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Sample records for alters plant development

  1. 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol alters plant root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazelton, Jessica N; Pfeufer, Emily E; Sweat, Teresa A; Gardener, Brian B McSpadden; Coenen, Catharina

    2008-10-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates containing the phlD gene can protect crops from root pathogens, at least in part through production of the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). However, the action mechanisms of DAPG are not fully understood, and effects of this antibiotic on host root systems have not been characterized in detail. DAPG inhibited primary root growth and stimulated lateral root production in tomato seedlings. Roots of the auxin-resistant diageotropica mutant of tomato demonstrated reduced DAPG sensitivity with regards to inhibition of primary root growth and induction of root branching. Additionally, applications of exogenous DAPG, at concentrations previously found in the rhizosphere of plants inoculated with DAPG-producing pseudomonads, inhibited the activation of an auxin-inducible GH3 promoter::luciferase reporter gene construct in transgenic tobacco hypocotyls. In this model system, supernatants of 17 phlD+ P. fluorescens isolates had inhibitory effects on luciferase activity similar to synthetic DAPG. In addition, a phlD() mutant strain, unable to produce DAPG, demonstrated delayed inhibitory effects compared with the parent wild-type strain. These results indicate that DAPG can alter crop root architecture by interacting with an auxin-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:18785830

  2. Phloem-specific expression of a melon Aux/IAA in tomato plants alters auxin sensitivity and plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eGolan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phloem sap contains a large repertoire of macromolecules in addition to sugars, amino acids, growth substances and ions. The transcription profile of melon phloem sap contains over 1,000 mRNA molecules, most of them associated with signal transduction, transcriptional control, and stress and defense responses. Heterografting experiments have established the long-distance trafficking of numerous mRNA molecules. Interestingly, several trafficking transcripts are involved in the auxin response, including two molecules coding for auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA. To further explore the biological role of the melon Aux/IAA transcript CmF-308 in the vascular tissue, a cassette containing the coding sequence of this gene under a phloem-specific promoter was introduced into tomato plants. The number of lateral roots was significantly higher in transgenic plants expressing CmF-308 under the AtSUC2 promoter than in controls. A similar effect on root development was obtained after transient expression of CmF-308 in source leaves of N. benthamiana plants. An auxin-response assay showed that CmF-308-transgenic roots are more sensitive to auxin than control roots. In addition to the altered root development, phloem-specific expression of CmF-308 resulted in shorter plants, a higher number of lateral shoots and delayed flowering, a phenotype resembling reduced apical dominance. In contrast to the root response, cotyledons of the transgenic plants were less sensitive to auxin than control cotyledons. The reduced auxin sensitivity in the shoot tissue was confirmed by lower relative expression of several Aux/IAA genes in leaves and an increase in the relative expression of a cytokinin-response regulator, TRR8/9b. The accumulated data suggest that expression of Aux/IAA in the phloem modifies auxin sensitivity in a tissue-specific manner, thereby altering plant development.

  3. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  4. MSH1 Is a Plant Organellar DNA Binding and Thylakoid Protein under Precise Spatial Regulation to Alter Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdi, Kamaldeep S; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Kundariya, Hardik; Laurie, John D; Keren, Ido; Kumar, K R Sunil; Block, Anna; Basset, Gilles; Luebker, Steve; Elowsky, Christian; Day, Philip M; Roose, Johnna L; Bricker, Terry M; Elthon, Thomas; Mackenzie, Sally A

    2016-02-01

    As metabolic centers, plant organelles participate in maintenance, defense, and signaling. MSH1 is a plant-specific protein involved in organellar genome stability in mitochondria and plastids. Plastid depletion of MSH1 causes heritable, non-genetic changes in development and DNA methylation. We investigated the msh1 phenotype using hemi-complementation mutants and transgene-null segregants from RNAi suppression lines to sub-compartmentalize MSH1 effects. We show that MSH1 expression is spatially regulated, specifically localizing to plastids within the epidermis and vascular parenchyma. The protein binds DNA and localizes to plastid and mitochondrial nucleoids, but fractionation and protein-protein interactions data indicate that MSH1 also associates with the thylakoid membrane. Plastid MSH1 depletion results in variegation, abiotic stress tolerance, variable growth rate, and delayed maturity. Depletion from mitochondria results in 7%-10% of plants altered in leaf morphology, heat tolerance, and mitochondrial genome stability. MSH1 does not localize within the nucleus directly, but plastid depletion produces non-genetic changes in flowering time, maturation, and growth rate that are heritable independent of MSH1. MSH1 depletion alters non-photoactive redox behavior in plastids and a sub-set of mitochondrially altered lines. Ectopic expression produces deleterious effects, underlining its strict expression control. Unraveling the complexity of the MSH1 effect offers insight into triggers of plant-specific, transgenerational adaptation behaviors. PMID:26584715

  5. Constitutive Expression of Rice MicroRNA528 Alters Plant Development and Enhances Tolerance to Salinity Stress and Nitrogen Starvation in Creeping Bentgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuangrong; Li, Zhigang; Li, Dayong; Yuan, Ning; Hu, Qian; Luo, Hong

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNA528 (miR528) is a conserved monocot-specific small RNA that has the potential of mediating multiple stress responses. So far, however, experimental functional studies of miR528 are lacking. Here, we report that overexpression of a rice (Oryza sativa) miR528 (Osa-miR528) in transgenic creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) alters plant development and improves plant salt stress and nitrogen (N) deficiency tolerance. Morphologically, miR528-overexpressing transgenic plants display shortened internodes, increased tiller number, and upright growth. Improved salt stress resistance is associated with increased water retention, cell membrane integrity, chlorophyll content, capacity for maintaining potassium homeostasis, CATALASE activity, and reduced ASCORBIC ACID OXIDASE (AAO) activity; while enhanced tolerance to N deficiency is associated with increased biomass, total N accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis, nitrite reductase activity, and reduced AAO activity. In addition, AsAAO and COPPER ION BINDING PROTEIN1 are identified as two putative targets of miR528 in creeping bentgrass. Both of them respond to salinity and N starvation and are significantly down-regulated in miR528-overexpressing transgenics. Our data establish a key role that miR528 plays in modulating plant growth and development and in the plant response to salinity and N deficiency and indicate the potential of manipulating miR528 in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. PMID:26224802

  6. Expression of an engineered heterologous antimicrobial peptide in potato alters plant development and mitigates normal abiotic and biotic responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder K Goyal

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial cationic peptides (AMPs are ubiquitous small proteins used by living cells to defend against a wide spectrum of pathogens. Their amphipathic property helps their interaction with negatively charged cellular membrane of the pathogen causing cell lysis and death. AMPs also modulate signaling pathway(s and cellular processes in animal models; however, little is known of cellular processes other than the pathogen-lysis phenomenon modulated by AMPs in plants. An engineered heterologous AMP, msrA3, expressed in potato was previously shown to cause resistance of the transgenic plants against selected fungal and bacterial pathogens. These lines together with the wild type were studied for growth habits, and for inducible defense responses during challenge with biotic (necrotroph Fusarium solani and abiotic stressors (dark-induced senescence, wounding and temperature stress. msrA3-expression not only conferred protection against F. solani but also delayed development of floral buds and prolonged vegetative phase. Analysis of select gene transcript profiles showed that the transgenic potato plants were suppressed in the hypersensitive (HR and reactive oxygen species (ROS responses to both biotic and abiotic stressors. Also, the transgenic leaves accumulated lesser amounts of the defense hormone jasmonic acid upon wounding with only a slight change in salicylic acid as compared to the wild type. Thus, normal host defense responses to the pathogen and abiotic stressors were mitigated by msrA3 expression suggesting MSRA3 regulates a common step(s of these response pathways. The stemming of the pathogen growth and mitigating stress response pathways likely contributes to resource reallocation for higher tuber yield.

  7. Ectopic TPS expression enhances sesquiterpene emission in Nicotiana attenuata without altering defense or development of transgenic plants or neighbors

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Schuman; E. C. Palmer-Young; Schmidt, A.; Gershenzon, J; Baldwin, I T

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoids, with ca. 5000 structures, are the most diverse class of plant volatiles, with manifold hypothesized functions in defense, stress tolerance, and signaling between and within plants. These hypotheses have often been tested by transforming plants with sesquiterpene synthases (STPS’s) expressed behind the constitutively active 35S promoter, which may have physiological costs, measured as inhibited growth and reduced reproduction, or require augmentation of substrate pools to ach...

  8. Plant growth conditions alter phytolith carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley L Gallagher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many plants, including grasses and some important human food sources, accumulate and precipitate silica in their cells to form opaline phytoliths. These phytoliths contain small amounts of organic matter (OM that are trapped during the process of silicification. Previous work has suggested that plant silica is associated with compounds such as proteins, lipids, lignin and carbohydrate complexes. It is not known whether these compounds are cellular components passively encapsulated as the cell silicifies, polymers actively involved in the precipitation process or random compounds assimilated by the plant and discarded into a glass wastebasket. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to map the distribution of OM in phytoliths, and to analyze individual phytoliths isolated from Sorghum bicolor plants grown under different laboratory treatments. Using mapping, we showed that OM in phytoliths is distributed throughout the silica and is not related to dark spots visible in light microscopy, previously assumed to be the repository for phytolith OM. The Raman spectra exhibited common bands indicative of C-H stretching modes of general OM, and further more diagnostic bands consistent with carbohydrates, lignins and other OM. These Raman spectra exhibited variability of spectral signatures and of relative intensities between sample treatments indicating that differing growth conditions altered the phytolith carbon. This may have strong implications for understanding the mechanism of phytolith formation, and for use of phytolith carbon isotope values in dating or paleoclimate reconstruction.

  9. Plants may alter competition by modifying nutrient bioavailability in rhizosphere: a modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Raynaud, Xavier; Jaillard, Benoit; Leadley, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Plants modify nutrient availability by releasing chemicals in rhizosphere. This change in availability induced by roots (bioavailability) is known to improve nutrient uptake by individual plants releasing such compounds. Can this bioavailability alter plant competition for nutrients and under what conditions? To address these questions, we have developed a model of nutrient competition between plant species based on mechanistic descriptions of nutrient diffusion, plant exudation and plant upt...

  10. Transgenic plants with altered senescence characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amasino, Richard M.; Gan, Susheng; Noh, Yoo-Sun

    2002-03-19

    The identification of senescence-specific promoters from plants is described. Using information from the first senescence-specific promoter, SAG12 from Arabidopsis, other homologous promoters from another plant have been identified. Such promoters may be used to delay senescence in commercially important plants.

  11. Alteration of plant meristem function by manipulation of the Retinoblastoma-like plant RRB gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Tim (Madison, WI); Feiler, Heidi (Albany, CA); Gruissem, Wilhelm (Forch, CH); Jenkins, Susan (Martinez, CA); Roe, Judith (Manhattan, KS); Zambryski, Patricia (Berkeley, CA)

    2007-01-16

    This invention provides methods and compositions for altering the growth, organization, and differentiation of plant tissues. The invention is based on the discovery that, in plants, genetically altering the levels of Retinoblastoma-related gene (RRB) activity produces dramatic effects on the growth, proliferation, organization, and differentiation of plant meristem.

  12. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max;

    widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant......Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive, and...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  13. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  14. Genetics and plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-01-01

    There are only three grand theories in biology: the theory of the cell, the theory of the gene, and the theory of evolution. Two of these, the cell and gene theories, originated in the study of plants, with the third resulting in part from botanical considerations as well. Mendel's elucidation of the rules of inheritance was a result of his experiments on peas. The rediscovery of Mendel's work in 1900 was by the botanists de Vries, Correns, and Tschermak. It was only in subsequent years that animals were also shown to have segregation of genetic elements in the exact same manner as had been shown in plants. The story of developmental biology is different - while the development of plants has long been studied, the experimental and genetic approaches to developmental mechanism were developed via experiments on animals, and the importance of genes in development (e.g., Waddington, 1940) and their use for understanding developmental mechanisms came to botanical science much later - as late as the 1980s. PMID:27238367

  15. stem fasciated, a Recessive Mutation in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Alters Plant Morphology and Auxin Level

    OpenAIRE

    FAMBRINI, MARCO; BONSIGNORI, ELISA; RAPPARINI, FRANCESCA; CIONINI, GIULIANO; Michelotti, Vania; BERTINI, DANIELE; BARALDI, RITA; PUGLIESI, CLAUDIO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant lateral organs such as leaves arise from a group of initial cells within the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Alterations in the initiation of lateral organs are often associated with changes in the dimension and arrangement of the SAM as well as with abnormal hormonal homeostasis. A mutation named stem fasciated (stf) that affects various aspects of plant development, including SAM shape and auxin level, was characterized in sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

  16. Diverse Roles of Strigolactones in Plant Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip B. Brewer; Hinanit Koltai; Christine A. Beveridge

    2013-01-01

    With the discovery of strigolactones as root exudate signals that trigger parasitic weed seed germination,and then as a branching inhibitor and plant hormone,the next phase of strigolactone research has quickly revealed this hormone class as a major player in optimizing plant growth and development.From the early stages of plant evolution,it seems that strigolactones were involved in enabling plants to modify growth in order to gain advantage in competition with neighboring organisms for limited resources.For example,a moss plant can alter its growth in response to strigolactones emanating from a neighbor.Within a higher plant,strigolactones appear to be involved in controlling the balance of resource distribution via strategic modification of growth and development.Most notably,higher plants that encounter phosphate deficiency increase strigolactone production,which changes root growth and promotes fungal symbiosis to enhance phosphate intake.The shoot also changes by channeling resources away from unessential leaves and branches and into the main stem and root system.This hormonal response is a key adaption that radically alters whole-plant architecture in order to optimize growth and development under diverse environmental conditions.

  17. Molecular Alterations Associated with Osteosarcoma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosei Ando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor characterized by a high potency to form lung metastases which is the main cause of death. Unfortunately, the conventional chemotherapy is not fully effective on osteosarcoma metastases. The progression of a primary tumor to metastasis requires multiple processes, which are neovascularization, proliferation, invasion, survival in the bloodstream, apoptosis resistance, arrest at a distant organ, and outgrowth in secondary sites. Consequently, recent studies have revealed new insights into the molecular mechanisms of metastasis development. The understanding of the mechanism of molecular alterations can provide the identification of novel therapeutic targets and/or prognostic markers for osteosarcoma treatment to improve the clinical outcome.

  18. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition

    OpenAIRE

    Halford, Nigel G.; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R.; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adap...

  19. Assimilate Partitioning and Plant Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ling Ruan; John W.Patrick; Hans Weber

    2010-01-01

    @@ It has been a pleasure to organize this special issue of Molecular Plant on 'Assimilate Partitioning and Plant Development'. Assimilate, a collective term describing organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), is of paramount importance for plant development and realization of crop productivity.

  20. Plant vascular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybel, De Bert; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Helariutta, Yrjö; Weijers, Dolf

    2016-01-01

    Vascular tissues in plants are crucial to provide physical support and to transport water, sugars and hormones and other small signalling molecules throughout the plant. Recent genetic and molecular studies have identified interconnections among some of the major signalling networks that regulate

  1. Plant interactions alter the predictions of metabolic scaling theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yue; Berger, Uta; Grimm, Volker;

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic scaling theory (MST) is an attempt to link physiological processes of individual organisms with macroecology. It predicts a power law relationship with an exponent of 24/3 between mean individual biomass and density during densitydependent mortality (self-thinning). Empirical tests have...... produced variable results, and the validity of MST is intensely debated. MST focuses on organisms’ internal physiological mechanisms but we hypothesize that ecological interactions can be more important in determining plant mass-density relationships induced by density. We employ an individual-based model...... of plant stand development that includes three elements: a model of individual plant growth based on MST, different modes of local competition (size-symmetric vs. -asymmetric), and different resource levels. Our model is consistent with the observed variation in the slopes of self-thinning trajectories...

  2. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-08-01

    The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  3. Genetics and Plant Development

    OpenAIRE

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    2016-01-01

    There are only three grand theories in biology: the theory of the cell, the theory of the gene, and the theory of evolution. Two of these, the cell and gene theories, originated in the study of plants, with the third resulting in part from botanical considerations as well. Mendel's elucidation of the rules of inheritance was a result of his experiments on peas. The rediscovery of Mendel's work in 1900 was by the botanists de Vries, Correns, and Tschermak. It was only in subsequent years that ...

  4. Development of the merchant plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The co-authors of this paper are currently involved in over 1500 megawatts of merchant plant developments in the US. This paper will discuss the latest in combined cycle steam reheat ''H and G'' technology. Big improvements in heat rates along with substantial drop in installed cost will make this power cycle the leading merchant plant of the future. This paper will compare the actual present day performance and clearing price of a state-of-the-art merchant plant versus utility dispatch cost duration curves, known as ''system lambda''. Deregulation of the power market will ultimately provide an open market for these efficient plants to compete effectively against aging utility plants. Comparison of utility system heat rates versus merchant plant heat rates along with an increase need for generation capacity and forecasts of stable gas prices supports to the potential for a large scale building program of these high efficiency generators. This paper will also review the capacity crunch in the Northeast and Wisconsin and how problems with nuclear plants may accelerate the need for merchant plants. This paper will compare the required capacity for the population growth in the SERC Region and in Florida and how this will produce a potential ''hot bed'' for merchant plant development

  5. Aruscular mycorhizal fungi alter plant allometry and biomass - density relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lu; Weiner, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    fungi (AMF) can promote plant growth and affect plant form. Here experiments were carried out to test whether AMF affect plant allometry and the self-thinning trajectory. Methods Two experiments were conducted on Medicago sativa L., a leguminous species known to be highly dependent on mycorrhiza. Two...

  6. Physiological and molecular alterations in plants exposed to high [CO2] under phosphorus stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Zinta, Gaurav; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Ahmad, Altaf; Jain, Vanita; Janssens, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric [CO2] has increased substantially in recent decades and will continue to do so, whereas the availability of phosphorus (P) is limited and unlikely to increase in the future. P is a non-renewable resource, and it is essential to every form of life. P is a key plant nutrient controlling the responsiveness of photosynthesis to [CO2]. Increases in [CO2] typically results in increased biomass through stimulation of net photosynthesis, and hence enhance the demand for P uptake. However, most soils contain low concentrations of available P. Therefore, low P is one of the major growth-limiting factors for plants in many agricultural and natural ecosystems. The adaptive responses of plants to [CO2] and P availability encompass alterations at morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In general low P reduces growth, whereas high [CO2] enhances it particularly in C3 plants. Photosynthetic capacity is often enhanced under high [CO2] with sufficient P supply through modulation of enzyme activities involved in carbon fixation such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). However, high [CO2] with low P availability results in enhanced dry matter partitioning towards roots. Alterations in below-ground processes including root morphology, exudation and mycorrhizal association are influenced by [CO2] and P availability. Under high P availability, elevated [CO2] improves the uptake of P from soil. In contrast, under low P availability, high [CO2] mainly improves the efficiency with which plants produce biomass per unit P. At molecular level, the spatio-temporal regulation of genes involved in plant adaptation to low P and high [CO2] has been studied individually in various plant species. Genome-wide expression profiling of high [CO2] grown plants revealed hormonal regulation of biomass accumulation through complex transcriptional networks. Similarly, differential transcriptional regulatory networks are involved in P

  7. Overexpression of AtLOV1 in Switchgrass alters plant architecture, lignin content, and flowering time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a prime candidate crop for biofuel feedstock production in the United States. As it is a self-incompatible polyploid perennial species, breeding elite and stable switchgrass cultivars with traditional breeding methods is very challenging. Translational genomics may contribute significantly to the genetic improvement of switchgrass, especially for the incorporation of elite traits that are absent in natural switchgrass populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we constitutively expressed an Arabidopsis NAC transcriptional factor gene, LONG VEGETATIVE PHASE ONE (AtLOV1, in switchgrass. Overexpression of AtLOV1 in switchgrass caused the plants to have a smaller leaf angle by changing the morphology and organization of epidermal cells in the leaf collar region. Also, overexpression of AtLOV1 altered the lignin content and the monolignol composition of cell walls, and caused delayed flowering time. Global gene-expression analysis of the transgenic plants revealed an array of responding genes with predicted functions in plant development, cell wall biosynthesis, and flowering. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a single ectopically expressed transcription factor altering the leaf angle, cell wall composition, and flowering time of switchgrass, therefore demonstrating the potential advantage of translational genomics for the genetic improvement of this crop.

  8. Eutrophication alters the effects of riparian plant diversity on litter decomposition by macroinvertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Eva Lima

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Ecology In low-order forested streams, plant-litter decomposition is a key ecosystem process. Invertebrate shredders are responsible for the breakdown of plant litter and are very sensitive to stream water quality degradation. Increased eutrophication and loss or alteration of riparian vegetation can have negative effects on stream organisms and alter ecosystem processes. However, the interactive effects of riparian vegetation loss and increased nu...

  9. Phosphorus source alters host plant response to ectomycorrhizal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, James W; Dighton, John

    2005-11-01

    We examined the influence of phosphorus source and availability on host plant (Pinus rigida) response to ectomycorrhizal diversity under contrasting P conditions. An ectomycorrhizal richness gradient was established with equimolar P supplied as either inorganic phosphate or organic inositol hexaphosphate. We measured growth and N and P uptake of individual P. rigida seedlings inoculated with one, two, or four species of ectomycorrhizal fungi simultaneously and without mycorrhizas in axenic culture. Whereas colonization of P. rigida by individual species of ectomycorrhizal fungi decreased with increasing fungal richness, colonization of all species combined increased. Plant biomass and N content increased across the ectomycorrhizal richness gradient in the organic but not the inorganic P treatment. Plants grown under organic P conditions had higher N concentration than those grown under inorganic P conditions, but there was no effect of richness. Phosphorus content of plants grown in the organic P treatment increased with increasing ectomycorrhizal richness, but there was no response in the inorganic P treatment. Phosphorus concentration was higher in plants grown at the four-species richness level in the organic P treatment, but there was no effect of diversity under inorganic P conditions. Overall, few ectomycorrhizal composition effects were found on plant growth or nutrient status. Phosphatase activities of individual ectomycorrhizal fungi differed under organic P conditions, but there was no difference in total root system phosphatase expression between the inorganic or organic P treatments or across richness levels. Our results provide evidence that plant response to ectomycorrhizal diversity is dependent on the source and availability of P. PMID:15809869

  10. Soil animals alter plant litter diversity effects on decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Gasser, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Most of the terrestrial net primary production enters the decomposer system as dead organic matter, and the subsequent recycling of C and nutrients are key processes for the functioning of ecosystems and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Although climatic and substrate quality controls are reasonably well understood, the functional role of biodiversity for biogeochemical cycles remains elusive. Here we ask how altering litter species diversity affects species-specific decompositio...

  11. Altered NO3- assimilation in P-stressed plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine P stress effects on NO3- uptake and assimilation, young tobacco plants were deprived of external P for 12 days and at selected times exposed to 15NO3- for 12h uptake periods. In -P plants, tissue P concentrations and growth decreased progressively with time relative to controls. Uptake of 15NO3- per g root DW was restricted markedly, being 70% of the control rate on the day 3 and only 17% on day 9. Additional disruptions in the NO3- assimilation pathway were evident, as larger proportions of absorbed 15NO3- were retained in the root and soluble reduced-15N accumulated in leaves with increasing P stress. The results indicate that transport processes controlling NO3- uptake into the root symplasm and its release into the xylem are major points of regulations in plants responding to P deficiency

  12. CANDU plant maintenance: Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU units have long been recognized for their exceptional safety and reliability. Continuing development in the maintenance area has played a key role in achieving this performance level. For over two decades, safety system availability has been monitored closely and system maintenance programs adjusted accordingly to maintain high levels of performance. But as the plants approach mid life in a more competitive environment and component aging becomes a concern, new methods and techniques are necessary. As a result, recent developments are moving the maintenance program largely from a corrective and preventive approach to predictive and condition based maintenance. The application of these techniques is also being extended to safety related systems. These recent developments include use of reliability centred methods to define system maintenance requirements and strategies. This approach has been implemented on a number of systems at Canadian CANDU plants with positive results. The pilot projects demonstrated that the overall maintenance effort remained relatively constant while the system performance improved. It was also possible to schedule some of the redundant component maintenance during plant operation without adverse impact on system availability. The probabilistic safety assessment was found to be useful in determining the safety implications of component outages. These new maintenance strategies are now making use of predictive and condition based maintenance techniques to anticipate equipment breakdown and schedule preventive maintenance as the need arises rather than time based. Some of these techniques include valve diagnostics, vibration monitoring, oil analysis, thermography. Of course, these tools and techniques must form part of an overall maintenance management system to ensure that maintenance becomes a living program. To facilitate this process and contain costs, new information technology tools are being introduced to provide system engineers

  13. Phytoplasmal infection derails genetically preprogrammed meristem fate and alters plant architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert Edward; Nuss, Donald L.; ZHAO Yan

    2013-01-01

    In higher plants, the destiny of apical meristems (stem cells) is specific organogenesis, which determines the pattern of plant growth, and therefore morphotype and fertility. We found that bacterial infection can derail the meristems from their genetically preprogrammed destiny, altering plant morphogenesis. We identified four abnormal growth patterns, symptoms, in tomato infected with a cell wall-less bacterium, and found that each symptom corresponds to a distinct phase in meristem fate de...

  14. Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Matthew P.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Caulfield, John C.; Furzer, Oliver J.; Reed, Alison; Robinson, Sophie I.; Miller, Elizabeth; Davis, Christopher N.; Pickett, John A.; Whitney, Heather M.; Glover, Beverley J.; Carr, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by ‘buzzing’ (sonicating) the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i) as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii) as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen resistance

  15. Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Simon C; Jiang, Sanjie; Murphy, Alex M; Cunniffe, Nik J; Westwood, Jack H; Davey, Matthew P; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John C; Furzer, Oliver J; Reed, Alison; Robinson, Sophie I; Miller, Elizabeth; Davis, Christopher N; Pickett, John A; Whitney, Heather M; Glover, Beverley J; Carr, John P

    2016-08-01

    Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by 'buzzing' (sonicating) the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i) as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii) as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen resistance

  16. Development of plant walkdown guidelines for risk management in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed that nuclear power plants use walkdowns to ensure that the PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) is reliable relative to the current plant operating conditions. Although such a proposal is provided in various PSA guidelines, such as NUREG/CR-2300, no formal procedures are available for conducting walkdown. It should be noted that PSA model plant conditions, even if assumed on the basis of careful investigation of their validity, sometimes fail in representing the current operating conditions of the plant. Their questionable validity is mainly attributable to alterations subsequent to test and maintenance activities, equipment modifications and changes in management procedure, in which are all implemented after the start of operation. Therefore, the assumptions have to be validated whenever an alterations implemented. Periodic inspections are advisable even when no changes are made. Plant walkdowns are the most effective method for validating the assumed conditions, provided that the walkdown is conducted according to well-prepared guidelines. The walkdown contributes effectively to risk management by detecting any variations due to alterations. In the present study, newly developed guidelines for plant walkdowns are discussed, which include the new concept of an 'offsite walkdown'. In the offsite walkdown, plant information is acquired by means of video and audio equipment and transferred to the offsite analysis team, and analyses can be performed at a remote location. (author)

  17. Herbivores alter the fitness benefits of a plant-rhizobium mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Katy D.; Lau, Jennifer A.

    2011-03-01

    Mutualisms are best understood from a community perspective, since third-party species have the potential to shift the costs and benefits in interspecific interactions. We manipulated plant genotypes, the presence of rhizobium mutualists, and the presence of a generalist herbivore and assessed the performance of all players in order to test whether antagonists might alter the fitness benefits of plant-rhizobium mutualism, and vice versa how mutualists might alter the fitness consequences of plant-herbivore antagonism. We found that plants in our experiment formed more associations with rhizobia (root nodules) in the presence of herbivores, thereby increasing the fitness benefits of mutualism for rhizobia. In contrast, the effects of rhizobia on herbivores were weak. Our data support a community-dependent view of these ecological interactions, and suggest that consideration of the aboveground herbivore community can inform ecological and evolutionary studies of legume-rhizobium interactions.

  18. Neonicotinoid insecticides alter induced defenses and increase susceptibility to spider mites in distantly related crop plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Szczepaniec

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, in multiple, distantly related crop plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, corn (Zea mays and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides

  19. Developing a model of plant hormone interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu Hua; Helen R Irving

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth and development is influenced by mutual interactions among plant hormones. The five classical plant hormones are auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. They are small diffusible molecules that easily penetrate between cells. In addition, newer classes of plant hormones have been identified such as brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and various small proteins or peptides. These hormones also play important roles in the regulation of plant growth...

  20. Data for mitochondrial proteomic alterations in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Lance M; Stauch, Kelly L; Fox, Howard S

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria are a critical organelle involved in many cellular processes, and due to the nature of the brain, neuronal cells are almost completely reliant on these organelles for energy generation. Due to the fact that biomedical research tends to investigate disease state pathogenesis, one area of mitochondrial research commonly overlooked is homeostatic responses to energy demands. Therefore, to elucidate mitochondrial alterations occurring during the developmentally important phase of E18 to P7 in the brain, we quantified the proteins in the mitochondrial proteome as well as proteins interacting with the mitochondria. We identified a large number of significantly altered proteins involved in a variety of pathways including glycolysis, mitochondrial trafficking, mitophagy, and the unfolded protein response. These results are important because we identified alterations thought to be homeostatic in nature occurring within mitochondria, and these results may be used to identify any abnormal deviations in the mitochondrial proteome occurring during this period of brain development. A more comprehensive analysis of this data may be obtained from the article "Proteomic analysis of mitochondria from embryonic and postnatal rat brains reveals response to developmental changes in energy demands" in the Journal of Proteomics. PMID:26217684

  1. Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

  2. Land-use history alters contemporary insect herbivore community composition and decouples plant-herbivore relationships.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Philip G. [University of Wisconsin; Orrock, John L. [University of Wisconsin

    2015-04-01

    1. Past land use can create altered soil conditions and plant communities that persist for decades, although the effects of these altered conditions on consumers are rarely investigated. 2. Using a large-scale field study at 36 sites in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands, we examined whether historic agricultural land use leads to differences in the abundance and community composition of insect herbivores (grasshoppers, families Acrididae and Tettigoniidae). 3. We measured the cover of six plant functional groups and several environmental variables to determine whether historic agricultural land use affects the relationships between plant cover or environmental conditions and grasshopper assemblages. 4. Land-use history had taxa-specific effects and interacted with herbaceous plant cover to alter grasshopper abundances, leading to significant changes in community composition. Abundance of most grasshopper taxa increased with herbaceous cover in woodlands with no history of agriculture, but there was no relationship in post-agricultural woodlands. We also found that grasshopper abundance was negatively correlated with leaf litter cover. Soil hardness was greater in post-agricultural sites (i.e. more compacted) and was associated with grasshopper community composition. Both herbaceous cover and leaf litter cover are influenced by fire frequency, suggesting a potential indirect role of fire on grasshopper assemblages. 5. Our results demonstrate that historic land use may create persistent differences in the composition of grasshopper assemblages, while contemporary disturbances (e.g. prescribed fire) may be important for determining the abundance of grasshoppers, largely through the effect of fire on plants and leaf litter. Therefore, our results suggest that changes in the contemporary management regimes (e.g. increasing prescribed fire) may not be sufficient to shift the structure of grasshopper communities in post-agricultural sites towards communities in

  3. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant-animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  4. Inter-species grafting caused extensive and heritable alterations of DNA methylation in Solanaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Grafting has been extensively used to enhance the performance of horticultural crops. Since Charles Darwin coined the term "graft hybrid" meaning that asexual combination of different plant species may generate products that are genetically distinct, highly discrepant opinions exist supporting or against the concept. Recent studies have documented that grafting enables exchanges of both RNA and DNA molecules between the grafting partners, thus providing a molecular basis for grafting-induced genetic variation. DNA methylation is known as prone to alterations as a result of perturbation of internal and external conditions. Given characteristics of grafting, it is interesting to test whether the process may cause an alteration of this epigenetic marker in the grafted organismal products. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed relative global DNA methylation levels and locus-specific methylation patterns by the MSAP marker and locus-specific bisulfite-sequencing in the seed plants (wild-type controls, self- and hetero-grafted scions/rootstocks, selfed progenies of scions and their seed-plant controls, involving three Solanaceae species. We quantified expression of putative genes involved in establishing and/or maintaining DNA methylation by q-(RT-PCR. We found that (1 hetero-grafting caused extensive alteration of DNA methylation patterns in a locus-specific manner, especially in scions, although relative methylation levels remain largely unaltered; (2 the altered methylation patterns in the hetero-grafting-derived scions could be inherited to sexual progenies with some sites showing further alterations or revisions; (3 hetero-grafting caused dynamic changes in steady-state transcript abundance of genes encoding for a set of enzymes functionally relevant to DNA methylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that inter-species grafting in plants could produce extensive and heritable alterations in DNA methylation. We

  5. Use of mutation induction to alter the ontogenetic pattern of crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples of the mutant cultivars with altered flowering or maturity time are given, and the induced mutants with altered developmental patterns are reviewed. It is pointed out that the adjustment of the time of maturity (earliness or lateness) without lowering the highly desirable traits of a variety such as yield and quality is obtainable by induced mutation techniques. Earlier harvest and the shorter duration from sowing to harvest generally leads to lower yield, but this may be tolerated if better quality is achieved, if crops escape hazardous stress conditions or pathogen attack, and if the subsequent crops gain in yield. Some examples in barley, wheat, rice, leguminous plants, oil seed and fiber crops, sugar cane, fruits and ornamentals are reviewed, and it is emphasized that the whole life history of plants has relevance for their productivity, and that the careful examination of ontogenetic pattern is necessary to breed desirable varieties. (Kaihara, S.)

  6. A noncoding plant pathogen provokes both transcriptional and posttranscriptional alterations in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Lisón Párraga, María Purificación; Tarraga Herrero, Susana; López Gresa, Mª Pilar; Sauri Ferrando, Asunción; Torres Vidal, Cristina; Campos Beneyto, Laura; Belles Albert, José Mª; Conejero Tomás, Vicente; Rodrigo Bravo, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    This is the accepted version of the following article: Lisón, P., Tárraga, S., López-Gresa, P., Saurí, A., Torres, C., Campos, L., Bellés, J. M., Conejero, V. and Rodrigo, I. (2013), A noncoding plant pathogen provokes both transcriptional and posttranscriptional alterations in tomato. Proteomics, 13: 833–844, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201200286.

  7. Predator crypsis enhances behaviourally mediated indirect effects on plants by altering bumblebee foraging preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Ings, Thomas C.; Chittka, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Predators of pollinators can influence pollination services and plant fitness via both consumptive (reducing pollinator density) and non-consumptive (altering pollinator behaviour) effects. However, a better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying behaviourally mediated indirect effects of predators is necessary to properly understand their role in community dynamics. We used the tripartite relationship between bumblebees, predatory crab spiders and flowers to ask whether behaviourally mediate...

  8. Analysis of the photosynthetic apparatus in transgenic tobacco plants with altered endogenous cytokinin content: a proteomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcke Roland

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokinin is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in several processes of plant growth and development. In recent years, major breakthroughs have been achieved in the elucidation of the metabolism, the signal perception and transduction, as well as the biological functions of cytokinin. An important activity of cytokinin is the involvement in chloroplast development and function. Although this biological function has already been known for 50 years, the exact mechanisms remain elusive. Results To elucidate the effects of altered endogenous cytokinin content on the structure and function of the chloroplasts, chloroplast subfractions (stroma and thylakoids from transgenic Pssu-ipt and 35S:CKX1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum plants with, respectively, elevated and reduced endogenous cytokinin content were analysed using two different 2-DE approaches. Firstly, thykaloids were analysed by blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by SDS-PAGE (BN/SDS-PAGE. Image analysis of the gel spot pattern thus obtained from thylakoids showed no substantial differences between wild-type and transgenic tobacco plants. Secondly, a quantitative DIGE analysis of CHAPS soluble proteins derived from chloroplast subfractions indicated significant gel spot abundance differences in the stroma fraction. Upon identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, these proteins could be assigned to the Calvin-Benson cycle and photoprotective mechanisms. Conclusion Taken together, presented proteomic data reveal that the constitutively altered cytokinin status of transgenic plants does not result in any qualitative changes in either stroma proteins or protein complexes of thylakoid membranes of fully developed chloroplasts, while few but significant quantitative differences are observed in stroma proteins.

  9. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant–animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  10. Light and gravity signals synergize in modulating plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Kiss, John Z; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F Javier

    2014-01-01

    Tropisms are growth-mediated plant movements that help plants to respond to changes in environmental stimuli. The availability of water and light, as well as the presence of a constant gravity vector, are all environmental stimuli that plants sense and respond to via directed growth movements (tropisms). The plant response to gravity (gravitropism) and the response to unidirectional light (phototropism) have long been shown to be interconnected growth phenomena. Here, we discuss the similarities in these two processes, as well as the known molecular mechanisms behind the tropistic responses. We also highlight research done in a microgravity environment in order to decouple two tropisms through experiments carried out in the absence of a significant unilateral gravity vector. In addition, alteration of gravity, especially the microgravity environment, and light irradiation produce important effects on meristematic cells, the undifferentiated, highly proliferating, totipotent cells which sustain plant development. Microgravity produces the disruption of meristematic competence, i.e., the decoupling of cell proliferation and cell growth, affecting the regulation of the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis. Light irradiation, especially red light, mediated by phytochromes, has an activating effect on these processes. Phytohormones, particularly auxin, also are key mediators in these alterations. Upcoming experiments on the International Space Station will clarify some of the mechanisms and molecular players of the plant responses to these environmental signals involved in tropisms and the cell cycle. PMID:25389428

  11. Light and gravity signals synergize in modulating plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P. Vandenbrink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropisms are growth-mediated plant movements that help plants to respond to changes in environmental stimuli. The availability of water and light, as well as the presence of a constant gravity vector, are all environmental stimuli that plants sense and respond to via directed growth movements (tropisms. The plant response to gravity (gravitropism and the response to unidirectional light (phototropism have long been shown to be interconnected growth phenomena. Here, we discuss the similarities in these two processes, as well as the known molecular mechanisms behind the tropistic responses. We also highlight experiments done in a microgravity environment in order to decouple two tropisms through experiments carried out in the absence of a significant unilateral gravity vector. In addition, alteration of gravity, especially the microgravity environment, and light irradiation produce important effects on meristematic cells, the undifferentiated, highly proliferating, totipotent cells which sustain plant development. Microgravity produces the disruption of meristematic competence, i.e. the decoupling of cell proliferation and cell growth, affecting the regulation of cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis. Light irradiation, especially red light, mediated by phytochromes, has an activating effect on these processes. Phytohormones, particularly auxin, are key mediators in these alterations. Upcoming experiments on the International Space Station will clarify some of the unknown mechanisms and molecular players of the plant responses to these environmental signals involved in tropisms and the cell cycle.

  12. Homogalacturonan Methyl-Esterification and Plant Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastian Wolf; Gregory Mouille; Jérome Pelloux

    2009-01-01

    The ability of a plant cell to expand is largely defined by the physical constraints imposed by its cell wall. Accordingly, cell wall properties have to be regulated during development. The pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan is a major component of the plant primary walls. Biosynthesis and in muro modification of homogalacturonan have recently emerged as key determinants of plant development, controlling cell adhesion, organ development, and phyllo-tactic patterning. This review will focus on recent findings regarding impact of homogalacturonan content and methyl-esterification status of this polymer on plant life. De-methyl-esterification of homogalacturonan occurs through the action of the ubiquitous enzyme 'pectin methyl-esterase'. We here describe various strategies developed by the plant to finely tune the methyl-esterification status of homogalacturonan along key events of the plant lifecycle.

  13. Phytoplasmal infection derails genetically preprogrammed meristem fate and alters plant architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the life cycle of higher plants, it is the fate of meristem cells that determines the pattern of growth and development, and therefore plant morphotype and fertility. Floral transition, the turning point from vegetative growth to reproductive development, is achieved via genetically-programmed s...

  14. Mechanistic Framework for Establishment, Maintenance, and Alteration of Cell Polarity in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Dhonukshe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell polarity establishment, maintenance, and alteration are central to the developmental and response programs of nearly all organisms and are often implicated in abnormalities ranging from patterning defects to cancer. By residing at the distinct plasma membrane domains polar cargoes mark the identities of those domains, and execute localized functions. Polar cargoes are recruited to the specialized membrane domains by directional secretion and/or directional endocytic recycling. In plants, auxin efflux carrier PIN proteins display polar localizations in various cell types and play major roles in directional cell-to-cell transport of signaling molecule auxin that is vital for plant patterning and response programs. Recent advanced microscopy studies applied to single cells in intact plants reveal subcellular PIN dynamics. They uncover the PIN polarity generation mechanism and identified important roles of AGC kinases for polar PIN localization. AGC kinase family members PINOID, WAG1, and WAG2, belonging to the AGC-3 subclass predominantly influence the polar localization of PINs. The emerging mechanism for AGC-3 kinases action suggests that kinases phosphorylate PINs mainly at the plasma membrane after initial symmetric PIN secretion for eventual PIN internalization and PIN sorting into distinct ARF-GEF-regulated polar recycling pathways. Thus phosphorylation status directs PIN translocation to different cell sides. Based on these findings a mechanistic framework evolves that suggests existence of cell side-specific recycling pathways in plants and implicates AGC3 kinases for differential PIN recruitment among them for eventual PIN polarity establishment, maintenance, and alteration.

  15. Development of A Plant Navigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 'Plant Navigation System (PNS)' is under development to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators by automatically displaying the plant situation and plant operational procedures on a CRT screen when abnormalities occur. The operation procedures given in a symptom-oriented manual are expressed in a tree - type flowchart (modified PAD). The optimum operation procedure for an NPP is selected automatically using built-in diagnostic logics based on the current status of the NPP. Concerning the plant situation, the PNS displays important information only on the current status of the NPP. A prototype PNS system is being constructed. (authors)

  16. Initial impacts of altered UVB radiation on plant growth and decomposition in shortgrass steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer Y.; Milchunas, Daniel G.; Mosier, Arvin R.; Moore, John C.; Quirk, Meghan H.; Morgan, Jack A.; Slusser, James R.

    2003-11-01

    We initiated a study in winter 2000 in a Colorado shortgrass steppe to investigate effects of altered ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation and altered precipitation on plant growth, plant tissue decomposition, and litter faunal activity. In the field, open-air structures were constructed of solid plastic sheet material that either passed all wavelengths of solar radiation or passed only wavelengths greater than 400 nm (UVB =280-315 nm). Preliminary results indicate decreases in warm-season grass production under UVB radiation and drought conditions. Analysis of fiber constituents shows some significant seasonal and UVB treatment effects. The results of in vitro digestible dry matter analyses show significantly higher digestibility with UVB. Simulated grazing increased plant production, but there were no UVB by grazing interactions. Litter decomposition was affected by UVB exposure, the CO2 growing conditions, and precipitation level. Under dry conditions, UVB radiation tended to increase litter decomposition, as measured by mass loss. There were no clear initial effects of UVB treatment on soluble and fiber constituents of litter. Exclusion of UVB resulted in reduced fungal hyphae counts in ambient CO2-grown litter collected in fall 2002. Preliminary results indicate that litter arthropod density was lower with exposure to UVB and also lower under drought conditions.

  17. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL CONTROL IN PLANT DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beáta Oborny

    2003-01-01

    Bodies of plants are modularly organized. Development proceeds by adding new modules to open endings with a potential for branching. Each module is autonomous to some extent. Development relies on the self-organized patterns that emerge from the interactions of individual modules. Interactions include both competition and cooperation, and several types of positive and negative feedback loops are involved. Development can be open to external influences, thus enabling the plant to adjust its form to the environment, for example, to the spatial distribution of ecological resources. This paper provides a review on adaptive plasticity in plants.

  18. CLAVATA 1-type receptors in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazak, Ora; Hardtke, Christian S

    2016-08-01

    A fundamental aspect of plant development is the coordination of growth through endogenous signals and its integration with environmental inputs. Similar to animals, plants frequently use cell surface-localized receptors to monitor such stimuli, for instance through plasma membrane-integral receptor-like kinases (RLKs). Compared to other organisms, plants possess a large number of RLKs (more than 600 in Arabidopsis thaliana), which implies that ligand-receptor-mediated molecular mechanisms regulate a wide range of processes during plant development. Here, we focus on A. thaliana RLKs of the CLAVATA 1 (CLV1) type, which orchestrate key steps during plant development, including the regulation of meristem maintenance, anther development, vascular tissue formation, and root system architecture. These receptors are regulated by small signalling peptides that belong to the family of CLE (CLV3 / EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION) ligands. We discuss different aspects of plant development that are regulated by these receptors in light of their molecular mechanism of action. As so often, the intensive research on this group of plant RLKs has raised many intriguing questions, which remain to be answered. PMID:27340234

  19. Does ozone exposure alter growth and carbon allocation of mycorrhizal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, L.C.; Gamon, J.A. (California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Andersen, C.P. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Ozone is known to adversely affect plant growth. However, it is less clear how ozone affects belowground processes. This study tests the hypothesis that ozone alters growth and carbon allocation of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) plants. Two ecotypes of Elymus glaucus (blue wild rye) were exposed to mycorrhizal inoculation and episodic ozone exposures simulating atmospheric conditions in the Los Angeles Basin. Preliminary results show that effects of ozone on growth were subtle. In both ecotypes, growth of aboveground biomass was not affected by ozone while root growth was decreased. In most treatments, mycorrhizal inoculation decreased growth of leaves and stems, but had no significant effect on root growth. Three-way ANOVA tests indicated interactive effects between ecotype, mycorrhiza and ozone. Further experimental work is needed to reveal the biological processes governing these responses.

  20. Plant Virus Expression Vector Development: New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hefferon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant made biologics have elicited much attention over recent years for their potential in assisting those in developing countries who have poor access to modern medicine. Additional applications such as the stockpiling of vaccines against pandemic infectious diseases or potential biological warfare agents are also under investigation. Plant virus expression vectors represent a technology that enables high levels of pharmaceutical proteins to be produced in a very short period of time. Recent advances in research and development have brought about the generation of superior virus expression systems which can be readily delivered to the host plant in a manner that is both efficient and cost effective. This review presents recent innovations in plant virus expression systems and their uses for producing biologics from plants.

  1. The plant secondary metabolite citral alters water status and prevents seed formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, E; Díaz-Tielas, C; López-González, D; Martínez-Peñalver, A; Reigosa, M J; Sánchez-Moreiras, A M

    2016-05-01

    Based on previous results, which showed that the secondary metabolite citral causes disturbances to plant water status, the present study is focused on demonstrating and detailing these effects on the water-related parameters of Arabidopsis thaliana adult plants, and their impact on plant fitness. Clear evidence of effects on water status and fitness were observed: plants treated with 1200 and 2400 μm citral showed decreased RWC, reduced Ψs , increased Ψw and reduced stomatal opening, even 7 days after the beginning of the experiment. Plant protection signals, such as leaf rolling or increased anthocyanin content, were also detected in these plants. In contrast, 14 days after beginning the treatment, treated plants showed signs of citral-related damage. Moreover, the reproductive success of treated plants was critically compromised, with prematurely withered flowers and no silique or seed development. This effect of citral on fitness of adult plants suggests a promising application of this natural compound in weed management by reducing the weed seed bank in the soil. PMID:26587965

  2. Heterochronic genes in plant evolution and development

    OpenAIRE

    Geuten, Koen; Coenen, Heleen

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of morphology includes evolutionary shifts of developmental processes in space or in time. Heterochronic evolution is defined as a temporal shift. The concept of heterochrony has been very rewarding to investigators of both animal and plant developmental evolution, because it has strong explanatory power when trying to understand morphological diversity. While for animals, extensive literature on heterochrony developed along with the field of evolution of development, in plants the ...

  3. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter the holobiome and development of a medically important mosquito

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing demand for fresh water has forced many countries to use reclaimed wastewater for agricultural purposes. This water contains pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) that remain biologically active following passage through wastewater treatment plants. Run-off from farms and contaminated water from treatment facilities exposes aquatic ecosystems to PPCPs. This study examined the effects of PPCPs on a lower trophic organism. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were reared in water contaminated with environmentally relevant concentrations of common PPCPs. Acetaminophen alone and a mixture of contaminants were found to increase developmental time of larvae. Susceptibility to Bti increased in larvae exposed to antibiotics, acetaminophen, or a mixture of PPCPs. Antibiotics, hormones, and the mixture altered the mosquito bacterial microbiome. Overall, the results indicate that at environmentally relevant concentrations, PPCPs in reclaimed water can have biologically important effects on an ecologically and medically important lower trophic level insect. - Highlights: • Effects of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products on mosquitoes were examined. • Three PPCP treatments increase susceptibility to a common larvicide (Bti). • Acetaminophen and the mixture of PPCPs caused an increase in developmental time. • The holobiome of mosquitoes treated with PPCPs were sequenced. • Three PPCP regimes changed the holobiome of the mosquitoes. - Pharmaceuticals and personal care products, common to reclaimed wastewater, alter the development of mosquitoes. They also alter the whole-body bacterial microbiome

  4. Oilseed cultivars developed from induced mutations and mutations altering fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and sixty-three cultivars of annual oilseed crops, developed using induced mutations, have been officially approved and released for cultivation in 26 countries. The maximum number of cultivars have been released in soybean (58), followed by groundnut (44), sesame (16), linseed (15), rapeseed (14), Indian mustard (8), castorbean (4), white mustard (3) and sunflower (1). The majority (118 of 163) of the cultivars have been developed as direct mutants and 45 of 163 by using the induced mutants in a crossing programme. While in soybean 53 out of 58 cultivars were selected as direct mutants, in groundnut 22 from 44 were developed after hybridization. Eighty-three cultivars were developed directly by exposing seeds to gamma or X-rays. Attempts have been made to infer the successful dose range, defined as the range which led to the development, registration and release of the maximum number of mutant cultivars for gamma and X-rays. The successful dose ranges in Gy for the main oilseed crops are: soybean 100-200, groundnut 150-250, rapeseed 600-800, Indian mustard 700 and sesame 100-200. The main characteristics of the new cultivars, besides higher yield, are altered plant type, early flowering and maturity and oil content. Mutants altering fatty acid composition have been isolated in soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, linseed and minor oil crops. New cultivars having altered fatty acid composition have been released in rapeseed, sunflower and linseed. The latter, previously grown for non-edible oil, has been converted to a new edible oil crop. (author)

  5. Anthropogenic halo disturbances alter landscape and plant richness: a ripple effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingliang; Su, Jinbao; Chen, Jianwei; Cui, Guofa; Ma, Jianzhang

    2013-01-01

    Although anthropogenic landscape fragmentation is often considered as the primary threat to biodiversity, other factors such as immediate human disturbances may also simultaneously threaten species persistence in various ways. In this paper, we introduce a conceptual framework applied to recreation landscapes (RLs), with an aim to provide insight into the composite influences of landscape alteration accompanying immediate human disturbances on plant richness dynamics. These impacts largely occur at patch-edges. They can not only alter patch-edge structure and environment, but also permeate into surrounding natural matrices/patches affecting species persistence-here we term these "Halo disturbance effects" (HDEs). We categorized species into groups based on seed or pollen dispersal mode (animal- vs. wind-dispersed) as they can be associated with species richness dynamics. We evaluated the richness of the two groups and total species in our experimental landscapes by considering the distance from patch-edge, the size of RLs and the intensity of human use over a six-year period. Our results show that animal-dispersed species decreased considerably, whereas wind-dispersed species increased while their richness presented diverse dynamics at different distances from patch-edges. Our findings clearly demonstrate that anthropogenic HDEs produce ripple effects on plant, providing an experimental interpretation for the diverse responses of species to anthropogenic disturbances. This study highlights the importance of incorporating these composite threats into conservation and management strategies. PMID:23424648

  6. Land-use legacies and present fire regimes interact to mediate herbivory by altering the neighboring plant community.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Philip G. [University of Wisconsin; Orrock, John L. [University of Wisconsin

    2015-04-01

    Past and present human activities, such as historic agriculture and fire suppression, are widespread and can create depauperate plant communities. Although many studies show that herbivory on focal plants depends on the density of herbivores or the composition of the surrounding plant community, it is unclear whether anthropogenic changes to plant communities alter herbivory. We tested the hypothesis that human activities that alter the plant community lead to subsequent changes in herbivory. At 20 sites distributed across 80 300 hectares, we conducted a field experiment that manipulated insect herbivore access (full exclosures and pseudo-exclosures) to four focal plant species in longleaf pine woodlands with diff erent land-use histories (post-agricultural sites or non-agricultural sites) and degrees of fi re frequency (frequent and infrequent). Plant cover, particularly herbaceous cover, was lower in post-agricultural and fi re suppressed woodlands. Density of the dominant insect herbivore at our site (grasshoppers) was positively related to plant cover. Herbivore access reduced biomass of the palatable forb Solidago odora in frequently burned post-agricultural sites and in infrequently burned non-agricultural woodlands and increased mortality of another forb (Pityopsis graminifolia ), but did not aff ect two other less palatable species ( Schizachyrium scoparium and Tephrosia virginiana ). Herbivory on S. odora exhibited a hump-shaped response to plant cover, with low herbivory at low and high levels of plant cover. Herbivore density had a weak negative effect on herbivory. These findings suggest that changes in plant cover related to past and present human activities can modify damage rates on focal S. odora plants by altering grasshopper foraging behavior rather than by altering local grasshopper density. The resulting changes in herbivory may have the potential to limit natural recovery or restoration eff orts by reducing the establishment or performance of

  7. Developing Ornamental Plants for Promoting Community Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kritsana Khonphian; Wirat Pansila; Prasopsuk Ritthidet

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aimed to investigate the development of ornamental plants for promoting community economy in marketing and product selling. The study area was Ban Mai Udom, Tambon Ban Mai, Amphoe Nong Bunmak, Changwat Nakhon Ratchasima. Approach: This qualitative research study collected documentary data and field data using survey, observations, interviews and focused group discussion. The sample consisted of totally 33 community leaders, ornamental plant producers sellers and ...

