver PIL; pacientes com esses mesmos fatores, de desenvolver DAD, se portadores de sepse ou cirrose hepática; pacientes com tromboembolismo e os mesmos fatores de risco, de desenvolver hemorragia alveolar; pacientes com esses fatores de risco e IAM, de desenvolver edema pulmonar. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados pulmonares em pacientes com óbito por IRA apresentaram quatro padrões histopatológicos: DAD, edema pulmonar, PIL e hemorragia alveolar. Doenças de base e específicos fatores de risco associados correlacionaram-se positivamente com determinados padrões histopatológicos detectados à autópsia.OBJECTIVE: To present the pulmonary histopathological alterations found in the autopsies of

  19. Reversible structural alterations of undifferentiated and differentiated human neuroblastoma cells induced by phorbol ester.

    OpenAIRE

    Tint, I S; Bonder, E. M.; Feder, H. H.; Reboulleau, C P; Vasiliev, J M; Gelfand, I M

    1992-01-01

    Morphological alterations in the structure of undifferentiated and morphologically differentiated human neuroblastoma cells induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C, were examined by video microscopy and immunomorphology. In undifferentiated cells, PMA induced the formation of motile actin-rich lamellas and of stable cylindrical processes rich in microtubules. Formation of stable processes resulted either from the collapse of lamellas or the movement ...

  20. Development and application of pulmonary structure-function registration methods: towards pulmonary image-guidance tools for improved airway targeted therapies and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fumin; Pike, Damien; Svenningsen, Sarah; Coxson, Harvey O.; Drozd, John J.; Yuan, Jing; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2014-03-01

    Objectives: We aimed to develop a way to rapidly generate multi-modality (MRI-CT) pulmonary imaging structurefunction maps using novel non-rigid image registration methods. This objective is part of our overarching goal to provide an image processing pipeline to generate pulmonary structure-function maps and guide airway-targeted therapies. Methods: Anatomical 1H and functional 3He MRI were acquired in 5 healthy asymptomatic ex-smokers and 7 ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at inspiration breath-hold. Thoracic CT was performed within ten minutes of MRI using the same breath-hold volume. Landmark-based affine registration methods previously validated for imaging of COPD, was based on corresponding fiducial markers located in both CT and 1H MRI coronal slices and compared with shape-based CT-MRI non-rigid registration. Shape-based CT-MRI registration was developed by first identifying the shapes of the lung cavities manually, and then registering the two shapes using affine and thin-plate spline algorithms. We compared registration accuracy using the fiducial localization error (FLE) and target registration error (TRE). Results: For landmark-based registration, the TRE was 8.4±5.3 mm for whole lung and 7.8±4.6 mm for the R and L lungs registered independently (p=0.4). For shape-based registration, the TRE was 8.0±4.6 mm for whole lung as compared to 6.9±4.4 mm for the R and L lung registered independently and this difference was significant (p=0.01). The difference for shape-based (6.9±4.4 mm) and landmark-based R and L lung registration (7.8±4.6 mm) was also significant (p=.04) Conclusion: Shape-based registration TRE was significantly improved compared to landmark-based registration when considering L and R lungs independently.

  1. Alteration of pulmonary blood flow in tetralogy of Fallot; Pre- and postoperative study with macroaggregates of [sup 99m]Tc-labeled human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Matsui, Michihiko; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Arai, Tatsuta (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Nakamura, Yuzuru

    1992-10-01

    The pulmonary blood distribution was examined in 17 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) pre and postoperatively with macroaggregates of [sup 99m]TC-labeled human serum albumin. Most of the patients with TOF demonstrated an abnormal preoperative distribution pattern. The abnormalities included not only an unbalanced distribution between the right and left lungs but also a maldistribution of peripheral vessels in each lung. The right/left lung counts ratio and pulmonary peripheral index (calculated in order to express the severity of peripheral maldistribution) correlated neither to the diameter nor the cross-sectional area of either right or left pulmonary arteries which were measured angiographically. Postoperatively, the pulmonary blood was shunted toward the developed side of the lung which further contributed to maldistribution of blood flow and unbalanced pulmonary growth. Since the patients with an unbalanced pulmonary blood distribution demonstrated a higher right ventricular pressure one year after the operation, a palliative operation facilitating the growth of the underdeveloped side of the lung might be considered as an effective procedure to precede intracardiac repair. (author).

  2. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  3. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal β-hexamer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a β-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the β-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having β-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

  4. Pulmonary mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress in response to ozone exposure: Effects of age and an omega-3 enriched diet; Alterations mitochondriales et stress oxydant pulmonaire en reponse a l'ozone: effets de l'age et d'une supplementation en omega-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servais, St.

    2004-04-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is one of the molecular species most reactive to which are exposed living species. O{sub 3} acts primarily on the pulmonary system by inducing oxidative stress. Because susceptibility to oxidative stress varies with age, we studied alterations of pulmonary balance between production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination, in immature (21 days), adult (6 months) and old rats (20 months) during O{sub 3} exposure (0,5 ppm, 12 h/day for 7 days). For this purpose we have specifically studied pulmonary mitochondria as ROS source, main antioxidant enzyme activities, contents in stress protein (HSP72), 8-oxodGuo and DNA adducts resulting from lipid peroxidation. These works have shown that our protocol of O{sub 3} exposure did not induce lung oxidative stress in adult rats. We confirmed that immature and old rats were more sensitive during O{sub 3} challenge than adults. Indeed, O{sub 3} generates oxidative stress which leads to modification of ventilatory function and pulmonary DNA oxidation in these two populations. Parameters which take part in greatest susceptibility to O{sub 3} differ according to the age. We concluded that the mitochondria is not a major source of pulmonary ROS in our model of O{sub 3} exposure. Secondly, with the sights of anti-inflammatory properties of polyunsaturated fatty acids {omega}3, we studied the effect of a {omega}3 supplementation in immature and old rats exposed to O{sub 3}. The supplementation in {omega}3 limits the pulmonary DNA oxidation in immature and old rats. Paradoxically, in old rats this supplementation provokes an increase in lipid peroxidation susceptibility. (author)

  5. Forest to reclaimed mine land use change leads to altered ecosystem structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jeffrey A; Currie, William S; Eshleman, Keith N; Kuers, Karen; Monteleone, Susan; Negley, Tim L; Pohlad, Bob R; Thomas, Carolyn L

    2008-01-01

    The United States' use of coal results in many environmental alterations. In the Appalachian coal belt region, one widespread alteration is conversion of forest to reclaimed mineland. The goal of this study was to quantify the changes to ecosystem structure and function associated with a conversion from forest to reclaimed mine grassland by comparing a small watershed containing a 15-year-old reclaimed mine with a forested, reference watershed in western Maryland. Major differences were apparent between the two watersheds in terms of biogeochemistry. Total C, N, and P pools were all substantially lower at the mined site, mainly due to the removal of woody biomass but also, in the case of P, to reductions in soil pools. Mineral soil C, N, and P pools were 96%, 79%, and 69% of native soils, respectively. Although annual runoff from the watersheds was similar, the mined watershed exhibited taller, narrower storm peaks as a result of a higher soil bulk density and decreased infiltration rates. Stream export of N was much lower in the mined watershed due to lower net nitrification rates and nitrate concentrations in soil. However, stream export of sediment and P and summer stream temperature were much higher. Stream leaf decomposition was reduced and macroinvertebrate community structure was altered as a result of these changes to the stream environment. This land use change leads to substantial, long-term changes in ecosystem capital and function. PMID:18372559

  6. Structural health monitoring (vibration) as a tool for identifying structural alterations of the lumbar spine: a twin control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawchuk, Gregory N; Hartvigsen, Jan; Edgecombe, Tiffany; Prasad, Narasimha; van Dieen, Jaap H

    2016-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an engineering technique used to identify mechanical abnormalities not readily apparent through other means. Recently, SHM has been adapted for use in biological systems, but its invasive nature limits its clinical application. As such, the purpose of this project was to determine if a non-invasive form of SHM could identify structural alterations in the spines of living human subjects. Lumbar spines of 10 twin pairs were visualized by magnetic resonance imaging then assessed by a blinded radiologist to determine whether twin pairs were structurally concordant or discordant. Vibration was then applied to each subject's spine and the resulting response recorded from sensors overlying lumbar spinous processes. The peak frequency, area under the curve and the root mean square were computed from the frequency response function of each sensor. Statistical analysis demonstrated that in twins whose structural appearance was discordant, peak frequency was significantly different between twin pairs while in concordant twins, no outcomes were significantly different. From these results, we conclude that structural changes within the spine can alter its vibration response. As such, further investigation of SHM to identify spinal abnormalities in larger human populations is warranted. PMID:26964507

  7. The benefit of pulmonary rehabilitation against quality of life alteration and functional capacity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient assessed using St George’s respiratory questionnaire and 6 minutes walking distance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwien H. Wiyono

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have been shown to be benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation programs. We assessed an entirely outpatient-based program of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD, using the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ and six minutes walking distance test (6MWD (which measures health-related quality of life and functional exercise tolerance as the primary outcome measure. We undertook a randomized, opened, prospective, parallel-group controlled study of outpatient rehabilitation program in 56 patients with COPD (52 men and 4 women. The active group (n=27 took part in a 6-weeks program of education and exercise. The control group (n=29 were reviewed routinely as medical outpatients. The SGRQ and 6MWD were administered at study entry and after 6 weeks. Outcome with SGRQ and 6MWD before and after therapy was performed. Decrease score SGRQ and increase 6MWD in both groups of study, it was analyzed by statistic study and in active group the decrease of SGRQ and the increase of 6MWD was statistically significant. In conclusion 6-weeks outpatient-based program significantly improved quality of life and functional capacity in mild-to-moderate COPD patient. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:165-72 Keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, SGRQ, 6MWD

  8. Pulmonary structure and function in adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallivan, G J; Viel, L; Baird, J D; McDonell, W. N.

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests were performed on seven adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field (ExLF) and the results were compared to the values from seven cows with normal lung fields. The cows with ExLF had an increased functional residual capacity (FRC) and end-tidal N2 concentration of the final breath of the multiple-breath N2 washout (FETN2,fb), and an abnormal distribution of ventilation. The measurements of ventilation and gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics did not differ between th...

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons alter the structure of oceanic and oligotrophic microbial food webs

    KAUST Repository

    Cerezo, Maria Isabel

    2015-11-01

    One way organic pollutants reach remote oceanic regions is by atmospheric transport. During the Malaspina-2010 expedition, across the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, we analyzed the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) effects on oceanic microbial food webs. We performed perturbation experiments adding PAHs to classic dilution experiments. The phytoplankton growth rates were reduced by more than 5 times, being Prochlorococcus spp. the most affected. 62% of the experiments showed a reduction in the grazing rates due to the presence of PAHs. For the remaining experiments, grazing usually increased likely due to cascading effects. We identified changes in the slope of the relation between the growth rate and the dilution fraction induced by the pollutants, moving from no grazing to V-shape, or to negative slope, indicative of grazing increase by cascade effects and alterations of the grazers\\' activity structure. Our perturbation experiments indicate that PAHs could influence the structure oceanic food-webs structure.

  10. A MYLK variant regulates asthmatic inflammation via alterations in mRNA secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhou, Tong; Saadat, Laleh; Garcia, Joe G N

    2015-06-01

    Myosin light-chain kinase (MYLK) is a gene known to be significantly associated with severe asthma in African Americans. Here we further examine the molecular function of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), located in the non-muscle myosin light-chain kinase isoform (nmMLCK), in asthma susceptibility and pathobiology. We identified nmMLCK variant (reference SNP: rs9840993, NM_053025: 721C>T, c.439C>T) with a distinct mRNA secondary structure from the other variants. The nmMLCK variant (721C) secondary structure exhibits increased stability with an elongated half-life in the human endothelial cell, and greater efficiency in protein translation initiation owing to an increased accessibility to translation start site. Finally, nmMLCK expression of 721C- and 721T-containing MYLK transgenes were compared in nmMLCK(-/-) mice and confirmed deleterious effects of nmMLCK expression on asthmatic indices and implicated the augmented influence of MYLK 721C>T (c.439C>T) SNP on asthma severity. The confirmation of the novel mechanism of the regulation of asthmatic inflammation by a MYLK advances knowledge of the genetic basis for asthma disparities, and further suggests the potential of nmMLCK as a therapeutic target. Our study suggests that in addition to altering protein structure and function, non-synonymous SNPs may also lead to phenotypic disparity by altering protein expression. PMID:25271083

  11. Cortical Structure Alterations and Social Behavior Impairment in p50-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Sara Anna; Mastinu, Andrea; Maccarinelli, Giuseppina; Mitola, Stefania; Premoli, Marika; La Rosa, Luca Rosario; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Memo, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in genes that regulate neurodevelopment can lead to cortical malformations, resulting in malfunction during postnatal life. The NF-κB pathway has a key role during neurodevelopment by regulating the maintenance of the neural progenitor cell pool and inhibiting neuronal differentiation. In this study, we evaluated whether mice lacking the NF-κB p50 subunit (KO) present alterations in cortical structure and associated behavioral impairment. We found that, compared with wild type (WT), KO mice at postnatal day 2 present an increase in radial glial cells, an increase in Reelin protein expression levels, in addition to an increase of specific layer thickness. Moreover, adult KO mice display abnormal columnar organization in the somatosensory cortex, a specific decrease in somatostatin- and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, altered neurite orientation, and a decrease in Synapsin I protein levels. Concerning behavior, KO mice, in addition to an increase in locomotor and exploratory activity, display impairment in social behaviors, with a reduction in social interaction. Finally, we found that risperidone treatment decreased hyperactivity of KO mice, but had no effect on defective social interaction. Altogether, these data add complexity to a growing body of data, suggesting a link between dysregulation of the NF-κB pathway and neurodevelopmental disorders pathogenesis. PMID:26946128

  12. Characterization of pore structure and hydraulic property alteration in pressurized unsaturated flow tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) test is a new experimental method for the evaluation of the long-term corrosion behavior of waste forms and other engineered barrier materials. Essentially, the technique provides a means to flow water through a porous bed of test material or materials at elevated temperature and under hydraulically unsaturated conditions. Bulk volumetric content, effluent pH and electrical conductivity are monitored in real time using a computer control and data acquisition system. In previous papers, the authors have reported on the changes in bulk water content, effluent chemistry, and glass corrosion rates that result from the formation of alteration products during these tests. These measurements are now supplemented through the use of the ultracentrifugation apparatus (UFA) for hydraulic property measurements and high-resolution, x-ray microtomography (XMT) to provide 3-D spatial and temporal imaging of water distribution and pore structure alteration during these tests. Quantitative changes in the water retention characteristic were correlated with the onset of zeolite formation in the tests. Extensive alteration of the glass resulted in cementation of the glass grains near the bottom of the column, which was observed in situ using the XMT

  13. Demonstration of structural alterations in experimental corneal infectious model using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wen; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Chang, Yuh-Ling; Sun, Yen; Lin, Sung-Jan; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the application of multiphoton autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for investigating the structural alterations and the pattern of microbial spreading during corneal infectious process in an in vitro organ culture model. The autofluorescence spectrum derived from pathogens allows us to monitoring the pattern of microbial spreading within corneal lamellae. In addition, the destruction and regeneration of second harmonic generating collagen during infectious process can also be monitored in a non-invasive fashion. Therefore we propose that multiphoton microscopy may potentially be applied as an effective monitoring tool for corneal infection studies.

  14. Structural brain alterations in patients with lumbar disc herniation: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Luchtmann

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is one of the most common health complaints in industrial nations. For example, chronic low back pain (cLBP disables millions of people across the world and generates a tremendous economic burden. While previous studies provided evidence of widespread functional as well as structural brain alterations in chronic pain, little is known about cortical changes in patients suffering from lumbar disc herniation. We investigated morphometric alterations of the gray and white matter of the brain in patients suffering from LDH. The volumes of the gray and white matter of 12 LDH patients were determined in a prospective study and compared to the volumes of healthy controls to distinguish local differences. High-resolution MRI brain images of all participants were performed using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate local differences in gray and white matter volume between patients suffering from LDH and healthy controls. LDH patients showed significantly reduced gray matter volume in the right anterolateral prefrontal cortex, the right temporal lobe, the left premotor cortex, the right caudate nucleus, and the right cerebellum as compared to healthy controls. Increased gray matter volume, however, was found in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the left precuneal cortex, the left fusiform gyrus, and the right brainstem. Additionally, small subcortical decreases of the white matter were found adjacent to the left prefrontal cortex, the right premotor cortex and in the anterior limb of the left internal capsule. We conclude that the lumbar disk herniation can lead to specific local alterations of the gray and white matter in the human brain. The investigation of LDH-induced brain alterations could provide further insight into the underlying nature of the chronification processes and could possibly identify prognostic factors that may improve the conservative as well as the operative treatment of the

  15. Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the rat endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Marcelo; Milton, Flora A; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F; Almeida-Francia, Camila C D; Cagnon-Quitete, Valeria H A; Tirapelli, Luiz F; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    We described the effects of low- and high-dose ethanol intake on the structure and apoptosis signaling of the uterine endometrium of UChA and UChB rats (animals with voluntary ethanol consumption). Thirty adult female rats, 90 days old, were divided into three groups (n = 10/group): UChA rats fed with 10% (v/v) ethanol ad libitum (free choice for water or ethanol) drinking water or ethanol) drinking from 2 to 5 g/kg/day; control rats without ethanol (only water). After 120 days of treatment, rats displaying estrus were euthanized. Uterine epithelial cells of the UCh rats showed dilated cisterns of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, presence of lipid droplets, altered nuclear chromatin, and disrupted mitochondria. The UCh rats exhibited intense atrophied epithelial cells with smaller areas and perimeters of cytoplasm and nuclei. The endometrium of UChA rats showed higher levels of caspase-3 while Xiap and Bcl2 varied from moderate to weak. Both UChA and UChB rats exhibited a stronger immunoreaction to Ki-67 and IGFR-1 on epithelial and stromal cells. Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the uterine endometrium of UCh rats, regardless of low- or high-dose consumption, promoting reproductive disorders. PMID:27139238

  16. Myocardial structural alteration and systolic dysfunction in preclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hang Yiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the presence of myocardial structural alterations and subtle myocardial dysfunction during familial screening in asymptomatic mutation carriers without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM phenotype. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen HCM families with pathogenic mutation were studied and 46 patients with phenotype expression (Mut+/Phen+ and 47 patients without phenotype expression (Mut+/Phen- were observed. Twenty-five control subjects, matched with the Mut+/Phen- group, were recruited for comparison. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate conventional parameters, myocardial structural alteration by calibrated integrated backscatter (cIBS and global and segmental longitudinal strain by speckle tracking analysis. All 3 groups had similar left ventricular dimensions and ejection fraction. Basal anteroseptal cIBS was the highest in Mut+/Phen+ patients (-14.0±4.6 dB, p-19.0 dB basal anteroseptal cIBS or >-18.0% basal anteroseptal longitudinal strain had a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 72% in differentiating Mut+/Phen- group from controls. CONCLUSION: The use of cIBS and segmental longitudinal strain can differentiate HCM Mut+/Phen- patients from controls with important clinical implications for the family screening and follow-up of these patients.

  17. Brain structural and functional alterations in patients with unilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Chen, Hua-Jun; Liu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-Chun; Feng, Yuan; Li, Jing; Chen, Jing-Ya; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Ji, Hui; Feng, Xu; Zhu, Xin; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Alterations of brain structure and functional connectivity have been described in patients with hearing impairments due to distinct pathogenesis; however, the influence of unilateral hearing loss (UHL) on brain morphology and regional brain activity is still not completely understood. In this study, we aim to investigate regional brain structural and functional alterations in patients with UHL. T1-weighted volumetric images and task-free fMRIs were acquired from 14 patients with right-sided UHL (pure tone average ≥ 40 dB HL) and 19 healthy controls. Hearing ability was assessed by pure tone audiometry. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to detect brain regions with changed gray matter volume or white matter volume in UHL. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was calculated to analyze brain activity at the baseline and was compared between two groups. Compared with controls, UHL patients showed decreased gray matter volume in bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, left superior/middle/inferior temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus and lingual gyrus. Meanwhile, patients showed significantly decreased ALFF in bilateral precuneus, left inferior parietal lobule, and right inferior frontal gyrus and insula and increased ALFF in right inferior and middle temporal gyrus. These findings suggest that chronic UHL could induce brain morphological changes and is associated with aberrant baseline brain activity. PMID:25093284

  18. Altering strength and plastic deformation behavior via alloying and laminated structure in nanocrystalline metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, F., E-mail: wangfei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang, P., E-mail: huangping@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Lu, T.J. [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); MOE Key Laboratory for Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Xu, K.W. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-07-29

    Nanoindentation and electron microscope techniques have been performed on sputtering deposited monolayered nanocrystalline CuNb and multilayered CuNb/Cu thin films. Microstructural features, hardness and surface morphologies of residual indentation have been evaluated to identify the effects of alloying and laminated structure on strength and plastic deformation behavior of nanocrystalline metals. By altering the content of Nb in CuNb alloy and adding crystalline Cu layers into CuNb alloy, the volume fraction of amorphous phase in CuNb alloy and interface structures changed dramatically, resulting in various trends that are related to hardness, indentation induced pileup and shear banding deformation. Based on the experimental results, the dominant deformation mechanisms of the CuNb and CuNb/Cu thin films with various Nb contents were proposed and extended to be discussed.

  19. [Night sleep structural alteration as a function of individual strategy of adapting to 520-isolation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavalko, I M; Boritko, Ya S; Kovrov, G V; Vinokhodova, A G; Chekalina, A I; Smoleevsky, A E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to establish a relationship between trends in sleep alteration and individual adaptation to the stress-factors in the 520-day isolation study. Psychological evaluations using a battery of motivation tests and L. Sobchik's modification of the Luscher personality test, and Mirror coordinograph enabled to differentiate groups reacting to the stress on the pattern of "control" (G-1) or "search" (G-2) manifested in individual styles of behavior and operator's activity. The 2 groups showed different dynamics of the night sleep structure. Difficulties with falling asleep in G-1 arose on the eve of "landing onto Mars" and end of the experiment, whereas in G-2 they were evident prior to the end only. Besides, the micro- and segmental sleep structures were more stable in G-1 suggesting the integrity of somnogenic mechanisms despite difficult sleep initiation. PMID:25033611

  20. Altering strength and plastic deformation behavior via alloying and laminated structure in nanocrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoindentation and electron microscope techniques have been performed on sputtering deposited monolayered nanocrystalline CuNb and multilayered CuNb/Cu thin films. Microstructural features, hardness and surface morphologies of residual indentation have been evaluated to identify the effects of alloying and laminated structure on strength and plastic deformation behavior of nanocrystalline metals. By altering the content of Nb in CuNb alloy and adding crystalline Cu layers into CuNb alloy, the volume fraction of amorphous phase in CuNb alloy and interface structures changed dramatically, resulting in various trends that are related to hardness, indentation induced pileup and shear banding deformation. Based on the experimental results, the dominant deformation mechanisms of the CuNb and CuNb/Cu thin films with various Nb contents were proposed and extended to be discussed

  1. Canopy structural alterations to nitrogen functions of the soil microbial community in a Quercus virginiana forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L. D.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Gay, T. E.; Wu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy structure controls the timing, amount and chemical character of precipitation supply to soils through interception and drainage along crown surfaces. Yet, few studies have examined forest canopy structural connections to soil microbial communities (SMCs), and none have measured how this affects SMC N functions. The maritime Quercus virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) forests of St Catherine's Island, GA, USA provide an ideal opportunity to examine canopy structural alterations to SMCs and their functioning, as their throughfall varies substantially across space due to dense Tillandsia usneoides L. (spanish moss) mats bestrewn throughout. To examine the impact of throughfall variability on SMC N functions, we examined points along the canopy coverage continuum: large canopy gaps (0%), bare canopy (50-60%), and canopy of heavy T. usneoides coverage (>=85%). Five sites beneath each of the canopy cover types were monitored for throughfall water/ions and soil leachates chemistry for one storm each month over the growing period (7 months, Mar-2014 to Sep-2014) to compare with soil chemistry and SMC communities sampled every two months throughout that same period (Mar, May, Jul, Sep). DGGE and QPCR analysis of the N functioning genes (NFGs) to characterize the ammonia oxidizing bacterial (AOB-amoA), archaea (AOA-amoA), and ammonification (chiA) communities were used to determine the nitrification and decomposition potential of these microbial communities. PRS™-probes (Western Ag Innovations Inc., Saskatoon, Canada) were then used to determine the availability of NO3-N and NH4+N in the soils over a 6-week period to evaluate whether the differing NFG abundance and community structures resulted in altered N cycling.

  2. Field-based experimental acidification alters fouling community structure and reduces diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Norah E M; Therriault, Thomas W; Harley, Christopher D G

    2016-09-01

    Increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are affecting ocean chemistry, leading to increased acidification (i.e. decreased pH) and reductions in calcium carbonate saturation state. Many species are likely to respond to acidification, but the direction and magnitude of these responses will be based on interspecific and ontogenetic variation in physiology and the relative importance of calcification. Differential responses to ocean acidification (OA) among species will likely result in important changes in community structure and diversity. To characterize the potential impacts of OA on community composition and structure, we examined the response of a marine fouling community to experimental CO2 enrichment in field-deployed flow-through mesocosm systems. Acidification significantly altered the community structure by altering the relative abundance of species and reduced community variability, resulting in more homogenous biofouling communities from one experimental tile to the next both among and within the acidified mesocosms. Mussel (Mytilus trossulus) recruitment was reduced by over 30% in the elevated CO2 treatment compared to the ambient treatment by the end of the experiment. Strong differences in mussel cover (up to 40% lower in acidified conditions) developed over the second half of the 10-week experiment. Acidification did not appear to affect the mussel growth, as average mussel sizes were similar between treatments at the end of the experiment. Hydroid (Obelia dichotoma) cover was significantly reduced in the elevated CO2 treatment after 8 weeks. Conversely, the percentage cover of bryozoan colonies (Mebranipora membranacea) was higher under acidified conditions with differences becoming apparent after 6 weeks. Neither recruitment nor final size of barnacles (Balanus crenatus) was affected by acidification. By the end of the experiment, diversity was 41% lower in the acidified treatment relative to ambient conditions. Overall, our findings support the

  3. Pulmonary hypertension CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The right heart catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and determines the severity of pulmonary hypertension. The significant technical progress of noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods significantly improves the pixel density and spatial resolution in the study of cardiovascular structures, thus changes their role and place in the overall diagnostic plan. Learning points: What is the etiology, clinical manifestation and general pathophysiological disorders in pulmonary hypertension. What are the established diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension. What is the recommended protocol for CT scanning for patients with clinically suspected or documented pulmonary hypertension. What are the important diagnostic findings in CT scan of a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Discussion: The prospect of instantaneous complex - anatomical and functional cardiopulmonary and vascular diagnostics seems extremely attractive. The contrast enhanced multislice computed (CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging are very suitable methods for imaging the structures of the right heart, with the possibility of obtaining multiple projections and three-dimensional imaging reconstructions . There are specific morphological features that, if carefully analyzed, provide diagnostic information. Thus, it is possible to avoid or at least reduce the frequency of use of invasive diagnostic cardiac catheterization in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced CT for comprehensive evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and presents the observed characteristic changes in the chest, lung parenchyma , the structures of the right half of the heart and pulmonary vessels

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and glucose metabolism: a bitter sweet symphony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirrakhimov Aibek E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are common and underdiagnosed medical conditions. It was predicted that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2020. The healthcare burden of this disease is even greater if we consider the significant impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be considered as a novel risk factor for new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus via multiple pathophysiological alterations such as: inflammation and oxidative stress, insulin resistance, weight gain and alterations in metabolism of adipokines. On the other hand, diabetes may act as an independent factor, negatively affecting pulmonary structure and function. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of pulmonary infections, disease exacerbations and worsened COPD outcomes. On the top of that, coexistent OSA may increase the risk for type 2 DM in some individuals. The current scientific data necessitate a greater outlook on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be viewed as a risk factor for the new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conversely, both types of diabetes mellitus should be viewed as strong contributing factors for the development of obstructive lung disease. Such approach can potentially improve the outcomes and medical control for both conditions, and, thus, decrease the healthcare burden of these major medical problems.

  5. Structural and functional prevention of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by individualized exercise training in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, Norbert; Peters, Dorothea M; Klöpping, Christina; Krüger, Karsten; Pilat, Christian; Katta, Susmitha; Seimetz, Michael; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Witzenrath, Martin; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Mooren, Frank C

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease with a poor prognosis characterized by a vascular remodeling process and an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. While a variety of reports demonstrated that exercise training exerts beneficial effects on exercise performance and quality of life in PH patients, it is not known how physical exercise affects vascular remodeling processes occurring in hypoxia-induced PH. Therefore, we investigated the effect of individualized exercise training on the development of hypoxia-induced PH in mice. Training effects were compared with pharmacological treatment with the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor Sildenafil or a combination of training plus Sildenafil. Trained mice who received Sildenafil showed a significantly improved walking distance (from 88.9 ± 8.1 to 146.4 ± 13.1 m) and maximum oxygen consumption (from 93.3 ± 2.9 to 105.5 ± 2.2% in combination with Sildenafil, to 102.2 ± 3.0% with placebo) compared with sedentary controls. Right ventricular systolic pressure, measured by telemetry, was at the level of healthy normoxic animals, whereas right heart hypertrophy did not benefit from training. Most interestingly, the increase in small pulmonary vessel muscularization was prevented by training. Respective counterregulatory processes were detected for the nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-phosphodiesterase system. We conclude that individualized daily exercise can prevent vascular remodeling in hypoxia-induced PH. PMID:24705723

  6. Unidirectional pulmonary airflow in vertebrates: a review of structure, function, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieri, Robert L; Farmer, C G

    2016-07-01

    Mechanisms explaining unidirectional pulmonary airflow in birds, a condition where lung gases flow in a consistent direction during both inspiration and expiration in some parts of the lung, were suggested as early as the first part of the twentieth century and unidirectional pulmonary airflow has been discovered recently in crocodilians and squamates. Our knowledge of the functional anatomy, fluid dynamics, and significance of this trait is reviewed. The preponderance of the data indicates that unidirectional airflow is maintained by means of convective inertia in inspiratory and expiratory aerodynamic valves in birds. The study of flow patterns in non-avian reptiles is just beginning, but inspiratory aerodynamic valving likely also plays an important role in controlling flow direction in these lungs. Although highly efficient counter and cross-current blood-gas exchange arrangements are possible in lungs with unidirectional airflow, very few experiments have investigated blood-gas exchange mechanisms in the bird lung and blood-gas arrangements in the lungs of non-avian reptiles are completely unknown. The presence of unidirectional airflow in non-volant ectotherms voids the traditional hypothesis that this trait evolved to supply the high aerobic demands of flight and endothermy, and there is a need for new scenarios in our understanding of lung evolution. The potential value of unidirectional pulmonary airflow for allowing economic lung gas mixing, facilitating lung gas washout, and providing for adequate gas exchange during hypoxic conditions is discussed. PMID:27062030

  7. The influence of preterm birth on structural alterations of the vision-deprived brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Catherine Y; Wood, Amanda G; Chen, Jian; Wilson, Sarah J; Reutens, David C

    2013-04-01

    Differences in brain structures between blind and sighted individuals have not been widely investigated. Furthermore, existing studies have included individuals who were blinded by retinopathy of prematurity, a condition that is associated with premature birth. Recent pediatric research has reported structural differences in individuals who were born prematurely, suggesting that some of the structural abnormalities previously observed in blind individuals may be related to prematurity rather than being specific to blindness. In the present study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate gray and white matter differences between 24 blind and 16 sighted individuals. Of the blind individuals, six were born prematurely and 18 at term. Compared to those born at term, blind individuals born preterm showed differences in gray, but not white, matter volumes in various brain regions. When the preterm individuals were excluded from analysis, there were significant differences between blind and sighted individuals. Full-term blind individuals showed regional gray matter decreases in the cuneus, lingual gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, precuneus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, and the thalamus, and gray matter increases in the globus pallidus. They also showed regional white matter decreases in the cuneus, lingual gyrus, and the posterior cingulate. These differences were observed in blind individuals irrespective of blindness onset age, providing evidence for structural alterations in the mature brain. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the potential impact of premature birth on neurodevelopmental outcomes in studies of blind individuals. PMID:22591801

  8. Alteration of human serum albumin tertiary structure induced by glycation. Spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkudlarek, A.; Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Chudzik, M.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Sułkowska, A.

    2016-01-01

    The modification of human serum albumin (HSA) structure by non-enzymatic glycation is one of the underlying factors that contribute to the development of complications of diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present work was to estimate how glycation of HSA altered its tertiary structure. Changes of albumin conformation were investigated by comparison of glycated (gHSA) and non-glycated human serum albumin (HSA) absorption spectra, red edge excitation shift (REES) and synchronous spectra. Effect of glycation on human serum albumin tertiary structure was also investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Formation of gHSA Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) caused absorption of UV-VIS light between 310 nm and 400 nm while for non-glycated HSA in this region no absorbance has been registered. Analysis of red edge excitation shift effect allowed for observation of structural changes of gHSA in the hydrophobic pocket containing the tryptophanyl residue. Moreover changes in the microenvironment of tryptophanyl and tyrosyl residues brought about AGEs on the basis of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy have been confirmed. The influence of glycation process on serum albumin binding to 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonamide (DNSA), 2-(p-toluidino) naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (TNS), has been studied. Fluorescence analysis showed that environment of both binding site I and II is modified by galactose glycation.

  9. Reperfusion pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reperfusion following lower-torso ischemia in humans leads to respiratory failure manifest by pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The mechanism of injury has been studied in the sheep lung lymph preparation, where it has been demonstrated that the reperfusion resulting in pulmonary edema is due to an increase in microvascular permeability of the lung to protein. This respiratory failure caused by reperfusion appears to be an inflammatory reaction associated with intravascular release of the chemoattractants leukotriene B4 and thromboxane. Histological studies of the lung in experimental animals revealed significant accumulation of neutrophils but not platelets in alveolar capillaries. The authors conclude that thromboxane generated and released from the ischemic tissue is responsible for the transient pulmonary hypertension. Second, it is likely that the chemoattractants are responsible for leukosequestration, and third, neutrophils, oxygen-derived free radicals, and thromboxane moderate the altered lung permeability

  10. alpha-Globin genes: thalassemic and structural alterations in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.S.C. Wenning

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven unrelated patients with hemoglobin (Hb H disease and 27 individuals with alpha-chain structural alterations were studied to identify the alpha-globin gene mutations present in the population of Southeast Brazil. The -alpha3.7, --MED and -(alpha20.5 deletions were investigated by PCR, whereas non-deletional alpha-thalassemia (alphaHphalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI, alphaIcalpha and alphaTSaudialpha was screened with restriction enzymes and by nested PCR. Structural alterations were identified by direct DNA sequencing. Of the seven patients with Hb H disease, all of Italian descent, two had the -(alpha20.5/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/alphaHphalpha genotype and three showed interaction of the -alpha3.7 deletion with an unusual, unidentified form of non-deletional alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7/(aaT]. Among the 27 patients with structural alterations, 15 (of Italian descent had Hb Hasharon (alpha47Asp->His associated with the -alpha3.7 deletion, 4 (of Italian descent were heterozygous for Hb J-Rovigo (alpha53Ala->Asp, 4 (3 Blacks and 1 Caucasian were heterozygous for Hb Stanleyville-II (alpha78Asn->Lys associated with the alpha+-thalassemia, 1 (Black was heterozygous for Hb G-Pest (alpha74Asp->Asn, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Kurosaki (alpha7Lys->Glu, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Westmead (alpha122His->Gln, and 1 (Caucasian was the carrier of a novel silent variant (Hb Campinas, alpha26Ala->Val. Most of the mutations found reflected the Mediterranean and African origins of the population. Hbs G-Pest and Kurosaki, very rare, and Hb Westmead, common in southern China, were initially described in individuals of ethnic origin differing from those of the carriers reported in the present study and are the first cases to be reported in the Brazilian population.

  11. Mechanisms of Dysfunction in Senescent Pulmonary Endothelium

    OpenAIRE

    Jane-wit, Daniel; Chun, Hyung J.

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent changes in pulmonary endothelium contribute to worsened clinical outcomes in elderly individuals. Due to altered pulmonary endothelial responses, older participants have increased vulnerability to infection-related sequelae, higher prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, mitigated DNA repair mechanisms, and attenuated parenchymal healing. Aberrant signaling in pulmonary endothelium undergird these clinical processes. In this review, we provide an overview of the work that has eluc...

  12. Experience-dependent plasticity in white matter microstructure: Reasoning training alters structural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson P Mackey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI techniques have made it possible to investigate white matter plasticity in humans. Changes in DTI measures, principally increases in fractional anisotropy (FA, have been observed following training programs as diverse as juggling, meditation, and working memory. Here, we sought to test whether three months of reasoning training could alter white matter microstructure. We recruited participants (n=23 who were enrolled in a course to prepare for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT, a test that places strong demands on reasoning skills, as well as age- and IQ-matched controls planning to take the LSAT in the future (n=22. DTI data were collected at two scan sessions scheduled three months apart. In trained participants but not controls, we observed decreases in radial diffusivity (RD in white matter connecting frontal cortices, and in mean diffusivity (MD within frontal and parietal lobe white matter. Further, participants exhibiting larger gains on the LSAT exhibited greater decreases in MD in the right internal capsule. In summary, reasoning training altered multiple measures of white matter structure in young adults. While the cellular underpinnings are unknown, these results provide evidence of experience-dependent white matter changes that may not be limited to myelination.

  13. Experience-dependent plasticity in white matter microstructure: reasoning training alters structural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Allyson P; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Bunge, Silvia A

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques have made it possible to investigate white matter plasticity in humans. Changes in DTI measures, principally increases in fractional anisotropy (FA), have been observed following training programs as diverse as juggling, meditation, and working memory. Here, we sought to test whether three months of reasoning training could alter white matter microstructure. We recruited participants (n = 23) who were enrolled in a course to prepare for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), a test that places strong demands on reasoning skills, as well as age- and IQ-matched controls planning to take the LSAT in the future (n = 22). DTI data were collected at two scan sessions scheduled three months apart. In trained participants but not controls, we observed decreases in radial diffusivity (RD) in white matter connecting frontal cortices, and in mean diffusivity (MD) within frontal and parietal lobe white matter. Further, participants exhibiting larger gains on the LSAT exhibited greater decreases in MD in the right internal capsule. In summary, reasoning training altered multiple measures of white matter structure in young adults. While the cellular underpinnings are unknown, these results provide evidence of experience-dependent white matter changes that may not be limited to myelination. PMID:22936899

  14. Maternal Hyperleptinemia Is Associated with Male Offspring’s Altered Vascular Function and Structure in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kelly E.; Talton, Omonseigho O.; Foote, Christopher A.; Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino C.; Wu, Ho-Hsiang; Ji, Tieming; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A.; Schulz, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Children of mothers with gestational diabetes have greater risk of developing hypertension but little is known about the mechanisms by which this occurs. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high maternal concentrations of leptin during pregnancy, which are present in mothers with gestational diabetes and/or obesity, alter blood pressure, vascular structure and vascular function in offspring. Wildtype (WT) offspring of hyperleptinemic, normoglycemic, Leprdb/+ dams were compared to genotype matched offspring of WT-control dams. Vascular function was assessed in male offspring at 6, and at 31 weeks of age after half the offspring had been fed a high fat, high sucrose diet (HFD) for 6 weeks. Blood pressure was increased by HFD but not affected by maternal hyperleptinemia. On a standard diet, offspring of hyperleptinemic dams had outwardly remodeled mesenteric arteries and an enhanced vasodilatory response to insulin. In offspring of WT but not Leprdb/+ dams, HFD induced vessel hypertrophy and enhanced vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine, while HFD reduced insulin responsiveness in offspring of hyperleptinemic dams. Offspring of hyperleptinemic dams had stiffer arteries regardless of diet. Therefore, while maternal hyperleptinemia was largely beneficial to offspring vascular health under a standard diet, it had detrimental effects in offspring fed HFD. These results suggest that circulating maternal leptin concentrations may interact with other factors in the pre- and post -natal environments to contribute to altered vascular function in offspring of diabetic pregnancies. PMID:27187080

  15. Alzheimer's-associated Aβ oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-β1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt Aβ oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble Aβ species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific Aβ antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (Aβ-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

  16. Clay minerals as alteration products in acidic igneous rocks from Oued Belif structure (Nefza, North Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The Oued Belif structure is located in the north of Tunisia, seven kilometers north of Nefza city. It is part of the widespread Northern Tunisian 'Nappe Zone' composed of thrust sheets. This structure is delimited by a breccia rim, which encloses Triassic salt-related rocks and Serravallian to Tortonian (8.3 to 12.9 Ma) magmatic bodies (rhyodacite and granodiorite) associated with skarn deposits. Microscopic observation, chemical analyses, XRD, SEM and TEM investigations reveal that the mineral paragenesis of magmatic rocks consists mainly of clay minerals associated with other minerals such as quartz, biotite, feldspar and iron oxide. The outcropping magmatic rocks (granodiorite and rhyodacite) show an argillaceous paragenesis. The latter is made up of illite, kaolinite, smectite. The occurrence of these minerals is related to the meteoric weathering processes. Buried magmatic rocks, crossed by Oued Belif 45 borehole, show a considerable mobilization and removal of feldspar materiel and primary glass. This borehole crosses 370 m of the succession attributed to late Miocene. From bottom to top, we can identify (i) safe granodiorite; (ii) altered granodiorite; (iii) an alternation of altered rhyodacite and clayey unit rich in pyrite and (iiii) a very clayey rhyodacite unit. The clay fraction of the OB 45 borehole samples consists mainly of illite, kaolinite and smectite. These clay minerals were formed by the hydrothermal circulations through micro-fractures in magmatic rocks, which are forced by the high thermal gradient. The weathering of biotites, feldspars and primary glass contained both in buried and in outcropping magmatic rocks, produces illite, smectite and kaolinite. This is the result of the combined effect of subsurface oxidizing meteoric fluids and deep reducing hydrothermal fluids. (authors)

  17. Brain structural alterations in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with autogenous and reactive obsessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Subirà

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a clinically heterogeneous condition. Although structural brain alterations have been consistently reported in OCD, their interaction with particular clinical subtypes deserves further examination. Among other approaches, a two-group classification in patients with autogenous and reactive obsessions has been proposed. The purpose of the present study was to assess, by means of a voxel-based morphometry analysis, the putative brain structural correlates of this classification scheme in OCD patients. Ninety-five OCD patients and 95 healthy controls were recruited. Patients were divided into autogenous (n = 30 and reactive (n = 65 sub-groups. A structural magnetic resonance image was acquired for each participant and pre-processed with SPM8 software to obtain a volume-modulated gray matter map. Whole-brain and voxel-wise comparisons between the study groups were then performed. In comparison to the autogenous group, reactive patients showed larger gray matter volumes in the right Rolandic operculum. When compared to healthy controls, reactive patients showed larger volumes in the putamen (bilaterally, while autogenous patients showed a smaller left anterior temporal lobe. Also in comparison to healthy controls, the right middle temporal gyrus was smaller in both patient subgroups. Our results suggest that autogenous and reactive obsessions depend on partially dissimilar neural substrates. Our findings provide some neurobiological support for this classification scheme and contribute to unraveling the neurobiological basis of clinical heterogeneity in OCD.

  18. Resources Alter the Structure and Increase Stochasticity in Bromeliad Microfauna Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Jana S.; Kratina, Pavel; Marino, Nicholas A. C.; MacDonald, A. Andrew M.; Srivastava, Diane S.

    2015-01-01

    Although stochastic and deterministic processes have been found to jointly shape structure of natural communities, the relative importance of both forces may vary across different environmental conditions and across levels of biological organization. We tested the effects of abiotic environmental conditions, altered trophic interactions and dispersal limitation on the structure of aquatic microfauna communities in Costa Rican tank bromeliads. Our approach combined natural gradients in environmental conditions with experimental manipulations of bottom-up interactions (resources), top-down interactions (predators) and dispersal at two spatial scales in the field. We found that resource addition strongly increased the abundance and reduced the richness of microfauna communities. Community composition shifted in a predictable way towards assemblages dominated by flagellates and ciliates but with lower abundance and richness of algae and amoebae. While all functional groups responded strongly and predictably to resource addition, similarity among communities at the species level decreased, suggesting a role of stochasticity in species-level assembly processes. Dispersal limitation did not affect the communities. Since our design excluded potential priority effects we can attribute the differences in community similarity to increased demographic stochasticity of resource-enriched communities related to erratic changes in population sizes of some species. In contrast to resources, predators and environmental conditions had negligible effects on community structure. Our results demonstrate that bromeliad microfauna communities are strongly controlled by bottom-up forces. They further suggest that the relative importance of stochasticity may change with productivity and with the organizational level at which communities are examined. PMID:25775464

  19. Altered topological organization of white matter structural networks in patients with neuromyelitis optica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaou Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the topological alterations of the whole-brain white-matter (WM structural networks in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO. METHODS: The present study involved 26 NMO patients and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. WM structural connectivity in each participant was imaged with diffusion-weighted MRI and represented in terms of a connectivity matrix using deterministic tractography method. Graph theory-based analyses were then performed for the characterization of brain network properties. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on each network metric between the NMO and control groups. RESULTS: The NMO patients exhibited abnormal small-world network properties, as indicated by increased normalized characteristic path length, increased normalized clustering and increased small-worldness. Furthermore, largely similar hub distributions of the WM structural networks were observed between NMO patients and healthy controls. However, regional efficiency in several brain areas of NMO patients was significantly reduced, which were mainly distributed in the default-mode, sensorimotor and visual systems. Furthermore, we have observed increased regional efficiency in a few brain regions such as the orbital parts of the superior and middle frontal and fusiform gyri. CONCLUSION: Although the NMO patients in this study had no discernible white matter T2 lesions in the brain, we hypothesize that the disrupted topological organization of WM networks provides additional evidence for subtle, widespread cerebral WM pathology in NMO.

  20. Pulmonary Hypertension in Wild Type Mice and Animals with Genetic Deficit in KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall-Frostholm, Christine; Skaarup, Lykke Moran; Sadda, Veeranjaneyulu;

    2014-01-01

    induce pulmonary hypertension. The degree of pulmonary hypertension was evaluated by right ventricular pressure and assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy. Segments of pulmonary arteries were mounted in a wire myograph for functional studies and morphometric studies were performed on lung sections....... Chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased lung weight, and increased hematocrit levels in either genotype. The K(Ca)3.1(-/-)/K(Ca)2.3(T/T(+DOX)) mice developed structural alterations in the heart with increased right ventricular wall thickness as well as in...

  1. Pulmonary infections in swine induce altered porcine surfactant protein D expression and localization to dendritic cells in bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.M.; Holmskov, U.; Aalbæk, B.;

    2005-01-01

    cells. The aim of the present in vivo study was to study the expression of porcine SP-D (pSP-D) in the lung during different pulmonary bacterial infections, and the effect of the routes of infection on this expression was elucidated. Furthermore, the aim was to study the in vivo spatial relationship...... pyogenes and Streptococcus suis serotype 2, respectively. By comparing normal and diseased lung tissue from the same lungs, increased diffuse pSP-D immunoreactivity was seen in the surfactant in both acute and chronic bronchopneumonias, while such increased expression of pSP-D was generally not present in...

  2. cDNA, deduced polypeptide structure and chromosomal assignment of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid, SPL(pVal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In hyaline membrane disease of premature infants, lack of surfactant leads to pulmonary atelectasis and respiratory distress. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins of M/sub r/ = 5000-14,000 have been isolated from mammalian surfactants which enhance the rate of spreading and the surface tension lowering properties of phospholipids during dynamic compression. The authors have characterized the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of pulmonary proteolipids from ether/ethanol extracts of bovine, canine, and human surfactant. Two distinct peptides were identified and termed SPL(pVal) and SPL(Phe). An oligonucleotide probe based on the valine-rich amino-terminal amino acid sequence of SPL(pVal) was utilized to isolate cDNA and genomic DNA encoding the human protein, termed surfactant proteolipid SPL(pVal) on the basis of its unique polyvaline domain. The primary structure of a precursor protein of 20,870 daltons, containing the SPL(pVal) peptide, was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs. Hybrid-arrested translation and immunoprecipitation of labeled translation products of human mRNA demonstrated a precursor protein, the active hydrophobic peptide being produced by proteolytic processing. Two classes of cDNAs encoding SPL(pVal) were identified. Human SPL(pVal) mRNA was more abundant in the adult than in fetal lung. The SPL(pVal) gene locus was assigned to chromosome 8

  3. The Pulmonary Circulation and Exercise Responses in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Bryan J.; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation. Remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature occurs from maturity to senescence that is characterized by an increase in pulmonary vascular stiffness, pulmonary vascular pressures, and pulmonary vascular resistance along with increased heterogeneity of alveolar ventilation and pulmonary perfusion and decreased pulmonary capillary blood volume and membrane diffusing capacity that is consi...

  4. Bioturbating shrimp alter the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in coastal marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverock, Bonnie; Smith, Cindy J; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve; Gilbert, Jack A

    2010-12-01

    Bioturbation is a key process in coastal sediments, influencing microbially driven cycling of nutrients as well as the physical characteristics of the sediment. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity and function of the microbial communities that inhabit the burrows of infaunal macroorganisms. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to investigate variation in the structure of bacterial communities in sediment bioturbated by the burrowing shrimp Upogebia deltaura or Callianassa subterranea. Analyses of 229 sediment samples revealed significant differences between bacterial communities inhabiting shrimp burrows and those inhabiting ambient surface and subsurface sediments. Bacterial communities in burrows from both shrimp species were more similar to those in surface-ambient than subsurface-ambient sediment (R=0.258, P<0.001). The presence of shrimp was also associated with changes in bacterial community structure in surrounding surface sediment, when compared with sediments uninhabited by shrimp. Bacterial community structure varied with burrow depth, and also between individual burrows, suggesting that the shrimp's burrow construction, irrigation and maintenance behaviour affect the distribution of bacteria within shrimp burrows. Subsequent sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from surface sediments revealed differences in the relative abundance of bacterial taxa between shrimp-inhabited and uninhabited sediments; shrimp-inhabited sediment contained a higher proportion of proteobacterial sequences, including in particular a twofold increase in Gammaproteobacteria. Chao1 and ACE diversity estimates showed that taxon richness within surface bacterial communities in shrimp-inhabited sediment was at least threefold higher than that in uninhabited sediment. This study shows that bioturbation can result in significant structural and compositional changes in sediment bacterial communities, increasing

  5. Impact of Dietary Tomato Juice on Changes in Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Structure Induced by Neonatal Hyperoxia in Mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouch, Sheena; Harding, Richard; O’Reilly, Megan; Wood, Lisa G.; Sozo, Foula

    2016-01-01

    Many preterm infants require hyperoxic gas for survival, although it can contribute to lung injury. Experimentally, neonatal hyperoxia leads to persistent alterations in lung structure and increases leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). These effects of hyperoxia on the lungs are considered to be caused, at least in part, by increased oxidative stress. Our objective was to determine if dietary supplementation with a known source of antioxidants (tomato juice, TJ) could protect the developing lung from injury caused by breathing hyperoxic gas. Neonatal mice (C57BL6/J) breathed either 65% O2 (hyperoxia) or room air from birth until postnatal day 7 (P7d); some underwent necropsy at P7d and others were raised in room air until adulthood (P56d). In subsets of both groups, drinking water was replaced with TJ (diluted 50:50 in water) from late gestation to necropsy. At P7d and P56d, we analyzed total antioxidant capacity (TAC), markers of oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine and heme oxygenase-1 expression), inflammation (interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression), collagen (COL) and smooth muscle in the lungs; we also assessed lung structure. We quantified macrophages in lung tissue (at P7d) and leukocytes in BALF (at P56d). At P7d, TJ increased pulmonary TAC and COL1α1 expression and attenuated the hyperoxia-induced increase in nitrotyrosine and macrophage influx; however, changes in lung structure were not affected. At P56d, TJ increased TAC, decreased oxidative stress and reversed the hyperoxia-induced increase in bronchiolar smooth muscle. Additionally, TJ alone decreased IL-1β expression, but following hyperoxia TJ increased TNF-α expression and did not alter the hyperoxia-induced increase in leukocyte number. We conclude that TJ supplementation during and after neonatal exposure to hyperoxia protects the lung from some but not all aspects of hyperoxia-induced injury, but may also have adverse side-effects. The effects of

  6. Impact of Dietary Tomato Juice on Changes in Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Structure Induced by Neonatal Hyperoxia in Mice (Mus musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena Bouch

    Full Text Available Many preterm infants require hyperoxic gas for survival, although it can contribute to lung injury. Experimentally, neonatal hyperoxia leads to persistent alterations in lung structure and increases leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. These effects of hyperoxia on the lungs are considered to be caused, at least in part, by increased oxidative stress. Our objective was to determine if dietary supplementation with a known source of antioxidants (tomato juice, TJ could protect the developing lung from injury caused by breathing hyperoxic gas. Neonatal mice (C57BL6/J breathed either 65% O2 (hyperoxia or room air from birth until postnatal day 7 (P7d; some underwent necropsy at P7d and others were raised in room air until adulthood (P56d. In subsets of both groups, drinking water was replaced with TJ (diluted 50:50 in water from late gestation to necropsy. At P7d and P56d, we analyzed total antioxidant capacity (TAC, markers of oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine and heme oxygenase-1 expression, inflammation (interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α expression, collagen (COL and smooth muscle in the lungs; we also assessed lung structure. We quantified macrophages in lung tissue (at P7d and leukocytes in BALF (at P56d. At P7d, TJ increased pulmonary TAC and COL1α1 expression and attenuated the hyperoxia-induced increase in nitrotyrosine and macrophage influx; however, changes in lung structure were not affected. At P56d, TJ increased TAC, decreased oxidative stress and reversed the hyperoxia-induced increase in bronchiolar smooth muscle. Additionally, TJ alone decreased IL-1β expression, but following hyperoxia TJ increased TNF-α expression and did not alter the hyperoxia-induced increase in leukocyte number. We conclude that TJ supplementation during and after neonatal exposure to hyperoxia protects the lung from some but not all aspects of hyperoxia-induced injury, but may also have adverse side-effects. The effects

  7. Transient exposure of pulmonary surfactant to hyaluronan promotes structural and compositional transformations into a highly active state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Cruz, Antonio; Richter, Ralf P; Taeusch, H William; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2013-10-11

    Pulmonary surfactant is a lipid-protein complex that lowers surface tension at the respiratory air-liquid interface, stabilizing the lungs against physical forces tending to collapse alveoli. Dysfunction of surfactant is associated with respiratory pathologies such as acute respiratory distress syndrome or meconium aspiration syndrome where naturally occurring surfactant-inhibitory agents such as serum, meconium, or cholesterol reach the lung. We analyzed the effect of hyaluronan (HA) on the structure and surface behavior of pulmonary surfactant to understand the mechanism for HA-promoted surfactant protection in the presence of inhibitory agents. In particular, we found that HA affects structural properties such as the aggregation state of surfactant membranes and the size, distribution, and order/packing of phase-segregated lipid domains. These effects do not require a direct interaction between surfactant complexes and HA and are accompanied by a compositional reorganization of large surfactant complexes that become enriched with saturated phospholipid species. HA-exposed surfactant reaches very high efficiency in terms of rapid and spontaneous adsorption of surfactant phospholipids at the air-liquid interface and shows significantly improved resistance to inactivation by serum or cholesterol. We propose that physical effects pertaining to the formation of a meshwork of interpenetrating HA polymer chains are responsible for the changes in surfactant structure and composition that enhance surfactant function and, thus, resistance to inactivation. The higher resistance of HA-exposed surfactant to inactivation persists even after removal of the polymer, suggesting that transient exposure of surfactant to polymers like HA could be a promising strategy for the production of more efficient therapeutic surfactant preparations. PMID:23983120

  8. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, M.; Shandhi, M. M. H.; Hogan, A.; Solzbacher, F.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2016-03-01

    In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several methods such as laser ablation, focused ion beam, sputter etching, reactive ion etching (RIE) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The surface modification processes were optimized for the high aspect ratio silicon structures of the UEA. The increase in real surface area while maintaining the geometrical surface area was verified using scanning electron

  9. Alterations of CNS structure & function by charged particle radiation & resultant oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory; Chang, Polly; Favre, Cecile; Fike, John; Komarova, Natalia; Limoli, Charles; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Obenaus, Andre; Raber, Jacob; Spigelman, Igor; Soltesz, Ivan; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Stampanoni, Marco; Vlkolinsky, Roman; Wodarz, Dominik

    The NSCOR program project is transitioning from establishing the existence of CNS responses to low doses of charged particles, to an investigation of mechanisms underlying these changes and extending the irradiation paradigm to more space-like exposures. In earlier experiments we examined radiation responses of the mouse brain (hippocampus) following exposure to 250 MeV protons and 600 MeV/n iron ions. Our key findings on structural changes were: 1) Significant dose and time dependent loss of en-dothelial cells and microvessel network remodeling occurs suggesting that vascular insufficiency is produced. 2) Significant dose dependent losses of neural precursor cells were observed in a lineage specific pattern which may be associated with cognitive impairment. 3) Evaluation of DNA damage showed dose and time dependent accumulation of mutations with region-specific mutation structures and gene expression profiling demonstrated activation of neurotrophic and adhesion factors as well as chemokine receptors associated with inflammation. Our key find-ings on functional changes were: 1) Time and dose dependent modifications to neural output expressed as enhanced excitability but reduced synaptic efficacy and plasticity (including long term potentiation). 2) Intrinsic membrane properties of neurons were not significantly modi-fied by radiation exposure but pharmacological treatments demonstrated changes in inhibitory synapses. 3) MRI imaging visualized brain structural changes based on altered water diffu-sion properties and patterns were consistent with demyelination or gliosis. Our key findings on neurodegeneration and fidelity of homeostasis were: 1) APP23 transgenic mice exhibited accelerated APP-type electrophysiological pathology over several months. 2) Microvessel net-work changes following irradiation were suggestive of poor tissue oxygenation. 3) The ability of the brain to respond a controlled septic shock was altered by irradiation; the septic shock reactions

  10. Patient-Specific Simulations of Reactivity in Models of the Pulmonary Vasculature: A 3-D Numerical Study with Fluid-Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall; Zhang, Yanhang; Lanning, Craig

    2005-11-01

    Insight into the progression of pulmonary hypertension may be obtained from thorough study of vascular flow during reactivity testing, an invasive diagnostic procedure which can dramatically alter vascular hemodynamics. Diagnostic imaging methods, however, are limited in their ability to provide extensive data. Here we present detailed flow and wall deformation results from simulations of pulmonary arteries undergoing this procedure. Patient-specific 3-D geometric reconstructions of the first four branches of the pulmonary vasculature were obtained clinically and meshed for use with computational software. Transient simulations in normal and reactive states were obtained from four such models were completed with patient-specific velocity inlet conditions and flow impedance exit conditions. A microstructurally based orthotropic hyperelastic model that simulates pulmonary artery mechanics under normotensive and hypoxic hypertensive conditions treated wall constitutive changes due to pressure reactivity and arterial remodeling. Pressure gradients, velocity fields, arterial deformation, and complete topography of shear stress were obtained. These models provide richer detail of hemodynamics than can be obtained from current imaging techniques, and should allow maximum characterization of vascular function in the clinical situation.

  11. Structural alterations in the male reproductive system of the freshwater crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda, Parastacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnot, Ana B; López Greco, Laura S

    2009-10-01

    No diseases affecting reproductive performance have been previously reported in freshwater crayfishes. This study aims to characterise one reproductive system abnormality found in males of Cherax quadricarinatus reared in captivity. Fifteen adult males of C. quadricarinatus (70-110 g) were purchased from San Mateo S.A. farm (Entre Ríos, Argentina) each season during 2007. Macroscopic analysis showed that 26.6% of the animals sacrificed in winter presented brownish distal vasa deferentia. Histological analysis showed different levels of structural abnormality in the epithelium of the vasa deferentia and spermatophore. Granular and hyaline haemocytes were identified within the vasa deferentia but no significant differences were found in the sperm count between normal and brownish vas deferens. Histological analysis of the crayfishes sacrificed in autumn also showed these modifications in 22% of the animals, however, they did not show the brownish colour under macroscopic analysis. The similarities between the male reproductive system syndrome in shrimps and the abnormalities found in C. quadricarinatus are notable. An unspecific response to thermic stress is a possible explanation of these structural alterations. PMID:19682455

  12. Human hemoglobin structural and functional alterations and heme degradation upon interaction with benzene: A spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-03-01

    Here, the effect of benzene on hemoglobin structure, stability and heme prosthetic group integrity was studied by different methods. These included UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry, normal and synchronous fluorescence techniques, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Our results indicated that benzene has high hemolytic potential even at low concentrations. The UV-vis spectroscopic results demonstrated that benzene altered both the globin chain and the heme prosthetic group of hemoglobin increasing met- and deoxy-Hb, while decreasing oxy-Hb. However, with increasing benzene the concentration of all species decreased due to heme destruction. The spectrophotometric results show that benzene has a high potential for penetrating the hydrophobic pocket of hemoglobin. These results were consistent with the molecular docking simulation results of benzene-hHb. Aggregation and thermal denaturation studies show that the increased benzene concentration induced hemoglobin aggregation with a decrease in stability, which is consistent with the DSC results. Conventional fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the heme degradation species were produced in the presence of benzene. The results of constant wavelength synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (CWSFS) indicated that at least five heme-degraded species were produced. Together, our results indicated that benzene has adverse effects on hemoglobin structure and function, and heme degradation.

  13. Faunal Drivers of Soil Flux Dynamics via Alterations in Crack Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Keita; Caylor, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    Organismal activity, in addition to its role in ecological feedbacks, has the potential to serve as instigators or enhancers of atmospheric and hydrologic processes via alterations in soil structural regimes. We investigated the biomechanical effect of faunal activity on soil carbon dynamics via changes in soil crack structure, focusing on three dryland soil systems: bioturbated, biocompacted and undisturbed soils. Carbon fluxes were characterized using a closed-system respiration chamber, with CO2 concentration differences measured using an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA). Results show that faunal influences play a divergent biomechanics role in bulk soil cracking: bioturbation induced by belowground fauna creates "surficial" (shallow, large, well-connected) networks relative to the "systematic" (deep, moderate, poorly connected) networks created by aboveground fauna. The latter also shows a "memory" of past wetting/drying events in the consolidated soil through a crack layering effect. These morphologies further drive differences in soil carbon flux: under dry conditions, bioturbated and control soils show a persistently high and low mean carbon flux, respectively, while biocompacted soils show a large diurnal trend, with daytime lows and nighttime highs comparable to the control and bioturbated soils, respectively. Overall fluxes under wet conditions are considerably higher, but also more variable, though higher mean fluxes are observed in the biocompacted and bioturbated soils. Our results suggest that the increased surface area in the bioturbated soils create enhanced but constant diffusive processes, whereas the increased thermal gradient in the biocompacted soils create novel convective processes that create high fluxes that are diurnal in nature.

  14. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs are certified by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. These programs can be found on the AACVPR ... at 1-800-586-4872. American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation ... ...

  15. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  16. Pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. This buildup of fluid leads to shortness of ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  17. Pulmonary damage in childhood: Evaluation with pulmonary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: There are a number of pulmonary diseases during infancy that predispose to chronic respiratory conditions at the adults age. Bronchiectasis, malformations, bronchogenic cysts, atelectasis and sequels of adenovirus infection are frequent factors for recurrent respiratory diseases, that can produce a permanent pulmonary damage. The pulmonary radioisotopic studies allow a reliable pre-operatory evaluation in order to determinate the global and segmental pulmonary function. Chronic hypoventilated territories shown secondary hypoperfusion, giving as a result a match defect in the ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy. Goal: To determinate if the perfusion scintigram alone is enough in order to evaluate the pulmonary function in pediatric population with chronic pulmonary diseases. Materials and Methods: All ventilation/perfusion scintigraphic studies done in children with chronic pulmonary diseases derived to our center between 1999-2001 were analyzed. A total of 58 children (25 boys and 33 girls, in a age range from 1 month to 17 years) were studied. The most frequent indications the study were: bronchiectasis, pulmonary hypoplasia, several bronchitis and sequels of adenovirus respiratory infection. This last one represents the 31% of all cases. The number and location of each perfusion and ventilation defects where correlated. Results: Twelve out of the 58 children had normal lung scintigraphics studies (21%), 44 showed mixed defects (76%), in 1 child only one perfusion defect was found (1.5%) and in other child only a single ventilation alteration was seen (1.5%). Conclusion: According to the results in our group, we observed that in chronic pulmonary diseases most cases have matched ventilation/perfusion defects, because of readecuation of the pulmonary blood flow. The perfusions scintigraph was diagnosed in 98.5% of the studied cases. This allows us to suggests that in the evaluation of pulmonary damage in children with chronic pulmonary diseases, the

  18. Association of Pulmonary Function with Adiposity and Metabolic Abnormalities in Urban Minority Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Deepa; Bhalani, Kshitij; Hall, Charles B.; Isasi, Carmen R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Childhood obesity is a known risk factor for pulmonary diseases, likely due to obesity-mediated alteration of pulmonary function. Inflammation and mechanical fat load are two proposed causative mechanisms for altered pulmonary function among obese children; however, the association of metabolic abnormalities with pulmonary function among children is poorly understood.

  19. Pulmonary rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Spruit, Martijn A.

    2001-01-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the pa...

  20. Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rali, Parth; Gandhi, Viral; Malik, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism covers a wide spectrum of presentation from an asymptomatic individual to a life-threatening medical emergency. It is of paramount importance to appropriately risk stratify patients with pulmonary embolism, particularly with those who present without hypotension. Right ventricular dysfunction can evolve after a patient has received a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, necessitating aggressive measures rather than simple anticoagulation. In this review, we discuss definition, risk stratification, pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, and management, with particular focus on massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:26919674

  1. Learn About Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pulmonary Fibrosis Learn About Pulmonary Fibrosis Pulmonary fibrosis is ... while processing XML file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup Pulmonary Fibrosis Learn About Pulmonary Fibrosis Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms, ...

  2. Time-Dependent Confounding in the Study of the Effects of Regular Physical Activity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Application of the Marginal Structural Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Lange, P.; Serra, I.;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Results from longitudinal studies about the association between physical activity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may have been biased because they did not properly adjust for time-dependent confounders. Marginal structural models (MSMs) have been proposed to address thi...

  3. Chromosomal breakpoints and structural alterations of the c-myc locus differ in endemic and sporadic forms of Burkitt lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pelicci, P.G.; Knowles, D M; Magrath, I; Dalla-Favera, R

    1986-01-01

    We have examined the position of the chromosomal breakpoint relative to the human c-myc gene (MYC) and the presence of other structural alterations of the same locus in 19 fresh samples of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and 13 BL-derived cell lines. This panel includes the two pathogenetic forms of BL: the endemic (African-type) BL (eBL) and sporadic (American-type) BL (sBL). In all cases tested, including fresh samples and cell lines, structural alterations of the 5' portion of the gene were detected...

  4. Alterations in nuclear structure promote lupus autoimmunity in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrata; Johnstone, Duncan B.; Martin, Kayla A.; Tempera, Italo; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the development of autoantibodies that recognize components of the cell nucleus. The vast majority of lupus research has focused on either the contributions of immune cell dysfunction or the genetics of the disease. Because granulocytes isolated from human SLE patients had alterations in neutrophil nuclear morphology that resembled the Pelger–Huet anomaly, and had prominent mis-splicing of mRNA encoding the nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor (LBR), consistent with their Pelger–Huet-like nuclear morphology, we used a novel mouse model system to test the hypothesis that a disruption in the structure of the nucleus itself also contributes to the development of lupus autoimmunity. The lupus-prone mouse strain New Zealand White (NZW) was crossed with c57Bl/6 mice harboring a heterozygous autosomal dominant mutation in Lbr (B6.Lbric/+), and the (NZW×B6.Lbric)F1 offspring were evaluated for induction of lupus autoimmunity. Only female (NZW×B6.Lbric)F1 mice developed lupus autoimmunity, which included splenomegaly, kidney damage and autoantibodies. Kidney damage was accompanied by immune complex deposition, and perivascular and tubule infiltration of mononuclear cells. The titers of anti-chromatin antibodies exceeded those of aged female MRL-Faslpr mice, and were predominantly of the IgG2 subclasses. The anti-nuclear antibody staining profile of female (NZW×B6.Lbric)F1 sera was complex, and consisted of an anti-nuclear membrane reactivity that colocalized with the A-type lamina, in combination with a homogeneous pattern that was related to the recognition of histones with covalent modifications that are associated with gene activation. An anti-neutrophil IgM recognizing calreticulin, but not myeloperoxidase (MPO) or proteinase 3 (PR3), was also identified. Thus, alterations in nuclear structure contribute to lupus autoimmunity when expressed in the context of a lupus

  5. Exercise challenge in Gulf War Illness reveals two subgroups with altered brain structure and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakib U Rayhan

    Full Text Available Nearly 30% of the approximately 700,000 military personnel who served in Operation Desert Storm (1990-1991 have developed Gulf War Illness, a condition that presents with symptoms such as cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, debilitating fatigue and chronic widespread pain that implicate the central nervous system. A hallmark complaint of subjects with Gulf War Illness is post-exertional malaise; defined as an exacerbation of symptoms following physical and/or mental effort. To study the causal relationship between exercise, the brain, and changes in symptoms, 28 Gulf War veterans and 10 controls completed an fMRI scan before and after two exercise stress tests to investigate serial changes in pain, autonomic function, and working memory. Exercise induced two clinical Gulf War Illness subgroups. One subgroup presented with orthostatic tachycardia (n = 10. This phenotype correlated with brainstem atrophy, baseline working memory compensation in the cerebellar vermis, and subsequent loss of compensation after exercise. The other subgroup developed exercise induced hyperalgesia (n = 18 that was associated with cortical atrophy and baseline working memory compensation in the basal ganglia. Alterations in cognition, brain structure, and symptoms were absent in controls. Our novel findings may provide an understanding of the relationship between the brain and post-exertional malaise in Gulf War Illness.

  6. Exposure of soil microbial communities to chromium and arsenic alters their diversity and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody S Sheik

    Full Text Available Extensive use of chromium (Cr and arsenic (As based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI. Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways.

  7. Exposure of soil microbial communities to chromium and arsenic alters their diversity and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik, Cody S; Mitchell, Tyler W; Rizvi, Fariha Z; Rehman, Yasir; Faisal, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida; McInerney, Michael J; Krumholz, Lee R

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils) were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI)-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI). Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways. PMID:22768219

  8. Pulmonary Impedance and Pulmonary Doppler Trace in the Perioperative Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Claude; Van Orman, Jordan R

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension and associated vascular changes may frequently accompany left-sided heart disease in the adult cardiac surgical population. Perioperative assessment of right ventricular function using echocardiography is well established. In general, understanding the constraints upon which the right ventricle must work is mostly limited to invasive monitoring consisting of pulmonary artery pressures, cardiac output, and pulmonary vascular resistance. The latter 2 measurements assume constant (mean) flows and pressures. The systolic and diastolic pressures offer a limited understanding of the pulsatile constraints, which may become significant in disease. In normal physiology, pressure and flow waves display near-similar contours. When left atrial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance are increased, changes in pulmonary arterial compliance will result in elevated impedance to right ventricular ejection. Pressure reflections, the result of strong reflectors, return more quickly in a noncompliant system. They augment pulmonary artery pressure causing a premature reduction in flow. As a result, pressure and flow waves will now be dissimilar. The impact of vascular changes on right ventricular ejection can be assessed using pulmonary artery Doppler spectral imaging. The normal flow velocity profile is rounded at its peak. Earlier peaks and premature reductions in flow will make it appear more triangular. In some cases, the flow pattern may appear notched. The measurement of acceleration time, the time from onset to peak flow velocity is an indicator of constraint to ejection; shortened times have been associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pressure. Understanding the changes in the pulmonary arterial system in disease and the physics of the hemodynamic alterations are essential in interpreting pulmonary artery Doppler data. Analyzing pulmonary artery Doppler flow signals may assist in the evaluation of right ventricular function in

  9. Quantitative analysis of the nanoscale intra-nuclear structural alterations in hippocampal cells in chronic alcoholism via transmission electron microscopy study

    CERN Document Server

    Sahay, Peeyush; Ghimire, Hemendra M; Almabadi, Huda; Tripathi, Vibha; Mohanty, Samarendra K; Rao, Radhakrishna; Pradhan, Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism is known to alter morphology of hippocampal, an important region of cognitive function in the brain. We performed quantification of nanoscale structural alterations in nuclei of hippocampal neuron cells due to chronic alcoholism, in mice model. Transmission electron microscopy images of the neuron cells were obtained and the degrees of structural alteration, in terms of mass density fluctuations, were determined using the recently developed light localization analysis technique. The results, obtained at the length scales ranging from 33 to 195 nm, show that the 4-week alcohol fed mice have higher degree of structural alteration in comparison to the control mice. The degree of structural alterations starts becoming significantly distinguishable around 100 nm sample length, which is the typical length scale of the building blocks of cells, such as DNA, RNA, etc. Different degrees of structural alterations at such length scales suggest possible structural rearrangement of chromatin inside the ...

  10. On the modification of the postradiation ultra-structure alterations in the lungs of rats with the synthetic antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known from literature that the morphofunctional unit in lungs preventing the death of animals from radiation pneumonite is an azynus while both the pneumocytes type 2 producing surfactant and the endothelial cells taking part in the exchange of angiotensin and many other metabolites equally pretend to the role of cell-target. The damage of the former stimulates the arise of the radiation pneumonite whereas the damage of the capillaries break bond up of blood to, albumin and interstitial fibrin accumulation, correspondingly and later to the increase of the biosynthesis and to collagen accumulation resulting in the fibrosis. The investigation with the electron microscopy shows the relatively early development of the destruction processes in epithelial and endothelial cells - the components of the haematoalveolar barrier even at the doses less than the pathogen ones (approximately 6-7Gy). The acute radiation pneumonite with the latent period about 4 weeks with the doses more than 8 Gy and the development of with pneumonite the doses more than 10 Gy are linked with these reactions. The reactions of the pneumocytes the type 2 are of special importance. In the pathogenesis of the interstitial pneumonite the great importance is the early inflammatory reaction with the quantitative and qualitative alterations of the pulmonary tissue cell compound which correlates with the intensification of the lipid peroxidation processes and the increase of antioxidation ferment activity. It is established that the isolation of the surface-active lipids by cells increases in just 5-7 minutes after irradiation and may be responsible for the increase of permeability of the haematoalveolar barrier. The break of the ultrastructure of endothelial and epithelial cells reveals itself just as soon as in a week, and one of the macrophages - during a month. Therefore we may consider that the preventive stabilization of cytomembranes with the help of radioprotectors in the latent period can

  11. Impact of soda-lime borosilicate glass composition on water penetration and water structure at the first time of alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the impact of soda-lime borosilicate glass composition and particularly the effect of charge compensators such Ca and Na and, of network formers such Si and Zr, on water penetration and water structure at the first time of alteration were investigated. Two non-destructive techniques were combined: the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection geometry to precise the predominant alteration mechanisms and assess the water structure in altered zone and the grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry to determine the thickness of the altered glass zone allowing to calculate the water diffusion coefficients through the glasses. The results of glass alteration at pH = 3 and 30 degrees C have shown that hydrolysis was the predominant mechanism after few seconds for glass having a high amount of non-binding oxygen. For the other glasses, which for the diffusion was the limiting reaction, the calculated water diffusion coefficients were comprised between 10-21 and 10-19 m2.s-1 and vary as a function of glass composition. An activation energy of 76.9 kJ.mol-1 was calculated and appears to be higher than inert gas diffusion through the glass highlighting that water molecules strongly interact with the glass matrix. (authors)

  12. Characterization of 4-HNE modified L-FABP reveals alterations in structural and functional dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Smathers

    Full Text Available 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE is a reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde produced during oxidative stress and subsequent lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The reactivity of 4-HNE towards DNA and nucleophilic amino acids has been well established. In this report, using proteomic approaches, liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP is identified as a target for modification by 4-HNE. This lipid binding protein mediates the uptake and trafficking of hydrophobic ligands throughout cellular compartments. Ethanol caused a significant decrease in L-FABP protein (P<0.001 and mRNA (P<0.05, as well as increased poly-ubiquitinated L-FABP (P<0.001. Sites of 4-HNE adduction on mouse recombinant L-FABP were mapped using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry on apo (Lys57 and Cys69 and holo (Lys6, Lys31, His43, Lys46, Lys57 and Cys69 L-FABP. The impact of 4-HNE adduction was found to occur in a concentration-dependent manner; affinity for the fluorescent ligand, anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid, was reduced from 0.347 µM to Kd(1 = 0.395 µM and Kd(2 = 34.20 µM. Saturation analyses revealed that capacity for ligand is reduced by approximately 50% when adducted by 4-HNE. Thermal stability curves of apo L-FABP was also found to be significantly affected by 4-HNE adduction (ΔTm = 5.44°C, P<0.01. Computational-based molecular modeling simulations of adducted protein revealed minor conformational changes in global protein structure of apo and holo L-FABP while more apparent differences were observed within the internal binding pocket, revealing reduced area and structural integrity. New solvent accessible portals on the periphery of the protein were observed following 4-HNE modification in both the apo and holo state, suggesting an adaptive response to carbonylation. The results from this study detail the dynamic process associated with L-FABP modification by 4-HNE and provide insight as to how alterations in structural integrity and ligand

  13. Isotropic 3D Nuclear Morphometry of Normal, Fibrocystic and Malignant Breast Epithelial Cells Reveals New Structural Alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Nandakumar, Vivek; Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Hernandez, Kathryn F.; Lintecum, Kelly M.; Senechal, Patti; Bussey, Kimberly J.; Davies, Paul C.W.; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Grading schemes for breast cancer diagnosis are predominantly based on pathologists' qualitative assessment of altered nuclear structure from 2D brightfield microscopy images. However, cells are three-dimensional (3D) objects with features that are inherently 3D and thus poorly characterized in 2D. Our goal is to quantitatively characterize nuclear structure in 3D, assess its variation with malignancy, and investigate whether such variation correlates with standard nuclear grading ...

  14. Comparative studies of the structural and alteration controls on gold mineralization in the Wa-Lawra region, NW Ghana.

    OpenAIRE

    Amponsah, Prince Ofori

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to perform a detailed structural, mineralization and associated alteration studies of three gold deposits located in northwest Ghana, on the eastern margin of the West African Craton. Thus, the Kunche and Bepkong deposits, located in the Wa-Lawra belt and Julie deposit located in the Julie belt. These three deposits have multiple differences in terms of geological, structural, tectonic and geochemical characteristics but gold mineralization in these deposits a...

  15. Alterações posturais e função pulmonar de crianças respiradoras bucais Postural alterations and pulmonary function of mouth-breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska da Silveira

    2010-12-01

    -sectional study, where the posture and pulmonary function of 17 mouth-breathing children and of 17 nasal-breathing children were evaluated by means of photogrammetry and forced spirometry. RESULTS: when compared to nasal-breathing, mouth-breathing subjects presented an increment in head projection and cervical lordosis, forwarded gravity center and reduced pulmonary volumes. There was an association between head projection and forced vital capacity, and between postural alterations and age. CONCLUSION: mouth-breathing children have postural alterations which increases with age and also reduced spirometry values. The vital capacity reduction correlates negatively with head projection.

  16. Biological alterations resulting from chronic lung irradiation. I. The pulmonary lipid composition, physiology, and pathology after inhalation by beagle dogs of 144Ce-labeled fused clay aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three groups of four beagle dogs inhaled a 144Ce-labeled fused clay aerosol; two additional dogs per group, exposed to a stable cerium-labeled fused clay aerosol, were used as controls. At monthly intervals, one diaphragmatic lobe of each of two dogs exposed to 144Ce and one control animal from each group was lavaged with isotonic saline. The recovered lavage solutions were centrifuged to isolate lung cells (mostly macrophages) and surfactant for lipid analyses. The groups were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 6 mo after exposure, when the lungs of the dogs exposed to 144Ce had average cumulative radiation doses of 23, 36, and 59 krad, respectively. Chronic irradiation of the lung resulted in a progressive radiation pneumonitis which was assessed clinically and pathologically at various intervals. At sacrifice, the lungs were analyzed for 144Ce and the right apical and diaphragmatic lobes were minced and lyophilized and the lipids were extracted. Total lipids from all lung samples were determined gravimetrically and individual compounds were identified, isolated, and quantitated. The quantities of lipid in lung tissue, in pulmonary cells, and in surfactant increased as a function of time and radiation dose. Neutral lipids (sterol esters and triglycerides) accounted for most of the increase. (U.S.)

  17. Pulmonary connective tissue modifications induced by internal α-irradiation. II. Alterations of collagen and non collagen proteins biosynthesis following inhalation of plutonium 239 dioxide aerosol in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies have shown that internal α irradiation following inhalation of plutonium 239 dioxide in rat increased collagen content in the lung. Effect was maximal at 200 days with the highest dose. This increase was found transient and collagen dropped back to control values after 400 days in rats with the same initial lung burden or the same total dose. A new increase was observed later on, largely related to oncoming death. Here, we have studied, simultaneously, content and biosynthesis of collagen and non collagen proteins, 200 d and 400 d after 239PuO2 inhalation (100-150 nCi ILB). The results confirmed a biphasic effect of inhaled 239PuO2 on the pulmonary connective tissue: a/ A significant increase (p < 0.01) of soluble non-collagen proteins correlated to a decrease of the insoluble fraction was observed 200 d after inhalation. Similar parameters were not significantly different in controls on irradiated rats after 400 days. b/ Soluble and non-soluble collagen contents increased by a factor of 3 and 1.5 respectively 200 d after inhalation. No effect after 400 d. c/ Biosynthesis of non-collagen connective tissue components were 2 to 5 lower than in controls at 400d. d/collagen biosynthesis was decreased by a factor between 4 and 6 for the soluble and insoluble fractions at 200 d but normal at 400 d

  18. Assessment of the structural brain network reveals altered connectivity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy due to periventricular white matter lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Pannek

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that network-based analysis of structural connectivity can identify alterations in FA in unilateral CP, and that these alterations in FA are related to clinical function. Application of this connectome-based analysis to investigate alterations in connectivity following treatment may elucidate the neurological correlates of improved functioning due to intervention.

  19. Compared study of the local structure of alteration products of SON 68 glass and natural gels; Etude comparee de la structure locale des produits d'alteration du verre SON 68 et de gels naturels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrin, E

    2000-07-01

    This study is a contribution in the understanding of the long time behavior of alteration products of the glass SON 68, used to simulate the nuclear glass R7T7. The local structure around Zirconium and iron has been probed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy in altered surface layer of glass SON 68. Alteration products of this glass have been prepared for short (3 hours to 7 days) and long (17 months) time, using various indexes of saturation for the leaching solution with respect to the Si content of the glass (from 0 to 90 %). The evolution of the local structure around Fe has also been studied in recent and old natural ferric gels. Zr, Fe- L{sub 2,3} XANES and Zr, Fe-K EXAFS spectroscopies have shown that, in the pristine glass, these elements are connected to the polymeric network. Zr is found in an environment close to that of a zircon-silicate containing Na and Ca. Trivalent Fe is a network former. The leached layer of glass SON 68 is constituted of poorly ordered Zr-and Fe-(oxi-hydr)oxides that may have been formed by a mechanism of dissolution/precipitation; a relict phase with the same Zr local structure as that observed in the pristine glass, probably obtained thanks to in-situ solid condensation. The structural characteristics of the leached layer are observed from the first steps of alteration for Zr and Fe. Conversely to Fe, the structural status of Zr depends on the leaching kinetic as well as the contents of Ca and Si in the solid. Fe-K EXAFS results in recent natural ferri-hydrides present a clear structural similarity with that determined in glass SON 68 leached products. The study of old paleosols (between 1,800 and 200,000 years) has demonstrated the long time stability of ferric gels, although an increase of medium range order around Fe is seen. (author)

  20. Alterations of intestinal mucosa structure and barrier function following traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Hang; Ji-Xin Shi; Jie-Shou Li; Wei Wu; Hong-Xia Yin

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Gastrointestinal dysfunction is a common complication in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the effect of traumatic brain injury on intestinal mucosa has not been studied previously. The aim of the current study was to explore the alterations of intestinal mucosa morphology and barrier function, and to determine how rapidly the impairment of gut barrier function occurs and how long it persists following traumatic brain injury.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (6 rats each group) including controls without brain injury and traumatic brain injury groups at hours 3,12, 24, and 72, and on day 7. The intestinal mucosa structure was detected by histopathological examination and electron microscopy. Gut barrier dysfunction was evaluated by detecting serum endotoxin and intestinal permeability. The level of serum endotoxin and intestinal permeability was measured by using chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio, respectively.RESULTS: After traumatic brain injury, the histopathological alterations of gut mucosa occurred rapidly as early as 3 hours and progressed to a serious state, including shedding of epithelial cells, fracture of villi, focal ulcer, fusion of adjacent villi, dilation of central chyle duct, mucosal atrophy,and vascular dilation, congestion and edema in the villous interstitium and lamina propria. Apoptosis of epithelial cells,fracture and sparseness of microvilli, loss of tight junction between enterocytes, damage of mitochondria and endoplasm, were found by electron microscopy. The villous height, crypt depth and surface area in jejunum decreased progressively with the time of brain injury. As compared with that of control group (183.7±41.8 EU/L), serum endotoxin level was signnificantly increased at 3, 12, and 24 hours following TBI (434.8±54.9 EU/L, 324.2±61.7 EU/L and 303.3±60.2 EU/L, respectively), and peaked at 72 hours (560.5±76.2 EU/L), then declined on day 7

  1. A cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a structured pulmonary rehabilitation education programme for improving the health status of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: The PRINCE Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichulain Martina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key strategy in improving care for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the provision of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Pulmonary rehabilitation programmes have been successful in improving patients' sense of dyspnoea and Health Related Quality of Life. However, the effectiveness of structured education pulmonary rehabilitation programmes delivered at the level of the general practice on the health status of people with COPD remains uncertain and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of this. The PRINCE study will evaluate the effectiveness of a Structured Education Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme (SEPRP, delivered at the level of the general practice, on the health status of people with COPD. Methods/Design The PRINCE Trial is a two-armed, single blind cluster randomised trial conducted in the primary care setting in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the General Practice. Participants in the intervention arm will receive a SEPRP and those allocated to the control arm will receive usual care. Delivery of the SEPRP will be by a practice nurse and physiotherapist in the General Practice (GP site. The primary outcome measure of the study will be health status as measured by the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ. Blinded outcome assessment will be undertaken at baseline and at twelve-fourteen weeks after completion of the programme. A comparison of outcomes between the intervention and control sites will be made to examine if differences exist and, if so, to what extent between control and experimental groups. Sample size calculations estimate that 32 practices with a minimum of 10 participants per practice are required, in total, to be randomised to control and intervention arms for power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05, to determine a clinically significant change of 0.5 units in the CRQ. A cost effectiveness analysis will also be

  2. Pulmonary vascular wall stiffness: An important contributor to the increased right ventricular afterload with pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhijie; Chesler, Naomi C

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with structural and mechanical changes in the pulmonary vascular bed that increase right ventricular (RV) afterload. These changes, characterized by narrowing and stiffening, occur in both proximal and distal pulmonary arteries (PAs). An important consequence of arterial narrowing is increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Arterial stiffening, which can occur in both the proximal and distal pulmonary arteries, is an important index of disease p...