  8. Response of two dominant boreal freshwater wetland plants to manipulated warming and altered precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuanchun; Wang, Guoping; Grace, Michael; Lou, Xiaonan; Yu, Xiaofei; Lu, Xianguo

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized the morphological and photosynthetic responses of two wetland plant species when they were subject to 2-6 °C fluctuations in growth temperature and ± 50% of precipitation, in order to predict the evolution of natural wetlands in Sanjiang Plain of North-eastern China. We investigated the morphological and photosynthetic responses of two dominant and competitive boreal freshwater wetland plants in Northeastern China to manipulation of warming (ambient, +2.0 °C, +4.0 °C, +6.0 °C) and altered precipitation (-50%, ambient, +50%) simultaneously by incubating the plants from seedling to senescence within climate-controlled environmental chambers. Post-harvest, secondary growth of C. angustifolia was observed to explore intergenerational effects. The results indicated that C. angustifolia demonstrated a greater acclimated capacity than G. spiculosa to respond to climate change due to higher resistance to temperature and precipitation manipulations. The accumulated effect on aboveground biomass of post-harvest secondary growth of C. angustifolia was significant. These results explain the expansion of C. angustifolia during last 40 years and indicate the further expansion in natural boreal wetlands under a warmer and wetter future. Stability of the natural surface water table is critical for the conservation and restoration of G. spiculosa populations reacting to encroachment stress from C. angustifolia expansion. PMID:25105764

  9. Verticillium dahliae Infects, Alters Plant Biomass, and Produces Inoculum on Rotation Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D L; Johnson, D A

    2016-06-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, reduces yields of potato and mint. Crop rotation is a potential management tactic for Verticillium wilt; however, the wide host range of V. dahliae may limit the effectiveness of this tactic. The hypothesis that rotation crops are infected by V. dahliae inoculum originating from potato and mint was tested by inoculation of mustards, grasses, and Austrian winter pea with eight isolates of V. dahliae. Inoculum density was estimated from plants and soil. Typical wilt symptoms were not observed in any rotation crop but plant biomass of some crops was reduced, not affected, or increased by infection of specific isolates. Each isolate was host-specific and infected a subset of the rotation crops tested but microsclerotia from at least one isolate were observed on each rotation crop. Some isolates were host-adapted and differentially altered plant biomass or produced differential amounts of inoculum on rotation crops like arugula and Austrian winter pea, which supported more inoculum of specific isolates than potato. Evidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic infection and differential inoculum formation of V. dahliae on rotation crops presented here will be useful in designing rotations for management of Verticillium wilt. PMID:26828231

  10. Response of two dominant boreal freshwater wetland plants to manipulated warming and altered precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchun Zou

    Full Text Available This study characterized the morphological and photosynthetic responses of two wetland plant species when they were subject to 2-6 °C fluctuations in growth temperature and ± 50% of precipitation, in order to predict the evolution of natural wetlands in Sanjiang Plain of North-eastern China. We investigated the morphological and photosynthetic responses of two dominant and competitive boreal freshwater wetland plants in Northeastern China to manipulation of warming (ambient, +2.0 °C, +4.0 °C, +6.0 °C and altered precipitation (-50%, ambient, +50% simultaneously by incubating the plants from seedling to senescence within climate-controlled environmental chambers. Post-harvest, secondary growth of C. angustifolia was observed to explore intergenerational effects. The results indicated that C. angustifolia demonstrated a greater acclimated capacity than G. spiculosa to respond to climate change due to higher resistance to temperature and precipitation manipulations. The accumulated effect on aboveground biomass of post-harvest secondary growth of C. angustifolia was significant. These results explain the expansion of C. angustifolia during last 40 years and indicate the further expansion in natural boreal wetlands under a warmer and wetter future. Stability of the natural surface water table is critical for the conservation and restoration of G. spiculosa populations reacting to encroachment stress from C. angustifolia expansion.

  11. Microbial degradation of plant leachate alters lignin phenols and trihalomethane precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Saraceno, John Franco; Spencer, Robert G.M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of vascular plant-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwater systems has been studied, the role of leached DOC as precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment is not well known. Here we measured the propensity of leachates from four crops and four aquatic macrophytes to form trihalomethanes (THMs)—a regulated class of DBPs—before and after 21 d of microbial degradation. We also measured lignin phenol content and specific UV absorbance (SUVA254) to test the assumption that aromatic compounds from vascular plants are resistant to microbial degradation and readily form DBPs. Leaching solubilized 9 to 26% of total plant carbon, which formed 1.93 to 6.72 mmol THM mol C-1 However, leachate DOC concentrations decreased by 85 to 92% over the 21-d incubation, with a concomitant decrease of 67 to 92% in total THM formation potential. Carbon-normalized THM yields in the residual DOC pool increased by 2.5 times on average, consistent with the preferential uptake of nonprecursor material. Lignin phenol concentrations decreased by 64 to 96% over 21 d, but a lack of correlation between lignin content and THM yields or SUVA254 suggested that lignin-derived compounds are not the source of increased THM precursor yields in the residual DOC pool. Our results indicate that microbial carbon utilization alters THM precursors in ecosystems with direct plant leaching, but more work is needed to identify the specific dissolved organic matter components with a greater propensity to form DBPs and affect watershed management, drinking water quality, and human health.

  12. Embryo development alteration in rats treated with lapachol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maganha

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Lapachol, a naphthoquinone extracted from plants of the genus Tabebuia (family Bignoneaceae, showed multiple therapeutic activities. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with Lapachol from the 1st to the 4th (pre-implantation period and from 5th to 7th (implantation period post insemination day (PID. Mothers were sacrificed on the 5th or on the15th PID. Number of corpora lutea, preimplantation embryo, blastocysts, live and dead fetuses and resorptions were counted. There were no signs of maternal toxicity. The number and the morphology of embryos, during oviduct development (pre-implantation period, did not seem to be affected by this drug, but during the implantation period, lapachol was toxic causing the death of embryos and intrauterine growth retardation.O Lapachol é uma naftoquinona, extraída de plantas do gênero Tabebuia (família Bignoneaceae, que apresenta múltiplas atividades terapêuticas. Estudos prévios sobre o efeito do lapachol no início do desenvolvimento embrionário de ratas são controversos. No presente trabalho ratas Wistar prenhes foram tratadas com lapachol do 1º ao 4º dias pós-inseminação (período de pré-implantação e do 5º ao 7º dias (período de implantação do blastocisto. As mães foram sacrificadas no 5º o e no 15º dia pós-inseminação. Contaram-se corpos lúteos, embriões em fase de pré-implantação, blastocistos, fetos vivos e mortos e reabsorções.Fetos e placentas foram pesados. Não ocorreram indícios de toxicidade materna.O número e a morfologia dos embriões durante o desenvolvimento tubário não foi afetado pela droga, mas durante o período de implantação o lapachol foi tóxico, causando morte de embriões e retardo de crescimento intra-uterino.

  13. Role of nitric oxide in plant development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Dagmar; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2014, s. 217-226. ISBN 978-1-4665-5328-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1239 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : NO Biosynthesis * Plant Development * signaling molecules Subject RIV: EF - Botanics http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781466553286

  14. Auxins and cytokinins in plant development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamínek, Miroslav; Ludwig-Müller, J.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Zažímalová, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2006), s. 89-97. ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/98/1510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cytokinins * Auxins * Plant Development Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2006

  15. Altered Carbon Isotope Discrimination of C3 Plants Under Very High pCO2 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, R. J.; Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.

    2009-12-01

    . We speculate that this decreased variability may reflect fundamentally altered patterns of net carbon uptake, which then affect net isotopic fractionation. A.H. Jahren, N.C. Arens and S.A. Harbeson, 2008. Prediction of atmospheric δ13CO2 using fossil plant tissues. Reviews of Geophysics, 46/2006RG0002. H. Poorter and E. Garnier, 1996. Plant growth analysis: an evaluation of experimental design and computational methods. Journal of Experimental Botany, 47/1343-1351.

  16. Customer benefit and power plant development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, many aspects of the power market and customer needs in plant operation have been changing more rapidly than manufacturers could launch new products on the market. As a result, flexibility is required not only in the operation of power plants, but also in drawing up product specifications and in the ensuing engineering. The familiar major objectives of development work, such as low specific investment cost and high efficiency, remain important. Also in the context of reducing CO2 emissions and trading with CO2 certificates, improving the efficiency of power plants is a measure that, over and above today's cost optimum, represents the 'action of least regret' with a view to sustainably meeting the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. (orig.)

  17. Altered stream-flow regimes and invasive plant species: The Tamarix case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, J.C.; Lite, S.J.; Marler, R.; Paradzick, C.; Shafroth, P.B.; Shorrock, D.; White, J.M.; White, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that anthropogenic alteration of stream-flow regimes is a key driver of compositional shifts from native to introduced riparian plant species. Location: The arid south-western United States; 24 river reaches in the Gila and Lower Colorado drainage basins of Arizona. Methods: We compared the abundance of three dominant woody riparian taxa (native Populus fremontii and Salix gooddingii, and introduced Tamarix) between river reaches that varied in stream-flow permanence (perennial vs. intermittent), presence or absence of an upstream flow-regulating dam, and presence or absence of municipal effluent as a stream water source. Results: Populus and Salix were the dominant pioneer trees along the reaches with perennial flow and a natural flood regime. In contrast, Tamarix had high abundance (patch area and basal area) along reaches with intermittent stream flows (caused by natural and cultural factors), as well as those with dam-regulated flows. Main conclusions: Stream-flow regimes are strong determinants of riparian vegetation structure, and hydrological alterations can drive dominance shifts to introduced species that have an adaptive suite of traits. Deep alluvial groundwater on intermittent rivers favours the deep-rooted, stress-adapted Tamarix over the shallower-rooted and more competitive Populus and Salix. On flow-regulated rivers, shifts in flood timing favour the reproductively opportunistic Tamarix over Populus and Salix, both of which have narrow germination windows. The prevailing hydrological conditions thus favour a new dominant pioneer species in the riparian corridors of the American Southwest. These results reaffirm the importance of reinstating stream-flow regimes (inclusive of groundwater flows) for re-establishing the native pioneer trees as the dominant forest type. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Proline metabolism and transport in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Silke; Funck, Dietmar; Szabados, László; Rentsch, Doris

    2010-10-01

    Proline fulfils diverse functions in plants. As amino acid it is a structural component of proteins, but it also plays a role as compatible solute under environmental stress conditions. Proline metabolism involves several subcellular compartments and contributes to the redox balance of the cell. Proline synthesis has been associated with tissues undergoing rapid cell divisions, such as shoot apical meristems, and appears to be involved in floral transition and embryo development. High levels of proline can be found in pollen and seeds, where it serves as compatible solute, protecting cellular structures during dehydration. The proline concentrations of cells, tissues and plant organs are regulated by the interplay of biosynthesis, degradation and intra- as well as intercellular transport processes. Among the proline transport proteins characterized so far, both general amino acid permeases and selective compatible solute transporters were identified, reflecting the versatile role of proline under stress and non-stress situations. The review summarizes our current knowledge on proline metabolism and transport in view of plant development, discussing regulatory aspects such as the influence of metabolites and hormones. Additional information from animals, fungi and bacteria is included, showing similarities and differences to proline metabolism and transport in plants. PMID:20204435

  19. SWOT of nuclear power plant sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWOT Analysis is a Useful tool that can he applied to most projects or business ventures. In this article we are going to examine major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of nuclear power plants in view of sustainable development. Nuclear power plants have already attained widespread recognition for its benefits in fossil pollution abatement, near-zero green house gas emission, price stability and security of energy supply. The impressive new development is that these virtues are now a cost -free bonus, because, in long run, nuclear energy has become an inexpensive way to generate electricity. Nuclear energy's pre-eminence economically and environmentally has two implications for government policy. First, governments should ensure that nuclear licensing and safety oversight arc not only rigorous but also efficient in facilitating timely development of advanced power plants. Second, governments should be bold incentivizing the transformation to clean energy economics, recognizing that such short-term stimulus will, in the case of nuclear plants, simply accelerate desirable changes that now have their own long-term momentum. The increased competitiveness of nuclear power plant is the result of cost reductions in all aspects of nuclear economics: Construction, financing, operations, waste management and decommissioning. Among the cost-lowering factors are the evolution to standardized reactor designs, shorter construction periods, new financing techniques, more efficient generation technologies, higher rates of reactor utilization, and longer plant lifetimes. U.S World Nuclear Association report shows that total electricity costs for power plant construction and operation were calculated at two interest rates. At 10%, midrange generating costs per kilowatt-hour are nuclear at 4 cents, coal at 4.7 cents and natural gas at 5.1 cent. At a 5% interest rate, mid-range costs per KWh fall to nuclear at 2.6 cents, coal at 3.7 cents and natural gas at 4.3 cents

  20. The Ca(2+) status of the endoplasmic reticulum is altered by induction of calreticulin expression in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, S.; Wyatt, S. E.; Love, J.; Thompson, W. F.; Robertson, D.; Boss, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in plant cells, we generated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; NT1) suspension cells and Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of calreticulin (CRT), an ER-localized Ca(2+)-binding protein. NT1 cells and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a maize (Zea mays) CRT gene in both sense and antisense orientations under the control of an Arabidopsis heat shock promoter. ER-enriched membrane fractions from NT1 cells were used to examine how altered expression of CRT affects Ca(2+) uptake and release. We found that a 2.5-fold increase in CRT led to a 2-fold increase in ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) accumulation in the ER-enriched fraction compared with heat-shocked wild-type controls. Furthermore, after treatment with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, ER microsomes from NT1 cells overproducing CRT showed a 2-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) released, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) retained compared with wild type. These data indicate that altering the production of CRT affects the ER Ca(2+) pool. In addition, CRT transgenic Arabidopsis plants were used to determine if altered CRT levels had any physiological effects. We found that the level of CRT in heat shock-induced CRT transgenic plants correlated positively with the retention of chlorophyll when the plants were transferred from Ca(2+)-containing medium to Ca(2+)-depleted medium. Together these data are consistent with the hypothesis that increasing CRT in the ER increases the ER Ca(2+) stores and thereby enhances the survival of plants grown in low Ca(2+) medium.

  1. Proline metabolism and transport in plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Silke; Funck, Dietmar; Szabados, László; Rentsch, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Proline fulfils diverse functions in plants. As amino acid it is a structural component of proteins, but it also plays a role as compatible solute under environmental stress conditions. Proline metabolism involves several subcellular compartments and contributes to the redox balance of the cell. Proline synthesis has been associated with tissues undergoing rapid cell divisions, such as shoot apical meristems, and appears to be involved in floral transition and embryo development. High levels ...

  2. Ultrastructural Alteration of Maize Plants Infected with the Maize Rough Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao-hui; GUO Xing-qi; YE Bao-hua; GUO Yan-kui

    2002-01-01

    The ultrastruetural alteration of maize plants infected with the maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) was studied with transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that aggregates of virus particles, with a diameter of 60nm, were found in the root cell, and always distributed near the vacuole membrane. However, no such particles were checked in leaf cells. Moreover, no virus was observed in choroplasts,mitochondria nuclei, plasmodesmata or intercellular canal of all kinds of infected cells of maize, either.Structures of various organelles changed in the infected leaf and root cells of maize. An inward collapse and localized splitting of the tonoplast were observed, the chloropoast structure was destroyed by MRDV, and the number of destroyed or dysplasia chloroplast in leaf cells with serious symptoms was more than that in leaves without symptoms. The matrix of mitochondria in cells infected by MRDV decreased and some of them expanded and destructed. Nuclei was abnormal and the nuclear membrane was broken, In addition, the infected cells were characterized by a voluminous cytoplasm containing hypertrophied endoplasmic reticulum, with rich ribosome content and lots of starch grain.

  3. BWR plant analyzer development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering plant analyzer has been developed at BNL for realistically and accurately simulating transients and severe abnormal events in BWR power plants. Simulations are being carried out routinely with high fidelity, high simulation speed, at low cost and with unsurpassed user convenience. The BNL Plant Analyzer is the only operating facility which (a) simulates more than two orders-of-magnitude faster than the CDC-7600 mainframe computer, (b) is accessible and fully operational in on-line interactive mode, remotely from anywhere in the US, from Europe or the Far East (Korea), via widely available IBM-PC compatible personal computers, standard modems and telephone lines, (c) simulates both slow and rapid transients seven times faster than real-time speed in direct access, and four times faster in remote access modes, (d) achieves high simulation speed without compromising fidelity, and (e) is available to remote access users at the low cost of $160 per hour. The accomplishment of detailed and accurate simulations in complex power plants at high speed and low cost are due chiefly to two reasons. The first reason is the application of five distinct modeling principles [2] which are not employed in any other simulation code. The second, and even more important reason is the utilization of a special-purpose peripheral computer with its 13 task-specific parallel processors

  4. Development of robots for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power plants, the reduction of maintenance time, the reduction of radiation exposure and man-power saving are increasingly required. To achieve these purposes, various remote-controlled devices, such as robots in a broad sense, have been earnestly developed. Of these, three machines for replacing, four devices for inspection, two systems for cleaning, and two equipment for processing are tabulated in this paper. Typical eight machines or equipment are briefly introduced, mainly describing their features or characteristics. Those are: a remotely handling machine for control rod drive mechanism, an automatic refueling machine, an automatic ultrasonic flaw detection system replacing for a manually operated testing system for the welded parts of primary cooling system, an automatic cask washing machine for decontamination, a floor-type remote inspection vehicle for various devices operating inside power plants, a monorail-type remote inspection vehicle for inspection in spaces where floor space is short, and a remote-controlled automatic pipe welding machine for welding operations in a radioactive environment such as replacing the piping of primary cooling system. Most of these devices serves for radiation exposure reduction at the same time. Existing nuclear power plant design assumes direct manual maintenance, which limits the introduction of robots. Future nuclear power plants should be designed on the assumption of automatic remote-controlled tools and devices being used in maintenance work. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. NRC plant-analyzer development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this program is to develop an LWR engineering plant analyzer capable of performing realistic and accurate simulations of plant transients and Small-Break Loss of Coolant Accidents at real-time and faster than real-time computing speeds and at low costs for preparing, executing and evaluating such simulations. The program is directed toward facilitating reactor safety analyses, on-line plant monitoring, on-line accident diagnosis and mitigation and toward improving reactor operator training. The AD10 of Applied Dynamics International, Ann Arbor, MI, a special-purpose peripheral processor for high-speed systems simulation, is programmed through a PDP-11/34 minicomputer and carries out digital simulations with analog hardware in the input/output loop (up to 256 channels). Analog signals from a control panel are being used now to activate or to disable valves and to trip pump drive motors or regulators without interrupting the simulation. An IBM personal computer with multicolor graphics capabilities and a CRT monitor are used to produce on-line labelled diagrams of selected plant parameters as functions of time

  6. Developing Ornamental Plants for Promoting Community Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsana Khonphian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aimed to investigate the development of ornamental plants for promoting community economy in marketing and product selling. The study area was Ban Mai Udom, Tambon Ban Mai, Amphoe Nong Bunmak, Changwat Nakhon Ratchasima. Approach: This qualitative research study collected documentary data and field data using survey, observations, interviews and focused group discussion. The sample consisted of totally 33 community leaders, ornamental plant producers sellers and buyers and state and private sector officials involving promotion of ornamental plant production and selling, obtained using the simple random sampling technique. The collected data were checked using the triangulation technique. The data were analyzed and the study findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: The study findings revealed that the production of ornamental plants in Ban Mai Udom community had 2 types of development for promoting community economy: At the household level and the organizational level. At the household kevel, the problems of marketing and selling, in which prices could be bargained, by selling by themselves and haring their relatives sell the products a local markets both inside and outside the community. At the organization level, the patterns of promoting community economy were developed. The marketing problems were solved by using the concept of media through indigenous knowledge, setting up groups as an organization through ethnicity of Thai Khorat and using the Thai Khorat dialect. Conclusion: In solving the selling problems, all of the group members sold the products at local markets and foreign markets such as France, Hong Kong and Dubai. When they had got money, every group member could borrow some money as welfare at an interest rate of 2% year. Dividends were given to all group members every year. The methods mentioned could solve different problems involved.

  7. Knockdown of Leptin A Expression Dramatically Alters Zebrafish Development

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qin; Dalman, Mark; CHEN, YUN; Akhter, Mashal; Brahmandam, Sravya; Patel, Yesha; Lowe, Josef; Thakkar, Mitesh; Gregory, Akil-Vuai; Phelps, Daryllanae; Riley, Caitlin; Londraville, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO) technology, we blocked leptin A or leptin receptor expression in embryonic zebrafish, and analyzed consequences of leptin knock-down on fish development. Embryos injected with leptin A or leptin receptor MOs (leptin A or leptin receptor morphants) had smaller bodies and eyes, undeveloped inner ear, enlarged pericardial cavity, curved body and/or tail and larger yolk compared to control embryos of the same stages. The defects persisted in 6-9 day...

  8. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Spielberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala, but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues—which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences.

  9. Postnatal foraging demands alter adrenocortical activity and psychosocial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, D M; Kim, S; Schatzberg, A F; Levine, S

    1998-05-01

    Mother squirrel monkeys stop carrying infants at earlier ages in high-demand (HD) conditions where food is difficult to find relative to low-demand (LD) conditions. To characterize these transitions in psychosocial development, from 10- to 21-weeks postpartum we collected measures of behavior, adrenocortical activity, and social transactions coded for initiator (mother or infant), goal (make-contact or break-contact), and outcome (success or failure). Make-contact attempts were most often initiated by HD infants, but mothers often opposed these attempts and less than 50% were successful. Break-contact attempts were most often initiated by LD infants, but mothers often opposed these attempts and fewer LD than HD infant break-contact attempts were successful. Plasma levels of cortisol were significantly higher in HD than LD mothers, but differences in adrenocortical activity were less consistent in their infants. HD and LD infants also spent similar amounts of time nursing on their mothers and feeding on solid foods. By rescheduling some transitions in development (carry-->self-transport), and not others (nursing-->self-feeding), mothers may have partially protected infants from the immediate impact of an otherwise stressful foraging task. PMID:9589217

  10. Strategy of plant concept development in Hitachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitachi contributes to the society in various fields of nuclear power such as the Light Water Reactor field, the Fast Breeder Reactor, the fuel cycle, and the medical treatment. Since the beginning of a first commercial operation of a BWR in Japan, Hitachi has constructed 20 units of BWR. Hitachi continues its efforts in achieving high reliability and large-scale output, and in 1996, it completed Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) in cooperation with various BWR utilities, General Electric Company, and Toshiba Corporation. Hitachi has enhanced the ABWR technology further based on the above enough experience. The latest technologies were reflected in Hamaoka unit 5 and Shika unit 2 as the latest ABWR plants. The further upgrade technologies would been reflected in Shimane-3, Ohma-1 and Higashidori-1 as ABWR plants under planning. Hitachi obtains the chance to construct the nuclear power plant continuously. For the next generation, Hitachi is working on developing nuclear power plants that take diversified needs and global characteristics into account. As one of the approaches, the output series formation of BWR is extended as the following. ABWR-II and ESBWR (Economic and Simplified BWR) as a large-scale centralized power supply emphasizing cost efficiency, Medium size ABWR and natural circulation type BWR as medium and small-scale distributed power supply that features flexibility to various market needs, such as minimized capital risks, timely return on a capital investment, etc. As another approach, Hitachi tries to extend the Light Water Reactor technology. RBWR (Resource-Renewable BWR ) that achieves a high conversion ratio over 1.0 based on the BWR technology will make the fuel cycle flexible. Hitachi will continue the challenge for the next ABWR and the future with the enough experience of BWR construction. (author)

  11. A review on pilot plant development models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After more than 30 years, MINT has been able to produce many new findings, products and processes. Some of these have been able to penetrate local and international markets. This was achieved through a systematic commercialisation program practiced in MINT with its technological chain and MINT Technology Park program. This paper will review the development process of MINT pilot plants and compare them with a few other models from other institutions in Malaysia and abroad. The advantages and disadvantages of each model are reviewed and a discussion against MINT's model is presented. (Author)

  12. Roles of lignin biosynthesis and regulatory genes in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinmi; Choi, Heebak; An, Gynheung

    2015-11-01

    Lignin is an important factor affecting agricultural traits, biofuel production, and the pulping industry. Most lignin biosynthesis genes and their regulatory genes are expressed mainly in the vascular bundles of stems and leaves, preferentially in tissues undergoing lignification. Other genes are poorly expressed during normal stages of development, but are strongly induced by abiotic or biotic stresses. Some are expressed in non-lignifying tissues such as the shoot apical meristem. Alterations in lignin levels affect plant development. Suppression of lignin biosynthesis genes causes abnormal phenotypes such as collapsed xylem, bending stems, and growth retardation. The loss of expression by genes that function early in the lignin biosynthesis pathway results in more severe developmental phenotypes when compared with plants that have mutations in later genes. Defective lignin deposition is also associated with phenotypes of seed shattering or brittle culm. MYB and NAC transcriptional factors function as switches, and some homeobox proteins negatively control lignin biosynthesis genes. Ectopic deposition caused by overexpression of lignin biosynthesis genes or master switch genes induces curly leaf formation and dwarfism. PMID:26297385

  13. Isolation of carrot plant lines with altered carotene contents from gamma irradiated explants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary vitamin A is mainly obtained from carotenes of vegetables and fruits. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the major sources of carotene. Carrot cultivars have been obtained mainly through classical breeding, and genetic selection has permitted the creation of new varieties with high carotene contents. The fact that in several crops agronomically important mutants/variants have been generated by in vitro culture techniques prompted us to combine gamma irradiation and in vitro somatic embryogenesis to obtain regenerants with variations in carotene content in carrot. To test the effect of gamma rays on somatic embryogenesis and on the carotene level, aseptically germinated seedlings of 8 carrot varieties were exposed to 5; 10 and 500 Gy before culturing petiole segments on LN1 medium. Non-irradiated petioles produced calli with somatic embryos, while irradiated explants reacted differently according to radiation dose. After 4 weeks of culture on LN1 medium, petiole segments of different varieties irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy gave more callus with embryos than those with non-irradiated segments. However, after the subculture on LN medium, the development of embryos into plantlets was rare. It was also noted that after irradiation with 5 Gy, the petiole segments gave voluminous calli. Further, in variety 'Chantenay', the irradiated calli were deep orange while non-irradiated calli were green. However, embryo formation was not observed in these calli. This orange coloration suggests an appreciable synthesis of carotene in the calli. Gamma rays, probably produced cell lines with different colors and carotene content. Of the 8 cultivars tested, normal plantlets of 3 varieties were regenerated from somatic embryos irradiated with 10 Gy, and were transferred to greenhouse to develop roots. For each assay, the carotene analysis was carried out on 2 roots, and compared with plants produced from non-irradiated somatic embryos. Carotene level in the plants, derived from

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  15. Climate Change May Alter Breeding Ground Distributions of Eastern Migratory Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via Range Expansion of Asclepias Host Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan P Lemoine

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can profoundly alter species’ distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate chang...

  16. Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) Invasion Alters Decomposer Fauna and Plant Litter Decomposition in a Temperate Xerophytic Deciduous Forest

    OpenAIRE

    José Camilo Bedano; Laura Sacchi; Evangelina Natale; Herminda Reinoso

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions may alter the soil system by changing litter quality and quantity, thereby affecting soil community and ecosystem processes. We investigated the effect of Tamarix ramosissima invasion on the decomposer fauna and litter decomposition process, as well as the importance of litter quality in decomposition. Litter decomposition and decomposer communities were evaluated in two monospecific saltcedar forests and two native forests in Argentina, in litterbags containing either local l...

  17. Water mediated alterations in gravity signal transform phytofilertation capability in hydroponic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogranjan; Singh Marabi, Rakesh; Satpute, Gyanesh Kumar; Mishra, Stuti

    2012-07-01

    An exorbitant sum of different synthetic molecules of chemicals including dyes and pigments are discharged into the environment, mainly via industrial effluents every year worldwide. The physical-chemical treatments for remediation viz adsorption, precipitation, ion exchange or filtration have proved to be disadvantageous because of high cost, low efficiency and inapplicability to a wide variety of dyes, or the formation of by-products and thereby creating waste disposal problems. Similarly the limited ability of micro-organisms to degrade xenobiotic especially sulphonoaromatic compounds, limits the efficiency and, therefore, the use of conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this context, the development of alternative biological treatments to eliminate these pollutants from industrial effluents is an important requirement. Plant metabolism, is extremely diverse and can be exploited to treat recalcitrant pollutants, not degradable by bacteria or fungi and can act as an important global sink for environmental pollutants. The presence of putative metabolites, in leaves of hydrophytes has been observed, indicating the transformation of several xenobiotics. A diverse range of the enzymes involved in the early stages of the detoxification process are closely associated with the redox biochemistry of the cell. The activities of enzymes such as glutathione transferases, peroxidases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and its multigenic family have implications with respect to the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Besides activating xenobiotics, cytochromes P450 is involved vitally in cell signaling for counteracting buoyant balance. Signal transduction cascades, including the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in responding to gravitational cues, appear to be affected by buoyancy as well. Gravitropism is the orientation of growth in response to gravity and involves the perception of the gravitational force in the columella cells of the root cap where the primary

  18. Development of a Scale for Measuring Invasive Plant Environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Dozier, Hallie

    2000-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure invasive plant environmentalism (knowledge and attitudes concerning non-native plant invasions). Scaled responses of 237 plant nursery customers to a 17-item standardized interview using the partial credit model. Results indicate that the instrument measured the construct of invasive plant environmentalism…

  19. Root exudate-induced alterations in Bacillus cereus cell wall contribute to root colonization and plant growth promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalee Dutta

    Full Text Available The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs. We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430. There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE, compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE. In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2, in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.

  20. Long-term variation in above and belowground plant inputs alters soil organic matter biogeochemistry at the molecular-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M. J.; Pisani, O.; Lin, L.; Lun, O.; Simpson, A.; Lajtha, K.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The long-term fate of soil carbon reserves with global environmental change remains uncertain. Shifts in moisture, altered nutrient cycles, species composition, or rising temperatures may alter the proportions of above and belowground biomass entering soil. However, it is unclear how long-term changes in plant inputs may alter the composition of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil carbon storage. Advanced molecular techniques were used to assess SOM composition in mineral soil horizons (0-10 cm) after 20 years of Detrital Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) at the Harvard Forest. SOM biomarkers (solvent extraction, base hydrolysis and cupric (II) oxide oxidation) and both solid-state and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to identify changes in SOM composition and stage of degradation. Microbial activity and community composition were assessed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Doubling aboveground litter inputs decreased soil carbon content, increased the degradation of labile SOM and enhanced the sequestration of aliphatic compounds in soil. The exclusion of belowground inputs (No roots and No inputs) resulted in a decrease in root-derived components and enhanced the degradation of leaf-derived aliphatic structures (cutin). Cutin-derived SOM has been hypothesized to be recalcitrant but our results show that even this complex biopolymer is susceptible to degradation when inputs entering soil are altered. The PLFA data indicate that changes in soil microbial community structure favored the accelerated processing of specific SOM components with littler manipulation. These results collectively reveal that the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs alters the molecular-level composition of SOM and in some cases, enhances the degradation of recalcitrant SOM. Our study also suggests that increased litterfall is unlikely to enhance soil carbon storage over the long-term in temperate forests.

  1. Investment in plant research and development bears fruit in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Kang; Xu, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Recent rapid progress in plant science and biotechnology in China demonstrates that China’s stronger support for funding in plant research and development (R&D) has borne fruit. Chinese groups have contributed major advances in a range of fields, such as rice biology, plant hormone and developmental biology, genomics and evolution, plant genetics and epigenetics, as well as plant biotechnology. Strigolactone studies including those identifying its receptor and dissecting its complex structure...

  2. How does altered precipitation and annual grass invasion affect plant N uptake in a native semi-arid shrub community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, M.; Lipson, D.; Cleland, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns, which will change the timing and amount of plant resources. Precipitation patterns determine water and nitrogen (N) availability, because water stimulates microbial N turnover and N transport. In order for plants to utilize water and N, they must coincide with the phenology and meet physiological requirements of the plant. As resource supply shifts, differences in species' ability to acquire resources will affect plant community composition. Semiarid ecosystems, such as shrublands in Southern California, are particularly sensitive to shifts in precipitation because they are severely water limited. This study takes advantage of the altered phenology and resource demands presented by invasive annual grasses in a native semiarid shrubland. The goal is to understand how altered precipitation patterns affect plant N uptake. Rainfall levels were manipulated to 50% and 150% of ambient levels. It is expected that higher rainfall levels promote annual grass invasion because grasses have higher water and N requirements and begin to grow earlier in the season than shrubs. A 15N tracer was added with the first rain event and plant samples were collected regularly to track the movement of N into the plants. Net soil N accumulation was determined using resin bags. Invasive grasses altered the timing and amount of N uptake but amount of rainfall had less effect on N distribution. 15N was detected sooner and at higher level in grasses than shrubs. 24hours after the first rain event 15N was detectable in grasses, 15N accumulated rapidly and peaked 2 months earlier than shrubs. Shrub 15N levels remained at pre-rain event levels for the first 2 months and began to increase at the beginning of spring, peak mid-spring and decline as the shrubs entered summer dormancy. One year later 15N levels in annual grass litter remained high, while 15N levels in shrubs returned to initial background levels as a result of resorption. 15N

  3. Phylogenetic diversity of plants alters the effect of species richness on invertebrate herbivory

    OpenAIRE

    Russell Dinnage

    2013-01-01

    Long-standing ecological theory proposes that diverse communities of plants should experience a decrease in herbivory. Yet previous empirical examinations of this hypothesis have revealed that plant species richness increases herbivory in just as many systems as it decreases it. In this study, I ask whether more insight into the role of plant diversity in promoting or suppressing herbivory can be gained by incorporating information about the evolutionary history of species in a community. In ...

  4. Using functional–structural plant models to study, understand and integrate plant development and ecophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    DeJong, Theodore M.; da Silva, David; Vos, Jan; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.

    2011-01-01

    Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) explore and integrate relationships between a plant's structure and processes that underlie its growth and development. In recent years, the range of topics being addressed by scientists interested in functional–structural plant modelling has expanded greatly. FSPM techniques are now being used to dynamically simulate growth and development occurring at the microscopic scale involving cell division in plant meristems to the macroscopic scales of whol...

  5. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  6. Plant Temperature for Sterile Alteration of a Temperature-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice, Peiai64S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The forecast of sterile alteration for the temperature-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) line in two-line hybrid rice seed production was traditionally based on screen temperature determined by weather station. The article put forward a new approach based on plant temperature, which was more exact and direct than the traditional method. The result of the simulation of the self-seeded setting rate of a widely used TGMS line, Peiai64S, by several temperature parameters and durations, showed that the fertility was directly affected by the plant temperature at a height of 20 cm or the air temperature around it in three days duration. Using the stem temperature of three days at a height of 20 cm as the simulation parameter,the fertility of Peiai64S had the maximum, minimum and optimum temperatures as 22.8, 21.7 and 22.5℃, respectively,whereas 23.2, 21.5 and 21.8℃ when using the air temperature of three days around the height of 20 cm as the parameter.Such temperature indices can be used to conclude the sterile alteration of TGMS for safeguarding seed production of twoline hybrid rice. The article also established a statistic model to conclude plant temperature by water temperatures at inflow and outflow, and air temperature and cloudage from weather station.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter phosphorus relations of broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus L.) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, J.C.; Cumming, J.R.

    2001-07-01

    Broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus L.) is a dominant grass revegetating many abandoned coal-mined lands in West Virginia, USA. Residual soils on such sites are often characterized by low pH, low nutrients, and high aluminium. Experiments were conducted to assess the resistance of broomsedge to limited phosphorus (Pi) availability and to investigate the role that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play in aiding plant growth under low Pi conditions. Pregerminated mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal seedlings were grown in a sand-culture system with nutrient solutions containing Pi concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M for 8 weeks. Non-mycorrhizal plants exhibited severe inhibition of growth under Pi limitation ({lt}60 {mu}M). Colonization by AM fungi greatly enhanced host plant growth at low Pi concentrations, but did not benefit growth when Pi was readily available (100 {mu}M). In comparison to non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal plants had higher phosphorus use efficiency at low Pi concentrations and maintained nearly constant tissue nutrient concentrations across the gradient of Pi concentrations investigated. Manganese (Mn) and sodium (Na) accumulated in shoots of nonmycorrhizal plants under Pi limitation. Mycorrhizal plants exhibited lower instantaneous Pi uptake rates and significantly lower C-min values compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. These patterns suggest that the symbiotic association between broomsedge roots and AM fungi effectively maintains nutrient homeostasis through changes in physiological properties, including nutrient uptake, allocation and use. The mycorrhizal association is thus a major adaptation that allows broomsedge to become established on infertile mined lands.

  8. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  9. Chromium stress induced alterations in biochemical and enzyme metabolism in aquatic and terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, K Sankar; Baskaran, L; Rajasekaran, S; Sumathi, K; Chidambaram, A L A; Sundaramoorthy, P

    2008-06-01

    Water is seriously polluted by the discharge of various industrial wastewater containing heavy metals. Among them, chromium is considered to be toxic to living organisms and it is released mostly from tanneries. The chromium-contaminated water is discharged into nearby water bodies and it affects both aquatic and terrestrial plants. So the present experiment was conducted with an aquatic plant, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) and a terrestrial plant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). They were treated with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/L) of potassium dichromate solution. The biochemical parameters such as total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and amino acid content and the enzymatic activities like catalase and peroxidase were estimated. The accumulation of chromium was also analysed in both the plants. All the biochemical contents and enzyme activities of water lettuce and soybean seedlings showed a great variation with respect to the increase in chromium concentrations. The accumulation of chromium increased gradually with the increase of chromium concentrations. Total inhibition of all the parameters were observed at 300 mg/L chromium concentration. The terrestrial plant soybean was sensitive than the aquatic plant water lettuce towards chromium stress. PMID:18206355

  10. Some physical aspects of plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Corson, Francis

    2008-01-01

    While the importance of physical mechanisms in animal morphogenesis and developmental regulation is well established, they have received less attention in the case of plants. We have investigated the possibility of such mechanisms, focusing in particular on leaf venation networks, and relying on different models of plant tissue growth. We have thus considered the hypothesis of a coupling between mechanical stresses and vascular tissue differentiation, which is suggested by the analogy between...

  11. Do plant viruses facilitate their aphid vectors by inducing symptoms that alter behavior and performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Simon; Powell, Glen

    2008-12-01

    Aphids can respond both positively and negatively to virus-induced modifications of the shared host plant. It can be speculated that viruses dependent on aphids for their transmission might evolve to induce changes in the host plant that attract aphids and improve their performance, subsequently enhancing the success of the pathogen itself. We studied how pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] responded to infection of tic beans (Vicia faba L.) by three viruses with varying degrees of dependence on this aphid for their transmission: pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), and broad bean mottle virus (BBMV). BYMV has a nonpersistent mode of transmission by aphids, whereas PEMV is transmitted in a circulative-persistent manner. BBMV is not aphid transmitted. When reared on plants infected by PEMV, no changes in aphid survival, growth, or reproductive performance were observed, whereas infection of beans by the other aphid-dependent virus, BYMV, actually caused a reduction in aphid survival in some assays. None of the viruses induced A. pisum to increase production of winged progeny, and aphids settled preferentially on leaf tissue from plants infected by all three viruses, the likely mechanism being visual responses to yellowing of foliage. Thus, in this system, the attractiveness of an infected host plant and its quality in terms of aphid growth and reproduction were not related to the pathogen's dependence on the aphid for transmission to new hosts. PMID:19161702

  12. Defective Soil for a Fertile Seed? Altered Endometrial Development Is Detrimental to Pregnancy Success

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jemma; Hannan, Natalie J.; Hincks, Cassandra; Rombauts, Luk J. F.; Salamonsen, Lois A

    2012-01-01

    Background Synchronous development of the endometrium (to achieve a receptive state) and of the embryo is essential for successful implantation and ongoing pregnancy. Endometrial receptivity exists only for a finite time in a menstrual cycle and the endometrium is refractory to embryo implantation outside of this window. Administration of hormones to stimulate multifollicular development within the ovary, integral to the majority of assisted reproduction (ART) protocols, dramatically alters t...

  13. Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang-Ryol; Min, Sung-Ran; Jeong, Won-Joong; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Seok-Yoon; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Cho, Hye-Sun; In, Dong-Su; Oh, Seung-Chol; Park, Sang- Gyu; Woo, Je-Wook; Kin, Tae-Hwan; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Sook [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    To develop the transgenic plants with low level of antioxidant enzyme, transgenic tobacco plants (157 plants) using 8 different plant expression vectors which have APX genes in sense or antisense orientation under the control of CaMV 35S promoter or stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter were developed. The insertion of transgene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. The total APX activities of transgenic plants were enhanced or reduced by introduction of APX gene in plants. To clone the radiation-responsive genes and their promoter from plants, the NeIF2Bb, one of radiation-responsive genes from tobacco plant was characterized using molecular and cell biological tools. Promoter of GST6, a radiation-responsive gene, was cloned using RT-PCR. The GST6 promoter sequence was analyzed, and known sequence motif was searched. To develop the remediation technology of radioactively contaminated soil using transgenic plants uranium reductase and radiation resistance genes have been introduced in tobacco and indian mustard plans. The uranium reductase and radiation resistance (RecA) genes were confirmed in transgenic tobacco and indian mustard plants by PCR analysis. Also, Gene expression of uranium reductase and radiation resistance were confirmed in transgenic indian mustard plants by northern blot analysis. 42 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  14. Alteration in delayed fluorescence characterize the effect of heat stress on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lizhang; Xing, Da

    2005-02-01

    High temperature affects the photosynthetic functions of plants by its effects on the rate of chemical reactions and on structural organization. Delayed fluorescence originated from the reaction center of photosystem II (PSII) during the photosynthesis process shortly after stopped illumination. With lamina of soybean as a testing model, the effects of high temperature stress on plant photosynthesis capability were studied with various spectral analysis methods. Experimental results show that DF spectrum and Excitation spectrum can probably characterize the changes of soybean photosynthesis capability after different high temperature treatments. Meanwhile, the injury and harm degree of heat stress on soybean leaves were further studied by the variability of its chloroplast absorption spectrum. DF spectroscopy method may provide a new approach for fast detection of the effects of environment stresses on plant photosynthesis capability.

  15. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Nathan P

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp.) host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in summer months

  16. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Lemoine

    Full Text Available Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp. host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in

  17. Response of Two Dominant Boreal Freshwater Wetland Plants to Manipulated Warming and Altered Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Yuanchun; Wang, Guoping; Grace, Michael; Lou, Xiaonan; Yu, Xiaofei; Lu, Xianguo

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized the morphological and photosynthetic responses of two wetland plant species when they were subject to 2–6°C fluctuations in growth temperature and ±50% of precipitation, in order to predict the evolution of natural wetlands in Sanjiang Plain of North-eastern China. We investigated the morphological and photosynthetic responses of two dominant and competitive boreal freshwater wetland plants in Northeastern China to manipulation of warming (ambient, +2.0°C, +4.0°C, +6....

  18. Development of analytical technique of alteration minerals formed in bentonite by the reaction with alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentonite will be used as a buffer material, according to the TRU waste disposal concept in Japan, to retard radionuclides migration, to restrict seepage of ground water and to filtrate colloids. One of the concern about the buffer material is the long term alteration of bentonite with cementitious material. Long term alteration of bentonite-based materials with alkaline solution has been studied by means of analytical approaches, coupling mass transport and chemical reactions, which suggest changes in various properties of buffer materials. Long term performance assessment of engineered barriers under disposal conditions is important to achieve a reasonable design, eliminating excessive conservatism in the safety assessment. Therefore it is essential for improving the reliance of the performance assessment to verify the analytical results through alteration tests and/or natural analogue. The geochemical analyses indicate that major alteration reactions involve dissolution of portlandite, chalcedony and montmorillonite and formation of C-S-H gel and analcime at the interface between cement and bentonite. However, in the alteration tests assuming interaction between bentonite and cement, secondary minerals due to alteration under the expected condition for geological disposal (equilibrated water with cement at low liquid/solid ratio) had not been observed, though the alteration was observed under accelerated hyper alkaline and high temperatures conditions. The reason is considered that it is difficult to analyze C-S-H gel formed at the interface because of its small quantity. One of examples is the Kunigel V1, a potential buffer material in Japan, which consists of montmorillonite, chalcedony, plagioclase, and calcite. In the XRD analysis of the Kunigel V 1, the locations of the primary peak of the calcite and that of the C-S-H gel overlap, which makes identification of small quantity of C-S-H gel formed as a secondary mineral difficult. Thus development of

  19. The plant expert system (PLEXSYS) development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PLEXSYS software engineering tool provides an environment with which utility engineers can build and use expert systems for power plant applications. PLEXSYS provides the engineer with access to many powerful Artificial Intelligence methodologies, while retaining an engineering frame of reference and minimizing the need for a formal background in computer science. The principle concept is that the description and understanding of power plant systems centers on graphical forms such as piping and instrumentation diagrams and electrical line diagrams, which define a graphics-based model of plant knowledge that is common to many applications. PLEXSYS provides a model editor that allows the user to construct and modify models of hydraulic, electrical, and information systems in terms of elementary components and their interconnections. Analysis of the resulting schematic models is provided by several functions that perform network analysis, schematic browsing, mathematical modeling and customization of the user interface. 41 figs., 1 tab

  20. Development of schizogenous intercellular spaces in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimitsune eIshizaki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas exchange is essential for multicellular organisms. In contrast to the circulatory systems of animals, land plants have tissues with intercellular spaces (ICSs, called aerenchyma, that are critical for efficient gas exchange. Plants form ICSs by two different mechanisms: schizogeny, where localized cell separation creates spaces; and lysogeny, where cells die to create intercellular spaces. In schizogenous ICS formation, specific molecular mechanisms regulate the sites of cell separation and coordinate extensive reorganization of cell walls. Emerging evidence suggests the involvement of extracellular signaling, mediated by peptide ligands and leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, in the regulation of cell wall remodeling during cell separation. Recent work on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has demonstrated a critical role for a plasma membrane-associated plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase in ICS formation. In this review, I discuss the mechanism of schizogenous ICS formation, focusing on the potential role of extracellular signaling in the regulation of cell separation.

  1. Microcystin-LR induces abnormal root development by altering microtubule organization in tissue-cultured common reed (Phragmites australis) plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Csaba; Beyer, Dániel; Erdodi, Ferenc; Serfozo, Zoltán; Székvölgyi, Lóránt; Vasas, Gábor; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jámbrik, Katalin; Gonda, Sándor; Kiss, Andrea; Szigeti, Zsuzsa M; Surányi, Gyula

    2009-05-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a heptapeptide cyanotoxin, known to be a potent inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases in eukaryotes. Our aim was to investigate the effect of MC-LR on the organization of microtubules and mitotic chromatin in relation to its possible effects on cell and whole organ morphology in roots of common reed (Phragmites australis). P. australis is a widespread freshwater and brackish water aquatic macrophyte, frequently exposed to phytotoxins in eutrophic waters. Reed plantlets regenerated from embryogenic calli were treated with 0.001-40 microg ml(-1) (0.001-40.2 microM) MC-LR for 2-20 days. At 0.5 microg ml(-1) MC-LR and at higher cyanotoxin concentrations, the inhibition of protein phosphatase activity by MC-LR induced alterations in reed root growth and morphology, including abnormal lateral root development and the radial swelling of cells in the elongation zone of primary and lateral roots. Both short-term (2-5 days) and long-term (10-20 days) of cyanotoxin treatment induced microtubule disruption in meristems and in the elongation and differentiation zones. Microtubule disruption was accompanied by root cell shape alteration. At concentrations of 0.5-5 microg ml(-1), MC-LR increased mitotic index at long-term exposure and induced the increase of the percentage of meristematic cells in prophase as well as telophase and cytokinesis of late mitosis. High cyanotoxin concentrations (10-40 microg ml(-1)) inhibited mitosis at as short as 2 days of exposure. The alteration of microtubule organization was observed in mitotic cells at all exposure periods studied, at cyanotoxin concentrations of 0.5-40 microg ml(-1). MC-LR induced spindle anomalies at the metaphase-anaphase transition, the formation of asymmetric anaphase spindles and abnormal sister chromatid separation. This paper reports for the first time that MC-LR induces cytoskeletal changes that lead to alterations of root architecture and development in common reed and generally, in

  2. Development of cooperative work support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a nuclear power plant, there are various staff members for plant control and maintenance, and they have different specialties and work in different places. In past systems, each system supported one task in the different sections. The authors think that collaboration among staff members is very important to decrease the staff workload. Therefore they have been developing a cooperative work support system for nuclear power plants, to realize effective communication between plant staff in distant places. This system provides the functions for sharing various plant information and supporting group decision, using multimedia technology and knowledge engineering

  3. Alteration in antioxidant potential of spinacia oleracea in response to selected plant growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinach (Spinacia oleracea) plants treated with certain seed priming (bio-fertilizer and Humic acid) and foliar treatments (Humic acid, Moringa leaf extract, 6-Benzyl amino purine etc.) were tested for total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Methanolic extracts of all spinach samples were assessed performing three different protocols including Folin-Ciocalteu, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assays. TPC value ranged 4.678-13.236 mg GAE/g of dry matter. Reducing power assay showed values (absorbance at lambda max=700nm) in the range of 0.351-1.874 at 10 mg/mL extract concentration. The range of IC 50 values in DPPH radical scavenging assay was 0.499-1.063 mu g/mL extract concentration. The one way ANOVA under CRD showed significant differences among treatments. Among various plant growth regulators, fresh Moringa leaf extract proved as the potent enhancer of antioxidant activity of spinach leaves. (author)

  4. Physiological and molecular alterations in plants exposed to high [CO2] under phosphorus stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Renu; Zinta, Gaurav; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Ahmad, Altaf; Jain, Vanita; Janssens, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Atmospheric [CO2] has increased substantially in recent decades and will continue to do so, whereas the availability of phosphorus (P) is limited and unlikely to increase in the future. P is a non-renewable resource, and it is essential to every form of life. P is a key plant nutrient controlling the responsiveness of photosynthesis to [CO2]. Increases in [CO2] typically results in increased biomass through stimulation of net photosynthesis, and hence enhance the demand for P uptake...

  5. Annual Glyphosate Treatments Alter Growth of Unaffected Bentgrass (Agrostis) Weeds and Plant Community Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrens, Collin W.; Carol A Auer

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB) and redtop (RT), where the glyphosate resistance (GR) trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate ...

  6. Arsenic enhanced plant growth and altered rhizosphere characteristics of hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia Yi; Li, Hong Bo; Liang, Shuang; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the effects of arsenic species on As accumulation, plant growth and rhizospheric changes in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). PV was grown for 60-d in a soil spiked with 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV-soil) or arsenite (AsIII-soil). Diffusive gradients in thin-films technique (DGT) were used to monitor As uptake by PV. Interestingly AsIII-soil produced the highest PV biomass at 8.6 g plant(-1), 27% and 46% greater than AsV-soil and the control. Biomass increase was associated with As-induced P uptake by PV. Although AsIII was oxidized to AsV during the experiment, As species impacted As accumulation by PV, with 17.5% more As in AsIII-soil than AsV-soil (36 vs. 31 mg plant(-1)). As concentration in PV roots was 30% higher in AsV-soil whereas As concentration in PV fronds was 7.9% greater in AsIII-soil, suggesting more rapid translocation of AsIII than AsV. These findings were important to understand the mechanisms of As uptake, accumulation and translocation by PV. PMID:25103044

  7. Alteration of rat fetal cerebral cortex development after prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Naveau, Elise; Pinson, Anneline; GERARD, Arlette; Nguyen, Laurent; Charlier, Corinne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Zoeller, Robert Thomas; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants that persist in environment and human tissues. Perinatal exposure to these endocrine disruptors causes cognitive deficits and learning disabilities in children. These effects may involve their ability to interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) action. We tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to PCBs can concomitantly alter TH levels and TH-regulated events during cerebral cortex development: progenitor proliferation, cell...

  8. Concurrent gastro-intestinal nematode infection does not alter the development of experimental cerebral malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Brian; Helmby, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Concurrent helminth infections have been suggested to be associated with protection against cerebral malaria in humans, a condition characterised by systemic inflammation. Here we show that a concurrent chronic gastro-intestinal nematode infection does not alter the course of murine cerebral malaria. Mice infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus, and co-infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA 14 days later, developed malaria parasitemia, weight loss and anemia, at the same rate as mice without n...