  3. Structural Brain Alterations in Motor Subtypes of Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence from Probabilistic Tractography and Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Griet; Leunissen, Inge; Firbank, Michael; Heremans, Elke; Nackaerts, Evelien; Vandenberghe, Wim; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) and tremor dominant (TD) subtypes of Parkinson’s disease (PD) show different patterns of alterations in functional connectivity (FC) between specific brain regions. This study aimed to investigate the relation between symptomatic heterogeneity in PD and structural alterations underlying these FC changes. Methods 68 PD patients classified as PIGD (n = 41) or TD (n = 19) and 19 age-matched controls underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Diffusion-weighted images were used to assess fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) at the whole-brain level using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In addition, structural connectivity was assessed between regions that previously showed altered FC using probabilistic tractography. Anatomical images were used to determine shape and volume of the putamen, caudate and pallidum. Results TBSS revealed widespread FA reductions in PIGD compared to controls involving the superior longitudinal fasciculi and corpus callosum. No such differences were found in TD. Both PD subgroups had increased MD compared to controls in tracts connecting the left caudate with the bilateral ventral putamen. TD patients additionally showed increased MD compared to PIGD and controls in tracts connecting the right inferior parietal lobule with the right premotor and primary motor cortex, which previously showed altered FC. We also found grey matter atrophy in the rostrodorsal head of the caudate in PIGD compared to controls. Conclusion Microstructural changes in white matter tracts, particularly in those connecting striatal sub-areas, partly underlie FC alterations in PD subtypes. Caudate shape alterations further implicate the striatum in PIGD pathophysiology. PMID:27314952

  4. Living with Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pulmonary Fibrosis Living With Pulmonary Fibrosis What to Expect ... while processing XML file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup Pulmonary Fibrosis Learn About Pulmonary Fibrosis Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms, ...

  5. Detection of Chromosomal Structural Alterations in Single Cells by SNP Arrays: A Systematic Survey of Amplification Bias and Optimized Workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Kazuya; Bundo, Miki; Ueda, Junko; Nakano, Yoko; Ukai, Wataru; Hashimoto, Eri; Saito, Toshikazu; Kato, Tadafumi

    2007-01-01

    Background In single-cell human genome analysis using whole-genome amplified product, a strong amplification bias involving allele dropout and preferential amplification hampers the quality of results. Using an oligonucleotide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, we systematically examined the nature of this amplification bias, including frequency, degree, and preference for genomic location, and we assessed the effects of this amplification bias on subsequent genotype and chromosomal copy number analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We found a large variability in amplification bias among the amplified products obtained by multiple displacement amplification (MDA), and this bias had a severe effect on the genotype and chromosomal copy number analyses. We established optimal experimental conditions for pre-screening for high-quality amplified products, processing array data, and analyzing chromosomal structural alterations. Using this optimized protocol, we successfully detected previously unidentified chromosomal structural alterations in single cells from a lymphoblastoid cell line. These alterations were subsequently confirmed by karyotype analysis. In addition, we successfully obtained reproducible chromosomal copy number profiles of single cells from the cell line with a complex karyotype, indicating the applicability and potential of our optimized workflow. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that the quality of amplification products should be critically assessed before using them for genomic analyses. The method of MDA-based whole-genome amplification followed by SNP array analysis described here will be useful for exploring chromosomal alterations in single cells. PMID:18074030

  6. Flood-Induced Surface Blooms Alter Deep Chlorophyll Maxima Community Structure in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.; Seline, L.

    2008-12-01

    Watershed-wide floods can bring increased nutrients and phytoplankton to receiving waters. This input can alter physical, chemical and phytoplankton community structure in a major way. Phytoplankton species composition and size distribution are key factors in their use as ecological indicators. Since 2003, phytoplankton communities in Lake Michigan have shifted from diatom and big cell (>10μm)- dominated to small cell picocyanobacteria-dominated phytoplankton (phycobiliprotein pigments for deepwater light quality, have a higher surface-to-volume ratio for effective nutrient scavenging, and are smaller than the preferred range (5-100μm) for filter-feeding mussel populations. After only five years with Quagga Mussels, dampened seasonal cycling of silicate indicated a basin-wide reduction of diatom production, and unicellular Cyanobacteria became dominant in deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) zones. In the DCM, Synechococcus-like cells reached populations of at least 210,000 cells/ml. DCM chlorophyll (chl) remained similar (3-4μg/l) but late summer species composition changed dramatically to mostly 10μm fraction increased from previous years, and over 75% of the particulate Si was also in this size fraction. Because of the rapid sinking of diatoms during calm weather of late June-early July of 2008, particulate Si did not reach high values in surfaces waters (ca. 1.5μM) but remained at a consistently higher level than in 2007. Sinking of diatoms from the surface depleted chl in a progression from inshore to offshore during July 2008. In July surface chl was higher 40-70 km offshore than in the coastal zone. Surface phytoplankton waxed and waned in population density as if a wave or lens moved continuously further offshore, with sinking cells depleting the surface algae following behind the crest. In the wake, strong DCM populations with higher chl and particulate Si accumulated in the 30-45m zone at the bottom of the thermocline. However, in 2008 DCM zones

  7. Pulmonary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide studies of the lung are described, as regards perfusion studies, ventilation studies and physiological considerations. The four principal applications for radionuclide studies of the lungs are outlined and the uses of these discussed in relation to particular entities including pulmonary embolic disease, congestive heart failure, asthma, acute, nonasthmatic, bronchial obstruction, chronic pulmonary disease and cancer. (Auth./C.F.)

  8. How-to-Do-It: Herbivory-Induced Alteration of Community Structure--A Classroom Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a laboratory study designed to demonstrate loss of vegetation, alterations in the species composition of a community, and the impoverishment of a community with respect to desirable food plant species when herbivore feeding exceeds the rate of vegetation regrowth. The laboratory uses a classroom aquarium. (CW)

  9. Pulmonary function in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  10. Composition, structure and mechanical properties define performance of pulmonary surfactant membranes and films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Perez-Gil, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    breathing and avoiding alveolar collapse, especially at the end of expiration. The goal of the present review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the structure, lipid-protein interactions and mechanical features of surfactant membranes and films and how these properties correlate with surfactant...

  11. Pulmonary lymphatics and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system has been more difficult to acquire than that of other organ systems owing to the complexity of the respiratory function of the lungs and to the technical difficulties involved. This is especially true of the lymphatics of the lung and is illustrated by the fact that the first measurement of pulmonary lymph flow was in 1942 by Warren and Drinker. A review of the literature reveals that few experiments have been designed to study the pulmonary lymphatics per se in relation to the effects of external radiation or after the inhalation of radioactive particles. However, the documented involvement of hilar lymph nodes implies that the lung lymphatics have a role in transporting particles from the alveoli or malignant cells from the parenchyma. Information from clinical and experimental sources, though scattered, is fairly abundant and of value in assessing the role of the pulmonary lymphatics. Our method for collecting pulmonary lymph is presented. Studies on the pulmonary lymph flow in normal dogs and in dogs with experimental congestive heart failure are described. We irradiated (4000 to 5000 R) the medial one-third of both lungs of a series of dogs. The lymph flow of the lungs was measured immediately after the course of irradiation and after a period of about 5 months. Although lung biopsies showed characteristic radiation pneumonitis in many areas, alterations in the lung parenchyma were not quantitatively reflected in the pulmonary lymph flow either in the acute stage or after fibrosis had time to develop

  12. Structural Alterations of the Glomerular Wall And Vessels in Early Stages of Diabetes Mellitus: Light and Transmission Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dkhil MA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The capillary changes at the initial stage of diabetes may show an angioarchitecture clearly different from those of later stages and,/or very severe glomerular change. However, the onset of alterations in the early phases is unclear. This study attempts to determine the functional and structural alterations of the glomerular wall and vesicles in the early stage of diabetes.Material and Methods: Twenty-five adult rats were used in this study. They were divided into two groups: the first group of five was used as a control .The second group of 20 (the experimental group was injected intraperitoneally by a single dose of streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia. Rats were sacrificed after ten days, two months, and four months.Five rats at two months of age with hyperglycemia were treated with insulin for eight weeks. Renal tissues were prepared by routine technique for light and transmission electron microscopic evaluation. Results: By light microscopy after ten days of induced hyperglycemia, there were no structural modifications detected either in renal glomerular fine vessels or in the glomerular basement membrane of the glomerular capillaries. After two months, there was a moderate glomerular enlargement and dilatation of glomerular capillaries, afferent, and efferent arterioles. After four months, glomerular basement membrane thickening was the only structural alteration observed. Recovery of the glomerular alterations was observed after two months of treatment with insulin. Conclusion: In early stages of diabetes mellitus in rats, there was an increase in the diameter of glomerular vessels. In later stages of the disease, the reverse was seen, but insulin treatment had a positive role in reversing these changes in the study subjects.

  13. Influence of an altered salinity regime on the population structure of two infaunal bivalve species

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Rebecca J.; Wing, Stephen R.

    2008-07-01

    Hydrological alterations in watersheds have changed the flows of freshwater to many nearshore marine environments. The ensuing alterations to the salinity environment of coastal waters may have implications for species distribution. This study describes the response of two common bivalves to a modified salinity environment imposed by freshwater inputs from a hydroelectric power station in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. Populations of Austrovenus stutchburyi and Paphies australis inhabiting river deltas near the outflow of the power station in inner Doubtful Sound were more than an order of magnitude smaller in abundance than populations in neighbouring Bradshaw Sound where the salinity regime is unaltered. In addition, there was a lack of small size classes of both species in inner Doubtful Sound, suggesting that these populations are unsustainable over the long term (10-20 years). Laboratory experiments demonstrated that sustained exposure (>30 days) to low salinity (food webs of Fiordland's shallow soft sediment communities.

  14. Experience-dependent plasticity in white matter microstructure: reasoning training alters structural connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Whitaker, Kirstie J.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques have made it possible to investigate white matter plasticity in humans. Changes in DTI measures, principally increases in fractional anisotropy (FA), have been observed following training programs as diverse as juggling, meditation, and working memory. Here, we sought to test whether three months of reasoning training could alter white matter microstructure. We recruited participants (n = 23) who were enrolled in a course to prepare for the Law School...

  15. Experience-dependent plasticity in white matter microstructure: Reasoning training alters structural connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Whitaker, Kirstie J.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques have made it possible to investigate white matter plasticity in humans. Changes in DTI measures, principally increases in fractional anisotropy (FA), have been observed following training programs as diverse as juggling, meditation, and working memory. Here, we sought to test whether three months of reasoning training could alter white matter microstructure. We recruited participants (n=23) who were enrolled in a course to prepare for the Law School A...

  16. Engineering tissue constructs to mimic native aortic and pulmonary valve leaflets' structures and mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Nafiseh

    There are several disadvantages correlated with current heart valve replacement, including anticoagulation therapy for patients with mechanical valves and the low durability of bioprosthetic valves. The non-viable nature of such devices is a critical drawback especially for pediatric cases due to the inability of the graft to grow in vivo with the patients. A tissue engineered heart valve (TEHV) with remodeling and growth ability, is conceptually appealing to use in the surgical repair and could serve as a permanent replacements when operating for pediatric valvular lesions. It is critical that scaffolds for functional heart valve tissue engineering, be capable of mimicking the native leaflet's structure and mechanical properties at the time of implantation. Meanwhile, the scaffolds should be able to support cellular proliferation and native-like tissue formation as the TEHV remodels toward a scaffold-free state. Our overall hypothesis is that an "ideal" engineered construct, designed based on native leaflet's structure and mechanics, will complement a native heart valve leaflet in providing benchmarks for use in the design of clinically-applicable TEHV. This hypothesis was addressed through several experiments conducted in the present study. To establish a functional biomimetic TEHV, we developed scaffolds capable of matching the anisotropic stiffness of native leaflet while promoting native-like cell and collagen content and supporting the ECM generation. Scaffolds with various polymer contents (e.g., poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and poly (epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)) and structural designs (e.g., microfabricated and microfibrous scaffolds), were fabricated based on native leaflet's structure and mechanics. It was found that the tri-layered scaffold, designed with assembly of microfabricated PGS and microfibrous PGS/PCL was a functional leaflet capable of promoting tissue formation. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of cyclic stress and flexure

  17. Altering the trajectory of early postnatal cortical development can lead to structural and behavioural features of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomiak Taylor

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a behaviourally defined neurodevelopmental disorder with unknown etiology. Recent studies in autistic children consistently point to neuropathological and functional abnormalities in the temporal association cortex (TeA and its associated structures. It has been proposed that the trajectory of postnatal development in these regions may undergo accelerated maturational alterations that predominantly affect sensory recognition and social interaction. Indeed, the temporal association regions that are important for sensory recognition and social interaction are one of the last regions to mature suggesting a potential vulnerability to early maturation. However, direct evaluation of the emerging hypothesis that an altered time course of early postnatal development can lead to an ASD phenotype remains lacking. Results We used electrophysiological, histological, and behavioural techniques to investigate if the known neuronal maturational promoter valproate, similar to that in culture systems, can influence the normal developmental trajectory of TeA in vivo. Brain sections obtained from postnatal rat pups treated with VPA in vivo revealed that almost 40% of cortical cells in TeA prematurely exhibited adult-like intrinsic electrophysiological properties and that this was often associated with gross cortical hypertrophy and a reduced predisposition for social play behaviour. Conclusions The co-manifestation of these functional, structural and behavioural features suggests that alteration of the developmental time course in certain high-order cortical networks may play an important role in the neurophysiological basis of autism.

  18. Structure-function analysis of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors as modifiers of radiation-induced pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was concluded that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor CGS13945 modifies radiation-induced pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in rats, indicating that presence of a thiol group is not essential for therapeutic efficacy in this class of compounds. On the other hand, CGS13945 exhibits a differential sparing of radiation-induced pulmonary endothelial dysfunction, as does penicillamine. A structure-function analysis of the present and previous data indicates all of the ACE inhibitors tested (Captopril, CL242817 and CGS13945) spare the radiation-induced suppression in lung ACE and PLA activity; all of the thiol compounds tested (penicillamine, Captopril and CL242817) spare the radiation-induced elevation in lung PGI2 and TXA2 production; and the thiol ACE inhibitors (Captopril and CL242817) spare all four endothelial responses. (author)

  19. Anticoagulation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jeffrey C; Pugliese, Steven C; Fox, Daniel L; Badesch, David B

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by molecular and pathologic alteration to the pulmonary circulation, resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular failure, and eventual death. Pharmacologic treatment of PAH consists of use of a multitude of pulmonary vasodilators, sometimes in combination. PAH has been associated with increased thrombosis and disrupted coagulation and fibrinolysis, making anticoagulation an attractive and frequently employed therapeutic modality. Observational studies have provided some insight into the therapeutic potential of anticoagulation in idiopathic PAH, but there is a distinct lack of well-controlled prospective trials. Due to the conflicting evidence, there is a large amount of heterogeneity in the application of therapeutic anticoagulation in PAH and further well-controlled prospective trials are needed to clarify its role in treating PAH. PMID:27137522

  20. Mineralogical and structural transformations related to alterations in hydrothermal and climatological conditions of basic vulcanic rocks from northern Parana (Ribeirao Preto region, SP, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies of the basic vulcanic rocks of northern Parana basin (Region of Ribeirao Preto, SP) reveled that these rocks were affected by pre-meteoric activity (hydrothermal alteration) before being exposed to the supergene system of alteration linked to the lithosphere/atmosphere interface. Mineralogical and structural transformation are studied. The appearance of sequential crystalline-chemical paragenesis in zones suggest that the hydrothermal activity occurred during two successives processes of alteration: the expulsion of the water from the rock during the later stages of magma cooling and the continous process of dissolution of the rock wall and the ionic diffusion involving the rock sistem of structural voids. The hydro-thermal action was followed by weathering action developing a thin 'front' of superficial alteration. This alteration system, can lead to the formation of three major levels of alteration horizons and superficial accumulations: alterites, glebular and suil surface materials. (C.D.G.)

  1. The α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 are required to maintain normal pulmonary vascular resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    Full Text Available Chronic hypoxia causes pulmonary hypertension associated with structural alterations in pulmonary vessels and sustained vasoconstriction. The transcriptional mechanisms responsible for these distinctive changes are unclear. We have previously reported that CREB1 is activated in the lung in response to alveolar hypoxia but not in other organs. To directly investigate the role of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 in the regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance we examined the responses of mice in which these isoforms of CREB1 had been inactivated by gene mutation, leaving only the β isoform intact (CREB(αΔ mice. Here we report that expression of CREB regulated genes was altered in the lungs of CREB(αΔ mice. CREB(αΔ mice had greater pulmonary vascular resistance than wild types, both basally in normoxia and following exposure to hypoxic conditions for three weeks. There was no difference in rho kinase mediated vasoconstriction between CREB(αΔ and wild type mice. Stereological analysis of pulmonary vascular structure showed characteristic wall thickening and lumen reduction in hypoxic wild-type mice, with similar changes observed in CREB(αΔ. CREB(αΔ mice had larger lungs with reduced epithelial surface density suggesting increased pulmonary compliance. These findings show that α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 regulate homeostatic gene expression in the lung and that normal activity of these isoforms is essential to maintain low pulmonary vascular resistance in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and to maintain the normal alveolar structure. Interventions that enhance the actions of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 warrant further investigation in hypoxic lung diseases.

  2. Pulmonary Atresia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to repair the defect. Return to main topic: Congenital Heart Disease See on other sites: MedlinePlus https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001091.htm Pulmonary atresia American Heart Association www. ...

  3. [Pulmonary rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjyu, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation commenced in Japan in 1957. However, the development of pulmonary rehabilitation took a long time due to the lack of the necessary health and medical services. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive intervention based on a thorough patient assessment followed by patient-tailored therapies that include, but are not limited to, exercise training, education, and behavior change, designed to improve the physical and psychological condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote the long-term adherence to health-enhancing behaviors. The benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation include a decrease in breathlessness and an improvement in exercise tolerance. It is important that the gains in exercise tolerance lead to an increase in daily physical activity. PMID:27254948

  4. Pulmonary sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital affection consisting in the presence of a cystic mass of no-functional pulmonary tissue without an obvious communication with tracheobronchial tree and that receives all or most of its bloodstream of the anomalous vessels from systemic circulation. Taking into account that presentation of this affection is rare compared to other pulmonary affections (between the 1% and the 2% of all pulmonary resections) and that also the more usual is its definitive treatment before adulthood. The case of man aged 44 is presented coming to consultation due to frequent episodes of pneumonias from more 10 years ago diagnosed as a bronchiectasis. The more significant facts of embryology origin of this affection including: anatomical and pathological features, imaging diagnosis, surgical treatment details, and postoperative course. (author)

  5. PULMONARY SCEDOSPORIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a solitary pulmonary nodule due to Scedosporium apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boydii is related. A review of the pertinent literature was done and, in addition, similar lesions caused by other opportunistic fungi are commented.

  6. Altered surfactant function and structure in SP-A gene targeted mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Korfhagen, T R; Bruno, M D; Ross, G F; Huelsman, K. M.; Ikegami, M; Jobe, A H; Wert, S E; Stripp, B R; Morris, R E; Glasser, S W; Bachurski, C J; Iwamoto, H S; Whitsett, J A

    1996-01-01

    The surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene was disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells that were used to generate homozygous SP-A-deficient mice. SP-A mRNA and protein were not detectable in the lungs of SP-A(-/-) mice, and perinatal survival of SP-A(-/-) mice was not altered compared with wild-type mice. Lung morphology, surfactant proteins B-D, lung tissue, alveolar phospholipid pool sizes and composition, and lung compliance in SP-A(-/-) mice were unaltered. At the highest ...

  7. Pulmonary surfactant apoprotein (PSP-A) structure and modulation of rat surfactant secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examined structural determinants of PSP-A necessary for the inhibition of 3H-phosphatidylcholine secretion by rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. The PSP-A was purified from normal and silica treated rat lungs. The phorbol diester (TPA) induced secretion of lipid was significantly reduced by the PSP-A from both sources. Complete reduction of PSP-A with mercaptoethanol yields monomeric forms that are inactive. Oxidation of the reduced form leads to formation of oligomers and restoration of biological activity. Removal of the oligosaccharide moieties of PSP-A with endoglycosidase F has no effect upon its biological activity, and the isolated oligosaccharide has no effect upon lipid secretion by type II cells. Alkylation of the oligomeric form of PSP-A with iodoacetamide renders it inactive thereby implicating an essential sulfhydryl moiety for biological activity. Five separate monoclonal antibodies have been produced against PSP-A. Only four of the antibodies block biological activity. These data demonstrate that the biological activity of PSP-A: (1) is dependent upon the oligomeric form of the protein and (2) a free sulfhydryl moiety (3) is independent of the presence of the oligosaccharide moiety and (4) can be inhibited by some but not all monoclonal antibodies

  8. Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Tanser, Paul H.

    1981-01-01

    The physician who deals with pulmonary edema from a pathophysiologic basis will seldom make a diagnostic or therapeutic error. Recent additions to preload and afterload therapy have greatly helped in the emergency and ambulatory treatment of pulmonary edema due to left heart failure. Careful follow-up and patient self-monitoring are the most effective means of reducing hospitalization of chronic heart failure patients.

  9. Pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Vonk Noordegraaf; Joanne A. Groeneveldt; Harm Jan Bogaard

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, more than 800 papers were published in the field of pulmonary hypertension. A Clinical Year in Review article cannot possibly incorporate all this work and needs to be selective. The recently published European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension contain an inclusive summary of all published clinical studies conducted until very recently. Here, we provide an overview of papers published after the finalisation of the guideline. In addition, we summaris...

  10. [Primary pulmonary sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubcová, T; Jakubec, P

    2009-01-01

    Primary pulmonary sarcomas are rare diseases unlike lung carcinomas. The occurence of these sarcomas is between 0.013-0.40% of all malignant lung tumours. There are malignant mesenchymal tumours. They are flowing from the soft tissue of lung. The pulmonary sarcomas are heterogenic group with various biological behaviour. Their morfologic structure does not digger from the sarcomas of soft tissue. The primary pulmonary sarcomas occur more often in childhood and in young people unlike lung carcinomas. Radiation and some toxic substances are noted risk factors. Some gene mutations, infectious pathoghens and contraception have a possible impact on the origin of some types of the sarcomas. The current hypothesis is, that most of the sarcomas, if not all sarcomas, stem from primitive multipotent mesenchymal cell by malignant transformation in one or more lines. The diagnostic standard is biopsy from tumour with histologic and immunohistochemistry examination of a sample. The basic diagnostic problem is exclusion of a secondary origin of sarcomatic cells in the lung, because pulmonary metastasis of extrapulmonary sarcomas are more often than the primary pulmonary involvement.The optimal treatment is a resection of the tumour.The other therapeutic modalities are radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but results of these modalities are unsatisfactory. There are various chemotherapeutic regimes, monotherapy or combination regimes. The basic cytostatics are doxorubicine, iphosphamide, dacarbazine. Problems of the chemotherapy are high toxicity and relatively low curative effect about 20%.The first studies with biological treatment of the sarcomas of soft tissue have been published recently.This types of drugs could be a part of the complex management of these primary pulmonary tumours in the future. The primary pulmonary sarcomas have mostly aggresive course and often recur. Their prognosis is usually not very good. The survival median is 48 months and 5-years survival ranges

  11. Structural Brain Alterations Associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucetta, Soufiane; Salimi, Ali; Dadar, Mahsa; Jones, Barbara E; Collins, D Louis; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by dream-enactment motor manifestations arising from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD). Yet the specific neurostructural changes associated with RBD in PD patients remain to be revealed by neuroimaging. Here we identified such neurostructural alterations by comparing large samples of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 69 PD patients with probable RBD, 240 patients without RBD and 138 healthy controls, using deformation-based morphometry (p medullary reticular formation, hypothalamus, thalamus, putamen, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. These results demonstrate that RBD is associated with a prominent loss of volume in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum, where cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons are located and implicated in the promotion of REM sleep and muscle atonia. It is additionally associated with more widespread atrophy in other subcortical and cortical regions whose loss also likely contributes to the altered regulation of sleep-wake states and motor activity underlying RBD in PD patients. PMID:27245317

  12. Structural alterations in rat liver proteins due to streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the recovery effect of selenium: Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and neural network study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ozlem; Haman Bayari, Sevgi; Severcan, Mete; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Severcan, Feride

    2012-07-01

    The relation between protein structural alterations and tissue dysfunction is a major concern as protein fibrillation and/or aggregation due to structural alterations has been reported in many disease states. In the current study, Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging has been used to investigate diabetes-induced changes on protein secondary structure and macromolecular content in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat liver. Protein secondary structural alterations were predicted using neural network approach utilizing the amide I region. Moreover, the role of selenium in the recovery of diabetes-induced alterations on macromolecular content and protein secondary structure was also studied. The results revealed that diabetes induced a decrease in lipid to protein and glycogen to protein ratios in diabetic livers. Significant alterations in protein secondary structure were observed with a decrease in α-helical and an increase in β-sheet content. Both doses of selenium restored diabetes-induced changes in lipid to protein and glycogen to protein ratios. However, low-dose selenium supplementation was not sufficient to recover the effects of diabetes on protein secondary structure, while a higher dose of selenium fully restored diabetes-induced alterations in protein structure.

  13. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  14. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bondin...

  15. Metabolomic heterogeneity of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidan Zhao

    Full Text Available Although multiple gene and protein expression have been extensively profiled in human pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, the mechanism for the development and progression of pulmonary hypertension remains elusive. Analysis of the global metabolomic heterogeneity within the pulmonary vascular system leads to a better understanding of disease progression. Using a combination of high-throughput liquid-and-gas-chromatography-based mass spectrometry, we showed unbiased metabolomic profiles of disrupted glycolysis, increased TCA cycle, and fatty acid metabolites with altered oxidation pathways in the human PAH lung. The results suggest that PAH has specific metabolic pathways contributing to increased ATP synthesis for the vascular remodeling process in severe pulmonary hypertension. These identified metabolites may serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of PAH. By profiling metabolomic alterations of the PAH lung, we reveal new pathogenic mechanisms of PAH, opening an avenue of exploration for therapeutics that target metabolic pathway alterations in the progression of PAH.

  16. Structural and Diffusion Property Alterations in Unaffected Siblings of Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changzheng; Miao, Guodong; Yang, Qiong; Gao, Wei; Wolff, Jason J.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted white matter integrity and abnormal cortical thickness are widely reported in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relationship between alterations in white matter connectivity and cortical thickness in OCD is unclear. In addition, the heritability of this relationship is poorly understood. To investigate the relationship of white matter microstructure with cortical thickness, we measure fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter in 30 OCD patients, 19 unaffected siblings and 30 matched healthy controls. Then, we take those regions of significantly altered FA in OCD patients compared with healthy controls to perform fiber tracking. Next, we calculate the fiber quantity in the same tracts. Lastly, we compare cortical thickness in the target regions of those tracts. Patients with OCD exhibited decreased FA in cingulum, arcuate fibers near the superior parietal lobule, inferior longitudinal fasciculus near the right superior temporal gyrus and uncinate fasciculus. Siblings showed reduced FA in arcuate fibers near the superior parietal lobule and anterior limb of internal capsule. Significant reductions in both fiber quantities and cortical thickness in OCD patients and their unaffected siblings were also observed in the projected brain areas when using the arcuate fibers near the left superior parietal lobule as the starting points. Reduced FA in the left superior parietal lobule was observed not only in patients with OCD but also in their unaffected siblings. Originated from the superior parietal lobule, the number of fibers was also found to be decreased and the corresponding cortical regions were thinner relative to controls. The linkage between disrupted white matter integrity and the abnormal cortical thickness may be a vulnerability marker for OCD. PMID:24489665

  17. Pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references

  18. Can OCT be sensitive to nanoscale structural alterations in biological tissue?

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Ji; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Norris, Sam C.P.; Çapoğlu, İlker R.; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of nanoscale tissue structures is crucial in understanding biological processes. Although novel optical microscopy methods have been developed to probe cellular features beyond the diffraction limit, nanometer-scale quantification remains still inaccessible for in situ tissue. Here we demonstrate that, without actually resolving specific geometrical feature, OCT can be sensitive to tissue structural properties at the nanometer length scale. The statistical mass-density distributio...

  19. Altered intrahemispheric structural connectivity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome ☆ ☆☆

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian Cheng; Hanna Braass; Christos Ganos; Andras Treszl; Katja Biermann-Ruben; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; Kirsten Müller-Vahl; Alfons Schnitzler; Christian Gerloff; Alexander Münchau; Götz Thomalla

    2013-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a common developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by tics and frequent psychiatric comorbidities, often causing significant disability. Tic generation has been linked to disturbed networks of brain areas involved in planning, controlling and execution of actions, particularly structural and functional disorders in the striatum and cortico–striato–thalamo–cortical loops. We therefore applied structural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to chara...

  20. Chronic intrauterine pulmonary hypertension increases main pulmonary artery stiffness and adventitial remodeling in fetal sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, R. Blair; Morgan, Matthew R.; Galambos, Csaba; Hunter, Kendall S.; Abman, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a clinical syndrome that is characterized by high pulmonary vascular resistance due to changes in lung vascular growth, structure, and tone. PPHN has been primarily considered as a disease of the small pulmonary arteries (PA), but proximal vascular stiffness has been shown to be an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in other diseases associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The objective of this study is to characteriz...

  1. Pulmonary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies in pulmonary imaging predominantly depict the distribution of pulmonary perfusion or the ventilation-perfusion balance for the detection of pulmonary embolism, obstructive airway disease, and lung carcinoma. Much work has been done using 133Xe to study both regional ventilation and blood flow. This work has led to a greater understanding of regional blood flow and ventilation, of lung anatomy and morphometry, of the mechanical factors that influence lung function, and of the biochemical and other nonrespiratory functions of the lung. The recent development of emission tomography and the potential for receptor- and function-oriented radiopharmaceuticals have allowed several important regional physiologic processes to be measured. The physical parameters measured in radionuclide emission studies are the temporal and spatial relations of the distribution of tracer in the lungs. Tracers that are diffusible will wash into and out of the lungs at a rate proportional not only to flow but also to membrane permeability. If the radionuclide label is attached to microspheres or macro-aggregates, the amount lodging in any portion of the lung can be related to relative flow in the lung. Metabolism of the lung is reflected by the rate of extraction and disappearance of various labeled radiopharmaceuticals. The problems encountered in assessing the value of ventilation-perfusion scans for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism are concerned not only with improving specificity, but also with better estimation of the prior probability of pulmonary embolism in the patient being evaluated

  2. Altered time structure of neuro-endocrine-immune system function in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carughi Stefano

    2010-06-01

    TcS1 was decreased in cancer patients. The melatonin/cortisol mean nocturnal level ratio was decreased in cancer patients. Conclusion The altered secretion and loss of circadian rhythmicity of many studied factors observed in the subjects suffering from neoplastic disease may be expression of gradual alteration of the integrated function of the neuro-immune-endocrine system

  3. Measuring and Altering Ferroelectric Domain Structures in Lead Perovskite Single-Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, John Chamberlain

    Relaxor ferroelectric single-crystal materials PMN-PT and PZN-PT are currently of interest to the scientific community due to their enhanced properties and possible role as next-generation piezoelectric transducers in applications such as sonar and medical ultrasound. One key phenomenon affecting both the properties and the mechanical integrity of these materials is the ferroelectric domain structure within the material. In this work we examine the morphology and behavior of domain structures in PMN-29%PT. In order to do this we first present details of the construction and testing of a working piezo-response force microscope (PFM), and then use the PFM to verify a new domain observation technique called "relief polishing". Relief polishing is shown to reveal surface domains in the same manner as acid etching, preserving domain details as small as 0.5mum. Using these two techniques, we then determine that cutting and polishing strongly affect the surface and subsurface ferroelectric domain structures in PMN-29%PT. Specifically, we show that saw cutting can create characteristic striated domain structures as deep as 130mum within a sample, while straight polishing creates a characteristic domain structure known as the "fingerprint" pattern to a depth proportional to the size of the polishing grit, on the order of 0--12mum for grits as large as 15mum. We hypothesize that most samples contain these "skin effect" domain structures. In consequence, it is suggested that researchers presenting experimental results on domain structures should report the physical treatment history of the samples along with the experimental data.

  4. Imaging of pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis, more than any other infectious disease, has always been a challenge, since it has been responsible for a great amount of morbidity and mortality in humans. After a steady decline in the number of new cases during the twentieth century, due to improved social and environmental conditions, early diagnosis, and the development of antituberculous medication, a stagnation and even an increase in the number of new cases was noted in the mid-1980s. The epidemiological alteration is multifactorial: global increase in developing countries; minority groups (HIV and other immunocompromised patients); and elderly patients due to an altered immune status. Other factors that may be responsible are a delayed diagnosis, especially in elderly patients, incomplete or inadequate therapy, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The course of the disease and its corresponding clinicoradiological pattern depends on the interaction between the organism and the host response. Classically, pulmonary tuberculosis has been classified in primary tuberculosis, which occurred previously in children, and postprimary tuberculosis, occurring in adult patients. In industrialized countries, however, there seems to be a shift of primary tuberculosis towards adults. Furthermore, due to an altered immunological response in certain groups, such as immunocompromised and elderly patients, an atypical radioclinical pattern may occur. The changing landscape, in which tuberculosis occurs, as well as the global resurgence, and the changed spectrum of the clinical and radiological presentation, justify a renewed interest of radiologists for the imaging features of pulmonary tuberculosis. This article deals with the usual imaging features of pulmonary tuberculosis as well as the atypical patterns encountered in immunodepressed and elderly patients. (orig.)

  5. Bioaugmentation of Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B affects hydrogen production through altering indigenous bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance. PMID:27023388

  6. Non-dipper treated hypertensive patients do not have increased cardiac structural alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magrini Fabio

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-dipping pattern in hypertensive patients has been shown to be associated with an excess of target organ damage and with an adverse outcome. The aim of our study was to assess whether a reduced nocturnal fall in blood pressure (BP, established on the basis of a single 24-h BP monitoring, in treated essential hypertensives is related to more prominent cardiac alterations. Methods We enrrolled 229 treated hypertensive patients attending the out-patient clinic of our hypertension centre; each patient was subjected to the following procedures : 1 clinic BP measurement; 2 blood and urine sampling for routine blood chemistry and urine examination; 3 standard 12-lead electrocardiogram; 4 echocardiography; 5 ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM. For the purpose of this study ABPM was carried-out in three subgroups with different clinic BP profile : 1 patients with satisfactory BP control (BP 2 in men and 110 g/m2 in women, ≥51/gm2.7 in men and 47/g/m2.7 in women. Results Of the 229 study participants 119 (51.9% showed a fall in SBP/DBP Conclusions In treated essential hypertensives with or without BP control the extent of nocturnal BP decrease is not associated with an increase in LV mass or LVH prevalence; therefore, the non-dipping profile, diagnosed on the basis of a single ABPM, does not identify hypertensive patients with greater cardiac damage.

  7. Aloe vera affects changes induced in pulmonary tissue of mice caused by cigarette smoke inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ashwani; Bala, Shashi; Yasmeen; Arora, Neha

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the influence of Aloe vera (AV) on changes induced in pulmonary tissue of cigarette smoke (CS) inhaling mice. CS inhalation for 4 weeks caused pulmonary damage as evident by histoarchitectural alterations and enhanced serum and tissue lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. CS inhalation also led to increased mucin production as revealed by mucicarmine and Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Studies on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) of CS exposed animals revealed structural changes in phospholipids and increase in surface tension when compared with control counterparts. These changes were accompanied by enhanced nitric oxide (NO) levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and differential modulation of antioxidant defense system. AV administration (seven weeks, 500 mg/kg b.w. daily) to CS inhaling mice led to modulation of CS induced pulmonary changes as revealed by lesser degree of histoarchitectural alterations, lesser mucin production, decreased NO levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and serum LDH activity. AV treatment to CS inhaling mice was associated with varying response to antioxidant defense system, however balf of CS + AV treated animals did not exhibit appreciable changes when compared with that of CS exposed animals. These observations suggest that AV has the potential to modulate CS induced changes in the pulmonary tissue which could have implications in management of CS associated pulmonary diseases, however, further investigations are required to explore its complete mechanism of action. PMID:24615921

  8. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G. [Radiotherapy Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Castiglione, F. [Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation

  9. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation

  10. Altered Gray Matter Structural Covariance Networks in Early Stages of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montembeault, Maxime; Rouleau, Isabelle; Provost, Jean-Sébastien; Brambati, Simona Maria

    2016-06-01

    Clinical symptoms observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may reflect variations within specific large-scale brain networks, modeling AD as a disconnection syndrome. The present magnetic resonance imaging study aims to compare the organization of gray matter structural covariance networks between 109 cognitively unimpaired controls (CTRL) and 109 AD patients positive to beta-amyloid at the early stages of the disease, using voxel-based morphometry. The default-mode network (DMN; medial temporal lobe subsystem) was less extended in AD patients in comparison with CTRL, with a significant decrease in the structural association between the entorhinal cortex and the medial prefrontal and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. The DMN (midline core subsystem) was also less extended in AD patients. Trends toward increased structural association were observed in the salience and executive control networks. The observed changes suggest that early disruptions in structural association between heteromodal association cortices and the entorhinal cortex could contribute to an isolation of the hippocampal formation, potentially giving rise to the clinical hallmark of AD, progressive memory impairment. It also provides critical support to the hypothesis that the reduced connectivity within the DMN in early AD is accompanied by an enhancement of connectivity in the salience and executive control networks. PMID:25994962

  11. Sequence divergence of Entamoeba histolytica tubulin is responsible for its altered tertiary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atypical microtubular structures of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) have been attributed to amino acid sequence divergence of Eh tubulin. To investigate if this sequence divergence leads to significant differences in the tertiary structure of the Eh αβ-tubulin heterodimer, we have modeled αβ-tubulin heterodimer of Eh based on the crystal structure of mammalian tubulin. The predicted 3D homology model exhibits an overall resemblance with the known crystal structure of mammalian tubulin except for the 16 residue long carboxy terminal region of Eh β-tubulin. We propose that this C-terminal region may provide steric hindrance in the polymerization of Eh αβ-tubulin for microtubule formation. Using docking studies, we have identified the binding sites for different microtubule specific drugs on Eh β-tubulin. Our model provides a rational framework, both for understanding the contribution of Ehβ-tubulin C-terminal region to αβ-tubulin polymerization and design of new anti-protozoan drugs in order to control amoebiasis

  12. Alteration of hepatic structure and oxidative stress induced by intravenous nanoceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Michael T., E-mail: mttsen01@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Lu, Xiaoqin, E-mail: x0lu0003@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Duan, Xiaoxian, E-mail: x0duan02@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Hardas, Sarita S., E-mail: sarita.hardas@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Sultana, Rukhsana, E-mail: rsult2@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Wu, Peng, E-mail: peng.wu@uky.edu [Dept of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Unrine, Jason M., E-mail: jason.unrine@uky.edu [Dept of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Graham, Uschi, E-mail: graham@caer.uky.edu [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Butterfield, D. Allan, E-mail: dabcns@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Grulke, Eric A., E-mail: eric.grulke@uky.edu [Dept of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Yokel, Robert A., E-mail: ryokel@email.uky.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Beyond the traditional use of ceria as an abrasive, the scope of nanoceria applications now extends into fuel cell manufacturing, diesel fuel additives, and for therapeutic intervention as a putative antioxidant. However, the biological effects of nanoceria exposure have yet to be fully defined, which gave us the impetus to examine its systemic biodistribution and biological responses. An extensively characterized nanoceria (5 nm) dispersion was vascularly infused into rats, which were terminated 1 h, 20 h or 30 days later. Light and electron microscopic tissue characterization was conducted and hepatic oxidative stress parameters determined. We observed acute ceria nanoparticle sequestration by Kupffer cells with subsequent bioretention in parenchymal cells as well. The internalized ceria nanoparticles appeared as spherical agglomerates of varying dimension without specific organelle penetration. In hepatocytes, the agglomerated nanoceria frequently localized to the plasma membrane facing bile canaliculi. Hepatic stellate cells also sequestered nanoceria. Within the sinusoids, sustained nanoceria bioretention was associated with granuloma formations comprised of Kupffer cells and intermingling CD3{sup +} T cells. A statistically significant elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level was seen at 1 and 20 h, but subsided by 30 days after ceria administration. Further, elevated apoptosis was observed on day 30. These findings, together with increased hepatic protein carbonyl levels on day 30, indicate ceria-induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress, respectively. Such observations suggest a single vascular infusion of nanoceria can lead to persistent hepatic retention of particles with possible implications for occupational and therapeutic exposures. -- Highlights: ► Time course study on nanoceria induced hepatic alterations in rats. ► Serum AST elevation indicated acute hepatotoxicity. ► Ceria is retained for up to 30 days in Kupffer cells

  13. Effects of pulmonary vascular pressures and flow on airway and parenchymal mechanics in isolated rat lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Petak, Ferenc; Habre, Walid; Hantos, Zoltán; Peter D Sly; Morel, Denis

    2002-01-01

    Changes in pulmonary hemodynamics have been shown to alter the mechanical properties of the lungs, but the exact mechanisms are not clear. We therefore investigated the effects of alterations in pulmonary vascular pressure and flow (Q(p)) on the mechanical properties of the airways and the parenchyma by varying these parameters independently in three groups of isolated perfused normal rat lungs. The pulmonary capillary pressure (Pc(est)), estimated from the pulmonary arterial (Ppa) and left a...

  14. Disturbance Alters the Phylogenetic Composition and Structure of Plant Communities in an Old Field System

    OpenAIRE

    Russell Dinnage

    2009-01-01

    The changes in phylogenetic composition and structure of communities during succession following disturbance can give us insights into the forces that are shaping communities over time. In abandoned agricultural fields, community composition changes rapidly when a field is plowed, and is thought to reflect a relaxation of competition due to the elimination of dominant species which take time to re-establish. Competition can drive phylogenetic overdispersion, due to phylogenetic conservation o...

  15. Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Pankaj; He, Zhili; Joy D Van Nostrand; Albrigo, Gene; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Nian

    2011-01-01

    The diversity and stability of bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere heavily influence soil and plant quality and ecosystem sustainability. The goal of this study is to understand how ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (known to cause Huanglongbing, HLB) influences the structure and functional potential of microbial communities associated with the citrus rhizosphere. Clone library sequencing and taxon/group-specific quantitative real-time PCR results showed that ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'...

  16. Altered Structural Correlates of Impulsivity in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xin; Qi, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that internet gaming disorder (IGD) was associated with impulsivity and structural abnormalities in brain gray matter (GM). However, no morphometric study has examined the association between GM and impulsivity in IGD individuals. In this study, 25 adolescents with IGD and 27 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and the relationship between Barratt impulsiveness scale-11 (BIS) score and gray matter volume (GMV) was investigated with the voxel-based morphometric (VBM...

  17. Molecular structures and metabolic characteristics of protein in brown and yellow flaxseed with altered nutrient traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Booker, Helen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the chemical profiles; crude protein (CP) subfractions; ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP); and protein molecular structures using molecular spectroscopy of newly developed yellow-seeded flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Seeds from two yellow flaxseed breeding lines and two brown flaxseed varieties were evaluated. The yellow-seeded lines had higher (P < 0.001) contents of oil (44.54 vs 41.42% dry matter (DM)) and CP (24.94 vs 20.91% DM) compared to those of the brown-seeded varieties. The CP in yellow seeds contained lower (P < 0.01) contents of true protein subfraction (81.31 vs 92.71% CP) and more (P < 0.001) extensively degraded (70.8 vs 64.9% CP) in rumen resulting in lower (P < 0.001) content of RUP (29.2 vs 35.1% CP) than that in the brown-seeded varieties. However, the total supply of digestible RUP was not significantly different between the two seed types. Regression equations based on protein molecular structural features gave relatively good estimation for the contents of CP (R(2) = 0.87), soluble CP (R(2) = 0.92), RUP (R(2) = 0.97), and intestinal digestibility of RUP (R(2) = 0.71). In conclusion, molecular spectroscopy can be used to rapidly characterize feed protein molecular structures and predict their nutritive value. PMID:24931851

  18. The human insulin gene linked polymorphic region exhibits an altered DNA structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond-Kosack, M.C.U.; Docherty, K.; Kilpatrick, M.W. (Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom)); Dobrinski, B.; Lurz, R. (Max-Planck-Inst., Berlin (West Germany))

    1992-01-25

    Regulation of transcription of the human insulin gene appears to involve a series of DNA sequences in the 5{prime} region. Hypersensitivity to DNA structural probes has previously been demonstrated in regulatory regions of cloned genomic DNA fragments, and been correlated with gene activity. To investigate the structure of the DNA in the human insulin gene, bromoacetaldehyde and S1 nuclease were reacted with a supercoiled plasmid containing a 5kb genomic insulin fragment. Both probes revealed the human insulin gene linked polymorphic region (ILPR), a region ({minus}363) upstream of the transcriptional start site which contains multiple repeats of a 14-15mer oligonucleotide with the consensus sequence ACAGGGGT(G/C)(T/C)GGGG, as the major hypersensitive site. Fine mapping and electron microscopic analysis both show a very different behavior of the two DNA strands in the region of the ILPR and suggest the G-rich strand may be adopting a highly structured conformation with the complementary strand remaining largely single stranded.