  9. Altered Lignin Biosynthesis Improves Cellulosic Bioethanol Production in Transgenic Maize Plants Down-Regulated for Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Fornalé; Pere Puigdomènech; Joan Rigau; David Caparrós-Ruiz; Montserrat Capellades; Antonio Encina; Kan Wang; Sami Irar; Catherine Lapierre; Katia Ruel; Jean-Paul Joseleau; Jordi Berenguer

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase(CAD)is a key enzyme involved in the last step of monolignol biosynthesis.The effect of CAD down-regulation on lignin production was investigated through a transgenic approach in maize.Transgenic CAD-RNAi plants show a different degree of enzymatic reduction depending on the analyzed tissue and show alterations in cell wall composition.Cell walls of CAD-RNAi stems contain a lignin polymer with a slight reduction in the S-to-G ratio without affecting the total lignin content.In addition,these cell walls accumulate higher levels of cellulose and arabinoxylans.In contrast,cell walls of CAD-RNAi midribs present a reduction in the total lignin content and of cell wall polysaccharides.In vitro degradability assays showed that,although to a different extent,the changes induced by the repression of CAD activity produced midribs and stems more degradable than wild-type plants.CAD-RNAi plants grown in the field presented a wild-type phenotype and produced higher amounts of dry biomass.Cellulosic bioethanol assays revealed that CAD-RNAi biomass produced higher levels of ethanol compared to wild-type,making CAD a good target to improve both the nutritional and energetic values of maize lignocellulosic biomass.

  10. Plant hydraulic responses to long-term dry season nitrogen deposition alter drought tolerance in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Santiago, Louis S; Vourlitis, George L; Grantz, David A; Allen, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition represents a significant N input for many terrestrial ecosystems. N deposition can affect plants on scales ranging from photosynthesis to community composition, yet few studies have investigated how changes in N availability affect plant water relations. We tested the effects of N addition on plant water relations, hydraulic traits, functional traits, gas exchange, and leaf chemistry in a semi-arid ecosystem in Southern California using long-term experimental plots fertilized with N for over a decade. The dominant species were Artemisia california and Salvia mellifera at Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve and Adenostoma fasciculatum and Ceanothus greggii at Sky Oaks Field Station. All species, except Ceanothus, showed increased leaf N concentration, decreased foliar carbon to N ratio, and increased foliar N isotopic composition with fertilization, indicating that added N was taken up by study species, yet each species had a differing physiological response to long-term N addition. Dry season predawn water potentials were less negative with N addition for all species except Adenostoma, but there were no differences in midday water potentials, or wet season water potentials. Artemisia was particularly responsive, as N addition increased stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance, and leaf carbon isotopic composition, and decreased wood density. The alteration of water relations and drought resistance parameters with N addition in Artemisia, as well as Adenostoma, Ceanothus, and Salvia, indicate that N deposition can affect the ability of native Southern California shrubs to respond to drought. PMID:27017604

  11. Overexpression of patatin-related phospholipase AIIIδ altered plant growth and increased seed oil content in camelina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoyin; Wei, Fang; Tawfall, Amanda; Tang, Michelle; Saettele, Allison; Wang, Xuemin

    2015-08-01

    Camelina sativa is a Brassicaceae oilseed species being explored as a biofuel and industrial oil crop. A growing number of studies have indicated that the turnover of phosphatidylcholine plays an important role in the synthesis and modification of triacylglycerols. This study manipulated the expression of a patatin-related phospholipase AIIIδ (pPLAIIIδ) in camelina to determine its effect on seed oil content and plant growth. Constitutive overexpression of pPLAIIIδ under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter resulted in a significant increase in seed oil content and a decrease in cellulose content. In addition, the content of major membrane phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, in 35S::pPLAIIIδ plants was increased. However, these changes in 35S::pPLAIIIδ camelina were associated with shorter cell length, leaves, stems, and seed pods and a decrease in overall seed production. When pPLAIIIδ was expressed under the control of the seed specific, β-conglycinin promoter, the seed oil content was increased without compromising plant growth. The results suggest that pPLAIIIδ alters the carbon partitioning by decreasing cellulose content and increasing oil content in camelina. PMID:25557877

  12. Development of 1000kW-class MCFC pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooue, M.; Yasue, H. [MCFC Research Association, Mie (Japan); Takasu, K.; Tsuchitori, T.

    1996-12-31

    This pilot plant is a part of the New Sunshine Program which has proceeded by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MCFC Research Association is entrusted with the development of the pilot plant, and constructing it at Kawagoe site. Following items will be verified by this pilot plant operation. (a) Development of 250kW class stack and confirmation of stack performance and decay rate. (b) System verification such as basic process, control system and operation characteristics, toward commercialization. (c) To get design data for demonstration plant.

  13. Ethanol-related alterations in gene expression patterns in the developing murine hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Chanchal; Park, Kyoung Sun; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that consuming alcohol prior to and during pregnancy can cause harm to the developing fetus. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a term commonly used to describe a range of disabilities that may arise from prenatal alcohol exposure such as fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders, and alcohol-related birth defects. Here, we report that maternal binge alcohol consumption alters several important genes that are involved in nervous system development in the mouse hippocampus at embryonic day 18. Microarray analysis revealed that Nova1, Ntng1, Gal, Neurog2, Neurod2, and Fezf2 gene expressions are altered in the fetal hippocampus. Pathway analysis also revealed the association of the calcium signaling pathway in addition to other pathways with the differentially expressed genes during early brain development. Alteration of such important genes and dynamics of the signaling pathways may cause neurodevelopmental disorders. Our findings offer insight into the molecular mechanism involved in neurodevelopmental disorders associated with alcohol-related defects. PMID:26063602

  14. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  15. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  16. Effects of altered carbohydrate availability on whole-plant assimilation of 15NO3-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relative changes in NO3- assimilatory processes which occurred in response to decreasing carbohydrate availability. Young tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum [L.], cv NC 2326) growing in solution culture were exposed to 1.0 millimolar 15NO3- for 6 hour intervals during a normal 12 hour light period and a subsequent period of darkness lasting 42 hours. Uptake of 15NO3- decreased to 71 to 83% of the uptake rate in the light during the initial 18 hours of darkness; uptake then decreased sharply over the next 12 hours of darkness to 11 to 17% of the light rate, coincident with depletion of tissue carbohydrate reserves and a marked decline in root respiration. Changes also occurred in endogenous 15NO3- assimilation processes, which were distinctly different than those in 15NO3- uptake. During the extended dark period, translocation of absorbed 15N out of the root to the shoot varied rhythmically. The adjustments were independent of 15NO3- uptake rate and carbohydrate status, but were reciprocally related to rhythmic adjustments in stomatal resistance and, presumably, water movement through the root system. Whole plant reduction of 15NO3- always was limited more than uptake. The assimilation of 15N into insoluble reduced-N in roots remained a constant proportion of uptake throughout, while assimilation in the shoot declined markedly in the first 18 hours of darkness before stabilizing at a low level. The plants clearly retained a capacity for 15NO3- reduction and synthesis of insoluble reduced-15N even when 15NO3- uptake was severely restricted and minimal carbohydrate reserves remained in the tissue

  17. Disturbance alters the phylogenetic composition and structure of plant communities in an old field system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dinnage

    Full Text Available The changes in phylogenetic composition and structure of communities during succession following disturbance can give us insights into the forces that are shaping communities over time. In abandoned agricultural fields, community composition changes rapidly when a field is plowed, and is thought to reflect a relaxation of competition due to the elimination of dominant species which take time to re-establish. Competition can drive phylogenetic overdispersion, due to phylogenetic conservation of 'niche' traits that allow species to partition resources. Therefore, undisturbed old field communities should exhibit higher phylogenetic dispersion than recently disturbed systems, which should be relatively 'clustered' with respect to phylogenetic relationships. Several measures of phylogenetic structure between plant communities were measured in recently plowed areas and nearby 'undisturbed' sites. There was no difference in the absolute values of these measures between disturbed and 'undisturbed' sites. However, there was a difference in the 'expected' phylogenetic structure between habitats, leading to significantly lower than expected phylogenetic diversity in disturbed plots, and no difference from random expectation in 'undisturbed' plots. This suggests that plant species characteristic of each habitat are fairly evenly distributed on the shared species pool phylogeny, but that once the initial sorting of species into the two habitat types has occurred, the processes operating on them affect each habitat differently. These results were consistent with an analysis of correlation between phylogenetic distance and co-occurrence indices of species pairs in the two habitat types. This study supports the notion that disturbed plots are more clustered than expected, rather than 'undisturbed' plots being more overdispersed, suggesting that disturbed plant communities are being more strongly influenced by environmental filtering of conserved niche traits.

  18. Disturbance alters the phylogenetic composition and structure of plant communities in an old field system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnage, Russell

    2009-01-01

    The changes in phylogenetic composition and structure of communities during succession following disturbance can give us insights into the forces that are shaping communities over time. In abandoned agricultural fields, community composition changes rapidly when a field is plowed, and is thought to reflect a relaxation of competition due to the elimination of dominant species which take time to re-establish. Competition can drive phylogenetic overdispersion, due to phylogenetic conservation of 'niche' traits that allow species to partition resources. Therefore, undisturbed old field communities should exhibit higher phylogenetic dispersion than recently disturbed systems, which should be relatively 'clustered' with respect to phylogenetic relationships. Several measures of phylogenetic structure between plant communities were measured in recently plowed areas and nearby 'undisturbed' sites. There was no difference in the absolute values of these measures between disturbed and 'undisturbed' sites. However, there was a difference in the 'expected' phylogenetic structure between habitats, leading to significantly lower than expected phylogenetic diversity in disturbed plots, and no difference from random expectation in 'undisturbed' plots. This suggests that plant species characteristic of each habitat are fairly evenly distributed on the shared species pool phylogeny, but that once the initial sorting of species into the two habitat types has occurred, the processes operating on them affect each habitat differently. These results were consistent with an analysis of correlation between phylogenetic distance and co-occurrence indices of species pairs in the two habitat types. This study supports the notion that disturbed plots are more clustered than expected, rather than 'undisturbed' plots being more overdispersed, suggesting that disturbed plant communities are being more strongly influenced by environmental filtering of conserved niche traits. PMID:19763265

  19. Development of China's pumped storage plant and related policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid development of the Chinese economy and society, differences in the electric power system load between the peak and valley values are increasing, and inefficient small capacity coal-fired plant units must be involved in load adjustment because gas units and pumped storage units that act as peak-load units are lacking. In addition, due to concerns about energy saving and emissions reduction, clean energy sources are rapidly being developed and deployed. This presents a significant challenge for the construction and planning of peaking power solutions in China. Pumped storage plants provide a means of reducing the peak-to-valley difference and increasing the deployment of wind power, solar photovoltaic energy and other clean energy generation into the grid. Pumped storage plants represent the most mature approach among the peaking power sources and thus are one of China's major investments for the future. This paper presents China's current development of pumped storage plants, their role in the electric power system, the management models for pumped storage plants and the electricity price patterns utilising them. Here, we also analyse China's future plans for pumped storage plants, including the influencing factors and related policies. - Highlights: • Analyze development of China's power structure and system load situation. • Analyze development of pumped storage plant in China. • Summarize regional planning and layout of pumped storage plant in China. • Analyze related policy

  20. Excessive Sensory Stimulation during Development Alters Neural Plasticity and Vulnerability to Cocaine in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, Shilpa; Donckels, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Julian S B; Christakis, Dimitri A; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Ferguson, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks, which can have a profound impact on brain function and behavior later in life. Previous work has shown that mice exposed to excessive sensory stimulation during development are hyperactive and novelty seeking, and display impaired cognition compared with controls. In this study, we addressed the issue of whether excessive sensory stimulation during development could alter behaviors related to addiction and underlying circuitry in CD-1 mice. We found that the reinforcing properties of cocaine were significantly enhanced in mice exposed to excessive sensory stimulation. Moreover, although these mice displayed hyperactivity that became more pronounced over time, they showed impaired persistence of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. These behavioral effects were associated with alterations in glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Together, these findings suggest that excessive sensory stimulation in early life significantly alters drug reward and the neural circuits that regulate addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity. These observations highlight the consequences of early life experiences and may have important implications for children growing up in today's complex technological environment. PMID:27588306

  1. Enhancing plant resistance at the seed stage: low concentrations of methyl jasmonate reduce the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta but do not alter the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Paudel, Sulav; Rajotte, Edwin G; Felton, Gary W; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2014-10-01

    Plants express inducible direct and indirect defenses in response to herbivory. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related signaling compounds referred to as jasmonates play a central role in regulating defense responses to a wide range of herbivores.We assessed whether treating tomato seeds with 0.8 mM of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) affected the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta, and whether possible changes in volatile profiles altered the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa. MeJA-treatment significantly lengthened larval development and decreased the pupal weight of T. absoluta. Herbivory alone increased the emissions of α-pinene, 6-methyl 5-hepten-2-one, β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, isoterpinolene, TMTT, (Z)-3-hexenyl butyrate, and hexyl salicylate. MeJA seed treatment significantly decreased the emissions of α-cubebene from undamaged and herbivore-infested plants. In addition, the emissions of several compounds were lower in the absence of herbivory. Chrysoperla. externa preferred odors from herbivore-infested plants over those from control plants, regardless of the MeJA-treatment, and they did not show any preference for herbivore-infested plants for any of the MeJA-treatments. Our results show preliminary evidence that the treatment of tomato seeds with MeJA can reduce the performance of Tuta absoluta, and that the chemical differences observed in plant VOC profiles do not alter the behavior of the model predator. PMID:25319361

  2. A physical theory of focus development in plant disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zawolek, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Chapter 1. The 'diffusion theory' of focus development in plant disease is introduced. Foci develop in space and time. The theory applies primarily to air-borne fungal diseases of the foliage.Chapter 2. The contents of the present volume are outlined.Chapter 3. The 'diffusion theory' of focus development, intended to model phytopathologically interesting phenomena, emerges from a simple set of assumptions summarizing existing knowledge of plant pathologists. Using relatively easy and clear in...

  3. Phytoplasma adapt to the diverse environments of their plant and insect hosts by altering gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    role in host adaptation. 74 genes were up-regulated in insects and included genes involved in stress response, phospholipid synthesis, malate and pyruvate metabolism, hemolysin and transporter genes, multiple copies of thymidylate kinase, sigma factor and Zn-proteases genes. In plants, 34 genes......Phytoplasmas are intracellular insect-transmitted phytopathogenic bacteria with small genomes. To understand how Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) adapts to their hosts, we performed qRT-PCR analysis of 179 in silico functionally annotated AY-WB genes that are likely to have a...... encoding an immune dominant membrane protein, membrane-associated proteins, and multidrug resistance ABC-type transporters, were up-regulated. Differential regulation of gene expression thus appears to play an important role in host adaptation of phytoplasmas....

  4. Sex-specific responses to climate change in plants alter population sex ratio and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, William K; Soule, Judith D; Iler, Amy M; Chicas-Mosier, Ana; Inouye, David W; Miller, Tom E X; Mooney, Kailen A

    2016-07-01

    Males and females are ecologically distinct in many species, but whether responses to climate change are sex-specific is unknown. We document sex-specific responses to climate change in the plant Valeriana edulis (valerian) over four decades and across its 1800-meter elevation range. Increased elevation was associated with increased water availability and female frequency, likely owing to sex-specific water use efficiency and survival. Recent aridification caused male frequency to move upslope at 175 meters per decade, a rate of trait shift outpacing reported species' range shifts by an order of magnitude. This increase in male frequency reduced pollen limitation and increased seedset. Coupled with previous studies reporting sex-specific arthropod communities, these results underscore the importance of ecological differences between the sexes in mediating biological responses to climate change. PMID:27365446

  5. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario;

    2009-01-01

    extracting polyphenols, showing pure solvents-both water and ethanol-a lower extraction capacity. No correlation between antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content was found. Extracts from Murta leaves provoked a decrease in the growing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus......Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...... plants grown nearer to the mountain (58 mg GAE/g murta), subjected to extreme summer/winter-day/night temperature changes and rainy regime. Extracts from leaves collected in the valley and coast contained 46 and 40 mg GAE/g murta, respectively. A mixture of 50% ethanol/water was the most efficient in...

  6. Effect of alcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants on the altered enzymatic activities of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the effect of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana was studied on serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and on serum urea, total protein and albumin concentrations of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes in rats was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg i. p.. On confirming the diabetes after 48 h of injection, alcoholic extracts of three plants were administered orally in doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg/d for 30 d. Glibenclamide (300 µg/kg/d was used as a reference drug for comparison. Streptozotocin diabetic rats showed a significant increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and serum urea concentration but a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations and albumin/globulin ratio. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana in daily doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg for a period of 1 mo produced dose- and duration-dependent decrease in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities as well as decrease in serum urea concentration and restored the serum total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio to a great extent in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of these plants in 500 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin diabetic rats were comparable to that of glibenclamide (300 µg/kg, a standard oral hypoglycaemic drug used in clinical practice.

  7. The interaction between strigolactones and other plant hormones in the regulation of plant development : Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, X.; Ruyter-Spira, C. P.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant hormones are small molecules derived from various metabolic pathways and are important regulators of plant development. The most recently discovered phytohormone class comprises the carotenoid-derived strigolactones (SLs). For a long time these compounds were only known to be secreted into the rhizosphere where they act as signaling compounds, but now we know they are also active as endogenous plant hormones and they have been in the spotlight ever since. The initial discovery that SLs ...

  8. The interaction between strigolactones and other plant hormones in the regulation of plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xi; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2013-01-01

    Plant hormones are small molecules derived from various metabolic pathways and are important regulators of plant development. The most recently discovered phytohormone class comprises the carotenoid-derived strigolactones (SLs). For a long time these compounds were only known to be secreted into the rhizosphere where they act as signaling compounds, but now we know they are also active as endogenous plant hormones and they have been in the spotlight ever since. The initial discovery that SLs ...

  9. The interaction between strigolactones and other plant hormones in the regulation of plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Xi eCheng; Carolien eRuyter-Spira; Harro eBouwmeester

    2013-01-01

    Plant hormones are small molecules derived from various metabolic pathways and are important regulators of plant development. The most recently discovered phytohormone class comprises the carotenoid-derived strigolactones (SLs). For a long time these compounds were only known to be secreted into the rhizosphere where they act as signalling compounds, but now we know they are also active as endogenous plant hormones and they have been in the spotlight ever since. The initial discovery that SLs...

  10. Maternal vitamin D deficiency alters fetal brain development in the BALB/c mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Jazmin E; Tesic, Dijana; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Zosky, Graeme R; Smith, Jeremy T; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to vitamin D is thought to be critical for optimal fetal neurodevelopment, yet vitamin D deficiency is apparent in a growing proportion of pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine whether a mouse model of vitamin D-deficiency alters fetal neurodevelopment. Female BALB/c mice were placed on either a vitamin D control (2,195 IU/kg) or deficient (0 IU/kg) diet for 5 weeks prior to and during pregnancy. Fetal brains were collected at embryonic day (E) 14.5 or E17.5 for morphological and gene expression analysis. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy reduced fetal crown-rump length and head size. Moreover, lateral ventricle volume was reduced in vitamin D-deficient foetuses. Expression of neurotrophin genes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and transforming growth factor-β1 (Tgf-β1) was altered, with Bdnf reduced at E14.5 and increased at E17.5 following vitamin D deficiency. Brain expression of forkhead box protein P2 (Foxp2), a gene known to be important in human speech and language, was also altered. Importantly, Foxp2 immunoreactive cells in the developing cortex were reduced in vitamin D-deficient female foetuses. At E17.5, brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression was reduced in females, as was TH protein localization (to identify dopamine neurons) in the substantia nigra of vitamin D-deficient female foetuses. Overall, we show that prenatal vitamin D-deficiency leads to alterations in fetal mouse brain morphology and genes related to neuronal survival, speech and language development, and dopamine synthesis. Vitamin D appears to play an important role in mouse neurodevelopment. PMID:25753408

  11. PIN proteins and the evolution of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Many aspects of development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana involve regulated distribution of the hormone auxin by the PIN-FORMED (PIN) family of auxin efflux carriers. The role of PIN-mediated auxin transport in other plants is not well understood, but studies in a wider range of species have begun to illuminate developmental mechanisms across land plants. In this review, I discuss recent progress in understanding the evolution of PIN-mediated auxin transport, and its role in development across the green plant lineage. I also discuss the idea that changes in auxin biology led to morphological novelty in plant development: currently available evidence suggests major innovations in auxin transport are rare and not associated with the evolution of new developmental mechanisms. PMID:26051227

  12. Epigenetically Heritable Alteration of Fly Development in Response to Toxic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shay Stern

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing organisms have evolved a wide range of mechanisms for coping with recurrent environmental challenges. How they cope with rare or unforeseen challenges is, however, unclear as are the implications to their unchallenged offspring. Here, we investigate these questions by confronting the development of the fly, D. melanogaster, with artificial tissue distributions of toxic stress that are not expected to occur during fly development. We show that under a wide range of toxic scenarios, this challenge can lead to modified development that may coincide with increased tolerance to an otherwise lethal condition. Part of this response was mediated by suppression of Polycomb group genes, which in turn leads to derepression of developmental regulators and their expression in new domains. Importantly, some of the developmental alterations were epigenetically inherited by subsequent generations of unchallenged offspring. These results show that the environment can induce alternative patterns of development that are stable across multiple generations.

  13. Magnetic fields: how is plant growth and development impacted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dobránszki, Judit

    2016-03-01

    This review provides detailed insight on the effects of magnetic fields on germination, growth, development, and yield of plants focusing on ex vitro growth and development and discussing the possible physiological and biochemical responses. The MFs considered in this review range from the nanoTesla (nT) to geomagnetic levels, up to very strong MFs greater than 15 Tesla (T) and also super-weak MFs (near 0 T). The theoretical bases of the action of MFs on plant growth, which are complex, are not discussed here and thus far, there is limited mathematical background about the action of MFs on plant growth. MFs can positively influence the morphogenesis of several plants which allows them to be used in practical situations. MFs have thus far been shown to modify seed germination and affect seedling growth and development in a wide range of plants, including field, fodder, and industrial crops; cereals and pseudo-cereals; grasses; herbs and medicinal plants; horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits, ornamentals); trees; and model crops. This is important since MFs may constitute a non-residual and non-toxic stimulus. In addition to presenting and summarizing the effects of MFs on plant growth and development, we also provide possible physiological and biochemical explanations for these responses including stress-related responses of plants, explanations based on dia-, para-, and ferromagnetism, oriented movements of substances, and cellular and molecular changes. PMID:25952081

  14. The plant vascular system: Evolution, development and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of the tracheophyte-based vascular system of land plants had major impacts on the evolution of terrestrial biology, in general, through its role in facilitating the development of plants with increased stature, photosynthetic output, and ability to colonize a greatly expanded range of ...

  15. Magnesium-induced alterations in the photosynthetic performance and resistance of rice plants infected with Bipolaris oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiler Ribas Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot (BS, caused by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most important diseases contracted by rice. We investigated the effect of magnesium (Mg on the development of BS, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and the effects of disease development on the photosynthetic performance of rice (Oryza sativa L. plants (cv. Metica-1 grown in nutrient solutions containing 0.25 or 4.0 mM of Mg. Assessments of BS severity, leaf Mg and pigment concentrations (total chlorophylls and carotenoids, were carried out at 120 h after inoculation, in addition to gas exchange parameters,. Higher leaf concentration of Mg was observed in plants supplied with 4.0 mM Mg than in those supplied with 0.25 mM. The increase in leaf Mg was accompanied by a decrease in BS severity, higher concentration of total chlorophyll and better photosynthetic performance. Plants supplied with 4.0 mM Mg had higher average values for carbon assimilation, stomatal conductance and internal leaf CO2 concentration when compared with plants supplied with 0.25 mM Mg. Conversely, the concentration of carotenoids was lower in plants supplied with the higher Mg rate. These results suggest that Mg suppresses disease severity and preserves photosynthetic performance by allowing for better stomatal conductance and, consequently, greater availability of CO2 at the carboxylation sites.

  16. Successful Training Development and Implementation in Plant Modernization Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In plant modernization projects, for life extension or power update, the competence development (in particular, job and needs oriented training) of the plant staff plays an important role for ensuring the highest standard of nuclear safety, and for facilitating an economic operation of the plant. This paper describes challenges, methodology, activities, and results obtained so far from an on-going project in Sweden. - - As conclusion, critical factors for a successful staff training in plant modernization projects include a systematic approach to training, a dedicated training management team, and good interfaces between supplier's engineering teams, experienced training providers, and equipment suppliers.

  17. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  18. Plant toxins and trophic cascades alter fire regime and succession on a boral forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhilan; Alfaro-Murillo, Jorge A.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Schmidt, Jennifer; Barga, Matthew; Zheng, Yiqiang; Ahmad Tamrin, Muhammad Hanis B.; Olson, Mark; Glaser, Tim; Kielland, Knut; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Bryant, John

    2012-01-01

    Two models were integrated in order to study the effect of plant toxicity and a trophic cascade on forest succession and fire patterns across a boreal landscape in central Alaska. One of the models, ALFRESCO, is a cellular automata model that stochastically simulates transitions from spruce dominated 1 km2 spatial cells to deciduous woody vegetation based on stochastic fires, and from deciduous woody vegetation to spruce based on age of the cell with some stochastic variation. The other model, the ‘toxin-dependent functional response’ model (TDFRM) simulates woody vegetation types with different levels of toxicity, an herbivore browser (moose) that can forage selectively on these types, and a carnivore (wolf) that preys on the herbivore. Here we replace the simple succession rules in each ALFRESCO cell by plant–herbivore–carnivore dynamics from TDFRM. The central hypothesis tested in the integrated model is that the herbivore, by feeding selectively on low-toxicity deciduous woody vegetation, speeds succession towards high-toxicity evergreens, like spruce. Wolves, by keeping moose populations down, can help slow the succession. Our results confirmed this hypothesis for the model calibrated to the Tanana floodplain of Alaska. We used the model to estimate the effects of different levels of wolf control. Simulations indicated that management reductions in wolf densities could reduce the mean time to transition from deciduous to spruce by more than 15 years, thereby increasing landscape flammability. The integrated model can be useful in estimating ecosystem impacts of wolf control and moose harvesting in central Alaska.

  19. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallick, R.B. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  20. Plant-derived pharmaceuticals for the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Plant-produced vaccines and therapeutic agents offer enormous potential for providing relief to developing countries by reducing the incidence of infant mortality caused by infectious diseases. Vaccines derived from plants have been demonstrated to effectively elicit an immune response. Biopharmaceuticals produced in plants are inexpensive to produce, require fewer expensive purification steps, and can be stored at ambient temperatures for prolonged periods of time. As a result, plant-produced biopharmaceuticals have the potential to be more accessible to the rural poor. This review describes current progress with respect to plant-produced biopharmaceuticals, with a particular emphasis on those that target developing countries. Specific emphasis is given to recent research on the production of plant-produced vaccines toward human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis B virus, Ebola virus, human papillomavirus, rabies virus and common diarrheal diseases. Production platforms used to express vaccines in plants, including nuclear and chloroplast transformation, and the use of viral expression vectors, are described in this review. The review concludes by outlining the next steps for plant-produced vaccines to achieve their goal of providing safe, efficacious and inexpensive vaccines to the developing world. PMID:23857915

  1. Experiments with Corn To Demonstrate Plant Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, Janice H.; Gray, Margarit S.

    2000-01-01

    Explores using corn seeds to demonstrate plant growth and development. This experiment allows students to formulate hypotheses, observe and record information, and practice mathematics. Presents background information, materials, procedures, and observations. (SAH)

  2. Altered reproductive behaviours in male mosquitofish living downstream from a sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaristo, Minna; Myers, Jackie; Jacques-Hamilton, Rowan; Allinson, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Allinson, Graeme; Pettigrove, Vincent; Wong, Bob B M

    2014-04-01

    Freshwater environments are common repositories for the discharge of large volumes of domestic and industrial waste, particularly through wastewater effluent. One common group of chemical pollutants present in wastewater are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can induce morphological and behavioural changes in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive behaviour and morphology of a freshwater fish, the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), collected from two sites (wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a putative pristine site). The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with a coercive mating system. Males inseminate females using their modified anal fin as an intromittent organ. Despite this, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. Using standard laboratory assays of reproductive behaviour, we found that mosquitofish males living in close proximity to WWTP showed increased mating activity compared to those inhabiting a pristine site. More specifically, during behavioural trials in which males were allowed to interact with females separated by a transparent divider, we found that WWTP-males spent more time associating with females. Concordant with this, when males and females were subsequently allowed to interact freely, WWTP-males also spent more time chasing and orienting towards the females. As a result, females from both sites showed more interest towards the WWTP-site males. Male anal fin morphology, however, did not differ between sites. Our study illustrates that lifetime exposure to WWTP-effluents can greatly affect male behaviour. The results underscore the importance of behaviour as a potential tool for investigating unknown contaminants in the environment. PMID:24569133

  3. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Avdalovic, M.V. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Hyde, D.M., E-mail: dmhyde@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  4. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O3) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O3) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O3 alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  5. Solar power plant and sustainable rural development in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bojnec, Štefan; Papler, Drago

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates potentials and opportunities in the development of solar power plants in rural areas in Slovenia as a supplementary or as an entrepreneurial activity to generate incomes and sustainable rural development. The focus is on agricultural household buildings. The estimated viability of the solar power plant investment is sensitive to the size of the surface areas of the buildings, flows of investment costs and revenues, including revenues from economic policy measures, and ...

  6. Cyst nematode-induced changes in plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Goverse, A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes a first attempt to investigate the biological activity of cyst nematode secretions on plant cell proliferation and the molecular mechanisms underlying feeding cell development in plant roots upon cyst nematode infection.To investigate the role of nematode secretions in feeding cell development, the in vitro induction and collection of putative nematode signalling molecules is needed. Chapter 2 describes the specific induction of nematode secretions from infective juvenil...

  7. Maternal caffeine exposure alters neuromotor development and hippocampus acetylcholinesterase activity in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ana Claudia; Souza, Andressa; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; De Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; Da Silva, Rosane Souza; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bonan, Carla D; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2015-01-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal caffeine intake on the neuromotor development of rat offspring and on acetylcholine degradation and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in the hippocampus of 14-day-old infant rats. Rat dams were treated with caffeine (0.3g/L) throughout gestation and lactation until the pups were 14 days old. The pups were divided into three groups: (1) control, (2) caffeine, and (3) washout caffeine. The washout group received a caffeine solution until the seventh postnatal day (P7). Righting reflex (RR) and negative geotaxis (NG) were assessed to evaluate postural parameters as an index of neuromotor reflexes. An open-field (OF) test was conducted to assess locomotor and exploratory activities as well as anxiety-like behaviors. Caffeine treatment increased both RR and NG latency times. In the OF test, the caffeine group had fewer outer crossings and reduced locomotion compared to control, while the washout group showed increased inner crossings in relation to the other groups and fewer rearings only in comparison to the control group. We found decreased AChE activity in the caffeine group compared to the other groups, with no alteration in AChE transcriptional regulation. Chronic maternal exposure to caffeine promotes important alterations in neuromotor development. These results highlight the ability of maternal caffeine intake to interfere with cholinergic neurotransmission during brain development. PMID:25451122

  8. Development of salt tolerant plants through genetic engineering (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity stress is one of the most serious factors limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. Genetic engineering provides a useful tool for tailoring plants with enhanced salt tolerance characteristics. Many organisms have evolved mechanisms to survive and grow under such extreme environments. These organisms provide us with a useful source of genes which can be used to improve salt tolerance in plants. The present study aims at identification and cloning of useful halo tolerance conferring genes from fungi and plants and to develop salt tolerant transgenic plants. Here we describe the cloning and use of HSR1 gene (a yeast transcription factor known to confer salt tolerance) and Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter gene AtNHX1 (3016 bp) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and transformation of tobacco with HSR1 and AtNHX1 genes through Agrobacterium method. A number of transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated from leaf explants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404) having HSR1 and AtNHX1 genes by leaf disc method. The putative transgenic plants were analyzed by PCR and dot blot analysis. Screening of these transgenic plants at different salinity levels is in progress which will help identify the suitable plant lines and thus the promising genes which can be further exploited to engineer salt tolerant crop plants. (author)

  9. Energy metabolism in developing chicken lymphocytes is altered during the embryonic to posthatch transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrappa, Shashidhara G; Humphrey, Brooke D

    2007-02-01

    Adequate energy status in lymphocytes is vital for their development. The ability of developing chicken lymphocytes to acquire and metabolize energy substrates was determined during embryonic days (e) and neonatal days (d) of life when primary-energy substrate metabolism is altered at the whole-animal level. In 3 experiments, bursacytes and thymocytes were isolated on e17, e20, d1, d3, d7, or d14 to analyze markers associated with glucose, glutamine, and lipid metabolism. Bursacyte glucose transporter-3 (Glut-3) mRNA abundance increased from d1 to d14 and hexokinase-1 (HK-1) mRNA abundance was maximum on e20 (Pglutamine metabolism. Understanding the factors that regulate lymphocyte development in neonatal chicks may help promote their adaptive immune responses to pathogens in early life. PMID:17237322

  10. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focuses on development of reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) components, and is divided into two parts, development of life evaluation systems for pressurized components and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered: development of expert systems for integrity assessment of pressurized components, development of integrity evaluation systems of steam generator tubes, prediction of failure probability for NPP components based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, development of fatigue damage evaluation technique for plant life extension, domestic round robin analysis for pressurized thermal shock of reactor vessels, domestic round robin analysis of constructing P--T limit curves for reactor vessels, and development of data base for integrity assessment. For evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants, on the other hand, the following eight topics are covered: applicability of the Leak-Before-Break analysis to Cast S/S piping, collection of aged material tensile and toughness data for aged Cast S/S piping, finite element analyses for load carrying capacity of corroded pipes, development of Risk-based ISI methodology for nuclear piping, collection of toughness data for integrity assessment of bi-metallic joints, applicability of the Master curve concept to reactor vessel integrity assessment, measurement of dynamic fracture toughness, and provision of information related to regulation and plant life extension issues

  11. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J. D. [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, K. J. [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-03-15

    This research focuses on development of reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) components, and is divided into two parts, development of life evaluation systems for pressurized components and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered: development of expert systems for integrity assessment of pressurized components, development of integrity evaluation systems of steam generator tubes, prediction of failure probability for NPP components based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, development of fatigue damage evaluation technique for plant life extension, domestic round robin analysis for pressurized thermal shock of reactor vessels, domestic round robin analysis of constructing P--T limit curves for reactor vessels, and development of data base for integrity assessment. For evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants, on the other hand, the following eight topics are covered: applicability of the Leak-Before-Break analysis to Cast S/S piping, collection of aged material tensile and toughness data for aged Cast S/S piping, finite element analyses for load carrying capacity of corroded pipes, development of Risk-based ISI methodology for nuclear piping, collection of toughness data for integrity assessment of bi-metallic joints, applicability of the Master curve concept to reactor vessel integrity assessment, measurement of dynamic fracture toughness, and provision of information related to regulation and plant life extension issues.

  12. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  13. Auxin transport routes in plant development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášek, Jan; Friml, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 16 (2009), s. 2675-2688. ISSN 0950-1991 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600380604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ROOT- HAIR DEVELOPMENT * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * LATERAL ROOT Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 7.194, year: 2009

  14. Clonal analysis of corn plant development. I. The development of the tassel and the ear shoot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the tassel and the ear shoot has been investigated in corn (Zea mays L.). X irradiation of dry kernels and seedlings heterozygous for anthocyanin markers or for factors altering tassel and ear morphology results in the formation of clones (sectors) from cells of the apical meristem. Most tassels develop from 4 +/- 1 cells of the mature embryo. The expression of ramosa-1, tunicate, tassel seed-6, and vestigial is cell autonomous in the tassel. These genes act late in development and modify the developmental fate or decision of an individual clone and not of the whole group of cells producing a tassel. The ear shoot develops from lineages of one to three cells derived each from the L-I (outmost cell layer) and L-II (second cell layer) of the apical meristem. Typically the clones start in the ear shoot (in the husks and possibly in the cob), extend upward in an internode, continue along the margin of the leaf sheath or leaf blade at the node above, and terminate in this or the next higher leaf. The separation of lineages for ear shoot and internode occurs in the period around 13 days after sowing. The analysis of clonal boundaries shows that a small number of embryonic cells become isolated in their developmental capacity. This commitment process appears to be analogous to the process of compartmentation in the imaginal disks of fruit flies. The extent of proliferation of individual cells within a group of highly flexible and any particular clone does not generate a specific part of a tassel or an ear shoot. There must be cellular communication between various clones so that the overall size and morphology of an organ remain normal and more or less fixed. Thus the process of development in plants is also highly regulative in nature and shares many features in common with development in fruit flies

  15. Clonal analysis of corn plant development. I. The development of the tassel and the ear shoot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johri, M.M.; Coe, E.H. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    The development of the tassel and the ear shoot has been investigated in corn (Zea mays L.). X irradiation of dry kernels and seedlings heterozygous for anthocyanin markers or for factors altering tassel and ear morphology results in the formation of clones (sectors) from cells of the apical meristem. Most tassels develop from 4 +/- 1 cells of the mature embryo. The expression of ramosa-1, tunicate, tassel seed-6, and vestigial is cell autonomous in the tassel. These genes act late in development and modify the developmental fate or decision of an individual clone and not of the whole group of cells producing a tassel. The ear shoot develops from lineages of one to three cells derived each from the L-I (outmost cell layer) and L-II (second cell layer) of the apical meristem. Typically the clones start in the ear shoot (in the husks and possibly in the cob), extend upward in an internode, continue along the margin of the leaf sheath or leaf blade at the node above, and terminate in this or the next higher leaf. The separation of lineages for ear shoot and internode occurs in the period around 13 days after sowing. The analysis of clonal boundaries shows that a small number of embryonic cells become isolated in their developmental capacity. This commitment process appears to be analogous to the process of compartmentation in the imaginal disks of fruit flies. The extent of proliferation of individual cells within a group of highly flexible and any particular clone does not generate a specific part of a tassel or an ear shoot. There must be cellular communication between various clones so that the overall size and morphology of an organ remain normal and more or less fixed. Thus the process of development in plants is also highly regulative in nature and shares many features in common with development in fruit flies.

  16. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang Ryol; Kwak, Sang Soo; Kwon, Seok Yoon [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    - tSOD1, cytosolic CuZnSOD cDNA was cloned from tobacco cDNA library by PCR. To develop the under-producing the transgenic plants, the vectors were constructed using by antisense and co-supressing technology. The transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed that over 60% of kanamycin-resistant plants were introduced the foreign gene by PCR and transformed one copy through Southern blot analysis. - In an attempt to identify marker genes for gamma irradiation of plants, expression patterns of diverse genes upon gamma irradiation of young tobacco plants were investigated. With the knowledge of distinctive expression patterns of diverse genes, irradiation-indicating marker plants could be developed by engineering and monitoring multiple radiation-responsive genes. Additionally, a gamma irradiation-responsive NtTMK1 receptor-like kinase gene was molecular biologically characterized. -Uranium reductase gene (Cytochrome C3) and radiation resistance gene (recA) have been cloned from Desulfovibrio and Deinococcus radiodurans. -Two plant transformation vectors (pCYC3 and pDrecA) have been constructed. - Tobacco transgenic plants of have been obtained. 52 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  17. Open Source Power Plant Simulator Development Under Matlab Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an open source programming approach is targeted for the development of power plant simulator under Matlab environment. With this approach many individuals can contribute to the development of the simulator by developing different orders of complexities of the power plant components. Such modules can be modeled based on physical principles, or using neural networks or other methods. All of these modules are categorized in Matlab library, of which the user can select and build up his simulator. Many international companies developed its own authoring tool for the development of its simulators, and hence it became its own property available for high costs. Matlab is a general software developed by mathworks that can be used with its toolkits as the authoring tool for the development of components by different individuals, and through the appropriate coordination, different plant simulators, nuclear, traditional , or even research reactors can be computerly assembled. In this paper, power plant components such as a pressurizer, a reactor, a steam generator, a turbine, a condenser, a feedwater heater, a valve, a pump are modeled based on physical principles. Also a prototype modeling of a reactor ( a scram case) based on neural networks is developed. These modules are inserted in two different Matlab libraries one called physical and the other is called neural. Furthermore, during the simulation one can pause and shuffle the modules selected from the two libraries and then proceed the simulation. Also, under the Matlab environment a PID controller is developed for multi-loop plant which can be integrated for the control of the appropriate developed simulator. This paper is an attempt to base the open source approach for the development of power plant simulators or even research reactor simulators. It then requires the coordination among interested individuals or institutions to set it to professionalism. (author)

  18. Development, alteration and real time dynamics of conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Siebelmann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT is thought to play a key role in initiating ocular surface related immune responses. This study was planned to get first profound insights into the function of CALT related to development, cellular dynamics and morphological alteration using a novel mouse model. METHODS: Expression and morphology of CALT were investigated using BALB/c mice kept under different housing conditions, after topical antigen-stimulation and following lymphadenectomy and splenectomy. Particles and bacteria were applied topically to study antigen-transport. Intravital visualization was performed using two-photon microscopy. RESULTS: Postnatal development and ultrastructure of CALT in the mouse is similar to humans. Topical antigen-challenge significantly alters CALT expression. Bacterial translocation is demonstrated via lymphoepithelium whereas cellular velocities within follicles were approximately 8 µm/min. CONCLUSIONS: CALT in the mouse is an immunological interface of the ocular surface, featuring dynamic processes such as morphological plasticity, particle/bacteria transport and cellular migration.

  19. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Risseeuw

    Full Text Available Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  20. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants. PMID:24376756

  1. Cadaverine’s Functional Role in Plant Development and Environmental Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancewicz, Amy L.; Gibbs, Nicole M.; Masson, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    Cadaverine derives from lysine in a pathway that is distinct from that of the other well-characterized ornithine- or arginine-derived polyamines. Despite a multitude of studies in bacterial systems, cadaverine has garnered little attention in plant research. Nonetheless, many plants have been found to synthesize it. For instance, the Leguminosae have been shown to produce cadaverine and use it as a precursor in the biosynthesis of quinolizidine alkaloids, secondary metabolites that are involved in insect defense and also display therapeutic pharmacological properties. Cadaverine is also present in the environment; it can be produced by rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbes. Markedly, exogenous cadaverine application causes alterations in root-system architecture. Previous research suggests cadaverine has a role in stress response, with groups reporting an increase in content upon exposure to heat, drought, salt, and oxidative stress. However, data regarding the role of cadaverine in stress response remains conflicted, as some plant systems show enhanced tolerance to stresses in its presence, while others show increased sensitivity to the same stresses. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the role of cadaverine in plant growth, development, and stress response. We also address the possible roles rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbes may play in the delivery of exogenous cadaverine near plant organs, and discuss our current understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to cadaverine homeostasis and response in plants. PMID:27446107

  2. Maternal pravastatin prevents altered fetal brain development in a preeclamptic CD-1 mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa R Carver

    Full Text Available Using an animal model, we have previously shown that preeclampsia results in long-term adverse neuromotor outcomes in the offspring, and this phenotype was prevented by antenatal treatment with pravastatin. This study aims to localize the altered neuromotor programming in this animal model and to evaluate the role of pravastatin in its prevention.For the preeclampsia model, pregnant CD-1 mice were randomly allocated to injection of adenovirus carrying sFlt-1 or its control virus carrying mFc into the tail vein. Thereafter they received pravastatin (sFlt-1-pra "experimental group" or water (sFlt-1 "positive control" until weaning. The mFc group ("negative control" received water. Offspring at 6 months of age were sacrificed, and whole brains underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. MRIs were performed using an 11.7 Tesla vertical bore MRI scanner. T2 weighted images were acquired to evaluate the volumes of 28 regions of interest, including areas involved in adaptation and motor, spatial and sensory function. Cytochemistry and cell quantification was performed using neuron-specific Nissl stain. One-way ANOVA with multiple comparison testing was used for statistical analysis.Compared with control offspring, male sFlt-1 offspring have decreased volumes in the fimbria, periaquaductal gray, stria medullaris, and ventricles and increased volumes in the lateral globus pallidus and neocortex; however, female sFlt-1 offspring showed increased volumes in the ventricles, stria medullaris, and fasciculus retroflexus and decreased volumes in the inferior colliculus, thalamus, and lateral globus pallidus. Neuronal quantification via Nissl staining exhibited decreased cell counts in sFlt-1 offspring neocortex, more pronounced in males. Prenatal pravastatin treatment prevented these changes.Preeclampsia alters brain development in sex-specific patterns, and prenatal pravastatin therapy prevents altered neuroanatomic programming in this animal model.

  3. Varieties of aromatic and medicinal plants developed in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon jr. MUNTEAN

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of aromatic and medicinal plant breeding are complex: of these, the establishment of numerous traits: yield level, raw-material quality (content in active substances, uniformness of the material and reaching of technological maturity of harvesting, ability to adaptation and hardiness to diseases, pests, laying, frost, drought etc., behavior of plant raw-material during processing etc. In Romania, 20 species have been developed and authenticated, all productive and rich in active substances, weather-and pest resistant; of these, seven were authenticated between 1990 and 1997: Unirea (Cynara scolymus L., Record (Mentha crispa L., Silvia (Datura innoxia Mill., Smarald (Thymus vulgaris L., Safir (Papaver somniferum L., Tages (Tagetes patula L., Azur (Vinca minor L.. Seed and planting material with important numbers of species of aromatic and medicinal plants have been developed with years.

  4. Development of a monitoring system for a PV solar plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system developed for monitoring PV solar plants using a novel procedure based on virtual instrumentation. The measurements and processing of the data are made using high precision I/O modular field point (FP) devices as hardware, a data acquisition card as software and the package of graphic programming, LabVIEW. The system is able to store and display both the collected data of the environmental variables and the PV plant electrical output parameters, including the plant I-V curve. A relevant aspect of this work is the development of a unit that allows automatic measuring of the solar plant I-V curve using a car battery as power supply. The system has been in operation during the last two years and all its units have functioned well

  5. Triclosan exposure alters postembryonic development in a Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla) Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (TREEMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlatt, Vicki L. [Nautilus Environmental, 8864 Commerce Court, Burnaby, B.C. V5A 4N7 (Canada); Veldhoen, Nik [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055 Stn CSC, Victoria, B.C. V8W 3P6 (Canada); Lo, Bonnie P. [Nautilus Environmental, 8864 Commerce Court, Burnaby, B.C. V5A 4N7 (Canada); Bakker, Dannika; Rehaume, Vicki; Vallee, Kurtis [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055 Stn CSC, Victoria, B.C. V8W 3P6 (Canada); Haberl, Maxine; Shang, Dayue; Aggelen, Graham C. van; Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Emergencies Operational Analytical Laboratories and Research Support Division, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, B.C. V7H 1B1 (Canada); Elphick, James R. [Nautilus Environmental, 8864 Commerce Court, Burnaby, B.C. V5A 4N7 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055 Stn CSC, Victoria, B.C. V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA), developed for Xenopus laevis, is designed to identify chemicals that disrupt thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated biological processes. We adapted the AMA for use on an ecologically-relevant North American species, the Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla), and applied molecular endpoints to evaluate the effects of the antibacterial agent, triclosan (TCS). Premetamorphic (Gosner stage 26-28) tadpoles were immersed for 21 days in solvent control, 1.5 {mu}g/L thyroxine (T{sub 4}), 0.3, 3 and 30 {mu}g/L (nominal) TCS, or combined T{sub 4}/TCS treatments. Exposure effects were scored by morphometric (developmental stage, wet weight, and body, snout-vent and hindlimb lengths) and molecular (mRNA abundance using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction) criteria. T{sub 4} treatment alone accelerated development concomitant with altered levels of TH receptors {alpha} and {beta}, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and gelatinase B mRNAs in the brain and tail. We observed TCS-induced perturbations in all of the molecular and morphological endpoints indicating that TCS exposure disrupts coordination of postembryonic tadpole development. Clear alterations in molecular endpoints were evident at day 2 whereas the earliest morphological effects appeared at day 4 and were most evident at day 21. Although TCS alone (3 and 30 {mu}g/L) was protective against tadpole mortality, this protection was lost in the presence of T{sub 4}. The Pacific tree frog is the most sensitive species examined to date displaying disruption of TH-mediated development by a common antimicrobial agent.

  6. Triclosan exposure alters postembryonic development in a Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla) Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (TREEMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA), developed for Xenopus laevis, is designed to identify chemicals that disrupt thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated biological processes. We adapted the AMA for use on an ecologically-relevant North American species, the Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla), and applied molecular endpoints to evaluate the effects of the antibacterial agent, triclosan (TCS). Premetamorphic (Gosner stage 26–28) tadpoles were immersed for 21 days in solvent control, 1.5 μg/L thyroxine (T4), 0.3, 3 and 30 μg/L (nominal) TCS, or combined T4/TCS treatments. Exposure effects were scored by morphometric (developmental stage, wet weight, and body, snout-vent and hindlimb lengths) and molecular (mRNA abundance using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction) criteria. T4 treatment alone accelerated development concomitant with altered levels of TH receptors α and β, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and gelatinase B mRNAs in the brain and tail. We observed TCS-induced perturbations in all of the molecular and morphological endpoints indicating that TCS exposure disrupts coordination of postembryonic tadpole development. Clear alterations in molecular endpoints were evident at day 2 whereas the earliest morphological effects appeared at day 4 and were most evident at day 21. Although TCS alone (3 and 30 μg/L) was protective against tadpole mortality, this protection was lost in the presence of T4. The Pacific tree frog is the most sensitive species examined to date displaying disruption of TH-mediated development by a common antimicrobial agent.

  7. Development of Plant Control Diagnosis Technology and Increasing Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugemoto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Hashizume, Satoru; Kageyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toru

    A plant control diagnosis technology was developed to improve the performance of plant-wide control and maintain high productivity of plants. The control performance diagnosis system containing this technology picks out the poor performance loop, analyzes the cause, and outputs the result on the Web page. Meanwhile, the PID tuning tool is used to tune extracted loops from the control performance diagnosis system. It has an advantage of tuning safely without process changes. These systems are powerful tools to do Kaizen (continuous improvement efforts) step by step, coordinating with the operator. This paper describes a practical technique regarding the diagnosis system and its industrial applications.

  8. Development of the nuclear plant analyzer for Korean standard Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Hwan; Kim, Hyeong Heon; Song, In Ho; Hong, Eon Yeong; Oh, Yeong Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop an NPA for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 and 4, the first KSNP type plant. In this study, the process model simulating the overall plant systems, GUI and simulation executive which provide the functions of an engineering simulator were developed, and the NPA was completed by integrating them. The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : main feedwater system, auxiliary feedwater system, Chemical and Volume Control System(CVCS), Safety Injection System(SIS), Shutdown Cooling System(SCS), electric power supply system, Core Protection Calculator(CPC), various plant control system, development of the graphics screens for each system, real-time simulation, simulation control for the enhancement of functional capabilities, user friendly GUI, collection of the design and operating data, establishment of the NPA database, integration of the GUI and simulation control program with process model, collection of the data for the verification and validation of the developed NPA, collection of the plant test data, collection and review of the results of other computer codes, verification of the simulation accuracy by comparing the NPA results with the actual plant data, validation of the simulation capability of the NPA, comparison against available data from other analysis suing different computer codes.

  9. INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF AÇAÍ PLANTS UNDER SHADE GRADATION

    OpenAIRE

    ELEANDRO CANDIDO DAPONT; JOSUÉ BISPO DA SILVA; CHARLINE ZARATIN ALVES

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the effect of different levels of shading on açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) plants development, an experiment was conducted at the nursery of Floresta, Rio Branco, AC. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications of 25 plants, set as full sunlight and 18%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 80% shading. The evaluation occurred 125 days after transplantation and the variables were stem diameter, root length, length of the...

  10. Development of nuclear power plants database system, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant data base system has been developed. The data base involves a large amount of safety design informations for nuclear power plants on operating and planning stage in Japan. The informations, if necessary, can be searched for at high speed by use of this system. The present report is an user's guide for access to the informations utilizing display unit of the JAERI computer network system. (author)

  11. Appliance of software engineering in development of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Yun, C. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B. R. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    Application of computer technology in nuclear power plant is also a necessary transformation as in other industry fields. But until now, application of software technology was not wide-spread because of its potential effect to safety in nuclear field. It is an urgent theme to develop evaluation guide and regulation techniques to guarantee safety, reliability and quality assurance. To meet these changes, techniques for development and operation should be enhanced to ensure the quality of software systems. In this study, we show the difference between waterfall model and software life-cycle needed in development of nuclear power plant and propose the consistent framework needed in development of instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant.

  12. Experimental drought reduces the transfer of recently fixed plant carbon to soil microbes and alters the bacterial community composition in a mountain meadow

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchslueger, Lucia; Bahn, Michael; Fritz, Karina; Hasibeder, Roland; Richter, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Drought affects plants and soil microorganisms, but it is still not clear how it alters the carbon (C) transfer at the plant–microbial interface. Here, we tested direct and indirect effects of drought on soil microbes and microbial turnover of recent plant-derived C in a mountain meadow. Microbial community composition was assessed using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs); the allocation of recent plant-derived C to microbial groups was analysed by pulse-labelling of canopy sections with 13CO2 ...