  19. The N(2)-Furfuryl-deoxyguanosine Adduct Does Not Alter the Structure of B-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, Pratibha P; Gore, Kiran R; Harikrishna, S; Samanta, Biswajit; Kottur, Jithesh; Nair, Deepak T; Pradeepkumar, P I

    2016-01-15

    N(2)-Furfuryl-deoxyguanosine (fdG) is carcinogenic DNA adduct that originates from furfuryl alcohol. It is also a stable structural mimic of the damage induced by the nitrofurazone family of antibiotics. For the structural and functional studies of this model N(2)-dG adduct, reliable and rapid access to fdG-modified DNAs are warranted. Toward this end, here we report the synthesis of fdG-modified DNAs using phosphoramidite chemistry involving only three steps. The functional integrity of the modified DNA has been verified by primer extension studies with DNA polymerases I and IV from E. coli. Introduction of fdG into a DNA duplex decreases the Tm by ∼1.6 °C/modification. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA duplex bearing the fdG adduct revealed that though the overall B-DNA structure is maintained, this lesion can disrupt W-C H-bonding, stacking interactions, and minor groove hydrations to some extent at the modified site, and these effects lead to slight variations in the local base pair parameters. Overall, our studies show that fdG is tolerated at the minor groove of the DNA to a better extent compared with other bulky DNA damages, and this property will make it difficult for the DNA repair pathways to detect this adduct. PMID:26650891

  20. Expression and role of connexin-based gap junctions in pulmonary inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund-Michel, Véronique; Muller, Bernard; Marthan, Roger; Savineau, Jean-Pierre; Guibert, Christelle

    2016-08-01

    Connexins are transmembrane proteins that can generate intercellular communication channels known as gap junctions. They contribute to the direct movement of ions and larger cytoplasmic solutes between various cell types. In the lung, connexins participate in a variety of physiological functions, such as tissue homeostasis and host defence. In addition, emerging evidence supports a role for connexins in various pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, pulmonary hypertension, acute lung injury, lung fibrosis or cystic fibrosis. In these diseases, the altered expression of connexins leads to disruption of normal intercellular communication pathways, thus contributing to various pathophysiological aspects, such as inflammation or tissue altered reactivity and remodeling. The present review describes connexin structure and organization in gap junctions. It focuses on connexins in the lung, including pulmonary bronchial and arterial beds, by looking at their expression, regulation and physiological functions. This work also addresses the issue of connexin expression alteration in various pulmonary inflammatory diseases and describes how targeting connexin-based gap junctions with pharmacological tools, synthetic blocking peptides or genetic approaches, may open new therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of these diseases. PMID:27126473

  1. Current concepts in the pathogenesis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by fibrotic obstruction of the proximal pulmonary arteries, and it is believed to result from incomplete thrombus resolution after acute pulmonary embolism. While treatment for this condition with surgery and medical therapy has improved outcomes, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying CTEPH is incomplete. Numerous risk factors have been associated with the development of CTEPH, including but not limited to acquired thrombophilias and chronic inflammatory states. A minority of patients with CTEPH have an abnormal fibrin structure that may delay thrombus resolution. Recently, examination of resected scar material in patients with CTEPH has suggested that deficient angiogenesis may play a role in thrombus nonresolution, and there is increasing interest in factors that drive intravascular scar formation. An additional challenge in CTEPH research is understanding the etiology and implications of the small-vessel disease present in many patients. Future work will likely be directed at understanding the pathways important to disease pathogenesis through further examinations of resected tissue material, continued work on animal models, and genomic approaches to identify alterations in gene expression or gene variants that may distinguish CTEPH from other forms of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:27252839

  2. Robust MR-based approaches to quantifying white matter structure and structure/function alterations in Huntington's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steventon, Jessica J.; Trueman, Rebecca C.; Rosser, Anne E.; Jones, Derek K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Huge advances have been made in understanding and addressing confounds in diffusion MRI data to quantify white matter microstructure. However, there has been a lag in applying these advances in clinical research. Some confounds are more pronounced in HD which impedes data quality and interpretability of patient-control differences. This study presents an optimised analysis pipeline and addresses specific confounds in a HD patient cohort. Method 15 HD gene-positive and 13 matched control participants were scanned on a 3T MRI system with two diffusion MRI sequences. An optimised post processing pipeline included motion, eddy current and EPI correction, rotation of the B matrix, free water elimination (FWE) and tractography analysis using an algorithm capable of reconstructing crossing fibres. The corpus callosum was examined using both a region-of-interest and a deterministic tractography approach, using both conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based and spherical deconvolution analyses. Results Correcting for CSF contamination significantly altered microstructural metrics and the detection of group differences. Reconstructing the corpus callosum using spherical deconvolution produced a more complete reconstruction with greater sensitivity to group differences, compared to DTI-based tractography. Tissue volume fraction (TVF) was reduced in HD participants and was more sensitive to disease burden compared to DTI metrics. Conclusion Addressing confounds in diffusion MR data results in more valid, anatomically faithful white matter tract reconstructions with reduced within-group variance. TVF is recommended as a complementary metric, providing insight into the relationship with clinical symptoms in HD not fully captured by conventional DTI metrics. PMID:26335798

  3. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Rami, E-mail: rami.haddad@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Kasneci, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.kasneci@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Mepham, Kathryn, E-mail: katherine.mepham@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Sebag, Igal A., E-mail: igal.sebag@mcgill.ca [Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); and others

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  4. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic–inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen–fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of

  5. Disturbance alters the phylogenetic composition and structure of plant communities in an old field system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dinnage

    Full Text Available The changes in phylogenetic composition and structure of communities during succession following disturbance can give us insights into the forces that are shaping communities over time. In abandoned agricultural fields, community composition changes rapidly when a field is plowed, and is thought to reflect a relaxation of competition due to the elimination of dominant species which take time to re-establish. Competition can drive phylogenetic overdispersion, due to phylogenetic conservation of 'niche' traits that allow species to partition resources. Therefore, undisturbed old field communities should exhibit higher phylogenetic dispersion than recently disturbed systems, which should be relatively 'clustered' with respect to phylogenetic relationships. Several measures of phylogenetic structure between plant communities were measured in recently plowed areas and nearby 'undisturbed' sites. There was no difference in the absolute values of these measures between disturbed and 'undisturbed' sites. However, there was a difference in the 'expected' phylogenetic structure between habitats, leading to significantly lower than expected phylogenetic diversity in disturbed plots, and no difference from random expectation in 'undisturbed' plots. This suggests that plant species characteristic of each habitat are fairly evenly distributed on the shared species pool phylogeny, but that once the initial sorting of species into the two habitat types has occurred, the processes operating on them affect each habitat differently. These results were consistent with an analysis of correlation between phylogenetic distance and co-occurrence indices of species pairs in the two habitat types. This study supports the notion that disturbed plots are more clustered than expected, rather than 'undisturbed' plots being more overdispersed, suggesting that disturbed plant communities are being more strongly influenced by environmental filtering of conserved niche traits.

  6. Disturbance alters the phylogenetic composition and structure of plant communities in an old field system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnage, Russell

    2009-01-01

    The changes in phylogenetic composition and structure of communities during succession following disturbance can give us insights into the forces that are shaping communities over time. In abandoned agricultural fields, community composition changes rapidly when a field is plowed, and is thought to reflect a relaxation of competition due to the elimination of dominant species which take time to re-establish. Competition can drive phylogenetic overdispersion, due to phylogenetic conservation of 'niche' traits that allow species to partition resources. Therefore, undisturbed old field communities should exhibit higher phylogenetic dispersion than recently disturbed systems, which should be relatively 'clustered' with respect to phylogenetic relationships. Several measures of phylogenetic structure between plant communities were measured in recently plowed areas and nearby 'undisturbed' sites. There was no difference in the absolute values of these measures between disturbed and 'undisturbed' sites. However, there was a difference in the 'expected' phylogenetic structure between habitats, leading to significantly lower than expected phylogenetic diversity in disturbed plots, and no difference from random expectation in 'undisturbed' plots. This suggests that plant species characteristic of each habitat are fairly evenly distributed on the shared species pool phylogeny, but that once the initial sorting of species into the two habitat types has occurred, the processes operating on them affect each habitat differently. These results were consistent with an analysis of correlation between phylogenetic distance and co-occurrence indices of species pairs in the two habitat types. This study supports the notion that disturbed plots are more clustered than expected, rather than 'undisturbed' plots being more overdispersed, suggesting that disturbed plant communities are being more strongly influenced by environmental filtering of conserved niche traits. PMID:19763265

  7. Pulmonary histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Branislava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Langerhans cell histiocytosis encompasses a group of disorders of unknown origin with different clinical presentations and outcomes. It is characterized by infiltration of the involved tissues by large numbers of Langerhans cells, often organized into granulomas. The accumulation of these cells causes the classic lytic bone lesions, skin rashes, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and dysfunction of organ such as the pituitary gland, lungs, liver, and bone marrow. Pulmonary histiocytosis. Adult pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. It occurs predominantly in male smokers, with an incidence peak between 20 and 40 years of age. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest can show nodules, cavitated nodules, and thickand thin-walled cysts. The definite diagnosis of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis requires identification of Langerhans’ cell granulomas infiltrating and destroying distal bronchioles, which is usually achieved by lung biopsy at a site selected by chest high-resolution computed tomography. Treatment. Treatment options for adults have never been clarified by a clinical trial. The published literature provides minimal data on the comparative efficacy of various treatment options which include surgery/curettage, steroids, radiation, and various chemotherapy regimens. The improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis should help in the development of specific therapeutic strategies and effective treatment.

  8. Cyanobacteria contain a structural homologue of the Hfq protein with altered RNA-binding properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Andreas; Overgaard, Martin; Valentin-Hansen, Poul;

    2009-01-01

    regulating mRNA turnover in eukaryotes. However, bacterial Hfq proteins are homohexameric, whereas eukaryotic Sm/Lsm proteins are heteroheptameric. Recently, Hfq proteins with poor sequence conservation were identified in archaea and cyanobacteria. In this article, we describe crystal structures of the Hfq...... proteins from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena PCC 7120 at 1.3 and 2.3 A resolution, respectively, and show that they retain the classic Sm fold despite low sequence conservation. In addition, the intersubunit contacts and RNA-binding site are divergent, and we show biochemically...

  9. Cyanobacteria contain a structural homologue of the Hfq protein with altered RNA binding properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Andreas; Overgaard, Martin; Valentin-Hansen, Poul;

    2009-01-01

    regulating mRNA turnover in eukaryotes. However, bacterial Hfq proteins are homohexameric, whereas eukaryotic Sm/Lsm proteins are heteroheptameric. Recently, Hfq proteins with poor sequence conservation were identified in archaea and cyanobacteria. In this article, we describe crystal structures of the Hfq...... proteins from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena PCC 7120 at 1.3 and 2.3 A resolution, respectively, and show that they retain the classic Sm fold despite low sequence conservation. In addition, the intersubunit contacts and RNA-binding site are divergent, and we show biochemically...

  10. Altered features in the secondary structure of Vicia faba 5.8s rRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar, R N; Wildeman, A G

    1981-01-01

    We have re-examined the nucleotide sequence of Vicia faba (broad bean) 5.8S rRNA using partial chemical degradation and a new approach to high temperature (65-80 degrees C) sequencing gels. The results indicate that the secondary structure was not completely disrupted in previous studies (Tanaka, Y., Dyer, T.A. and Brownlee, G.G. (1980) Nucleic Acid Res. 8, 1259-1272) and explain ambiguities between the nucleotide sequence and T1 ribonuclease digests. Despite this revision, estimates in the s...

  11. Altered metaphase chromosome structure in xrs-5 cells is not related to its radiation sensitivity or defective DNA break rejoining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line xrs-5 is a radiation-sensitive derivative of CHO-K1 cells. The xrs-5 cells have a defect in DNA double-strand break rejoining and show alterations in chromosome structure and nuclear morphology. The relationship between radiation sensitivity and metaphase chromosome morphology was examined in 12 'revertant' xrs-5 clones isolated following treatment with 5-azacytidine. Nine of the clones were radioresistant while the other three retained xrs-5-like radiation sensitivity. Chromosome morphology reverted to CHO-K1-like characteristics in three of the radioresistant clones and one of the radiosensitive clones suggesting that the over-condensed metaphase chromosome morphology of xrs-5 cells does not underlie its radiation sensitivity. Radiation sensitivity did correlate with DNA double-strand break rejoining ability. The radioresistant clones showing the over-condensed xrs-5-like chromosome morphology were also slightly more sensitive to the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide (VP-16) than CHO-K1, suggesting that the over-condensed morphology might be due to alterations in the phosphorylation of chromatin proteins

  12. Cerebral metabolic and structural alterations in hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum assessed by MRS and DTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum (HSP-TCC) is a complicated form of autosomal-recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia. Characteristic clinical features comprise progressive spastic gait, cognitive impairment, and ataxia. Diagnostic MRI findings include thinning of the corpus callosum and non-progressive white matter (WM) alterations. To study the extent of axonal involvement, we performed localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the cerebral WM and cortical grey matter (GM) in a patient with HSP-TCC at 20 and 25 years of age. The second investigation included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While MRS of the GM was normal, affected WM was characterized by major metabolic alterations such as reduced concentrations of N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate, creatine and phosphocreatine, and choline-containing compounds as well as elevated levels of myo-inositol. These abnormalities showed progression over a period of 5 years. DTI revealed increased mean diffusivity as well as reduced fractional anisotropy in periventricular WM. The metabolic and structural findings are consistent with progressive neuroaxonal loss in the WM accompanied by astrocytic proliferation - histopathological changes known to occur in HSP-TCC. Our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the primary pathological process in HSP-TCC affects the axon, possibly due to impaired axonal trafficking. (orig.)

  13. Can OCT be sensitive to nanoscale structural alterations in biological tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ji; Radosevich, Andrew J; Rogers, Jeremy D; Norris, Sam C P; Çapoğlu, İlker R; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2013-04-01

    Exploration of nanoscale tissue structures is crucial in understanding biological processes. Although novel optical microscopy methods have been developed to probe cellular features beyond the diffraction limit, nanometer-scale quantification remains still inaccessible for in situ tissue. Here we demonstrate that, without actually resolving specific geometrical feature, OCT can be sensitive to tissue structural properties at the nanometer length scale. The statistical mass-density distribution in tissue is quantified by its autocorrelation function modeled by the Whittle-Mateŕn functional family. By measuring the wavelength-dependent backscattering coefficient μb(λ) and the scattering coefficient μs, we introduce a technique called inverse spectroscopic OCT (ISOCT) to quantify the mass-density correlation function. We find that the length scale of sensitivity of ISOCT ranges from ~30 to ~450 nm. Although these sub-diffractional length scales are below the spatial resolution of OCT and therefore not resolvable, they are nonetheless detectable. The sub-diffractional sensitivity is validated by 1) numerical simulations; 2) tissue phantom studies; and 3) ex vivo colon tissue measurements cross-validated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, the 3D imaging capability of ISOCT is demonstrated with ex vivo rat buccal and human colon samples. PMID:23571994

  14. Alterations in the structure and DNA binding of Ah receptor in the presence of polyamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are organic cations present in all cells. They have multiple regulatory roles in cell growth and differentiation. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodigenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exert their adverse effects by binding to an intracellular protein (Ah receptor). Interaction of Ah receptor with specific DNA sequences triggers gene regulatory effects of TCDD. The authors examined the effect of polyamines on the structure and DNA binding of Ah receptor isolated from a human squamous carcinoma cell line, A431. [3H]TCDD-labeled Hf receptor was sedimented in the 9S region of sucrose gradients in hypotenic buffer. Polyamines caused a concentration dependent condensation and precipitation of Ah receptor. In the presence of 1 mM spermine the receptor was completely precipitated which could be recovered from the bottom of the sucrose gradients. This precipitation did not occur with RNase-treated Ah receptor. Incubation of RNase-treated Ah receptor with 1 mM spermidine increased its DNA binding 10-fold compared to controls having equivalent ionic strength. These results suggest that endogenous polyamines may influence the structural organization and gene regulatory effects of TCDD

  15. Exposure to Hycanthone alters chromatin structure around specific gene functions and specific repeats in Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eRoquis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic plathyhelminth responsible for intestinal schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis, a disease affecting 67 million people worldwide and causing an important economic burden. The schistosomicides hycanthone, and its later proxy oxamniquine, were widely used for treatments in endemic areas during the 20th century. Recently, the mechanism of action, as well as the genetic origin of a stably and Mendelian inherited resistance for both drugs was elucidated in two strains. However, several observations suggested early on that alternative mechanisms might exist, by which resistance could be induced for these two drugs in sensitive lines of schistosomes. This induced resistance appeared rapidly, within the first generation, but was metastable (not stably inherited. Epigenetic inheritance could explain such a phenomenon and we therefore re-analyzed the historical data with our current knowledge of epigenetics. In addition, we performed new experiments such as ChIP-seq on hycanthone treated worms. We found distinct chromatin structure changes between sensitive worms and induced resistant worms from the same strain. No specific pathway was discovered, but genes in which chromatin structure modification were observed are mostly associated with transport and catabolism, which makes sense in the context of the elimination of the drug. Specific differences were observed in the repetitive compartment of the genome. We finally describe what types of experiments are needed to understand the complexity of heritability that can be based on genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms for drug resistance in schistosomes.

  16. Structure alteration of C-S-H (calcium silicate hydrated phases) caused by sorption of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption behavior of Cs onto C-S-H (calcium silicate hydrated phases) was investigated by evaluating the effect of sorption on the C-S-H structure. The C-S-H have a tobermorite-type layer structure. Each layer consists of central calcium and oxygen atoms sandwiched by silicate tetrahedral chains. Additional calcium and water are located in interlayer zones. The XRD spectra showed that the tobermorite-type layer degraded and that the sorption of Cs made the fragments of layer intergrowths much smaller. The fragmentation of the tobermorite-type layer was observed for C-S-H in contact with CsCl solution or with CsOH solution, but not for the C-S-H in contact with Na solution. Furthermore, 29Si NMR spectroscopy revealed that the sorption of Cs onto C-S-H induced cleavages of silicate chains in C-S-H. It was also suggested that the OH- ion contributed to breaking the silicate chains. (orig.)

  17. An extreme climatic event alters marine ecosystem structure in a global biodiversity hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernberg, Thomas; Smale, Dan A.; Tuya, Fernando; Thomsen, Mads S.; Langlois, Timothy J.; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Bennett, Scott; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2013-01-01

    Extreme climatic events, such as heat waves, are predicted to increase in frequency and magnitude as a consequence of global warming but their ecological effects are poorly understood, particularly in marine ecosystems. In early 2011, the marine ecosystems along the west coast of Australia--a global hotspot of biodiversity and endemism--experienced the highest-magnitude warming event on record. Sea temperatures soared to unprecedented levels and warming anomalies of 2-4°C persisted for more than ten weeks along >2,000km of coastline. We show that biodiversity patterns of temperate seaweeds, sessile invertebrates and demersal fish were significantly different after the warming event, which led to a reduction in the abundance of habitat-forming seaweeds and a subsequent shift in community structure towards a depauperate state and a tropicalization of fish communities. We conclude that extreme climatic events are key drivers of biodiversity patterns and that the frequency and intensity of such episodes have major implications for predictive models of species distribution and ecosystem structure, which are largely based on gradual warming trends.

  18. Structure alteration and immunological properties of {sup 60}Co gamma rays irradiated bothropstoxin-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Janaina A.; Yonamine, Camila Myiagui; Caproni, Priscila; Casare, Murilo; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: janabap@gmail.com; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de; Vieira, Daniel Perez; Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia

    2007-07-01

    About 20000 ophidic accidents are registered every year in Brazil. Serum therapy with equine antisera is the only efficient treatment. The venoms employed for immunization are fairly toxic and some venoms present low immunogenicity. Thus, the obtention of modified antigens with lower toxicity and preserved or improved immunogenicity would be useful. These toxins, when submitted to gamma radiation, in aqueous solution, present structural modifications. This occurs due to reactions with the radiolysis products of water. Some scavenger substances, such as NaNO{sub 3} and t-butanol, remove selectively the water radiolysis products. Ionizing radiation has proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting and even increasing their immunogenic properties. However, the immune mechanisms involved in recognition, processing and presentation of irradiated antigens are yet unclear. In the present work, we investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-I (Bthx-1), before and after irradiation, in the presence of selective scavengers. Isogenic mice were immunized with either the native or the irradiated toxin, either with or without scavengers. After three immunizations, serum samples were collected and the antibody titers and isotypes were determined by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay. The antigenic characterization of native and irradiated bothropstoxin-I was performed by Western blot. The detection of expression of murine cytokines (IFN-{gamma} and IL-10) was analyzed by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction). According to our data, irradiation process has promoted structural modifications in the toxin, characterized by higher molecular weight forms of the protein (aggregates and oligomers). Our data also indicate that irradiated toxins, alone or in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, an aqueous electron scavenger, were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin. On the other

  19. Progressive alterations of central nervous system structure and function are caused by charged particle radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G. A.; Cns Nscor Team

    A new NASA-sponsored program project (NSCOR) has been organized to conduct the first comprehensive investigation of the response of a mammalian brain structure (mouse hippocampus) to charged-particle radiation. The NSCOR collaboration has three main goals. The first goal is to quantify the time- and dose-dependent changes in cellular composition and architecture. By using stereology on preserved brains, subsets of cells (neurons, glia, endothelia and stem cells) will be quantified out to 2 years after irradiation with accelerated protons and iron ions. To further characterize changes in vasculature architecture a polymer infusion technique will be used to produce a three-dimensional vasculature cast that then will be mapped by x-ray tomography to determine topological changes, and microscopic infarcts associated with amyloid protein deposits. The 2nd goal is to quantify hippocampal function(s). The primary measurement of function will be extracellular electrical recordings from hippocampal ``brain slices'' that reflect underlying functions such as connectivity, action potential generation & conduction, and neurotransmitter formation, secretion, and uptake. Individual nerve membrane properties will be assessed by ``patch clamp'' recordings. Two non-invasive methods will evaluate brain function and the evolution of changes with time. Electroencephalograms will map macroscopic spontaneous electrical activity while two state-of-the-art MRI magnetization sequences will visualize and quantify local oxygen utilization and white matter fiber tracts structural integrity. To quantify the brains' overall performance under stress, animals will receive a systemic shock mediated by the immune system in the form of a reaction to lipopolysaccharide. A second strategy will employ the APP23 transgenic mouse that develops the pathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Measurements of irradiated mice will determine whether radiation exposure affects the latency and

  20. On the Comparability of Chemical Structure and Roughness of Nanochannels in Altering Fluid Slippage

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Chinmay Anand

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial hydrodynamic slippage of water depends on both on surface chemistry and roughness. This study tries to connect the effect of chemical property and the physical structure of the surface on the interfacial slippage of water. By performing molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) of Couette flow of water molecules over a reduced Lennard-Jones (LJ) surface, the velocity profile is obtained and extrapolated to get the slip lengths. The slip lengths are measured for various surface-fluid interactions. These interactions are varied by changing the wettability of the surface (characterized by the static contact angle) and its roughness. The slip length variation with the static contact angle as $(1+cos\\theta)^{-2}$ is observed. However, it is also observed that the presence of surface roughness always reduces the slip length and it is proposed that the slip length varies with non-dimensionalized average surface roughness as $(1+\\alpha^*)^{-2}$ . Thus a relation between the chemical wettability and the physica...

  1. Characterization of structural alteration in diamond turned silicon crystal by means of micro raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Goulart Jasinevicius

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, (100 oriented monocrystalline silicon samples were single point diamond turned under conditions that led to a ductile and brittle regime. Raman spectroscopy results showed that the ductile regime diamond turning of silicon surfaces induced amorphization and, on the contrary, in the brittle mode machining condition this amorphous layer does not exist. Ductile machined surface was found to be a mixture of crystalline and amorphous phases probed by (macro-Raman spectroscopy. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM analyses were then carried out in order to characterize the structural alteration in the machined surface and chips. The electron diffraction pattern of the machined surface detected a crystalline phase along with the amorphous silicon confirming the former results. The mechanism of material removal is widely discussed based upon the results presented here.

  2. Structural alteration of the dorsal visual network in DLB patients with visual hallucinations: a cortical thickness MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Delli Pizzi

    Full Text Available Visual hallucinations (VH represent one of the core features in discriminating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB from Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Previous studies reported that in DLB patients functional alterations of the parieto-occipital regions were correlated with the presence of VH. The aim of our study was to assess whether morphological changes in specific cortical regions of DLB could be related to the presence and severity of VH. We performed a cortical thickness analysis on magnetic resonance imaging data in a cohort including 18 DLB patients, 15 AD patients and 14 healthy control subjects. Relatively to DLB group, correlation analysis between the cortical thickness and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI hallucination item scores was also performed. Cortical thickness was reduced bilaterally in DLB compared to controls in the pericalcarine and lingual gyri, cuneus, precuneus, superior parietal gyrus. Cortical thinning was found bilaterally in AD compared to controls in temporal cortex including the superior and middle temporal gyrus, part of inferior temporal cortex, temporal pole and insula. Inferior parietal and supramarginal gyri were also affected bilaterally in AD as compared to controls. The comparison between DLB and AD evidenced cortical thinning in DLB group in the right posterior regions including superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, cuneus, pericalcarine and lingual gyri. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between cortical thickness and NPI hallucination item scores showed that the structural alteration in the dorsal visual regions including superior parietal gyrus and precuneus closely correlated with the occurrence and severity of VH. We suggest that structural changes in key regions of the dorsal visual network may play a crucial role in the physiopathology of VH in DLB patients.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations highlight structural and functional alterations in deafness–related M34T mutation of connexin 26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FrancescoZonta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the GJB2 gene encoding the connexin 26 (Cx26 gap junction protein, which is widelyexpressed in the inner ear, are the primary cause of hereditary non–syndromic hearing loss in severalpopulations. The deafness–associated single amino acid substitution of methionine 34 (M34 in the firsttransmembrane helix (TM1 with a threonine (T ensues in the production of mutant Cx26M34Tchannels that are correctly synthesize and assembled in the plasma membrane. However, mutantchannels overexpressed in HeLa cells retain only 9% of the wild type unitary conductance. Here we extend and rationalize those findings by comparing wild type Cx26 (Cx26WT and Cx26M34T mutant channels in silico, using molecular dynamics simulation. Our results indicate that the quaternary structure of the Cx26M34T hemichannel is altered at the level of the pore funnel due to the disruption of the hydrophobic interaction between M34 and tryptophan 3 (W3 in the N–terminal helix (NTH. Our simulations also show that external force stimuli applied to the NTHs can detach them from the inner wall of the pore more readily in the mutant than in the wild type hemichannel. These structural alterations significantly increase the free energy barrier encountered by permeating ions, correspondingly decreasing the unitary conductance of the Cx26M34T hemichannel. Our results accord with the proposal that the mutant resides most of the time in a low conductance state. However, the small the displacement of the NTHs in our Cx26M34T hemichannel model is not compatible with the formation of a pore plug as in the related Cx26M34A mutant.

  4. Structure-Guided Mutations in the Terminal Organelle Protein MG491 Cause Major Motility and Morphologic Alterations on Mycoplasma genitalium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume; Fita, Ignacio; Calisto, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    The emergent human pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium, with one of the smallest genomes among cells capable of growing in axenic cultures, presents a flask-shaped morphology due to a protrusion of the cell membrane, known as the terminal organelle, that is involved in cell adhesion and motility and is an important virulence factor of this microorganism. The terminal organelle is supported by a cytoskeleton complex of about 300 nm in length that includes three substructures: the terminal button, the rod and the wheel complex. The crystal structure of the MG491 protein, a proposed component of the wheel complex, has been determined at ~3 Å resolution. MG491 subunits are composed of a 60-residue N-terminus, a central three-helix-bundle spanning about 150 residues and a C-terminal region that appears to be quite flexible and contains the region that interacts with MG200, another key protein of the terminal organelle. The MG491 molecule is a tetramer presenting a unique organization as a dimer of asymmetric pairs of subunits. The asymmetric arrangement results in two very different intersubunit interfaces between the central three-helix-bundle domains, which correlates with the formation of only ~50% of the intersubunit disulfide bridges of the single cysteine residue found in MG491 (Cys87). Moreover, M. genitalium cells with a point mutation in the MG491 gene causing the change of Cys87 to Ser present a drastic reduction in motility (as determined by microcinematography) and important alterations in morphology (as determined by electron microscopy), while preserving normal levels of the terminal organelle proteins. Other variants of MG491, designed also according to the structural information, altered significantly the motility and/or the cell morphology. Together, these results indicate that MG491 plays a key role in the functioning, organization and stabilization of the terminal organelle. PMID:27082435

  5. A study on the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume by RI-cardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume in cases of cardio-pulmonary disease were measured using Giuntini's method which is considered the most appropriate among radiocardiographic methods. The errors in this method were confirmed to be almost negligible. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The pulmonary mean transit time was related to the systemic mean transit time and markedly prolonged in left heart failure. On the other hand, it was markedly shortened in some cases of chronic pulmonary disease, particularly pulmonary emphysema. 2) The pulmonary blood volume tended to increase in left heart disorders and mitral valve disease and tended to decrease in the chronic pulmonary disease. The decrease was conspicuous particularly in some cases of pulmonary emphysema. 3) A structural change of the pulmonary vascular system in the chronic pulmonary disease appeared to bring about shortening of the pulmonary mean transit time and a decrease in the pulmonary blood volume. The pathophysiology of cardio-pulmonary disease can be more clarified by the RI-cardiogram used in this study, in which the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume are used as the indicator. (author)

  6. Differential progression of structural and functional alterations in distinct retinal ganglion cell types in a mouse model of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Santina, Luca; Inman, Denise M; Lupien, Caroline B; Horner, Philip J; Wong, Rachel O L

    2013-10-30

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation is a principal risk factor for glaucoma. Using a microbead injection technique to chronically raise IOP for 15 or 30 d in mice, we identified the early changes in visual response properties of different types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and correlated these changes with neuronal morphology before cell death. Microbead-injected eyes showed reduced optokinetic tracking as well as cell death. In such eyes, multielectrode array recordings revealed that four RGC types show diverse alterations in their light responses upon IOP elevation. OFF-transient RGCs exhibited a more rapid decline in both structural and functional organizations compared with other RGCs. In contrast, although the light-evoked responses of OFF-sustained RGCs were perturbed, the dendritic arbor of this cell type remained intact. ON-transient and ON-sustained RGCs had normal functional receptive field sizes but their spontaneous and light-evoked firing rates were reduced. ON- and OFF-sustained RGCs lost excitatory synapses across an otherwise structurally normal dendritic arbor. Together, our observations indicate that there are changes in spontaneous activity and light-evoked responses in RGCs before detectable dendritic loss. However, when dendrites retract, we found corresponding changes in receptive field center size. Importantly, the effects of IOP elevation are not uniformly manifested in the structure and function of diverse RGC populations, nor are distinct RGC types perturbed within the same time-frame by such a challenge. PMID:24174678

  7. Altered Structural Correlates of Impulsivity in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Qi, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that internet gaming disorder (IGD) was associated with impulsivity and structural abnormalities in brain gray matter (GM). However, no morphometric study has examined the association between GM and impulsivity in IGD individuals. In this study, 25 adolescents with IGD and 27 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and the relationship between Barratt impulsiveness scale-11 (BIS) score and gray matter volume (GMV) was investigated with the voxel-based morphometric (VBM) correlation analysis. Then, the intergroup differences in correlation between BIS score and GMV were tested across all GM voxels. Our results showed that the correlations between BIS score and GMV of the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), the bilateral insula and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the right amygdala and the left fusiform gyrus decreased in the IGD group compared to the HCs. Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis revealed that GMV in all these clusters showed significant positive correlations with BIS score in the HCs, while no significant correlation was found in the IGD group. Our findings demonstrated that dysfunction of these brain areas involved in the behavior inhibition, attention and emotion regulation might contribute to impulse control problems in IGD adolescents. PMID:26858620

  8. Ablation of mouse adult neurogenesis alters olfactory bulb structure and olfactory fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Valley

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis replenishes olfactory bulb (OB interneurons throughout the life of most mammals, yet during this constant fl ux it remains unclear how the OB maintains a constant structure and function. In the mouse OB, we investigated the dynamics of turnover and its impact on olfactory function by ablating adult neurogenesis with an x-ray lesion to the subventricular zone (SVZ. Regardless of the magnitude of the lesion to the SVZ, we found no change in the survival of young adult born granule cells (GCs born after the lesion, and a gradual decrease in the population of GCs born before the lesion. After a lesion producing a 96% reduction of incoming adult born GCs to the OB, we found a diminished behavioral fear response to conditioned odor cues but not to audio cues. Interestingly, despite this behavioral defi cit and gradual anatomical changes, we found no electrophysiological changes in the GC population assayed in vivo through dendro-dendritic synaptic plasticity and odor-evoked local fi eld potential oscillations. These data indicate that turnover in the granule cell layer is generally decoupled from the rate of adult neurogenesis, and that OB adult neurogenesis plays a role in a wide behavioral system extending beyond the OB.

  9. Aorta Structural Alterations in Term Neonates: The Role of Birth and Maternal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of selected maternal and neonatal characteristics on aorta walls in term, appropriately grown-for-gestational age newborns. Methods. Age, parity, previous abortions, weight, height, body mass index before and after delivery, smoking, and history of hypertension, of diabetes, of cardiovascular diseases, and of dyslipidemia were all assessed in seventy mothers. They delivered 34 males and 36 females healthy term newborns who underwent ultrasound evaluation of the anteroposterior infrarenal abdominal aorta diameter (APAO, biochemical profile (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and D-dimers homeostasis model assessment [HOMAIR]index, and biometric parameters. Results. APAO was related to newborn length (r=+0.36; P=0.001, head circumference (r=+0.37; P=0.001, gestational age (r=+0.40, P=0.0005, HOMA index (r=+0.24; P=0.04, and D-dimers (r=+0.33, P=0.004. Smoke influenced APAO values (odds ratio: 1.80; confidence interval 95%: 1.05–3.30, as well as diabetes during pregnancy (r=+0.42, P=0.0002. Maternal height influenced neonatal APAO (r=+0.47, P=0.00003. Multiple regression analysis outlined neonatal D-dimers as still significantly related to neonatal APAO values. Conclusions. Many maternal and neonatal characteristics could influence aorta structures. Neonatal D-dimers are independently related to APAO.

  10. Altered Leaf Structure and Function in Triazine-Resistant Common Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jodie Sims; Goffner, Deborah P.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological characteristics of leaves of triazinesusceptible and -resistant biotypes of common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) were studied in order to explain the differences in light-saturated photosynthetic rates previously reported. Leaves were of uniform leaf plastochron index from greenhouse-grown plants. Susceptible plants had greater leaf fresh and dry weights and leaf areas, while resistant plants had greater specific leaf mass (mg fresh weight/cm2). Susceptible plants had greater amounts of total chlorophyll per unit leaf weight and a higher chlorophyll a/b ratio. Soluble protein in leaves was higher in susceptible chloroplasts on a weight and area basis, but similar to resistant chloroplasts on a unit chlorophyll basis. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase was higher in resistant plants on a fresh weight, leaf area, and milligram chlorophyll basis. Stomatal frequency, length, and arrangement were similar between biotypes, as were transpiration and conductance. Resistant leaves had less air space (v/v), more cells in palisade and spongy mesophyll, and a greater volume of palisade tissue than spongy, when compared to susceptible leaves. Differences in leaf structure and function between biotypes are probably due to a complex of developmental adaptations which may be only indirectly related to modified photosystem II in resistant plants. These results indicate that the consistently lower rates of net photosynthesis and yield in resistant plants cannot be explained solely on the basis of these leaf characteristics. Several possible mechanisms to account for reduced productivity are suggested. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16664476

  11. IODP Expeditions 304 & 305 Characterize the Lithology, Structure, and Alteration of an Oceanic Core Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. MacLeod

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available More than forty years after the Mohole Project (Bascom, 1961, the goal of drilling a complete section through in situ oceanic crust remains unachieved. Deep Sea Drilling Project – Ocean Drilling Program (DSDP-ODP Hole 504B within the eastern Pacifi c (Alt et al., 1993 is the deepest hole ever drilled into ocean crust (2111 mbsf, but it failed to reach lower crustal plutonic rocks below the pillow basalts and sheeted dikes. IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 eventuallyrecovered the long-sought transition from sheeted dikes into underlying gabbros by drilling into very fast-spreading Pacifi c crust (Wilson et al., 2006. The lithology and structure of oceanic crust produced at slow-spreading ridges are heterogeneous (e.g., Cannat et al., 1997 and offer unique drilling access to lower crust and upper mantle rocks. After ODP Hole 735B penetrated 1500 m of gabbro at the Southwest Indian Ridge (Dick et al., 2000, IODP Expeditions 304 and 305 recently recovered just over 1400 m of little-deformed, gabbroic lower crust from a tectonic window along the slowspreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  12. Altered Structural Correlates of Impulsivity in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Qi, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that internet gaming disorder (IGD) was associated with impulsivity and structural abnormalities in brain gray matter (GM). However, no morphometric study has examined the association between GM and impulsivity in IGD individuals. In this study, 25 adolescents with IGD and 27 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and the relationship between Barratt impulsiveness scale-11 (BIS) score and gray matter volume (GMV) was investigated with the voxel-based morphometric (VBM) correlation analysis. Then, the intergroup differences in correlation between BIS score and GMV were tested across all GM voxels. Our results showed that the correlations between BIS score and GMV of the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), the bilateral insula and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the right amygdala and the left fusiform gyrus decreased in the IGD group compared to the HCs. Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis revealed that GMV in all these clusters showed significant positive correlations with BIS score in the HCs, while no significant correlation was found in the IGD group. Our findings demonstrated that dysfunction of these brain areas involved in the behavior inhibition, attention and emotion regulation might contribute to impulse control problems in IGD adolescents. PMID:26858620

  13. Effect of cholesterol and amyloid-β peptide on structure and function of mixed-lipid films and pulmonary surfactant BLES: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hane, Francis; Drolle, Elizabeth; Leonenko, Zoya

    2010-12-01

    Pulmonary surfactant forms a thin molecular film inside mammalian lung alveoli and lowers the surface tension of the air/fluid interface to reduce the work of breathing. Upon compression functional surfactant forms characteristic multilayer structures, which indicate surfactant surface activity. We showed that cholesterol adversely affects both structural and surface-active properties of BLES surfactant and DPPC/DOPG lipid films. Incorporation of small concentrations of fibril-forming peptide amyloid-β 1-40 helps to counteract the distractive effect of cholesterol by improving characteristic multilayer formation that occurs upon compression. In contrast to many negative effects of amyloid-forming peptides reported earlier, we report a positive effect of amyloid-β peptide on surfactant function, which may aid in the designing of novel surfactant formulations. PMID:20493966

  14. Alterations of functional and structural connectivity of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Jiang, Siming; Yuan, Yongsheng; Zhang, Li; Ding, Jian; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Jiejin; Zhang, Kezhong; Wang, Jie

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the patterns of functional and structural connectivity abnormalities in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait (PD FOG+) compared with those without freezing (PD FOG-) and healthy controls (HCs). Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were obtained from 14 PD FOG+, 16 PD FOG- and 16HCs. Between-group difference in pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) functional connectivity (FC) was performed to assess FC dysfunction. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was applied to compare white matter (WM) impairment across the whole brain between groups. PD FOG+ patients exhibited abnormal PPN FC, compared with HCs and with PD FOG-, mainly in the corticopontine-cerebellar pathways (in the bilateral cerebellum and in the pons), as well as the visual temporal areas (in the right middle temporal gyrus and in the right inferior temporal gyrus). Moreover, PD FOG+ patients, showed more pronounced WM abnormalities, relative to controls, including the interhemispheric connections of corpus callosum, the cortico-cortical WM tracts of the cingulum, the superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the corticofugal tract (cerebral peduncles, internal capsule, corona radiata), as well as tracts connecting the thalamus (thalamic radiation). This study suggests that FOG in PD is associated with abnormal PPN FC network, mainly affecting the corticopontine-cerebellar pathways as well as visual temporal areas involved in visual processing, and with diffuse WM deficits extending to motor, sensory and cognitive regions. Combining rs-fMRI and DTI method, our study should advance the understanding of neural mechanisms underlying FOG in PD. PMID:27230857

  15. Triclocarban Influences Antibiotic Resistance and Alters Anaerobic Digester Microbial Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Zitomer, Daniel H; Hristova, Krassimira R; Kappell, Anthony D; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) is one of the most abundant organic micropollutants detected in biosolids. Lab-scale anaerobic digesters were amended with TCC at concentrations ranging from the background concentration of seed biosolids (30 mg/kg) to toxic concentrations of 850 mg/kg to determine the effect on methane production, relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes, and microbial community structure. Additionally, the TCC addition rate was varied to determine the impacts of acclimation time. At environmentally relevant TCC concentrations (max detect = 440 mg/kg), digesters maintained function. Digesters receiving 450 mg/kg of TCC maintained function under gradual TCC addition, but volatile fatty acid concentrations increased, pH decreased, and methane production ceased when immediately fed this concentration. The concentrations of the mexB gene (encoding for a multidrug efflux pump) were higher with all concentrations of TCC compared to a control, but higher TCC concentrations did not correlate with increased mexB abundance. The relative abundance of the gene tet(L) was greater in the digesters that no longer produced methane, and no effect on the relative abundance of the class 1 integron integrase encoding gene (intI1) was observed. Illumina sequencing revealed substantial community shifts in digesters that functionally failed from increased levels of TCC. More subtle, yet significant, community shifts were observed in digesters amended with TCC levels that did not inhibit function. This research demonstrates that TCC can select for a multidrug resistance encoding gene in mixed community anaerobic environments, and this selection occurs at concentrations (30 mg/kg) that can be found in full-scale anaerobic digesters (U.S. median concentration = 22 mg/kg, mean = 39 mg/kg). PMID:26588246

  16. Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Ghawi, Hani; Kenny, Damien; Hijazi, Ziyad M.

    2012-01-01

    Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (tPVR) has evolved into a viable alternative to surgical conduit or bioprosthetic valve replacement. This procedure has paved the way for a more advanced approach to congenital and structural interventional cardiology. Although many successes have been noted, there are still a number of challenges with this procedure, including large delivery systems, the need for a conduit or a bioprosthetic valve as a landing zone for the valve, optimal timing of th...

  17. Invasive symbiont bearing (and other) foraminifera altering the community structure of eastern Mediterranean rocky reefs environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Perelis Grossowicz, Lydia; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    2015-04-01

    The rocky reefs of the Israeli eastern Mediterranean shelf constitute a highly diverse marine ecosystem rich in macroalgae and calcareous organisms. The benthic foraminiferal community living in this ecosystem is rapidly changing due to massive invasion of symbiont bearing foraminifera (SBF) as well as other foraminiferal species of tropical origin. This trend facilitated by the ongoing increase in temperature enables more tropical species to adjust to the eastern Mediterranean habitats. In order to document the status of the benthic foraminiferal community structure rocky reefs at Akhziv (AK) and Carmel Head (CH), northern Israel were sampled by scuba diving. Different macroalgae species, including invasive ones, accommodating the live epiphytic benthic foraminifera were sampled twice a year at AK and in each season at CH in three depth intervals between 5-20 m, during 2013-4. The numerical abundance of the group ranges between 170-3500 #/10cc (wet macroalgae volume) without any significant difference in standing stocks within regions, water depths or macroalgae preference. In total 77 benthic foraminiferal species were identified 71 in CH and only 43 at AK. Species richness per site varied between 3 and 42 with higher values at CH. 25% of all species were aliens, mostly Lessepsian, that comprise on average 70% - 84% of the numerical abundance of AK and CH respectively. Cluster analysis using benthic foraminifera relative abundance data did not correlate with the different macroalgae species, water depths or seasonality, indicating that the foraminiferal community in the two regions is quite homogenous. Amphistegina lobifera a Lessepsian migrant is by far the most common species on the Israeli rocky reefs occurring in all samples and comprising 18-93% of the foraminiferal community. Heterostegina depressa behaves similarly to A. lobifera though it occurs in lower numbers. Pararotalia calcariformata, a recently arriving SBF occupies mainly shallow water sites at CH

  18. Alterations in Functional and Structural Connectivity in Pediatric-Onset Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Akbar

    Full Text Available Reduced white matter (WM integrity is a fundamental aspect of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS, though relations to resting-state functional MRI (fMRI connectivity remain unknown. The objective of this study was to relate diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI measures of WM microstructural integrity to resting-state network (RSN functional connectivity in pediatric-onset MS to test the hypothesis that abnormalities in RSN reflects changes in structural integrity.This study enrolled 19 patients with pediatric-onset MS (mean age = 19, range 13-24 years, 14 female, mean disease duration = 65 months, mean age of disease onset = 13 years and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC. All subjects underwent 3.0T anatomical and functional MRI which included DTI and resting-state acquisitions. DTI processing was performed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. RSNs were identified using Independent Components Analysis, and a dual regression technique was used to detect between-group differences in the functional connectivity of RSNs. Correlations were investigated between DTI measures and RSN connectivity.Lower fractional anisotropy (FA was observed in the pediatric-onset MS group compared to HC group within the entire WM skeleton, and particularly the corpus callosum, posterior thalamic radiation, corona radiata and sagittal stratum (all p < .01, corrected. Relative to HCs, MS patients showed higher functional connectivity involving the anterior cingulate cortex and right precuneus of the default-mode network, as well as involving the anterior cingulate cortex and left middle frontal gyrus of the frontoparietal network (all p < .005 uncorrected, k≥30 voxels. Higher functional connectivity of the right precuneus within the default-mode network was associated with lower FA of the entire WM skeleton (r = -.525, p = .02, genu of the corpus callosum (r = -.553, p = .014, and left (r = -.467, p = .044 and right (r = -.615, p = .005 sagittal stratum.Loss of

  19. Pulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi, M L; Goracci, A; Roche, N; Paugam, A; Lupo, A; Revel, M P

    2015-05-01

    Aspergillosis is a mycotic disease usually caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, a saprophytic and ubiquitous airborne fungus. Aspergillus-related lung diseases are traditionally classified into four different forms, whose occurrence depends on the immunologic status of the host and the existence of an underlying lung disease. Allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) affects patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Saprophytic infection (aspergilloma) occurs in patients with abnormal airways (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis) or chronic lung cavities. Chronic necrotizing aspergillosis (semi-invasive form) is described in patients with chronic lung pathology or mild immunodeficiency. Invasive aspergillosis (angio-invasive or broncho-invasive forms) occurs in severely immuno-compromised patients. Knowledge of the various radiological patterns for each form, as well as the corresponding associated immune disorders and/or underlying lung diseases, helps early recognition and accurate diagnosis. PMID:25753544

  20. Morphofunctional study of the junction between the left atrium and the pulmonary veins in patient with pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Jennecy Sales

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the arrangement of the myocardial fiber bundles at the pulmonary venous left atrial junction in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and to discuss the pathophysiological importance of this element in the etiology of acute pulmonary edema. METHODS: We obtained 12 hearts and their pulmonary vein extremities from postmortem examinations of patients with the anatomicopathological diagnosis of acute pulmonary edema. The specimens, which had no grossly visible morphological cardiac alterations, were fixed in 10% formalin, and the muscular arrangement of the pulmonary venous left atrial junctions was analyzed. This material was then isolated, embedded in paraffin, underwent serial cutting (50 µm of thickness, and was stained with Azam's trichrome. RESULTS: We observed in our specimens that: a the myocardial fiber bundles that originate in the atrial wall and involve the openings of the pulmonary veins were fewer than those observed in healthy material; b the myocardial fiber bundles that extend into the pulmonary veins were shorter than those found in material originating from individuals with no pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION: Anatomical changes that result in a reduction in the amount of myocardial fiber bundles in the pulmonary venous left atrial junction, isolated or associated with other factors, may be the cause of disorders in pulmonary circulation, leading to an increase in pulmonary venous pressure, and, consequently, to acute pulmonary edema.

  1. Isotropic 3D nuclear morphometry of normal, fibrocystic and malignant breast epithelial cells reveals new structural alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Nandakumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Grading schemes for breast cancer diagnosis are predominantly based on pathologists' qualitative assessment of altered nuclear structure from 2D brightfield microscopy images. However, cells are three-dimensional (3D objects with features that are inherently 3D and thus poorly characterized in 2D. Our goal is to quantitatively characterize nuclear structure in 3D, assess its variation with malignancy, and investigate whether such variation correlates with standard nuclear grading criteria. METHODOLOGY: We applied micro-optical computed tomographic imaging and automated 3D nuclear morphometry to quantify and compare morphological variations between human cell lines derived from normal, benign fibrocystic or malignant breast epithelium. To reproduce the appearance and contrast in clinical cytopathology images, we stained cells with hematoxylin and eosin and obtained 3D images of 150 individual stained cells of each cell type at sub-micron, isotropic resolution. Applying volumetric image analyses, we computed 42 3D morphological and textural descriptors of cellular and nuclear structure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed four distinct nuclear shape categories, the predominant being a mushroom cap shape. Cell and nuclear volumes increased from normal to fibrocystic to metastatic type, but there was little difference in the volume ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (N/C ratio between the lines. Abnormal cell nuclei had more nucleoli, markedly higher density and clumpier chromatin organization compared to normal. Nuclei of non-tumorigenic, fibrocystic cells exhibited larger textural variations than metastatic cell nuclei. At p<0.0025 by ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests, 90% of our computed descriptors statistically differentiated control from abnormal cell populations, but only 69% of these features statistically differentiated the fibrocystic from the metastatic cell populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a new perspective on nuclear

  2. Therapeutic Approaches in Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Proteolysis, and Structural Alterations of Diaphragm and Gastrocnemius in Rats With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Esther; Puig-Vilanova, Ester; Marin-Corral, Judith; Chacón-Cabrera, Alba; Salazar-Degracia, Anna; Mateu, Xavier; Puente-Maestu, Luis; García-Arumí, Elena; Andreu, Antoni L; Molina, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience exercise intolerance, fatigue and muscle wasting, which negatively influence their survival. We hypothesized that treatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib of rats with monocrotaline-induced CHF may restore inspiratory and limb muscle mass, function, and structure through several molecular mechanisms involved in protein breakdown and metabolism in the diaphragm and gastrocnemius. In these muscles of CHF-cachectic rats with and without treatment with NAC or bortezomib (N = 10/group) and non-cachectic controls, proteolysis (tyrosine release, proteasome activities, ubiquitin-proteasome markers), oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial function, myosin, NF-κB transcriptional activity, muscle structural abnormalities, and fiber morphometry were analyzed together with muscle and cardiac functions. In diaphragm and gastrocnemius of CHF-cachectic rats, tyrosine release, proteasome activity, protein ubiquitination, atrogin-1, MURF-1, NF-κB activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and structural abnormalities were increased, while muscle and cardiac functions, myosin content, slow- and fast-twitch fiber sizes, and mitochondrial activity were decreased. Concomitant treatment of CHF-cachectic rats with NAC or bortezomib improved protein catabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, muscle fiber sizes, function and damage, superoxide dismutase and myosin levels, mitochondrial function (complex I, gastrocnemius), cardiac function and decreased NF-κB transcriptional activity in both muscles. Treatment of CHF-cachectic animals with NAC or bortezomib attenuated the functional (heart, muscles), biological, and structural alterations in muscles. Nonetheless, future studies conducted in actual clinical settings are warranted in order to assess the potential beneficial effects and safety concerns of these pharmacological agents on muscle mass loss and wasting in

  3. Biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Wang, Jingyuan; Dippold, Michaela; Gao, Yang; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-06-15

    The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment. BC application increased total soil C and particulate organic C for 47.4-50.4% and 63.7-74.6%, respectively. The effects of BC on the microbial community and C-cycling enzymes were dependent on fertilization. Addition of BC alone did not change the microbial community compared with the control, but altered the microbial community structure in conjunction with NPK fertilization. SOM fractions accounted for 55% of the variance in the PLFA-related microbial community structure. The particulate organic N explained the largest variation in the microbial community structure. Microbial metabolic activity strongly increased after BC addition, particularly the utilization of amino acids and amines due to an increase in the activity of proteolytic (l-leucine aminopeptidase) enzymes. These results indicate that microorganisms start to mine N from the SOM to compensate for high C:N ratios after BC application, which consequently accelerate cycling of stable N. Concluding, BC in combination with NPK fertilizer application strongly affected microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced SOM cycling. PMID:26974565

  4. Pulmonary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beg...

  5. Alterations in the expression of atrial calpains in electrical and structural remodeling during aging and atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-Jun; Gan, Tian-Yi; Tang, Bao-Peng; Chen, Zu-Heng; Mahemuti, Ailiman; Jiang, Tao; Song, Jian-Guo; Guo, Xia; Li, Yao-Dong; Zhou, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jin-Xin

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the change in the expression of atrial calpains and electrical, molecular and structural remodeling during aging and atrial fibrillation (AF). Adult and aged canines in sinus rhythm (SR) and with persistent AF (induced by rapid atrial pacing) were investigated. A whole-cell patch clamp was used to measure the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa-L) in cells in the left atrium. The mRNA and protein expression of the L-type calcium channel alc subunit (LVDCCa1c) and calpains were measured by quantitative (q)PCR and western blot analysis. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes were analyzed via light and electron microscopy. The quantity of apoptotic myocytes was determined by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. In SR groups, atrial cells of the aged canines exhibited a longer action potential (AP) duration to 90% repolarization (APD90), lower AP plateau potential and peak ICa-L current densities (Pcontrol group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of LVDCCa1c were decreased in the aged groups; however, the mRNA and protein expression of calpain 1 was increased in the adult and the aged groups with AF (Patrial tissue exhibited abnormal histopathological and ultrastructural changes, such as accelerated fibrosis and apoptosis with aging and in AF. Age-related alterations in atrial tissues were attributed to the increased expression of calpain 1. The general pathophysiological alterations in normal aged atria may therefore produce a substrate that is conducive to AF. PMID:24043247

  6. The A31P missense mutation in cardiac myosin binding protein C alters protein structure but does not cause haploinsufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Sabine J; Bezold Kooiker, Kristina; Mazzalupo, Stacy; Yang, Yuanzhang; Kostyukova, Alla S; Mustacich, Debbie J; Hoye, Elaine R; Stern, Joshua A; Kittleson, Mark D; Harris, Samantha P

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in MYBPC3, the gene encoding cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C), are a major cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). While most mutations encode premature stop codons, missense mutations causing single amino acid substitutions are also common. Here we investigated effects of a single proline for alanine substitution at amino acid 31 (A31P) in the C0 domain of cMyBP-C, which was identified as a natural cause of HCM in cats. Results using recombinant proteins showed that the mutation disrupted C0 structure, altered sensitivity to trypsin digestion, and reduced recognition by an antibody that preferentially recognizes N-terminal domains of cMyBP-C. Western blots detecting A31P cMyBP-C in myocardium of cats heterozygous for the mutation showed a reduced amount of A31P mutant protein relative to wild-type cMyBP-C, but the total amount of cMyBP-C was not different in myocardium from cats with or without the A31P mutation indicating altered rates of synthesis/degradation of A31P cMyBP-C. Also, the mutant A31P cMyBP-C was properly localized in cardiac sarcomeres. These results indicate that reduced protein expression (haploinsufficiency) cannot account for effects of the A31P cMyBP-C mutation and instead suggest that the A31P mutation causes HCM through a poison polypeptide mechanism that disrupts cMyBP-C or myocyte function. PMID:26777460

  7. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  8. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout your body. While the heart is one organ, it ...

  9. Pulmonary manifestations of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the two different types of pulmonary manifestations in acute plasmodium falciparum malaria. The more severe variant shows long standing interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, whereas in the more benign courses only short-term pulmonary edemas are visible. (orig.)

  10. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most current news and updates from the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation. Life with PF Education & Support About PF ... LEARN MORE We Imagine a World Without Pulmonary Fibrosis The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation mobilizes people and resources ...

  11. Pulmonary manifestations of malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauber, K.; Enkerlin, H.L.; Riemann, H.; Schoeppe, W.

    1987-05-01

    We report on the two different types of pulmonary manifestations in acute plasmodium falciparum malaria. The more severe variant shows long standing interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, whereas in the more benign courses only short-term pulmonary edemas are visible.

  12. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Explore Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis What Is... How the Lungs Work Other Names Causes Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics How the Lungs Work Lung Transplant Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary Rehabilitation Respiratory Failure ...

  13. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Treated? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has no cure. However, ... Types of Pulmonary Hypertension." ) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) includes PH ...

  14. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid KHOSROSHAHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Khosroshahi N, Alizadeh P, Khosravi M, Salamati P, Kamrani K. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:31-36.AbstractObjectiveAltered mental status is a common cause of intensive care unit admission inchildren. Differentiating structural causes of altered mental status from metabolic etiologies is of utmost importance in diagnostic approach and management of the patients. Among many biomarkers proposed to help stratifying patients with altered mental status, spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase appears to be the most promising biomarker to predict cellular necrosis.Materials & MethodsIn this cross sectional study we measured spinal fluid level of lactatedehydrogenase in children 2 months to 12 years of age admitted to a single center intensive care unit over one year. Spinal fluid level of lactate dehydrogenase in 40 pediatric cases of febrile seizure was also determined as the control group.ResultsThe study group included 35 boys (58.3% and 25 girls (41.7%. Their meanage was 2.7+/-3 years and their mean spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase levelwas 613.8+/-190.4 units/liter. The control group included 24 boys (55.8% and19 girls (44.2%. Their mean age was 1.3+/-1.2 years and their mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level was 18.9+/-7.5 units/liter. The mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level in children with abnormal head CT scan was246.3+/-351.5 units/liter compared to 164.5+/-705.7 in those with normal CTscan of the head (p=0.001.ConclusionSpinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level is useful in differentiating structural andmetabolic causes of altered mental status in children. ReferencesFesk SK. Coma and confusional states: emergency diagnosis and management. Neurol Clin 1998; 16: 237- 56.Cucchiara BL, Kanser SE, Wolk DA, et al. Early impairment in consciousness Predicts

  15. Pulmonary fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeannina A; Kauffman, Carol A

    2012-08-01

    This review details some of the advances that have been made in the recent decade in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of pulmonary fungal infections. These advances have occurred because of increasing knowledge regarding the fungal genome, better understanding of the structures of the fungal cell wall and cell membrane and the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. The clinical implications of these advances are more rapid diagnosis and more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. For example, the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment of angioinvasive moulds has improved with the introduction of the new azoles, voriconazole and posaconazole that have broad antifungal activity. Amphotericin B is less frequently used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity. The newest agents, the echinocandins, are especially safe as they interfere with the metabolism of the fungal cell wall, a structure not shared with humans cells. Epidemiological advances include the description of the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in North America and the increase in pulmonary mucormycosis and pneumonia due to Fusarium and Scedosporium species in transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. The emergence of azole resistance among Aspergillus species is especially worrisome and is likely related to increased azole use for treatment of patients, but also to agricultural use of azoles as fungicides in certain countries. PMID:22335254

  16. Lung Cancer in Pulmonary Fibrosis: Tales of Epithelial Cell Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Königshoff, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Lung epithelial cells exhibit a high degree of plasticity. Alterations to lung epithelial cell function are critically involved in several chronic lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by repetitive injury and subsequent impaired repair of epithelial cells, which leads to aberrant growth factor activation and fibroblast accumulation. Increased proliferation and hyper- and metaplasia of epithelial cells upon injury have also been observed in pulmonary fi...

  17. Pulmonary surfactants and their role in pathophysiology of lung disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Aparna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant is an agent that decreases the surface tension between two media. The surface tension between gaseous-aqueous interphase in the lungs is decreased by the presence of a thin layer of fluid known as pulmonary surfactant. The pulmonary surfactant is produced by the alveolar type-II (AT-II) cells of the lungs. It is essential for efficient exchange of gases and for maintaining the structural integrity of alveoli. Surfactant is a secretory product, composed of lipids and proteins. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol are the major lipid constituents and SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D are four types of surfactant associated proteins. The lipid and protein components are synthesized separately and are packaged into the lamellar bodies in the AT-II cells. Lamellar bodies are the main organelle for the synthesis and metabolism of surfactants. The synthesis, secretion and recycling of the surfactant lipids and proteins is regulated by complex genetic and metabolic mechanisms. The lipid-protein interaction is very important for the structural organization of surfactant monolayer and its functioning. Alterations in surfactant homeostasis or biophysical properties can result in surfactant insufficiency which may be responsible for diseases like respiratory distress syndrome, lung proteinosis, interstitial lung diseases and chronic lung diseases. The biochemical, physiological, developmental and clinical aspects of pulmonary surfactant are presented in this article to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases. PMID:23441475

  18. Time-Dependent Confounding in the Study of the Effects of Regular Physical Activity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Application of the Marginal Structural Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Lange, Peter; Serra, Ignasi; Schnohr, Peter; Antó, Josep M

    2008-01-01

    type of confounding. We sought to assess the presence of time-dependent confounding in the association between physical activity and COPD development and course by comparing risk estimates between standard statistical methods and MSMs. METHODS: By using the population-based cohort Copenhagen City Heart......PURPOSE: Results from longitudinal studies about the association between physical activity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may have been biased because they did not properly adjust for time-dependent confounders. Marginal structural models (MSMs) have been proposed to address this...... Study, 6,568 subjects selected from the general population in 1976 were followed up until 2004 with three repeated examinations. RESULTS: Moderate to high compared with low physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of developing COPD both in the standard analysis (odds ratio [OR] 0.76, p = 0...

  19. Development of computational algorithms for quantification of pulmonary structures; Desenvolvimento de algoritmos computacionais para quantificacao de estruturas pulmonares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcela de; Alvarez, Matheus; Alves, Allan F.F.; Miranda, Jose R.A., E-mail: marceladeoliveira@ig.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Pina, Diana R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2012-12-15

    The high-resolution computed tomography has become the imaging diagnostic exam most commonly used for the evaluation of the squeals of Paracoccidioidomycosis. The subjective evaluations the radiological abnormalities found on HRCT images do not provide an accurate quantification. The computer-aided diagnosis systems produce a more objective assessment of the abnormal patterns found in HRCT images. Thus, this research proposes the development of algorithms in MATLAB® computing environment can quantify semi-automatically pathologies such as pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. The algorithm consists in selecting a region of interest (ROI), and by the use of masks, filter densities and morphological operators, to obtain a quantification of the injured area to the area of a healthy lung. The proposed method was tested on ten HRCT scans of patients with confirmed PCM. The results of semi-automatic measurements were compared with subjective evaluations performed by a specialist in radiology, falling to a coincidence of 80% for emphysema and 58% for fibrosis. (author)

  20. Pulmonary Hypertension in Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Granulomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Held; Philipp Schnabel; Arne Warth; Berthold Jany

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis is a rare disease with a variable course. In pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis pulmonary hypertension is frequent and has an independent prognostic impact. A vasculopathy which ist not related to ventilatory disturbance and fibrosis has been identified. An arteriopathy and even a venulopathy have been described. Due to this possible venulopathy vasodilators carry a significant risk for pulmonary congestion and edema. No drugs have ...

  1. [Pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söffker, Gerold; Kluge, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is an important differential diagnosis of acute chest pain. The clinical signs are often non-specific. However, diagnosis and therapy must be done quickly in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. The new (2014) European guidelines for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) focus on risk-adapted diagnostic algorithms and prognosis adapted therapy concepts. According to the hemodynamic presentation the division in a high-risk group (unstable patient with persistent hypotension or shock) or in non-high-risk groups (hemodynamically stable) was proposed. In the high-risk group the immediate diagnosis is usually done by multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) and primarily the medical therapy of right ventricular dysfunction and thrombolysis is recommended.In the non-high-risk group, this is subdivided into an intermediate-risk group and low-risk group, the diagnosis algorithm based on the PE-pretest probability--determined by validated scores. Moreover, the diagnosis is usually secured by MDCT--the new gold standard in the PE-diagnosis, scores, or it can be primarily ruled out due to the high negative predictive value of D-dimer determination. To improve the prognostic risk stratification in non-high-risk group patients the additional detection of right ventricular dysfunction (MDCT, echocardiography), cardiac biomarkers (troponin, NT proBNP) and validated scores (e.g. Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index) is recommended. Therefore, the intermediate-risk group can be further subdivided. For treatment of non-high-risk group patients, the initial anticoagulation (except those with severe renal insufficiency) using low molecular weight heparin/fondaparinux and conversion to vitamin-K antagonists or alternatively with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAK) is recommended. Hemodynamically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction and myocardial ischemia (Intermediate-high-risk group patients) but with clinically progressive hemodynamic

  2. Cell Transformation and Proteome Alteration in QSG7701 Cells Transfected with Hepatitis C Virus Non-structural Protein 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiongqiong HE; Deyun FENG; Ruixue CHENG; Zhuchu CHEN; Xuxian XIAO; Zhiqiang XIAO; Cui LI; Bo LI; Pengfei ZHANG; Hui ZHENG

    2007-01-01

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can cause liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-structural protein 3 (NS3), an important part of HCV, has been implicated in the life cycle of the virus and interacts with host cellular proteins. In this study, we investigated the effect of NS3 protein on cell tranformation and related protein alteration in human hepatocyte QSG7701 cells. The results indicated that stable expression of the NS3 protein in QSG7701 cells induced transformed characters with reduced population doubling time, anchorage-independent growth and tumor development. Fifteen differentially-expressed proteins were separated and identified using 2-D electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis confirmed that the increase of phospho-p44/42 and phospho-p38 proteins was associated with transformed cells. These results supported the view that HCV NS3 protein plays a transforming role and provided some clues to elucidate the carcinogenesis mechanism of HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. Low concentrations, potential ecological consequences: Synthetic estrogens alter life-history and demographic structures of aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contraceptive drugs are nowadays found in aquatic environments around the globe. Particularly, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) may act even at low concentrations, such as those recorded in natural ecosystems. We evaluated the physiological effects of EE2 on cyclopoids and calanoids, common copepods in both marine and freshwater communities. We used three EE2 concentrations and assessed its impact on activity of different physiological endpoints: Acetylcholinesterase (neurotransmission), Glutathione S-transferase (detoxifying system), and Caspase-3 (apoptosis). While EE2 exerts, distinctive effect on detoxifying and apoptotic systems, no effect on AChE was observed at environmental doses. Our results show that EE2 exposure affects differently copepod physiology endpoints, altering moulting process, adult recruitment in calanoids and calanoid to cyclopoid ratio. The ecological consequences of this underlying physiological process may affect since life history to population and community structures, and this represent a new aspects of this xenobiotic in natural systems. Highlights: •We evaluated physiological effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on copepods. •We measured the EE2 effect on neurotransmission, detoxifying system and apoptosis. •EE2 exert distinctive effect on detoxifying and apoptotic systems. •EE2 affects differently calanoids and cyclopoids moulting and adult recruitment. •Physiological impact in invertebrates' communities is a novel aspect of EE2 effects. -- Anthropogenic estrogens modify the physiological functioning of aquatic invertebrates

  4. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-02-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control.

  5. Potential for large-bodied zooplankton and dreissenids to alter the productivity and autotrophic structure of lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Scott N; Althouse, B; Devlin, S P; Vadeboncoeur, Y; Vander Zanden, M J

    2014-08-01

    While limnological studies have emphasized the importance of grazers on algal biomass and primary production in pelagic habitats, few studies have examined their potential role in altering total ecosystem primary production and it's partitioning between pelagic and benthic habitats. We modified an existing ecosystem production model to include biotic feedbacks associated with two groups of large-bodied grazers of phytoplankton (large-bodied zooplankton and dreissenid mussels) and estimated their effects on total ecosystem production (TEP), and the partitioning of TEP between phytoplankton and periphyton (autotrophic structure) across large gradients in lake size and total phosphorus (TP) concentration. Model results indicated that these filter feeders were capable of reducing whole-lake phytoplankton production by 20-70%, and increasing whole-lake benthic production between 0% and 600%. Grazer effects on TEP were constrained by lake size, trophic status, and potential feedbacks between grazing and maximum rates of benthic photosynthesis (BP(MAX)). In small (mean depth Z 100 m), Bf was minor (< 10%) in the presence or absence of grazers, but increases in littoral habitat and the stimulation of benthic production in these ecosystems could be of ecological relevance because littoral zones in large lakes contain a relatively high proportion of within-lake biodiversity and are important for whole-lake food webs. PMID:25230476

  6. Expression of store-operated Ca2+ entry and transient receptor potential canonical and vanilloid-related proteins in rat distal pulmonary venous smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Gongyong; Lu, Wenju; LI, XIAOYAN; Chen, Yuqin; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin; Wang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia causes remodeling and alters contractile responses in both pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins. Although pulmonary arteries have been studied extensively in these disorders, the mechanisms by which pulmonary veins respond to hypoxia and whether these responses contribute to chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension remain poorly understood. In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle, we have previously demonstrated that influx of Ca2+ through store-operated calcium channels (SOCC) th...

  7. Relation of Carlin-type gold mineralization to lithology, structure and alteration: Screamer zone, Betze-Post deposit, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zaojun; Kesler, Stephen E.; Essene, Eric J.; Zohar, Pamela B.; Borhauer, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    An evaluation of the relation between geologic features and gold grade has been undertaken in the Screamer zone of the Betze-Post deposit, the largest Carlin-type gold deposit in the world. Screamer, which forms the western end of Betze-Post, is a stratiform ore zone that is hosted almost entirely by the wispy member of the Popovich Formation. The wispy member is overlain by the planar member of the same formation and underlain by the Roberts Mountains Formation, both of which contain much smaller amounts of gold mineralization in the Screamer zone. Geologic features recognized at Screamer reflect the long history of events that have affected the area since mid-Paleozoic time. The two earliest events at Screamer were probably sulfidation and formation of flat fractures, and the two latest events were pyritization and formation of kaolinite-filled fractures, which took place at least partly during gold mineralization. Gold mineralization at Screamer shows ambiguous relations to most lithologic, alteration and structural features. For instance, gold grades in the wispy member of the Popovich Formation are slightly higher in rock units that contain the largest proportion of debris flow material, but this relation does not account for most ore. The correlation of gold grades with fracture density is also generally poor, but gold grades are slightly higher in samples containing vertical and/or kaolinite-bearing fractures, particularly those with a northeasterly trend. Most early veins at Screamer are horizontal and most later veins are vertical, suggesting that the long-term trend of fluid pressures in the area has been from lithostatic to hydrostatic. Finally, gold grades correlate poorly with silicification and decarbonatization, and although some gold appears to be associated with rock containing kaolinite, much is not. The only rock feature that shows a direct relation to gold grade is pyrite. Some pyrite formed by sulfidation of the original rock, but much of it

  8. Pulmonary Langerhans cell Histiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, S; Comel, A

    2001-10-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell Histiocytosis is a rare granulomatous disease affecting both sexes, with greater incidence in the second and third decades of life; smoking appears to be the most important risk factor. Its etiology is unknown, although there are data indicating an uncontrolled immune response as possible cause, sustained by the Langerhans cells, antigen presenting cells for T lymphocytes, and their accumulation in the distal bronchioles; these cells express on their surface the CD1a and CD1c antigens, and the B7 molecule, essential for activating quiescent T lymphocytes. In its evolution the granuloma is characterized by the progressive reduction in the LC number, with the increase of fibrosis, surrounding and destroying the bronchiolar lumen; the remaining of the lumen, or the traction exerted by fibrous tissue on the adjacent alveolar spaces leads to the cyst development. Vascular involvement occurs frequently, and may explain the onset of pulmonary hypertension in advanced cases of the disease. The disease may be asymptomatic, or it may present with aspecific respiratory signs and symptoms, and has characteristic radiological findings, being included in the group of cysticaerial parenchymal alterations. The diagnosis could be suggested by the finding of a number of LC in BAL greater than 5%. Different therapies have been proposed, but it seems that the most important measure is smoking cessation. PMID:11587096

  9. Structural Alterations of Segmented Macular Inner Layers in Aquaporin4-Antibody-Positive Optic Neuritis Patients in a Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia Peng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the structural injury of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL and segmented macular layers in optic neuritis (ON in aquaporin4-antibody (AQP4-Ab seropositivity(AQP4-Ab-positiveON patients and in AQP4-Ab seronegativity (AQP4-Ab-negative ON patients in order to evaluate their correlations with the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and the value of the early diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO.This is a retrospective, cross-sectional and control observational study.In total, 213 ON patients (291 eyes and 50 healthy controls (HC (100 eyes were recruited in this study. According to a serum AQP4-Ab assay, 98 ON patients (132 eyes were grouped as AQP4-Ab-positive ON and 115 ON patients (159 eyes were grouped as AQP4-Ab-negative ON cohorts. All subjects underwent scanning with spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT and BCVA tests. pRNFL and segmented macular layer measurements were analysed.The pRNFL thickness in AQP4-Ab-positive ON eyes showed a more serious loss during 0-2 months (-27.61μm versus -14.47 μm and ≥6 months (-57.91μm versus -47.19μm when compared with AQP4-Ab-negative ON eyes. AQP4-Ab-positive ON preferentially damaged the nasal lateral pRNFL. The alterations in the macular ganglion cell layer plus the inner plexiform layer (GCIP in AQP4-Ab-positive ON eyes were similar to those in AQP4-Ab-negative ON eyes. AQP4-Ab-positive ON eyes had entirely different injury patterns in the inner nuclear layer (INL compared with AQP4-Ab-negative ON eyes during the first 6 months after the initial ON attack. These differences were as follows: the INL volume of AQP4-Ab-positive ON eyes had a gradual growing trend compared with AQP4-Ab-negative ON eyes, and it increased rapidly during 0-2 months, reached its peak during 2-4 months, and then decreased gradually. The pRNFL and GCIP in AQP4-Ab-positive ON eyes had positive correlations with BCVA. When the pRNFL thickness decreased to 95%CI (50.77

  10. Pulmonary embolism and pulmonary infarction; Lungenembolie und Lungeninfarkt - pathologische Anatomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.M.; Mueller, A.M. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie]|[Bochum Univ. (Germany). Universitaetsklinikum

    1998-03-01

    Radiological and nuclear medical evaluation of pulmonary embolisms and their consequences is often problematic, since parenchymal alterations in the form of possible pulmonary infarctions occur in only 10-15% after vessel obliteration. Small embolisms rather frequently cause hemorrhagic pulmonary infarctions, which can clinically be demonstrated by radiological and nuclear medical methods, after obliteration of the pre-capillary arterio-arterial anastomoses type I. In pre-existing chronic lung diseases with often markedly developed bronchial artery systems and additional anastomoses hemorrhagic pulmonary infarctions are extremely rare. Thus, today, radiological and nuclear medical studies, such as spiral computer scanning, have to rely largely on the results of thrombembolic vessel obstruction and transitory perfusion deficits and less on parenchymal infiltration patterns. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Die radiologischen und nuklearmedizinischen Begutachtungen von Lungenembolien und deren Folgen sind oft problematisch, weil Parenchymveraenderungen in Form moeglicher Lungeninfarkte in nur 10-15% nach der Gefaessverlegung entstehen. Kleine Embolien fuehren haeufiger zu haemorrhagischen Lungeninfarkten, die mit radiologischen und nukelarmedizinischen Verfahren fassbar werden. Bei vorbestehenden chronischen Lungenerkrankungen mit meist verstaerkt ausgebautem Bronchialartheriensystem und zusaetzlichen Anatomosen sind haemorrhagische Lungeninfarkte besonders selten. Die radiologische und nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik muss sich daher heute nach vielversprechenden Studien, z.B. unter Einsatz der Spiralcomputertomographie, wesentlich auf die Befunde der thrombembolischen Gefaessobstruktion und transitorische Perfusionsausfaelle und weniger auf parenchymatoese Infiltratmuster stuetzen. (orig./MG)

  11. [Pulmonary circulation in embolic pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanotskaia, N V; Polikarpov, V V; Matsievskiĭ, D D

    1989-02-01

    The ultrasonic method was used in acute experiments on cats with open chest under artificial lung ventilation to obtain blood flow in low-lobar pulmonary artery and vein, the blood pressure in pulmonary artery, as well as the left atrial pressure in fat (olive oil) and mechanical (Lycopodium spores) pulmonary embolism. It is shown that pulmonary embolism produces the decrease in the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein, the increase of the pressure in pulmonary artery and left atria, the increase of lung vessels resistance. The decrease is observed of systemic arterial pressure, bradycardia, and extrasystole. After 5-10 min the restoration of arterial pressure and heart rhythm occur and partial restoration of blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. In many experiments the blood flow in vein outdoes that in the artery--it allows to suppose the increase of the blood flow in bronchial artery. After 60-90 min there occur sudden decrease of systemic arterial pressure, the decrease of the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. The pressure in pulmonary artery and resistance of pulmonary vessels remain high. Pulmonary edema developed in all animals. The death occurs in 60-100 min after the beginning of embolism. PMID:2923969

  12. Functional pulmonary atresia in newborn with normal intracardiac anatomy: Successful treatment with inhaled nitric oxide and pulmonary vasodilators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürkan Altun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional pulmonary atresia is characterized by a structurally normal pulmonary valve that does not open during right ventricular ejection. It is usually associated with Ebstein′s anomaly, Uhl′s anomaly, neonatal Marfan syndrome and tricuspid valve dysplasia. However, functional pulmonary atresia is rarely reported in newborn with anatomically normal heart. We report a newborn with functional pulmonary atresia who had normal intracardiac anatomy, who responded to treatment with nitric oxide and other vasodilator therapy successfully.

  13. Apelin and pulmonary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Uggerhøj; Hilberg, Ole; Mellemkjær, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary arterial remodeling, abnormal angiogenesis and impaired right ventricular function. Despite progress in pharmacological therapy, there is still no cure for PAH. The peptide apelin...... vasoconstriction, and has positive inotropic and cardioprotective effects. Apelin attenuates vasoconstriction in isolated rat pulmonary arteries, and chronic treatment with apelin attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in animal models. The existing literature thus renders APLNR an interesting...

  14. Evidence that disease-induced population decline changes genetic structure and alters dispersal patterns in the Tasmanian devil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachish, S; Miller, K J; Storfer, A; Goldizen, A W; Jones, M E

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease has been shown to be a major cause of population declines in wild animals. However, there remains little empirical evidence on the genetic consequences of disease-mediated population declines, or how such perturbations might affect demographic processes such as dispersal. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) has resulted in the rapid decline of the Tasmanian devil, Sarcophilus harrisii, and threatens to cause extinction. Using 10 microsatellite DNA markers, we compared genetic diversity and structure before and after DFTD outbreaks in three Tasmanian devil populations to assess the genetic consequences of disease-induced population decline. We also used both genetic and demographic data to investigate dispersal patterns in Tasmanian devils along the east coast of Tasmania. We observed a significant increase in inbreeding (F(IS) pre/post-disease -0.030/0.012, Pdevil populations after just 2-3 generations of disease arrival, but no detectable change in genetic diversity. Furthermore, although there was no subdivision apparent among pre-disease populations (θ=0.005, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.003 to 0.017), we found significant genetic differentiation among populations post-disease (θ=0.020, 0.010-0.027), apparently driven by a combination of selection and altered dispersal patterns of females in disease-affected populations. We also show that dispersal is male-biased in devils and that dispersal distances follow a typical leptokurtic distribution. Our results show that disease can result in genetic and demographic changes in host populations over few generations and short time scales. Ongoing management of Tasmanian devils must now attempt to maintain genetic variability in this species through actions designed to reverse the detrimental effects of inbreeding and subdivision in disease-affected populations. PMID:20216571

  15. Feasibility study into the use of mechanical choppers to alter the natural time structure of the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospect of extending static x-ray measurements into the time domain is an exciting one indeed. The foundations for this extension have already been laid by some very innovative experiments performed at existing storage ring sources. The enormous enhancement in brilliance that the APS will afford over existing sources will, I believe, foster a tremendous growth in the area of time-resolved x-ray experimentation. The growing interest in this field is evidenced by both the number of participants and their enthusiasm at an APS Workshop on Time-Resolved Studies and Ultrafast Detectors held on January 25-26, 1988, at Argonne. We present here what may be a viable approach to the problem of altering the natural time structure of the APS with a minimal impact on other users. Our technique involves placing 19 of the 20 circulating bunches of positrons in (nearly) contiguous RF buckets and the remaining one bunch 180 degrees around the ring from this pack. The method we are advocating has several advantages over other schemes (such as wobblers) in that it is a passive technique: there are no external forces on the particle beam to destroy its stability, emittance, or lifetime properties, and it will not limit the total number of bunches in the beam to one (or a few) in order to get long dark periods between x-ray bursts. In this configuaration is should be possible to transmit the lone bunch and mechanically shutter the remaining 19 bunches with a chopper running at approximately 18,000 RPM. Although high, such revolution frequencies are achieved in neutron choppers which are generally much more massive than what is envisioned for an x-ray chopper

  16. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary vaso-occlusive disease ... common among children and young adults. As the disease gets worse, it causes narrowed pulmonary veins, pulmonary artery hypertension , and congestion and swelling ...

  17. Pulmonary kinematics from image data: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustison, Nicholas J; Cook, Tessa S; Song, Gang; Gee, James C

    2011-04-01

    The effects of certain lung pathologies include alterations in lung physiology negatively affecting pulmonary compliance. Current approaches to diagnosis and treatment assessment of lung disease commonly rely on pulmonary function testing. Such testing is limited to global measures of lung function, neglecting regional measurements, which are critical for early diagnosis and localization of disease. Increased accessibility to medical image acquisition strategies with high spatiotemporal resolution coupled with the development of sophisticated intensity-based and geometric registration techniques has resulted in the recent exploration of modeling pulmonary motion for calculating local measures of deformation. In this review, the authors provide a broad overview of such research efforts for the estimation of pulmonary deformation. This includes discussion of various techniques, current trends in validation approaches, and the public availability of software and data resources. PMID:21377592

  18. Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Based-Microparticles for Peptide Pulmonary Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewes, Frederic; Gobbo, Oliviero L; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie

    2016-01-20

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is known to interact with proteins, for example, in biogenic ACC, to form stable amorphous phases. The control of amorphous/crystalline and inorganic/organic ratios in inhalable calcium carbonate microparticles may enable particle properties to be adapted to suit the requirements of dry powders for pulmonary delivery by oral inhalation. For example, an amorphous phase can immobilize and stabilize polypeptides in their native structure and amorphous and crystalline phases have different mechanical properties. Therefore, inhalable composite microparticles made of inorganic (i.e., calcium carbonate and calcium formate) and organic (i.e., hyaluronan (HA)) amorphous and crystalline phases were investigated for peptide and protein pulmonary aerosol delivery. The crystalline/amorphous ratio and polymorphic form of the inorganic component was altered by changing the microparticle drying rate and by changing the ammonium carbonate and HA initial concentration. The bioactivity of the model peptide, salmon calcitonin (sCT), coprocessed with alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), a model protein with peptidase inhibitor activity, was maintained during processing and the microparticles had excellent aerodynamic properties, making them suitable for pulmonary aerosol delivery. The bioavailability of sCT after aerosol delivery as sCT and AAT-loaded composite microparticles to rats was 4-times higher than that of sCT solution. PMID:26692360

  19. 55th Bowditch Lecture: Effects of chronic hypoxia on the pulmonary circulation: Role of HIF-1

    OpenAIRE

    Shimoda, Larissa A.

    2012-01-01

    When exposed to chronic hypoxia (CH), the pulmonary circulation responds with enhanced contraction and vascular remodeling, resulting in elevated pulmonary arterial pressures. Our work has identified CH-induced alterations in the expression and activity of several ion channels and transporters in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle that contribute to the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and uncovered a critical role for the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in ...

  20. Magmatic-vapor expansion and the formation of high-sulfidation gold deposits: Structural controls on hydrothermal alteration and ore mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, B.R.; Henley, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    High-sulfidation copper-gold lode deposits such as Chinkuashih, Taiwan, Lepanto, Philippines, and Goldfield, Nevada, formed within 1500. m of the paleosurface in volcanic terranes. All underwent an early stage of extensive advanced argillic silica-alunite alteration followed by an abrupt change to spatially much more restricted stages of fracture-controlled sulfide-sulfosalt mineral assemblages and gold-silver mineralization. The alteration as well as ore mineralization stages of these deposits were controlled by the dynamics and history of syn-hydrothermal faulting. At the Sulfate Stage, aggressive advanced argillic alteration and silicification were consequent on the in situ formation of acidic condensate from magmatic vapor as it expanded through secondary fracture networks alongside active faults. The reduction of permeability at this stage due to alteration decreased fluid flow to the surface, and progressively developed a barrier between magmatic-vapor expansion constrained by the active faults and peripheral hydrothermal activity dominated by hot-water flow. In conjunction with the increased rock strength resulting from alteration, subsequent fault-slip inversion in response to an increase in compressional stress generated new, highly permeable fractures localized by the embrittled, altered rock. The new fractures focused magmatic-vapor expansion with much lower heat loss so that condensation occurred. Sulfide Stage sulfosalt, sulfide, and gold-silver deposition then resulted from destabilization of vapor phase metal species due to vapor decompression through the new fracture array. The switch from sulfate to sulfide assemblages is, therefore, a logical consequence of changes in structural permeability due to the coupling of alteration and fracture dynamics rather than to changes in the chemistry of the fluid phase at its magmatic source. ?? 2010.

  1. The role of nitric oxide synthases in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Nirmal

    2009-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality with a high socioeconomic burden worldwide. The contribution of vascular alterations to the pathogenesis of the disease remains controversial and there is still ongoing debate about the possible development of pulmonary hypertension in COPD. Against this background, the current thesis aimed to decipher the time course for the development of lung emphysema as well as vascular alterations to the pulmonary ...