  13. Software development for bistable module of SMART plant protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digitalized PPS(Plant Protection System) is going on development for SMART. The PPS consists of two different types of CPUs and DSP boards for the each functional processor modules of PPS. Software for the system has been progressed with teamwork of CASE TOOL to develop the reliable software. In this paper, we propose the software development method and show the examples for Bistable module through the functional analysis and the development of Structure Chart and M-Spec

  14. MicroRNAs in Control of Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Baohong

    2016-02-01

    In the long evolutionary history, plant has evolved elaborate regulatory network to control functional gene expression for surviving and thriving, such as transcription factor-regulated transcriptional programming. However, plenty of evidences from the past decade studies demonstrate that the 21-24 nucleotides small RNA molecules, majorly microRNAs (miRNAs) play dominant roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation through base pairing with their complementary mRNA targets, especially prefer to target transcription factors in plants. Here, we review current progresses on miRNA-controlled plant development, from miRNA biogenesis dysregulation-caused pleiotropic developmental defects to specific developmental processes, such as SAM regulation, leaf and root system regulation, and plant floral transition. We also summarize some miRNAs that are experimentally proved to greatly affect crop plant productivity and quality. In addition, recent reports show that a single miRNA usually displays multiple regulatory roles, such as organ development, phase transition, and stresses responses. Thus, we infer that miRNA may act as a node molecule to coordinate the balance between plant development and environmental clues, which may shed the light on finding key regulator or regulatory pathway for uncovering the mysterious molecular network. PMID:26248304

  15. A physical theory of focus development in plant disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zawolek, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Chapter 1. The 'diffusion theory' of focus development in plant disease is introduced. Foci develop in space and time. The theory applies primarily to air-borne fungal diseases of the foliage.Chapter 2. The contents of the present volume are outlined.Chapter 3. The 'diffusion theory' of focus develo

  16. Development of Electronic Identification Measures in the Public Sector of Lithuania: Analysis of Alteration Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Petrauskas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze, assess and identify alteration possibilities of effective implementation of e-Identification technology solutions focusing on organization capabilities in the public sector of Lithuania.Design/methodology/approach – different methods were used in the research. Content analysis method was used for the issues related to application of e-Identification solutions, technology management and organizational capabilities. During the pilot research, information on specificities of organization capabilities to implement e-Identification solution in the public sector was gathered, analyzed and interlinked with content analysis via comparative and deductive methods.Findings – the research shows that the gap in the area of development of e-Identification solutions in the public sector in Lithuania is affected by the lack of organizational capabilities that need to be developed internally. The challenge is to foster organizational capabilities in the environment, influenced by rapidly emerging new technology solutions (use of smartphones and applications and limited legal regulation. Lifecycle of any technology solutions becomes shorter and jeopardizes its use and functionality in time; therefore, public sector institutions could benefit from holistic e-Identification solution diffusion strategy that incorporates aspects of organizational capabilities.Research limitations/implications – the research findings are limited by the nature of the pilot research (peer review, level of experience in their organizations and environment as well as the geographic scope of the research.Practical implications – the article portrays public sector environment of implementation of e-Identification solutions and particularities of organizational capabilities to manage its development.Originality/value – originality of the article is in the research and assessment of country specific future proof needs to alter and improve the existing

  17. The influence of CO2 proceding from plant residue decomposition in the soil on isotopic ratio 13C/12c and plant development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effect of plant incorporated in the soil on the microclimate of plant growth, an experiment was carried out in greenhouse and then under field conditions. Plant residue of C-3 crops δ13C = - 27.60/00, was incorporated in the soil. This altered the isotopic composition of the CO2 in soil air and in atmospheric air of soil layers adjacent to the surface. The soil air CO2 isotopic composition showed that approximately 79% carbon was from the incorporated organic matter and 50% to 3% in O to 30 cm layers, respectively, in the atmospheric air adjacent to the surface. The isotopic ratio 13C/12C of plants cultivated in soil with incorporated organic matter was determined and it was noted that the envolved CO2 was photosynthetically absorved by the plants during growth. CO2 contribution from organic matter to the isotopic composition of C-4 plants varied from 33% to 13% during growth. Plants cultivated in soil with organic matter had a better development than those cultivated in natural soil. Productivity was on average 50% greater than the control plants. (author)

  18. Development of third Qinshan nuclear power plant risk monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A risk monitor, an integrated risk analysis tool for real-time monitoring, was widely used in the management of nuclear power plants around the world. A risk monitor prototype system, named RiskAngel, has been developed by FDS Team, China, in which the fault tree analysis engine RiskA was integrated. Based on these, Third Qinshan nuclear power plant Risk Monitor (TQRM) has been developed considering the safety characteristics and the management process of Third Qinshan nuclear power plant. The status and development trend of risk monitor were given in this paper. An overview of the architecture and functions of TQRM was introduced. The key algorithms and technical features were also presented. (authors)

  19. Genetic modification; the development of transgenic ornamental plant varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Stephen F; Sanchez, Cory

    2012-10-01

    Plant transformation technology (hereafter abbreviated to GM, or genetic modification) has been used to develop many varieties of crop plants, but only a few varieties of ornamental plants. This disparity in the rate and extent of commercialisation, which has been noted for more than a decade, is not because there are no useful traits that can be engineered into ornamentals, is not due to market potential and is not due to a lack of research and development activity. The GM ornamental varieties which have been released commercially have been accepted in the marketplace. In this article, progress in the development of transgenic ornamentals is reviewed and traits useful to both consumers and producers are identified. In considering possible factors limiting the release of genetically modified ornamental products it is concluded that the most significant barrier to market is the difficulty of managing, and the high cost of obtaining, regulatory approval. PMID:22537268

  20. Cardamom Bushy Dwarf Virus Infection in Large Cardamom Alters Plant Selection Preference, Life Stages, and Fecundity of Aphid Vector, Micromyzus kalimpongensis (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Das, Amrita; Vijayanandraj, S; Mandal, Bikash

    2016-02-01

    Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV) causes foorkey disease of large cardamom (Ammomum subulatum Roxburgh) in the eastern sub-Himalayan mountains. Although the aphid Micromyzus kalimpongensis Basu (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is known as a vector of CBDV, its behavior in dissemination of CBDV has not been investigated. In the present study, M. kalimpongensis was observed to colonize in higher number on CBDV-infected large cardamom plants compared with the healthy plants in the several plantations in Sikkim and Darjeeling hills. The affinity of M. kalimpongensis to the diseased large cardamom plants was further confirmed in a contained field experiment with intact plant as well as in a laboratory bioassay with the plant extract, where significantly higher number of aphids settled on the diseased plants or extracts compared with the healthy counterparts. Aphids grown on CBDV-infected large cardamom plants had shortened nymphal period and increased longevity and fecundity compared with those grown on the healthy plants. In the contained field experiment, M. kalimpongensis migrated to the CBDV-infected plants, colonized there, acquired CBDV, and once the diseased plants withered, migrated to healthy plants, which eventually became diseased. Our results suggest a general pattern of spread of CBDV by M. kalimpongensis where CBDV-infected plants attract or arrest and stimulate emergence and migration of viruliferous aphids that otherwise are sedentary in the underground plant parts of large cardamom. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the influence of a plant virus from the family Nanoviridae in altering behavior of its insect vector that favors its dissemination. PMID:26518036

  1. Recent developments in by-product plant processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herpers, E.T.; Barber, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Energy saving and pollution control in by-product coke plant processes are considered. An example of a very cost-effective plant modification for energy saving is the retrofitting of heat exchangers to a benzole and naphthalene plant of the British Steel Corporation at Port Talbot. Energy savings are also possible in the carbonisation process, where there are sources of low grade heat which can be recovered. Recent developments in by-product plant pollution control include those in catalytic ammonia destruction for reduction of ammonia; the Sulfammon Process, high pressure gas treatment Sulfiban Process, and the Claus Process for reduction of H/sub 2/S; and the tower effluent treatment process for liquid effluents. Odorous emission control and noise abatement are also mentioned. 2 references.

  2. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Yun Jae; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    This project focuses on developing reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components, and is divided into two parts, development of a life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered in this project: defect assessment method for steam generator tubes, development of fatigue monitoring system, assessment of corroded pipes, domestic round robin analysis for constructing P-T limit curve for RPV, development of probabilistic integrity assessment technique, effect of aging on strength of dissimilar welds, applicability of LBB to cast stainless steel, and development of probabilistic piping fracture mechanics.

  3. Development of hydrothermal power generation plant. Development of binary cycle power generation plant (development of 10 MW-class plant); 1995 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu. 10MW kyu plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    A 10 MW-class binary cycle power generation plant has been developed using a down hole pump (DHP) which exchanges the hydrothermal energy with secondary medium in the heat exchanger. For constructing the plant at Kuju-machi, Oita Prefecture, site preparation works, foundation of cooling tower, reconstruction of roads, and survey on environmental influences were conducted. To investigate installation and removal methods of DHP, a geothermal water pump-up system, current status of the binary cycle power generating system in the USA was surveyed. In this survey, a trailer mounting handling machine was inspected. Based on the survey results, a simple assembled, easy-installation type handling equipment was designed. In addition, the replacement work for motor connector joint of DHP and the strength of coil end were improved. Construction and method allowing reuse of the motor cable were considered by improving the cable and cable end portion. The air tight soundness of incoloy corrugate sheath was confirmed. Finally, a reproduction system for waste oil of DHP bearing oil was investigated. 106 figs., 52 tabs.

  4. Nuclear Power Plants and Sustainable Development on a Liberalized Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finding a way to generate electricity so as to satisfy the terms of sustainable development of the entire society is the only way which will secure safe energy future. If we talk about energy in the context of sustainable development, one of the most important element is environmental protection. Since CO2 emissions stemming from electricity generation have predominant impact on climate change, one of the options for reducing emissions is the use of fuels without carbon, such as e.g. nuclear fuel. The future of nuclear power plants was considered in view of: nuclear fuel supply; potential impact of fuel cycle on environment, power plant operation, decommissioning and secondary products from electricity generation; and the entire nuclear power plant economy. Nuclear power plants were also examined in the context of the Kyoto Protocol stipulating reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. Nuclear power plants can not reduce CO2 emissions in a short-term because they already operate with maximum output, but in a long-run they can play a significant role. This paper is aiming to analyse the role of nuclear power plants in long term environmental sustainability in electricity sector reform (liberalisation, deregulation, privatisation) in small or medium sized power supply systems. Nuclear power plants are associated with certain environmental aspects which will be taken into account. A comparison will be made through externalities with other energy resources, especially fossil fuels, which are prevailing energy resources, considering possible use of nuclear power plants in the countries with small and medium-size grids. It will be given an example of the role of NPP Krsko on air emissions reduction in Croatia. (author)

  5. Developments in the production of mucosal antibodies in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Smales, C Mark; Schillberg, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Schiermeyer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant mucosal antibodies represent attractive target molecules for the development of next generation biopharmaceuticals for passive immunization against various infectious diseases and treatment of patients suffering from mucosal antibody deficiencies. As these polymeric antibodies require complex post-translational modifications and correct subunit assembly, they are considered as difficult-to-produce recombinant proteins. Beside the traditional, mammalian-based production platforms, plants are emerging as alternative expression hosts for this type of complex macromolecule. Plant cells are able to produce high-quality mucosal antibodies as shown by the successful expression of the secretory immunoglobulins A (IgA) and M (IgM) in various antibody formats in different plant species including tobacco and its close relative Nicotiana benthamiana, maize, tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana. Importantly for biotherapeutic application, transgenic plants are capable of synthesizing functional IgA and IgM molecules with biological activity and safety profiles comparable with their native mammalian counterparts. This article reviews the structure and function of mucosal IgA and IgM antibodies and summarizes the current knowledge of their production and processing in plant host systems. Specific emphasis is given to consideration of intracellular transport processes as these affect assembly of the mature immunoglobulins, their secretion rates, proteolysis/degradation and glycosylation patterns. Furthermore, this review provides an outline of glycoengineering efforts that have been undertaken so far to produce antibodies with homogenous human-like glycan decoration. We believe that the continued development of our understanding of the plant cellular machinery related to the heterologous expression of immunoglobulins will further improve the production levels, quality and control of post-translational modifications that are 'human-like' from plant systems and enhance the

  6. Development of assessment methodology for plant configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study IS the development of effective and overall assessment methodology which reflects the characteristics of plants for the surveillance, maintenance, repair and operation of nuclear power plants. In this study, recent researches are surveyed and concept definition, procedures, current PSA methodologies, implementation of various models are evaluated. Through this survey, systematic assessment methodology is suggested. Configuration control assessment methodology suggested in this study for the purpose of the development of configuration control methodology reflecting the characteristics of Korean NPPs, can be utilized as the supplement of current PSA methodologies

  7. Plant growth hormones suppress the development of Harpophora maydis, the cause of late wilt in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Ofir; Drori, Ran; Goldblat, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Late wilt, a severe vascular disease of maize caused by the fungus Harpophora maydis, is characterized by rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The pathogen is currently controlled by resistant maize cultivars, but the disease is constantly spreading to new areas. The plant's late phenological stage at which the disease appears suggests that plant hormones may be involved in the pathogenesis. This work revealed that plant growth hormones, auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid) and cytokinin (kinetin), suppress H. maydis in culture media and in a detached root assay. Kinetin, and even more auxin, caused significant suppression of fungus spore germination. Gibberellic acid did not alter colony growth rate but had a signal suppressive effect on the pathogens' spore germination. In comparison, ethylene and jasmonic acid, plant senescing and defense response regulators, had minor effects on colony growth and spore germination rate. Their associate hormone, salicylic acid, had a moderate suppressive effect on spore germination and colony growth rate, and a strong influence when combined with auxin. Despite the anti-fungal auxin success in vitro, field experiments with dimethylamine salt of  2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (that mimics the influence of auxin) failed to suppress the late wilt. The lines of evidence presented here reveal the suppressive influence of the three growth hormones studied on fungal development and are important to encourage further and more in-depth examinations of this intriguing hormonal complex regulatory and its role in the maize-H. maydis interactions. PMID:25649030

  8. Acanthus ilicifolius plant extract prevents DNA alterations in a transplantable Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing murine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the chemopreventive efficacy of the Indian medicinal plant Acanthus ilicifolius L Acanthaceae in a transplantable Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing murine model.METHODS: Male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: Group A was the untreated normal control; Group B was the EAC control mice group that received serial, intraperitoneal (ip) inoculations of rapidly proliferating 2 × 105 viable EAC cells in 0.2 mL of sterile phosphate buffered saline; Group C was the plant extract-treated group that received the aqueous leaf extract (ALE) of the plant at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight by single ip injections, once daily for 10, 20 and 30 consecutive days following tumour inoculation (ALE control); and Group D was the EAC + ALE-treatment group. The chemopreventive potential of the ALE was evaluated in a murine model by studying various biological parameters and genotoxic markers,such as tumour cell count, mean survival of the animals,haematological indices, hepatocellular histology,immunohistochemical expression of liver metallothionein (MT) protein, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and DNA alterations.RESULTS: Treatment of the EAC-bearing mice with the ALE significantly (P < 0.001) reduced viable tumour cell count by 68.34% (228.7 × 106 ± 0.53) when compared to EAC control mice (72.4 × 106 ± 0.49), and restored body and organ weights almost to the normal values.ALE administration also increased (P < 0.001) mean survival of the hosts from 35 ± 3.46 d in EAC control mice to 83 ± 2.69 d in EAC + ALE-treated mice.Haematological indices also showed marked improvement with administration of ALE in EAC-bearing animals. There was a significant increase in RBC count (P < 0.001),hemoglobin percent (P < 0.001), and haematocrit value (P < 0.001) from 4.3 ± 0.12, 6.4 ± 0.93, and 17.63 ± 0.72 respectively in EAC control mice to 7.1 ± 0.13, 12.1 ±0.77, and 30.23 ± 0.57 respectively in EAC + ALE-treated group, along with

  9. Modeling and development of software of plant analyzer for pressurized water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (NPA), a personal computer based faster running simulator for PWR, is developed for transient analysis, personnel training, and computer-aid diagnosis. The NPA can be divided into two categories: plant module and man-machine interaction module. The plant module-TAPWR, consists of models for core kinetics, fuel transient conduction, reactor coolant system, pressurizer, and U-tube steam generator. Each of the models is optimized to obtain the capability of faster than real-time simulation. To check the sensitivity of models, TAPWR has been benchmarked against RELAP5/MOD2 code for a reactivity insertion accident. The NPA has a convenient, interactive and user friendly graphics interface. Simulation results can be displayed dynamically on a color graphics terminal by the interaction module. Using NPA, a LOFW accident for DAYA Bay Nuclear Power plant is analyzed

  10. Altered life cycle in Arabidopsis plants expressing PsUGT1, a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-encoding gene from pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ho-Hyung; Faull, Kym F; Hirsch, Ann M; Hawes, Martha C

    2003-10-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Arabidopsis were used as model systems to examine molecular mechanisms underlying developmental effects of a microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-encoding gene from pea (Pisum sativum; PsUGT1). Alfalfa expressing PsUGT1 antisense mRNA under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter exhibited delayed root emergence, reduced root growth, and increased lateral root development. The timing of root emergence in wild-type and antisense plants was correlated with the transient accumulation of auxin at the site of root emergence. Cell suspension cultures derived from the antisense alfalfa plants exhibited a delay in cell cycle from 24-h in the wild-type plants to 48-h in the antisense plants. PsUGT1::uidA was introduced into Arabidopsis to demonstrate that, as in alfalfa and pea, PsUGT1 expression occurs in regions of active cell division. This includes the root cap and root apical meristems, leaf primordia, tips of older leaves, and the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. Expression of PsUGT1::uidA colocalized with the expression of the auxin-responding reporter DR5::uidA. Co-expression of DR5::uidA in transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing CaMV35S::PsUGT1 revealed that ectopic expression of CaMV35S::PsUGT1 is correlated with a change in endogenous auxin gradients in roots. Roots of ecotype Columbia expressing CaMV35S::PsUGT1 exhibited distinctive responses to exogenous naphthalene acetic acid. Completion of the life cycle occurred in 4 to 6 weeks compared with 6 to 7 weeks for wild-type Columbia. Inhibition of endogenous ethylene did not correct this early senescence phenotype. PMID:12972656

  11. Development of instructors for nuclear power plant personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 the IAEA published Technical Reports Series No. 380, Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation, A Guidebook, which provides guidance with respect to development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that an additional publication be prepared to provide further details concerning the development of instructors for NPP personnel training. The quality of nuclear power plant personnel training is strongly dependent on the availability of competent instructors. Instructors must have a comprehensive practical as well as theoretical understanding of all aspects of the subjects being taught and the relationship of the subject to nuclear plant operation. Instructors should have the appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSAs) in their assigned areas of responsibility. They should thoroughly understand all aspects of the contents of the training programmes and the relationship between these contents and overall plant operation. This means that they should be technically competent and show credibility with the trainees and other plant personnel. In addition, the instructors should be familiar with the basics of adult learning and a systematic approach to training, and should have adequate instructional and assessment skills. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on various aspects of instructor selection, development and deployment, by quoting actual examples from different countries. It highlights the importance of having an appropriate training policy, especially considering the various organisational arrangements that exist in different utilities/countries. This should result in: plant performance improvement, improved human performance, meeting goals and objectives of the business (quality, safety, productivity), and improving training programs. This publication is available in two formats - as a conventional printed

  12. Development of operator training simulator for Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operator training simulator has been started to develop for the purpose of safety and stable operation in the Rokkasho reprocessing plant, the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan. At present, the safety training simulator, which had been developed for the purpose of the specified abnormal events training, has already been in operation. The simulator was designed to contribute to the acquisition of the knowledge and skills indispensable for the plant operators and to the promotion of good team-work among operators. It was also designed in consideration of the simple and consistent extensibility to the full-scope training simulator which is now planned to develop using the same hard-ware. The model building and maintenance tools were applied as trial for the model tuning and modification. They must be indispensable for the reflection of the plant operation data and for the planning full-scope training simulator development. The usefulness and the validity of the simulator were ascertained through the training and its reports as the simulator development successfulness. (author)

  13. Radiation-Induced Alterations in Mouse Brain Development Characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify regions of altered development in the mouse brain after cranial irradiation using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Female C57Bl/6 mice received a whole-brain radiation dose of 7 Gy at an infant-equivalent age of 2.5 weeks. MRI was performed before irradiation and at 3 time points following irradiation. Deformation-based morphometry was used to quantify volume and growth rate changes following irradiation. Results: Widespread developmental deficits were observed in both white and gray matter regions following irradiation. Most of the affected brain regions suffered an initial volume deficit followed by growth at a normal rate, remaining smaller in irradiated brains compared with controls at all time points examined. The one exception was the olfactory bulb, which in addition to an early volume deficit, grew at a slower rate thereafter, resulting in a progressive volume deficit relative to controls. Immunohistochemical assessment revealed demyelination in white matter and loss of neural progenitor cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Conclusions: MRI can detect regional differences in neuroanatomy and brain growth after whole-brain irradiation in the developing mouse. Developmental deficits in neuroanatomy persist, or even progress, and may serve as useful markers of late effects in mouse models. The high-throughput evaluation of brain development enabled by these methods may allow testing of strategies to mitigate late effects after pediatric cranial irradiation.

  14. Radiation-Induced Alterations in Mouse Brain Development Characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazdzinski, Lisa M.; Cormier, Kyle [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Lu, Fred G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Lerch, Jason P. [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Nieman, Brian J., E-mail: bjnieman@phenogenomics.ca [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify regions of altered development in the mouse brain after cranial irradiation using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Female C57Bl/6 mice received a whole-brain radiation dose of 7 Gy at an infant-equivalent age of 2.5 weeks. MRI was performed before irradiation and at 3 time points following irradiation. Deformation-based morphometry was used to quantify volume and growth rate changes following irradiation. Results: Widespread developmental deficits were observed in both white and gray matter regions following irradiation. Most of the affected brain regions suffered an initial volume deficit followed by growth at a normal rate, remaining smaller in irradiated brains compared with controls at all time points examined. The one exception was the olfactory bulb, which in addition to an early volume deficit, grew at a slower rate thereafter, resulting in a progressive volume deficit relative to controls. Immunohistochemical assessment revealed demyelination in white matter and loss of neural progenitor cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Conclusions: MRI can detect regional differences in neuroanatomy and brain growth after whole-brain irradiation in the developing mouse. Developmental deficits in neuroanatomy persist, or even progress, and may serve as useful markers of late effects in mouse models. The high-throughput evaluation of brain development enabled by these methods may allow testing of strategies to mitigate late effects after pediatric cranial irradiation.

  15. Tidal power plant may develop into large-scale industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerfest was the first city in Norway with hydroelectric power production and the first city in Northern Europe to have electric street lights. Recently, technologists within the city's electricity supply industry have suggested that Hammerfest should pioneer the field of tidal energy. The idea is to create a new Norwegian large-scale industry. The technology is being developed by the company Hammerfest Stroem. A complete plant is planned to be installed in Kvalsundet. It will include turbine, generator, converters, transmission to land and delivery to the network. Once fully developed, in 2004, the plant will be sold. The company expects to install similar plants elsewhere in Norway and abroad. It is calculated that for a tidewater current of 2.5 m/s, the worldwide potential is about 450 TWh

  16. Development of safety assessment of nuclear power plants using indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is based on an indicator system which is under development at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The goal of this study was to define and develop both PSA-based indicators and indicators from failure statistics. As PSA-based indicators the possibility was studied to define and express the risk importance of exemptions from the Technical Specifications, failures, preventive maintenance and other disconnections of devices covered by the Technical Specifications, operating events covered by Guide YVL 1.5 and plant modifications. In this piece of research the applicability of plant specific living PSA-models used for calculation of indicators was examined. The research included both Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants in Finland

  17. Development of a SPV management program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Single Point Vulnerability (SPV) is a characteristic of a component whose failure results in plant transients. KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co.) has evaluated major systems with critical components and developed a SPV management program to reduce the trip frequency and to raise plant's availability. This study includes a comprehensive methodology for SPV evaluation and its results. This methodology consists of the qualitative evaluation focused on the SPV component list preparation and the quantitative evaluation through FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analyses) and FTA (Fault Tree Analyses) of critical systems. The qualitative evaluation reduced differences of the SPV lists between the identically designed plants and established strategies for the improvement of the SPV component reliability. The quantitative evaluation identified additional SPV components and developed the fault tree model for a Trip Monitor which showed logic relationships of channel components in the trip-related systems. (author)

  18. Insecticidal effects of Moroccan plant extracts on development, energy reserves and enzymatic activities of Plodia interpunctella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouayard, N.; Rharrabe, K.; Ghailani, N. N.; Jbilou, R.; Castanera, P.; Ortego, F.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of methanol extracts of ten plant species used in traditional medicine in Morocco (Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula dentata, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus salviaefolius, Cistus monspeliensis, Centaurium erythraea and Launaea arborescens) on Plodia interpunctella Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. Firstly, we studied the effects of the ingestion of these extracts at 500 ppm on post-embryonic development parameters. Most plant extracts provoked a notable decrease of larval weight 8 days after treatment (up to 33% weight loss with C. erythraea) and caused significant alterations on pupation (ranging from 5% to 85%) and adult emergence (below 2.5% with R. officinalis, C. erythraea and A. iva). The plant extracts that showed strongest effects on post-embryonic development were selected to test their effects on the following physiological parameters: larval reserve substances (at 500 ppm); and midgut activities of hydrolytic and detoxification enzymes (at 500, 750 and 1000 ppm). All treatments provoked a significant reduction of protein and carbon hydrate larval contents, the inhibition of proteases and {alpha}-amylase activities in a dose depended manner, and the induction of glutathione S-transferase and esterase (using MtB as substrate) activities, whereas the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases (using 1-NA as substrate) increase or decrease depending on the extract concentration and the plant analyzed. (Author) 65 refs.

  19. The exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis, suppresses the growth of native acacia by altering soil microbial communities structure and functionalities in a sahelian ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanon, A.; Beguiristain, T.; Sylla, S.; Berthelin, J.; Duponnois, R.

    2009-07-01

    The functioning and stability of terrestrial ecosystems are mainly determined by plant specific richness and composition, which in turn, are closely interlinked with soil organisms development, in particular, soil microorganisms. One of the main success ways of invasive plants was these exogenous organisms-mediated modifications in soil microbial communities composition and diversity as well as their functioning, thus compromising native plant survival. (Author)

  20. The exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis, suppresses the growth of native acacia by altering soil microbial communities structure and functionalities in a sahelian ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functioning and stability of terrestrial ecosystems are mainly determined by plant specific richness and composition, which in turn, are closely interlinked with soil organisms development, in particular, soil microorganisms. One of the main success ways of invasive plants was these exogenous organisms-mediated modifications in soil microbial communities composition and diversity as well as their functioning, thus compromising native plant survival. (Author)

  1. New developments in design of gamma irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symec Engineers (I) Pvt. Ltd is an ISO 9001:2008 certified company which is among the leading manufacturers of gamma irradiation plants in India and abroad. The company's long history of achievements begins from the building of India's first indigenous irradiation plant in 1990 to the successful commissioning of India's first and only batch irradiation plant in 2005, to the completion of India's largest irradiation plant of 5 million curies capacity in 2012. Symec has recently added two more feathers in its cap by commissioning a 3 Mci multi-purpose facility in Biyagama, Sri Lanka and another 100Kci batch type blood irradiation facility in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for the IAEA. In all Symec has successfully completed 10 gamma irradiation plants in India and abroad, and is involved in three more projects in this sector. Based on the years of experience in the international and domestic market, Symec has evolved several interesting design features and developments in its plants. Some of these features are described below. (author)

  2. Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. J.; And Others

    A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

  3. Development of Plant Application Technique of Low Dose Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project was carried out to achieve three aims. First, development of application techniques of cell-stimulating effects by low-dose radiation. Following irradiation with gamma-rays of low doses, beneficial effects in crop germination, early growth, and yield were investigated using various plant species and experimental approaches. For the actual field application, corroborative studies were also carried out with a few concerned experimental stations and farmers. Moreover, we attempted to establish a new technique of cell cultivation for industrial mass-production of shikonin, a medicinal compound from Lithospermum erythrorhizon and thereby suggested new application fields for application techniques of low-dose radiation. Second, elucidation of action mechanisms of ionizing radiation in plants. By investigating changes in plant photosynthesis and physiological metabolism, we attempted to elucidate physiological activity-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation and to search for radiation-adaptive cellular components. Besides, analyses of biochemical and molecular biological mechanisms for stimulus-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation were accomplished by examining genes and proteins inducible by low-dose radiation. Third, development of functional crop plants using radiation-resistant factors. Changes in stress-tolerance of plants against environmental stress factors such as light, temperature, salinity and UV-B stress after exposed to low-dose gamma-rays were investigated. Concerned reactive oxygen species, antioxidative enzymes, and antioxidants were also analyzed to develop high value-added and environment-friendly functional plants using radiation-resistant factors. These researches are important to elucidate biological activities increased by low-dose radiation and help to provide leading technologies for improvement of domestic productivity in agriculture and development of high value-added genetic resources

  4. Development of Plant Application Technique of Low Dose Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Lim, Yong Taek (and others)

    2007-07-15

    The project was carried out to achieve three aims. First, development of application techniques of cell-stimulating effects by low-dose radiation. Following irradiation with gamma-rays of low doses, beneficial effects in crop germination, early growth, and yield were investigated using various plant species and experimental approaches. For the actual field application, corroborative studies were also carried out with a few concerned experimental stations and farmers. Moreover, we attempted to establish a new technique of cell cultivation for industrial mass-production of shikonin, a medicinal compound from Lithospermum erythrorhizon and thereby suggested new application fields for application techniques of low-dose radiation. Second, elucidation of action mechanisms of ionizing radiation in plants. By investigating changes in plant photosynthesis and physiological metabolism, we attempted to elucidate physiological activity-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation and to search for radiation-adaptive cellular components. Besides, analyses of biochemical and molecular biological mechanisms for stimulus-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation were accomplished by examining genes and proteins inducible by low-dose radiation. Third, development of functional crop plants using radiation-resistant factors. Changes in stress-tolerance of plants against environmental stress factors such as light, temperature, salinity and UV-B stress after exposed to low-dose gamma-rays were investigated. Concerned reactive oxygen species, antioxidative enzymes, and antioxidants were also analyzed to develop high value-added and environment-friendly functional plants using radiation-resistant factors. These researches are important to elucidate biological activities increased by low-dose radiation and help to provide leading technologies for improvement of domestic productivity in agriculture and development of high value-added genetic resources.

  5. Situation of development for pressurized water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of the end of 1994, Japanese nuclear power plants take about 20% (about 40 million kW) of the constitution of power source facilities, and about 31% (about 230 billion kWh) of the constitution of generated electric power, thus they contribute to the stable supply of electric power in Japan. About a half of them (18.186 million kW) is pressurized water type nuclear power plants now in operation, of which the construction was carried out by Mitsubishi or by the cooperation of Mitsubishi. The course of development of PWRs is described. As the recent state of PWR technologies, the improvement of the rate of facility utilization, the reduction of troubles, the shortening of periodic inspection period, the reduction of the dose equivalent that the workers engaging in radiation-related works undergo, the heightening of burnup in reactor cores and fuel are reported. As the technical development of PWR plants for the future, the improved type PWRs (APWR), the next generation PWRs (new PWR-21), the response to diversified fuel cycles, the measures for extending the service years of existing plants and decommissioning measures are described. The advancement of reactor core and fuel design, safety design, plant design, and aseismatic design is discussed. (K.I.)

  6. Present situation and development of nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author's observation of the history of nuclear power plant development leads him to the present 'state of technology' and enables him to analyze the properties of different reactors. Important focal points of research such as safety, standardization and cooling problems are illustrated by the example of a German pressurized-water reactor. (TK/AK)

  7. New developments in seismic surveillance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present article, new trends and development of ISMES techniques and methods relating to the seismic surveillance of nuclear power plants, are described. The experience gained in this field is described, and particular attention is paid to the new trend in surveys and instrumentation design criteria (from both the hardware and software point of view). (author)

  8. Development of chemistry management for Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onagawa nuclear power plant developed a system for chemistry management of prevention and preservation of power plant. It is able to early detection of data change for prevention of plant. The system supports management of chemical custodian and consists of four parts such as management of water quality of plant , management of liquid waste, management of vapor waste and estimation of performance of chemical equipment. The system has three functions: management of operation, estimation of omen and examination of origin. The function of management of operation supports the routine inspection of chemical custodian by increasing efficiency of analytical and process data collection, practical use of data,, accuracy of data and rapid analysis. Estimation function of omen observes data fetched via online during 24 hr, indicates the small primary change and determines the origins. Examination function of origin supports their quick correspondences at accident and certificates the detailed origins. Histories of development of the system, business systemization, system construction, system functions are explained.The diagram of background of system development, system construction, management functions, verification of analytical data, automatic continuos monitoring diagram, screen of detection of abnormal phenomena, classified diagram of origins for change of water quality in reactor were developed. (S.Y.)

  9. Tactile stimulation during development alters the neuroanatomical organization of the optic nerve in normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Lachat, João-José

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the progressive effect of tactile stimulation in the cytoarchitecture of the optic nerve of normal rats during early postnatal development. We used 36 male pups which were randomly assigned to either the tactile-stimulated group (TS-stimulation for 3 min, once a day, from postnatal day (P) 1 to 32) or the non-tactile-stimulated (NTS) group. Morphological analysis were performed to evaluate the alterations caused by tactile stimulation, and morphometric analysis were carried out to determine whether the observed changes in optic nerve cytoarchitecture were significantly different between groups and at three different ages (P18, P22, and P32), thereby covering the entire progression of development of the optic nerve from its start to its completion. The rats of both groups presented similar increase in body weight. The morphometric analysis revealed no difference in the astrocyte density between age-matched groups; however, the oligodendrocyte density of TS group was higher compared to the NTS at P22, and P32, but not at P18. The optic nerve of TS group showed an increase of blood vessels and a reduction of damage fiber density when compared to the age-matched pups of NTS. Taken together, these findings support the view that tactile stimulation, an enriching experience, can positively affects the neuroanatomy of the brain, modifying its cellular components by progressive morphological and morphometric changes. PMID:26879768

  10. Supplementation with complex milk lipids during brain development promotes neuroplasticity without altering myelination or vascular density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamond B. Guillermo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supplementation with complex milk lipids (CML during postnatal brain development has been shown to improve spatial reference learning in rats. Objective: The current study examined histo-biological changes in the brain following CML supplementation and their relationship to the observed improvements in memory. Design: The study used the brain tissues from the rats (male Wistar, 80 days of age after supplementing with either CML or vehicle during postnatal day 10–80. Immunohistochemical staining of synaptophysin, glutamate receptor-1, myelin basic protein, isolectin B-4, and glial fibrillary acidic protein was performed. The average area and the density of the staining and the numbers of astrocytes and capillaries were assessed and analysed. Results: Compared with control rats, CML supplementation increased the average area of synaptophysin staining and the number of GFAP astrocytes in the CA3 sub-region of the hippocampus (p<0.01, but not in the CA4 sub-region. The supplementation also led to an increase in dopamine output in the striatum that was related to nigral dopamine expression (p<0.05, but did not alter glutamate receptors, myelination or vascular density. Conclusion: CML supplementation may enhance neuroplasticity in the CA3 sub-regions of the hippocampus. The brain regions-specific increase of astrocyte may indicate a supporting role for GFAP in synaptic plasticity. CML supplementation did not associate with postnatal white matter development or vascular remodelling.

  11. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Shannon K.; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  12. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Shannon K; McManamay, Ryan A; Miller, Andrew D; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards. PMID:27177541

  13. Development and implementation of plant diagnostic skills training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was learned from the July 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake that a need exists for simulator training methods to be revised to include the assumption of multiple failures such as those which may occur during a large earthquake. At BWR Operator Training Center Corp., multiple failure team training which focuses on plant diagnostic skills (Plant Diagnostic Skills Training) has been developed and implemented since September 2008. The contents of this training along with the results are presented and considered in this paper. (author)

  14. Mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Myers, P. N.

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduce the chapter with a discussion of lessons from nature, agriculture, and landscapes; terms and definitions; and an historical perspective of mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development. Topics include developmental responses to mechanical stress; mechanical stress-environment interactions; metabolic, productivity, and compositional changes; hormonal involvement; mechanoperception and early transduction mechanisms; applications in agriculture; and research implications. The discussion of hormonal involvement in mechanical stress physiology includes ethylene, auxin, gibberellins, and other phytohormones. The discussion of applications in agriculture examines windbreaks, nursery practices, height control and conditioning, and enhancement of growth and productivity. Implications for research are related to handling plant materials, space biology, and future research needs.

  15. Development of nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Meng; YANG Yan-Hua; ZHANG Rong-Hua; HU Rui

    2005-01-01

    A nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator was developed based on general-purpose thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5. It main1y consists of three parts: improved thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5, control and protection system and human-machine interface. A normal transient of CHASHMA nuclear power plant turbine step load change from 100% to 90% of full power, was simulated by the engineering simulator as an application example. This paper presents structure and main features of the engineering simulator, and application results are shown and discussed.

  16. Development of integral seamless fittings for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been required to develop the integral seamless fittings to be used for CRD or ICM housing, stick elbow and high neck tee for BWR plant. Since the pipe portion and flange or elbow portion are made together from one steel billet and not connected by welding, these integral seamless fittings have many advantages such an increase of plant reliability and no need for in-service inspection. After several trial production run, Sumitomo Metal Ind., Ltd. succeeded in manufacturing the integral seamless fittings. This report describes the manufacturing process and the test results on the integral seamless fittings. (author)

  17. Development of safety support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an aim at further upgrading of safety and reliability on nuclear power plants, the 'Safety support system for nuclear power plants' was developed for a business assisted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The system contains three subsystems on general accident forecasting judgement early to detect and diagnose an accident at its early stage, on high grade automation automatically to carry out its response on engineering through a computer, and on high grade operation information service effectively to supply some plant operation informations required for operators and maintenance works. On the first subsystem, the Hitachi, the MHI and the ME, and the Toshiba developed movable portion in its single instrument, settled portion in its instrument, and main object, respectively. On the second subsystem, they developed cooperative control technique, alternative cooperation technique, and forecasting control technique, respectively. And, on the last subsystem, the information service from the general accident forecasting judgement and the high grade automation systems developed by every companies under their shares was developed for its main object. Here were described on the developed element technologies. (G.K.)

  18. 3. Impact of altered gravity on CNS development and behavior in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sulkowski, V. A.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Baxter, M. G.

    The present study examined the effect of altered gravity on CNS development. Specifically, we compared neurodevelopment, behavior, cerebellar structure and protein expression in rat neonates exposed perinatally to hypergravity. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1.5G-1.75G hypergravity on a 24-ft centrifuge starting on gestational day (G) 10, through giving birth on G22/G23, and nursing their offspring through postnatal day (P) 21. Cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased in 1.75G-exposed male pups by 27.5 percent; in 1.75G-exposed female pups it was decreased by 22.5 percent. The observed cerebellar changes were associated with alterations in neurodevelopment and motor behavior. Exposure to hypergravity impaired performance on the following neurocognitive tests: (1) righting time on P3 was more than doubled in 1.75G-exposed rats and the effect appeared more pronounced in female pups, (2) startle response on P10 was delayed in both male and female HG pups; HG pups were one-fifth as likely to respond to a clapping noise as SC pups, and (3) performance on a rotorod on P21 was decreased in HG pups; the duration of the stay on rotorod recorded for HG pups of both sexes was one tenth of the SC pups. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of selected cerebellar proteins suggested gender-specific changes in glial and neuronal proteins. On P6, GFAP expression was decreased by 59.2 percent in HG males, while no significant decrease was observed in female cerebella. Synaptophysin expression was decreased in HG male neonates by 29.9 percent and in HG female neonates by 20.7 percent as compared to its expression in SC cerebella. The results of this experiment suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development and behavior differently in male and female neonates. If one accepts that hypergravity is a good paradigm to study the effect of microgravity on the CNS, and since males and females were shown to respond differently to hypergravity, it can be

  19. Stress induced alterations in pre-pubertal ovarian follicular development in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajurvedi H.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to find out whether stress experienced during neo-natal period alters the timing of formation of pre-antral and antral follicles and if so, whether pre-treatment with CRH receptor antagonist prevents these effects in rats. New born rat pups (n= 15 were exposed to maternal separation (6 hours/ day from post-natal day (PND 1 to 7 and were killed on PND 8, 11 and 15. The time of exposure was randomly changed every day during light phase (7Am to 7Pm of the day to avoid habituation. There was a significant increase in serum corticosterone levels on PND 8 and 11 in stress group rats compared to controls indicating stress response in these pups. The ovary of both control and stressed rats contained oocytes and primary follicles on PND 8 and 11 and in showed progress of follicular development upto to pre-antral and early antral follicle formation on PND 11 and 15. However, mean number of healthy oocytes and all categories of follicles at all ages studied were significantly lower in stressed rats compared to controls. Concomitant with these changes, number of atreatic follicles showed an increase over control values in stressed rats. The increase in atresia of follicles was due to apoptosis as shown by increase in the percentage of granulosa cells showing TUNEL positive staining and caspase 3 activity. On the other hand, pre-treatment with CRH- receptor antagonist (CRH 9-41 2ng/ 0.1 ml/ rat prior to undergoing stress regime on PND 1 to 7, prevented alterations in pre- pubertal follicular development thereby indicating that the ovarian changes were due to effects of stress induced activation of HPA axis. The results indicate that, stress during neonatal phase, though does not affect timing of formation of pre-antral and antral follicles, it does enhance atresia of follicles of all categories, including follicular reserve, which may affect the reproductive potential of adults. The results, for the first time reveal that CRF

  20. Development and licensing of a melting plant for Chernobyl scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One decade after the accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a melting plant for radioactively contaminated metallic materials, the so-called SURF facility, is being planned and licensed for erection in the direct neighbourhood of the NPP area. Main goal is the recycling of the material largely decontaminated by the melting process, by means of manufacturing of casks and containers for waste disposal and of shielding equipment. The melting plant will be part of the Ukrainian waste handling centre (CPPRO). The technology is based on the long-term experience gained at Siempelkamp's CARLA plant in Krefeld. Within 1995 and 1996 the licensing conditions were defined, the licensing documents prepared and the formal procedure initiated. The complex is scheduled to start operation in 2001, in case the necessary financing is allocated. To this end the proposed site of the facility has undergone the state assessment. The technical documentation for construction is at the stage of development. (author)

  1. Development of management system for plant repairing work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fast breeder reactor, ''Monju'', in order to conduct nuclear plant repairing works securely and effectively, development of a computer system to assist management business on plant repairing work was begun on 1993. The system has been applied to about 5,000 times of operational management through past four times of plant inspection and to daily inspections and maintenance, and is daily used at working places of ''Monju'' such as issue/management of about 110,000 times of operational prohibition tag in isolated management. And, by automation of issue/management on working sheets and operational prohibition tag and others conducted hitherto by hand, the management business has been largely rationalized. (G.K.)

  2. INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF AÇAÍ PLANTS UNDER SHADE GRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEANDRO CANDIDO DAPONT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the effect of different levels of shading on açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. plants development, an experiment was conducted at the nursery of Floresta, Rio Branco, AC. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications of 25 plants, set as full sunlight and 18%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 80% shading. The evaluation occurred 125 days after transplantation and the variables were stem diameter, root length, length of the aerial part, total length, dry matter of root, dry matter of aerial part, and total dry matter. With exception of root length, there was significant difference between treatments for all variables. The production of açai plants should be performed using 40% shading.

  3. Auxin metabolism rates and implications for plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Kramer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of auxin metabolism rarely express their results as a metabolic rate, although the data obtained would often permit such a calculation to be made. We analyze data from 31 previously published papers to quantify the rates of auxin biosynthesis, conjugation, conjugate hydrolysis, and catabolism in seed plants. Most metabolic pathways have rates in the range 10 nM/h to 1 μM/h, with the exception of auxin conjugation, which has rates as high as ~100 μM/h. The highest rates of auxin conjugation suggests that auxin metabolic sinks may be very small, perhaps as small as a single cell. By contrast, the relatively low rate of auxin biosynthesis requires plants to conserve and recycle auxin during long-distance transport. The consequences for plant development are discussed.

  4. Internal aeration development and the zonation of plants in wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith

    Permanent and indefinite survival of plants in flooded soils depends primarily on adaptations that increase the supply of oxygen to tissues in anoxic soil and water, usually associated with features such as (i) increased tissue porosity, (ii) changes in tissue permeability to gases, and (iii...... support many species which have root aeration adaptations but are otherwise unspecialised for aquatic life. Permanent standing water is a much greater challenge for plants, and survival here is restricted to species with special adaptations to their oxygen transport physiology such as the development...... differing in flooding tolerance. Maintaining species diversity in managed wetlands therefore involves hydrological conditions suitable for a variety of plants that differ in their flooding tolerance. The shallowest areas of wetlands, in which soils are waterlogged but there is little standing water, can...

  5. BWR plant analyzer development at BNL [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering plant analyzer has been developed at BNL for realistically and accurately simulating transients and severe abnormal events in BWR power plants. Simulations are being carried out routinely with high fidelity, high simulation speed, at low cost and with unsurpassed user convenience. The BNL Plant Analyzer is the only operating facility which (a) simulates more than two orders-of-magnitude faster than the CDC-7600 mainframe computer, (b) is accessible and fully operational in on-line interactive mode, remotely from anywhere in the US, from Europe or the Far East (Korea), via widely available IBM-PC compatible personal computers, standard modems and telephone lines, (c) simulates both slow and rapid transients seven times faster than real-time in direct access, and four times faster in remote access modes, (d) achieves high simulation speed without compromising fidelity, and (e) is available to remote access users at the low cost of $160 per hour

  6. Flexibility in the context of intelligent plant's development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Pereira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and competition among companies bring changes in the product development, reducing increasingly its life's cycle. Corporations are opting to world-wide products platforms, with global strategies. Besides the wider vision about corporative strategies, dynamic markets and strong competition are impacting in the medium and short term companies' demands. All these characteristics create turbulences in the organizations, but they can also convey opportunities. In order to take strategic advantage in this process, companies ought to innovate, changing the manner of planning and operating its plants. One possibility to achieve these goals is using flexibility in the manufacture. In this paper, flexibility aspects will be addressed in context of band, reply and dimension, and, how companies can apply this benefit to get better design in their plants and manufacture process, and eliminate waste. Key-words: Flexibility, Toyota Production System, Lean Manufacturing, Intelligent Plants, Wastes’ elimination.

  7. The plant vascular system: evolution, development and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William J; Groover, Andrew; Lichtenberger, Raffael; Furuta, Kaori; Yadav, Shri-Ram; Helariutta, Ykä; He, Xin-Qiang; Fukuda, Hiroo; Kang, Julie; Brady, Siobhan M; Patrick, John W; Sperry, John; Yoshida, Akiko; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Grusak, Michael A; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    The emergence of the tracheophyte-based vascular system of land plants had major impacts on the evolution of terrestrial biology, in general, through its role in facilitating the development of plants with increased stature, photosynthetic output, and ability to colonize a greatly expanded range of environmental habitats. Recently, considerable progress has been made in terms of our understanding of the developmental and physiological programs involved in the formation and function of the plant vascular system. In this review, we first examine the evolutionary events that gave rise to the tracheophytes, followed by analysis of the genetic and hormonal networks that cooperate to orchestrate vascular development in the gymnosperms and angiosperms. The two essential functions performed by the vascular system, namely the delivery of resources (water, essential mineral nutrients, sugars and amino acids) to the various plant organs and provision of mechanical support are next discussed. Here, we focus on critical questions relating to structural and physiological properties controlling the delivery of material through the xylem and phloem. Recent discoveries into the role of the vascular system as an effective long-distance communication system are next assessed in terms of the coordination of developmental, physiological and defense-related processes, at the whole-plant level. A concerted effort has been made to integrate all these new findings into a comprehensive picture of the state-of-the-art in the area of plant vascular biology. Finally, areas important for future research are highlighted in terms of their likely contribution both to basic knowledge and applications to primary industry. PMID:23462277

  8. The Plant Vascular System: Evolution, Development and Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William J.Lucas; Andrew Groover; Raffael Lichtenberger; Kaori Furuta; Shri-Ram Yadav; Yk(a) Helariutta; Xin-Qiang He

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of the tracheophyte-based vascular system of land plants had major impacts on the evolution of terrestrial biology,in general,through its role in facilitating the development of plants with increased stature,photosynthetic output,and ability to colonize a greatly expanded range of environmental habitats.Recently,considerable progress has been made in terms of our understanding of the developmental and physiological programs involved in the formation and function of the plant vascular system.In this review,we first examine the evolutionary events that gave rise to the tracheophytes,followed by analysis of the genetic and hormonal networks that cooperate to orchestrate vascular development in the gymnosperms and angiosperms.The two essential functions performed by the vascular system,namely the delivery of resources (water,essential mineral nutrients,sugars and amino acids) to the various plant organs and provision of mechanical support are next discussed.Here,we focus on critical questions relating to structural and physiological properties controlling the delivery of material through the xylem and phloem.Recent discoveries into the role of the vascular system as an effective long-distance communication system are next assessed in terms of the coordination of developmental,physiological and defense-related processes,at the whole-plant level.A concerted effort has been made to integrate all these new findings into a comprehensive picture of the state-of-the-art in the area of plant vascular biology.Finally,areas important for future research are highlighted in terms of their likely contribution both to basic knowledge and applications to primary industry.

  9. Production of trichodiene by Trichoderma harzianum alters the perception of this biocontrol strain by plants and antagonized fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, Mónica G; McCormick, Susan P; Cardoza, Rosa E; Alexander, Nancy J; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Trichothecenes are phytotoxic sesquiterpenic mycotoxins that can act as virulence factors in plant diseases. Harzianum A (HA) is a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum. The first step in HA biosynthesis is the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to trichodiene (TD), a volatile organic compound (VOC), catalysed by a sesquiterpene synthase encoded by the tri5 gene. Expression of tri5 in the biocontrol strain Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 resulted in production of TD in parallel with a reduction of ergosterol biosynthesis and an unexpected increase in the level of squalene. Transformants expressing tri5 displayed low chitinase activity and induced expression of Botrytis cinerea BOT genes, although their total antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi was not reduced. VOCs released by the tri5-transformant induced expression of tomato defence genes related to salicylic acid (SA), and TD itself strongly induced the expression of SA-responsive genes and reduced the development of lateral roots. Together, these results suggest that TD acts as a signalling VOC in the interactions of Trichoderma with plants and other microorganisms by modulating the perception of this fungus to a given environment. Moreover, the TD ability to induce systemic defences indicates that complex trichothecene structures may not be necessary for inducing such responses. PMID:24813508

  10. Research and development of advanced robots for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social and economic demands have been pressing for automation of inspection tasks, maintenance and repair jobs of nuclear power plants, which are carried out by human workers under circumstances with high radiation level. Since the plants are not always designed for introduction of automatic machinery, sophisticated robots shall play a crucial role to free workers from hostile environments. We have been studying intelligent robot systems and regarded nuclear industries as one of the important application fields where we can validate the feasibility of the methods and systems we have developed. In this paper we firstly discuss on the tasks required in nuclear power plants. Secondly we introduce current status of R and D on special purpose robots, versatile robots and intelligent robots for automatizing the tasks. Then we focus our discussions on three major functions in realizing robotized assembly tasks under such unstructured environments as in nuclear power plants; planning, vision and manipulation. Finally we depict an image of a prototype robot system for nuclear power plants based on the advanced functions. (author) 64 refs

  11. Prototype development of filter monitor for 131I processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 (131I) is used extensively in nuclear medicine because of its short half-life and useful beta emission. Isotope Production and Applications Division (IP and AD) of BARC produces 131I in its processing plant. The charcoal filters that are capable of extracting high levels of radioactive iodine and particulates in the suction flow are installed in the plant. The radioactive iodine is fully removed and deposited onto activated charcoal impregnated with potassium iodide. These charcoal filters get saturated over a period of use and need to be replaced with fresh ones. A 5-channel Filter monitor for online measurement of radiation level of trapped 131I on the charcoal filter is being developed by IP and AD, BARC. The unavailability of this type of instrument motivated to undertake this development. Current paper deals with a prototype filter monitor developed with single detector. Some results prove the functionality of the system. (author)

  12. Diverse roles of ERECTA family genes in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Elena D

    2013-12-01

    Multiple receptor-like kinases (RLKs) enable intercellular communication that coordinates growth and development of plant tissues. ERECTA family receptors (ERfs) are an ancient family of leucine-rich repeat RLKs that in Arabidopsis consists of three genes: ERECTA, ERL1, and ERL2. ERfs sense secreted cysteine-rich peptides from the EPF/EPFL family and transmit the signal through a MAP kinase cascade. This review discusses the functions of ERfs in stomata development, in regulation of longitudinal growth of aboveground organs, during reproductive development, and in the shoot apical meristem. In addition the role of ERECTA in plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors is examined. Elena D. Shpak (Corresponding author). PMID:24016315

  13. Development of quality management systems in Russian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consortium of English, Belgian and Spanish companies, assisted by the Russian Institute VNIIAES, has been developing Quality Management Systems for use in Russian Nuclear Power Plants. What started as a Tacis funded Project to develop Quality Assurance documents has broadened and touched on many of the ''soft'' areas of management with the recognition that Quality, Quality Assurance, Performance Monitoring, Safety and Safety Culture are interrelated and inseparable. A set of ''Generic'' or ''Model'' Procedures is being developed by the Project. These Model Procedures will then be customised by the individual Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) to allow for specific organisational or technical differences. The Project team are also providing training material and support for the NPPs during the implementation phase. (author)

  14. Development of wall surface decontamination robot in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of a robot system for decontamination processing on radioactivity place such as a reactor well in nuclear power plants. The surface on the well or the cavity is stained with radioactivity. The decontamination process is very important and necessary for the maintenance. In past, the process was carried out by the factory workers. In this study, the decontamination robot system has been developed, which is equipped with a washing mechanism and vacuum unit, and it is able to move on the wall. The developed robot systems are applied to actual nuclear power plants. The paper describes the design and the mechanism of the robot system, and shows the efficiency of decontamination on the radioactivity wall. (author)

  15. Development of nuclear power plant safety research in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress in the development of any industry including nuclear power depends substantially on its safety for men and their environment. The most serious potential danger of nuclear power development is the radioactive contamination of biosphere. The safety of nuclear power in the USSR means the quality of nuclear power plants as the results of inherent design features, special engineering means and organizational and technical measures. To solve the problem of the safety, it is generally necessary to establish the goal and the corresponding criteria of safety, to develop the engineering safety means for ensuring the implementation of the adopted safety criteria, and to develop the administrative and organizational requirements and measures. To develop the measures for controlling the safety, it is necessary to create effective accident prevention means. On the basis of these principles, the hydrodynamic and heat exchange studies on reactor facilities in accidents, the research on the behavior of fuel elements and assemblies in accidents, the research on the release of fission products during serious accidents, the study on the presence of hydrogen in nuclear power plants, and the reliability analysis of the systems and components in nuclear power plants, the probabilistic safety analysis and risk assessment have been carried out. (Kako, I.)