  2. The mutational spectrum of holoprosencephaly-associated changes within the SHH gene in humans predicts loss-of-function through either key structural alterations of the ligand or its altered synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Erich; El-Jaick, Kenia B; Dubourg, Christèle; Vélez, Jorge I; Solomon, Benjamin D; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E; Lacbawan, Felicitas; Zhou, Nan; Ouspenskaia, Maia; Paulussen, Aimée; Smeets, Hubert J; Hehr, Ute; Bendavid, Claude; Bale, Sherri; Odent, Sylvie; David, Véronique; Muenke, Maximilian

    2009-10-01

    Mutations within either the SHH gene or its related pathway components are the most common, and best understood, pathogenetic changes observed in holoprosencephaly patients; this fact is consistent with the essential functions of this gene during forebrain development and patterning. Here we summarize the nature and types of deleterious sequence alterations among over one hundred distinct mutations in the SHH gene (64 novel mutations) and compare these to over a dozen mutations in disease-related Hedgehog family members IHH and DHH. This combined structural analysis suggests that dysfunction of Hedgehog signaling in human forebrain development can occur through truncations or major structural changes to the signaling domain, SHH-N, as well as due to defects in the processing of the mature ligand from its pre-pro-precursor or defective post-translation bi-lipid modifications with palmitate and cholesterol. PMID:19603532

  3. Radiologic manifestation of pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis is an uncommon granulomatous disorder of unknown cause. The authors retrospectively evaluated radiography and computed tomographic findings of five patients with biopsy proven pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. The main structural abnormalities consisted of small nodules and cystic air spaces, but one cases showed only pneumothorax due to bullae rupture. Its distribution has been known predominantly in the upper lung fields, but in our cases, the lung lesions were distributed in the entire lung fields or predominently in the lower lung fields. We propose that pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis is extremely variable of its structural abnormalities and distribution

  4. Long-term signal of population disturbance after pulse exposure to an insecticide: rapid recovery of abundance, persistent alteration of structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liess, Matthias; Pieters, Barry Johan; Duquesne, Sabine

    2006-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of pulse exposure to toxicants on populations when density regulation is present. Yet, for a more realistic risk assessment, it is necessary to include effect and recovery at the population level. Here, we investigate the long-term and delayed effects as well as the subsequent recovery of populations of Daphnia magna. A 24-h pulse of the pyrethroid fenvalerate reduced the abundance at a concentration of 1.0 microg/L and higher. However, abundance recovered and reached control levels after one to two generation times (GTs) following reproduction of surviving individuals (GT = 8 d, from birth until first reproduction). At high concentrations above the acute median lethal concentration (3.2 micorg/L), abundance initially decreased even more strongly but was then elevated compared to control values for an extended period of time. Population structure (size distribution) was affected at lower concentrations than abundance (> 0.8 microg/L). In addition, the alteration of population structure lasted for a long time, so that control levels were approached only after approximately six or seven GTs. Our results show that pulse exposure to toxicants may lead to a long-term alteration of population structure even at sublethal concentrations. Possible mechanisms that sustain the effects of toxicants may be delayed life-history effects on the individual level and elevated competition because of altered population structure on the population level. PMID:16704065

  5. Structural alterations of the coronary arterial wall are associated with myocardial flow heterogeneity in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Thomas H. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Moelecular and Medical Pharmacology, Radiological Science]|[University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Center, Nuclear Cardiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Facta, Alvaro D.; Prior, John O.; Cadenas, Jerson; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Sayre, James; Goldin, Jonathan; Schelbert, Heinrich R. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Moelecular and Medical Pharmacology, Radiological Science; Li, Yanjie [University of Southern California, Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    To determine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and during vasomotor stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In 68 individuals, carotid IMT was measured using high-resolution vascular ultrasound, while the presence of CAC was determined with electron beam tomography (EBT). Global and regional MBF was determined in milliliters per gram per minute with {sup 13}N-ammonia and positron emission tomography (PET) at rest, during cold pressor testing (CPT), and during adenosine (ADO) stimulation. There was neither a relationship between carotid IMT and CAC (r = 0.10, p = 0.32) nor between carotid IMT and coronary circulatory function in response to CPT and during ADO (r = -0.18, p = 0.25 and r = 0.10, p = 0.54, respectively). In 33 individuals, EBT detected CAC with a mean Agatston-derived calcium score of 44 {+-} 18. There was a significant difference in regional MBFs between territories with and without CAC at rest and during ADO-stimulated hyperemia (0.69 {+-} 0.24 vs. 0.74 {+-} 0.23 and 1.82 {+-} 0.50 vs. 1.95 {+-} 0.51 ml/g/min; p {<=} 0.05, respectively) and also during CPT in DM but less pronounced (0.81 {+-} 0.24 vs. 0.83 {+-} 0.23 ml/g/min; p = ns). The increase in CAC was paralleled with a progressive regional decrease in resting as well as in CPT- and ADO-related MBFs (r = -0.36, p {<=} 0.014; r = -0.46, p {<=} 0.007; and r = -0.33, p {<=} 0.041, respectively). The absence of any correlation between carotid IMT and coronary circulatory function in type 2 DM suggests different features and stages of early atherosclerosis in the peripheral and coronary circulation. PET-measured MBF heterogeneity at rest and during vasomotor stress may reflect downstream fluid dynamic effects of coronary artery disease (CAD)-related early structural alterations of the arterial wall. (orig.)

  6. Structural alterations of foreskin caused by chronic smoking may explain high levels of urethral reconstruction failure using foreskin flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. Rosado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to perform a stereological and biochemical analysis of the foreskin of smoker subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Foreskin samples were obtained from 20 young adults (mean = 27.2 years old submitted to circumcision. Of the patients analyzed, one group (n = 10 had previous history of chronic smoking (a half pack to 3 packs per day for 3 to 13 years (mean = 5.8 ± 3.2. The control group included 10 nonsmoking patients. Masson's trichrome stain was used to quantify the foreskin vascular density. Weigert’s resorcin-fucsin stain was used to assess the elastic system fibers and Picrosirius red stain was applied to study the collagen. Stereological analysis was performed using the Image J software to determine the volumetric densities. For biochemical analysis, the total collagen was determined as µg of hydroxyproline per mg of dry tissue. Means were compared using the unpaired t-test (p < 0.05. RESULTS: Elastic system fibers of smokers was 42.5% higher than in the control group (p = 0.002. In contrast, smooth muscle fibers (p = 0.42 and vascular density (p = 0.16 did not show any significant variation. Qualitative analysis using Picrosirius red stain with polarized light evidenced the presence of type I and III collagen in the foreskin tissue, without significant difference between the groups. Total collagen concentration also did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (73.1µg/mg ± 8.0 vs. 69.2µg/mg ± 5.9, respectively, p = 0.23. CONCLUSIONS: The foreskin tissue of smoking patients had a significant increase of elastic system fibers. Elastic fibers play an important role in this tissue’s turnover and this high concentration in smokers possibly causes high extensibility of the foreskin. The structural alterations in smokers’ foreskins could possibly explain the poor results in smoking patients submitted to foreskin fasciocutaneous flaps in urethral reconstruction surgery.

  7. Structural alterations of the coronary arterial wall are associated with myocardial flow heterogeneity in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and during vasomotor stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In 68 individuals, carotid IMT was measured using high-resolution vascular ultrasound, while the presence of CAC was determined with electron beam tomography (EBT). Global and regional MBF was determined in milliliters per gram per minute with 13N-ammonia and positron emission tomography (PET) at rest, during cold pressor testing (CPT), and during adenosine (ADO) stimulation. There was neither a relationship between carotid IMT and CAC (r = 0.10, p = 0.32) nor between carotid IMT and coronary circulatory function in response to CPT and during ADO (r = -0.18, p = 0.25 and r = 0.10, p = 0.54, respectively). In 33 individuals, EBT detected CAC with a mean Agatston-derived calcium score of 44 ± 18. There was a significant difference in regional MBFs between territories with and without CAC at rest and during ADO-stimulated hyperemia (0.69 ± 0.24 vs. 0.74 ± 0.23 and 1.82 ± 0.50 vs. 1.95 ± 0.51 ml/g/min; p ≤ 0.05, respectively) and also during CPT in DM but less pronounced (0.81 ± 0.24 vs. 0.83 ± 0.23 ml/g/min; p = ns). The increase in CAC was paralleled with a progressive regional decrease in resting as well as in CPT- and ADO-related MBFs (r = -0.36, p ≤ 0.014; r = -0.46, p ≤ 0.007; and r = -0.33, p ≤ 0.041, respectively). The absence of any correlation between carotid IMT and coronary circulatory function in type 2 DM suggests different features and stages of early atherosclerosis in the peripheral and coronary circulation. PET-measured MBF heterogeneity at rest and during vasomotor stress may reflect downstream fluid dynamic effects of coronary artery disease (CAD)-related early structural alterations of the arterial wall. (orig.)

  8. Giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a very unusual case of giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma presenting as a large solitary pulmonary mass. This was successfully managed with surgical resection. Histological examination revealed that the mass was positive for GLUT-1 receptor, a marker for infantile hemangioma. To our knowledge only a few cases of pulmonary hemangioma have been described previously in the literature. Pulmonary hemangiomas are very rare lesions, most of them presenting as a pulmonary mass. This case emphasizes the fact that this rare lesion should be considered in the differential of an enhancing pulmonary mass in an infant. (orig.)

  9. Pulmonary function in advanced pulmonary hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, C. M.; Glanville, A R; Morris, A J; Rubin, D.; Harvey, J. A.; Theodore, J; Robin, E. D.

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary mechanical function and gas exchange were studied in 33 patients with advanced pulmonary vascular disease, resulting from primary pulmonary hypertension in 18 cases and from Eisenmenger physiology in 15 cases. Evidence of airway obstruction was found in most patients. In addition, mean total lung capacity (TLC) was only 81.5% of predicted and 27% of our subjects had values of TLC less than one standard deviation below the mean predicted value. The mean value for transfer factor (TLC...

  10. Pulmonary Hyalinising Granuloma: A rare pulmonary disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary hyalinising granulomas are rare, non-infectious fibros lesions of the lung which can mimic metastatic disease. It was first described in literature by Engleman et al in the year 1977. Its etiology is unknown but they may be caused by an exaggerated immune response. The patient typically presents with cough, chest pain, dyspnoea or haemoptysis in association with multiple bilateral parenchymal nodules. We report the case of a 20 years old male who presented with a 12-month history of worsening dry cough. His plain chest radiograph and subsequent CT scan revealed bilateral pulmonary nodules. A CT guided biopsy of the pulmonary lesions was consistent with Pulmonary Hyalinising Granuloma [PHG].

  11. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.; Magnusson, S.P.; Oldberg, A.; Malmstrom, A.

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks...... of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated structures. Both iduronic acid blocks and iduronic acids surrounded by glucuronic acids are also decreased in...... versican-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We...

  12. EVALUATION OF STRUCTURAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN ASPERGILLUS TERREUS BY THE ACTION OF ANTIFUNGAL ANTIBIOTIC COMPOUND FROM STREPTOMYCES SP. JF714876

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanagare Shankaravva S.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal compound obtained by Streptomyces sp. JF714876 was examined for its effect on morphological and biochemical alteration in Aspergillus terreus. Microscopic observation revealed swelling of hyphae with deformation and distortion in mycelial structure in presence of moderate concentration of antifungal compound. At high concentration, the compound exhibited fungicidal action. Antifungal treated Aspergillus terreus showed changes in its biochemical content such as, protein, carbohydrates, peroxidase, catalase and amylase as compared to untreated.

  13. Prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol alters social behavior in adult rats: Relationship to structural plasticity and immediate early gene expression in frontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Derek A Hamilton; Akers, Katherine G.; Rice, James P.; Johnson, Travis E.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Maes, Levi I.; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to characterize the effects of prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol on adult social behavior, and to evaluate fetal-ethanol-related effects on dendritic morphology, structural plasticity and activity-related immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the agranular insular (AID) and prelimbic (Cg3) regions of frontal cortex. Baseline fetal-ethanol-related alterations in social behavior were limited to reductions in social investigation in males. Rep...

  14. Performance of a Natural Language Processing (NLP) Tool to Extract Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) Reports from Structured and Semistructured Veteran Affairs (VA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Brian C.; Jones, Barbara E.; Globe, Gary; Leng, Jianwei; Lu, Chao-Chin; He, Tao; Teng, Chia-Chen; Sullivan, Patrick; Zeng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction/Objective: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are objective estimates of lung function, but are not reliably stored within the Veteran Health Affairs data systems as structured data. The aim of this study was to validate the natural language processing (NLP) tool we developed—which extracts spirometric values and responses to bronchodilator administration—against expert review, and to estimate the number of additional spirometric tests identified beyond the structured data. Methods: All patients at seven Veteran Affairs Medical Centers with a diagnostic code for asthma Jan 1, 2006–Dec 31, 2012 were included. Evidence of spirometry with a bronchodilator challenge (BDC) was extracted from structured data as well as clinical documents. NLP’s performance was compared against a human reference standard using a random sample of 1,001 documents. Results: In the validation set NLP demonstrated a precision of 98.9 percent (95 percent confidence intervals (CI): 93.9 percent, 99.7 percent), recall of 97.8 percent (95 percent CI: 92.2 percent, 99.7 percent), and an F-measure of 98.3 percent for the forced vital capacity pre- and post pairs and precision of 100 percent (95 percent CI: 96.6 percent, 100 percent), recall of 100 percent (95 percent CI: 96.6 percent, 100 percent), and an F-measure of 100 percent for the forced expiratory volume in one second pre- and post pairs for bronchodilator administration. Application of the NLP increased the proportion identified with complete bronchodilator challenge by 25 percent. Discussion/Conclusion: This technology can improve identification of PFTs for epidemiologic research. Caution must be taken in assuming that a single domain of clinical data can completely capture the scope of a disease, treatment, or clinical test. PMID:27376095

  15. Sequences of a hairpin structure in the 3'-untranslated region mediate regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein B mRNA stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helen W; Payne, David E; Bi, Weizhen; Pan, Su; Bruce, Shirley R; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2012-05-15

    The ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension requires adequate expression of surfactant protein B (SP-B). Dexamethasone (DEX, 10(-7) M) increases human SP-B mRNA stability by a mechanism that requires a 126-nt-long segment (the 7.6S region) of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). The objective of this study was to identify sequences in the 7.6S region that mediate regulation of SP-B mRNA stability. The 7.6S region was found to be sufficient for DEX-mediated stabilization of mRNA. Sequential substitution mutagenesis of the 7.6S region indicates that a 90-nt region is required for DEX-mediated stabilization and maintenance of intrinsic stability. In this region, one 30-nt-long element (002), predicted to form a stem-loop structure, is sufficient for DEX-mediated stabilization of mRNA and intrinsic mRNA stability. Cytosolic proteins specifically bind element 002, and binding activity is unaffected whether proteins are isolated from cells incubated in the absence or presence of DEX. While loop sequences of element 002 have no role in regulation of SP-B mRNA stability, the proximal stem sequences are required for DEX-mediated stabilization and specific binding of proteins. Mutation of the sequences that comprise the proximal or distal arm of the stem negates the destabilizing activity of element 002 on intrinsic SP-B mRNA stability. These results indicate that cytosolic proteins bind a single hairpin structure that mediates intrinsic and hormonal regulation of SP-B mRNA stability via mechanisms that involve sequences of the stems of the hairpin structure. PMID:22367784

  16. Signs of Selection in Synonymous Sites of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene of Baikal Oilfish (Comephoridae by mRNA Secondary Structure Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika I. Teterina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies over the past decade have shown a significant role of synonymous mutations in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, which is particularly associated with messenger RNA (mRNA secondary structure alterations. Most studies focused on prokaryote genomes and the nuclear genomes of eukaryotes while little is known about the regulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA gene expression. This paper reveals signs of selection in synonymous sites of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (Cytb of Baikal oilfish or golomyankas (Comephoridae directed towards altering the secondary structure of the mRNA and probably altering the character of mtDNA gene expression. Our findings are based on comparisons of intraspecific genetic variation patterns of small golomyanka (Comephorus dybowski and two genetic groups of big golomyanka (Comephorus dybowskii. Two approaches were used: (i analysis of the distribution of synonymous mutations between weak-AT (W and strong-GC (S nucleotides within species and groups in accordance with mutation directions from central to peripheral haplotypes and (ii approaches based on the predicted mRNA secondary structure.

  17. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery and vein in the lungs. As a result, blood passes ... Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas are usually the result of abnormal development of the blood vessels of the lung. Most occur in ...

  18. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar proteinosis; Pulmonary alveolar phospholipoproteinosis ... In some cases, the cause of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is unknown. In others, it occurs with lung infection or an immune problem. It also can occur with cancers of the blood system, ...

  19. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Severe HPS. Image courtesy D. ... the workers showed evidence of infection or illness. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Topics Transmission Where HPS is ...

  20. Insights into regional adaptations in the growing pulmonary artery using a meso-scale structural model: effects of ascending aorta impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fata, Bahar; Zhang, Will; Amini, Rouzbeh; Sacks, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    As the next step in our investigations into the structural adaptations of the main pulmonary artery (PA) during postnatal growth, we utilized the extensive experimental measurements of the growing ovine PA from our previous study (Fata et al., 2013, "Estimated in vivo Postnatal Surface Growth Patterns of the Ovine Main Pulmonary Artery and Ascending Aorta," J. Biomech. Eng., 135(7), pp. 71010-71012). to develop a structural constitutive model for the PA wall tissue. Novel to the present approach was the treatment of the elastin network as a distributed fiber network rather than a continuum phase. We then utilized this model to delineate structure-function differences in the PA wall at the juvenile and adult stages. Overall, the predicted elastin moduli exhibited minor differences remained largely unchanged with age and region (in the range of 150 to 200 kPa). Similarly, the predicted collagen moduli ranged from ∼1,600 to 2700 kPa in the four regions studied in the juvenile state. Interestingly, we found for the medial region that the elastin and collagen fiber splay underwent opposite changes (collagen standard deviation juvenile = 17 deg to adult = 28 deg, elastin standard deviation juvenile = 35 deg to adult = 27 deg), along with a trend towards more rapid collagen fiber strain recruitment with age, along with a drop in collagen fiber moduli, which went from 2700 kPa for the juvenile stage to 746 kPa in the adult. These changes were likely due to the previously observed impingement of the relatively stiff ascending aorta on the growing PA medial region. Intuitively, the effects of the local impingement would be to lower the local wall stress, consistent with the observed parallel decrease in collagen modulus. These results suggest that during the postnatal somatic growth period local stresses can substantially modulate regional tissue microstructure and mechanical behaviors in the PA. We further underscore that our previous studies

  1. Extensive pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Muangman, Nisa; Ruangchira-Urai, Ruchira

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare pulmonary disorder that is caused by abnormal sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter from the mutation of SLC34A2 gene, leading to accumulation of microliths in the alveoli. We report the extensive pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in an elderly woman who presented with progressive dyspnea for 2 months. Chest radiograph revealed diffuse pulmonary calcification. Tissue histopathology from open lung biopsy demonstrated widespread intra-alveolar lam...

  2. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment for Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pulmonary Fibrosis Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors Pulmonary ... while processing XML file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup Pulmonary Fibrosis Learn About Pulmonary Fibrosis Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms, ...

  3. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sunilkumar, B M; Sathishkumar, K M; Somashekhar, A R; P.P. Maiya

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent or chronic pulmonary hemorrhage is rare in children. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) manifests as hemoptysis, diffuse parenchymal infiltrates on chest radiographs and microcytic hypochromic anemia. The hemoptysis present may be mistaken for more common diseases, delaying the diagnosis and further management. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a disorder of unknown etiology. Treatment of IPH includes immunosuppressive drugs along with supportive measures.

  4. Structural Alteration of the Dorsal Visual Network in DLB Patients with Visual Hallucinations: A Cortical Thickness MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Franciotti, Raffaella; Tartaro, Armando; Caulo, Massimo; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Visual hallucinations (VH) represent one of the core features in discriminating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Previous studies reported that in DLB patients functional alterations of the parieto-occipital regions were correlated with the presence of VH. The aim of our study was to assess whether morphological changes in specific cortical regions of DLB could be related to the presence and severity of VH. We performed a cortical thickness analysis on magnetic r...

  5. Probing the structure and function of the estrogen receptor ligand binding domain by analysis of mutants with altered transactivation characteristics.

    OpenAIRE

    Eng, F C; Lee, H.S.; Ferrara, J; Willson, T M; White, J H

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a genetic screen for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to isolate estrogen receptor (ER) mutants with altered transactivation characteristics. Use of a "reverse" ER, in which the mutagenized ligand binding domain was placed at the N terminus of the receptor, eliminated the isolation of truncated constitutively active mutants. A library was screened with a low-affinity estrogen, 2-methoxyestrone (2ME), at concentrations 50-fold lower than those required for activation of the...

  6. The Electrotonic Structure of Pyramidal Neurons Contributing to Prefrontal Cortical Circuits in Macaque Monkeys Is Significantly Altered in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Kabaso, Doron; Coskren, Patrick J; Henry, Bruce I; Patrick R Hof; Wearne, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas neuronal numbers are largely preserved in normal aging, subtle morphological changes occur in dendrites and spines, whose electrotonic consequences remain unexplored. We examined age-related morphological alterations in 2 types of pyramidal neurons contributing to working memory circuits in the macaque prefrontal cortex (PFC): neurons in the superior temporal cortex forming “long” projections to the PFC and “local” projection neurons within the PFC. Global dendritic mass homeostasis, ...

  7. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities

  8. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma.

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography in Pulmonary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgu, Septimiu Dan; Brenner, Matthew; Chen, Zhongping; Suter, Melissa J.

    Advances in pulmonary diagnostics and therapeutics offer a major potential for optical imaging applications both in clinical practice and research settings. Complexities of pulmonary structures and function have restricted widespread OCT investigations and clinical applications, but these will likely be overcome by developments in OCT technology [1]. Some factors that have limited adaptation of OCT into the pulmonary setting in the past have been the shallow depth of penetration, resolution limitations, relatively slow access times, need to examine large surface areas with numerous branching airways, motion artifacts, as well as a need for development of practical imaging probes to reach the relevant locations in a minimally invasive way. Considerable recent engineering and analytical advances in OCT technology [2-8] have already overcome several of these obstacles and will enable much more extensive investigations into the role for structural and functional pulmonary OCT imaging [1].

  10. Endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari and different doses of N-fertilizer alter microbial community structure and function in rhizosphere of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddikee, Md. Ashaduzzaman; Zereen, Mst Israt; Li, Cai-Feng; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community structure and functions of rhizosphere soil of rice were investigated after applying low and high doses of nitrogenous fertilizer and Phomopsis liquidambari. Average well color development, substrate richness, catabolic diversity and soil enzymes activities varied after applying N-fertilizer and P. liquidambari and were greater in P. liquidambari treated soil than only N-fertilization. Multivariate analysis distinctly separated the catabolic and enzymes activity profile which statistically proved alteration of microbial functional diversity. Nitrogen fertilizer altered microbial community structure revealed by the increased content of total PLFAs, specific subgroup marker PLFAs except fungal PLFAs and by the decreased ratio of G+/G−, sat/monunsat, iso/anteiso, F/B except trans/cis while P. liquidambari inoculation enhanced N-fertilization effect except increased fungal PLFA and decreased trans/cis. PCA using identified marker PLFAs revealed definite discrimination among the treatments which further statistically confirmed structural changed of microbial community. Nitrogenase activity representative of N-fixing community decreased in N-fertilizer treatment while P. liquidambari inoculation increased. In short, application of P. liquidambari with low doses of N-fertilizer improved rice growth and reduced N-fertilizer requirement by increasing enzymes activities involved in C, N and P cycling, structural and functional diversity of microbes, nitrogenase activity involved in N2 fixation and accumulation of total-N. PMID:27596935

  11. Micro-structural brain alterations in aviremic HIV+ patients with minor neurocognitive disorders: a multi-contrast study at high field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Granziera

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mild neurocognitive disorders (MND affect a subset of HIV+ patients under effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. In this study, we used an innovative multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI approach at high-field to assess the presence of micro-structural brain alterations in MND+ patients. METHODS: We enrolled 17 MND+ and 19 MND- patients with undetectable HIV-1 RNA and 19 healthy controls (HC. MRI acquisitions at 3T included: MP2RAGE for T1 relaxation times, Magnetization Transfer (MT, T2* and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI to probe micro-structural integrity and iron deposition in the brain. Statistical analysis used permutation-based tests and correction for family-wise error rate. Multiple regression analysis was performed between MRI data and (i neuropsychological results (ii HIV infection characteristics. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA based on MRI data was performed between MND+ and MND- patients and cross-validated with a leave-one-out test. RESULTS: Our data revealed loss of structural integrity and micro-oedema in MND+ compared to HC in the global white and cortical gray matter, as well as in the thalamus and basal ganglia. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant influence of sub-cortical nuclei alterations on the executive index of MND+ patients (p = 0.04 he and R² = 95.2. The LDA distinguished MND+ and MND- patients with a classification quality of 73% after cross-validation. CONCLUSION: Our study shows micro-structural brain tissue alterations in MND+ patients under effective therapy and suggests that multi-contrast MRI at high field is a powerful approach to discriminate between HIV+ patients on cART with and without mild neurocognitive deficits.

  12. Structural alterations in a component of cytochrome c oxidase and molecular evolution of pathogenic Neisseria in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Aspholm

    Full Text Available Three closely related bacterial species within the genus Neisseria are of importance to human disease and health. Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of meningitis, while Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea and Neisseria lactamica is a common, harmless commensal of children. Comparative genomics have yet to yield clear insights into which factors dictate the unique host-parasite relationships exhibited by each since, as a group, they display remarkable conservation at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene content and synteny. Here, we discovered two rare alterations in the gene encoding the CcoP protein component of cytochrome cbb(3 oxidase that are phylogenetically informative. One is a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in CcoP truncation that acts as a molecular signature for the species N. meningitidis. We go on to show that the ancestral ccoP gene arose by a unique gene duplication and fusion event and is specifically and completely distributed within species of the genus Neisseria. Surprisingly, we found that strains engineered to express either of the two CcoP forms conditionally differed in their capacity to support nitrite-dependent, microaerobic growth mediated by NirK, a nitrite reductase. Thus, we propose that changes in CcoP domain architecture and ensuing alterations in function are key traits in successive, adaptive radiations within these metapopulations. These findings provide a dramatic example of how rare changes in core metabolic proteins can be connected to significant macroevolutionary shifts. They also show how evolutionary change at the molecular level can be linked to metabolic innovation and its reversal as well as demonstrating how genotype can be used to infer alterations of the fitness landscape within a single host.

  13. Long-term-stable ether-lipid vs conventional ester-lipid bicelles in oriented solid-state NMR: altered structural information in studies of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Kresten; Vad, Brian; Nielsen, Erik H; Hansen, Sara K; Skrydstrup, Troels; Otzen, Daniel E; Vosegaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2011-03-01

    Recently, ether lipids have been introduced as long-term stable alternatives to the more natural, albeit easier degradable, ester lipids in the preparation of oriented lipid bilayers and bicelles for oriented-sample solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Here we report that ether lipids such as the frequently used 14-O-PC (1,2-di-O-tetradecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) may induce significant changes in the structure and dynamics, including altered interaction between peptides and lipids relative to what is observed with the more conventionally used DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayers. Such effects are demonstrated for the antimicrobial peptide novicidin, for which 2D separate-local-field NMR and circular dichroism experiments reveal significant structural/conformational differences for the peptide in the two different lipid systems. Likewise, we observe altered secondary structure and different temperature-dependent membrane anchoring for the antimicrobial peptide alamethicin depending on whether the peptide is reconstituted into ester or ether lipids. Such observations are not particularly surprising considering the significant difference of the lipids in the phosphorus headgroup and they may provide important new insight into the delicate peptide-membrane interactions in the systems studied. In contrast, these observations reinforce the need to carefully consider potential structural changes in addition to long-term stability prior to the selection of membrane environment of membrane proteins in the analysis of their structure and dynamics. In more general terms, the results underscore the necessity in structural biology to address both the protein and its environments in studies relating structure to function. PMID:21309516

  14. Opportunity, Geologic and Structural Context of Aqueous Alteration in Noachian Outcrops, Marathon Valley and Rim and Endeavour Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Jolliff, B. L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fox, V.; Golombek, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    In its 12th year of exploration and 1600 sols since arrival at the rim of the 22 km-diameter Noachian Endeavour impact crater, Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed from the summit of the western rim segment "Cape Tribulation" to "Marathon Valley", a shallow trough dissecting the rim and the site of strong orbital detection of smectites. In situ analysis of the exposures within Marathon Valley is establishing some of the geologic and geochemical controls on the aqueous alteration responsible for smectite detection known to occur in crater rims throughout Noachian terrains of Mars.

  15. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. (orig.)

  16. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Chowdhury, Shahryar M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Fox, Mary A. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. (orig.)

  17. Automatic Synthesis of Anthropomorphic Pulmonary CT Phantoms

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Carretero, Daniel; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Diaz Cacio, Mario; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    The great density and structural complexity of pulmonary vessels and airways impose limitations on the generation of accurate reference standards, which are critical in training and in the validation of image processing methods for features such as pulmonary vessel segmentation or artery–vein (AV) separations. The design of synthetic computed tomography (CT) images of the lung could overcome these difficulties by providing a database of pseudorealistic cases in a constrained and controlled sc...

  18. Intrinsic structural differences in the N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C from different species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Rivas, L; Casals, C;

    2001-01-01

    Predictive studies suggest that the known sequences of the N-terminal segment of surfactant protein SP-C from animal species have an intrinsic tendency to form beta-turns, but there are important differences on the probable location of these motifs in different SP-C species. Our hypothesis is that......-C, and studied their structural behaviour in solution and in phospholipid bilayers and monolayers. In these peptides, leucine at position 1 of both sequences has been replaced by tryptophan in order to allow their study by fluorescence spectroscopy. Far-u.v. circular dichroism spectra of the peptides in...... perturbed the packing of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) monolayers, the effects being always higher in anionic than in zwitterionic lipids, and also substantially higher in films containing canine peptide in comparison to porcine peptide. Acylation of...

  19. Pulmonary Scintigraphy for Tumour Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning of the lungs with albumin aggregates is one of the most useful methods for studying variations in pulmonary circulation and diagnosing embolisms and infarcts. However, its utilization for the diagnosis of tumours is barely in the trial stage. Using scintillation scanning, the authors have centered their attention on the study of patients with primary pulmonary tumours and secondary tumours at-other sites, and have observed that the tracer distribution pattern differs fundamentally according to the type of tumour. With metastatic tumours, the repercussion of the lesions in scintillation scanning is slight and is entirely dependent on the volume of the zone of condensation. The tumorous nodules behave entirely like inactive zones within a mass of active functional parenchyma and their effect on the scanning image depends solely on the size of the tumorous region and the amount of healthy parenchyma intervening between it and the detector. With primary pulmonary tumours and more especially those located in the hilar region, relatively small lesions give rise to defects in uptake in extensive areas of the lung, and these may affect various segments, a lobe or even the entire lung. This decrease in uptake cannot be entirely explained by the image of the tumour or by the associated zones of atelectasia, but must be due to serious alteration in the haemodynamics of the lung affected. Various kinds of phenomena associated with tumorous development may cause vascular changes affecting even the periphery of the lung: changes in breathing conditions accompanied by a reduction of oxygen tension, leading to change in haemodynamic conditions; pulmonary hypertension through compression of the veins in the lungs which are less resistant than the arteries; and direct nervous stimulation due to irritation of the bronchial plexi as a result of the growth of the tumour and, associated reactive. phenomena. (author)

  20. DNA methylation changes separate allergic patients from healthy controls and may reflect altered CD4+ T-cell population structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm E Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered DNA methylation patterns in CD4(+ T-cells indicate the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in inflammatory diseases. However, the identification of these alterations is complicated by the heterogeneity of most inflammatory diseases. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR is an optimal disease model for the study of DNA methylation because of its well-defined phenotype and etiology. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation (N(patients = 8, N(controls = 8 and gene expression (N(patients = 9, Ncontrols = 10 profiles of CD4(+ T-cells from SAR patients and healthy controls using Illumina's HumanMethylation450 and HT-12 microarrays, respectively. DNA methylation profiles clearly and robustly distinguished SAR patients from controls, during and outside the pollen season. In agreement with previously published studies, gene expression profiles of the same samples failed to separate patients and controls. Separation by methylation (N(patients = 12, N(controls = 12, but not by gene expression (N(patients = 21, N(controls = 21 was also observed in an in vitro model system in which purified PBMCs from patients and healthy controls were challenged with allergen. We observed changes in the proportions of memory T-cell populations between patients (N(patients = 35 and controls (N(controls = 12, which could explain the observed difference in DNA methylation. Our data highlight the potential of epigenomics in the stratification of immune disease and represents the first successful molecular classification of SAR using CD4(+ T cells.

  1. Mechanisms responsible for pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Pulmonary hypertension is a pathophysiologic process characterized by progressive elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure, which is a common complication of many diseases. Pulmonary hypertension with no apparent causes (unknown etiology) is termed primary pulmonary hypertension or, more recently, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH).

  2. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance a

  3. Micro-Structural Brain Alterations in Aviremic HIV+ Patients with Minor Neurocognitive Disorders: A Multi-Contrast Study at High Field.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Granziera; Alessandro Daducci; Samanta Simioni; Matthias Cavassini; Alexis Roche; Djalel Meskaldji; Tobias Kober; Melanie Metral; Alexandra Calmy; Gunther Helms; Bernard Hirschel; François Lazeyras; Reto Meuli; Gunnar Krueger; Du Pasquier, Renaud A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mild neurocognitive disorders (MND) affect a subset of HIV+ patients under effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). In this study, we used an innovative multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach at high-field to assess the presence of micro-structural brain alterations in MND+ patients. METHODS: We enrolled 17 MND+ and 19 MND- patients with undetectable HIV-1 RNA and 19 healthy controls (HC). MRI acquisitions at 3T included: MP2RAGE for T1 relaxation time...

  4. Irreversible Electroporation of Malignant Hepatic Tumors--Alterations in Venous Structures at Subacute Follow-Up and Evolution at Mid-Term Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dollinger

    Full Text Available To evaluate risk factors associated with alterations in venous structures adjacent to an ablation zone after percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE of hepatic malignancies at subacute follow-up (1 to 3 days after IRE and to describe evolution of these alterations at mid-term follow-up.43 patients (men/women, 32/11; mean age, 60.3 years were identified in whom venous structures were located within a perimeter of 1.0 cm of the ablation zone at subacute follow-up after IRE of 84 hepatic lesions (primary/secondary hepatic tumors, 31/53. These vessels were retrospectively evaluated by means of pre-interventional and post-interventional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography or both. Any vascular changes in flow, patency, and diameter were documented. Correlations between vascular change (yes/no and characteristics of patients, lesions, and ablation procedures were assessed by generalized linear models.191 venous structures were located within a perimeter of 1.0 cm of the ablation zone: 55 (29% were encased by the ablation zone, 78 (41% abutted the ablation zone, and 58 (30% were located between 0.1 and 1.0 cm from the border of the ablation zone. At subacute follow-up, vascular changes were found in 19 of the 191 vessels (9.9%, with partial portal vein thrombosis in 2, complete portal vein thrombosis in 3, and lumen narrowing in 14 of 19. At follow-up of patients with subacute vessel alterations (mean, 5.7 months; range, 0 to 14 months thrombosis had resolved in 2 of 5 cases; vessel narrowing had completely resolved in 8 of 14 cases, and partly resolved in 1 of 14 cases. The encasement of a vessel by ablation zone (OR = 6.36, p<0.001, ablation zone being adjacent to a portal vein (OR = 8.94, p<0.001, and the usage of more than 3 IRE probes (OR = 3.60, p = 0.035 were independently associated with post-IRE vessel alterations.Venous structures located in close proximity to an IRE ablation zone remain largely

  5. Ab initio van der waals interactions in simulations of water alter structure from mainly tetrahedral to high-density-like

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelhøj, Andreas; Kelkkanen, Kari André; Wikfeldt, K Thor; Schiøtz, Jakob; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Pettersson, Lars G M; Lundqvist, Bengt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nilsson, Anders; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2011-01-01

    , from the much lower and broader first peak in the oxygen-oxygen pair-correlation function (PCF) and loss of structure in the outer hydration shells. Inclusion of vdW interactions is shown to shift the balance of resulting structures from open tetrahedral to more close-packed. The resulting O-O PCF...

  6. Radiological diagnosis of pulmonary edema in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary edema has been revealed in 132 patients (51.6 %) during radiologic examination of 256 patients with chronic renal failure. The performance of anterio-posterior chest radiographs was in most cases necessary and quite sufficient for making diagnostic conclusions. Follow up study of patients with pulmonary edema and analysis of radiologic picture of the alterations permitted physicians to distinguish approximately 3 stages of the process development, which transit from one into another. Stage 1 involves early disorders and prodromes of pulmonary edema; Stage 2 interstitial lung edema; Stage 3 alveolar edema. The circulation enforcement of the upper lobar vessels has been the main feature of stage 1. Radiogramometry provided additional information for the pulmonary edema diagnosis. For instance, cardioradiometric data are useful for pulmonary edema diagnosis and evidence in favour of its close connection with heart disorders

  7. Pulmonary Extramedullary Hematopoiesis Involving the Pulmonary Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Varun Monga; Margarida Silverman

    2015-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occurs as a complication of hematologic disorders such as myelofibrosis, sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. The extramedullary tissue usually involves liver, spleen and lymph nodes, less frequently the chest. We present a recent case of a man with myeloproliferative neoplasm who developed pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to EMH in the lung and pulmonary artery. Radiation therapy was considered the best approach, but it didn’t work and the patient died a week ...

  8. Assessing Pulmonary Pathology by Detailed Examination of Respiratory Function

    OpenAIRE

    Vaickus, Louis J; Bouchard, Jacqueline; Kim, Jiyoun; Natarajan, Sudha; Remick, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammation causes multiple alterations within the lung, including mucus production, recruitment of inflammatory cells, and airway hyperreactivity (AHR). Measurement of AHR by direct, invasive means (eg, mechanical ventilation) or noninvasive techniques, like whole body plethysmography (WBP), assesses the severity of pulmonary inflammation in animal models of inflammatory lung disease. Direct measurement of AHR is acknowledged as the most accurate method for assessing airway mechan...

  9. Chronic alterations in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I signaling lead to changes in mouse tendon structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R H; Clausen, N M; Schjerling, P;

    2014-01-01

    transgenic mice that expressed bovine GH (bGH) and had high circulating levels of GH and IGF-I, 2) dwarf mice with a disrupted GH receptor gene (GHR-/-) leading to GH resistance and low circulating IGF-I, and 3) a wild-type control group (CTRL). We measured the ultra-structure, collagen content and m....../IGF-I axis influenced both morphology and mRNA levels of selected genes in the muscle-tendon unit of mice. Whereas only moderate structural changes were observed with up-regulation of GH/IGF-I axis, disruption of the GH receptor had pronounced effects upon tendon ultra-structure....

  10. Effect of pulmonary hypertension on outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Marjani; Parvaneh Baghaei; Majid Malekmohammad; Payam Tabarsi; Babak Sharif-Kashani; , Neda Behzadnia; Davood Mansouri; Mohammad Reza Masjedi; Ali Akbar Velayati

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study performed at the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Tehran, Iran, aimed to evaluate the effect of concomitant pulmonary hypertension on the outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: New cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were recruited for the study. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as systolic pulmonary arterial pressure ≥35 mm Hg estimated by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. We assessed the relationship between pulmonary hypertensi...

  11. Surgically treated pulmonary stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva A; Hjortdal, Vibeke E

    additional four patients died after hospital discharge; therefore, the long-term mortality was 5%. The maximum follow-up period was 57 years, with a median of 33 years. In all, 16 patients (20%) required at least one re-intervention. Pulmonary valve replacement due to pulmonary regurgitation was the most...... re-intervention at the present stage. CONCLUSION: Surgical relief for pulmonary stenosis is efficient in relieving outflow obstruction; however, this efficiency is achieved at the cost of pulmonary regurgitation, leading to right ventricular dilatation and tricuspid regurgitation. When required......, pulmonary valve replacement is performed most frequently >20 years after the initial surgery. Lifelong follow-up of patients treated surgically for pulmonary stenosis is emphasised in this group of patients, who might otherwise consider themselves cured....

  12. Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists

    OpenAIRE

    Kortsch, Susanne; Primicerio, Raul; Fossheim, Maria; Dolgov, Andrey V.; Aschan, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven poleward shifts, leading to changes in species composition and relative abundances, have been recently documented in the Arctic. Among the fastest moving species are boreal generalist fish which are expected to affect arctic marine food web structure and ecosystem functioning substantially. Here, we address structural changes at the food web level induced by poleward shifts via topological network analysis of highly resolved boreal and arctic food webs of the ...

  13. The current treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Kenneth Scott

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular hypertension in general is a progressive, nearly always fatal condition that until recently has had very few treatment options. Our understanding of the pulmonary vascular disease process has opened the window to earlier screening techniques, diagnosis, and treatment options. However, all current treatment options are complex and expensive and therefore require clinical support strategies often necessitating specialized pulmonary hypertension treatment centers. Whether idiopathic or secondary, pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by the deregulated proliferation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells and intimal smooth muscle cells, both resistant to cellular apoptosis. Early recognition of such disregulation may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment and thus alteration in the disease process. Screening of high-risk populations such as those with connective tissue disorders, HIV disease, congenital heart disease, portal hypertension, and those exposed to certain drugs and toxins such as methamphetamines and the diet drugs Dexfenfluramine and Fenfluramine is of utmost importance. Similarly, early symptom recognition in these high-risk groups is essential to earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20073161

  14. Smooth Muscle-Mediated Connective Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecham, Robert P.; Whitehouse, Loren A.; Wrenn, David S.; Parks, William C.; Griffin, Gail L.; Senior, Robert M.; Crouch, Edmond C.; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Voelkel, Norbert F.

    1987-07-01

    Abnormal accumulation of connective tissue in blood vessels contributes to alterations in vascular physiology associated with disease states such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Elastin synthesis was studied in blood vessels from newborn calves with severe pulmonary hypertension induced by alveolar hypoxia in order to investigate the cellular stimuli that elicit changes in pulmonary arterial connective tissue production. A two- to fourfold increase in elastin production was observed in pulmonary artery tissue and medial smooth muscle cells from hypertensive calves. This stimulation of elastin production was accompanied by a corresponding increase in elastin messenger RNA consistent with regulation at the transcriptional level. Conditioned serum harvested from cultures of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells isolated from hypertensive animals contained one or more low molecular weight elastogenic factors that stimulated the production of elastin in both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and altered the chemotactic responsiveness of fibroblasts to elastin peptides. These results suggest that connective tissue changes in the pulmonary vasculature in response to pulmonary hypertension are orchestrated by the medial smooth muscle cell through the generation of specific differentiation factors that alter both the secretory phenotype and responsive properties of surrounding cells.

  15. Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Malay; Pathania, Rajnish; Jhobta, Anupam; Thakur, Babu Ram; Chopra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease. PMID:27051107

  16. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... To Look for the Underlying Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension PH has many causes, so many tests may ...

  17. Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver Disease Pulmonary & PH Hypertension Did you know that if you have liver disease, you are at risk for pulmonary ... to the liver without cirrhosis. How does liver disease relate to pulmonary hypertension? Liver disease can cause what is known ...

  18. Impacts of eutrophic freshwater inputs on water quality and phytoplankton size structure in a temperate estuary altered by a sea dike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Yongsik; Hyun, Bongkil; Jeong, Byungkwan; Soh, Ho Young

    2013-04-01

    Phytoplankton size structure and water properties in the Youngsan River estuary, which has been altered by a sea dike, were monitored over an annual cycle (2003-2004) to investigate the effects of freshwater inputs on their spatial and temporal variation. Trophic status was also evaluated using the trophic status index (TRIX). Freshwater was discharged from an artificial reservoir throughout the year, supplying nutrients (except for [Formula: see text] ) and low levels of dissolved oxygen to the estuary, which resulted in eutrophication ("greatest trophic level"). Turbidity increased, and density stratification developed in the water column. The density stratification in turn affected the reduction of dissolved oxygen concentration in the bottom water during the freshwater discharge. Chlorophyll a concentrations, dominated by nano-sized (dike (3.42-47.0 μg chl L(-1)). The net-scale (>20 μm) decrease in phytoplankton biomass differed from that in tropical estuaries affected by monsoons and in other temperate estuaries. Temporal variations in water quality and phytoplankton size structure were more strongly influenced by artificial regulation of the freshwater discharge than by monsoon meteorological events. This study implies that a different paradigm than that for natural estuaries or larger estuaries with dams is required for the better understanding and management of ecosystems in estuaries altered by anthropogenic activities, such as the construction of sea dikes. PMID:23410639

  19. Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B)-deficient neurons show structural presynaptic deficiencies in vitro and altered presynaptic physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaleo, Felipe J; Montenegro-Venegas, Carolina; Henríquez, Daniel R; Court, Felipe A; Gonzalez-Billault, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) is expressed predominantly during the early stages of development of the nervous system, where it regulates processes such as axonal guidance and elongation. Nevertheless, MAP1B expression in the brain persists in adult stages, where it participates in the regulation of the structure and physiology of dendritic spines in glutamatergic synapses. Moreover, MAP1B expression is also found in presynaptic synaptosomal preparations. In this work, we describe a presynaptic phenotype in mature neurons derived from MAP1B knockout (MAP1B KO) mice. Mature neurons express MAP1B, and its deficiency does not alter the expression levels of a subgroup of other synaptic proteins. MAP1B KO neurons display a decrease in the density of presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals, which involves a reduction in the density of synaptic contacts, and an increased proportion of orphan presynaptic terminals. Accordingly, MAP1B KO neurons present altered synaptic vesicle fusion events, as shown by FM4-64 release assay, and a decrease in the density of both synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles at presynaptic terminals. Finally, an increased proportion of excitatory immature symmetrical synaptic contacts in MAP1B KO neurons was detected. Altogether these results suggest a novel role for MAP1B in presynaptic structure and physiology regulation in vitro. PMID:27425640

  20. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as aspergillosis , coccidioidomycosis , cryptococcosis , or histoplasmosis Primary lung cancer is the most common cause of cancerous (malignant) pulmonary nodules. This is cancer that starts in the ...