  16. MDMA (ecstasy) delays pubertal development and alters sperm quality after developmental exposure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenys, M; Gomez-Catalan, J; Camps, L; Teixido, E; de Lapuente, J; Gonzalez-Linares, J; Serret, J; Borras, M; Rodamilans, M; Llobet, J M

    2010-08-16

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA or "ecstasy" is consumed mainly by young population at childbearing age. Therefore, there may be a risk of exposure of some pregnant women. The effects of the developmental exposure to MDMA on the sexual development and long-term sexual behaviour/fertility were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats. MDMA was administered subcutaneously at 0 (control), 0.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg to female rats once a day, three consecutive days a week during 10 weeks, including gestation and lactation. The male offspring was evaluated for sexual maturation and mated with untreated sexually receptive females to evaluate the mating and pregnancy rates. Hormonal, haematological, biochemical, histological, genotoxicological and testicular and sperm parameters were also evaluated. A significant higher incidence of DNA damage in sperm and interstitial oedema in testes was found. There was also a significant and dose-related decrease in sperm count and a significant decrease in sperm motility at all doses. A significant delay in preputial separation onset in all treated groups was observed. This study reports by the first time an alteration of spermatogenesis after in utero and lactation MDMA exposure in the rat. PMID:20546852

  17. Development of the space power plants in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the art and prospects for development of the space power plants in the USA are considered. Design specifications of a 100 kW basic plant are presented as well as the data on expenditures and dead-line for construction of the power plants developed according to the SP-100 program. For construction of hidh power plants (> 10 MWt) dust-fuelled FBR and RBR reactors are shown to be the most promising. Borh reactors concepts, based on direct gas cooling of duel particles, are characterized by small particle sizer (of an order of 500 μm), high power density of the reactor core, insignificant temperature difference between fuel particles and coolant (about 10 K), high temperature of the coolant at the reactor core outlet (1500-3000 K). Both reactors are compact-maximum lenth is 1-1.2 m, their mass is 2-3 t. As to the neutron characterisitcs, the FBR reactor is analogous to RBR type, but has a fixed fuel bed

  18. Development of the newly advanced alarm system for APWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been developing AMCB (Advanced Main Control Board) for APWR consisting of a large overview display and on operator console. We have adopted the alarm prioritizing functions, which are already in use in the existing Japanese PWR plants, for easier identification of the high priority alarms. Moreover, we have developed an alarm system with a large overview display, which presents alarms on the plant process flow diagram. This enhances the location aids and pattern recognition in the alarm identification process. This time, we made further improvement and studies for better and various functions combining a large overview display with a CRT display. We determined the alarm system specification as follows, taking account of flexible alarm recognition processes. (1) The high priority alarms can be identified upon the LOD (large overview display). On the display, the alarms are described on the plant flow diagram, and the alarm status is shown on the fixed position of process or equipment symbols. (2) Other alarms are identified on large overview display and on CRTs using a hierarchical process. (3) The alarm messages are divided into 4 different groups according to the plant systems, thus enabling to undertake the countermeasure operations, using only the CRT. Moreover, we integrated a computerized ARPs (Alarm Response Procedures) into the alarm system. (author). 4 figs, 5 tabs

  19. Is There a Temperate Bias in Our Understanding of How Climate Change Will Alter Plant-Herbivore Interactions? A Meta-analysis of Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, Fabiane M; Bruna, Emilio M

    2016-09-01

    Climate change can drive major shifts in community composition and interactions between resident species. However, the magnitude of these changes depends on the type of interactions and the biome in which they take place. We review the existing conceptual framework for how climate change will influence tropical plant-herbivore interactions and formalize a similar framework for the temperate zone. We then conduct the first biome-specific tests of how plant-herbivore interactions change in response to climate-driven changes in temperature, precipitation, ambient CO2, and ozone. We used quantitative meta-analysis to compare predicted and observed changes in experimental studies. Empirical studies were heavily biased toward temperate systems, so testing predicted changes in tropical plant-herbivore interactions was virtually impossible. Furthermore, most studies investigated the effects of CO2 with limited plant and herbivore species. Irrespective of location, most studies manipulated only one climate change factor despite the fact that different factors can act in synergy to alter responses of plants and herbivores. Finally, studies of belowground plant-herbivore interactions were also rare; those conducted suggest that climate change could have major effects on belowground subsystems. Our results suggest that there is a disconnection between the growing literature proposing how climate change will influence plant-herbivore interactions and the studies testing these predictions. General conclusions will also be hampered without better integration of above- and belowground systems, assessing the effects of multiple climate change factors simultaneously, and using greater diversity of species in experiments. PMID:27513912

  20. Final Report for Regulation of Embryonic Development in Higher Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, John J. [University of California, Davis

    2013-10-22

    The overall goal of the project was to define the cellular processes that underlie embryo development in plants at a mechanistic level. Our studies focused on a critical transcriptional regulator, Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1), that is necessary and sufficient to induce processes required for embryo development. Because LEC1 regulates lipid accumulation during the maturation phase of embryo development, information about LEC1 may be useful in designing approaches to enhance biofuel production in plants. During the tenure of this project, we determined the molecular mechanisms by which LEC1 acts as a transcription factor in embryos. We also identified genes directly regulated by LEC1 and showed that many of these genes are involved in maturation processes. This information has been useful in dissecting the gene regulatory networks controlling embryo development. Finally, LEC1 is a novel isoform of a transcription factor that is conserved among eukaryotes, and LEC1 is active primarily in seeds. Therefore, we determined that the LEC1-type transcription factors first appeared in lycophytes during land plant evolution. Together, this study provides basic information that has implications for biofuel production.

  1. Development of nuclear power plant technology in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to its disintegration the Soviet Union was one of the leading nuclear powers in the world. This also applied to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The broad spectrum of developments in nuclear power plant technology is astounding. Three reactor lines were developed and built independently: the VVER pressurized water reactor line up to VVER-1000 (water-water power reactor); the graphite-moderated RBMK boiling water reactor line up to RBMK-1500 (high-power reactor with channels), and the sodium cooled fast breeder reactors up to BN-600. The associated scientific installations and the nuclear machine building industry were mainly concentrated in Russia and remained there as a core capability in nuclear power plant technology also after the end of the Soviet Union. The current lines of small, medium-sized and large reactors under development, designed for construction in Russia proper and for exports, are presented in the article. Alongside technical developments, Russia rearranged the economic capacities of her nuclear industry so as to be able to meet her objectives in building nuclear power plants in the country and abroad. The main parts of the nuclear industry are combined in the 'AtomEnergoProm' holding. (orig.)

  2. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry L. Hatfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler periods of the day or are indeterminate so flowering occurs over a longer period of the growing season. In controlled environment studies, warm temperatures increased the rate of phenological development; however, there was no effect on leaf area or vegetative biomass compared to normal temperatures. The major impact of warmer temperatures was during the reproductive stage of development and in all cases grain yield in maize was significantly reduced by as much as 80−90% from a normal temperature regime. Temperature effects are increased by water deficits and excess soil water demonstrating that understanding the interaction of temperature and water will be needed to develop more effective adaptation strategies to offset the impacts of greater temperature extreme events associated with a changing climate.

  3. PEX11β induces peroxisomal gene expression and alters peroxisome number during early Xenopus laevis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanovski Sashko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisomes are organelles whose roles in fatty acid metabolism and reactive oxygen species elimination have contributed much attention in understanding their origin and biogenesis. Many studies have shown that de novo peroxisome biogenesis is an important regulatory process, while yeast studies suggest that total peroxisome numbers are in part regulated by proteins such as Pex11, which can facilitate the division of existing peroxisomes. Although de novo biogenesis and divisions are likely important mechanisms, the regulation of peroxisome numbers during embryonic development is poorly understood. Peroxisome number and function are particularly crucial in oviparous animals such as frogs where large embryonic yolk and fatty acid stores must be quickly metabolized, and resulting reactive oxygen species eliminated. Here we elucidate the role of Pex11β in regulating peroxisomal gene expression and number in Xenopus laevis embryogenesis. Results Microinjecting haemagglutinin (HA tagged Pex11β in early embryos resulted in increased RNA levels for peroxisome related genes PMP70 and catalase at developmental stages 10 and 20, versus uninjected embryos. Catalase and PMP70 proteins were found in punctate structures at stage 20 in control embryos, whereas the injection of ectopic HA-Pex11β induced their earlier localization in punctate structures at stage 10. Furthermore, the peroxisomal marker GFP-SKL, which was found localized as peroxisome-like structures at stage 20, was similarly found at stage 10 when co-microinjected with HA-Pex11β. Conclusions Overexpressed Pex11β altered peroxisomal gene levels and induced the early formation of peroxisomes-like structures during development, both of which demonstrate that Pex11β may be a key regulator of peroxisome number in early Xenopus embryos.

  4. Effect of carbonate chemistry alteration on the early embryonic development of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Gazeau

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, due to anthropogenic CO₂ absorption by the ocean, may have profound impacts on marine biota. Calcareous organisms are expected to be particularly sensitive due to the decreasing availability of carbonate ions driven by decreasing pH levels. Recently, some studies focused on the early life stages of mollusks that are supposedly more sensitive to environmental disturbances than adult stages. Although these studies have shown decreased growth rates and increased proportions of abnormal development under low pH conditions, they did not allow attribution to pH induced changes in physiology or changes due to a decrease in aragonite saturation state. This study aims to assess the impact of several carbonate-system perturbations on the growth of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas larvae during the first 3 days of development (until shelled D-veliger larvae. Seawater with five different chemistries was obtained by separately manipulating pH, total alkalinity and aragonite saturation state (calcium addition. Results showed that the developmental success and growth rates were not directly affected by changes in pH or aragonite saturation state but were highly correlated with the availability of carbonate ions. In contrast to previous studies, both developmental success into viable D-shaped larvae and growth rates were not significantly altered as long as carbonate ion concentrations were above aragonite saturation levels, but they strongly decreased below saturation levels. These results suggest that the mechanisms used by these organisms to regulate calcification rates are not efficient enough to compensate for the low availability of carbonate ions under corrosive conditions.

  5. Plant VAP27 proteins: domain characterization, intracellular localization and role in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengwei; Richardson, Christine; Hawkins, Timothy J; Sparkes, Imogen; Hawes, Chris; Hussey, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is connected to the plasma membrane (PM) through the plant-specific NETWORKED protein, NET3C, and phylogenetically conserved vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated proteins (VAPs). Ten VAP homologues (VAP27-1 to 27-10) can be identified in the Arabidopsis genome and can be divided into three clades. Representative members from each clade were tagged with fluorescent protein and expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Proteins from clades I and III localized to the ER as well as to ER/PM contact sites (EPCSs), whereas proteins from clade II were found only at the PM. Some of the VAP27-labelled EPCSs localized to plasmodesmata, and we show that the mobility of VAP27 at EPCSs is influenced by the cell wall. EPCSs closely associate with the cytoskeleton, but their structure is unaffected when the cytoskeleton is removed. VAP27-labelled EPCSs are found in most cell types in Arabidopsis, with the exception of cells in early trichome development. Arabidopsis plants expressing VAP27-GFP fusions exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes, including defects in root hair morphogenesis. A similar effect is also observed in plants expressing VAP27 RNAi. Taken together, these data indicate that VAP27 proteins used at EPCSs are essential for normal ER-cytoskeleton interaction and for plant development. PMID:27159525

  6. Development path of low aspect ratio tokamak power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in tokamak physics indicate that a spherical tokamak may offer a magnetic fusion development path that can be started with a small size pilot plant and progress smoothly to larger power plants. Full calculations of stability to kink and ballooning modes show the possibility of greater than 50% β-toroidal with the normalized β [βN=βT/(I/ab)] as high as 10 and fully aligned 100% bootstrap current. Such β-values coupled with 2-3 T toroidal fields imply a pilot plant about the size of the present DIII-D tokamak could produce ∝800 MW thermal, 160 MW net electric, and would have a ratio of gross electric power over recirculating power (QPLANT) of 1.9. The high β values in the ST mean that E x B shear stabilization of turbulence should be ten times more effective in the ST than in present tokamaks, implying that the required high quality of confinement needed to support such high beta values will be obtained. The anticipated β values are so high that the allowable neutron flux at the blanket sets the device size, not the physics constraints. The ST has a favorable size scaling so that at 2-3 times the pilot plant size the QPLANT rises to 4-5, an economic range and 4 GW thermal power plants result. Current drive power requirements for 10% of the plasma current are consistent with the plant efficiencies quoted. The unshielded copper centerpost should have an adequate lifetime against nuclear transmutation induced resistance change and the low voltage, high current power supplies needed for the 12 turn TF coil appear reasonable. (orig.)

  7. Angra 1 nuclear power plant full scope simulator development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvatici, Edmundo; Castanheira, Luiz Carlos C.; Silva Junior, Nilo Garcia da, E-mail: edsel@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: lccast@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: nilogar@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (SCO/ELETRONUCLEAR), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Coordenacao da Operacao; Zazo, Francisco Javier Lopez; Ruiz, Jose Antonio, E-mail: jlopez@tecnatom.es, E-mail: jaruiz@tecnatom.es [Tecnatom S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    Specific Full Scope Simulators are an essential tool for training NPP control room operators, in the formation phase as well as for maintaining their qualifications. In the last years availability of a Plant specific simulator has also become a Regulator requirement for Nuclear Power Plant operation. By providing real-time practical training for the operators, the use of a simulator allows improving the operator's performance, reducing the number of unplanned shutdowns and more effective response to abnormal and emergency operating conditions. It can also be used, among other uses, to validate procedures, test proposed plant modifications, perform engineering studies and to provide operation training for the technical support staff of the plant. The NPP site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises the two units in operation, Unit 1, 640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR and Unit 2, 1350 MWe, KWU/Areva PWR and one unit in construction, Unit 3, 1405 MWe, KWU/Areva PWR, of the same design of Angra 2. Angra 2 has had its full scope simulator from the beginning, however this was not the case of Angra 1, that had to train its operators abroad, due to lack of a specific simulator. Eletronuclear participated in all the phases of the project, from data supply to commissioning and validation. The Angra 1 full scope simulator encompasses more than 80 systems of the plant including the Primary system, reactor core and associated auxiliary systems, the secondary system and turbo generator as well as all the Plant operational and safety I and C. The Angra 1 Main Control Room panels were reproduced in the simulator control room as well as the remote shutdown panels that are outside the control room. This paper describes the project for development of the Angra 1 NPP Full Scope Simulator, supplied by Tecnatom S.A., in the period of Feb.2012 to Feb.2015. (author)

  8. Angra 1 nuclear power plant full scope simulator development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific Full Scope Simulators are an essential tool for training NPP control room operators, in the formation phase as well as for maintaining their qualifications. In the last years availability of a Plant specific simulator has also become a Regulator requirement for Nuclear Power Plant operation. By providing real-time practical training for the operators, the use of a simulator allows improving the operator's performance, reducing the number of unplanned shutdowns and more effective response to abnormal and emergency operating conditions. It can also be used, among other uses, to validate procedures, test proposed plant modifications, perform engineering studies and to provide operation training for the technical support staff of the plant. The NPP site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises the two units in operation, Unit 1, 640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR and Unit 2, 1350 MWe, KWU/Areva PWR and one unit in construction, Unit 3, 1405 MWe, KWU/Areva PWR, of the same design of Angra 2. Angra 2 has had its full scope simulator from the beginning, however this was not the case of Angra 1, that had to train its operators abroad, due to lack of a specific simulator. Eletronuclear participated in all the phases of the project, from data supply to commissioning and validation. The Angra 1 full scope simulator encompasses more than 80 systems of the plant including the Primary system, reactor core and associated auxiliary systems, the secondary system and turbo generator as well as all the Plant operational and safety I and C. The Angra 1 Main Control Room panels were reproduced in the simulator control room as well as the remote shutdown panels that are outside the control room. This paper describes the project for development of the Angra 1 NPP Full Scope Simulator, supplied by Tecnatom S.A., in the period of Feb.2012 to Feb.2015. (author)

  9. Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Syrkin Wurtele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less

  10. Development of Inventory Optimization System for Operation Nuclear Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. This is why inventory management systems such as manufacturing resources planning(MRP) and enterprise resource planning(ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations. Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. We developed the inventory optimization system for Operation Nuclear Plants to resolve these problems. In this paper, we report a data flow process, data load and inventory calculation process. The main contribution of this paper is development of inventory optimization system which can be used in domestic power plants

  11. Modeling Regulatory Networks to Understand Plant Development: Small Is Beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Alistair M.; Farcot, Etienne; Owen, Markus R.; Vernoux, Teva

    2012-01-01

    We now have unprecedented capability to generate large data sets on the myriad genes and molecular players that regulate plant development. Networks of interactions between systems components can be derived from that data in various ways and can be used to develop mathematical models of various degrees of sophistication. Here, we discuss why, in many cases, it is productive to focus on small networks. We provide a brief and accessible introduction to relevant mathematical and computational approaches to model regulatory networks and discuss examples of small network models that have helped generate new insights into plant biology (where small is beautiful), such as in circadian rhythms, hormone signaling, and tissue patterning. We conclude by outlining some of the key technical and modeling challenges for the future. PMID:23110896

  12. Auxin Transport and Ribosome Biogenesis Mutant/Reporter Lines to Study Plant Cell Growth and Proliferation under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Miguel A.; Manzano, Ana I.; van Loon, Jack JWA.; Saez-Vasquez, Julio; Carnero-Diaz, Eugenie; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F. J.

    2013-02-01

    We tested different Arabidopsis thaliana strains to check their availability for space use in the International Space Station (ISS). We used mutants and reporter gene strains affecting factors of cell proliferation and cell growth, to check variations induced by an altered gravity vector. Seedlings were grown either in a Random Positioning Machine (RPM), under simulated microgravity (μg), or in a Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC), under hypergravity (2g). A combination of the two devices (μgRPM+LDC) was also used. Under all gravity alterations, seedling roots were longer than in control 1g conditions, while the levels of the nucleolar protein nucleolin were depleted. Alterations in the pattern of expression of PIN2, an auxin transporter, and of cyclin B1, a cell cycle regulator, were shown. All these alterations are compatible with previous space data, so the use of these strains will be useful in the next experiments in ISS, under real microgravity.

  13. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs. PMID:26459376

  14. Plant hormone signaling during development: insights from computational models

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Marina; Farcot, Etienne; Vernoux, Teva

    2013-01-01

    International audience Recent years have seen an impressive increase in our knowledge of the topology of plant hormone signaling networks. The complexity of these topologies has motivated the development of models for several hormones to aid understanding of how signaling networks process hormonal inputs. Such work has generated essential insights into the mechanisms of hormone perception and of regulation of cellular responses such as transcription in response to hormones. In addition, mo...

  15. Development of concentrated solar power and conventional power plant hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Suojanen, Suvi

    2016-01-01

    CSP hybrids are one of the possible technical solutions in order to increase the share of renewable energy and decrease greenhouse gas emission levels as well as fuel consump-tion. The main objectives of the thesis are to research state-of-the-art technologies in concentrated solar power (CSP) and conventional power plants, to comprehensively study the possible integration options and to develop one CSP hybrid configuration by using Advanced Process Simulator (Apros), which is a dynamic model...

  16. Plant Development, Auxin, and the Subsystem Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique ...

  17. Relevance of the Axis Spermidine/eIF5A for Plant Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda-Palazón, Borja; Almendáriz, Carla; Martí, Esmeralda; Carbonell, Juan; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    One key role of the essential polyamine spermidine in eukaryotes is to provide the 4-aminobutyl moiety group destined to the post-translational modification of a lysine in the highly conserved translation factor eIF5A. This modification is catalyzed by two sequential enzymatic steps leading to the activation of eIF5A by the conversion of one conserved lysine to the unusual amino acid hypusine. The active translation factor facilitates the sequence-specific translation of polyproline sequences that otherwise cause ribosome stalling. In spite of the well-characterized involvement of active eIF5A in the translation of proline repeat-rich proteins, its biological role has been recently elucidated only in mammals, and it is poorly described at the functional level in plants. Here we describe the alterations in plant growth and development caused by RNAi-mediated conditional genetic inactivation of the hypusination pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana by knocking-down the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase. We have uncovered that spermidine-mediated activation of eIF5A by hypusination is involved in several aspects of plant biology such as the control of flowering time, the aerial and root architecture, and root hair growth. In addition this pathway is required for adaptation to challenging growth conditions such as high salt and high glucose medium and to elevated concentrations of the plant hormone ABA. We have also performed a bioinformatic analysis of polyproline-rich containing proteins as putative eIF5A targets to uncover their organization in clusters of protein networks to find molecular culprits for the disclosed phenotypes. This study represents a first attempt to provide a holistic view of the biological relevance of the spermidine-dependent hypusination pathway for plant growth and development. PMID:26973686

  18. Role of a Transcriptional Regulator in Programmed Cell Death and Plant Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie M. Stone

    2008-09-13

    The long-term goal of this research is to understand the role(s) and molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in the controlling plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. We developed a genetic selection scheme to identify A. thaliana FB1-resistant (fbr) mutants as a way to find genes involved in PCD (Stone et al., 2000; Stone et al., 2005; Khan and Stone, 2008). The disrupted gene in fbr6 (AtSPL14) responsible for the FB1-insensitivity and plant architecture phenotypes encodes a plant-specific SBP DNA-binding domain transcriptional regulator (Stone et al., 2005; Liang et al., 2008). This research plan is designed to fill gaps in the knowledge about the role of SPL14 in plant growth and development. The work is being guided by three objectives aimed at determining the pathways in which SPL14 functions to modulate PCD and/or plant development: (1) determine how SPL14 functions in plant development, (2) identify target genes that are directly regulated by SPL14, and (3) identify SPL14 modifications and interacting proteins. We made significant progress during the funding period. Briefly, some major accomplishments are highlighted below: (1) To identify potential AtSPL14 target genes, we identified a consensus DNA binding site for the AtSPL14 SBP DNA-binding domain using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential selection (SELEX) and site-directed mutagenesis (Liang et al., 2008). This consensus binding site was used to analyze Affymetrix microarray gene expression data obtained from wild-type and fbr6 mutant plants to find possible AtSPL14-regulated genes. These candidate AtSPL14-regulated genes are providing new information on the molecular mechanisms linking plant PCD and plant development through modulation of the 26S proteasome. (2) Transgenic plants expressing epitope-tagged versions of AtSPL14 are being used to confirm the AtSPL14 targets (by ChIP-PCR) and further dissect the molecular interactions (Nazarenus, Liang

  19. Development trends for diagnostic systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring systems used in nuclear power plants have made remarkable progress over the past four or five years. Development has followed the trends and changes in philosophy for the purpose of monitoring systems in nuclear power plants: They are no longer expected to fulfill only safety tasks, the plant personnel require information on which to base condition-oriented maintenance. A new generation of monitoring and diagnostic systems has been developed by Siemens recently. This new generation, called Series '95, is PC-based. An overview is given for the KUeS '95 loose parts diagnostic system, the SUeS '95 vibration monitoring system, the FLUeS leak detection system and the SIPLUG valve diagnostics system. The objectives behind the development of these new systems are both safety-related and economic. The new systems improve the reliability and quality of monitoring techniques and incorporate better detection and diagnostic capabilities. Progress has also been made in automation of the systems so as to reduce routine work, give higher sensitivity for the monitoring task and reduce the scope of maintenance. (author)

  20. Development Process of Plant-specific Severe Accident Management Guidelines for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A severe accident, which occurred at the TMI in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986, is an accident that exceeds design basis accidents and leads to significant core damage. The severe accident is the low possibility of occurrence but the high severity. To mitigate the consequences of the severe accidents, Korean Nuclear Safety Committee declared the Severe Accident Policy in 2001, which requested the development of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs) for operating plants. SAMG is a symptom-based guidance that takes a set of actions to alleviate the outcomes of severe accidents and to get into the safe stable plant condition. The purpose of this paper is to presents the strategic development process of the PHWR SAMG. The guidelines consist of 5 categories: an emergency guide for the main control room (MCR) operators, a strategy implementing guide for the technical support center (TSC), six mitigation guides, a monitoring guide, and a termination guide

  1. Development of maintenance knowledge management system for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the knowledge management framework to systematize maintenance knowledge in power plant. The features of the framework are (1) to construct a decision tree of trouble cases incrementally based on Ripple Down Rules (RDR) method and (2) to decide the timing of installing new knowledge based on several metrics obtained by evaluating a structure of a decision tree. We are developing the experimental prototype of maintenance knowledge management system. The system is integrated with plant database (ex. the operation journals and maintenance records). The management of trouble cases is based on the format of XML. For practical purpose, each trouble case is linked with related data (ex. maintenance manuals, equipment configuration, records). Plant workers can easily search for maintenance knowledge and relevant data by specifying observed status. On the other hand, knowledge engineers can monitor occurrence counts of exceptional cases to each node. The metrics calculation gives a cue to locate the effective node for improving the efficiency of retrieval. We are evaluating the functionality and the effectiveness of the system through the application to maintenance work of controller systems. We believe that this framework will be helpful to share common knowledge among plant sites as well as to manage site-specific knowledge. (author)

  2. Plant growth analysis and seed vigor expression: effects of soil waterlogging during rye plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Pedó; Emanuela Garbin Martinazzo; Tiago Zanatta Aumonde; Francisco Amaral Villela

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the growth, assimilate partitioning and seed vigor expression of rye seeds subjected to waterlogging during development. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and three treatments. The treatments involved different waterlogging periods: a) no waterlogging; b) single waterlogging of three days; and c) two soil waterlogging periods of three days. The plants were collected at regular intervals of 14 days after emergence until the end...

  3. A development of digital plant protection system architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digital plant protection system (DPPS) which have a large number of advantages compared to current analog protection system has been developed in various field. The major disadvantages of digital system are, however, vulnerable to faults of processor and software. To overcome the disadvantages, the concept of segment and partition in a channel has been developed. Each segment in a channel is divided from sensor to reactor trip and engineered safety features, which is based on the functional diversity of input signals against the various plant transient phenomena. Each partition allocates the function module to an independent processing module in order to process and isolate the faults of each module of a segment. A communication system based on the deterministic protocol with the predictable and hard real-time characteristics has been developed in order to link the various modules within a segment. The self-diagnostics including online test and periodic test procedures are developed in order to increase the safety, reliability and availability of DPPS. The developed DPPS uses the off-the-shelf DSP (digital signal processor) and adopts VME bus architecture, which have sufficient operation experience in the industry. The verification and validation and quality assurance of software has been developed and the architecture and protocol of deterministic communication system has been researched

  4. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) alters histiotrophic nutrition pathways and epigenetic processes in the developing conceptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Karilyn E; Dolinoy, Dana C; Jilek, Joseph L; Shay, Brian J; Harris, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Histiotrophic nutrition pathways (HNPs) are processes by which the organogenesis-stage conceptus obtains nutrients, amino acids, vitamins and cofactors required for protein biosynthesis and metabolic activities. Nutrients are captured from the maternal milieu as whole proteins and cargoes via receptor-mediated endocytosis in the visceral yolk sac (VYS), degraded by lysosomal proteolysis and delivered to the developing embryo (EMB). Several nutrients obtained by HNPs are required substrates for one-carbon (C1) metabolism and supply methyl groups required for epigenetic processes, including DNA and histone methylation. Increased availability of methyl donors has been associated with reduced risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). Here, we show that mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) treatment (100 or 250μM) alters HNPs, C1 metabolism and epigenetic programming in the organogenesis-stage conceptus. Specifically, 3-h MEHP treatment of mouse EMBs in whole culture resulted in dose-dependent reduction of HNP activity in the conceptus. To observe nutrient consequences of decreased HNP function, C1 components and substrates and epigenetic outcomes were quantified at 24h. Treatment with 100-μM MEHP resulted in decreased dietary methyl donor concentrations, while treatment with 100- or 250-μM MEHP resulted in dose-dependent elevated C1 products and substrates. In MEHP-treated EMBs with NTDs, H3K4 methylation was significantly increased, while no effects were seen in treated VYS. DNA methylation was reduced in MEHP-treated EMB with and without NTDs. This research suggests that environmental toxicants such as MEHP decrease embryonic nutrition in a time-dependent manner and that epigenetic consequences of HNP disruption may be exacerbated in EMB with NTDs. PMID:26507544

  5. Neurotransmitter alterations in embryonic succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH deficiency suggest a heightened excitatory state during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snead O Carter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SSADH (aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (Aldh5a1; γ-hydroxybutyric (GHB aciduria deficiency is a defect of GABA degradation in which the neuromodulators GABA and GHB accumulate. The human phenotype is that of nonprogressive encephalopathy with prominent bilateral discoloration of the globi pallidi and variable seizures, the latter displayed prominently in Aldh5a1-/- mice with lethal convulsions. Metabolic studies in murine neural tissue have revealed elevated GABA [and its derivatives succinate semialdehyde (SSA, homocarnosine (HC, 4,5-dihydroxyhexanoic acid (DHHA and guanidinobutyrate (GB] and GHB [and its analogue D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG] at birth. Because of early onset seizures and the neurostructural anomalies observed in patients, we examined metabolite features during Aldh5a1-/- embryo development. Methods Embryos were obtained from pregnant dams sacrificed at E (embryo day of life 10–13, 14–15, 16–17, 18–19 and newborn mice. Intact embryos were extracted and metabolites quantified by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (n = 5–15 subjects, Aldh5a1+/+ and Aldh5a1-/- for each gestational age group. Data was evaluated using the t test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analysis. Significance was set at the 95th centile. Results GABA and DHHA were significantly elevated at all gestational ages in Aldh5a1-/- mice, while GB was increased only late in gestation; SSA was not elevated at any time point. GHB and D-2-HG increased in an approximately linear fashion with gestational age. Correlative studies in human amniotic fluid from SSADH-deficient pregnancies (n = 5 also revealed significantly increased GABA. Conclusion Our findings indicate early GABAergic alterations in Aldh5a1-/- mice, possibly exacerbated by other metabolites, which likely induce a heightened excitatory state that may predispose neural networks to epilepsy in these animals.

  6. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  7. Human factors guide for nuclear power plant control room development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial users are enthusiastic about the above-named guide, developed by Essex Corporation and published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which sponsored the work. Guide objectives and expected impacts are discussed. Special features that enhance the Guide's ease of use are pointed out. Emphasis is on guidance related to establishing human factors (HF) as an integral aspect of plant development and operations. The importance of a firm analytical foundation for HF applications is stressed, and remaining chapter contents are briefly summarized

  8. Altered Development of White Matter in Youth at High Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Amelia; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Romero, Soledad; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study white matter (WM) development in youth at high familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD). WM alterations are reported in youth and adults with BD. WM undergoes important maturational changes in adolescence. Age-related changes in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics in healthy…

  9. ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICALLY-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN DEVELOPMENT USING ASSAYS OF NEURON- AND GLIA-LOCALIZED PROTEINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical intervention during prenatal or postnatal ontogeny can result in complex biochemical, morphological and behavioral alterations in brain development (Suzuki, 1980; Miller and O'Callaghan, 1984; Rodier, 1986; Ruppert, 1986). s has been shown at this conference (e.g. by Ham...

  10. ECOLOGICAL BASES OF SIMBIOGENIC DEVELOPMENT OF PLANT AT COMPLEX SOWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of plants in mixed or combined sowings is based on the symbiotic association in the basis of which we have decreased sexual process and its mechanism of genetic exchange among endosymbionts and stimulating of genetic exchange and expansion of the diversity of species among exosymbionts. The exception is the symbiosis of orchids and fungi - activators of orchids mycorrhiza with developed micellar system easily passing on saprophytic option. Coevolution of plant organisms with fungi indicates the specifics symbiogenic conjugate evolution, showing an example of the evolution of a small community with different contact with the external environment. The phenomenon of symbiogenesis has a long history and was manifested in a variety of different types of organisms. Today, some dependence of existence of one species from other organisms is observed at approximately 75% of higher plants and 90% of the animals in varying degrees of symbiogenic dependence from other species and taxa. Originality of symbiogenesis was analyzed by Academician A.A. Takhtadzhyan (1973 during its consideration of origin of eukaryotic cells as process of "assembly" of a complex system. Different approaches to determining the biological essence of symbiosis are known in the history of study of this phenomenon. On the whole phenomenon of symbiosis belongs to the category mutual relations of organisms of different phylogenetic groups

  11. Developments in Plant Negative-Strand RNA Virus Reverse Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew O; Li, Zhenghe

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years ago, breakthroughs for reverse genetics analyses of negative-strand RNA (NSR) viruses were achieved by devising conditions for generation of infectious viruses in susceptible cells. Recombinant strategies have subsequently been engineered for members of all vertebrate NSR virus families, and research arising from these advances has profoundly increased understanding of infection cycles, pathogenesis, and complexities of host interactions of animal NSR viruses. These strategies also permitted development of many applications, including attenuated vaccines and delivery vehicles for therapeutic and biotechnology proteins. However, for a variety of reasons, it was difficult to devise procedures for reverse genetics analyses of plant NSR viruses. In this review, we discuss advances that have circumvented these problems and resulted in construction of a recombinant system for Sonchus yellow net nucleorhabdovirus. We also discuss possible extensions to other plant NSR viruses as well as the applications that may emanate from recombinant analyses of these pathogens. PMID:27359368

  12. Development of advanced RFID application system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late years there comes to be close request for traceability of the information such as production control, construction and maintenance record and work history of nuclear power plants. On the other hand, the Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology that can specify a product and personnel by an electric wave has raised the functionality and versatility as the base technology that can support ubiquitous information society around the mass production industry. In such a background, this article described the developed system, which applied the RFID to nuclear power plants in the areas of production control of the piping manufacture, the construction management and condition monitoring for maintenance works in order to improve their quality and reliability. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Development of an intelligent annunciation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonggwang Nuclear Units 1 and 2 have developed an intelligent annunciation system to replace the existing obsolete system and to enhance operator support. The new annunciation system, which is currently operating at both units, uses the distributed control technology to enhance reliability and to provide versatile function to operations and maintenance personnel. The hardware and software configuration is based on redundancy so that a component failure would not initiate system malfunction. The data base of the new system provides, through a touch screen, an automatic alarm response procedure for selected alarms, which increases availability of information for plant operation. Other KEPCO nuclear units and the fossil plants are considering installing the new system. (author). 6 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Impacts of nuclear power plant developments on community service capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969 a legislative mandate was established to assess ''socioeconomic'' as well as environmental consequences of large-scale development projects. However, the developing literature base in the area of socioeconomics has exhibited a pronounced tendency to stress social and economic pathologies associated with the so-called ''boom town'' syndrome. While boom growth and associated problems do appear to provide relevant conceptualizations of the socioeconomic impacts of energy resource development projects in geographically isolated sectors of the western United States, the argument is presented that such a perspective is generally inappropriate when assessing the consequences of nuclear power plant developments. Survey data on 21 nuclear generating facilities are analyzed in order to provide a comparative perspective on socioeconomic consequences and factors which may influence their relative importance

  15. Jasmonate signaling in plant stress responses and development - active and inactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasternack, Claus; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals mediating plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant development. Following the elucidation of each step in their biosynthesis and the important components of perception and signaling, several activators, repressors and co-repressors have been identified which contribute to fine-tuning the regulation of JA-induced gene expression. Many of the metabolic reactions in which JA participates, such as conjugation with amino acids, glucosylation, hydroxylation, carboxylation, sulfation and methylation, lead to numerous compounds with different biological activities. These metabolites may be highly active, partially active in specific processes or inactive. Hydroxylation, carboxylation and sulfation inactivate JA signaling. The precursor of JA biosynthesis, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), has been identified as a JA-independent signaling compound. An increasing number of OPDA-specific processes is being identified. To conclude, the numerous JA compounds and their different modes of action allow plants to respond specifically and flexibly to alterations in the environment. PMID:26581489

  16. Plant species composition alters the sign and strength of an emergent multi-predator effect by modifying predator foraging behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wilby

    Full Text Available The prediction of pest-control functioning by multi-predator communities is hindered by the non-additive nature of species functioning. Such non-additivity, commonly termed an emergent multi-predator effect, is known to be affected by elements of the ecological context, such as the structure and composition of vegetation, in addition to the traits of the predators themselves. Here we report mesocosm experiments designed to test the influence of plant density and species composition (wheat monoculture or wheat and faba bean polyculture on the emergence of multi-predator effects between Adalia bipunctata and Chrysoperla carnea, in their suppression of populations of the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum. The mesocosm experiments were followed by a series of behavioural observations designed to identify how interactions among predators are modified by plant species composition and whether these effects are consistent with the observed influence of plant species composition on aphid population suppression. Although plant density was shown to have no influence on the multi-predator effect on aphid population growth, plant composition had a marked effect. In wheat monoculture, Adalia and Chrysoperla mixed treatments caused greater suppression of M. dirhodum populations than expected. However this positive emergent effect was reversed to a negative multi-predator effect in wheat and faba bean polyculture. The behavioural observations revealed that although dominant individuals did not respond to the presence of faba bean plants, the behaviour of sub-dominants was affected markedly, consistent with their foraging for extra-floral nectar produced by the faba bean. This interaction between plant composition and predator community composition on the foraging behaviour of sub-dominants is thought to underlie the observed effect of plant composition on the multi-predator effect. Thus, the emergence of multi-predator effects is shown to be strongly influenced by

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    IntroductionThe work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may be in part responsibl

  18. Metabolic profiling reveals altered nitrogen nutrient regimes have diverse effects on the metabolism of hydroponically-grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-01-01

    The role of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in the production of amino acids is one of the most important biochemical processes in plants. For this reason, a detailed broad-range characterization of the metabolic response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves to the alteration of nitrate level was performed. Tomato plants were grown hydroponically in liquid culture under three different nitrate regimes: saturated (8 mM NO3-), replete (4 mM NO3-) and deficient (0.4 mM NO3-). All treatments were performed under varied light intensity, with leaf samples being collected after 7, 14, and 21 d. In addition, the short-term response (after 1, 24, 48, and 94 h) to varying nutrient status was evaluated at the higher light intensity. GC-MS analysis of the levels of amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, sugars, sugar alcohols, and representative compounds of secondary metabolism revealed substantial changes under the various growth regimes applied. The data presented here suggest that nitrate nutrition has wide-ranging effects on plant leaf metabolism with nitrate deficiency resulting in decreases in many amino and organic acids and increases in the level of several carbohydrates and phosphoesters, as well as a handful of secondary metabolites. These results are compared with previously reported transcript profiles of altered nitrogen regimes and discussed within the context of current models of carbon nitrogen interaction. PMID:15596475

  19. Activated Ras alters lens and corneal development through induction of distinct downstream targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneker Lixing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian Ras genes regulate diverse cellular processes including proliferation and differentiation and are frequently mutated in human cancers. Tumor development in response to Ras activation varies between different tissues and the molecular basis for these variations are poorly understood. The murine lens and cornea have a common embryonic origin and arise from adjacent regions of the surface ectoderm. Activation of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling pathway induces the corneal epithelial cells to proliferate and the lens epithelial cells to exit the cell cycle. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the differential responses of these two related tissues have not been defined. We have generated transgenic mice that express a constitutively active version of human H-Ras in their lenses and corneas. Results Ras transgenic lenses and corneal epithelial cells showed increased proliferation with concomitant increases in cyclin D1 and D2 expression. This initial increase in proliferation is sustained in the cornea but not in the lens epithelial cells. Coincidentally, cdk inhibitors p27Kip1 and p57Kip2 were upregulated in the Ras transgenic lenses but not in the corneas. Phospho-Erk1 and Erk2 levels were elevated in the lens but not in the cornea and Spry 1 and Spry 2, negative regulators of Ras-Raf-Erk signaling, were upregulated more in the corneal than in the lens epithelial cells. Both lens and corneal differentiation programs were sensitive to Ras activation. Ras transgenic embryos showed a distinctive alteration in the architecture of the lens pit. Ras activation, though sufficient for upregulation of Prox1, a transcription factor critical for cell cycle exit and initiation of fiber differentiation, is not sufficient for induction of terminal fiber differentiation. Expression of Keratin 12, a marker of corneal epithelial differentiation, was reduced in the Ras transgenic corneas. Conclusions Collectively, these

  20. Relationship between Microsatellite Alterations of RASSF1A Gene and Development of Cervical Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fu-xi; YAN Jie; LIU Run-hua; WANG Xi-ying; CUI Ke

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between microsatellite alterations of RASSF1A gene and the development of cervical carcinoma, and its relationship with HPV16 infection. Methods: Two sites of microsatellite polymorphism of RASSF1A gene were selected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect LOH and MSI in 50 cases of cervical carcinoma and 40 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and to detect the infection state of HPV16. Results: At D3S1478 and D3S4604, the LOH rates of cervical carcinomas were 32.6% (14/43) and 48.9% (23/47), the MSI rates were 14% (6/43) and 19.1% (9/47), respectively. The LOH rates of CINs were 31.4% (11/35) and 39.5% (15/38), the MSI rates were 11.4% (4/35) and 15.8% (6/38), respectively. There were no significant differences between cervical carcinomas and CINs in respect to their positive rates of LOH and MSI at D3S1478 and D3S4604 (P>0.05). There were significant differences in LOH rates at D3S1478 and D3S4604 between the stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ and Ⅲ-Ⅳ cervical carcinomas and between the well/moderately differentiated cervical carcinomas and the poorly differentiated cervical carcinomas (P<0.05). The positive rates of LOH and MSI for CIN Ⅲ and noninvasive cervical carcinomas were higher than those in CIN Ⅰ-Ⅱ. The rates of the infection of HPV16 in cervical cancer was obviously higher than that in CIN and in normal cervical tissues (P<0.05), and the incidence of LOH of RASSF1A gene was higher in HPV16(+) than that in HPV16(-) (P<0.05). Conclusion: The RASSF1A gene change is a relatively late event in cervical carcinomas. The detection of LOH and MSI of RASSF1A gene might be helpful to the early diagnosis and the screening of cervical carcinoma. It might also be useful for predicting the prognosis of cervical carcinoma.

  1. Development of automatic pipe welder for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous pipings are installed in nuclear power plants, and of course, the reliability of these pipings are very important to preserve the safety of the plants. These pipings undergo periodic inspection yearly, and when some defects are found or some reconstructions to superior systems are made, field welding in the plants is required. When the places to be welded are in containment vessels, the works must be carried out in radiation environment. In order to maintain the highest quality of welding and to reduce the radiation exposure of workers, many skilled workers are required. This automatic pipe welder was developed to solve these problems, aiming at carrying out welding works by remote control at the safe places outside containment vessels. Especially in order to obtain the highest quality of welding, it was not perfectly automated, but the man-machine system so as to enable to utilize the delicate sense of workers was adopted. The visual and contact detecting systems to monitor welding works, remote control system, computer control, light, small and easily installed welding head, grinding and supersonic flow detecting equipments, the power source of transistor switching type, air cooling equipment, and the function for setting welding conditions according to algorithm were added to the welding machine. The outline and main components of this automatic pipe welder are explained. (Kako, I.)

  2. Development of automatic piping routing system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pipelines in a nuclear power plant reach the total extension of 500 km, and their design works are diversified very much such as functional assurance, the adjustment of layout, strength assurance, operation, maintenance and so on, therefore, the situation has become such that the much time for the design and more skilled engineers are required. In Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., the integrated computer processing system for design, manufacture and installation works after completing layout design has been used, and the good results are obtained. In order to make the design works up to layout design stable and efficient, the development of the design-supporting type 'automatic piping routing expert system' utilizing knowledge engineering technique has been advanced, and the prototype system aiming at the application to actual plants was completed. The outline of this system is explained. The steps are setting-up of region, setting-up of piping paths, routing and detailed arrangement, and these steps are expounded. Two examples of applying this system to the heat exchanger room and the valve room of reactor coolant purifying system in a nuclear power plant are shown. (K.I.)

  3. Influence of gaseous contaminants in the atmosphere of ISS on growth and development of higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Gostimskiy, Sergey; Bingham, Gail

    Continues exploitation of pressurized manned objects revealed that artificial gaseous atmosphere is a multi-component mixture containing adverse micro-dirt consisted of 14 classes of chemical compounds (Moukhamedieva, 2003). Dynamics of descendant process depend on duration of pressurized object utilization, resources of life support (e.g. level of closeness), parameters of microclimate and experimental tasks conducted by a crew. Previously it was shown that composition of gas environment of the space station remarkably altered growth and development of higher plants (Levinskikh et al., 2000). Specifically, it was found that the main changes in productivity and morphometric characteristics of the spaceflight plants of superdwarf wheat were caused by phytotoxic effect of ethylene (1,1-2,0 mg/m3) in the atmosphere of MIR orbital station. From 2003 to April, 2007 we have conducted 7 experiments focused on cultivation of dwarf peas in space greenhouse LADA onboard International Space Station (ISS-6-10, 12, 14). Results of the first 5 experiments showed that characteristics of growth and development of the peas planted in the space greenhouse had no differences if compared with ground control variants. In the similar experiments with peas during ISS-12 and ISS-14 it was found that total and seed productions of the plants were lower than ones of the previous experiments and ones of the ground controls. Cytological analysis of roots of the space seeds for the first time revealed significant increase of chromosomal aberrations in comparison with laboratory controls Analysis of total contamination of the atmosphere of the ISS by gaseous dirt showed consistent (starting from ISS-11) increasing of the toxicity coefficient (Kt). W e suppose that the accumulation of pollutant in the atmosphere of ISS is the main reason causing general decreasing of productivity and increasing of the number of chromosomal aberrations in the peas cultivated in space greenhouse LADA at the stage

  4. Radioactive waste package development at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is presented on some of the historical and current package developments for the plutonium-239 wastes generated at the Rocky Flats Plant. The two basic packages used for waste containment during transportation and storage are the steel drum and the plywood box. For steel drums, a discussion on a series of liners and liner characteristics designed to provide long package life is presented. This discussion includes data on the liner specifications, materials of construction, sealing techniques, seal strengths, and drop tests. For the plywood box, some experience and developments are described on the design, construction and drop testing of boxes coated with fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP). Cost data and comparisons as appropriate for different drum liners and for the FRP coated plywood box are also included. The Rocky Flats facility is operated by Rockwell International, Atomics International Division, for the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (U.S. ERDA). (author)

  5. ACCUMULATION OF PERCHLORATE IN TOBACCO PLANTS: DEVELOPMENT OF A PLANT KINETIC MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in plant tissues. This research determined the uptake, translocation, and accumulation of perchlorate in tobacco plants. Three hydroponics growth studies were completed u...

  6. Development of RCM analysis software for Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software called KEPCO RCM workstation (KRCM) has been developed to optimize the maintenance strategies of Korea nuclear power plants. The program modules of the KRCM were designed in a manner that combines EPRI methodologies and KEPRI analysis technique. The KRCM is being applied to the three pilot systems, chemical and volume control system, main steam system, and compressed air system of Yonggwang Units 1 and 2. In addition, the KRCM can be utilized as a tool to meet a part of the requirements of maintenance rule (MR) imposed by U.S. NRC

  7. Development of real options model for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Japanese electricity market is deregulated, it becomes more important for electric utilities to recognize their financial risks and to adopt strategic and scientific decision making methodology. We have developed two models for valuation of Japanese nuclear power plants to support utilities' decision making. One is a net present value (NPV) model using discounted cash flow analysis method. Another is a real options model. This model is based on strict financial technology theory and can calculate value of early retirement, life extension and new unit addition options of nuclear units under electricity price uncertainty. This can also derive an optimal period for retirement, life extension and new unit addition. (author)

  8. Power plant development and environmental aspects in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity generation, supply and distribution in Hungary came under control of a two-tiered corporate structure group. The upper level of the concern, Hungarian Power Companies Ltd. (MVM Rt) performs a financial holding function and is also responsible for the whole system. The main goals of structural change were first to establish appropriate conditions of privatisation, secondly, the mobilization of possible market forces and, as a consequence, the increase of the system's efficiency changes, in electricity demand and heat supply from plants of the MVM Group, legal framework, new environmental rules under preparation, and development strategy are discussed. (R.P.)

  9. Development of RCM analysis software for Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ho; Choi, Kwang Hee; Jeong, Hyeong Jong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A software called KEPCO RCM workstation (KRCM) has been developed to optimize the maintenance strategies of Korean nuclear power plants. The program modules of the KRCM were designed in a manner that combines EPRI methodologies and KEPRI analysis technique. The KRCM is being applied to the three pilot system, chemical and volume control system, main steam system, and compressed air system of Yonggwang Units 1 and 2. In addition, the KRCM can be utilized as a tool to meet a part of the requirements of maintenance rule (MR) imposed by U.S. NRC. 3 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  10. Casuarina root exudates alter the physiology, surface properties, and plant infectivity of Frankia sp Strain CcI3

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchemin, Nicholas J.; Furnholm, Teal; Lavenus, Julien; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Doumas, Patrick; Bogusz, Didier; Laplaze, Laurent; Tisa, Louis S.

    2012-01-01

    The actinomycete genus Frankia forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants, representing more than 200 different species. Very little is known about the initial molecular interactions between Frankia and host plants in the rhizosphere. Root exudates are important in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, especially for initiating Nod factor synthesis. We measured differences in Frankia physiology after exposure to host aqueous root exudates to assess their effects on...

  11. Development of knowledge portals for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of knowledge management in the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Nevertheless, the effective sharing of knowledge continues to be a challenge, and many staff in operating NPPs and/or utilities may be unaware of the existence of even explicit knowledge/information, let alone implicit or informally documented knowledge, held by other staff, which would assist them in the effective discharge of their duties. The issue of knowledge management has become especially significant due to the recent hiatus in NPP construction/development and the associated loss by resignations and retirements of significant numbers of experienced personnel, who often take large amounts of important, undocumented knowledge with them. Some of the potential benefits of effective knowledge management and sharing include: Providing all NPP management and staff with the information tools to ensure that safety and security are appropriately considered in all aspects of an NPP?s life cycle; Increasing staff productivity by reducing the time taken to access necessary information; and providing information in a more useful form; Providing NPP management with powerful data management tools for an effective overview of plant performance and activities; More effective decision making based on access to needed knowledge; In an increasingly competitive energy environment, knowledge is being recognized as a key element of human capital with significant commercial value. Successful and effective nuclear knowledge management programs should meet the following high level objectives as appropriate: Achieve safe operation and maintenance of all nuclear facilities by sharing of operational experience; Achieve gains in economics and operational performance through effective management of knowledge; Maximize the flow of nuclear knowledge from one generation to the next and attract, maintain and further develop a dedicated

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    IntroductionThe work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may be in part responsible for the developmental neurotoxicity of these compounds in humans (Rogan et al. 1986). This is a logical hypothesis, given the well-described effects of PCBs on plasma thyroid hormone levels in adult animals, and ...

  13. Design criteria -- Reactor plant modifications for increased production and 100-C Area Alterations (Sections A and B) CG-558. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M.H.

    1954-08-10

    This document defines the basic criteria to be used in the preparation of detailed design for Project CG-558, Reactor Plant Modification for Increased Production and for Project CG-600, 100-C Area Alterations. It has been determined that the most economical method of increasing plutonium production within the next five years is by the modernization and improvement of the 100-B, 100-C, 100-D, 100-DR, 100-F, and 100-H reactor plants. These reactors are currently incapable of operating at their maximum potential power levels because of a limited availability of process cooling water. As a result of this programs, it is estimated that 1650-2350 megawatts of total additional production will be achieved. The purpose of this document is to set forth the design for certain modifications and additions to Hanford reactors and their supporting facilities as required to obtain higher power levels and improve the safety of reactor operation.