  1. Pulmonary function test in type 1 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Gajbhiye

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study was undertaken to find out the effect of diabetes on the respiratory system. Background: Diabetes is a disease with multiple organ involvement. Glycosylation of tissue proteins occur when blood glucose level remain elevated for a prolonged duration. Due to this, there occur irreversible changes in the chemical structure of tissue proteins. Basement membrane and connective tissues in skin, muscles, respiratory system, vascular bed, kidney, peripheral nervous system, etc. are the targets for glycosylation. Pulmonary function testing (P.F.T. is a valuable tool for evaluating the respiratory system, representing an important adjunct to the patient history, various lung imaging studies, and invasive testing such as bronchoscopy and open-lung biopsy. Material and Method: 64 type 1 diabetic subjects and 60 controls were selected for the study. Anthropometric parameters, blood investigations and P.F.T. were performed on all subjects. Result and Discussion: Fasting and Post Meal blood glucose levels as well as HbA1c% were significantly higher in type 1 diabetics as compared to controls. All P.F.T. parameters excepting FEV1 % were also significantly reduced in type 1 diabetics. Decreased values of P.F.T parameters in type 1 diabetics can be attributed to biochemical alteration of connective tissue constituents particularly collagen and elastin as well as by microangiopathy due to nonenzymatic protein glycosylation induced by chronic hyperglycemia.

  2. The Prp19/Pso4 Core complex Undergoes Ubiquitylation and Structural Alterations in Response to DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Legerski, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    Prp19/Pso4, a U-box containing E3 ligase, has a demonstrated role in pre-mRNA splicing, but has also been implicated in both yeast and mammalian cells as having a direct role in DNA damage processing. In this report we provide further evidence in support of this latter assertion. We show that hPrp19 forms an ubiquitylated oligomeric species that is resistant to disruption by SDS gel electrophoresis under nonreducing conditions suggesting that is mediated by a thiolester between ubiquitin and a cysteine residue in Prp19. The level of this species is significantly enhanced upon treatment of cells with DNA damaging agents, and its association with chromatin is increased. In addition, hPrp19 is known to form a stable core complex with Cdc5L, Plrg1, and Spf27; however, ubiquitylated hPrp19 fails to interact with either Cdc5L or Plrg1 indicating that DNA damage can induce profound alterations to the hPrp19 core complex. Finally, we show that overexpression of hPrp19 in human cells provides a pro-survival affect in that it reduces the levels of apoptosis observed after exposure of cells to DNA damage. PMID:17276391

  3. Alterations in collagen structure in hypermobility and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes detected by Raman spectroscopy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Carina K.; Gniadecka, Monika; Ullman, Susanne; Halberg, Poul; Kobayasi, Takasi; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2000-11-01

    Patients with hypermobility syndrome (HS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) were investigated by means of in vivo near- infrared Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy. HS is a benign and common condition (up to 5 percent of the population of the Western World). EDS is a rare, inherited connective tissue disease characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and other, occasionally serious, organ changes. EDS and HS may be related disorders. We investigated 13 patients with HS, 8 patients with EDS, and 24 healthy volunteers by means of in vivo Raman spectroscopy. The patients were classified according to Beighton and Holzberg et al. No difference in age between the three groups was found (HS 41 (33-49), EDS 36 (25-47), controls 37 (31-42); mean, 95% confidence intervals, respectively). Spectral differences were found in the intensity of the amide-III bands around 1245 and 1270 cm-1 in HS and EDS compared with healthy skin (Kruskal-Wallis, p equals 0,02 for intensity ratios (I1245/I1270) between the investigated groups). To elucidate the character of the alterations in the amide-III bands a curve fitting procedure was applied. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy may aid in the diagnosis of HS and EDS. Moreover the technique may be useful for analyzing the molecular changes occurring in these syndromes.

  4. Variation of the neurofilament medium KSP repeat sub-domain across mammalian species: implications for altering axonal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D M; Carpenter, C; Yager, C; Golik, B; Barry, K J; Shen, H; Mikse, O; Eggert, L S; Schulz, D J; Garcia, M L

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of larger mammals resulted in a corresponding increase in peripheral nerve length. To ensure optimal nervous system functionality and survival, nerve conduction velocities were likely to have increased to maintain the rate of signal propagation. Increases of conduction velocities may have required alterations in one of the two predominant properties that affect the speed of neuronal transmission: myelination or axonal diameter. A plausible mechanism to explain faster conduction velocities was a concomitant increase in axonal diameter with evolving axonal length. The carboxy terminal tail domain of the neurofilament medium subunit is a determinant of axonal diameter in large caliber myelinated axons. Sequence analysis of mammalian orthologs indicates that the neurofilament medium carboxy terminal tail contains a variable lysine-serine-proline (KSP) repeat sub-domain flanked by two highly conserved sub-domains. The number of KSP repeats within this region of neurofilament medium varies among species. Interestingly, the number of repeats does not change within a species, suggesting that selective pressure conserved the number of repeats within a species. Mapping KSP repeat numbers onto consensus phylogenetic trees reveals independent KSP expansion events across several mammalian clades. Linear regression analyses identified three subsets of mammals, one of which shows a positive correlation in the number of repeats with head-body length. For this subset of mammals, we hypothesize that variations in the number of KSP repeats within neurofilament medium carboxy terminal tail may have contributed to an increase in axonal caliber, increasing nerve conduction velocity as larger mammals evolved. PMID:20008369

  5. Alterations in archaeological bones thermally treated: structure and morphology; Alteraciones en huesos arqueologicos termicamente tratados: estructura y morfologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijoan, C.M.; Mansilla, J.; Leboreiro, I. [Direccion de Antropologia Fisica, INAH, Gandhi s/n, Polanco, 11560 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lara, V.H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-lztapalapa, Michoacan esquina La Purisima, Apdo.Postal 55-534, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Bosch, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Archaeological bones found close to Mexico city (Tlatelcomila) have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Small Angle X-ray Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. These techniques, which are not conventionally used in archaeological research, provided useful information. The boiled bones were clearly distinguished from grilled bones. The degree of deterioration of the bone structure was quantified through parameters such as gyration radius or fractal dimension. The morphology followed the structural modifications and changes resulting from thermic exposure. (Author) 23 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  6. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of a Single Amino-Acid Mutant of WzzBSF That Alters Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen Chain Length in Shigella flexneri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Wen Chang

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a surface polymer of Gram-negative bacteria, helps bacteria survive in different environments and acts as a virulence determinant of host infection. The O-antigen (Oag component of LPS exhibits a modal chain-length distribution that is controlled by polysaccharide co-polymerases (PCPs. The molecular basis of the regulation of Oag chain-lengths remains unclear, despite extensive mutagenesis and structural studies of PCPs from Escherichia coli and Shigella. Here, we identified a single mutation (A107P of the Shigella flexneri WzzBSF, by a random mutagenesis approach, that causes a shortened Oag chain-length distribution in bacteria. We determined the crystal structures of the periplasmic domains of wild-type WzzBSF and the A107P mutant. Both structures form a highly similar open trimeric assembly in the crystals, and show a similar tendency to self-associate in solution. Binding studies by bio-layer interferometry reveal cooperative binding of very short (VS-core-plus-O-antigen polysaccharide (COPS to the periplasmic domains of both proteins, but with decreased affinity for the A107P mutant. Our studies reveal that subtle and localized structural differences in PCPs can have dramatic effects on LPS chain-length distribution in bacteria, for example by altering the affinity for the substrate, which supports the role of the structure of the growing Oag polymer in this process.

  7. HRCT and bronchial asthma: visualization of the pathophysiologic changes of the pulmonary parenchyma after inhalation provocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To characterize parenchymal lung affections morphologically in patients with asthma and healthy subjects by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) subsequent to histamine-triggered inhalation bronchoprovocation and salbutamolinduced broncholysis, and to compare the results with pulmonary function tests. Materials and Methods: Fifteen asthmatics with bronchial hyperreactivity, with a>20% decrease in FEV1 and a>10 mmHg decrease in PaO2 after bronchoprovocation (PC20%+), twelve asthmatics with a10 mmHg decrease in PaO2 after bronchoprovocation (PC20%-), and eight healthy persons without bronchial hyperreactivity underwent inhalation bronchoprovocation and broncholysis. Spirometer-triggered HRCT at high lung volumes was performed, and total and peripheral lung densities and the amount of solid lung structures, representing predominantly vessels, were measured. Results: After bronchoprovocation, we observed significant decreases in total and peripheral lung densities in all groups (p0.05), as compared to the baseline measurements. In hyperreactive patients, PaO2 significantly decreased after provocation and significantly increased after lysis (p<0.05). In PC20%+ asthmatics, a mean reduction of 27.8% in FEV1 was observed, which was <20% in the other groups. No significant correlations were observed between radiological data and the results of pulmonary function tests. In healthy persons, we demonstrated highly significant parenchymal response to bronchoprovocation and broncholysis, which was not otherwise documented by pulmonary function tests. Conclusion: In both PC20%+ and PC20%- patients as well as in healthy individuals, HRCT was efficient in the evaluation of pathoanatomical alterations of the lung parenchyma subsequent to inhalation provocation. In healthy individuals, these parenchymal alterations were not documented by pulmonary function tests. (orig.)

  8. HISTOPATOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN LUNGS OF DOGS WITH PULMONARY DIROFILARIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRASIL ALTERAÇÕES HISTOPATOLÓGICAS EM PULMÕES DE CÃES PORTADORES DE DIROFILARIOSE PULMONAR NO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis, at light microscopy, of lungs histopathological alterations associated with the infection for Dirofilaria immitis in 33 (thirty three dogs proceeding from Niteroi City, Rio de Janeiro, was carried out. A great diversity in number and intensity of lesions was observed. The most frequent pulmonary parenchyma changes had been interstitial pneumonia, interalveolar septa thickening and infartation, and the less had been focal fibrotic pleurisia and haemorrhage. Yet, in pulmonary artery and branches, the most frequent had been thrombosis and intimal proliferation to the lumen and the less had been pseudoaneurism and sclerosis. It was registered that in the presence of microfilariae in parenchyma, the infiltrates was predominantely formed for mononuclear cells, and in the destruction of the vessel wall, frequently for mixing or mononuclear cells. We concluded that more studies are necessary to the knowledge of the etiology and pathogenesis of Dirofilariasis, after recent studies that consider a bacterium endosymbionts of arthropods, Wolbachia, as the third variable, instead of the classic duality of  host–parasite  relationship.

    KEY WORDS: Dogs, Dirofilaria immitis, histopathological alterations, lungs, pulmonary artery. Foi realizada a análise, à microscopia óptica, das alterações histopatológicas de pulmões associadas à infecção por Dirofilaria immitis em trinta e três cães provenientes do Município de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Observou-se uma grande diversidade em número e intensidade de lesões. As alterações mais freqüentes do parênquima pulmonar foram pneumonia intersticial, espessamento do septo alveolar e infarto, enquanto as menos observadas foram pleurisia fibrosa focal e hemorragia. Das alterações mais freqüentes evidenciadas na artéria pulmonar e suas ramificações, citem-se trombose e projeções da íntima para o lúmen, sendo pseudoaneurisma e esclerose pouco evidenciadas. Registraram

  9. A Microfluidic Model of Biomimetically Breathing Pulmonary Acinar Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishler, Rami; Sznitman, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying respiratory flow characteristics in the pulmonary acinar depths and how they influence inhaled aerosol transport is critical towards optimizing drug inhalation techniques as well as predicting deposition patterns of potentially toxic airborne particles in the pulmonary alveoli. Here, soft-lithography techniques are used to fabricate complex acinar-like airway structures at the truthful anatomical length-scales that reproduce physiological acinar flow phenomena in an optically accessible system. The microfluidic device features 5 generations of bifurcating alveolated ducts with periodically expanding and contracting walls. Wall actuation is achieved by altering the pressure inside water-filled chambers surrounding the thin PDMS acinar channel walls both from the sides and the top of the device. In contrast to common multilayer microfluidic devices, where the stacking of several PDMS molds is required, a simple method is presented to fabricate the top chamber by embedding the barrel section of a syringe into the PDMS mold. This novel microfluidic setup delivers physiological breathing motions which in turn give rise to characteristic acinar air-flows. In the current study, micro particle image velocimetry (µPIV) with liquid suspended particles was used to quantify such air flows based on hydrodynamic similarity matching. The good agreement between µPIV results and expected acinar flow phenomena suggest that the microfluidic platform may serve in the near future as an attractive in vitro tool to investigate directly airborne representative particle transport and deposition in the acinar regions of the lungs. PMID:27214269

  10. Pulmonary changes in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from the obstruction of small bronchi by highly viscous mucus. Chronic obstructive lung disease and recurrent pulmonary infections result in a typical radiographic pattern later in the disease. Most patients can now be expected to survive into adulthood. The radiologist must make a careful comparison of serial films in order to detect complications early. By far the most important imaging modality is the conventional chest radiograph. CT is more sensitive for detection of structural abnormalities of the lung. Bronchography is a dangerous procedure and can lead to rapid deterioration of lung function. Lung scanning is a very sensitive method for demonstrating regional disturbances of ventilation and may reveal abnormalities earlier than conventional radiographs. In severe hemoptysis, selective bronchial arteriography with embolization of the bleeding vessel can be a life-saving procedure. (orig.)

  11. The pulmonary vasculature - lessons from Tibetans and from rare diseases of oxygen sensing.

    OpenAIRE

    Frise, MC; Robbins, PA

    2015-01-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review is principally concerned with results from studies of the pulmonary vasculature in humans, particularly in relation to hypoxia and rare diseases that affect oxygen sensing. What advances does it highlight? This review highlights the degree to which the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription system influences human pulmonary vascular responses to hypoxia. Upregulation of the HIF pathway augments hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, while alter...

  12. 3-Deoxyglucosone: a potential glycating agent accountable for structural alteration in H3 histone protein through generation of different AGEs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaluddin M Ashraf

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs are heterogeneous group of compounds, known to be implicated in diabetic complications. One of the consequences of the Maillard reaction is attributed to the production of reactive intermediate products such as α-oxoaldehydes. 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG, an α-oxoaldehyde has been found to be involved in accelerating vascular damage during diabetes. In the present study, calf thymus histone H3 was treated with 3-deoxyglucosone to investigate the generation of AGEs (Nε-carboxymethyllysine, pentosidine, by examining the degree of side chain modifications and formation of different intermediates and employing various physicochemical techniques. The results clearly indicate the formation of AGEs and structural changes upon glycation of H3 by 3-deoxyglucosone, which may hamper the normal functioning of H3 histone, that may compromise the veracity of chromatin structures and function in secondary complications of diabetes.

  13. Under-recognised co-morbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Kaïssa; Lee, Joyce S

    2016-08-01

    Co-morbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are common. These co-morbidities include obstructive sleep apnoea, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, pulmonary hypertension and depression. The presence of co-morbidities among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis contributes to worse quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Despite the high prevalence of certain co-morbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, the optimal screening and management of many of these conditions remains unclear. The impact of co-morbidities on this patient population is becoming more apparent. Their relevance will only increase as significant effort is being made to develop novel therapeutics that will alter the disease trajectory of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The purpose of this review is to focus on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of select co-morbidities, including obstructive sleep apnoea, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, pulmonary hypertension and depression, in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26365251

  14. Pulmonary strongyloidiasis in immunosuppression by systemic steroids. Case presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Strongyloides stercoralis is an endemic intestinal nematode from the tropic, which affects millions of people in the world. The majority is asymptomatic, although it is capable of transforming in a fatal and fulminating illness under some conditions associated with a compromise of the cell immunity. Not any other human parasitic has been associated with a large variety of manifestations, from gastrointestinal alterations with diarrhea and mal absorption, cutaneous alterations, to the pulmonary compromise and massive larval invasion. A case of a patient with pulmonary Strongyloidiasis associated with the chronic use of short cycles of steroids is shown here

  15. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  16. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri Devi, H.J.; K N Mohan Rao; Prathima, K. M.; Das, Jayanth K.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown cause. We report a case in a young boy who presented with history of failure to thrive and chest X-ray finding suggestive of miliary mottling. Open lung biopsy revealed pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

  17. Unilateral pulmonary hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albay S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypoplasia represents a broad range of malformations characterized by incomplete development of lung tissue. The severity of the lesion depends on the appearance time of the malformation during the timeline of lung development, and the presence of further anatomic anomalies. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary hypoplasia in a 27-year old woman.

  18. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong, Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O’

    2015-01-01

    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thin films, alterations to commonly used precursors can be made that facilitate controlled thin film deposition. The effects of polymer assisted deposition and changes in solvent-alkoxide dilution on the morphology, structure, optoelectronic properties and crystallinity of vanadium pentoxide thin films was studied using a dip-coating method using a substrate withdrawal speed within the fast-rate draining regime. The formation of sub-100 nm thin films could be achieved rapidly from dilute alkoxide based precursor solutions with high optical transmission in the visible, linked to the phase and film structure. The effects of the polymer addition was shown to change the crystallized vanadium pentoxide thin films from a granular surface structure to a polycrystalline structure composed of a high density of smaller in-plane grains, resulting in a uniform surface morphology with lower thickness and roughness. PMID:26123117

  19. "Treatable" diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous fistula - An unusual cause

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra Boopathy Senguttuvan; Jay Kumar; Shyam Sunder Kothari

    2011-01-01

    A 4 year old boy was referred for evaluation of failure to thrive and mild cyanosis. He was found to have a structurally normal heart with evidence of microscopic pulmonary arterio-venous (AV) fistulae. Later, he was diagnosed to have congenital porto-systemic shunt, a very rare cause of pulmonary AV fistula.

  20. Pediatric postprimary pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heading AbstractBackground. Postprimary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is not commonly seen in children.Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the radiographic findings and patient characteristics of pediatric postprimary pulmonary TB.Materials and methods. We reviewed the clinical charts and chest radiographs in six patients.Results. The radiographic findings of pediatric postprimary pulmonary TB include upper-lobe consolidation and cavitation, multifocal ill-defined airspace opacities, evidence of prior pulmonary TB, and apical pleural thickening. Pleural effusions and lymphadenopathy are not commonly present. Although postprimary disease typically does not affect young children, five of the children in this series were less than ten years of age at the time of presentation.Conclusion The possibility of postprimary TB should be considered in pediatric patients at risk for this disease who present with upper-lobe pulmonary consolidation and cavitation. These patients are highly infectious and early recognition and treatment can limit transmission of TB. (orig.)

  1. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulys A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Albertas Ulys, Narimantas Evaldas Samalavicius, Saulius Cicenas, Tadas Petraitis, Mantas Trakymas, Dmitrij Sheinin, Leonid GatijatullinInstitute of Oncology, Vilnius University, Santariskiu, Vilnius, LithuaniaAbstract: Prevalence of pulmonary sequestration accounts for up to 6.4% of all congenital pulmonary malformations. We report on a 40-year-old woman who underwent excision of an aberrant solid retroperitoneal mass in the left subdiaphragmatic area. The mass was identified to be an extralobar pulmonary sequestration. The diagnosis could be made without surgery by percutaneous tissue biopsy and imaging. We encourage keeping in mind pulmonary sequestration anomaly presenting as an aberrant retroperitoneal mass. The aim of this case report is to increase awareness about the condition and review the criteria for its definitive diagnosis and treatment.Keywords: retroperitoneal aberrant mass, extralobar pulmonary sequestration

  2. Nuclear medicine pulmonary diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphic recording of regional ventilation and perfusion with 99mTc-Aerosol and 99mTc-MAA remain in the foreground of nuclear medicine pulmonary diagnostics. The most important indication for ventilation scintigraphy is the prediction of postoperative pulmonary function, which is still performed in many hospitals with perfusion scintigraphy, and with which, in turn, intrapulmonary right-left shunts can be simply and also semiquantitatively recorded. Combined ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy offers a very high degree of sensitivity in the proof of acute pulmonary embolism, is therefore exceptionally well suited for exclusion diagnostics, while specificity compared to pulmonary angiography and spiral CT still needs some clarification. The self-cleaning mechanism of the lung can be quantitatively examined using mucociliary and resorptive clearance. The clinical areas of application are limited for methodical reasons. Primary diagnostics of bronchial carcinoma and dignity differentiation of solitary pulmonary nodules, preferably with 18F-FDG PET are gaining steadily in importance. (orig.)

  3. Altered intestinal microbial flora and impaired epithelial barrier structure and function in CKD: the nature, mechanisms, consequences and potential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Zhao, Ying-Yong; Pahl, Madeleine V

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in systemic inflammation and oxidative stress which play a central role in CKD progression and its adverse consequences. Although many of the causes and consequences of oxidative stress and inflammation in CKD have been extensively explored, little attention had been paid to the intestine and its microbial flora as a potential source of these problems. Our recent studies have revealed significant disruption of the colonic, ileal, jejunal and gastric epithelial tight junction in different models of CKD in rats. Moreover, the disruption of the epithelial barrier structure and function found in uremic animals was replicated in cultured human colonocytes exposed to uremic human plasma in vitro We have further found significant changes in the composition and function of colonic bacterial flora in humans and animals with advanced CKD. Together, uremia-induced impairment of the intestinal epithelial barrier structure and function and changes in composition of the gut microbiome contribute to the systemic inflammation and uremic toxicity by accommodating the translocation of endotoxin, microbial fragments and other noxious luminal products in the circulation. In addition, colonic bacteria are the main source of several well-known pro-inflammatory uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol sulfate, trimethylamine-N-oxide and many as-yet unidentified retained compounds in end-stage renal disease patients. This review is intended to provide an overview of the effects of CKD on the gut microbiome and intestinal epithelial barrier structure and their role in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammation and uremic toxicity. In addition, potential interventions aimed at mitigating these abnormalities are briefly discussed. PMID:25883197

  4. Peripheral activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 inhibits food intake and alters meal structures in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lixin; Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Martinez, Vicente; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Rivier, Jean; Taché, Yvette

    2010-01-01

    The orexigenic effect of urocortins (Ucn 1, Ucn 2 and Ucn 3) through activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors, has been well characterized after injection into the brain but not in the periphery. We examined the role of CRF receptor subtype 2 (CRF2) in the regulation of food intake using intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Ucns, the selective CRF2 antagonist, astressin2-B, and CRF2 knockout (−/−) mice. Meal structures were monitored using an automated episodic solid food int...

  5. Nonlinear responses to nitrogen and strong interactions with nitrogen and phosphorus additions drastically alter the structure and function of a high arctic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Seth J. T.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2008-09-01

    Significant changes in ecosystem CO2 exchange and vegetation characteristics were observed following multiple additions of nitrogen (N) and factorial additions of N and phosphorus (P) to prostrate dwarf-shrub, herb tundra in Northwest Greenland. Ecosystem CO2 exchange and vegetation cover and composition were very sensitive to low rates of N inputs (0.5 g m-2 y-1), indicating that even low rates of atmospheric N deposition may alter high arctic ecosystem structure and function. Increasing N addition from 1 to 5 g N m-2 y-1 did not alter CO2 exchange or vegetation characteristics, suggesting the ecosystem had become N saturated. Factorial additions of both N and P released the ecosystem from N saturation and dramatically increased gross ecosystem photosynthesis (+500%) and ecosystem respiration (+250%), such that the ecosystem switched from a small source of CO2 to a small sink for CO2 at midday during the 2005 growing season. Changes in the component fluxes of CO2 exchange were largely explained by a doubling of the normalized difference vegetation index, a 100% increase in vascular plant cover and dramatic increases in the abundance of several previously rare grass species. Our results clearly demonstrate that high arctic prostrate dwarf-shrub, herb tundra is highly sensitive to low levels of N addition and that future increases in N deposition or N mineralization will likely lead to change in carbon cycling and vegetation characteristics, but the magnitude of the response will be constrained by P availability.

  6. Mean pressure of pulmonary arteries in non-callous silicosis at states 1 to 2 as determined by radiology in comparison to parameters of pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty coal miners suffering from reticulonodular silicosis underwent catheterization of the right heart and showed latent or manifest pulmonary hypertension. It has been found that the statistical relationship between pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary function was only a loose one. Thirty percent of the studied subjects presented no alterations of the lung function but an increased pulmonary artery mean pressure at rest and under exercise, indicating that the Euler-Liljestrand-mechanism could hardly be responsible for these pressure changes. Subjects with silicosis who presented impaired lung function showed statistically significant higher pulmonary artery pressures than those without alteration of the lung function. It is likely that an additional pressure increase occurs secondary to Euler-Liljestrand-mechanism, when restrictive or obstructive impairments of ventilation emerge from the pneumoconiosis. (orig.)

  7. Bamboo thickets alter the demographic structure of Euterpe edulis population: A keystone, threatened palm species of the Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of bamboos can strongly affect forest structure by interfering plant regeneration and reducing local biodiversity. Considering that bamboos exert a negative influence on the plant community, our main goal was to investigate how this influence manifests at the population level. We compared the demographic structure of the threatened palm Euterpe edulis between bamboo and non-bamboo dominated patches within the Atlantic forest. In the study site, the native bamboo Guadua tagoara has created a marked patchiness and heterogeneity in the vegetation. Plots were set up randomly in bamboo and non-bamboo patches and the heights of all E. edulis individuals were measured. Data from canopy openness and litter depth were collected for both patches. Greater number of E. edulis was recorded in bamboo patches. However, frequency distribution of the height classes differed between patches revealing a predominance of seedling and sapling I classes in bamboo patches, in comparison to a more evenly distribution of height classes in non-bamboo patches. The canopy in bamboo patches was more open and the litter depth was thicker. Our analyses evidenced G. tagoara is functioning as a demographic bottleneck of natural population of E. edulis by arresting its later stages of regeneration and in high densities that bamboos may limit recruitment of this palm species.

  8. Inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by altering the structure of water with amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Cho, Seong Jun; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are solid hydrogen-bonded water crystals containing small molecular gases. The amount of natural gas stored as hydrates in permafrost and ocean sediments is twice that of all other fossil fuels combined. However, hydrate blockages also hinder oil/gas pipeline transportation, and, despite their huge potential as energy sources, our insufficient understanding of hydrates has limited their extraction. Here, we report how the presence of amino acids in water induces changes in its structure and thus interrupts the formation of methane and natural gas hydrates. The perturbation of the structure of water by amino acids and the resulting selective inhibition of hydrate cage formation were observed directly. A strong correlation was found between the inhibition efficiencies of amino acids and their physicochemical properties, which demonstrates the importance of their direct interactions with water and the resulting dissolution environment. The inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by amino acids has the potential to be highly beneficial in practical applications such as hydrate exploitation, oil/gas transportation, and flow assurance. Further, the interactions between amino acids and water are essential to the equilibria and dynamics of many physical, chemical, biological, and environmental processes. PMID:27526869

  9. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation are Modulated by Adrenal-Derived Stress Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure promotes pulmonary injury and inflammation. Previously we have characterized systemic changes that occur immediately after acute ozone exposure and are mediated by neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Both HPA axis and sympathetic tone alterations induce the rel...

  10. Pulmonary oxidative stress, inflammation and dysregulated iron homeostatis in rat models of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a risk factor for the exacerbation of air pollution health effects. Therefore, rodent models of CVD are increasingly used to examine mechanisms ofvariation in susceptibility. Pulmonary oxidative stress, inflammation and altere...

  11. Density, porosity, mineralogy, and internal structure of cosmic dust and alteration of its properties during high velocity atmospheric entry

    CERN Document Server

    Kohout, T; Suuronen, J -P; Rochette, P; Hutzler, A; Gattacceca, J; Skála, D D Badjukov R; Böhmová, V; Čuda, J

    2014-01-01

    X-ray microtomography (XMT), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic hysteresis measurements were used to determine micrometeorite internal structure, mineralogy, crystallography, and physical properties at ~{\\mu}m resolution. The study samples include unmelted, partially melted (scoriaceous) and completely melted (cosmic spherules) micrometeorites. This variety not only allows comparison of the mineralogy and porosity of these three micrometeorite types, but also reveals changes in meteoroid properties during atmospheric entry at various velocities. At low entry velocities, meteoroids do not melt, and their physical properties do not change. The porosity of unmelted micrometeorites varies considerably (0-12%) with one friable example having porosity around 50%. At higher velocities, the range of meteoroid porosity narrows, but average porosity increases (to 16-27%) due to volatile evaporation and partial melting (scoriaceous phase). Metal distribution seems to be mostly unaffected at this stage. At even higher ...

  12. Ab initio van der waals interactions in simulations of water alter structure from mainly tetrahedral to high-density-like

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelhøj, Andreas; Kelkkanen, Kari André; Wikfeldt, K Thor;

    2011-01-01

    The structure of liquid water at ambient conditions is studied in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in the NVE ensemble using van der Waals (vdW) density-functional theory, i.e., using the new exchange-correlation functionals optPBE-vdW and vdW-DF2, where the latter has softer nonlocal...... protocol could cause the deviation. An O-O PCF consisting of a linear combination of 70% from vdW-DF2 and 30% from low-density liquid water, as extrapolated from experiments, reproduces near-quantitatively the experimental O-O PCF for ambient water. This suggests the possibility that the new functionals...... shows some resemblance with experiment for high-density water ( Soper , A. K. and Ricci , M. A. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000 , 84 , 2881 ), but not directly with experiment for ambient water. Considering the accuracy of the new functionals for interaction energies, we investigate whether the simulation...

  13. Unexpected effects of the alteration of structure and stability of myoglobin and hemoglobin in ammonium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Indrani; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru

    2014-03-28

    The nature of solvent-biomolecule interactions is generally weak and non-specific. The addition of ionic liquids (ILs), which have emerged as a new class of solvents, strengthen the stability of some proteins whereas the same ILs weaken the stability of some other proteins. Although ILs are commonly used for the stabilization of biomolecules, the bimolecular interactions of their stabilization-destabilization is still an active subject of considerable interest and studies on this topic have been limited. To reveal the impact of ILs on the stability of proteins, a series of protic ILs possessing a tetra-alkyl ammonium cation [R4N](+) with a hydroxide [OH](-) anion were synthesized. In this study, we report the structural stability of heme proteins such as myoglobin (Mb) and hemoglobin (Hb) in a series of ammonium-based ILs such as tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide [(CH3)4N](+)[OH](-) (TMAH), tetraethyl ammonium hydroxide [(C2H5)4N](+)[OH](-) (TEAH), tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide [(C3H7)4N](+)[OH](-) (TPAH) and tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide [(C4H9)4N](+)[OH](-) (TBAH) by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies. Our experimental results reveal that less viscous ILs carrying smaller alkyl chain such as TMAH are strong destabilizers of the heme proteins as compared to the ILs carrying bulkier alkyl chains which are more viscous ILs, such as TBAH. Therefore, our results demonstrate that the addition of these ILs to the heme proteins decreases their thermal stability allowing the protein to be in an unfolded state at lower temperatures. Further, we describe the molecular-structural interaction of the heme proteins with the ILs (molecule like a ligand) by the PatchDocking method. PMID:24501743

  14. [Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenard, H

    1987-01-01

    The ratios of ventilatory (V) and perfusion (Q) flow rates in the lung are to a large extent responsible for the efficiency of gas exchange. In a simplified monocompartmental model of the lung, the arterial partial pressure of a given gas (Pa) is a function of several factors: the solubility of this gas in blood, its venous and inspired partial pressures and the V/Q ratio. In a multicompartemental model, the mean arterial partial pressure of the gas is a function of the individual values of Pa in each compartment as well as the distribution of V/Q ratios in the lung and the relationship between the concentration and the partial pressure of the gas. The heterogeneity of the distribution of V/Q results from those of both V and Q. Two factors are mainly responsible for this heterogeneity: the gravity and the morphometric characteristics of bronchi and vessels. V/Q ratios are partially controlled at least in low V/Q compartments since hypoxia in these compartments leads to pulmonary arteriolar vasoconstriction. However lungs V/Q ratios range from 0.1 to 10 with a mode around 1. Age, muscular exercise, posture, accelerations, anesthesia, O2 breathing, pulmonary pathology are factors which may alter the distribution of V/Q ratios. PMID:3332289

  15. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  16. Pulmonary mycoses among the clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tshering Ongmu Bhutia; Luna Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was carried with the main objectives: (1) to find out the occurrence of pulmonary mycoses in clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases at central referral hospital, Tadong, Sikkim. (2) To find out the various fungi causing pulmonary mycoses in clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Methods: 200 clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases who visited the department of microbiology for the diagnostic microscopic examination of sputum sample f...

  17. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Gulati, Gurpreet S; Parakh, Neeraj; Aggarwal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a morbid condition associated with complications such as hemoptysis, right heart failure, paradoxical embolism, and even death. There is no known association of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. Possible hypothesis for this association is an increased pulmonary vascular resistance leading to the compensatory formation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. We present one such case presenting with hemoptysis that was managed with endovascular treatment.

  18. Pulmonary endocrine cells in plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy associated with cirrhosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gosney, J R; Resl, M.

    1995-01-01

    A clear association has been described between numbers of pulmonary endocrine cells and the migration and/or proliferation of myofibroblasts which is thought to underlie the vascular changes seen in plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy due to cardiac shunts and primary pulmonary hypertension. In contrast, the pulmonary endocrine system in a subject with florid pulmonary plexogenic arteriopathy associated with cirrhosis was entirely normal, suggesting possible differences in its pathogenesis.

  19. Mutation in the Pro-Peptide Region of a Cysteine Protease Leads to Altered Activity and Specificity—A Structural and Biochemical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sruti; Choudhury, Debi; Roy, Sumana; Dattagupta, Jiban Kanti; Biswas, Sampa

    2016-01-01

    Papain-like proteases contain an N-terminal pro-peptide in their zymogen form that is important for correct folding and spatio-temporal regulation of the proteolytic activity of these proteases. Catalytic removal of the pro-peptide is required for the protease to become active. In this study, we have generated three different mutants of papain (I86F, I86L and I86A) by replacing the residue I86 in its pro-peptide region, which blocks the specificity determining S2-subsite of the catalytic cleft of the protease in its zymogen form with a view to investigate the effect of mutation on the catalytic activity of the protease. Steady-state enzyme kinetic analyses of the corresponding mutant proteases with specific peptide substrates show significant alteration of substrate specificity—I86F and I86L have 2.7 and 29.1 times higher kcat/Km values compared to the wild-type against substrates having Phe and Leu at P2 position, respectively, while I86A shows lower catalytic activity against majority of the substrates tested. Far-UV CD scan and molecular mass analyses of the mature form of the mutant proteases reveal similar CD spectra and intact masses to that of the wild-type. Crystal structures of zymogens of I86F and I86L mutants suggest that subtle reorganization of active site residues, including water, upon binding of the pro-peptide may allow the enzyme to achieve discriminatory substrate selectivity and catalytic efficiency. However, accurate and reliable predictions on alteration of substrate specificity require atomic resolution structure of the catalytic domain after zymogen activation, which remains a challenging task. In this study we demonstrate that through single amino acid substitution in pro-peptide, it is possible to modify the substrate specificity of papain and hence the pro-peptide of a protease can also be a useful target for altering its catalytic activity/specificity. PMID:27352302

  20. CT pulmonary angiography during veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) causes changes in the filling and blood flow of the cardiac chambers and pulmonary vessels as well as alterations in the path of intravenous contrast injected during CT. We present a patient with a potentially misleading CT pulmonary angiogram while on full VA ECMO. We demonstrate circulatory changes as well as alterations in contrast flow when ECMO flows are reduced.

  1. Water-limiting conditions alter the structure and biofilm-forming ability of bacterial multispecies communities in the alfalfa rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Bogino

    Full Text Available Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect. The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and α- and γ-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices.

  2. Alterations of pancreatic islet structure, metabolism and gene expression in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan Roat

    Full Text Available The reduction of functional β cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Here, we studied metabolic functions and islet gene expression profiles of C57BL/6J mice with naturally occurring nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT deletion mutation, a widely used model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes. On high fat diet (HF, the mice developed obesity and hyperinsulinemia, while blood glucose levels were only mildly elevated indicating a substantial capacity to compensate for insulin resistance. The basal serum insulin levels were elevated in HF mice, but insulin secretion in response to glucose load was significantly blunted. Hyperinsulinemia in HF fed mice was associated with an increase in islet mass and size along with higher BrdU incorporation to β cells. The temporal profiles of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS of isolated islets were comparable in HF and normal chow fed mice. Islets isolated from HF fed mice had elevated basal oxygen consumption per islet but failed to increase oxygen consumption further in response to glucose or carbonyl cyanide-4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP. To obtain an unbiased assessment of metabolic pathways in islets, we performed microarray analysis comparing gene expression in islets from HF to normal chow-fed mice. A few genes, for example, those genes involved in the protection against oxidative stress (hypoxia upregulated protein 1 and Pgc1α were up-regulated in HF islets. In contrast, several genes in extracellular matrix and other pathways were suppressed in HF islets. These results indicate that islets from C57BL/6J mice with NNT deletion mutation develop structural, metabolic and gene expression features consistent with compensation and decompensation in response to HF diet.

  3. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Naeije; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associ...

  4. Pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Gulati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis has a spectrum of presentation which ranges from mild disease to a severe form comprising of jaundice and renal failure. Involvement of the lung can vary from subtle clinical features to deadly pulmonary hemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Of late, it has been identified that leptospirosis can present atypically with predominant pulmonary manifestations. This can delay diagnosis making and hence optimum treatment. The purpose of this review is to bring together all the reported pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis and the recent trends in the management.

  5. PULMONARY EMBOLISM: DIAGNOSIS BY FOUNDATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Грабовський, Ю. В.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) – this obstruction pulmonary arterial clot (embolus or) formed in the venous system, the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart, or other material that ended up in the pulmonary circulation (droplets of fat, bone marrow, tumor cells, air, parasites, fragments of catheters etc.), resulting in lung parenchyma preryvayetsya circulation. This leads to the development of hypertension, pulmonary circulation and compensated or decompensated pulmonary heart. This is one...

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Hoendermis, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance and specific histological changes. It is a progressive disease finally resulting in right heart failure and premature death. Typical symptoms are dyspnoea at exercise, chest pain and syncope; furthe...

  7. Comparative Chloroplast Genome Analyses of Streptophyte Green Algae Uncover Major Structural Alterations in the Klebsormidiophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Claude; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique

    2016-01-01

    The Streptophyta comprises all land plants and six main lineages of freshwater green algae: Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Charophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae. Previous comparisons of the chloroplast genome from nine streptophyte algae (including four zygnematophyceans) revealed that, although land plant chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) inherited most of their highly conserved structural features from green algal ancestors, considerable cpDNA changes took place during the evolution of the Zygnematophyceae, the sister group of land plants. To gain deeper insights into the evolutionary dynamics of the chloroplast genome in streptophyte algae, we sequenced the cpDNAs of nine additional taxa: two klebsormidiophyceans (Entransia fimbriata and Klebsormidium sp. SAG 51.86), one coleocheatophycean (Coleochaete scutata) and six zygnematophyceans (Cylindrocystis brebissonii, Netrium digitus, Roya obtusa, Spirogyra maxima, Cosmarium botrytis and Closterium baillyanum). Our comparative analyses of these genomes with their streptophyte algal counterparts indicate that the large inverted repeat (IR) encoding the rDNA operon experienced loss or expansion/contraction in all three sampled classes and that genes were extensively shuffled in both the Klebsormidiophyceae and Zygnematophyceae. The klebsormidiophycean genomes boast greatly expanded IRs, with the Entransia 60,590-bp IR being the largest known among green algae. The 206,025-bp Entransia cpDNA, which is one of the largest genome among streptophytes, encodes 118 standard genes, i.e., four additional genes compared to its Klebsormidium flaccidum homolog. We inferred that seven of the 21 group II introns usually found in land plants were already present in the common ancestor of the Klebsormidiophyceae and its sister lineages. At 107,236 bp and with 117 standard genes, the Coleochaete IR-less genome is both the smallest and most compact among the streptophyte algal cpDNAs analyzed thus

  8. Systematics of hydrothermal alteration at the volcanic-hosted Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) deposit - implications for ore genesis, structure and exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Tobias C.; Jansson, Nils J.; Stephens, Michael B.; Majka, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic, volcanic-hosted Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit was mined for base and precious metals during several centuries, until its closure in 1992. The deposit is located in a 1.9 Ga ore district in the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit, Fennoscandian Shield, south-central Sweden. Both the ores and their host rock underwent polyphase ductile deformation, and metamorphism under amphibolite facies and later retrograde conditions at 1.9-1.8 Ga (Svecokarelian orogenic system). This study has the following aims: (i) Classify styles and intensities of alteration in the hydrothermally altered zone at Falun; (ii) identify precursor rocks to hydrothermally altered rocks and their spatial distribution at the deposit; (iii) evaluate the chemical changes resulting from hydrothermal alteration using mass change calculations; and (iv) assess the pre-metamorphic alteration assemblages accounting for the observed metamorphic mineral associations in the altered rocks at Falun. Results will have implications for both the ore-genetic and structural understanding of the deposit, as well as for local and regional exploration. Metamorphic mineral associations in the altered rocks include biotite-quartz-cordierite-(anthophyllite) and, more proximally, quartz-anthophyllite-(biotite-cordierite/almandine), biotite-cordierite-(anthophyllite) and biotite-almandine-(anthophyllite). The proximal hydrothermally altered zone corresponds to intense chlorite-style alteration. Subordinate dolomite or calcite marble, as well as calc-silicate (tremolite, diopside) rocks are also present at the deposit. Metavolcanic rocks around the deposit are unaltered, weakly sericitized or sodic-altered. Immobile-element (e.g. Zr, TiO2, Al2O3, REE) systematics of the silicate-rich samples at and around the deposit suggest that the precursors to the hydrothermally altered rocks at Falun were predominantly rhyolitic in composition, dacitic rocks being subordinate and mafic-intermediate rocks

  9. Mycobacterium sherrisii Lung Infection in a Brazilian Patient with Silicosis and a History of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Oliveira Abrão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM diseases became relevant with the emergence and spread of HIV and are also related to lung infection in non-HIV individuals with structural lung diseases. Mycobacterium sherrisii is a NTM first characterized in 2004. Only a few cases have been reported. The aim of this case report is to describe the first detailed case of infection with M. sherrisii in a patient with silicosis and history of pulmonary tuberculosis. A 50-year-old HIV-negative white male, previous smoker, with silicosis and a history of treated pulmonary tuberculosis developed a worsening of cough and expectoration pattern, and two sputum samples were positive for acid-fast bacilli. Presumptive treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis was initiated with rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, but, at month 5 of treatment, despite correct medication intake and slight improvement of symptoms, sputum bacilloscopy remained positive. Sputum cultures were positive Mycobacterium sherrisii. Treatment regimen was altered to streptomycin (for 2 months, ethambutol, clarithromycin, rifabutin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. M. sherrisii should be considered a possible etiological agent of lung infections in patients with pneumoconiosis and history of tuberculosis.

  10. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yukiko, E-mail: matsuyuki_future@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Kawata, Naoko, E-mail: chumito_03@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Yanagawa, Noriyuki, E-mail: yanagawa@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@js3.so-net.ne.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakurai, Yoriko, E-mail: yoliri@nifty.com [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sato, Misuzu, E-mail: mis_misuzu@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Iesato, Ken, E-mail: iesato_k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Terada, Jiro, E-mail: jirotera@chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakao, Seiichiro, E-mail: sakao@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tada, Yuji, E-mail: ytada@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tanabe, Nobuhiro, E-mail: ntanabe@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Suzuki, Yoichi, E-mail: ysuzuki@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tatsumi, Koichiro, E-mail: tatsumi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm{sup 2} as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers.