  14. Financing the export of nuclear power plants to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japanese manufacturers of nuclear power plants are confident in quality and reliability of their products but so far they have played a minor role in the international market. In studying the finance for the future nuclear power projects in the developing country, the financial institutions will take into consideration such characteristics of the nuclear power project as: (1) Public acceptance and safety; (2) Commitments by host government and its involvement which are internationally required; (3) Huge amount of capital requirements over a long term for commissioning, operation and maintenance; (4) inability of the domestic market oriented project to generate foreign currency earnings; (5) Long lasting project life; (6) Creditworthiness of both the project owner and the host government and the debt problem of the country; (7) Priority; (8) Feasibility; (9) Available engineers and their level of technology, etc. Under the present circumstances, because of the inherent nature of the project and the creditworthiness, the owner of the project who imports the nuclear power plant and the host government will find it very difficult to receive enough funds for the project from the financial institutions, including the export credit agencies, and the manufacturers (exporters). On condition that the owner of the project and the host government make every effort and necessary arrangement to materialize the project, one of the measurers for the creditors to share such burdens and risks will be to form an international consortia among manufacturers and to organize co-finance among ECAs, private financial institutions and Multilateral Development Banks. (author)

  15. The CAD System Development for Power Plants Pipe-Prefabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUI Xiaoming; MA Zhiyong

    2006-01-01

    An intelligent design software system for the power station pipe-prefabrication (PPDS) has been developed in the paper, which is taking pipe material database as core and developed on the platform of AutoCAD and Borland C++.Whereas design and construction of power plants in China belong to different departments, the input and recognition problem of pipeline system disposition chart must be solved firstly for the prefabrication design. Based on AI technology, the model fast building subsystem (MFBS) was established for entering the 3-D pipeline graph data, so that the problems of reconstruction of pipeline digital model and computer identification of original 2-D design data can be solved. The optimization design scheme in the pipe-prefabrication process has been studied and also the corresponding algorithm put forward. The technique and system mentioned can effectively raise the pipe- prefabrication design quality and efficiency in the construction of large scale power plants, reduce the period of design and the waste of raw material. PPCADS has still offered the functions such as the construction design for pipeline prefabricated process, the detailing drawing for manufacturing pipe section and automatic generating the technical files for the completed project.

  16. Overview of global development of advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has proven its viability as an energy source in many countries. Nuclear power technology is mature, and has achieved tremendous progress in the last decades. Like any other progressing technology, it continues to pursue improvements. The accumulated experience, which now exceeds 14,000 reactor-years of operation, is being used to develop advanced nuclear power plant designs. This development is proceeding for all reactor lines (water-cooled reactors, gas-cooled reactors, and liquid metal-cooled reactors) so that nuclear power can play an important and increasing role in global energy supply in the future. Improved economic competitiveness and a very high level of safety are common goals for advanced designs. To achieve economic competitiveness for new plants, proven means for achieving cost efficiency are being applied and new approaches are being pursued. There is also considerable potential for nuclear energy to expand beyond production of electricity to other applications such as sea-water desalination and hydrogen production. (author)

  17. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R and D) Program is responsible for performing R and D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R and D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  20. Drought and root herbivory interact to alter the response of above-ground parasitoids to aphid infested plants and associated plant volatile signals

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Tariq; Wright, Denis J.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Staley, Joanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/below-ground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores), their parasitoids, and a dipteran species (root herbivore).We tested the hypotheses that: (1) high levels of drought stress and below-ground herbivory interact to r...

  1. Infrastructure development assistance modeling for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model, a general frame to be utilized in assisting newcomer countries to start a nuclear power program. A nuclear power plant project involves technical complexity and high level of investment with long duration. Considering newcomers are mostly developing countries that lack the national infrastructure, key infrastructure issues may constitute the principal constraints to the development of a nuclear power program. In this regard, it is important to provide guidance and support to set up an appropriate infrastructure when we help them with the first launch of nuclear power plant project. To date, as a sole nuclear power generation company, KHNP has been invited many times to mentor or assist newcomer countries for their successful start of a nuclear power program since Republic of Korea is an exemplary case of a developing country which began nuclear power program from scratch and became a major world nuclear energy country in a short period of time. Through hosting events organized to aid newcomer countries' initiation of nuclear power projects, difficulties have been recognized. Each event had different contents according to circumstances because they were held as an unstructured and one-off thing. By developing a general model, we can give more adequate and effective aid in an efficient way. In this paper, we created a model to identify necessary infrastructures at the right stage, which was mainly based on a case of Korea. Taking into account the assistance we received from foreign companies and our own efforts for technological self-reliance, we have developed a general time table and specified activities required to do at each stage. From a donor's perspective, we explored various ways to help nuclear infrastructure development including technical support programs, training courses, and participating in IAEA technical cooperation programs on a regular basis. If we further develop the model, the next task would be to

  2. Divertor development for a future fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fusion is considered as a future source of sustainable energy supply. In the first chapter, the physical principle of magnetic plasma confinement, and the function of a tokamak are described. Since the discovery of the H-mode in ASDEX experiment ''Divertor I'' in 1982, the divertor has been an integral part of all modern tokamaks and stellarators, not least the ITER machine. The goal of this work is to develop a feasible divertor design for a fusion power plant to be built after ITER. This task is particularly challenging because a fusion power plant formulates much greater demands on the structural material and the design than ITER in terms of neutron wall load and radiation. First several divertor concepts proposed in the literature e.g. the Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) using different coolants are reviewed and analyzed with respect to their performance. As a result helium cooled divertor concept exhibited the best potential to come up to the highest safety requirements and therefore has been chosen for the design process. From the third chapter the necessary steps towards this goal are described. First, the boundary conditions for the arrangement of a divertor with respect to the fusion plasma are discussed, as this determines the main thermal and neutronic load parameters. Based on the loads material selection criteria are inherently formulated. In the next step, the reference design is defined in accordance with the established functional design specifications. The developed concept is of modular nature and consists of cooling fingers of tungsten using an impingement cooling in order to achieve a heat dissipation of 10 MW/m2. In the next step, the design was subjected to the thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical calculations in order to analyze and improve the performance and the manufacturing technologies. Based on these results, a prototype was produced and experimentally tested on their cooling capacity, their thermo-cyclic loading behavior

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented

  5. The development of robotic system for the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project focuses on the development of a heavy-duty telerobotic system (HDTS) and a light-duty mobile robotic system (LDMRS) for use in nuclear power plants. HDTS has been developed for performing tasks such as the installation and removal of nozzle dam inside of water chamber of steam generator. HDTS that is remotely controlled could eliminate or significantly reduce human exposure to hazardous nuclear environment. HDTS has four major subsystems : a 6 degree of freedom master-slave manipulator, a guiding device, a monitoring device and a remote control center. Functional connections of each subsystems has resulted in HDTS that exhibits a high level of dexterity and a broad range of capabilities. LDMRS has been developed to be used in emergency response applications such as monitoring and mapping radiation areas, handling radioactive materials and performing decontamination tasks. LDMRS equipped with four-omnidirectional planetary wheels is capable of ascending and descending stairs by employing a automatic stair climbing algorithm. A force-reflective algorithm developed enables LDMRS to be navigated flat surface with zero turning radius without collision by giving an operator a sense of force. The significance of developments is in providing both HDTS and LDMRS that can be operated from remote locations to perform tasks such as the maintenance of nozzle dam and the video surveillance of the nuclear facilities efficiently and without endangering human workers. This report describes the mechanical design, features, control system, and capabilities of both HDTS and LDMRS. (author). 59 refs., 38 tabs., 132 figs

  6. Selection, competency development and assessment of nuclear power plant managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides information on proven methods and good practices with respect to the selection, development and assessment of nuclear power plant (NPP) managers. The report is organized into four sections, a glossary, two appendices, and several annexes. The Introduction (Section 1) provides the framework for the report. Section 2 describes how appropriate management competencies can be used for the selection, development and assessment of NPP managers, including: -Selection which includes recruitment, promotion and succession management. -Management development programmes including formal training, job rotation, on the job training, mentoring, and outside assignments. -Assessment of individual performance. Section 3 describes a systematic process for identifying the competencies needed by NPP managers. This section culminates in a set of suggested core competencies for NPP managers which are further expanded in Appendix A. The annexes included provide specific examples of competency-based management selection, development, and assessment programmes in several Member States. -Annex A is one method to organize and display competencies. -Annex B is an example of using competencies for selection of first line managers. -Annex C is an example of using management competencies for succession management. -Annexes -H are examples of management development programmes. -Annexes I and J are examples of management assessment programmes. A glossary of terms is provided at the end of the report to explain the use of some key terms explain the use of some key terms

  7. Development of a nuclear power plant system analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of this study, TASS 1.0 code has been prepared for the non-LOCA licensing and reload safety analyses of the Westinghouse and the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPP) type reactors operating in Korea. TASS-NPA also has been developed for a real time simulation of the Kori-3/4 transients using on-line graphical interactions. TASS 2.0 code has been further developed to timely apply the TASS 2.0 code for the design certification of the KNGR. The COBRA/RELAP5 code, a multi-dimensional best estimate system code, has been developed by integrating the realistic three-dimensional reactor vessel model with the RELAP5 /MOD3.2 code, a one-dimensional system code. Also, a 3D turbulent two-phase flow analysis code, FEMOTH-TF, has been developed using finite element technique to analyze local thermal hydraulic phenomena in support of the detailed design analysis for the development of the advanced reactors. (author). 84 refs., 27 tabs., 83 figs

  8. The development of robotic system for the nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Jae Kyung; Kim, Ki Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Chang Hoi; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Seo, Yong Chil; Lee, Young Kwang; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Woong Ki; Park, Soon Yong

    1996-07-01

    This project focuses on the development of a heavy-duty telerobotic system (HDTS) and a light-duty mobile robotic system (LDMRS) for use in nuclear power plants. HDTS has been developed for performing tasks such as the installation and removal of nozzle dam inside of water chamber of steam generator. HDTS that is remotely controlled could eliminate or significantly reduce human exposure to hazardous nuclear environment. HDTS has four major subsystems : a 6 degree of freedom master-slave manipulator, a guiding device, a monitoring device and a remote control center. Functional connections of each subsystems has resulted in HDTS that exhibits a high level of dexterity and a broad range of capabilities. LDMRS has been developed to be used in emergency response applications such as monitoring and mapping radiation areas, handling radioactive materials and performing decontamination tasks. LDMRS equipped with four-omnidirectional planetary wheels is capable of ascending and descending stairs by employing a automatic stair climbing algorithm. A force-reflective algorithm developed enables LDMRS to be navigated flat surface with zero turning radius without collision by giving an operator a sense of force. The significance of developments is in providing both HDTS and LDMRS that can be operated from remote locations to perform tasks such as the maintenance of nozzle dam and the video surveillance of the nuclear facilities efficiently and without endangering human workers. This report describes the mechanical design, features, control system, and capabilities of both HDTS and LDMRS. (author). 59 refs., 38 tabs., 132 figs.

  9. Development of remote automatic equipment for BWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of remote control, automatic equipment for nuclear power stations has been promoted to raise the rate of operation of plants by shortening regular inspection period, to improve the safety and reliability of inspection and maintenance works by mechanization, to reduce the radiation exposure dose of workers and to reduce the manpower required for works. The taking-off of control rod drives from reactors and fixing again have been mechanized, but the disassembling, cleaning, inspection and assembling of control rod drives are manually carried out. Therefore, Hitachi Ltd. has exerted effort to develop the automatic equipment for this purpose. The target of development, investigation, the construction and function of the equipment, the performance and the effect of adopting it are reported. The equipment for the volume reduction of spent fuel channel boxes and spent control rods is developed since these are major high level radioactive solid wastes, and their apparent volume is large. Also the target of development, investigated things, the construction and function of the equipment, the performance and the effect of adopting it are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Overcrowding-mediated stress alters cell proliferation in key neuroendocrine areas during larval development in Rhinella arenarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, Mijal J; Jungblut, Lucas D; Ceballos, Nora R; Paz, Dante A; Pozzi, Andrea G

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to adverse environmental conditions can elicit a stress response, which results in an increase in endogenous corticosterone levels. In early life stages, it has been thoroughly demonstrated that amphibian larval growth and development is altered as a consequence of chronic stress by interfering with the metamorphic process, however, the underlying mechanisms involved have only been partially disentangled. We examined the effect of intraspecific competition on corticosterone levels during larval development of the toad Rhinella arenarum and its ultimate effects on cell proliferation in particular brain areas as well as the pituitary gland. While overcrowding altered the number of proliferating cells in the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and third ventricle of the brain, no differences were observed in areas which are less associated with neuroendocrine processes, such as the first ventricle of the brain. Apoptosis was increased in hypothalamic regions but not in the pituitary. With regards to pituitary cell populations, thyrotrophs but not somatoatrophs and corticotrophs showed a decrease in the cell number in overcrowded larvae. Our study shows that alterations in growth and development, produced by stress, results from an imbalance in the neuroendocrine systems implicated in orchestrating the timing of metamorphosis. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26817921

  11. Alteration of installation of reactors (additional installation of No.3 and No.4 plants) in the Genkai Nuclear Power Station, Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On October 19, 1982, Kyushu Electric Power Co. made an application to the Minister of International Trade and Industry on the alteration of the installation of reactors. The contents of the application are to install two PWRs of 3423 MWh (1180 MWe) as No.3 and No.4 plants. After the deliberation in the MITI, theMinister made the inquiry to the Nuclear Safety Commission on November 30, 1983. The Nuclear Safety Commission instructed the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Reactor Safety to investigate and deliberate this case on December 8, 1983. The MITI recognized that Kyushu Electric Power Co. has the technical capability to carry out the alteration and to operate the reactors, and that this alteration does not hinder the prevention of disasters due to nuclear fuel and reactors. The examination were made on the conditions of location such as the site, earthquakes, the ground, weather and social environment, and the position of the reactor facilities, the aseismatic design of the reactor facilities, the reactor proper, fuel handling and storing facilities, reactor cooling system, measuring and control system, radioactive waste facilities, radiation control facilities and reactor containment facilities. (Kako, I.)

  12. Arsenic extraction and speciation in plants: Method comparison and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Li, Hong-Bo; Xu, Jia-Yi; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Qiying

    2015-08-01

    We compared four methods to extract arsenic (As) from three different plants containing different As levels for As speciation with the goal of developing a more efficient method, i.e., As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata at 459-7714mgkg(-1), rice seedling at 53.4-574mgkg(-1), and tobacco leaf at 0.32-0.35mgkg(-1). The four methods included heating with dilute HNO3, and sonication with phosphate buffered solution, methanol/water, and ethanol/water, with As being analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Among the four methods, the ethanol/water method produced the most satisfactory extraction efficiency (~80% for the roots and >85% for the fronds) without changing As species based on P. vittata. The lower extraction efficiency from P. vittata roots was attributed to its dominance by arsenate (82%) while arsenite dominated in the fronds (89%). The ethanol/water method used sample:solution ratio of 1:200 (0.05g:10mL) with 50% ethanol and 2h sonication. Based on different extraction times (0.5-2h), ethanol concentrations (25-100%) and sample:solution ratios (1:50-1:300), the optimized ethanol/water method used less ethanol (25%) and time (0.5h for the fronds and 2h for the roots). Satisfactory extraction was also obtained for tobacco leaf (78-92%) and rice seedlings (~70%) using the optimized method, which was better than the other three methods. Based on satisfactory extraction efficiency with little change in As species during extraction from three plants containing different As levels, the optimized method has the potential to be used for As speciation in other plants. PMID:25863504

  13. Development of large scale nuclear power plants in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 6000 reactor-years of operating experience in power generation, on the basis of western design light water reactors, have been accumulated. No adverse environmental impacts have occurred involving these reactors. The accumulation and the exchange of experience beyond national borders has led to the emergence of an international safety culture, more and more countries sharing the same safety objectives. In recent years, the countries of Eastern Europe and Russia have also joined in this exchange of experience. For the future, worldwide growing energy needs obviously are a major factor in decision to deploy nuclear power : nuclear power plants, operated reliably and with high availability rates, appear as an indispensable contributor to respond to the growing demand of electricity in the next decades. And, for nuclear power to remain viable in the medium and long term, permanent development is absolutely essential. The world needs new nuclear power plants with up-to-date-reactors, that not only satisfy all the latest safety aspects but also provide a significant economic advantage over other energy resources. According to this, in various parts of the world, a number of different strategies are being implemented for the development of new reactors designs. Some call for reactor designs with a small to medium power generation capacity and featuring so-called passive safety. Others, including France and Germany, propose a course of development that builds upon the wealth of experience already cumulated and basically retains the unit size of 1300 to 1500 MWe, that has proven to be competitive and reliable

  14. Production of trichodiene by Trichoderma harzianum alters the perception of this biocontrol strain by plants and antagonized fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes are phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid compounds of fungal origin which can act as virulence factors in plant diseases. Harzianum A (HA) is a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum. The first step in the biosynthesis of HA is the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate t...

  15. Simulated acid rain alters litter decomposition and enhances the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata (Creeping Daisy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species and acid rain cause global environmental problems. Limited information exists, however, concerning the effects of acid rain on the invasiveness of these plants. For example, creeping daisy, an invasive exotic allelopathic weed, has caused great damage in southern China where acid ra...

  16. Developing new methodology for nuclear power plants vulnerability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    new methodology and solution methods for vulnerability assessment can help the overall national energy sector to identify and understand the terrorist threats to and vulnerabilities of its critical infrastructure. Moreover, adopted methodology could help national regulators and agencies to develop and implement a vulnerability awareness and education programs for their critical assets to enhance the security and a safe operation of the entire energy infrastructure. New methods can also assist nuclear power plants to develop, validate, and disseminate assessment and surveys of new efficient countermeasures. Consequently, concise description of developed new quantitative method and adapted new methodology for nuclear regulatory vulnerability assessment of nuclear power plants are presented.

  17. Developing nanotechnology for biofuel and plant science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenstein, Justin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents the research on the development of mesoporous silica based nanotechnology for applications in biofuels and plant science. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been the subject of great interest in the last two decades due to their unique properties of high surface area, tunable pore size and particle morphology. The robust nature of the silica framework is easily functionalized to make the MSNs a promising option for selective separations. Also, the independent channels that form the pores of MSN have been exploited in the use of particles as platforms for molecular delivery. Pore size and organic functionality are varied to identify the ideal adsorbent material for free fatty acids (FFAs). The resulting material is able to sequester FFAs with a high degree of selectivity from a simulated solution and microalgal oil. The recyclability and industrial implications are also explored. A continuation of the previous material, further tuning of MSN pore size was investigated. Particles with a smaller diameter selectively sequester polyunsaturated free fatty acids (PUFAs) over monounsaturated FFAs and saturated FFAs. The experimental results were verified with molecular modeling. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials with a pore diameter of 10 nm (MSN-10) were decorated with small gold nanoparticles. The resulting materials were shown to deliver proteins and DNA into plant cells using the biolistic method.

  18. CLE peptide signaling and nitrogen interactions in plant root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Takao; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2016-08-01

    The CLAVATA signaling pathway is essential for the regulation of meristem activities in plants. This signaling pathway consists of small signaling peptides of the CLE family interacting with CLAVATA1 and leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs). The peptide-receptor relationships determine the specificities of CLE-dependent signals controlling stem cell fate and differentiation that are critical for the establishment and maintenance of shoot and root apical meristems. Plants root systems are highly organized into three-dimensional structures for successful anchoring and uptake of water and mineral nutrients from the soil environment. Recent studies have provided evidence that CLE peptides and CLAVATA signaling pathways play pivotal roles in the regulation of lateral root development and systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON) integrated with nitrogen (N) signaling mechanisms. Integrations of CLE and N signaling pathways through shoot-root vascular connections suggest that N demand modulates morphological control mechanisms and optimize N uptake as well as symbiotic N fixation in roots. PMID:26994997

  19. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective. PMID:22645582

  20. Ethanol in utero induces epithelial cell damage and altered kinetics in the developing rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, G; Del Rio, J A; García-Valero, J; López-Tejero, M D

    1996-11-01

    The effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on the intestinal maturation of rat fetuses was investigated to understand the nutritional alterations found in the offspring of alcoholic mothers. Female Wistar rats were maintained on solid diet and 25% ethanol solution as drinking fluid during pregnancy, and non-alcoholic isocaloric pregnant mothers were used as controls. At birth, intestines from unsuckled pups were removed for study. The weight and length of the intestine decreased significantly when ethanol was present in utero. Ultrastructural evaluation of the epithelium revealed loss of contact between neighboring enterocytes and abnormal dilation of the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus in ethanol-exposed pups. Further, increased lysosome-like vesiculation and enhanced lysosomal beta-galactosidase activity was observed in these neonates. The total number of absorptive enterocytes in the epithelium was reduced by 30% in ethanol-exposed neonates as compared to controls, due to altered cell growth and death during fetal life. Ethanol in utero stimulated epithelial cell migration which compensated cell loss, as demonstrated by 5'-Bromodeoxyuridine labeling. These findings could have important implications for the assimilation of nutrients and failure to thrive in infants with fetal alcohol syndrome. PMID:9035346

  1. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retaining reliabilities of nondestructive testing is essential for the life-time maintenance of nuclear power plant. In order to Improve reliabilities of ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing, the following five subjects were carried out in this study: development of BEM analysis technique for ECT of SG tube, development of neural network technique for the intelligent analysis of ECT flaw signals of SG tubes, development of RFECT technology for the inspection of SG tube, FEM analysis of ultrasonic scattering field and evaluation of statistical reliability of PD-RR test of ultrasonic testing. As results, BEM analysis of eddy current signal, intelligent analysis of eddy current signal using neural network, and FEM analysis of remote field eddy current testing have been developed for the inspection of SG tubes. FEM analysis of ultrasonic waves in 2-dimensional media and evaluation of statistical reliability of ultrasonic testing with PD-RR test also have been carried out for the inspection of weldments. Those results can be used to Improve reliability of nondestructive testing

  2. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Shin, Hyun Jae [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyang Beom [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan National Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ik Keun; Park, Eun Soo [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Retaining reliabilities of nondestructive testing is essential for the life-time maintenance of nuclear power plant. In order to Improve reliabilities of ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing, the following five subjects were carried out in this study: development of BEM analysis technique for ECT of SG tube, development of neural network technique for the intelligent analysis of ECT flaw signals of SG tubes, development of RFECT technology for the inspection of SG tube, FEM analysis of ultrasonic scattering field and evaluation of statistical reliability of PD-RR test of ultrasonic testing. As results, BEM analysis of eddy current signal, intelligent analysis of eddy current signal using neural network, and FEM analysis of remote field eddy current testing have been developed for the inspection of SG tubes. FEM analysis of ultrasonic waves in 2-dimensional media and evaluation of statistical reliability of ultrasonic testing with PD-RR test also have been carried out for the inspection of weldments. Those results can be used to Improve reliability of nondestructive testing.

  3. Endocrine modulation, inhibition of ovarian development and hepatic alterations in rainbow trout exposed to polluted river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under laboratory conditions, female rainbow trout were exposed to graded concentrations of water from the River Lambro, a polluted tributary of the River Po, and to the effluent of a large wastewater treatment plant which flows into the River Lambro. In field exposures, trout were held in cages in the River Po upstream and downstream from the confluence of the River Lambro. After 10-day (laboratory) and 30-day (laboratory and field) exposures, trout were examined for several chemical, biochemical and histological endpoints. The results indicated that exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals, including estrogen receptor agonists, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor agonists, and probably antiandrogens, had occurred. Exposure altered the plasma levels of 17β-estradiol and testosterone, and some treatments also enhanced the activity of hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase. Gonadal histology showed varying levels of degenerative processes characterised by oocyte atresia, haemorrhages, melano-macrophage centres (MMCs), and oogonia proliferation. Liver histology showed less severe effects. - This study examined the progression of hormonal and gonadal alterations in female trout exposed to river water from an area known to affect resident fish species.

  4. Endocrine modulation, inhibition of ovarian development and hepatic alterations in rainbow trout exposed to polluted river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigano, Luigi, E-mail: vigano@irsa.cnr.i [Water Research Institute, National Council of Research, Brugherio, Milan (Italy); Benfenati, Emilio [Mario Negri Institute, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Milan (Italy); Bottero, Sergio; Cevasco, Alessandra; Monteverde, Martino; Mandich, Alberta [Department of Environmental, Experimental and Applied Biology, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Under laboratory conditions, female rainbow trout were exposed to graded concentrations of water from the River Lambro, a polluted tributary of the River Po, and to the effluent of a large wastewater treatment plant which flows into the River Lambro. In field exposures, trout were held in cages in the River Po upstream and downstream from the confluence of the River Lambro. After 10-day (laboratory) and 30-day (laboratory and field) exposures, trout were examined for several chemical, biochemical and histological endpoints. The results indicated that exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals, including estrogen receptor agonists, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor agonists, and probably antiandrogens, had occurred. Exposure altered the plasma levels of 17{beta}-estradiol and testosterone, and some treatments also enhanced the activity of hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase. Gonadal histology showed varying levels of degenerative processes characterised by oocyte atresia, haemorrhages, melano-macrophage centres (MMCs), and oogonia proliferation. Liver histology showed less severe effects. - This study examined the progression of hormonal and gonadal alterations in female trout exposed to river water from an area known to affect resident fish species.

  5. Altering the trajectory of early postnatal cortical development can lead to structural and behavioural features of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomiak Taylor

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a behaviourally defined neurodevelopmental disorder with unknown etiology. Recent studies in autistic children consistently point to neuropathological and functional abnormalities in the temporal association cortex (TeA and its associated structures. It has been proposed that the trajectory of postnatal development in these regions may undergo accelerated maturational alterations that predominantly affect sensory recognition and social interaction. Indeed, the temporal association regions that are important for sensory recognition and social interaction are one of the last regions to mature suggesting a potential vulnerability to early maturation. However, direct evaluation of the emerging hypothesis that an altered time course of early postnatal development can lead to an ASD phenotype remains lacking. Results We used electrophysiological, histological, and behavioural techniques to investigate if the known neuronal maturational promoter valproate, similar to that in culture systems, can influence the normal developmental trajectory of TeA in vivo. Brain sections obtained from postnatal rat pups treated with VPA in vivo revealed that almost 40% of cortical cells in TeA prematurely exhibited adult-like intrinsic electrophysiological properties and that this was often associated with gross cortical hypertrophy and a reduced predisposition for social play behaviour. Conclusions The co-manifestation of these functional, structural and behavioural features suggests that alteration of the developmental time course in certain high-order cortical networks may play an important role in the neurophysiological basis of autism.

  6. Reduced and Misexpression of 5-HT2 Receptors Alters Development, Behavior and CNS Activity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Cooper

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The misexpression as well as a knock down of the 5-HT2dro receptor produces slower body movements in larvae and altered development. When 1st instar larvae are raised with altered expression levels a high degree of death occurred. Exposure of the CNS to 5-HT in control larva increases motor unit excitability; however, when the 5-HT2dro expression is decreased the relative sensitivity to exogenously applied 5-HT is enhanced. This is likely a function of reduced basal CNS activity in this line. No change was observed for the strain with an over-expression compared to controls. Evoked sensory-CNS-motor circuits as well as spontaneous motor neuronal activity are also reduced. Like CNS activity, Heart Rate (HR in larva is sensitive to 5-HT. When the 1st instar to early 3rd instar were chronically reduced or misexpressed in the 5-HT receptor no alteration to 5-HT sensitivity on HR occurred, although the initial HR was lower in both strains as compared to wild type. Thus, a normal expression of the 5-HT2dro is required for development and CNS responsiveness to 5-HT, but this receptor subtype might not function in acute responsiveness of the heart to 5-HT, although the receptor has some effect on basal heart rate.

  7. An Activated Form of UFO Alters Leaf Development and Produces Ectopic Floral and Inflorescence Meristems

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy Risseeuw; Prakash Venglat; Daoquan Xiang; Kristina Komendant; Tim Daskalchuk; Vivijan Babic; William Crosby; Raju Datla

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower ...

  8. Development of recombinant Aleuria aurantia lectins with altered binding specificities to fucosylated glycans

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Patrick R.; Mackay, Andrew; Vong, Minh; deSa, Johann; Lamontagne, Anne; Comunale, Mary Ann; Hafner, Julie; Block, Timothy; Lec, Ryszard; Mehta, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Changes in glycosylation have long been associated with disease. While there are many methods to detect changes in glycosylation, plant derived lectins are often used to determine changes on specific proteins or molecules of interest. One change in glycosylation that has been observed by us and by others is a disease or antigen associated increase in fucosylation on N-linked glycans. To measure this change, the fucose binding Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) is often utilized in plate and soluti...

  9. Development of nuclear power plant automated remote patrol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Automated Remote Patrol System was developed for a remote inspection, observation and monitoring of nuclear power plant's components. This automated remote patrol system consists of; a vehicle moving along a monorail; three rails mounted in a monorail for data transmission and for power supply; an image fiber connected to a TV camera; an arm type mechanism (manipulator) for moving image fiber; a computer for control and data processing and operator's console. Special features of this Automated Remote Patrol System are as follows: The inspection vehicle runs along horizontal and vertical (up/down) monorails. The arm type mechanism (manipulator) on the vehicle is used to move image fiber. Slide type electric collectors are used for data transmission and power supply. Time-division multiplexing is adapted for data transmission. Voice communication is used for controlling mechanisms. Pattern recognition is used for data processing. The experience that has been obtained from a series of various tests is summarized. (author)

  10. The Development of OZONE Washer at nuclear power generation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An OZONE Washer for working clothes in nuclear power generation plants was developed. An ozone generator, tank for the solution with ozone and its recycling, washer and exhaust ventilation makes constructs of the OZONE Washer. The washing effect was determined by the difference of the absorbance of samples between before and after washing. These samples were sewed on the stained places and washed. Main strain was consisted of sebum and protein from human bodies. The average removing stains of samples by water and ozone dissolved solution were 100% and 200%, respectively. Moreover, the deodorization and disinfecting effect were observed by ozone. The water saving of equipment was carried out by reuse of washing water after adding ozone. The strains was dissolved in water and then oxidized thoroughly by ozone added. (S.Y.)

  11. Developing robotics for nondestructive testing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to perform remote nondestructive testing in high radiation areas is becoming increasingly attractive as a means of minimizing radiation exposure to personnel. Robots could be used in nuclear power plants where NDT technicians are currently exposed to high levels of radiation. In developing robotics technology for this purpose, several key factors must be considered: (1) End-of-arm tooling for nondestructive testing may impose unique functional requirements for maximum effectiveness. (2) Operator definition of robot movements and limits by a joystick type of control can provide a means of rapid preprogramming. (3) An all-encompassing language used for data acquisition and closed loop control can potentially offer significant advantages. In addition, consideration is being given to the use of remote miniature solid-state television cameras to guide the technician in manipulating the robotic arm, and of X-ray vision systems for remote real-time testing

  12. Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant seismic time history development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to generate a number of artificial-spectrum consistent-time histories for use in the seismic analysis of the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) service modules (SM). The method used in the generation of the artificial time histories presented in this report makes use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm to modify the Fourier frequency spectrum of a recorded accelerogram. The response spectrum of the generated accelerogram is consistent with the spectrum specification given by USAEC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Five statistically independent time histories have been developed. These accelerograms are based on recorded West Coast accelerations that meet specific requirements associated with the location of the recording station with regard to the epicenter. The acceleration time history, Fourier and response spectras, and integrated velocity and displacement records are presented

  13. Development of Core Monitoring System for Nuclear Power Plants (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Kim, Y.B.; Park, M.G; Lee, E.K.; Shin, H.C.; Lee, D.J. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1.Object and Necessity of the Study -The main objectives of this study are (1)conversion of APOLLO version BEACON system to HP-UX version core monitoring system, (2)provision of the technical bases to enhance the in-house capability of developing more advanced core monitoring system. 2.Results of the Study - In this study, the revolutionary core monitoring technologies such as; nodal analysis and isotope depletion calculation method, advanced schemes for power distribution control, and treatment of nuclear databank were established. The verification and validation work has been successfully performed by comparing the results with those of the design code and measurement data. The advanced graphic user interface and plant interface method have been implemented to ensure the future upgrade capability. The Unix shell scripts and system dependent software are also improved to support administrative functions of the system. (author). 14 refs., 112 figs., 52 tabs.

  14. Arid land plants: promising new tools for economic development and basic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of arid land plant development stressing products and plant physiological and ecological concepts unique to arid land plants. Integration of new arid land crops into polyculture management systems is suggested utilizing specialized plant functions, e.g., drought resistance, resistance to salinity, ability to fix nitrogen, frost tolerance and capability to produce a cash crop. Impacts on arid land plant productivity on political systems of developing countries are discussed and recommendations are presented for overcoming institutional constraints facing arid land plant development. (MHR)

  15. A study on the development and application of expert system for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hee Gon; Kim, Seong Bok [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    It is a final report of the research that is a study on the development and application of expert system for nuclear power plants and development of the schemes computing environments and user interfaces for the expert system, which is a systematic and efficient development of expert system for nuclear power plants in the future. This report is consisted of -Development trends of expert system for nuclear power plants. -Classification of expert system applications for nuclear power plants. -Systematic and efficient developments schemes of expert system for nuclear power plants, and -Suitable computing environments and user interfaces for the expert systems. (author). 113 refs., 85 figs.

  16. Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Susana; Lorenz, Cindy; Crespo, Sara; Cabrera, Javier; Ludwig, Roland; Escobar, Carolina; Hofmann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant’s circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the p...

  17. Role of Neurotrophins in Mediating the Effect of Altered Gravity on the Developing Rat Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, Elizabeth

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in oxidative stress that may contribute to the decrease in Purkinje cell number and the impairment of motor coordination in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates. However, the increase in oxidative stress markers was not uniformly observed in males and females. In the present study we explored the possibility that exposure to hypergravity may result in altered level of neurotrophins, which have been recognized as mediators of both neurodegenerative and neuroprotective mechanisms in the central nervous system. An elevation of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) has been observed in animal models of hypoxia. To test this hypothesis we compared cerebellar levels of NT-3 between stationary control (SC) and rat neonates exposed perinatally to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge. The levels of NT-3 were determined by specific ELISA. Preliminary data suggests a 123

  18. Investigation of rock matrix porosity in alteration profiles. Development of site characterization methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of bedrock performance for nuclear waste disposal can benefit from a more detailed understanding of the rock matrix properties along actual and potential groundwater flow pathways. The spatial variability along flow paths and the correlation of groundwater flow with rock matrix properties (type of minerals, porosity, internal surface areas) is an input parameter for the quantification of retarding properties and the chemical buffering capacity of the bedrock. In this investigation tonalite, mica gneiss and vulcanite samples from Syyry were studied. The samples were taken from a drill core located near water-conducting, open fractures. The objective of the study was to describe the porosity of different altered and weathered rock matrices next to filled fissures and open fractures

  19. Investigation of rock matrix porosity in alteration profiles. Development of site characterization methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siitari-Kauppi, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hellmuth, K.H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Lukkarinen, S. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Assessment of bedrock performance for nuclear waste disposal can benefit from a more detailed understanding of the rock matrix properties along actual and potential groundwater flow pathways. The spatial variability along flow paths and the correlation of groundwater flow with rock matrix properties (type of minerals, porosity, internal surface areas) is an input parameter for the quantification of retarding properties and the chemical buffering capacity of the bedrock. In this investigation tonalite, mica gneiss and vulcanite samples from Syyry were studied. The samples were taken from a drill core located near water-conducting, open fractures. The objective of the study was to describe the porosity of different altered and weathered rock matrices next to filled fissures and open fractures. 9 refs. Nuclear Waste Disposal Research.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers affect the reproduction and development, and alter the sex ratio of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as flame retardants and now become ubiquitous in the global environment. Using zebrafish as a model, we tested the hypothesis that PBDEs may affect the reproduction and development of fish. Zebrafish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DE-71 (a congener of PBDE commonly found in the environment) throughout their whole life cycle, and the effects of DE-71 on gonadal development, gamete quality, fertilization success, hatching success, embryonic development and sex ratio were investigated. Despite gonadal development was enhanced, reductions in spawning, fertilization success, hatching success and larval survival rate were evident, while significant increases in malformation and percentage of male were also observed in the F1 generation. Our laboratory results suggest that PBDEs may pose a risk to reproductive success and alter the sex ratio of fish in environments highly contaminated with PBDEs. -- Highlights: •Zebrafish were exposed to PBDE from eggs to adults. •An increase in Gonadal-Somatic Index and enhanced gonadal development was enhanced. •Fertilization and hatching successes were reduced, while malformation was increased. •PBDE alters sex differentiation, leading to a male biased F1 population. •Environmental relevant concentrations of PBDE threaten natural fish populations. -- PBDE reduces fertilization and hatching successes, causes malformation and leads to a male biased F1 generation in fish

  1. A gain-of-function mutation in IAA8 alters Arabidopsis floral organ development by change of jasmonic acid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yan, Da-Wei; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-05-01

    Auxin regulates a variety of physiological processes via its downstream factors included Aux/IAAs. In this study, one of these Aux/IAAs, IAA8 is shown to play its role in Arabidopsis development with transgenic plants expressing GFP-mIAA8 under the control of IAA8 promoter, in which IAA8 protein was mutated by changing Pro170 to Leu170 in its conserved domain II. These transgenic dwarfed plants had more lateral branches, short primary inflorescence stems, decreased shoot apical dominance, curled leaves and abnormal flower organs (short petal and stamen, and bent stigmas). Further experiments revealed that IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants functioned as gain-of-function mutation to increase GFP-mIAA8 amount probably by stabilizing IAA8 protein against proteasome-mediated protein degradation with IAA8::GFP-IAA8 plants as control. The searching for its downstream factors indicated its interaction with both ARF6 and ARF8, suggesting that IAA8 may involve in flower organ development. This was further evidenced by analyzing the expression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic genes and JA levels because ARF6 and ARF8 are required for normal JA production. These results indicated that in IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants, JA biosynthetic genes including DAD1 (AT2G44810), AOS (AT5G42650) and ORP3 (AT2G06050) were dramatically down-regulated and JA level in the flowers was reduced to 70 % of that in wild-type. Furthermore, exogenous JA application can partially rescue short petal and stamen observed IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants. Thus, IAA8 plays its role in floral organ development by changes in JA levels probably via its interaction with ARF6/8 proteins. PMID:23483289

  2. Development of Advanced Plant Efficiency Monitoring System Using Data Reconciliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal efficiency of power plants is determined by the measured values of instruments. It is known that the measured values have uncertainty depending on the accuracy of instrument and process fluctuations. There have been many efforts to reduce uncertainties to improve the quality of thermal efficiency management. ASME performance test codes recommend the average of the measured values to minimize random errors and the periodic calibration to exclude systematic errors. While a recent trend tends to concentrate on on-line efficiency monitoring, which is different from the conventional off-line thermal performance tests, unforeseen features became troublesome: Since the on-line efficiency monitoring is performed during daily operation, it has high possibility of including random errors and/or systematic errors. The data reconciliation (DR) has been expected to be a candidate for managing uncertainty in on-line efficiency monitoring. The DR is developed using a physical model with the first principles such as mass/energy balance. Due to this nature, it has the advantage in eliminating random errors. However, the DR based on a physical model has several problems: One issue is the accuracy of the turbine cycle model. The conventional DR algorithm is difficult to apply for turbine cycle with which a large size matrix and non-linear equations are involved. Furthermore, since the minimum number of instruments for operation is generally installed in a turbine cycle, the redundancy requirement for the DR algorithm is unlikely to be satisfied. This study aims at developing an advanced efficiency monitoring method using the simulation-assisted DR. We proposed the idea to periodically establish a turbine cycle model and set up boundary conditions to generate the multiple candidates of reconciled datasets using a developed turbine cycle model. In this study, the conventional DR algorithm was followed to find a reconciled dataset, but we introduced the concept of minimum

  3. Development of filters and housings for use on active plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New designs of housings for conventional HEPA filters have been developed and are now in use. A further design is planned for future use. The main features to be developed are the engineering of double door systems to replace bag posting and other methods of filter changing which expose personnel to hazardous environments and the addition of a secondary containment to reduce the role of the gasket seal in the filtration efficiency. Also under development are circular geometry filters of HEPA standard which offer significant advantages over rectangular filters for applications requiring remote shielded change facilities. Two types of filter construction are being evaluated, conventional radial flow cartridge filters and spiral-wound, axial-flow filters. The application of circular filters for primary filter systems on active plant is in hand. A push-through change system has been developed for a new cell facility under construction at Harwell. Existing rectangular filters on a high activity cell are being replaced with clusters of small cartridge filters to overcome changing and disposal problems. A similar system but using 1700 m3/h filters for large volume off-gas treatment is also being studied. A remote change shielded filter installation is being developed for use in high alpha, beta, gamma extract systems. The design incorporates large cartridge filters in sealed drums with remote transfer and connection to duct work in the facility. A novel application of the use of double-lid technology removes the need for separate shut off dampers and enables the drums to be sealed for all transfer operations

  4. Study on the system development for evaluating long-term alteration of hydraulic field in near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the high performance evaluation of reliability of TRU waste repository, the system development for evaluating long-term alteration in consideration of the changes action of barrier materials of hydraulic field in Near Field is required. In this research, system development for evaluating long-term alteration of hydraulic field in Near Field was examined. Examination of the basic specification of chemical/dynamic alteration action analysis system used as the composition element of this system and a whole system were performed. The research result of this year is shown below. 1) The system by which the chemical changes happened by Near Field as influence of the exudation liquid from cement material are evaluated was examined. In this year, document investigation about the various processes about chemical alteration and extraction of a choice, presentation of the uncertainty about a model or data, preliminary modeling, a simple analysis tool creation and sensitivity analysis, extraction of the process which should be taken into consideration in a system valuation modeling and a phenomenon analysis model, and a corresponding mathematics model, optimization of the software composition for development of a system valuation modeling, the exercise by the preliminary system analysis model, the experiment plan for the corroboration of a model were shown. 2) In consideration of change of the physical characteristic accompanying chemical alteration of bentonite material and cement material, the system by which dynamic changes action of repository is evaluated was examined. In this year, arrangement of the dynamics action of repository for long-term were shown. Extraction of a phenomenon made applicable to evaluation was shown. And the dynamic models were investigated and the prototype of the dynamics model that can take into consideration the characteristic of bentonite material was shown. And the basic composition of a dynamic changes action analysis system was shown. 3

  5. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gismondi A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Angelo Gismondi,1 Valentina Nanni,1 Giacomo Reina,2 Silvia Orlanducci,2 Maria Letizia Terranova,2 Antonella Canini1 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy Abstract: For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. Keywords: citropten, cytoskeletal structure, plant secondary metabolite, melanoma, internalization kinetics

  6. Expression of ZmGA20ox cDNA alters plant morphology and increases biomass production of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phat T; De Tar, Joann R; Lee, Hyeyoung; Folta, Michelle K; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2016-07-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is considered a model herbaceous energy crop for the USA, for its adaptation to marginal land, low rainfall and nutrient-deficient soils; however, its low biomass yield is one of several constraints, and this might be rectified by modulating plant growth regulator levels. In this study, we have determined whether the expression of the Zea mays gibberellin 20-oxidase (ZmGA20ox) cDNA in switchgrass will improve biomass production. The ZmGA20ox gene was placed under the control of constitutive CaMV35S promoter with a strong TMV omega enhancer, and introduced into switchgrass via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgene integration and expression levels of ZmGA20ox in T0 plants were analysed using Southern blot and qRT-PCR. Under glasshouse conditions, selected transgenic plants exhibited longer leaves, internodes and tillers, which resulted in twofold increased biomass. These phenotypic alterations correlated with the levels of transgene expression and the particular gibberellin content. Expression of ZmGA20ox also affected the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the employment of ectopic ZmGA20ox and selection for natural variants with high level expression of endogenous GA20ox are appropriate approaches to increase biomass production of switchgrass and other monocot biofuel crops. PMID:26801525

  7. Development of web based performance analysis program for nuclear power plant turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance improvement of turbine cycle affects economic operation of nuclear power plant. We developed performance analysis system for nuclear power plant turbine cycle. The system is based on PTC (Performance Test Code), that is estimation standard of nuclear power plant performance. The system is developed using Java Web-Start and JSP(Java Server Page)

  8. Developing Predictive Maintenance Expertise to Improve Plant Equipment Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-line equipment condition monitoring is a critical component of the world-class production and safety histories of many successful nuclear plant operators. From addressing availability and operability concerns of nuclear safety-related equipment to increasing profitability through support system reliability and reduced maintenance costs, Predictive Maintenance programs have increasingly become a vital contribution to the maintenance and operation decisions of nuclear facilities. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the quality and portability of many of the instruments being used, and software improvements have been made as well. However, the single most influential component of the success of these programs is the impact of a trained and experienced team of personnel putting this technology to work. Changes in the nature of the power generation industry brought on by competition, mergers, and acquisitions, has taken the historically stable personnel environment of power generation and created a very dynamic situation. As a result, many facilities have seen a significant turnover in personnel in key positions, including predictive maintenance personnel. It has become the challenge for many nuclear operators to maintain the consistent contribution of quality data and information from predictive maintenance that has become important in the overall equipment decision process. These challenges can be met through the implementation of quality training to predictive maintenance personnel and regular updating and re-certification of key technology holders. The use of data management tools and services aid in the sharing of information across sites within an operating company, and with experts who can contribute value-added data management and analysis. The overall effectiveness of predictive maintenance programs can be improved through the incorporation of newly developed comprehensive technology training courses. These courses address the use of

  9. Development of 3D VR plant digital information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there are many ongoing efforts to shorten the plant refueling and maintenance outage durations, and it is expected to become more active as the time goes on. Improved training and education system are required for the personnel to perform efficient inspection on time. This work is focused on establishing virtual Nuclear Power Plant system which will help train the personnel to understand the system characteristics of the plant by creating navigation enabled 3D plant mockups. Furthermore, this project is aimed at constructing information management system over the whole plant area, by integrating safety related data and combining it with web based GUI technology, to make search and management activities easy. This project spans three years. The forst year was spent in 3D mockup modeling of most part of the plant, and prototyping the web based VR plant digital information system. Plant environment, buildings, reactor structure, steam generator, pressurizer, fuel assemblies, pressurizer safety valve, main steamline safety valve, reactor coolant system, main steamline system, auxiliary and main coolant supply system were modeled into 3D mockups. Control functions such as magnification, rotation, movement, transparency, location detection, cross-cut view, full screen toggle and screen capture were implemented to facilitate manipulation of and navigation through the VR mockups. It is expected that the VR plant will serve as an effective support system for power plant regulation and inspection

  10. Alterations in polyribosome and messenger ribonucleic acid metabolism and messenger ribonucleoprotein utilization in osmotically stressed plant seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyribosome aggregation state in growing tissues of barley and wheat leaf of stems of pea and squash was studied in relation to seedling growth and water status of the growing tissue in plants at various levels of osmotic stress. It was found to be highly correlated with water potential and osmotic potential of the growing tissue and with leaf of stem elongation rate. Stress rapidly reduced polyribosome content and water status in growing tissues of barley leaves; changes were slow and slight in the non-growing leaf blade. Membrane-bound and free polyribosomes were equally sensitive to stress-induced disaggregation. Incorporation of 32PO43- into ribosomal RNA was rapidly inhibited by stress, but stability of poly(A)+RNA relative to ribosomal RNA was similar in stressed and unstressed tissues, with a half-life of about 12 hours. Stress also caused progressive loss of poly(A)+RNA from these tissues. Quantitation of poly(A) and in vitro messenger template activity in polysome gradient fractions showed a shift of activity from the polysomal region to the region of 20-60 S in stressed plants. Messenger RNA in the 20-60 S region coded for the same peptides as mRNA found in the polysomal fraction. Nonpolysomal and polysome-derived messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNP) were isolated, and characteristic proteins were found associated with either fraction. Polysomal mRNP from stressed or unstressed plants were translated with similar efficiency in a wheat germ cell-free system. It was concluded that no translational inhibitory activity was associated with nonpolysomal mRNP from barley prepared as described

  11. Evolution of fruit development genes in flowering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia ePabón-Mora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genetic mechanisms regulating dry fruit development and opercular dehiscence have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the bicarpellate silique, valve elongation and differentiation is controlled by FRUITFULL (FUL that antagonizes SHATTERPROOF1-2 (SHP1/ SHP2 and INDEHISCENT (IND at the dehiscence zone where they control normal lignification. SHP1/2 are also repressed by REPLUMLESS (RPL, responsible for replum formation. Similarly, FUL indirectly controls two other factors ALCATRAZ (ALC and SPATULA (SPT that function in the proper formation of the separation layer. FUL and SHP1/2 belong to the MADS-box family, IND and ALC belong to the bHLH family and RPL belongs to the homeodomain family, all of which are large transcription factor families. These families have undergone numerous duplications and losses in plants, likely accompanied by functional changes. Functional analyses of homologous genes suggest that this network is fairly conserved in Brassicaceae and less conserved in other core eudicots. Only the MADS box genes have been functionally characterized in basal eudicots and suggest partial conservation of the functions recorded for Brassicaceae. Here we do a comprehensive search of SHP, IND, ALC, SPT and RPL homologs across core-eudicots, basal eudicots, monocots and basal angiosperms. Based on gene-tree analyses we hypothesize what parts of the network for fruit development in Brassicaceae, in particular regarding direct and indirect targets of FUL, might be conserved across angiosperms.

  12. Evolution of fruit development genes in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Ambrose, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms regulating dry fruit development and opercular dehiscence have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the bicarpellate silique, valve elongation and differentiation is controlled by FRUITFULL (FUL) that antagonizes SHATTERPROOF1-2 (SHP1/SHP2) and INDEHISCENT (IND) at the dehiscence zone where they control normal lignification. SHP1/2 are also repressed by REPLUMLESS (RPL), responsible for replum formation. Similarly, FUL indirectly controls two other factors ALCATRAZ (ALC) and SPATULA (SPT) that function in the proper formation of the separation layer. FUL and SHP1/2 belong to the MADS-box family, IND and ALC belong to the bHLH family and RPL belongs to the homeodomain family, all of which are large transcription factor families. These families have undergone numerous duplications and losses in plants, likely accompanied by functional changes. Functional analyses of homologous genes suggest that this network is fairly conserved in Brassicaceae and less conserved in other core eudicots. Only the MADS box genes have been functionally characterized in basal eudicots and suggest partial conservation of the functions recorded for Brassicaceae. Here we do a comprehensive search of SHP, IND, ALC, SPT, and RPL homologs across core-eudicots, basal eudicots, monocots and basal angiosperms. Based on gene-tree analyses we hypothesize what parts of the network for fruit development in Brassicaceae, in particular regarding direct and indirect targets of FUL, might be conserved across angiosperms. PMID:25018763

  13. Development of New Elastomers and Elastic Nanocomposites from Plant Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Wool, Richard

    2006-03-01

    Economic and environmental concerns lead to the development of new polymers from renewable resources. In this research, new elastomers were synthesized from plant oil based resins. Acrylated oleic methyl ester (AOME), synthesized from high oleic triglycerides, can readily undergo free radical polymerization and form a linear polymer. To achieve the elastic properties, different strategies have been developed to generate an elastic network and control the crosslink density. The elastomers are reinforced by nanoclays. The intercalated state has a network structure similar to thermoplastic elastomers in which the hard segments aggregate to give ordered crystalline domains. The selected organically modified clay and AOME matrix have similar solubility parameters, therefore intercalation of the monomer/polymer into the clay layers occurs and the nano-scale multilayered structure is stable. In situ intercalation and solution intercalation were used to prepare the elastic nanocomposites. Dramatic improvement in mechanical properties was observed. Changes of tensile strength, strain, Young's modulus and fracture energy were related to the clay concentration. The fracture surface was studied to further understand clay effects on the mechanical properties. Self-Healing of the intercalated nanobeams, thermal stability, biocompatibility and biodegradability of this new elastomer were also explored.

  14. In defense of (some) altered standards of care for Ebola infections in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, Philip M

    2015-03-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus infection in West Africa continues to spread. Several patients have now been treated in the United States and preparations are being made for more. Because of the strict isolation required for their care, questions have been raised about what diagnostic and therapeutic interventions should be available. I discuss the ethical challenges associated with caring for patients in strict isolation and personnel wearing bulky protective gear with reduced dexterity and flexibility, the limitations this may place on available treatments and the permissibility of consequent departures from the standards of care. Restricting access to some interventions such as surgery requiring an operating room, advanced imaging, etc. is reasonable due to concern for protecting other patients, visitors and staff. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a special case and the implications for withholding this intervention in situations where it may be desired is discussed, especially with respect to those patients who have suspected, but not proven, infection. These same restrictions are also considered under conditions where there are scarce resources and thus limited numbers of patients may receive care. While it is to be hoped that there is only limited and sporadic infection with Ebola virus in the US, careful thought must be given to the care of these patients under the unusual circumstances demanded by their isolation. I argue that an altered standard of care is reasonable and ethically acceptable under certain conditions. PMID:25618166

  15. Altered cholesterol biosynthesis causes precocious neurogenesis in the developing mouse forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Ashley M; Kratz, Lisa E; Kelley, Richard I; Stottmann, Rolf W

    2016-07-01

    We previously reported a mutation in the cholesterol biosynthesis gene, hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 7 (Hsd17b7(rudolph)), that results in striking embryonic forebrain dysgenesis. Here we describe abnormal patterns of neuroprogenitor proliferation in the mutant forebrain, namely, a decrease in mitotic cells within the ventricular zone (VZ) and an increase through the remainder of the cortex by E11.5. Further evidence suggests mutant cells undergo abnormal interkinetic nuclear migration (IKNM). Furthermore, intermediate progenitors are increased at the expense of apical progenitors by E12.5, and post-mitotic neurons are expanded by E14.5. In vitro primary neuron culture further supports our model of accelerated cortical differentiation in the mutant. Combined administration of a statin and dietary cholesterol in utero achieved partial reversal of multiple developmental abnormalities in the Hsd17b7(rudolph) embryo, including the forebrain. These results suggest that abnormally increased levels of specific cholesterol precursors in the Hsd17b7(rudolph) embryo cause cortical dysgenesis by altering patterns of neurogenesis. PMID:26921468

  16. Development of IT-based Cyber Security Technology for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development and enlargement of the high speed communication network make it possible the user to access online information easily. It generates changing offline activities to online in the economics, expansion of cultural interchanges and convenient life. But it also causes misuse, wiretapping, forgery and alteration of the information via illegal invasion(virus, hacking), and these are derived from the open network characteristic, weakness of the securities of the TCP/IP protocol and information systems. The security of individual and the national foundation facility(industry and government) can be threatened because of these problems, and theses can be used as a instrument of cyber-war. Many cyber security technologies have been developed to corp with the cyber threat. One of the most important national facility is the nuclear power plant and the necessity of the cyber security for the digital I and C of it have been proposed since middle of the 2000. KINS announced the regulation of the cyber security for the digital I and C of the nuclear power plant in 2007. The main concept of the cyber security for it is similar to the IT field that is treated as a leader of the cyber security. Because of the difference of the characteristics between the IT field and the nuclear industry, applying the cyber security technologies developed and used in the IT field to the nuclear industry has some critical constraints. We will analyze these problems and propose a cyber security method based on cryptograph and authentication for the I and C communication network in this report

  17. BMP2, 4 and 6 and BMPR1B are altered from early stages of bovine cystic ovarian disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pablo U; Hein, Gustavo J; Belotti, Eduardo M; Rodríguez, Fernanda M; Rey, Florencia; Amweg, Ayelén N; Matiller, Valentina; Baravalle, María E; Ortega, Hugo H; Salvetti, Natalia R

    2016-10-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of subfertility in dairy cattle. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), mainly BMP2, BMP4 and BMP6, play a key role in female fertility. In this study, we hypothesized that an altered BMP system is associated with ovarian alterations contributing to COD pathogenesis. Therefore, we examined the expression of BMP2, BMP4 and BMP6 and BMP receptor 1B (BMPR1B) in the ovaries of animals with spontaneous or ACTH-induced COD, as well as during the development of the disease, in a model of follicular persistence induced by low doses of progesterone (at 5, 10 and 15 days of follicular persistence). Results showed changes in BMP2, BMP4 and BMP6 expression during folliculogenesis, in granulosa and theca cells in the COD groups, as well as at different stages of follicular persistence. Results also showed changes in BMPR1B expression in developing follicles in animals with COD, and at the initial stages of follicular persistence (P5). Comparison between groups showed significant differences, mainly in BMP4 and BMP6 expression, in granulosa and theca cells of different follicular categories. The expression of these BMPs also increased in cystic and persistent follicles, in relation to antral follicles of the control group. BMPR1B showed high expression in cystic follicles. Together, these results may indicate an alteration in BMPs, especially in BMP4 and BMP6, as well as in BMPR1B, which occurs early in folliculogenesis and incipiently during the development of COD, which could be a major cause of recurrence of this disease in cattle.Free Spanish abstract: A Spanish translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/early/2016/08/01/REP-15-0315/suppl/DC1. PMID:27486268

  18. New Developments in Plant Conservation and the Relevance of Ethnobotany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    There is only one cover of plants on Earth,so all plant-related aspects of conservation should be considered in deciding how the land and the plants on it should be managed for conservation purposes.A three-fold classification of the benefits to be derived from ecosystem-based plant conservation (EBPC) is suggested:conservation of plant species,the sustainable use of plant resources and the delivery of ecosystem services.EBPC is a place-centred approach which,in principle,can be pursued anywhere.Ethnobotanical research can help reveal realities about relationships between local people and plants,thus providing information useful for advancing plant conservation.Applied ethnobotany involves ethnobotanists working in a participatory way with local people,both parties contributing to the identification and resolution of conservation issues relating to plants.This type of research helps ensure that priority issues from the local perspective are addressed,thus making it more likely that local people will be committed to implementing solutions found.Both knowledge and values associated with local communities,and knowledge and methodologies associated with science are brought together in the conservation cause.

  19. Facies variability and post-depositional alteration within the rustler formation in the vicinity of the waste isolation pilot plant, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to describe the detailed sedimentology, interpret the depositional environments of the Rustler, and to reassess the extent of Rustler dissolution. The reconstructed depositional environments help to bound the extent and relative timing of dissolution. Existing literature was surveyed to distill criteria by which dissolution can be recognized. Microscopic examination of diagenetic alteration of the Rustler rounds out the evidence. The Rustler was examined in detail in two shafts and many cores from the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. Nearly 600 geophysical logs from boreholes in southeastern New Mexico were interpreted, and the stratigraphy and lithology over a larger study area were related to units observed in cores and shafts from the WIPP site. 103 refs., 79 figs., 1 tab

  20. Sulfur-bearing coatings on fly ash from a coal-fired power plant: Composition, origin, and influence on ash alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, N.S.; Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Johnson, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Fly ash samples collected from two locations in the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant differ markedly with respect to the abundance of thin (???0.1 ??m) sulfur-rich surface coatings that are observable by scanning electron microscopy. The coatings, tentatively identified as an aluminum-potassium-sulfate phase, probably form upon reaction between condensed sulfuric acid aerosols and glass surfaces, and are preferentially concentrated on ash exposed to exhaust stream gases for longer. The coatings are highly soluble and if sufficiently abundant, can impart an acidic pH to solutions initially in contact with ash. These observations suggest that proposals for ash use and predictions of ash behavior during disposal should consider the transient, acid-generating potential of some ash fractions and the possible effects on initial ash leachability and alteration. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Tolerance and responsive gene expression of Sogatella furcifera under extreme temperature stresses are altered by its vectored plant virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donglin; Zhong, Ting; Feng, Wendi; Zhou, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a newly emerged fijivirus causing great loss to rice production in eastern and southeastern Asian countries in recent years, is efficiently transmitted by a rice pest, white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent, circulative propagative manner and can be considered as an insect virus. In this study, SRBSDV infection in WBPH was found to increase the vector's death rate under extreme cold stress but improve its survival rate under extreme heat stress. Digital gene expression profiling based on RNA-Seq revealed different gene regulation patterns in WBPH under viral and/or temperature stress. Under cold stress, the virus infection upregulated 1540 genes and downregulated 131 genes in the insect, most of which were related to membrane properties and biological processes of actin and cytoskeleton; whereas under heat stress, it upregulated 363 genes and downregulated 548 genes, most of which were associated to metabolism and intracellular organelles. Several types of stress-responsive genes involving intestinal mucin, cuticle protein, ubiquitin protease, immune response, RNA interference and heat shock response, were largely upregulated under cold stress, but largely downregulated under heat stress, by SRBSDV infection. Our results suggest two distinct mechanisms of virus-altered vector insect tolerance to temperature stress. PMID:27531640

  2. Zoning Rural Area For The Development Of Annual Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariot Hafif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One strategy to protect land from degradation is to use the land according to their capability. Zoning of commodities is an effort in that direction and determination of commodities is based on the suitability of land with agronomic needs of crops and farming feasibility analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the development zone of annual crops, based on the analysis of agro-ecological characteristics and agricultural viability. Analysis of land suitability for the cultivation of coffee, vanilla, pepper, cocoa, banana, durian, mango, and melinjo, found that land can be recommended for the development of the annual crops is about 29,230 ha from an area of 54,764 ha. The land was divided into six agro-ecological zones i.e. two zones at area with land slope of 3- 8%, each covering an area of 2,737 ha at an altitude of 15-50 m above sea level (asl, and 12,008 ha at an altitude of 50-300 m asl, the two zone at area with land slope of 8-15%, each covering 6119 ha at an altitude of 25-250 m asl and 1,221 ha at an altitude of 15-50 m asl, and two zones at area with land slope of 16-40% , each covering an area of 1,101 ha at an altitude of 400-700 m asl, and 6,134 ha at an altitude of 400-500 m asl. The soil types found are Typic /Vitrandic Eutrudepts, Typic Hapludands, and Vitrandic Hapludalfs. This study recommends that the banana is a perennial plant with the most potential to be developed and has good economic prospects in almost all agro-ecological zones. Other commodities are also preferred, coffee and vanilla.

  3. Development of radiological performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to improve the regulatory approach to check the licensee's compliance with regulation regarding radiation protection in operating nuclear power plants (NPPs). The current domestic inspection program for NPPs requires inspectors to conduct compliance-inspection for the systems/equipment and the procedures of NPPs. In this work, we have developed a set of draft radiological performance indicators (PIs) to assess radiation safety in NPPs. The development of PIs was based on the concept that the licensees' implementation of the radiation protection program in NPPs should be able to achieve the goal of radiation protection which the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended as ICRP 60 (1991). We selected and/or developed the radiological performance indicators considering the radiation exposure network (source-environment-receptor) for NPPs. The PIs intend to be applied only to normal exposure due to normal operations including transient operational conditions, but not to potential exposure due to accidents. Also, we have chosen the receptor as workers who are occupationally exposed to radiation as well as the members of public who are exposed to radiation from radioactive effluents. The PIs intend to track the past performance rather than to expect the future performance. Finally, the individual PIs do not verify the root cause of the trend of performance; however, they provide the basis for deciding whether the procedures and work management have been properly implemented. Currently a set of 21 draft PIs has been developed for the exposure network in NPPs. For the receptor, the PIs are divided into worker individual dose, worker collective dose and public individual dose. For the environment, the PIs are related to the dose rates of controlled areas, radioactive material concentrations in controlled areas, radioactive contamination in controlled areas and at exit points, and radioactive effluent

  4. Development of SC structure modularization in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Focus on NPP are Rising Concerns on Global Warming, Potential energy crisis (geo-political), Improved reliability and safety of nuclear power plant, Advent of Generation 3+ NPP technology and Economical Energy Resource. New NPPs are 6 units in Korea and 23 in Asia being built, 32 units being planned in China by 2020 (150 by 2050), 10 units being planned in US by 2020 and IAEA expects $200 billions on NPP construction next 25 years (up to 30% of total world energy). □ SC(Steel Plate Concrete) structure · Steel Plate is used as a Structural Element instead of Reinforcing Bars in RC · SC structure consists of Steel Plate with Headed Studs. Connected by Tie-bars - The Primary Purpose of Tie-bars is to Stiffen and Hold Together the Plates during Construction Process - Headed Studs are Welded to the Inside of Steel Plate for composite action □ Benefits of SC Structure · Shorten Construction Duration for Re bar, Forming and Scaffolding Works · Minimize Site Labors · Improve the Construction Quality · Enable Construction Sites to be kept Clean □ SC Modularization · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Inattentively Effective for Integrated Modules · Pre-fabrication, Pre-assembly and Modularization □ Project Overview · Project Name: Development of SC structure for Modularization in NPP · Project Type: Electric Power Industry R and D (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) · Duration: Sep. 2005 ∼ Aug. 2008 (36 Months) · Research Team and Scopes - Project Management: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) - Development of Code and Standards for SC Structure: Korea Society of Steel Construction (KSSC) Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) - Development of SC Structural Analysis and Design: Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) - Development of Construction Techniques for SC Modularization: KHNP, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), KOPEC □ Performance

  5. Development of an automated scoring system for plant comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Pourrut

    2015-05-01

    -\tnucleus density: increase the density of nuclei is of importance to increase scoring reliability (Sharma et al., 2012. In conclusion, increasing plant nucleus extraction yield and automated scoring of nuclei do represent big challenges. However, our promising preliminary results open up the perspective of an automated high-throughput scoring of plant nuclei.

  6. Plant action spectra: some thoughts on development and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose-response relationships for net photosynthetic inhibition of a higher plant, Rumex patientia, are shown for different spectral irradiance distributions. As the plant is presented with increments of radiation at shorter wavelengths the depression of net photosynthesis occurs much more rapidly. These dose-response data reveal linear relationships when there is a significant response to a particular radiation distribution. (orig.)

  7. A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO2 [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits

  8. A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; MOLECKE,MARTIN A.; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; BRUSH,LAURENCE H.

    2000-06-05

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

  9. Development of a vinasse culture medium for plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinasse is the main pollutant (effluent) obtained from the distillation of sugarcane in the production of fuel alcohol. However, this residue is rich in nutrients that are required by plants. We developed a new culture medium using vinasse for the In vitro propagation of an orchid. The vinasse was treated (decanted and filtered), and the nutrients were determined and quantified. Different formulations using vinasse were tested for an In vitro culture. The vinasse dilutions demonstrated a good buffering effect. The ideal vinasse dilution for media formulation was 2.5%. The best KC formulations with vinasse were KCV1 and KCV5. Compared to KC medium, these formulations demonstrated similar results for In vitro multiplication, with the exception of protocorm-like body number, which was inferior in the vinasse formulations. Conversely, for In vitro elongation and rooting, these vinasse media were superior to KC medium. KC medium promotes a low rooting rate (8%) compared to 68 and 100% obtained by KCV1 and KCV5, respectively. Moreover, plantlets cultured on KC medium become protocorm-like body clusters, which impeded the acclimatization of these explants. Plantlets elongated and rooted on KCV1 and KCV5 were successfully acclimatized with a 91% survival rate for both KC vinasse formulations. This study shows the great potential of this technology as a rational alternative to vinasse disposal and adds value to what is currently considered a waste product. (author)

  10. Update on the Hanford waste vitrification plant technical developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program to dispose a defense high-level waste is formally described in the Defense Waste Management Plan submitted to Congress in 1983. This plan outlines the strategy of sequencing the disposal efforts at the three DOE sites that have high-level waste: Savannah River, Hanford site, and Idaho. A key element of the Hanford Site waste-management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. An earlier paper presented at Waste Management '86 describes design aspects of the HWVP. This paper presents a brief description of the HWVP Project and describes the progress made by the HWVP Project on key applied technology issues. The HWVP technology approach is to identify key HWVP waste-form qualification and design issues, identify sources of applicable vitrification technology, and maximize the use of existing DOE vitrification technology and design resources. The HWVP issues are resolved through technology exchange, support from other Hanford Site waste-management programs, and a limited HWVP applied technology development effort

  11. Development of the safeguards approach for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), which is currently undergoing construction and commissioning by the Japan Nuclear Fuels Limited (JNFL), is scheduled to begin active operations in 2005. The planned operating capacity is 800t uranium per year containing approximately 8t of plutonium. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO) are working with JNFL to develop a Safeguards Approach that is both effective and efficient. In order to accomplish this goal, a number of advanced concepts are being introduced and many currently applied safeguards measures are being enhanced. These new and improved techniques and procedures will provide for more sensitive and reliable verification of nuclear material and facility operations while reducing the required inspection effort. The Safeguards Approach incorporates systematic Design Information Examination and Verification (DIE/DIV) during all phases of construction, commissioning and operation. It incorporates installed, unattended radiation and solution measurement and monitoring systems along with a number of inspector attended measurement systems. While many of the measurement systems will be independent-inspector controlled, others will require authentication of a split signal from operator controlled systems. The independent and/or authenticated data from these systems will be transmitted over a network to a central inspector center for evaluation. Near-Real-Time-Accountancy (NRTA) will be used for short period sequential analysis of the operator and inspector data which, when combined with Solution Monitoring data, will provide higher assurance in the verification of nuclear material for timeliness and of the operational status of the facility. Samples will be taken using a facility installed, but IAEA authenticated, automatic sampling system and will then be transferred to a jointly used IAEA-JSGO On-Site Laboratory (OSL). This paper provides an overview of the Safeguards

  12. Development of safeguards approach for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), which is currently undergoing construction and commissioning by the Japan Nuclear Fuels Limited (JNFL), is scheduled to begin active operations in 2005. The planned operating capacity is 800 tonnes of spent fuel per year containing approximately 8 tonnes of plutonium. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Japan safeguards authorities are working with JNFL to develop a Safeguards Approach that is both effective and efficient. In order to accomplish this goal, a number of advanced concepts are being introduced and many currently applied safeguards measures are being enhanced. These new and improved techniques and procedures will provide for more sensitive and reliable verification of nuclear material and facility operations while reducing the required inspection effort. The Safeguards Approach incorporates systematic Design Information Examination and Verification (DIE/DIV) during all phases of construction, commissioning and operation. It incorporates installed, unattended radiation and solution measurement and monitoring systems along with a number of inspector attended measurement systems. While many of the measurement systems will be independent-inspector controlled, others will require authentication of a split signal from operator controlled systems. The independent and/or authenticated data from these systems will be transmitted over a network to a central inspector center for evaluation. Near-Real-Time-Accountancy (NRTA) will be used for short period sequential analysis of the operator and inspector data which, when combined with Solution Monitoring data, will provide higher assurance in the verification of nuclear material for timeliness and of the operational status of the facility. Samples will be taken using a facility installed, but IAEA authenticated, automatic sampling system and will then be transferred to a jointly used IAEA-JSGO On-Site Laboratory (OSL). This paper provides an

  13. Low dose trichloroethylene alters cytochrome P450 - 2C subfamily expression in the developing chick heart

    OpenAIRE

    Makwana, Om; Ahles, Lauren; Lencinas, Alejandro; Selmin, Ornella I.; Runyan, Raymond B.

    2013-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an organic solvent and common environmental contaminant. TCE exposure is associated with heart defects in humans and animal models. Primary metabolism of TCE in adult rodent models is by specific hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes (Lash et al., 2000). As association of TCE exposure with cardiac defects is in exposed embryos prior to normal liver development, we investigated metabolism of TCE in the early embryo. Developing chick embryos were dosed in ovo with environme...

  14. Activation of the Maternal Immune System During Pregnancy Alters Behavioral Development of Rhesus Monkey Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Bauman, Melissa D.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Smith, Stephen E. P.; Bregere, Catherine; Amaral, David G.; Patterson, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Supporting this correlation, experimentally activating the maternal immune system during pregnancy in rodents produces offspring with abnormal brain and behavioral development. We have developed a nonhuman primate model to bridge the gap between clinical populations and rodent models of maternal immune activation (MIA). Methods: A modified form of the ...

  15. Landscape alterations influence differential habitat use of nesting buteos and ravens within sagebrush ecosystem: implications for transmission line development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    A goal in avian ecology is to understand factors that influence differences in nesting habitat and distribution among species, especially within changing landscapes. Over the past 2 decades, humans have altered sagebrush ecosystems as a result of expansion in energy production and transmission. Our primary study objective was to identify differences in the use of landscape characteristics and natural and anthropogenic features by nesting Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and 3 species of buteo (Swainson's Hawk [Buteo swainsoni], Red-tailed Hawk [B. jamaicensis], and Ferruginous Hawk [B. regalis]) within a sagebrush ecosystem in southeastern Idaho. During 2007–2009, we measured multiple environmental factors associated with 212 nest sites using data collected remotely and in the field. We then developed multinomial models to predict nesting probabilities by each species and predictive response curves based on model-averaged estimates. We found differences among species related to nesting substrate (natural vs. anthropogenic), agriculture, native grassland, and edge (interface of 2 cover types). Most important, ravens had a higher probability of nesting on anthropogenic features (0.80) than the other 3 species (Artemisia spp.), favoring increased numbers of nesting ravens and fewer nesting Ferruginous Hawks. Our results indicate that habitat alterations, fragmentation, and forthcoming disturbances anticipated with continued energy development in sagebrush steppe ecosystems can lead to predictable changes in raptor and raven communities.

  16. Tomato Fruit Development and Ripening Are Altered by the Silencing of LeEIN2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Liang Zhu; Ben-Zhong Zhu; Yi Shao; Xiao-Guang Wang; Xi-Jin Lin; Yuan-Hong Xie; Ying-Cong Li; Hong-Yan Gao; Yun-Bo Luo

    2006-01-01

    Loss-of-function ethylene insensitive 2 (EIN2) mutations showed ethylene insensitivity in Arabidopsis,which indicated an essential role of EIN2 in ethylene signaling. However, the function of EIN2 in fruit ripening has not been investigated. To gain a better understanding of EIN2, the temporal regulation of LeEIN2 expression during tomato fruit development was analyzed. The expression of LeEIN2 was constant at different stages of fruit development, and was not regulated by ethylene. Moreover, LeEIN2-silenced tomato fruits were developed using a virus-induced gene silencing fruit system to study the role of LeEIN2 in tomato fruit ripening. Silenced fruits had a delay in fruit development and ripening, related to greatly descended expression of ethylene-related and ripening-related genes in comparison with those of control fruits. These results suggested LeEIN2 positively mediated ethylene signals during tomato development. In addition,there were fewer seeds and Iocules in the silenced fruit than those in the control fruit, like the phenotype of parthenocarpic tomato fruit. The content of auxin and the expression of auxin-regulated gene were declined in silenced fruit, which indicated that EIN2 might be important for crosstalk between ethylene and auxin hormones.

  17. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; Nanni, Valentina; Reina, Giacomo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Canini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin), and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. PMID:26893562

  18. Plant Cell Cancer: May Natural Phenolic Compounds Prevent Onset and Development of Plant Cell Malignancy? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Hassan; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Mansouri, Kamran; Mohammadzadeh, Sara; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are known as a chemically diverse category of secondary and reactive metabolites which are produced in plants via the shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathways. These compounds-ubiquitous in plants-are an essential part of the human diet, and are of considerable interest due to their antioxidant properties. Phenolic compounds are essential for plant functions, because they are involved in oxidative stress reactions, defensive systems, growth, and development. A large body of cellular and animal evidence carried out in recent decades has confirmed the anticancer role of PCs. Phytohormones-especially auxins and cytokinins-are key contributors to uncontrolled growth and tumor formation. Phenolic compounds can prevent plant growth by the endogenous regulation of auxin transport and enzymatic performance, resulting in the prevention of tumorigenesis. To conclude, polyphenols can reduce plant over-growth rate and the development of tumors in plant cells by regulating phytohormones. Future mechanistic studies are necessary to reveal intracellular transcription and transduction agents associated with the preventive role of phenolics versus plant pathological malignancy cascades. PMID:27563858

  19. CULTURAL EXPLORATION AS ALTER/NATIVE1 ROUTE TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: INSIGHTS FROM YORUBA VERBAL ARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUWOLE COKER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates Yoruba verbal arts and situates culture as a catalyst for development. It is suggested that the intricate resources of oral art, exemplified by Yoruba textual references, are viable ingredients for socio-cultural empowerment. To fully comprehend the dynamics of a society in constant change due to external and internal realities, one must reconsider culture in order to reposition the society. The multidimensional and multidisciplinary significance of Yoruba verbal art demonstrate that culture has a vital role to play in any meaningful socio-political advancement in the Nigerian body polity. The ideas conveyed in proverbial expressions, representing key cultural realities of the Yoruba people, offer insights and ideas for development and social good. The paper submits that a deeper exploration of the intricate resources of verbal art is a viable route to development.

  20. Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2012-01-01

    , Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 5, 15 or 50 μg/kg of ethinyl oestradiol per day during gestation and lactation. A wide range of morphological parameters were evaluated in whole mounts of mammary glands from male and female offspring PD21–22. This study showed that in both male and female pre......, indicating progressed development of mammary glands when exposed to oestrogens early in life. However, laboratories use different parameters to evaluate the development of mammary glands, making studies difficult to compare. Moreover, studies of whole mounts in Wistar rats are lacking. In the present study......‐pubertal Wistar rats, mammary gland development was accelerated after perinatal oestrogen exposure with increase in size, density and number of terminal end buds (TEBs). In female rats, the most sensitive parameters were the distance to the fifth gland, the relative growth towards the lymph node and the overall...

  1. Developing a synthetic signal transduction system in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Kevin J; Antunes, Mauricio S; Albrecht, Kirk D; Bowen, Tessa A; Troupe, Jared F; Havens, Keira L; Medford, June I

    2011-01-01

    One area of focus in the emerging field of plant synthetic biology is the manipulation of systems involved in sensing and response to environmental signals. Sensing and responding to signals, including ligands, typically involves biological signal transduction. Plants use a wide variety of signaling systems to sense and respond to their environment. One of these systems, a histidine kinase (HK) based signaling system, lends itself to manipulation using the tools of synthetic biology. Both plants and bacteria use HKs to relay signals, which in bacteria can involve as few as two proteins (two-component systems or TCS). HK proteins are evolutionarily conserved between plants and bacteria and plant HK components have been shown to be functional in bacteria. We found that this conservation also applies to bacterial HK components which can function in plants. This conservation of function led us to hypothesize that synthetic HK signaling components can be designed and rapidly tested in bacteria. These novel HK signaling components form the foundation for a synthetic signaling system in plants, but typically require modifications such as codon optimization and proper targeting to allow optimal function. We describe the process and methodology of producing a synthetic signal transduction system in plants. We discovered that the bacterial response regulator (RR) PhoB shows HK-dependent nuclear translocation in planta. Using this discovery, we engineered a partial synthetic pathway in which a synthetic promoter (PlantPho) is activated using a plant-adapted PhoB (PhoB-VP64) and the endogenous HK-based cytokinin signaling pathway. Building on this work, we adapted an input or sensing system based on bacterial chemotactic binding proteins and HKs, resulting in a complete eukaryotic signal transduction system. Input to our eukaryotic signal transduction system is provided by a periplasmic binding protein (PBP), ribose-binding protein (RBP). RBP interacts with the membrane

  2. Epithelial-Derived Inflammation Disrupts Elastin Assembly and Alters Saccular Stage Lung Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, John T; van der Meer, Riet; Im, Amanda M; Plosa, Erin J; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Burman, Ankita; Havrilla, Madeline E; Gleaves, Linda A; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Deutsch, Gail H; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Prince, Lawrence S; Young, Lisa R; Blackwell, Timothy S

    2016-07-01

    The highly orchestrated interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme required for normal lung development can be disrupted by perinatal inflammation in preterm infants, although the mechanisms are incompletely understood. We used transgenic (inhibitory κB kinase β transactivated) mice that conditionally express an activator of the NF-κB pathway in airway epithelium to investigate the impact of epithelial-derived inflammation during lung development. Epithelial NF-κB activation selectively impaired saccular stage lung development, with a phenotype comprising rapidly progressive distal airspace dilation, impaired gas exchange, and perinatal lethality. Epithelial-derived inflammation resulted in disrupted elastic fiber organization and down-regulation of elastin assembly components, including fibulins 4 and 5, lysyl oxidase like-1, and fibrillin-1. Fibulin-5 expression by saccular stage lung fibroblasts was consistently inhibited by treatment with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from inhibitory κB kinase β transactivated mice, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, or tracheal aspirates from preterm infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. Expression of a dominant NF-κB inhibitor in fibroblasts restored fibulin-5 expression after lipopolysaccharide treatment, whereas reconstitution of fibulin-5 rescued extracellular elastin assembly by saccular stage lung fibroblasts. Elastin organization was disrupted in saccular stage lungs of preterm infants exposed to systemic inflammation. Our study reveals a critical window for elastin assembly during the saccular stage that is disrupted by inflammatory signaling and could be amenable to interventions that restore elastic fiber assembly in the developing lung. PMID:27181406

  3. Simvastatin reduces fetal testosterone production and permanently alters reproductive tract development in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androgen signaling by fetal Leydig cells is critical in the proper development of the male reproductive tract. As cholesterol is a precursor for hormone biosynthesis,inhibition of the cholesterol pathway during sex differentiation may reduce testosterone {T). We hypothesized tha...

  4. Alterations in protein expression associated with the development of mealiness in peaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry was utilized to identify proteins related to the development of mealiness in peaches. Five proteins were identified that significantly differed in amount between peaches that had mealy flesh and those that remained juicy followin...

  5. Altered astrocyte morphology and vascular development in dystrophin-Dp71-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocanti-Auregan, Audrey; Vacca, Ophélie; Bénard, Romain; Cao, Sijia; Siqueiros, Lourdes; Montañez, Cecilia; Paques, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Sennlaub, Florian; Guillonneau, Xavier; Rendon, Alvaro; Tadayoni, Ramin

    2016-05-01

    Understanding retinal vascular development is crucial because many retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (in adults) or retinopathy of prematurity (in children) are among the leading causes of blindness. Given the localization of the protein Dp71 around the retinal vessels in adult mice and its role in maintaining retinal homeostasis, the aim of this study was to determine if Dp71 was involved in astrocyte and vascular development regulation. An experimental study in mouse retinas was conducted. Using a dual immunolabeling with antibodies to Dp71 and anti-GFAP for astrocytes on retinal sections and isolated astrocytes, it was found that Dp71 was expressed in wild-type (WT) mouse astrocytes from early developmental stages to adult stage. In Dp71-null mice, a reduction in GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes was observed as early as postnatal day 6 (P6) compared with WT mice. Using real-time PCR, it was showed that Dp71 mRNA was stable between P1 and P6, in parallel with post-natal vascular development. Regarding morphology in Dp71-null and WT mice, a significant decrease in overall astrocyte process number in Dp71-null retinas at P6 to adult age was found. Using fluorescence-conjugated isolectin Griffonia simplicifolia on whole mount retinas, subsequent delay of developing vascular network at the same age in Dp71-null mice was found. An evidence that the Dystrophin Dp71, a membrane-associated cytoskeletal protein and one of the smaller Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene products, regulates astrocyte morphology and density and is associated with subsequent normal blood vessel development was provided. GLIA 2016;64:716-729. PMID:26711882

  6. Development of a nuclear desalination plant using the SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear desalination simply replaces the fossil fuels used for seawater desalination as a nuclear energy. Since the SMART co-generation plant aims at the most effective use of thermal energy produced by SMART, the desalination process and the coupling method were determined through the thermodynamic analysis for the evaporation process, MSF and MED, and the various coupling method. The performance ratio of the SMART desalination plant was optimized through the sensitive analysis on water production cost with the performance ratio. Also thermodynamic energy balance calculation was performed on the SMART secondary cycle coupled with the desalination plant including steam transformer. In addition, the safety impact of the transients induced by the desalination plant was evaluated through the bounding approach of the key safety parameters of these transients

  7. Development of power generation and nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of Czechoslovak WWER type nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and planned. Regional geological surveying is being performed for nuclear power plant siting, covering an area of about 100 to 200 km in radius, as well as engineering and geological surveying aimed at obtaining data on the bearing capacity and stability of the area, on the subsidence of foundation soil due to construction, on ground water level, etc. The basic engineering and geological properties of suitable nuclear power plant sites are listed. A description is given of the method of seismic subdivision of the site into micro-areas and of the system of automatic earthquake protection used for securing the seismic safety of the power plants. (E.J.). 3 refs

  8. Recent developments in fast spectroscopy for plant mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maarschalkerweerd, Marie; Husted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Ideal fertilizer management to optimize plant productivity and quality is more relevant than ever, as global food demands increase along with the rapidly growing world population. At the same time, sub-optimal or excessive use of fertilizers leads to severe environmental damage in areas of intensive crop production. The approaches of soil and plant mineral analysis are briefly compared and discussed here, and the new techniques using fast spectroscopy that offer cheap, rapid, and easy-to-use analysis of plant nutritional status are reviewed. The majority of these methods use vibrational spectroscopy, such as visual-near infrared and to a lesser extent ultraviolet and mid-infrared spectroscopy. Advantages of and problems with application of these techniques are thoroughly discussed. Spectroscopic techniques considered having major potential for plant mineral analysis, such as chlorophyll a fluorescence, X-ray fluorescence, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy are also described. PMID:25852719

  9. Development of new construction technologies for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to proceed rationally with the construction of a nuclear power station, the followings are the subject to solve beside reducing the construction cost: shortening the construction period, improving the quality, and securing safety in the construction work. As a measure to solve the matters, we correctly construct the plant mainly applying 'all-weather proof construction method' and 'pre-assembled large-block construction method'. Furthermore, as the plant construction control system, we perform a construction work applying the design change management system, pre-assessment for safety, and the whole facility check. As a result of our effort, it was attained that when we compare the matured plant with the first unit, the construction cost is reduced by 30%, the construction period is shortened by 12 months, site manpower is decreased by 30%, and the plant had no sudden shutdowns even during the trial operation period. (author)

  10. Track 6: safety and risk management. Plant operational risk management. Plant Configuration Risk Assessment Methodology Development for Periodic Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the operation experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea accumulate and NPP safety functions become enhanced, the role of stable and optimal NPP operation within acceptable safety criteria becomes important at present. To accomplish the goal of safe and optimal operation, maintenance and its related activities should be regarded as the issues of most concern. Studies of methodologies for maintenance improvement and optimization have focused on system performance rather than on the hardware itself. From this point of view, the probabilistic methods are most useful. In terms of risk including core damage frequency and unavailability, the cause that might impact plant safety during normal maintenance activities can be identified and evaluated effectively. The results from these probabilistic analyses can provide insightful information for the reallocation of risk-contributing maintenance activity. This information can be utilized in a way that separates the significant risk-contributing maintenance activities from each other unless they are timely related. In Korea, the risk-monitoring program for operating NPPs is under development and will be implemented in 2003. To accomplish the risk-monitoring program objectives, suitable risk evaluation methods should be developed before the implementation of the risk-monitoring program. The plant configuration assessment methodology was developed for these reasons, and this method is to incorporate the field experiences into the risk calculation exactly within the limit of probabilistic methods. During normal plant operation, the plant operational risk changes frequently depending on the status of the plant system and the arrangement of the components. Specific plant systems or components are typically removed from service because of random equipment failure, planned preventive/predictive maintenance, corrective maintenance, surveillance testing, and operational bypass activities, and such events usually impact the

  11. AXIAL SKELETAL AND HOX EXPRESSION DOMAIN ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID, VALPROIC ACID AND BROMOXYNIL DURING MURINE DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid (RA) alters the developmental fate of the axial skeletal anlage. "Anteriorizations" or "posteriorizations", the assumption of characteristics of embryonic areas normally anterior or posterior to the affected tissues, are correlated with altered emb...

  12. Electrical standards development activities for nuclear power plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents information describing the concern for nuclear power plant electrical equipment maintenance and the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee's method to address that concern. That method was the creation of Working Group 3.3, ''Maintenance Good Practices'' which is providing specific maintenance good practice documents, supporting technical information exchange, and providing the vehicle to promote practices which reduce cost and enhance plant safety

  13. Evaluation of Screening Techniques for Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    Woody plant herbicide screening techniques were evaluated in an attempt to expedite the screening process and decrease amounts of herbicide active ingredient required. Rapid greenhouse screening of woody plant seedlings was performed in less than six months while rapid seed screening was performed in less than twenty days. A traditional field screen, requiring ten months, was performed for comparison purposes. Leaf area â biomass ratios were also examined for their influence on herbicide...

  14. The Idea of Sustainable Development to Reconcile the Environmental and Intellectual Property Protection of Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebreselassie, Abeba T.

    2010-01-01

    requirements of the environmental protection of plant genetic resources (for example by the Convention on Biological Diversity [CBD]) into the intellectual property protection of plant genetic resources (patent laws and plant variety protection laws). The Article argues that, first, as the discussion in the...... /International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources on Food and Agriculture [IT-PGRFA] and plant intellectual property laws, and Agreements have to be considered as one way for developed countries to fulfill the many promises given to developing countries under different laws, agreements and declarations such as...

  15. Plant quantity affects development and survival of a gregarious insect herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp.

    OpenAIRE

    Minghui Fei; Rieta Gols; Feng Zhu; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all studies of plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions focus on plant quality as the major constraint on development and survival. However, for many gregarious feeding insect herbivores that feed on small or ephemeral plants, the quantity of resources is much more limiting, yet this area has received virtually no attention. Here, in both lab and semifield experiments using tents containing variably sized clusters of food plants, we studied the effects of periodic food deprivation...

  16. Sustainable Management of Planted Forests in China: Comprehensive Evaluation, Development Recommendation and Action Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world in terms of planted forests area. Planted forests play an important role in soil and water conservation, food source, timber supply and energy security, but there are still many problems waiting for immediate resolution. Based on the current development status of planted forest in China, the paper made an comprehensive analysis for the positive impact and existing problems with regard to planted forests, and then came up with policy recommendations for prom...

  17. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species exposed to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol develop...

  18. CULTURAL EXPLORATION AS ALTER/NATIVE1 ROUTE TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: INSIGHTS FROM YORUBA VERBAL ARTS

    OpenAIRE

    OLUWOLE COKER; ADESINA COKER

    2009-01-01

    This paper interrogates Yoruba verbal arts and situates culture as a catalyst for development. It is suggested that the intricate resources of oral art, exemplified by Yoruba textual references, are viable ingredients for socio-cultural empowerment. To fully comprehend the dynamics of a society in constant change due to external and internal realities, one must reconsider culture in order to reposition the society. The multidimensional and multidisciplinary significance of Yoruba verbal art d...

  19. Silver Nanoparticles Alter Zebrafish Development and Larval Behavior: Distinct Roles for Particle Size, Coating and Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Christina M; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Seidler, Frederic J; Badireddy, Appala R.; Padilla, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) act as antibacterials by releasing monovalent silver (Ag+) and are increasingly used in consumer products, thus elevating exposures in human and wildlife populations. In vitro models indicate that AgNPs are likely to be developmental neurotoxicants with actions distinct from those of Ag+. We exposed developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Ag+ or AgNPs on days 0–5 post-fertilization and evaluated hatching, morphology, survival and swim bladder inflation. Larval swimm...

  20. Development of Macrophages with Altered Actin Organization in the Absence of MafB

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Athar; Vanhille, Laurent; Mohideen, Peer; Kelly, Louise M.; Otto, Claas; Bakri, Youssef; Mossadegh, Noushine; Sarrazin, Sandrine; Sieweke, Michael H

    2006-01-01

    In the hematopoietic system the bZip transcription factor MafB is selectively expressed at high levels in monocytes and macrophages and promotes macrophage differentiation in myeloid progenitors, whereas a dominant-negative allele can inhibit this process. To analyze the requirement of MafB for macrophage development, we generated MafB-deficient mice and, due to their neonatal lethal phenotype, analyzed macrophage differentiation in vitro, in the embryo, and in reconstituted mice. Surprisingl...

  1. Altering Glypican-1 levels modulates canonical Wnt signaling during trigeminal placode development

    OpenAIRE

    Shiau, Celia E; Hu, Na; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Glypicans are conserved cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans expressed in a spatiotemporally regulated manner in many developing tissues including the nervous system. Here, we show that Glypican-1 (GPC1) is expressed by trigeminal placode cells as they ingress and contribute to trigeminal sensory neurons in the chick embryo. Either expression of full-length or truncated GPC1 in vivo causes defects in trigeminal gangliogenesis in a manner that requires heparan sulfate side chains. This l...

  2. Salmonid sexual development is not consistently altered by embryonic exposure to endocrine-active chemicals.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, D B; Curtis, L. R.; Williams, D E

    2000-01-01

    Fish sexual development is sensitive to exogenous hormone manipulation, and salmonids have been used extensively as environmental sentinels and models for biomedical research. We simulated maternal transfer of contaminants by microinjecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryos. Fish were reared for 6 months and sexed, and gonads were removed for histology and measurement of in vitro steroid production. Analysis of fat samples showed that di...

  3. Recent developments in altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods

    OpenAIRE

    Shingfield, Kevin; Bonnet, Muriel; Scollan, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to indicate that nutrition is an important factor involved in the onset and development of several chronic human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type II diabetes and obesity. Clinical studies implicate excessive consumption of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) as risk factors for CVD, and in the aetiology of other chronic conditions. Ruminant-derived foods are significant sources of medium-chain SFA and T...

  4. Horses experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona develop altered immune responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witonsky, Sharon G; Ellison, Siobhan; Yang, Jibing; Gogal, Robert M; Lawler, Heather; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sriranganathan, Namalwar; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Lindsay, David S

    2008-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection is 1 of the most common neurologic diseases in horses in the United States. The mechanisms by which most horses resist disease, as well as the possible mechanisms by which the immune system may be suppressed in horses that develop EPM, are not known. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether horses experimentally infected with S. neurona developed suppressed immune responses. Thirteen horses that were negative for S. neurona antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or infected (n = 8) treatment groups. Neurologic exams and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were performed prior to, and following, S. neurona infection. Prior to, and at multiple time points following infection, immune parameters were determined. All 8 S. neurona-infected horses developed clinical signs consistent with EPM, and had S. neurona antibodies in the serum and CSF. Both infected and control horses had increased percentages (P < 0.05) of B cells at 28 days postinfection. Infected horses had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation responses as measured by thymidine incorporation to nonspecific mitogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (I) as soon as 2 days postinfection. PMID:18973416

  5. Mutations in a plastid-localized elongation factor G alter early stages of plastid development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangarter Roger P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper development of plastids in embryo and seedling tissues is critical for plant development. During germination, plastids develop to perform many critical functions that are necessary to establish the seedling for further growth. A growing body of work has demonstrated that components of the plastid transcription and translation machinery must be present and functional to establish the organelle upon germination. Results We have identified Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in a gene that encodes a plastid-targeted elongation factor G (SCO1 that is essential for plastid development during embryogenesis since two T-DNA insertion mutations in the coding sequence (sco1-2 and sco1-3 result in an embryo-lethal phenotype. In addition, a point mutation allele (sco1-1 and an allele with a T-DNA insertion in the promoter (sco1-4 of SCO1 display conditional seedling-lethal phenotypes. Seedlings of these alleles exhibit cotyledon and hypocotyl albinism due to improper chloroplast development, and normally die shortly after germination. However, when germinated on media supplemented with sucrose, the mutant plants can produce photosynthetically-active green leaves from the apical meristem. Conclusion The developmental stage-specific phenotype of the conditional-lethal sco1 alleles reveals differences in chloroplast formation during seedling germination compared to chloroplast differentiation in cells derived from the shoot apical meristem. Our identification of embryo-lethal mutant alleles in the Arabidopsis elongation factor G indicates that SCO1 is essential for plant growth, consistent with its predicted role in chloroplast protein translation.

  6. Prenatal exposure to BPA alters the epigenome of the rat mammary gland and increases the propensity to neoplastic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dhimolea

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments, with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50. BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene

  7. Altered Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 Function Affects the Development of Cortical Parvalbumin Interneurons by an Indirect Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowska, Malgorzata; Millar, J Kirsty; Price, David J

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) gene has been linked to schizophrenia and related major mental illness. Mouse Disc1 has been implicated in brain development, mainly in the proliferation, differentiation, lamination, neurite outgrowth and synapse formation and maintenance of cortical excitatory neurons. Here, the effects of two loss-of-function point mutations in the mouse Disc1 sequence (Q31L and L100P) on cortical inhibitory interneurons were investigated. None of the mutations affected the overall number of interneurons. However, the 100P, but not the 31L, mutation resulted in a significant decrease in the numbers of interneurons expressing parvalbumin mRNA and protein across the sensory cortex. To investigate role of Disc1 in regulation of parvalbumin expression, mouse wild-type Disc-1 or the 100P mutant form were electroporated in utero into cortical excitatory neurons. Overexpression of wild-type Disc1 in these cells caused increased densities of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the electroporated area and in areas connected with it, whereas expression of Disc1-100P did not. We conclude that the 100P mutation prevents expression of parvalbumin by a normally sized cohort of interneurons and that altering Disc1 function in cortical excitatory neurons indirectly affects parvalbumin expression by cortical interneurons, perhaps as a result of altered functional input from the excitatory neurons. PMID:27244370

  8. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 regulates development by inducing growth phase-specific, spatially restricted alterations in jasmonic acid levels independent of defense responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschi, Susanne; Hake, Katharina; Herde, Marco; Hause, Bettina; Romeis, Tina

    2015-03-01

    Phytohormones play an important role in development and stress adaptations in plants, and several interacting hormonal pathways have been suggested to accomplish fine-tuning of stress responses at the expense of growth. This work describes the role played by the CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE CPK28 in balancing phytohormone-mediated development in Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically during generative growth. cpk28 mutants exhibit growth reduction solely as adult plants, coinciding with altered balance of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA). JA-dependent gene expression and the levels of several JA metabolites were elevated in a growth phase-dependent manner in cpk28, and accumulation of JA metabolites was confined locally to the central rosette tissue. No elevated resistance toward herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens was detected for cpk28 plants, either on the whole-plant level or specifically within the tissue displaying elevated JA levels. Abolishment of JA biosynthesis or JA signaling led to a full reversion of the cpk28 growth phenotype, while modification of GA signaling did not. Our data identify CPK28 as a growth phase-dependent key negative regulator of distinct processes: While in seedlings, CPK28 regulates reactive oxygen species-mediated defense signaling; in adult plants, CPK28 confers developmental processes by the tissue-specific balance of JA and GA without affecting JA-mediated defense responses. PMID:25736059

  9. Plant membranes a biophysical approach to structure, development and senescence

    CERN Document Server

    Leshem, Ya’Acov Y

    1992-01-01

    The plasma membrane is at once the window through which the cell senses the environment and the portal through which the environment influences the structure and activities of the cell. Its importance in cellular physiology can thus hardly be overestimated, since constant flow of materials between cell and environment is essential to the well-being of any biological system. The nature of the materials mov­ ing into the cell is also critical, since some substances are required for maintenance and growth, while others, because of their toxicity, must either be rigorously excluded or permitted to enter only after chemical alteration. Such alteration frequently permits the compounds to be sequestered in special cellular compartments having different types of membranes. This type of homogeneity, plus the fact that the wear and tear of transmembrane molecular traffic compels the system to be constantly monitored and repaired, means that the membrane system of any organism must be both structurally complex and dy­...

  10. Altered Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Maize Lc-Expressed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Affects Storage Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Min; Fan, Weijuan; Firon, Nurit; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    There is no direct evidence of the effect of lignin metabolism on early storage root development in sweet potato. In this study, we found that heterologous expression of the maize leaf color (Lc) gene in sweet potato increased anthocyanin pigment accumulation in the whole plant and resulted in reduced size with an increased length/width ratio, low yield and less starch content in the early storage roots. RT-PCR analysis revealed dramatic up-regulation of the genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway in developing storage roots, leading to greater lignin content in the Lc transgenic lines, compared to the wild type. This was also evidenced by the enhanced lignification of vascular cells in the early storage roots. Furthermore, increased expression of the β-amylase gene in leaves and storage roots also accelerated starch degradation and increased the sugar use efficiency, providing more energy and carbohydrate sources for lignin biosynthesis in the Lc transgenic sweet potato. Lesser starch accumulation was observed in the developing storage roots at the initiation stage in the Lc plants. Our study provides experimental evidence of the basic carbohydrate metabolism underlying the development of storage roots, which is the transformation of lignin biosynthesis to starch biosynthesis. PMID:26727353

  11. Preterm births: can neonatal pain alter the development of endogenous gating systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffaux, Philippe; Lafrenaye, Sylvie; Morin, Mélanie; Patural, Hugues; Demers, Geneviève; Marchand, Serge

    2008-10-01

    Prematurity is known to affect the development of various neurophysiological systems, including the maturation of pain and cardiac circuits. The purpose of this study was to see if numerous painful interventions, experienced soon after birth, affect counterirritation-induced analgesia (triggered using the cold pressor test) later in life. A total of 26 children, between the ages of 7 and 11 participated in the study. Children were divided into three groups, according to their birth status (i.e., term-born, born preterm and exposed to numerous painful interventions, or born preterm and exposed to few painful interventions). Primary outcome measures were heat pain thresholds, heat sensitivity scores, and cardiac reactivity. Results showed that preterm children and term-born children had comparable pain thresholds. Exposure to conditioning cold stimulation significantly increased heart rate and significantly decreased the thermal pain sensitivity of term-born children. These physiological reactions were also observed among preterm children who were only exposed to a few painful interventions at birth. Changes in heart rate and pain sensitivity in response to conditioning cold stimulation were not observed in preterm children that had been exposed to numerous painful procedures during the neonatal period. These results suggest that early pain does not lead to enhanced pain sensitivity when premature babies become children, but that their endogenous pain modulatory mechanisms are not as well developed as those of children not exposed to noxious insult at birth. Greater frequency of painful procedures also dampened the rise in heart rate normally observed when experimental pain is experienced. PMID:18308597

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide inhibits Candida albicans hyphae formation and alters gene expression during biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, H M H N; K Cheung, B P; Watt, R M; Jin, L J; Samaranayake, L P

    2013-02-01

    Elucidation of bacterial and fungal interactions in multispecies biofilms will have major impacts on understanding the pathophysiology of infections. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Candida albicans hyphal development and transcriptional regulation, (ii) investigate protein expression during biofilm formation, and (iii) propose likely molecular mechanisms for these interactions. The effect of LPS on C. albicans biofilms was assessed by XTT-reduction and growth curve assays, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Changes in candidal hypha-specific genes (HSGs) and transcription factor EFG1 expression were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, respectively. Proteome changes were examined by mass spectrometry. Both metabolic activities and growth rates of LPS-treated C. albicans biofilms were significantly lower (P yeasts in test biofilms compared with the controls. SEM and CLSM further confirmed these data. Significantly upregulated HSGs (at 48 h) and EFG1 (up to 48 h) were noted in the test biofilms (P < 0.05) but cAMP levels remained unaffected. Proteomic analysis showed suppression of candidal septicolysin-like protein, potential reductase-flavodoxin fragment, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, hypothetical proteins Cao19.10301(ATP7), CaO19.4716(GDH1), CaO19.11135(PGK1), CaO19.9877(HNT1) by P. aeruginosa LPS. Our data imply that bacterial LPS inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and hyphal development. The P. aeruginosa LPS likely target glycolysis-associated mechanisms during candidal filamentation. PMID:23194472

  13. Development of an analytical technique for the detection of alteration minerals formed in bentonite by reaction with alkaline solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, H.; Shibata, M.; Owada, H.; Kaneko, M.; Kuno, Y.; Asano, H.

    A multibarrier system consisting of cement-based backfill, structures and support materials, and a bentonite-based buffer material has been studied for the TRU waste disposal concept being developed in Japan, the aim being to restrict the migration of radionuclides. Concern regarding bentonite-based materials in this disposal environment relates to long-term alteration under hyper-alkaline conditions due to the presence of cementitious materials. In tests simulating the interaction between bentonite and cement, formation of secondary minerals due to alteration reactions under the conditions expected for geological disposal of TRU waste (equilibrated water with cement at low liquid/solid ratio) has not been observed, although alteration was observed under extremely hyper-alkaline conditions with high temperatures. This was considered to be due to the fact that analysis of C-S-H gel formed at the interface as a secondary mineral was difficult using XRD, because of its low crystallinity and low content. This paper describes an analytical technique for the characterization of C-S-H gel using a heavy liquid separation method which separates C-S-H gel from Kunigel V1 bentonite (bentonite produced in Japan) based on the difference in specific gravity between the crystalline minerals constituting Kunigel V1 and the secondary C-S-H gel. For development of C-S-H gel separation methods, simulated alteration samples were prepared by mixing 990 mg of unaltered Kunigel V1 and 10 mg of C-S-H gel synthesized using pure chemicals at a ratio of Ca/Si = 1.2. The simulated alteration samples were dispersed in bromoform-methanol mixtures with specific gravities ranging from 2.00 to 2.57 g/cm 3 and subjected to centrifuge separation to recover the light density fraction. Subsequent XRD analysis to identify the minerals was complemented by dissolution in 0.6 N hydrochloric acid to measure the Ca and Si contents. The primary peak (2 θ = 29.4°, Cu Kα) and secondary peaks (2 θ = 32.1

  14. 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, Tomohide; Koike, Shunichi [Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA), Osaka (Japan); Ishikawa, Ryou [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) have been conducting a joint project on development of a 5000kW urban energy center type PAFC power plant (pressurized) and a 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant (non-pressurized). The objective of the technical development of 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant is to realize a medium size power plant with an overall efficiency of over 70% and an electrical efficiency of over 36%, that could be installed in a large building as a cogeneration system. The components and system integration development work and the plant design were performed in 1991 and 1992. Manufacturing of the plant and installation at the test site were completed in 1994. PAC test was carried out in 1994, and generation test was started in January 1995. Demonstration test is scheduled for 1995 and 1996.