  11. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm2 as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers

  12. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return is an uncommon congenital malformation, and may be partial or total. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is more common than total anomalous pulmonary venous return, and is often associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies. Whilst many patients with PAPVR remain asymptomatic, some may present in later age with symptoms related to left-to-right shunt, right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. We report two cases of PAPVR detected on Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiogram (CTPA) for the work up of pulmonary hypertension. The cases demonstrate that, although uncommon, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return can be a contributing factor to pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veins should be carefully examined when reading a CTPA study.

  13. Pulmonary Hypertension in Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Revatio ® . Sildenafil has been shown to improve exercise capacity, pulmonary artery pressure, and functional class in patients with ... Riociguat has been shown to significantly improve exercise ... TRANSPLANTATION Lung transplantation is reserved for patients with ...

  14. Pulmonary hypertension in wild type mice and animals with genetic deficit in KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wandall-Frostholm

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In vascular biology, endothelial KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels contribute to arterial blood pressure regulation by producing membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. The role of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels in the pulmonary circulation is not fully established. Using mice with genetically encoded deficit of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels, this study investigated the effect of loss of the channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. APPROACH AND RESULT: Male wild type and KCa3.1-/-/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia for four weeks to induce pulmonary hypertension. The degree of pulmonary hypertension was evaluated by right ventricular pressure and assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy. Segments of pulmonary arteries were mounted in a wire myograph for functional studies and morphometric studies were performed on lung sections. Chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased lung weight, and increased hematocrit levels in either genotype. The KCa3.1-/-/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX mice developed structural alterations in the heart with increased right ventricular wall thickness as well as in pulmonary vessels with increased lumen size in partially- and fully-muscularized vessels and decreased wall area, not seen in wild type mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia up-regulated the gene expression of the KCa2.3 channel by twofold in wild type mice and increased by 2.5-fold the relaxation evoked by the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel activator NS309, whereas the acetylcholine-induced relaxation - sensitive to the combination of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel blockers, apamin and charybdotoxin - was reduced by 2.5-fold in chronic hypoxic mice of either genotype. CONCLUSION: Despite the deficits of the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels failed to change hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, the up-regulation of KCa2.3-gene expression and increased NS309-induced relaxation in wild-type mice point to a

  15. Pulmonary Hypertension in Wild Type Mice and Animals with Genetic Deficit in KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadda, Veeranjaneyulu; Nielsen, Gorm; Hedegaard, Elise Røge; Mogensen, Susie; Köhler, Ralf; Simonsen, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Objective In vascular biology, endothelial KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels contribute to arterial blood pressure regulation by producing membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. The role of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels in the pulmonary circulation is not fully established. Using mice with genetically encoded deficit of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels, this study investigated the effect of loss of the channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Approach and Result Male wild type and KCa3.1−/−/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX) mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia for four weeks to induce pulmonary hypertension. The degree of pulmonary hypertension was evaluated by right ventricular pressure and assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy. Segments of pulmonary arteries were mounted in a wire myograph for functional studies and morphometric studies were performed on lung sections. Chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased lung weight, and increased hematocrit levels in either genotype. The KCa3.1−/−/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX) mice developed structural alterations in the heart with increased right ventricular wall thickness as well as in pulmonary vessels with increased lumen size in partially- and fully-muscularized vessels and decreased wall area, not seen in wild type mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia up-regulated the gene expression of the KCa2.3 channel by twofold in wild type mice and increased by 2.5-fold the relaxation evoked by the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel activator NS309, whereas the acetylcholine-induced relaxation - sensitive to the combination of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel blockers, apamin and charybdotoxin - was reduced by 2.5-fold in chronic hypoxic mice of either genotype. Conclusion Despite the deficits of the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels failed to change hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, the up-regulation of KCa2.3-gene expression and increased NS309-induced relaxation in wild-type mice point to a novel

  16. Sequences of a hairpin structure in the 3′-untranslated region mediate regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein B mRNA stability

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Helen W.; Payne, David E.; Bi, Weizhen; Pan, Su; Bruce, Shirley R.; Alcorn, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension requires adequate expression of surfactant protein B (SP-B). Dexamethasone (DEX, 10−7 M) increases human SP-B mRNA stability by a mechanism that requires a 126-nt-long segment (the 7.6S region) of the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR). The objective of this study was to identify sequences in the 7.6S region that mediate regulation of SP-B mRNA stability. The 7.6S region was found to be sufficient for DEX-mediated stabilizati...

  17. Multiplexed quantitative high content screening reveals that cigarette smoke condensate induces changes in cell structure and function through alterations in cell signaling pathways in human bronchial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human bronchial cells are one of the first cell types exposed to environmental toxins. Toxins often activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and protein kinase C (PKC). We evaluated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, activates PKC-α and NF-κB, and concomitantly disrupts the F-actin cytoskeleton, induces apoptosis and alters cell function in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Compared to controls, exposure of BEAS-2B cells to doses of 30 μg/ml CSC significantly activated PKC-α, while CSC doses above 20 μg/ml CSC significantly activated NF-κB. As NF-κB was activated, cell number decreased. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced a decrease in cell size and an increase in cell surface extensions including filopodia and lamellipodia. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced F-actin rearrangement such that stress fibers were no longer prominent at the cell periphery and throughout the cells, but relocalized to perinuclear regions. Concurrently, CSC induced an increase in the focal adhesion protein vinculin at the cell periphery. CSC doses above 30 μg/ml induced a significant increase in apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells evidenced by an increase in activated caspase 3, an increase in mitochondrial mass and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. As caspase 3 increased, cell number decreased. CSC doses above 30 μg/ml also induced significant concurrent changes in cell function including decreased cell spreading and motility. CSC initiates a signaling cascade in human bronchial epithelial cells involving PKC-α, NF-κB and caspase 3, and consequently decreases cell spreading and motility. These CSC-induced alterations in cell structure likely prevent cells from performing their normal function thereby contributing to smoke-induced diseases.

  18. Temperature increases from 55 to 75 C in a two-phase biogas reactor result in fundamental alterations within the bacterial and archaeal community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, Antje [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Bioverfahrenstechnik; Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technischen Umweltschutz; Nolte, Christine; Schoenberg, Mandy; Klocke, Michael [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Bioverfahrenstechnik

    2012-10-15

    Agricultural biogas plants were operated in most cases below their optimal performance. An increase in the fermentation temperature and a spatial separation of hydrolysis/acetogenesis and methanogenesis are known strategies in improving and stabilizing biogas production. In this study, the dynamic variability of the bacterial and archaeal community was monitored within a two-phase leach bed biogas reactor supplied with rye silage and straw during a stepwise temperature increase from 55 to 75 C within the leach bed reactor (LBR), using TRFLP analyses. To identify the terminal restriction fragments that were obtained, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed. Above 65 C, the bacterial community structure changed from being Clostridiales-dominated toward being dominated by members of the Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, and Thermotogales orders. Simultaneously, several changes occurred, including a decrease in the total cell count, degradation rate, and biogas yield along with alterations in the intermediate production. A bioaugmentation with compost at 70 C led to slight improvements in the reactor performance; these did not persist at 75 C. However, the archaeal community within the downstream anaerobic filter reactor (AF), operated constantly at 55 C, altered by the temperature increase in the LBR. At an LBR temperature of 55 C, members of the Methanobacteriales order were prevalent in the AF, whereas at higher LBR temperatures Methanosarcinales prevailed. Altogether, the best performance of this two-phase reactor was achieved at an LBR temperature of below 65 C, which indicates that this temperature range has a favorable effect on the microbial community responsible for the production of biogas. (orig.)

  19. Structural differences between bovine A(1) and A(2) β-casein alter micelle self-assembly and influence molecular chaperone activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynes, J K; Day, L; Augustin, M A; Carver, J A

    2015-04-01

    Within each milk protein there are many individual protein variants and marked alterations to milk functionality can occur depending on the genetic variants of each protein present. Bovine A(1) and A(2) β-casein (β-CN) are 2 variants that contribute to differences in the gelation performance of milk. The A(1) and A(2) β-CN variants differ by a single AA, the substitution of histidine for proline at position 67. β-Casein not only participates in formation of the casein micelle but also forms an oligomeric micelle itself and functions as a molecular chaperone to prevent the aggregation of a wide range of proteins, including the other caseins. Micelle assembly of A(1) and A(2) β-CN was investigated using dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, whereas protein functionality was assessed using fluorescence techniques and molecular chaperone assays. The A(2) β-CN variant formed smaller micelles than A(1) β-CN, with the monomer-micelle equilibrium of A(2) β-CN being shifted toward the monomer. This shift most likely arose from structural differences between the 2 β-CN variants associated with the adoption of greater polyproline-II helix in A(2) β-CN and most likely led to enhanced chaperone activity of A(2) β-CN compared with A(1) β-CN. The difference in micelle assembly, and hence chaperone activity, may provide explain differences in the functionality of homozygous A(1) and A(2) milk. The results of this study highlight that substitution of even a single AA can significantly alter the properties of an intrinsically unstructured protein such as β-CN and, in this case, may have an effect on the functionality of milk. PMID:25648798

  20. The zinc transporter ZIP12 regulates the pulmonary vascular response to chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Oliver, Eduardo; Maratou, Klio; Atanur, Santosh S; Dubois, Olivier D; Cotroneo, Emanuele; Chen, Chien-Nien; Wang, Lei; Arce, Cristina; Chabosseau, Pauline L; Ponsa-Cobas, Joan; Frid, Maria G; Moyon, Benjamin; Webster, Zoe; Aldashev, Almaz; Ferrer, Jorge; Rutter, Guy A; Stenmark, Kurt R; Aitman, Timothy J; Wilkins, Martin R

    2015-08-20

    The typical response of the adult mammalian pulmonary circulation to a low oxygen environment is vasoconstriction and structural remodelling of pulmonary arterioles, leading to chronic elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (pulmonary hypertension) and right ventricular hypertrophy. Some mammals, however, exhibit genetic resistance to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We used a congenic breeding program and comparative genomics to exploit this variation in the rat and identified the gene Slc39a12 as a major regulator of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodelling. Slc39a12 encodes the zinc transporter ZIP12. Here we report that ZIP12 expression is increased in many cell types, including endothelial, smooth muscle and interstitial cells, in the remodelled pulmonary arterioles of rats, cows and humans susceptible to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We show that ZIP12 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells is hypoxia dependent and that targeted inhibition of ZIP12 inhibits the rise in intracellular labile zinc in hypoxia-exposed pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and their proliferation in culture. We demonstrate that genetic disruption of ZIP12 expression attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in rats housed in a hypoxic atmosphere. This new and unexpected insight into the fundamental role of a zinc transporter in mammalian pulmonary vascular homeostasis suggests a new drug target for the pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26258299

  1. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy

  2. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busi Rizzi, Elisa; Schinina, Vincenzo; Bellussi, Angelo; De Santis, Andrea; Mazzuoli, Giovanna; Giosue, Sandro; Bibbolino, Corrado

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy.

  3. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Limme; Ramona Nicolescu; Jean-Paul Misson

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency De...

  4. ROCKing pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Clinical vignette: A 76-year-old man consults you for increasing shortness of breath over the past two years and an increasing requirement for home oxygen. A video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy shows findings of usual interstitial pneumonitis, and he has no identifiable cause for pulmonary fibrosis, so he is considered to have idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). His diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is 45% of predicted, and his total lung capacity is 40% of predicted. Becaus...

  5. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Ries, Andrew L.; Make, Barry J; Reilly, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is an established treatment for patients with chronic lung disease. Benefits include improvement in exercise tolerance, symptoms, and quality of life, with a reduction in the use of health care resources. As an adjunct to surgical programs, such as lung volume reduction surgery, pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important role not just in preparing patients for surgery and facilitating recovery but also in selecting patients and ensuring informed choices about treatme...

  6. Hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease characteristic of humid eastern countries. It is relatively uncommon in the West. it usually presents with either hepatorenal or pulmonary involvement, two forms which generally overlap to a certain degree. We report a case of severe onset hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis in a man who, during the course of the disease, presented multi systemic embolism (spleen, kidney and central nervous system). (Author) 11 refs

  7. Pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Gulati; Anu Gulati

    2012-01-01

    Leptospirosis has a spectrum of presentation which ranges from mild disease to a severe form comprising of jaundice and renal failure. Involvement of the lung can vary from subtle clinical features to deadly pulmonary hemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Of late, it has been identified that leptospirosis can present atypically with predominant pulmonary manifestations. This can delay diagnosis making and hence optimum treatment. The purpose of this review is to bring together a...

  8. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Crestani, B; Epaud, R.; Aubier, M.; M-C. Dombret; Taille, C.; M-P. Debray; Danel, C.; R. Borie

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease characterised by alveolar accumulation of surfactant. It may result from mutations in surfactant proteins or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor genes, it may be secondary to toxic inhalation or haematological disorders, or it may be auto-immune, with anti-GM-CSF antibodies blocking activation of alveolar macrophages. Auto-immune alveolar proteinosis is the most frequent form of PAP, representing 9...

  9. Primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Šarac Sanja; Milić Rade; Zolotarevski Lidija; Aćimović Slobodan; Tomić Ilija; Plavec Goran

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant proteins and phospholipids within the alveolar spaces. Acquired disease can be idiopathic (primary) and secondary. The prevalence of acquired pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is about 0.37 per 100,000 persons. Common symptoms are dyspnea and cough. Chest X-ray shows bilateral perihilar infiltrates. Open-lung biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Treatment includes w...

  10. Congenital Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Hammami; Khaled Harrathi; Khaled Lajmi; Samir Hadded; Chebil Ben Meriem; Mohamed Néji Guédiche

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare syndrome characterized by pulmonary surfactant accumulation within the alveolar spaces. It occurs with a reported prevalence of 0.1 per 100,000 individuals. Two clinically different pediatric types have been defined as congenital PAP which is fatal and a late-onset PAP which is similar to the adult form and less severe. The clinical course of PAP is variable, ranging from spontaneous remission to respiratory failure. Whole-lung lavage is the curr...

  11. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenough, A; Dixon, A K; Roberton, N R

    1984-01-01

    Forty one of 210 preterm infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome in a three year period had radiological evidence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema. The development of this condition was significantly associated with malpositioning of the endotracheal tube in a main bronchus and the use of high peak pressure ventilation. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema was associated with a significant increase in the number of pneumothoraces, intraventricular haemorrhages, and the need for pr...

  12. Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin Işık; İsmail Katı; Onur Palabıyık; Uğur Göktaş

    2011-01-01

    Reexpansion pulmonary edema is a rare but life threating complication which is occurring during the treatment of lung collapse secondary to pleural effusion, pneumothorax or atelectasis. We presented a 68 year-old case with hypertension, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus who had developed reexpansion pulmonary edema three hours after the application of unilateral thoracentesis (Journal of the Turkish Society of Intensive Care 2011; 9: 26-9)

  13. Gestational pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Matthew; Payne, Julie G.; Tukey, Melissa H.; Farber, Harrison W.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease marked by the irreversible pulmonary vascular changes of vasoconstriction, thrombosis, and proliferation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells. The untreated clinical course is characterized by progressive dyspnea and a median survival of less than 3 years. Many of these patients are of child-bearing age; however, pregnancy leads to physiologic changes that are particularly poorly tolerated in PAH, conferring a 30%–56% mortality....

  14. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Firth, Amy L.; Mandel, Jess; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite improved understanding of the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), it remains a severe and progressive disease, usually culminating in right heart failure, significant morbidity and early mortality. Over the last decade, some major advances have led to substantial improvements in the management of PAH. Much of this progress was pioneered by work in animal models. Although none of the current animal models of pulmonary hypertension (PH) completely recapitulate the hum...

  15. Computed tomographic imaging of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease of uncertain etiology. The computed tomographic image is characterized by geographically sharply delineated alveolar infiltrates, faint, ground-glass-like parenchymal turbidity, with well bordered interstitial structures and recesses in the subpleural space. (orig.)

  16. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosla Rahul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE is a common, treatable, highly lethal emergency, which despite advances in diagnostic testing, remains an under diagnosed killer. The mortality rate of diagnosed and treated pulmonary embolism ranges from 3-8%, but increases to about 30% in untreated pulmonary embolism. PE is a part of the spectrum of venousthromboembolic disease and most pulmonary emboli have their origin from clots in the iliac, deep femoral, or popliteal veins. Nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms with low sensitivity and specificity of routine tests such as arterial blood gas, chest roentgenogram and electrocardiogram make the diagnosis of PE very challenging for the clinician. Pulmonary angiography is the gold standard diagnostic test, but this technique is invasive, expensive, not readily available and labor intensive. Diagnostic strategies have revolved around establishing clinical probabilities based on predictive models, then ruling in or ruling out the diagnosis of PE with various tests. The aim of this article was to review the literature and present an evidence- based medicine approach to diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

  17. Structural evolution of the Mount Wall region in the Hamersley province, Western Australia and its control on hydrothermal alteration and formation of high-grade iron deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstra, Hilke J.

    2014-10-01

    The discovery of two relatively small but high-grade iron ore deposits near Mt Wall, an intensely faulted part of the southwestern Hamersley province provides unique insights into the structural control on ore formation in this region. The deposits have many geological features typical of the high grade microplaty hematite group which also contains the much larger Mt Tom Price, Paraburdoo and Mt Whaleback deposits. The deposits are structurally controlled along early normal faults and contain abundant microplaty hematite and martite, and are largely confined to the Dales Gorge member of the Brockman Iron Formation. In addition to the microplaty hematite-martite ore, there are martite-goethite ores and rare magnetite-goethite or magnetite-hematite ores. Below the modern weathering surface, hydrothermally altered zones in wallrock BIF from the Lower Dales Gorge member contain magnetite, hematite and carbonate/talc bearing mineral assemblages. A staged ore genesis model involving early extension and fluid circulation along normal faults, hypogene silica leaching and carbonate alteration, followed by deep meteoric oxidation with microplaty hematite formation and finally weathering can explain most features of the Mt Wall deposits. The role of deformation was to provide pathways for mineralising fluids and initiate the seed points for the mineralised systems. High grade iron in the Wellthandalthaluna deposit is situated between the NW to NNW trending Boolgeeda Creek fault and a synthetic joining splay, the Northern fault. Both are high angle normal faults and formed during early extension in this part of the province. Faults are characterised by localised small scale deformation and brecciation, deep carbonate alteration and oxidation. Recent weathering has penetrated deeply into the fault zones, converting the carbonate-rich assemblages into goethite. Mineralisation in the Arochar deposit is situated in the overlap or relay zone between two segments of the Mt Wall

  18. High serotonin levels during brain development alter the structural input-output connectivity of neural networks in the rat somatosensory layer IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Miceli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic regulation of serotonin (5-HT concentration is critical for “normal” topographical organization and development of thalamocortical (TC afferent circuits. Down-regulation of the serotonin transporter (SERT and the consequent impaired reuptake of 5-HT at the synapse, results in a reduced terminal branching of developing TC afferents within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1. Despite the presence of multiple genetic models, the effect of high extracellular 5-HT levels on the structure and function of developing intracortical neural networks is far from being understood. Here, using juvenile SERT knockout (SERT-/- rats we investigated, in vitro, the effect of increased 5-HT levels on the structural organization of (i the thalamocortical projections of the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus towards S1, (ii the general barrel-field pattern and (iii the electrophysiological and morphological properties of the excitatory cell population in layer IV of S1 (spiny stellate and pyramidal cells. Our results confirmed previous findings that high levels of 5-HT during development lead to a reduction of the topographical precision of TCA projections towards the barrel cortex. Also, the barrel pattern was altered but not abolished in SERT-/- rats. In layer IV, both excitatory spiny stellate and pyramidal cells showed a significantly reduced intracolumnar organization of their axonal projections. In addition, the layer IV spiny stellate cells gave rise to a prominent projection towards the infragranular layer Vb. Our findings point to a structural and functional reorganization, of TCAs, as well as early stage intracortical microcircuitry, following the disruption of 5-HT reuptake during critical developmental periods. The increased projection pattern of the layer IV neurons suggests that the intracortical network changes are not limited to the main entry layer IV but may also affect the subsequent stages of the canonical circuits of the barrel

  19. Mutation D816V alters the internal structure and dynamics of c-KIT receptor cytoplasmic region: implications for dimerization and activation mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Laine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK KIT plays a crucial role in the transmission of cellular signals through phosphorylation events that are associated with a switching of the protein conformation between inactive and active states. D816V KIT mutation is associated with various pathologies including mastocytosis and cancers. D816V-mutated KIT is constitutively active, and resistant to treatment with the anti-cancer drug Imatinib. To elucidate the activating molecular mechanism of this mutation, we applied a multi-approach procedure combining molecular dynamics (MD simulations, normal modes analysis (NMA and binding site prediction. Multiple 50-ns MD simulations of wild-type KIT and its mutant D816V were recorded using the inactive auto-inhibited structure of the protein, characteristic of type III RTKs. Computed free energy differences enabled us to quantify the impact of D816V on protein stability in the inactive state. We evidenced a local structural alteration of the activation loop (A-loop upon mutation, and a long-range structural re-organization of the juxta-membrane region (JMR followed by a weakening of the interaction network with the kinase domain. A thorough normal mode analysis of several MD conformations led to a plausible molecular rationale to propose that JMR is able to depart its auto-inhibitory position more easily in the mutant than in wild-type KIT and is thus able to promote kinase mutant dimerization without the need for extra-cellular ligand binding. Pocket detection at the surface of NMA-displaced conformations finally revealed that detachment of JMR from the kinase domain in the mutant was sufficient to open an access to the catalytic and substrate binding sites.

  20. Acute pulmonary parenchymal densities in the adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thrust of the radiographic interpretation is to correlate the often non-specific appearance of any parenchymal density with its time-table of development, rate of change, distribution, and the patient's clinical status. Although this chapter contains separate sections on each major cause of acute pulmonary opacification, the intent of the chapter overall is their differential diagnosis. Before beginning to deal with acute pulmonary densities, it is stressed that acute densities can only be differentiated from chronic ones by reviewing preoperative or pre-existing studies. Without the baseline comparison film or reliable presumption of prior normalcy, the acuteness of a parenchymal density may not be apparent until later examinations reveal change or resolution. Also, as discussed is baseline pathology that is altered by the portable technique can be terribly confusing when attempting to evaluate a single isolated film in an acute clinical situation

  1. Radiologic manifestation of pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Bang, Duk Ja; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Jeon, Seok Chol; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis is an uncommon granulomatous disorder of unknown cause. The authors retrospectively evaluated radiography and computed tomographic findings of five patients with biopsy proven pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. The main structural abnormalities consisted of small nodules and cystic air spaces, but one cases showed only pneumothorax due to bullae rupture. Its distribution has been known predominantly in the upper lung fields, but in our cases, the lung lesions were distributed in the entire lung fields or predominently in the lower lung fields. We propose that pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis is extremely variable of its structural abnormalities and distribution.

  2. Pulmonary embolism: importance of modern radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal was to define the role and value of modern diagnostic radiology in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. It was established that pulmoscintigraphy as emission study allows a functional characterization of the pathological process, to identify the minimum metabolic disorders at an early stage of their occurrence. While CT angiography can detect minimal structural changes in the pulmonary artery, and provide exceptionally accurate information on the localization of the identified anatomical changes. CT-AG as a minimally invasive method that allows you to identify the level of arrangement of a blood clot in the blood vessels, their scope and prevalence. Through objectivity, high resolution, speed modern diagnostic radiology allows early diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

  3. Neural Hypernetwork Approach for Pulmonary Embolism diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Rucco, Matteo; Merelli, Emanuela; Johnson, Jeffrey H; Falsetti, Lorenzo; Nitti, Cinzia; Salvi, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    This work introduces an integrative approach based on Q-analysis with machine learning. The new approach, called Neural Hypernetwork, has been applied to a case study of pulmonary embolism diagnosis. The objective of the application of neural hyper-network to pulmonary embolism (PE) is to improve diagnose for reducing the number of CT-angiography needed. Hypernetworks, based on topological simplicial complex, generalize the concept of two-relation to many-body relation. Furthermore, Hypernetworks provide a significant generalization of network theory, enabling the integration of relational structure, logic and analytic dynamics. Another important results is that Q-analysis stays close to the data, while other approaches manipulate data, projecting them into metric spaces or applying some filtering functions to highlight the intrinsic relations. A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches, frequently fatal. Our study uses data on 28 diagnostic features of 1,427...

  4. Pulmonary CT and MRI phenotypes that help explain chronic pulmonary obstruction disease pathophysiology and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric A; Lynch, David A; Barr, R Graham; van Beek, Edwin J R; Parraga, Grace

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary x-ray computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research and development has been motivated, in part, by the quest to subphenotype common chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For thoracic CT and MRI, the main COPD research tools, disease biomarkers are being validated that go beyond anatomy and structure to include pulmonary functional measurements such as regional ventilation, perfusion, and inflammation. In addition, there has also been a drive to improve spatial and contrast resolution while at the same time reducing or eliminating radiation exposure. Therefore, this review focuses on our evolving understanding of patient-relevant and clinically important COPD endpoints and how current and emerging MRI and CT tools and measurements may be exploited for their identification, quantification, and utilization. Since reviews of the imaging physics of pulmonary CT and MRI and reviews of other COPD imaging methods were previously published and well-summarized, we focus on the current clinical challenges in COPD and the potential of newly emerging MR and CT imaging measurements to address them. Here we summarize MRI and CT imaging methods and their clinical translation for generating reproducible and sensitive measurements of COPD related to pulmonary ventilation and perfusion as well as parenchyma morphology. The key clinical problems in COPD provide an important framework in which pulmonary imaging needs to rapidly move in order to address the staggering burden, costs, as well as the mortality and morbidity associated with COPD. PMID:26199216

  5. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction as a contributor to response in acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrowes, K S; Clark, A R; Wilsher, M L; Milne, D G; Tawhai, M H

    2014-08-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is an adaptive response unique to the lung whereby blood flow is diverted away from areas of low alveolar oxygen to improve ventilation-perfusion matching and resultant gas exchange. Some previous experimental studies have suggested that the HPV response to hypoxia is blunted in acute pulmonary embolism (APE), while others have concluded that HPV contributes to elevated pulmonary blood pressures in APE. To understand these contradictory observations, we have used a structure-based computational model of integrated lung function in 10 subjects to study the impact of HPV on pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange in the presence of regional arterial occlusion. The integrated model includes an experimentally-derived model for HPV. Its function is validated against measurements of pulmonary vascular resistance in normal subjects at four levels of inspired oxygen. Our results show that the apparently disparate observations of previous studies can be explained within a single model: the model predicts that HPV increases mean pulmonary artery pressure in APE (by 8.2 ± 7.0% in these subjects), and concurrently shows a reduction in response to hypoxia in the subjects who have high levels of occlusion and therefore maximal HPV in normoxia. PMID:24770844

  6. CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Jung Eun; Im, Jung Gi; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Hong Dae; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    The fungus aspergillus can cause a variety of pulmonary disorders. Aspergilloma is a noninvasive aspergillus colonization of virtually any type of preexisting pulmonary cavity or cystic space. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is serious, usually fatal infection in patients being treated with immunosuppressants or who have chronic debilitating disease. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is characterized clinically by asthma, blood and sputum eosinophilia and positive immunologic reaction to aspergillus antigen. Awareness of the radiographic and CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis is important in making the diagnosis of aspergillus-caused pulmonary disorders. In this pictorial essay, we illustrated various radiological findings of pulmonary aspergillosis focused on CT findings correlated with gross pathologic specimens.

  7. Differences in fungal and bacterial physiology alter soil carbon and nitrogen cycling: synthesizing effects of microbial community structure using the Fungi and Bacteria (FAB) model. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, C.; Hawkes, C. V.; Waring, B. G.

    2013-12-01

    community structure can alter biogeochemical predictions substantially, particularly when key functional groups are considered. The FAB model helps to move us towards this goal and generates community structure predictions that can be empirically validated.

  8. Sevoflurane anesthesia deteriorates pulmonary surfactant promoting alveolar collapse in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrida, Leonel; Reta, Germán; Piriz, Héctor; Rocchiccioli, Fabiana; Botti, Horacio; Denicola, Ana; Briva, Arturo

    2014-08-01

    General anesthesia is frequently associated to transient hypoxemia and lung atelectasis. Although volatile anesthetics are safe and widely used, their potential role on anesthesia-induced pulmonary impairment has not been fully explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of volatile anesthetic sevoflurane on pulmonary surfactant composition and structure that could contribute to atelectasis. After 30 min of sevoflurane anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley rats showed increased levels of lyso-phosphatidylcholine and decreased levels of phosphatidylcholine associated with significant impairment in lung mechanics and alveolar collapse, but showed no deterioration of alveolar fluid reabsorption when compared to control group of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital. Exposure to sevoflurane altered the thermotropic profile of surfactant model membranes, as detected by fluorescence anisotropy. In this sense, sevoflurane-promoted fluidification of condensed phases could potentially impair the ability of surfactant films to sustain the lowest surface tensions. In conclusion, the observed changes in surfactant composition and viscosity properties suggest a direct effect of sevoflurane on surfactant function, a factor potentially involved in anesthetic-induced alterations in lung mechanics. PMID:24394979

  9. Perfusion abnormalities in congenital and neoplastic pulmonary disease: comparison of MR perfusion and multislice CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to assess magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion patterns of chronic, nonembolic pulmonary diseases of congenital and neoplastic origin and to compare the findings with results obtained with pulmonary, contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) imaging to prove that congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions require MR imaging over the pulmonary perfusion cycle to successfully and directly detect changes in lung perfusion patterns. Twenty-five patients underwent concurrent CT and MR evaluation of chronic pulmonary diseases of congenital (n=15) or neoplastic (n=10) origin. Analysis of MR perfusion and contrast-enhanced CT datasets was realized by defining pulmonary and vascular regions of interest in corresponding positions. MR perfusion calculated time-to-peak enhancement, maximal enhancement and the area under the perfusion curve. CT datasets provided pulmonary signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Vessel centerlines of bronchial arteries were determined. Underlying perfusion type, such as pulmonary arterial or systemic arterial supply, as well as regions with significant variations in perfusion were determined statistically. Analysis of the pulmonary perfusion pattern detected pulmonary arterial supply in 19 patients; six patients showed systemic arterial supply. In pulmonary arterial perfusion, MR and multislice CT imaging consistently detected the perfusion type and regions with altered perfusion patterns. In bronchial arterial supply, MR perfusion and CT imaging showed significant perfusion differences. Patients with bronchial arterial supply had bronchial arteries ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 mm compared with submillimeter diameters in pulmonary arterial perfusion. Dynamic MR imaging of congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions allowed characterization of the pulmonary perfusion type. CT imaging suggested the presence of systemic arterial perfusion by visualizing hypertrophied bronchial arteries. (orig.)

  10. Pulmonary diseases caused by airborne contaminants in swine confinement buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, S; Pickrell, J A; Oehme, F W

    2001-02-01

    Exposure to toxic gases and particles or dusts while working or living in confinement animal systems pose a pulmonary health hazard. The severity of lung impairment from exposure to such environment is investigated using intratracheal instillation, intratracheal nebulization, and inhalation procedures. Ability to deliver particles with intratracheal instillation that are evenly distributed throughout the lung depends on the material used for injection. Pulmonary histopathology reflects anatomic changes following inhalation or instillation of chemicals or particles. Endobronchial saline washings of bronchioles and alveoli allow measurement of markers of pulmonary inflammation such as total nucleated cell (leukocyte) counts and those of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes; TNF-alpha, and collagen concentration are used to further evaluate pulmonary response to endotoxin or dust exposure. Alveolar epithelial cells have an important role in clearing pulmonary fluid and maintaining the structure of lung tissue. After repeated exposure, damage to epithelial cells may result in their death, causing edema and collagen deposition that may lead to fibrosis. PMID:11205081

  11. Predictors of Pulmonary Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Massimo; Bottai, Matteo; Ciccotosto, Cesario; Roberto, Luca; Monti, Simonetta

    2015-10-01

    In the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary infarction is deemed to occur primarily in individuals with compromised cardiac function.The current study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of pulmonary infarction in patients with acute PE, and the relationship between infarction and: age, body height, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, clot burden, and comorbidities.The authors studied prospectively 335 patients with acute PE diagnosed by computed tomographic angiography (CT) in 18 hospitals throughout central Italy. The diagnosis of pulmonary infarction on CT was based on Hampton and Castleman's criteria (cushion-like or hemispherical consolidation lying along the visceral pleura). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the relationship between covariates and the probability of pulmonary infarction.The prevalence of pulmonary infarction was 31%. Patients with infarction were significantly younger and with significantly lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease than those without (P < 0.001). The frequency of infarction increased linearly with increasing height, and decreased with increasing BMI. In logistic regression, the covariates significantly associated with the probability of infarction were age, body height, BMI, and current smoking. The risk of infarction grew with age, peaked at approximately age 40, and decreased afterwards. Increasing body height and current smoking were significant amplifiers of the risk of infarction, whereas increasing BMI appeared to confer some protection.Our data indicate that pulmonary infarction occurs in nearly one-third of the patients with acute PE. Those with infarction are often young and otherwise healthy. Increasing body height and active smoking are predisposing risk factors. PMID:26469892

  12. The Mutational Spectrum of Holoprosencephaly-Associated Changes within the SHH Gene in Humans Predicts Loss-of-Function Through Either Key Structural Alterations of the Ligand or Its Altered Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roessler, Erich; El-Jaick, Kenia B.; Dubourg, Christèle; Vélez, Jorge I.; Solomon, Benjamin D.; Pineda-Álvarez, Daniel E.; Lacbawan, Felicitas; Zhou, Nan; Ouspenskaia, Maia; Paulussen, Aimée; Smeets, Hubert J.; Hehr, Ute; Bendavid, Claude; Bale, Sherri; Odent, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Mutations within either the SHH gene or its related pathway components are the most common, and best understood, pathogenetic changes observed in holoprosencephaly patients; this fact is consistent with the essential functions of this gene during forebrain development and patterning. Here we summarize the nature and types of deleterious sequence alterations among over one hundred distinct mutations in the SHH gene (64 novel mutations) and compare these to over a dozen mutations in disease-rel...

  13. Morphological changes in small pulmonary vessels are associated with severe acute exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Katsuhiro Yoshimura,1,2 Yuzo Suzuki,1,2 Tomohiro Uto,2 Jun Sato,2 Shiro Imokawa,2 Takafumi Suda1 1Second Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iwata City Hospital, Iwata, Japan Background: Pulmonary vascular remodeling is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The total cross-sectional area (CSA of small pulmonary vessels has been reported to correlate with the pulmonary artery pressure, and this technique has enabled the assessment of pulmonary vascular involvements. We investigated the contribution of morphological alterations in the pulmonary vessels to severe acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD.Methods: This study enrolled 81 patients with COPD and 28 non-COPD subjects as control and assessed the percentage of CSA (%CSA less than 5 mm2 (%CSA<5 and %CSA in the range of 5–10 mm2 (%CSA5–10 on high-resolution computed tomography images.Results: Compared with the non-COPD subjects, the COPD patients had lower %CSA<5. %CSA<5 was positively correlated with airflow limitation and negatively correlated with the extent of emphysema. COPD patients with lower %CSA<5 showed significantly increased incidences of severe AE-COPD (Gray’s test; P=0.011. Furthermore, lower %CSA<5 was significantly associated with severe AE-COPD (hazard ratio, 2.668; 95% confidence interval, 1.225–5.636; P=0.010.Conclusion: %CSA<5 was associated with an increased risk of severe AE-COPD. The distal pruning of the small pulmonary vessels is a part of the risk associated with AE-COPD, and %CSA<5 might be a surrogate marker for predicting AE-COPD. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, acute exacerbation, pulmonary vessels, cross-sectional area (CSA, computed tomography

  14. Single-cell evaluation of red blood cell bio-mechanical and nano-structural alterations upon chemically induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ameya; Chu, Trang T T; Dao, Ming; Chandramohanadas, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Erythroid cells, specifically red blood cells (RBCs), are constantly exposed to highly reactive radicals during cellular gaseous exchange. Such exposure often exceeds the cells' innate anti-oxidant defense systems, leading to progressive damage and eventual senescence. One of the contributing factors to this process are alterations to hemoglobin conformation and globin binding to red cell cytoskeleton. However, in addition to the aforementioned changes, it is possible that oxidative damage induces critical changes to the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and corresponding bio-mechanical and nano-structural properties of the red cell membrane. To quantitatively characterize how oxidative damage accounts for such changes, we employed single-cell manipulation techniques such as micropipette aspiration and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on RBCs. These investigations demonstrated visible morphological changes upon chemically induced oxidative damage (using hydrogen peroxide, diamide, primaquine bisphosphate and cumene hydroperoxide). Our results provide previously unavailable observations on remarkable changes in red cell cytoskeletal architecture and membrane stiffness due to oxidative damage. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that a pathogen that infects human blood cells, Plasmodium falciparum was unable to penetrate through the oxidant-exposed RBCs that have damaged cytoskeleton and stiffer membranes. This indicates the importance of bio-physical factors pertinent to aged RBCs and it's relevance to malaria infectivity. PMID:25950144

  15. Structure-Function Correlation Analysis of Connexin50 Missense Mutations Causing Congenital Cataract: Electrostatic Potential Alteration Could Determine Intracellular Trafficking Fate of Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devroop Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Connexin50 (Cx50 mutations are reported to cause congenital cataract probably through the disruption of intercellular transport in the lens. Cx50 mutants that undergo mistrafficking have generally been associated with failure to form functional gap junction channels; however, sometimes even properly trafficked mutants were found to undergo similar consequences. We hereby wanted to elucidate any structural bases of the varied functional consequences of Cx50 missense mutations through in silico approach. Computational studies have been done based on a Cx50 homology model to assess conservation, solvent accessibility, and 3-dimensional localization of mutated residues as well as mutation-induced changes in surface electrostatic potential, H-bonding, and steric clash. This was supplemented with meta-analysis of published literature on the functional properties of connexin missense mutations. Analyses revealed that the mutation-induced critical alterations of surface electrostatic potential in Cx50 mutants could determine their fate in intracellular trafficking. A similar pattern was observed in case of mutations involving corresponding conserved residues in other connexins also. Based on these results the trafficking fates of 10 uncharacterized Cx50 mutations have been predicted. Further experimental analyses are needed to validate the observed correlation.

  16. Chronic Stress Induces Structural Alterations in Splenic Lymphoid Tissue That Are Associated with Changes in Corticosterone Levels in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily, chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight, mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone, or control treatment (without stress for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  17. Application of linear integration in the morphometric study of mild and severe pulmonary alveolar injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombe, P A; Côté, M G

    1988-02-01

    In this study we applied linear integration morphometry to characterize the pulmonary alveolar reaction to toxic injury and to study possible relationships between the major tissue and cell compartments of alveolar tissue, normal and injured. Acute alveolar injury of mild and severe intensity was induced in Swiss-Webster mice by the ip administration of the chemicals diquat (4 mg/kg) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 400 mg/kg). Animals were sacrificed at Days 1 and 2 after diquat treatment and at Days 1, 3, and 5 after BHT treatment. Sampling and analysis of alveolar tissue were conducted at both levels of light and electron microscopy. Thickness distributions of arithmetic and reciprocal intercepts, as well as the arithmetic (tau) and harmonic (tau h) mean thicknesses, were established for the following alveolar compartments: septum, alveolo-capillary barrier (ACB), type I and total epithelia, capillary endothelium, and interstitium. A relative measure of the pulmonary diffusion capacity and the capillary load of alveolar septa were also determined. The parameters calculated from these thickness distributions, such as their slopes, percentages of thin intercepts, and tau/tau h ratios, proved very sensitive and useful in the detection and characterization of morphological alterations in the type I epithelial and capillary endothelial cells following either mild or severe alveolar injury. The epithelial, endothelial, and interstitial layers of pulmonary septa were all characterized by their own pattern of structural changes, so that it proved impossible to relate them in a simple way to the tissue reaction, which can be easily studied at the light microscopic level. Linear integration morphometry thus proved very useful as a morphometric approach to the study of pulmonary alveolar injury and repair. PMID:3335253

  18. Aberrant left pulmonary artery associated with right pulmonary hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberrant left pulmonary artery (ALPA), or pulmonary artery sling, is an uncommon vascular malformation that is frequently associated with obstructive disorders of the tracheobronquial tree. In newborns, it produces severe respiratory problems. In contrast, in adults, it is usually discovered by change. ALPA has been associated with right pulmonary hypoplasia (RPH) in a small number of cases. We present a new case of ALP associated with right pulmonary hypoplasia in an adult woman, diagnosed by CT and MR. 12 refs

  19. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (ascites syndrome) in broilers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, R F; Rhoads, D D; Erf, G F; Anthony, N B

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) syndrome in broilers (also known as ascites syndrome and pulmonary hypertension syndrome) can be attributed to imbalances between cardiac output and the anatomical capacity of the pulmonary vasculature to accommodate ever-increasing rates of blood flow, as well as to an inappropriately elevated tone (degree of constriction) maintained by the pulmonary arterioles. Comparisons of PAH-susceptible and PAH-resistant broilers do not consistently reveal differences in cardiac output, but PAH-susceptible broilers consistently have higher pulmonary arterial pressures and pulmonary vascular resistances compared with PAH-resistant broilers. Efforts clarify the causes of excessive pulmonary vascular resistance have focused on evaluating the roles of chemical mediators of vasoconstriction and vasodilation, as well as on pathological (structural) changes occurring within the pulmonary arterioles (e.g., vascular remodeling and pathology) during the pathogenesis of PAH. The objectives of this review are to (1) summarize the pathophysiological progression initiated by the onset of pulmonary hypertension and culminating in terminal ascites; (2) review recent information regarding the factors contributing to excessively elevated resistance to blood flow through the lungs; (3) assess the role of the immune system during the pathogenesis of PAH; and (4) present new insights into the genetic basis of PAH. The cumulative evidence attributes the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in PAH-susceptible broilers to an anatomically inadequate pulmonary vascular capacity, to excessive vascular tone reflecting the dominance of pulmonary vasoconstrictors over vasodilators, and to vascular pathology elicited by excessive hemodynamic stress. Emerging evidence also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of PAH includes characteristics of an inflammatory/autoimmune disease involving multifactorial genetic, environmental, and immune system components. Pulmonary

  20. Defining population structure and genetic signatures of decline in the giant garter snake (Thamnophis gigas): implications for conserving threatened species within highly altered landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin A.; Halstead, Brian J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Hansen, Eric C.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Vandergast, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation can disrupt the ability of species to disperse across landscapes, which can alter the levels and distribution of genetic diversity within populations and negatively impact long-term viability. The giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is a state and federally threatened species that historically occurred in the wetland habitats of California’s Great Central Valley. Despite the loss of 93 % of historic wetlands throughout the Central Valley, giant gartersnakes continue to persist in relatively small, isolated patches of highly modified agricultural wetlands. Gathering information regarding genetic diversity and effective population size represents an essential component for conservation management programs aimed at this species. Previous mitochondrial sequence studies have revealed historical patterns of differentiation, yet little is known about contemporary population structure and diversity. On the basis of 15 microsatellite loci, we estimate population structure and compare indices of genetic diversity among populations spanning seven drainage basins within the Central Valley. We sought to understand how habitat loss may have affected genetic differentiation, genetic diversity and effective population size, and what these patterns suggest in terms of management and restoration actions. We recovered five genetic clusters that were consistent with regional drainage basins, although three northern basins within the Sacramento Valley formed a single genetic cluster. Our results show that northern drainage basin populations have higher connectivity than among central and southern basins populations, and that greater differentiation exists among the more geographically isolated populations in the central and southern portion of the species’ range. Genetic diversity measures among basins were significantly different, and were generally lower in southern basin populations. Levels of inbreeding and evidence of population