  15. Lack of serotonin reuptake during brain development alters rostral raphe-prefrontal network formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Storm Witteveen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides its ‘classical’ neurotransmitter function, serotonin (5-HT has been found to also act as a neurodevelopmental signal. During development, the 5-HT projection system represents one of the earliest neurotransmitter systems to innervate the brain. One of the targets of the 5-HT projection system, originating in the brainstem raphe nuclei, is the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, an area involved in higher cognitive functions and important in the etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders. Little is known however about the exact role of 5-HT and its signaling molecules in the formation of the raphe-prefrontal network. Using explant essays, we here studied the role of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT, an important modulator of the 5-HT signal, in rostral raphe-prefrontal network formation. We found that the chemotrophic nature of the interaction between the origin (rostral raphe cluster and a target (mPFC of the 5-HT projection system was affected in rats lacking the 5-HTT (5-HTT-/-. While 5-HTT deficiency did not affect the dorsal raphe 5-HT-positive outgrowing neurites, the median raphe 5-HT neurites switched from a strong repulsive to an attractive interaction when co-cultured with the mPFC. Furthermore, the fasciculation of the mPFC outgrowing neurites was dependent on the amount of 5-HTT. In the mPFC of 5-HTT-/- pups, we observed clear differences in 5-HT innervation and the identity of a class of projection neurons of the mPFC. In the absence of the 5-HTT, the 5-HT innervation in all subareas of the early postnatal mPFC increased dramatically and the number of Satb2-positive callosal projection neurons was decreased. Together, these results suggest a 5-HTT dependency during early development of these brain areas and in the formation of the raphe-prefrontal network. The tremendous complexity of the 5-HT projection system and its role in several neurodevelopmental disorders highlights the need for further research in this largely

  16. Lack of serotonin reuptake during brain development alters rostral raphe-prefrontal network formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Josefine S.; Middelman, Anthonieke; van Hulten, Josephus A.; Martens, Gerard J. M.; Homberg, Judith R.; Kolk, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Besides its “classical” neurotransmitter function, serotonin (5-HT) has been found to also act as a neurodevelopmental signal. During development, the 5-HT projection system, besides an external placental source, represents one of the earliest neurotransmitter systems to innervate the brain. One of the targets of the 5-HT projection system, originating in the brainstem raphe nuclei, is the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an area involved in higher cognitive functions and important in the etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders. Little is known, however, about the exact role of 5-HT and its signaling molecules in the formation of the raphe-prefrontal network. Using explant essays, we here studied the role of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), an important modulator of the 5-HT signal, in rostral raphe-prefrontal network formation. We found that the chemotrophic nature of the interaction between the origin (rostral raphe cluster) and a target (mPFC) of the 5-HT projection system was affected in rats lacking the 5-HTT (5-HTT−/−). While 5-HTT deficiency did not affect the dorsal raphe 5-HT-positive outgrowing neurites, the median raphe 5-HT neurites switched from a strong repulsive to an attractive interaction when co-cultured with the mPFC. Furthermore, the fasciculation of the mPFC outgrowing neurites was dependent on the amount of 5-HTT. In the mPFC of 5-HTT−/− pups, we observed clear differences in 5-HT innervation and the identity of a class of projection neurons of the mPFC. In the absence of the 5-HTT, the 5-HT innervation in all subareas of the early postnatal mPFC increased dramatically and the number of Satb2-positive callosal projection neurons was decreased. Together, these results suggest a 5-HTT dependency during early development of these brain areas and in the formation of the raphe-prefrontal network. The tremendous complexity of the 5-HT projection system and its role in several neurodevelopmental disorders highlights the need for

  17. Development of plant maintenance management system (pmms): a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In large plant industry, it is not easy to maintain machine performance without using any method such as checklist system. Manual checklist is a common maintenance checklist used in industry. All machine, equipment and parts that need to be checked will be written down for the employee to do maintenance checks. Converting the manual checklist to the Plant Maintenance Management System (PMMS) can improve the way of employees work and make plant management easier. Therefore, a new system was designed to maintain the equipment so that the activities are more efficient and cost effective. The system consists of three frames that connect to each other. The frames divide to section, equipment and checklist. This system also builds to prevent data from arbitrarily changes. Only certain officers or staffs are permitted to make modifications to data. Using this system, a company can make the office environment a paperless environment

  18. Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

    2007-06-13

    The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757

  19. Lack of Globulin Synthesis during Seed Development Alters Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major seed storage proteins (SSPs in rice seeds have been classified into three types, glutelins, prolamins, and globulin, and the proportion of each SSP varies. It has been shown in rice mutants that when either glutelins or prolamins are defective, the expression of another type of SSP is promoted to counterbalance the deficit. However, we observed reduced abundances of glutelins and prolamins in dry seeds of a globulin-deficient rice mutant (Glb-RNAi, which was generated with RNA interference (RNAi-induced suppression of globulin expression. The expression of the prolamin and glutelin subfamily genes was reduced in the immature seeds of Glb-RNAi lines compared with those in wild type. A proteomic analysis of Glb-RNAi seeds showed that the reductions in glutelin and prolamin were conserved at the protein level. The decreased pattern in glutelin was also significant in the presence of a reductant, suggesting that the polymerization of the glutelin proteins via intramolecular disulfide bonds could be interrupted in Glb-RNAi seeds. We also observed aberrant and loosely packed structures in the storage organelles of Glb-RNAi seeds, which may be attributable to the reductions in SSPs. In this study, we evaluated the role of rice globulin in seed development, showing that a deficiency in globulin could comprehensively reduce the expression of other SSPs.

  20. Fruit Plants Species along Corridor in Kopendukuh Village as a Resource for Rural Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Kristiyanti Putri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify fruit plants species which is potential for tourism attraction, spatially describes fruit plants distribution and identify local people’s response for fruit plants as tourims attraction in Kopendukuh village, Banyuwangi. Survey was done along the villages corridors. The fruit plant species along corridors was identified and mapped using GPS. Furthermore, semi-structural interview was used to gain informations of local people response about fruit plants as tourism attraction. There were about 18 species and 162 individuals were found along corridor of Kopendukuh village. Fruit plants always found in local home gardens along rural corridor. Local peoples argue that fruit planst s important for numerous purposes. Local people support tourism development in rural area which based on the fruit plants richness (i.e. agrotourism. Keywords: fruit plants, mapping, corridor, rural tourism.

  1. The Function of the CLE Peptides in Plant Development and Plant-Microbe Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsuyaku, Shigeyuki; Sawa, Shinichiro; Yamada, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION (ESR) (CLE) peptides consist of 12 or 13 amino acids, including hydroxylated proline residues that may or may not contain sugar modifications, and function in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. The CLE gene was first reported in Zea mays (maize) as an endosperm-specific gene, ESR, in 1997 (Opsahl-Ferstad et al., 1997). CLE genes encode secreted peptides that function in the extracellular space as intercellular signaling molecules and bind to cellular surface receptor-like proteins to transmit a signal. CLE peptides regulate various physiological and developmental processes and its signaling pathway are conserved in diverse land plants. Recent CLE functional studies have pointed to their significance in regulating meristematic activity in plant meristems, through the CLE-receptor kinase-WOX signaling node. CLV3 and CLE40 are responsible for maintenance of shoot apical meristem (SAM) and root apical meristem (RAM) function, regulating homeodomain transcription factors, WUSCHEL (WUS) and WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5), respectively. CLE and WOX form an interconnected and self-correcting feedback loop to provide robustness to stem cell homeostasis. CLE peptides are required for certain plant-microbe interactions, such as those that occur during legume symbiosis and phytopathogenic nematode infection. Understanding the molecular properties of CLE peptides may provide insight into plant cell-cell communication, and therefore also into plant-microbe interactions. PMID:22303273

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  3. Gibberellins regulate the stem elongation rate without affecting the mature plant height of a quick development mutant of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Xie, Yong-Dun; Guo, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Lin-Shu; Xiong, Hong-Chun; Gu, Jia-Yu; Li, Jun-Hui; Kong, Fu-Quan; Sui, Li; Zhao, Zi-Wei; Zhao, Shi-Rong; Liu, Lu-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is essential for determining plant height. Alteration of GA content or GA signaling results in a dwarf or slender phenotype. Here, we characterized a novel wheat mutant, quick development (qd), in which GA regulates stem elongation but does not affect mature plant height. qd and wild-type plants did not exhibit phenotypic differences at the seedling stage. From jointing to heading stage, qd plants were taller than wild-type plants due to elongated cells. However, wild-type and qd plants were the same height at heading. Unlike wild-type plants, qd plants were sensitive to exogenous GA due to mutation of Rht-B1. With continuous GA stimulation, qd seedlings and adult plants were taller than wild-type. Thus, the GA content of qd plants might differ from that of wild-type during the growth process. Analysis of GA biosynthetic gene expression verified this hypothesis and showed that TaKAO, which is involved in catalyzing the early steps of GA biosynthesis, was differentially expressed in qd plants compared with wild-type. The bioactive GA associated gene TaGA20ox was downregulated in qd plants during the late growth stages. Measurements of endogenous GA content were consistent with the gene-expression analysis results. Consistent with the GA content variation, the first three basal internodes were longer and the last two internodes were shorter in qd than in wild-type plants. The qd mutant might be useful in dissecting the mechanism by which GA regulates stem-growing process, and it may be serve as a GA responsive semi-dwarf germplasm in breeding programs. PMID:27317908

  4. Experience in the development and mastering of large distillation desalting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present there are more than 30 desalination plants, including the first nuclear desalination plant in Aktau, developed by SverdNIIchimmash are in operation. This report gives a short description of the experience in the investigation, development and mastering of the Russian water distillation technique and the future investigations. Based on the past 40 years experience and scientific investigations, the multistage distillation desalting plants with horizontal tube film evaporators is recommended for the floating nuclear desalination complexes. (author)

  5. Convergences and divergences in polar auxin transport and shoot development in land plant evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Tomomichi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2009-01-01

    A shoot is a reiterated structure consisting of stems and leaves and is the prevailing body plan in most land plant lineages. Vascular plants form shoots in the diploid generation, whereas mosses do so in the haploid generation.1 However, whether these plants use similar molecular mechanisms in shoot development and how the genetic networks for shoot development evolved is not clear. In our recent paper,2 we examined polar auxin transport in several mosses, which is essential for shoot develo...

  6. Radiation-induced quantitative alterations in prenatal thymic development in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative morphology of the canine fetal thymus was studied to evaluate the age-dependent radiosensitivity of the developing immune system. Pregnant beagle dams received abdominal 60Co gamma exposures (200 R) or were sham irradiated at one of three ages in gestation, 30, 40, or 45 days. The mean calculated dose to each fetus was 1.5 Gray. One-half of the fetuses in each litter were harvested by hysterotomy at 5 days and one-half at 10 days post-irradiation (PI). The volumes of the thymic lobules and lobular cortices were significantly reduced at 5 and 10 days PI when compared with age-matched controls. Thymic cortical volumes in irradiated fetuses were reduced between 13 and 29% from control volumes by 5 days PI and 8 and 13% by 10 day PI. Thymic medullary volumes in irradiated fetuses were reduced 18 to 23% by 5 days PI and 27 to 54% by 10 days PI. The reductions in medullary volumes in fetuses irradiated at 35, 40, and 45 days of gestation and evaluated at 10 days PI were 54, 38, and 27%, respectively. Although injury to both thymic cortices and medullas was greater following exposures earlier in gestation, damage to medullas was relatively more severe than in cortices following exposure at any one age. The degree of reduction of medullary volume reflects thymic epithelial injury and is surprising since thymic epithelium is considered to be radioresistant in the adult. Such injury may have serious consequences postnatally as normal differentiation of T cell subpopulations is dependent upon the integrity of the thymic microenvironment. Damage to the thymic microenvironment could result in defects in immunologic regulation and in immune deficiencies

  7. Reduced sensory stimulation alters the molecular make-up of glutamatergic hair cell synapses in the developing cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, M; Constable, R; James, N R; Thorne, P R; Montgomery, J M

    2016-06-14

    Neural activity during early development is known to alter innervation pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We sought to examine how reduced sound-induced sensory activity in the cochlea affected the consolidation of glutamatergic synapses between inner hair cells (IHC) and the primary auditory neurons as these synapses play a primary role in transmitting sound information to the brain. A unilateral conductive hearing loss was induced prior to the onset of sound-mediated stimulation of the sensory hair cells, by rupturing the tympanic membrane and dislocating the auditory ossicles in the left ear of P11 mice. Auditory brainstem responses at P15 and P21 showed a 40-50-dB increase in thresholds for frequencies 8-32kHz in the dislocated ear relative to the control ear. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were subsequently used to examine the effect of this attenuation of sound stimulation on the expression of RIBEYE, which comprises the presynaptic ribbons, Shank-1, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, and the GluA2/3 and 4 subunits of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. Our results show that dislocation did not alter the number of pre- or postsynaptic protein puncta. However, dislocation did increase the size of RIBEYE, GluA4, GluA2/3 and Shank-1 puncta, with postsynaptic changes preceding presynaptic changes. Our data suggest that a reduction in sound stimulation during auditory development induces plasticity in the molecular make-up of IHC glutamatergic synapses, but does not affect the number of these synapses. Up-regulation of synaptic proteins with sound attenuation may facilitate a compensatory increase in synaptic transmission due to the reduced sensory stimulation of the IHC. PMID:27012610

  8. Altered development and function of the placental regions in preeclampsia and its association with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Alka; Wadhwani, Nisha; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-01

    The placenta is an essential organ formed during pregnancy that mainly transfers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. Nutrients taken up by the placenta are required for its own growth and development and to optimize fetal growth. Hence, placental function is an important determinant of pregnancy outcome. Among various nutrients, fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, are essential for placental development from the time of implantation. Studies have associated these LCPUFAs with placental development through their roles in regulating oxidative stress, angiogenesis, and inflammation, which may in turn influence their transfer to the fetus. The placenta has a heterogeneous morphology with variable regional vasculature, oxidative stress, and LCPUFA levels in healthy pregnancies depending upon the location within the placenta. However, these regional structural and functional parameters are found to be disturbed in pathological conditions, such as preeclampsia (PE), thereby affecting pregnancy outcome. Hence, the alterations in LCPUFA metabolism and transport in different regions of the PE placenta as compared with normal placenta could potentially be contributing to the pathological features of PE. The regional variations in development and function of the placenta and its possible association with placental LCPUFA metabolism and transport in normal and PE pregnancies are discussed in this review. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:582-597. doi: 10.1002/wdev.238 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27239793

  9. Urbanization, Agricultural Intensification, and Habitat Alteration in Vietnam: Modeling Transitional Development and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J.; Saksena, S.; Spencer, J.; Finucane, M.; Sultana, N.

    2012-12-01

    Our overarching hypothesis is that new risks, in this case the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, emerge during transitions between stages of development. Moreover, these risks are not coincidental but occur precisely because of the in-between nature of the coupled human-natural system at the point when things are neither traditional nor modern but resemble the state of chaos, release and reorganization. We are testing this hypothesis in Vietnam using demographic, social, economic, and environmental data collected in national censuses and analyzed at commune and district levels to identify communes and districts that are traditional, modern, and transitional (peri-urban). Using data from the 2006 agricultural census that capture both the changing nature of the built environment (types of sanitation systems) and the loss of and diversification of agriculture systems (percent of households whose major source of income is from agriculture, and percent of land under agriculture, forests, and aquaculture), and a normalized difference vegetation index from 2006 Landsat images we created a national scale urbanicity map for Vietnam. Field work in the summer of 2011 showed this map to be an accurate (approximately 85%) approximation of traditional (rural), transitional (periurban), and modern (urban) communes. Preliminary results suggest that over 7% of the country's land area and roughly 15% of its population resides in periurban neighborhoods, and that these areas do have a statistically significant greater incidence of AVI as measured in chicken deaths than traditional and modern communes (Table 1). Transitional neighborhoods such as these force planners to ask two questions. To what extent does the dichotomy of urban/rural makes sense in the context of Vietnam, when large areas and parts of the population are caught between the two? Second, how can planners and policy makers effectively provide for basic public goods and services in these contexts?Classification of places

  10. Altered Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Maize Lc-Expressed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Affects Storage Root Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Wang; Jun Yang; Min Zhang; Weijuan Fan; Nurit Firon; Sitakanta Pattanaik; Ling Yuan; Peng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    There is no direct evidence of the effect of lignin metabolism on early storage root development in sweet potato. In this study, we found that heterologous expression of the maize leaf color (Lc) gene in sweet potato increased anthocyanin pigment accumulation in the whole plant and resulted in reduced size with an increased length/width ratio, low yield and less starch content in the early storage roots. RT-PCR analysis revealed dramatic up-regulation of the genes involved in the lignin biosy...

  11. Development of germ-free plants and tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venketeswaran, S.

    1973-01-01

    The botanical program is reported for experiments performed at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. Papers prepared during this program are listed. The studies reported include: tissues cultured on various mediums, nutritional studies, preparation of plant cultures for Apollo 15, and pine tissue cultures.

  12. Development of plant condition measurement - The Jimah Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jimah Model is an information management model. The model has been designed to facilitate analysis of machine condition by integrating diagnostic data with quantitative and qualitative information. The model treats data as a single strand of information - metaphorically a 'genome' of data. The 'Genome' is structured to be representative of plant function and identifies the condition of selected components (or genes) in each machine. To date in industry, computer aided work processes used with traditional industrial practices, have been unable to consistently deliver a standard of information suitable for holistic evaluation of machine condition and change. Significantly the reengineered site strategies necessary for implementation of this 'data genome concept' have resulted in enhanced knowledge and management of plant condition. In large plant with high initial equipment cost and subsequent high maintenance costs, accurate measurement of major component condition becomes central to whole of life management and replacement decisions. A case study following implementation of the model at a major power station site in Malaysia (Jimah) shows that modeling of plant condition and wear (in real time) can be made a practical reality.

  13. Guidelines to Career Development for Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.

    The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…

  14. Poisonous plants: Effects on embryo and fetal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of natural toxins from poisonous plants on the embryo, fetus, and neonate are dramatic and economically significant to livestock producers worldwide. In livestock, reproductive success is the single most important economic multiplier for livestock producers in the U.S. followed by carcas...

  15. Modification of tobacco plant development by sense and antisense expression of the tomato viroid-induced AGC VIIIa protein kinase PKV suggests involvement in gibberellin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serine-threonine protein kinase gene, designated pkv (protein kinase- viroid induced was previously found to be transcriptionally activated in tomato plants infected with the plant pathogen Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd. These plants exhibited symptoms of stunting, and abnormal development of leaf, root, and vascular tissues. The encoded protein, PKV, is a novel member of the AGC VIIIa group of signal-transducing protein kinases; however, the role of PKV in plant development is unknown. In this communication, we report the phenotypic results of over expression and silencing of pkv in transgenic tobacco. Results Over expression of pkv in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi (tobacco resulted in stunting, reduced root formation, and delay in flowering, phenotypes similar to symptoms of PSTVd infection of tomato. In addition, homozygous T2 tobacco plants over expressing PKV were male sterile. Antisense expression of pkv, on the other hand, resulted in plants that were taller than non-transformed plants, produced an increased number of flowers, and were fertile. Exogenous application of GA3 stimulated stem elongation in the stunted, sense-expressing plants. PKV sense and antisense expression altered transcript levels of GA biosynthetic genes and genes involved in developmental and signaling pathways, but not genes involved in salicylic acid- or jasmonic acid-dependent pathways. Our data provide evidence suggesting that PKV plays an important role in a GA signaling pathway that controls plant height and fertility. Conclusion We have found that the over expression of the tomato protein kinase PKV resulted in stunting, modified vascular tissue development, reduced root formation, and male sterility in tobacco, and we propose that PKV regulates plant development by functioning in critical signaling pathways involved in gibberellic acid metabolism.

  16. Development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia: niche development and the formation of innovative capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    because it was against their economic interests. When the government decided to improve incentive structures through a reduction in fossil fuel subsidies and by introducing a feed-in tariff system, the niche development momentum had already been lost because investors had limited confidence in project...... resource prices, which meant that it became difficult to negotiate long-term biomass fuel contracts. These factors turned out to be detrimental for niche development. The transfer of technology is understood in this thesis as the exchange of knowledge through international inter-firm linkages, which...... trial and error also made advances in technological capability although to a comparably lesser extent. The thesis also finds that CDM projects implemented in Malaysia played a limited role in stimulating the introduction of new technology and knowledge to Malaysian biomass boiler and power plant...

  17. Plants and Animals as Concept Generators for the Development of Biomimetic Cable Entry Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom Masseiter; Uwe Scharf; Thomas Speck

    2008-01-01

    Many animals and plants have high potential to serve as concept generators for developing biomimetic materials and structures. We present some ideas based on structural and functional properties of plants and animals that led to the development of two types of biomimetic cable entry systems. Those systems have been realized on the level of functional demonstrators.

  18. Alterações anatômicas em plantas de algodoeiro com sintomas de murchamento avermelhado Anatomical alterations in cotton plants with reddish withering symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as alterações anatômicas em plantas de algodoeiro com sintomas de murchamento avermelhado em dezembro de 1993-fevereiro de 94. Analisaram-se amostras de raiz, caule e folha de Gossypium hirsutum L. 'IAC 20' provenientes de áreas de ocorrência do sintoma. Estimou-se o número de glândulas secretoras das folhas dos cultivares IAC 20 e CNPA ITA 90 (que se tem mostrado resistente. Observou-se que as células parenquimáticas apresentavam, no interior, substâncias insolúveis em água, cuja concentração aumentava à medida do grau do sintoma. As folhas apresentaram uma concentração maior dessas substâncias em relação ao restante do corpo vegetal. Os núcleos das células do parênquima paliçádico encontravam-se aumentados e os cloroplastos do mesofilo, parcialmente destruídos. As plantas com alto grau de sintoma apresentavam também um número maior de glândulas secretoras nas folhas.Anatomical alterations in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L. with reddish withering symptons observated between December/93 to February/94 were studied. Samples of root, stem and leaf of Gossypium hirsutum L. 'IAC 20' collected in several sites with symptoms occurrence were analised. The number of secretory glands in the leaves of cultivar IAC 20, and for the resistent cultivar CNPA ITA 90 was estimated. The parenchyma cells included insoluble substances, and these concentrations increased with the crescent symptoms. The leaves presented higher concentration of these substances than the remaining plant body. The nucleus of palisade parenchyma cells was increased and the chloroplasts partially destroyed. The leave secretory glands number increases proportionally to the advance of the symptoms.

  19. Effect of crop development on biogenic emissions from plant populations grown in closed plant growth chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, J. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Biomass Production Chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center is a closed plant growth chamber facility that can be used to monitor the level of biogenic emissions from large populations of plants throughout their entire growth cycle. The head space atmosphere of a 26-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Waldmann's Green) stand was repeatedly sampled and emissions identified and quantified using GC-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, alpha-pinene, furan and 2-methylfuran were not significantly different throughout the day; whereas, isoprene showed significant differences in concentration between samples collected in light and dark periods. Volatile organic compounds from the atmosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) were analysed and quantified from planting to maturity. Volatile plant-derived compounds included 1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, nonanal, benzaldehyde, tetramethylurea, tetramethylthiourea, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran. Concentrations of volatiles were determined during seedling establishment, vegetative growth, anthesis, grain fill and senescence and found to vary depending on the developmental stage. Atmospheric concentrations of benzaldehyde and nonanal were highest during anthesis, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran concentrations were greatest during grain fill, and the concentration of the tetramethylurea peaked during senescence.

  20. Control of petal and pollen development by the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 in transgenic Brassica plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongming; Wang, Hong; Gilmer, Susan; Whitwill, Steve; Keller, Wilf; Fowke, Larry C

    2002-06-01

    The cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) have a central role in cell cycle regulation and can be inhibited by the binding of small protein CDK inhibitors. The first plant CDK inhibitor gene ICK1 was previously identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. In comparison to known animal CDK inhibitors, ICK1 protein exhibits unique structural and functional properties. The expression of ICK1 directed by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was shown to inhibit cell division and plant growth. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ICK1 overexpression on particular organs and cells. ICK1 was expressed in specific tissues or cells of Brassica napus L. plants using two tissue-specific promoters, Arabidopsis AP3 and Brassica Bgp1. Transgenic AP3-ICK1 plants were morphologically normal except for some modified flowers either without petals or with petals of reduced size. Surprisingly, petals of novel shapes such as tubular petals were also observed, indicating a profound effect of cell division inhibition on morphogenesis. The cell size in the smaller modified petals was similar to that in control petals, suggesting that the reduction of petal size is mainly due to the reduction of cell numbers and that the inhibition of cell division does not necessarily lead to an increase in cell size. Transgenic Bgp1-ICK1 plants were normal morphologically; however, dramatic decreases in seed production were observed in some plants. In those plants, the ability of pollen to germinate and pollen nuclear number were affected. These results are discussed in relation to the cell cycle and plant development. PMID:12029474

  1. HYSSOP COMPOSITION DEPENDING ON AGE AND PLANTS DEVELOPMENT PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kotyuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to research biochemical composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae in relation to plant age and phenological growth stage under conditions of Ukrainian Polissya, bin order to determine the optimal harvest dates of the herbal material and its application spheres. The raw material samples under analysis were cut at various growth stages: the vegetative, budding, blooming, ripening stages. To study the hyssop oil composition, areal parts of H. officinalis were used. The composition analysis was aimed at determining absolute dry matter (by drying samples at 105 °C up to the constant mass, “crude” cellulose, amounts of protein, fats, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, ascorbic acid, carotene, discernible sugars and tannins and essential oil. The present study has proved that in the plant ontogenesis the amount of essential oil, obtained from H. officinalis areal parts, does not markedly decrease: volatile oil yield in plants of the first, second and third years of life amounted to 1.007%, 0.75% and 0.71% respectively. The composition of volatile oil in the plants of the first year of life reveals 46 components, of which pinocampone (53.73%, isopinocampone (4.66% myrtenol (9.35% and camphor (3.86% prevailed. In H. officinalis volatile oil of the third year 30 components were identified, the prevailing of which were isopinocampone (44.43%, pinocampone (35.49%, myrtenol (5.26%, germacrene D (3.15%, pulegone (2.93% and bicyclogermacrene (1.35%. We could observe the change in the quantitative and qualitative composition of H. officinalis volatile oil throughout the entire vegetation period. Thus, in the phase of vegetative growth one can identify 25 compounds, the most predominant being elemol (33.25%, germacren D (21.59% and bicyclogermacrene (15.78%. In the phase of blossoming 30 components can be identified, a high amount of isopinocampone and pinocampone (44.43% and 35.49% and somewhat lover amount of myrtenol (5

  2. Calpain-Mediated Positional Information Directs Cell Wall Orientation to Sustain Plant Stem Cell Activity, Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhe; Brown, Roy C; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn

    2015-09-01

    Eukaryotic development and stem cell control depend on the integration of cell positional sensing with cell cycle control and cell wall positioning, yet few factors that directly link these events are known. The DEFECTIVE KERNEL1 (DEK1) gene encoding the unique plant calpain protein is fundamental for development and growth, being essential to confer and maintain epidermal cell identity that allows development beyond the globular embryo stage. We show that DEK1 expression is highest in the actively dividing cells of seeds, meristems and vasculature. We further show that eliminating Arabidopsis DEK1 function leads to changes in developmental cues from the first zygotic division onward, altered microtubule patterns and misshapen cells, resulting in early embryo abortion. Expression of the embryonic marker genes WOX2, ATML1, PIN4, WUS and STM, related to axis organization, cell identity and meristem functions, is also altered in dek1 embryos. By monitoring cell layer-specific DEK1 down-regulation, we show that L1- and 35S-induced down-regulation mainly affects stem cell functions, causing severe shoot apical meristem phenotypes. These results are consistent with a requirement for DEK1 to direct layer-specific cellular activities and set downstream developmental cues. Our data suggest that DEK1 may anchor cell wall positions and control cell division and differentiation, thereby balancing the plant's requirement to maintain totipotent stem cell reservoirs while simultaneously directing growth and organ formation. A role for DEK1 in regulating microtubule-orchestrated cell wall orientation during cell division can explain its effects on embryonic development, and suggests a more general function for calpains in microtubule organization in eukaryotic cells. PMID:26220906

  3. CLE peptides and their signaling pathways in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuka L; Ishida, Takashi; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2016-08-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is crucial for the coherent functioning of multicellular organisms, and they have evolved intricate molecular mechanisms to achieve such communication. Small, secreted peptide hormones participate in cell-to-cell communication to regulate various physiological processes. One such family of plant peptide hormones is the CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) family, whose members play crucial roles in the differentiation of shoot and root meristems. Recent biochemical and genetic studies have characterized various CLE signaling modules, which include CLE peptides, transmembrane receptors, and downstream intracellular signaling components. CLE signaling systems are conserved across the plant kingdom but have divergent modes of action in various developmental processes in different species. Moreover, several CLE peptides play roles in symbiosis, parasitism, and responses to abiotic cues. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insights into the mechanisms of CLE signaling. PMID:27229733

  4. Industrial development: A reprocessing plant in a single extraction cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretault, P.; Houdin, P. [SGN, 1 rue des Herons, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, 78 182 Saint Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Emin, JL. [AREVA, 2 rue Paul Dautier, BP 4, 78141 Velizy-Villacoublay, Cedex (France); Baron, P. [CEA Marcoule, BP 171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2006-07-01

    In France, COGEMA/AREVA has been reprocessing spent nuclear fuel on an industrial scale for over 40 years, and has consistently worked to optimize facility design and operations. In COGEMA-La Hague's UP3 reprocessing plant, to achieve the necessary decontamination needed to produce purified uranium and plutonium, five extraction cycles were implemented and used at start-up: first cycle for separation of fission products, uranium and plutonium, two uranium purification cycles and two plutonium purification cycle. By modifying processes at the design stage and making adjustments during operations, we saw that further decontamination of uranium could be achieved with only one cycle. Radiological specification of plutonium was also obtained at the end of the first plutonium purification cycle. These good performance levels were taken into account for the design of the UP2-800 plant where uranium is purified using a single cycle, and for the recent R4 facility which features only one plutonium purification cycle. Relevant information on extraction cycles in first-generation French reprocessing plants (UP1 and UP2-400) as well as design characteristics for the extraction cycles of reprocessing facilities currently operating at the COGEMA-La Hague plant is given. Experience shows that we can obtain adequate performance levels using only three cycles. We will also present potential evolutions for extraction cycles, e.g., neptunium decontamination, and demonstrate that one cycle can be sufficient for reprocessing the spent nuclear currently available. The benefits associated with a single extraction cycle will be detailed in the presentation. (authors)

  5. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, William Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct screenings for new products. Past studies have demonstrated reductions in required screening resources (time, amount of herbicide active ingredient, and size of seedlings) can be achieved relative to field exclosure screenings. Rapid screening methods including, greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening were performed using triclopyr and 8 exp...

  6. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    OpenAIRE

    William Stanley; Shepard Zedaker; John Seiler; Patrick Burch

    2014-01-01

    Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896) were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected d...

  7. Research and Development Technology Development Roadmaps for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian McKirdy

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for process heat, hydrogen and electricity production. The reactor will be graphite moderated with helium as the primary coolant and may be either prismatic or pebble-bed. Although, final design features have not yet been determined. Research and Development (R&D) activities are proceeding on those known plant systems to mature the technology, codify the materials for specific applications, and demonstrate the component and system viability in NGNP relevant and integrated environments. Collectively these R&D activities serve to reduce the project risk and enhance the probability of on-budget, on-schedule completion and NRC licensing. As the design progresses, in more detail, toward final design and approval for construction, selected components, which have not been used in a similar application, in a relevant environment nor integrated with other components and systems, must be tested to demonstrate viability at reduced scales and simulations prior to full scale operation. This report and its R&D TDRMs present the path forward and its significance in assuring technical readiness to perform the desired function by: Choreographing the integration between design and R&D activities; and proving selected design components in relevant applications.

  8. Evolutionary development of ALWR design features for the system 80 family of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolutionary development of the System 80 family of plants has provided the basis for a series of advanced nuclear power plants currently being deployed in the Republic of Korea and also being proposed for other Asian customers. These evolutionary plant designs have incrementally incorporated improved features that are based on proven technology and can be introduced in a manner that can be accommodated in near term plant construction schedules. In parallel with the design and deployment of these plants, and sharing a common experience schedules. In parallel with the design and deployment of these plants, and sharing a common experience base, ABB-CE developed the System 80+ Standard Plant design. Again with proneness as a guiding principle, the System 80+ design incorporates many advanced features and design improvements that meet the most recent regulatory (e. g., severe accident) and industry (e. g., EPRI A LWR URD) requirements in the U. S. The System 80+ Standard Plant has already received the U. S. government's Final Design Approval in July 1994; this plant design provides the basis for developing the next generation of nuclear power plants for the world marketplace. This paper traces the ABB-CE evolutionary development process starting with the design of the System 80 standard NSSS in the early 1970's. its implementation at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, and the progression through the parallel design paths which resulted in the deployment of advanced evolutionary plants in the Republic of Korea, and the development and licensing of the System 80+ Standard Plant in the U. S.

  9. An in vitro model of human neocortical development using pluripotent stem cells: cocaine-induced cytoarchitectural alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail A. Kindberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neocortical development involves ordered specification of forebrain cortical progenitors to various neuronal subtypes, ultimately forming the layered cortical structure. Modeling of this process using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs would enable mechanistic studies of human neocortical development, while providing new avenues for exploration of developmental neocortical abnormalities. Here, we show that preserving hPSCs aggregates – allowing embryoid body formation – while adding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF during neuroepithelial development generates neural rosettes showing dorsal forebrain identity, including Mash1+ dorsal telencephalic GABAergic progenitors. Structures that mirrored the organization of the cerebral cortex formed after rosettes were seeded and cultured for 3 weeks in the presence of FGF18, BDNF and NT3. Neurons migrated along radial glia scaffolding, with deep-layer CTIP2+ cortical neurons appearing after 1 week and upper-layer SATB2+ cortical neurons forming during the second and third weeks. At the end of differentiation, these structures contained both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, with glutamatergic neurons being most abundant. Thus, this differentiation protocol generated an hPSC-based model that exhibits temporal patterning and a neuronal subtype ratio similar to that of the developing human neocortex. This model was used to examine the effects of cocaine during neocorticogenesis. Cocaine caused premature neuronal differentiation and enhanced neurogenesis of various cortical neuronal subtypes. These cocaine-induced changes were inhibited by the cytochrome P450 inhibitor cimetidine. This in vitro model enables mechanistic studies of neocorticogenesis, and can be used to examine the mechanisms through which cocaine alters the development of the human neocortex.

  10. Community leaders' perspectives on socio-economic impacts of power-plant development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary focus of this research effort was to identify and measure the socioeconomic impacts of power plant development on non-metropolitan host communities. A mail survey, distributed to community leaders in 100 power plant communities east of the Mississippi River, was utilized to gather information from 713 respondents. Community leaders were questioned as to the plant's impact on (a) community groups, (b) aspects of community life, (c) overall community acceptance and (d) attitudes toward power plant development. Overall, the trends and patterns of plant impact on the host communities were found to be largely positive. Specifically, local employment opportunities were generally enhanced with the advent of the power plant. Directly related to power plant development was the overall improvement of the local economic situation. Off-shoots from such in the economic area included related general improvements in the community quality of life. While the vast majority of community leaders responded with positive comments on power plant presence, adverse impacts were also mentioned. Negative comments focused on environmental problems, deterioration of roads and traffic conditions, and the possibility of nuclear accidents. Despite these negative impacts, almost two-thirds of the community leaders would definitely support the reconstruction of the same energy facility. Power plant development, therefore, is generally perceived as both a positive and beneficial asset for the host area. (author)

  11. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7. PMID:26081041

  12. Development of Information Processing and the Network System for the Control and Management of Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Hee; Park, Doo Young; Woo, Joo Hee [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Wook Hyun; Park, Jeong Woo; Moon, Hong Joo; Moon, Sang Yong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    It is needed to supervise, control and manage the inter operation of the system that is connected together to achieve good operation and high performance of the power plant. Moreover, the interconnection of the power plant is indispensable and they must be managed together. At present the control management systems that are on operation at power plants are composed of various systems from different companies, and the power plants have their own structure, we have much difficulty in managing communication of the systems. So, this study suggests the standard specification of the communication network for power plants. We have developed the network hardware, the 7 layers UCA, the network application software, the gateway between 3 layers UCA and the 7 layers UCA. Finally, we have developed the interface to Infi`90 which is one of the most popularly used system for power plant control, so that PC can be used for the operation of Infi`90. (author). 82 refs., figs.

  13. Impact of ultraviolet-B radiation on growth and development of the plants - literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presents a review of the recent literature dealing with the UV-B radiation, its effect on physiological processes of plant growth and development, cellular changes, concentration of chemical compounds and changes in morphological plant traits. The reasons of increasing UV-B radiation level are rapidly developing civilization and decreasing of ozone layer. It was stated that the plant reaction to UV-B irradiation depends on plant species and environmental conditions. Destructive effects of UV-B radiation to plants may be - to some extent - neutralized by defence mechanisms, a form of specific plant adaptation to stress, however, under conditions of strong UV-B irradiation such mechanisms are not sufficient

  14. Defects in the CAPN1 gene result in alterations in cerebellar development and in cerebellar ataxia in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubin; Hersheson, Joshua; Lopez, Dulce; Hamad, Monia Ben; Liu, Yan; Lee, Ka-Hung; Pinto, Vanessa; Seinfeld, Jeff; Wiethoff, Sarah; Sun, Jiandong; Amouri, Rim; Hentati, Faycal; Baudry, Neema; Tran, Jennifer; Singleton, Andrew B; Coutelier, Marie; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni; Durr, Alexandra; Bi, Xiaoning; Houlden, Henry; Baudry, Michel

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY A CAPN1 missense mutation in Parson Russell Terrier dogs is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia. We now report that homozygous CAPN1 null mutations in humans result in cerebellar ataxia and limb spasticity in four independent pedigrees. Calpain-1 knock-out (KO) mice also exhibit a mild form of ataxia due to abnormal cerebellar development, including enhanced neuronal apoptosis, decreased number of cerebellar granule cells, and altered synaptic transmission. Enhanced apoptosis is due to absence of calpain-1 mediated cleavage of PH domain and Leucine rich repeat Protein Phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1), which results in inhibition of the Akt pro-survival pathway in developing granule cells. Injection of neonatal mice with the indirect Akt activator, bisperoxovanadium, or crossing calpain-1 KO mice with PHLPP1 KO mice prevented increased postnatal cerebellar granule cell apoptosis, and restored granule cell density and motor coordination in adult mice. Thus, mutations in CAPN1 are an additional cause of ataxia in mammals, including humans. PMID:27320912

  15. Characteristics of soils developed from alluvium and their potential for cocoa plant development in East Kolaka Regency, Southeast Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yatno; Sudarsono; Iskandar; B. Mulyanto

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa is one of plantation commodities that is quite important for the national economy. Land management for the development of this plant should pay attention to the characteristics of the soil. Three soil profiles formed from alluvium parent material in East Kolaka Regency were investigated to determine the mineralogical, physical, and chemical soil properties, as well as the potential of the land for the development of cocoa plant. The results showed that the mineral composition of the sa...

  16. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Osuna, Daniel; Prieto, Pilar; Aguilar, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose) and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes i...

  17. Development of an evaluation system for nuclear power plant construction schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an evaluating system for nuclear power plant construction that uses 3D-CAD data. It has four significant functions, i.e., planning initial schedule data automatically, evaluating the schedule with visual simulation, evaluating the working difficulty, and evaluating the unit's temporary setting. It has been effectively applied to nuclear power plant construction. Use of the system is expected to result in an accurate and efficient plant construction schedule

  18. Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Maia Marta; Moore Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Plant-based repellents have been used for generations in traditional practice as a personal protection measure against host-seeking mosquitoes. Knowledge on traditional repellent plants obtained through ethnobotanical studies is a valuable resource for the development of new natural products. Recently, commercial repellent products containing plant-based ingredients have gained increasing popularity among consumers, as these are commonly perceived as “safe” in comparison to long-esta...

  19. Emerging Roles of Strigolactones in Plant Responses to Stress and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Amita; Sharma, Manisha; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2016-01-01

    Our environment constantly undergoes changes either natural or manmade affecting growth and development of all the organisms including plants. Plants are sessile in nature and therefore to counter environmental changes such as light, temperature, nutrient and water availability, pathogen, and many others; plants have evolved intricate signaling mechanisms, composed of multiple components including several plant hormones. Research conducted in the last decade has placed Strigolactones (SLs) in the growing list of plant hormones involved in coping with environmental changes. SLs are carotenoid derivatives functioning as both endogenous and exogenous signaling molecules in response to various environmental cues. Initially, SLs were discovered as compounds that are harmful to plants due to their role as stimulants in seed germination of parasitic plants, a more beneficial role in plant growth and development was uncovered much later. SLs are required for maintaining plant architecture by regulating shoot and root growth in response to various external stimuli including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, light, nutrients, and temperature. Moreover, a role for SLs has also been recognized during various abiotic and biotic stress conditions making them suitable target for generating genetically engineered crop plants with improved yield. This review discusses the biosynthesis of SLs and their regulatory and physiological roles in various stress conditions. Understanding of detailed signaling mechanisms of SLs will be an important factor for designing genetically modified crops for overcoming the problem of crop loss under stressful conditions. PMID:27092155

  20. Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajwan Bikram

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine in addition the necessity of meeting the requirements of medicine for an increasing human population. Through the realization of the continuous erosion of traditional knowledge of plants used for medicine in the past and the renewed interest at the present time, a need existed to review this valuable knowledge of medicinal plants with the purpose of developing medicinal plants sectors across the different states in India. Our major objectives therefore were to explore the potential in medicinal plants resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities with the medicinal plants sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector along with improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities. The review reveals that northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants, and attempts are being made at different levels for sustainable utilization of this resource in order to develop the medicinal plants sector.

  1. Development of Approaches for Deuterium Incorporation in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of deuterium, efforts to utilize this stable isotope of hydrogen for labeling of plants began and have proven successful for natural abundance to 20% enrichment. However, isotopic labeling with deuterium (2H) in higher plants at the level of 40% and higher is complicated by both physiological responses, particularly water exchange through transpiration, and inhibitory effects of D2O on germination, rooting, and growth. The highest incorporation of 40 50% had been reported for photoheterotrophic cultivation of the duckweed Lemna. Higher substitution is desirable for certain applications using neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. 1H2H-NMR and mass spectroscopy are standard methods frequently used for determination of location and amount of deuterium substitution. The changes in infrared (IR) absorption observed for H to D substitution in hydroxyl and alkyl groups provide rapid initial evaluation of incorporation. Short-term experiments with cold-tolerant annual grasses can be carried out in enclosed growth containers to evaluate incorporation. Growth in individual chambers under continuous air perfusion with dried sterile-filtered air enables long-term cultivation of multiple plants at different D2O concentrations. Vegetative propagation from cuttings extends capabilities to species with low germination rates. Cultivation in 50% D2O of annual ryegrass and switchgrass following establishment of roots by growth in H2O produces samples with normal morphology and 30 40 % deuterium incorporation in the biomass. Winter grain rye (Secale cereale) was found to efficiently incorporate deuterium by photosynthetic fixation from 50% D2O but did not incorporate deuterated phenylalanine-d8 from the growth medium.

  2. Human factors in maintenance: Development and research in Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, I. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology; Svensson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    2001-11-01

    The present report investigated previously completed, ongoing, and planned research and development projects focusing human factors and maintenance work carried out at Swedish nuclear power plants and SKI. In addition, needs for future research and development works were also investigated. Participants from all nuclear power plants and SKI were included in the study. Participants responded to a set of questions in an interview. The interviews also generated a list of future research and development projects.

  3. Human factors in maintenance: Development and research in Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report investigated previously completed, ongoing, and planned research and development projects focusing human factors and maintenance work carried out at Swedish nuclear power plants and SKI. In addition, needs for future research and development works were also investigated. Participants from all nuclear power plants and SKI were included in the study. Participants responded to a set of questions in an interview. The interviews also generated a list of future research and development projects

  4. Human factors in maintenance: development and research in Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report investigated previously completed, ongoing, and planned research and development projects focusing human factors and maintenance work carried out at Swedish nuclear power plants and SKI. In addition, needs for future research and development works were also investigated. Participants from all nuclear power plants and SKI were included in the study. Participants responded to a set of questions in an interview. The interviews also generated a list of future research and development projects. (au)

  5. Alternative trends in development of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal (or fossil fuel) power plants (TPP) are the major polluters of man's environment, discharging into the atmosphere the basic product of carbon fuel combustion, CO2. It is this very gas that accounts for the greenhouse effect causing the global climate warm-up on our planet. A natural solution of the problem of reducing carbon dioxide discharge into the atmosphere lies in power saving, thus reducing the amount of the fuel burnt. This approach can be justified from any standpoint, both economically and ecologically. The ideal way of solving the problem would be to completely give up burning carbon-containing fuel, such as coal, petroleum products, and other power resources of organic nature. This work is intended to outline the ways of reducing consumption of fuel by TPP and, consequently, of reducing their discharging into the atmosphere the gases producing the greenhouse effect. One of the ways lies in changing the thermophysical characteristics of the working medium, which becomes possible if we can modify the conventional working medium, that is water, or can use some working medium with quite different thermophysical properties. The article dwells on various technological ways providing for a practical solution of the problem, such as the Kalina cycle; modification of water properties by way of magneto-hydrodynamic resonance (MHD resonance); and employing, in the thermodynamic cycle of Thermal Power Plants, liquids boiling at temperatures which are lower than that of the environment

  6. Development of digital instruments for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To solve the problems of reducing the burden of operators and labour-saving along with the increase of nuclear power plant capacity, a method of introducing the control with micro-controllers into practical use has been generalized. This paper reports on the application of the method to two titled examples. The Traversing Incore Probing Monitor is a system used for calibrating local power range monitor detectors in reactors and measuring incore neutron flux distribution. These had to be manually operated with extreme care for a long time so far. Reactor output has been also required to be kept constant during calibration or measurement. Therefore, much time has been consumed for plant operation. Aiming at shortening the measuring time and drastically reducing man-power, the full automation of calibrating works, simultaneous whole channel traverse, distributed micro-processor control system independently controlling every channel and the automation of XY-recorder operation have been implemented. Since the burden of operators also increased by the increase of measuring points in dust radiation monitors, they have been improved to disuse relay logics by changing the sampling point switching and dust sampler operation to micro-processor control, to automatically convert the radiation dose rate into radioactivity concentration, and to perform the automatic calibration. In the above two examples, high reliability has been achieved together with automatic calibration by adding the self-diagnostic functions. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Development of pharmacognostic standards of plants from Borginaceae family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SS Saboo; GG Tapadiya; SS Khadabadi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the morpho-anatomy of the leaf, stem and root of these plants to increase the knowledge and standardization parameters of Trichodesma sedgwickianum (TRS) and Trichodesma indium (TRI) of Borginaceae family.Methods: Transverse section of different organs of plants carried out by free hand and various types of histochemical tests were performed for the identification of microchemical by using different reagents.Results: Transverse section of TRS leaf shows presense of phloem tissue and anomocytic stomata with both glandular and covering trichomes. Stem contain epidermal brown tissue and collenchyma. Root shows presence of xylem and starch grains. TRI leaf contains radiating arc of xylem, phloem and pericyclic fiber. Stem shows presence of cortex with chlorenchymatous cells. Anatomically roots revealed the presense of xylem, phloem and oil globules. Unicerate covering trichomes and anisocytic stomata are present. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic constants and diagnostic microscopic features reported in this work could be useful for the compilation of a suitable monograph and its proper identification and standardisation of these two species.

  8. Development of knowledge acquisition methods for knowledge base construction for autonomous nuclear plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasajima, M.; Kitamura, Y.; Mizoguchi, R. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Yoshikawa, S.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes a development of an ontology for computerized representation of behaviors and functions of number power plants. This ontology also enables computers to predict plant behaviors under assumed changes of boundary conditions and to derive cause identification suggestions of observed anomalies, as well as to represent functions and behaviors. Technical requirements in this development were recognized as clarified distinguishment of functions from behaviors and efficient plant behavior reasoning, and these have been successfully attained. The purpose of this development is to achieve knowledge sharing between human and automized instrumentation and control system about nuclear plant functions and behaviors, to realize cooperation of human and automized system for safe and cost acceptable nuclear plant operation. (author)

  9. Development of knowledge acquisition methods for knowledge base construction for autonomous nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a development of an ontology for computerized representation of behaviors and functions of number power plants. This ontology also enables computers to predict plant behaviors under assumed changes of boundary conditions and to derive cause identification suggestions of observed anomalies, as well as to represent functions and behaviors. Technical requirements in this development were recognized as clarified distinguishment of functions from behaviors and efficient plant behavior reasoning, and these have been successfully attained. The purpose of this development is to achieve knowledge sharing between human and automized instrumentation and control system about nuclear plant functions and behaviors, to realize cooperation of human and automized system for safe and cost acceptable nuclear plant operation. (author)

  10. Development of risk monitor RiskAngel for risk-informed applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of risk monitor software RiskAngel at FDS Team and its applications as a plant specific risk monitor, which supports risk-informed configuration risk management for the two CANDU 6 units at the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant in China. It also describes the regulatory prospective on risk-informed PSA applications and the use of risk monitor at operating nuclear power plants, high level technical and functional requirements for the development of CANDU specific risk monitor software, and future development trends. (author)

  11. The role of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in altering the metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging activities of Coleus forskohlii, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2016-04-01

    The effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B (s-UV-B; 3.6 kJ m(-2) day(-1) above ambient) radiation were investigated on plant metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging capacities of methanolic extracts of Coleus forskohlii (an indigenous medicinal plant) grown under field conditions. Essential oil was isolated using hydrodistillation technique while alterations in metabolite profile and oil composition were determined via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Leaf and root methanolic extracts were investigated via various in vitro assays for their DPPH radical-, superoxide radical-, hydrogen peroxide-, hydroxyl radical-, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating activity, and reducing power. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Oil content was found to be reduced (by ∼7 %) in supplemental UV-B (s-UV-B) treated plants; the composition of the plant extracts as well as essential oil was also considerably altered. Methanolic extracts from treated plant organs showed more potency as free radical scavengers (their EC50 values being lower than their respective controls). Anomalies were observed in Fe(2+) chelating activity for both leaves and roots. The present study concludes that s-UV-B adversely affects oil content in C. forskohlii and also alters the composition and contents of metabolites in both plant extracts and oil. The results also denote that s-UV-B treated plant organs might be more effective in safeguarding against oxidative stress, though further studies are required to authenticate these findings. PMID:26681329

  12. EFFECTS OF HORMONES ADDITION FOR IN VITRO PLANT DEVELOPMENT OF CALENDULLA OFFICINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA-CLAUDIA ALEXA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presented in vitro plant development of Calendula officinalis on MS (Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different formula of hormones. The morphogenetic response was evaluated by recording the number of plantlets, the plant height and weight. The results showed that small amounts of hormones can improve the plantlets growth in the case of Calendula officinalis.

  13. Reproductive Development of the Christmas Rose (Helleborus niger L.): The Role of Plant Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Salopek Sondi, Branka

    2011-01-01

    Christmas rose (Helleborus niger L.), a native perennial of southeastern Europe, is characterized by an interesting phenomenon in the world of flowering plants: after fertilization perianth becomes green, photosyntheticaly active, and persists during fruit development. Removal of the reproductive organs (anthers and carpels) affects the elongation and vascular anatomy of flower stalk, prevents complete perianth greening, and promotes perianth senescence. Endogenous plant hormones ...

  14. EFFECTS OF HORMONES ADDITION FOR IN VITRO PLANT DEVELOPMENT OF CALENDULLA OFFICINALIS

    OpenAIRE

    IRINA-CLAUDIA ALEXA; PETRONEL PAVĂL; DANIELA NICUŢĂ; PETRONELA BRAN; OANA-IRINA PATRICIU; LUMINIŢA GROSU; ADRIANA LUMINITA FINARU

    2015-01-01

    The current study presented in vitro plant development of Calendula officinalis on MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium supplemented with different formula of hormones. The morphogenetic response was evaluated by recording the number of plantlets, the plant height and weight. The results showed that small amounts of hormones can improve the plantlets growth in the case of Calendula officinalis.

  15. The development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators associated with maintenance at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators of maintenance. These indicators were selected by: (1) creating a formal framework of plant processes; (2) identifying features of plant behavior considered important to safety; (3) evaluating existing indicators against these features; and (4) performing statistical analyses for the selected indicators. The report recommends additional testing. 32 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Development of a 200kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Take, Tetsuo; Kuwata, Yutaka; Adachi, Masahito; Ogata, Tsutomu [NTT Integrated Information & Energy System Labs., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NFT) has been developing a 200 kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant which can generate AC 200 kW of constant power by switching fuel from pipeline town gas to liquefied propane gas (LPG) and vice versa. This paper describes the outline of the demonstration test plant and test results of its fundamental characteristics.

  17. Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ► Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ► Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ► Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ► Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene.

  18. Development of full power risk monitoring system for nuclear power plant for UCN 3, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, RIA/R has been widely used which reduce costs by optimizing resources. One of essential RIAs is the development of computerized risk monitoring system which can evaluated the risk in real time using the plant configuration information such as basic event of inoperable equipments and environmental variables. KAERI has developed the full power risk monitoring system (DynaRM) for the UCN 3,4 NPPs. In order to develop UCN 3,4 full power risk monitoring system PSA model for risk monitor should be developed with reflecting the changes of plant configuration from the beginning of plant operation. As a risk monitor system, two main modules have been developed to monitor the current risk of the plant and to assist the maintenance schedule decision making

  19. Growth, development, yield and quality of china squash fruits depending on plants layout schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Хареба, В. В.; Кокойко, В. В.

    2016-01-01

    The article provides the study results on growing Dolia variety of China squash (Cuсurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir.) by different plant layout schemes. Effect of thickening and thinning of plants on the vegetation season length, productivity and quality of China squash are described.The aim and tasks of the study. To investigate the effects of plant layout schemes on plant growth, development and yield of China squash.Material and methods.  The study was conducted in the experimental field of ...

  20. Development of FBR plant design program (FR-Design) for education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive understanding of FBR plants is required to realize safe and well-balanced plant design. Difficulties are related to their complex systems and multi-physics phenomena, which have mutual interaction among various professional fields. To overcome these problems, a total simulation program was developed to evaluate plant characteristics under steady state conditions and to survey allowable specifications among trade-off parameters. This program was proved to be effective for better understanding of FBR plants through unitization for course exercises at the graduate school of the University of Tokyo. (author)