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  1. Atherectomy: Treatment for Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Atherectomy: Treatment for Peripheral Vascular Disease You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy ...

  2. Review: Interventional radiology in peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) are referred to as diseases affecting the blood vessels other than the heart and the brain. Interventional endovascular treatment whenever feasible has become the first line of management in the treatment of PVD. Interventions may be aimed at either revascularization or deliberate occlusion of a diseased vessel(s). This article reviews the various peripheral vascular diseases with their appropriate endovascular management

  3. Review: Interventional radiology in peripheral vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cherian, Mathew P; Mehta, Pankaj; Tejas M Kalyanpur; Gupta, Prashanth

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) are referred to as diseases affecting the blood vessels other than the heart and the brain. Interventional endovascular treatment whenever feasible has become the first line of management in the treatment of PVD. Interventions may be aimed at either revascularization or deliberate occlusion of a diseased vessel(s). This article reviews the various peripheral vascular diseases with their appropriate endovascular management.

  4. How to Measure Peripheral Pulmonary Vascular Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Chesler, Naomi C; Argiento, Paola; Vanderpool, Rebecca; D’Alto, Michele; Naeije, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is initially a disease of the small, peripheral resistance arteries. Changes in these vessels are best assessed by measurement of pulmonary artery pressure at several levels of flow to generate multi-point pressure-flow curves. This approach is superior to the traditional single-point measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) because it allows a flow-independent definition of the resistive properties of that portion of the pulmonary vascular bed and also p...

  5. Radiology of peripheral vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume provides a comprehensive account of the use of modern imaging procedures for the diagnosis of arterial and venous diseases. Each imaging modality is separately considered and applications in individual diseases are then explained with the aid of excellent illustrations. In addition, vascular interventions such as balloon angioplasty, local thrombolysis, and stent implantation are discussed and appraised. Special attention is devoted to the problem of radiation burden for patients. The authors are all recognized experts in angiology, phlebology, and interventional radiology. (orig.)

  6. Antithrombotic Therapy After Peripheral Vascular Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peter; Jones, Schuyler

    2016-03-01

    Cardioprotective medications and risk-factor modification are the hallmarks of treatment for all patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). If symptoms are life-limiting and/or do not respond to conservative treatment, endovascular or surgical revascularization can be considered especially for patients with critical limb ischemia or acute limb ischemia. The rates of peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) have risen dramatically over the past few decades and much of this care have shifted from inpatient hospital settings to outpatient settings and office-based clinics. While PVI rates have surged and technology advancements have dramatically changed the face of PVI, the data behind optimal antithrombotic therapy following PVI is scant. Currently in the USA, most patients are treated with indefinite aspirin therapy and a variable duration of clopidogrel (or other P2Y12 inhibitor)-typically 1 month, 3 months, or indefinite therapy. More observational analyses and randomized clinical trials evaluating clinically relevant outcomes such as cardiovascular morbidity/mortality and the risk of bleeding are needed to guide the optimal role and duration of antithrombotic therapy post-PVI. PMID:26841788

  7. Evaluation and percutaneous management of atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease (PVD) of the lower extremities deprives a person of the ability to exercise to their satisfaction, later of the ability to perform the activities of their daily life, and finally of their legs themselves. Peripheral vascular disease has long been managed by the vascular surgeon utilizing endarterectomy and peripheral arterial bypass. Patient acceptance of nonsurgical, percutaneous procedures such as percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) is high. Increased utilization of these procedures has led to improved techniques and adjuncts to therapy, as well as more critical review of long-term results. This article will review the evaluation and nonoperative management of PVD, with an emphasis on the newer modalities of management presently being investigated

  8. Temporary intravascular shunts for peripheral vascular trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain A

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylchloride (PVC disposable endotracheal suction catheters were successfully used as temporary intravascular shunts in 5 patients of popliteal artery trauma. These simple shunts should be used routinely in such conditions to immediately re-establish blood supply to the ischaemic limb particularly in patients of polytrauma where systemic anticoagulation is contraindicated. This avoids the inherent delay prior to vascular repair and reduces the incidence of irreversible ischemia.

  9. Acute type II cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis mimicking atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saeed, A

    2012-01-31

    Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease is a common presenting cause for digital ischaemia in life long smokers. Acute severe Type II Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis is a rare yet important cause, which may present with similar clinical features and which if undiagnosed may be rapidly fatal. Following the instigation of therapy with intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide this patient made an excellent recovery.

  10. Effects of real and simulated weightlessness on the cardiac and peripheral vascular functions of humans: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Weightlessness is an extreme environment that can cause a series of adaptive changes in the human body. Findings from real and simulated weightlessness indicate altered cardiovascular functions, such as reduction in left ventricular (LV mass, cardiac arrhythmia, reduced vascular tone and so on. These alterations induced by weightlessness are detrimental to the health, safety and working performance of the astronauts, therefore it is important to study the effects of weightlessness on the cardiovascular functions of humans. The cardiovascular functional alterations caused by weightlessness (including long-term spaceflight and simulated weightlessness are briefly reviewed in terms of the cardiac and peripheral vascular functions. The alterations include: changes of shape and mass of the heart; cardiac function alterations; the cardiac arrhythmia; lower body vascular regulation and upper body vascular regulation. A series of conclusions are reported, some of which are analyzed, and a few potential directions are presented.

  11. Prevention of cardiac complications in peripheral vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of severe coronary artery disease in peripheral vascular patients exceeds 50 per cent. Complications of coronary artery disease are the most common causes of mortality following peripheral vascular operations. To reduce the incidence of cardiac complications, it is first necessary to identify patients at risk through screening tests. Screening methods in current use include risk factor analysis, exercise testing, routine coronary angiography, and dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy. The risk factor approach has the advantage of being widely applicable since it makes use of historical, physical, and electrocardiographic findings that are already familiar to surgeons and anesthesiologists. It is also inexpensive. However, it may overlook the patient who has no symptoms of coronary artery disease, possibly as a result of the sedentary lifestyle imposed by complications of peripheral vascular disease. The electrocardiographically monitored stress test will identify the asymptomatic patient with occult coronary disease and is helpful in predicting operative risk. However, a meaningful test is dependent on the patient's ability to exercise--an activity that is frequently limited by claudication, amputation, or arthritis. Exercise testing also suffers from a lack of sensitivity and specificity when compared with coronary arteriography. Routine preoperative coronary angiography overcomes the exercise limitation of treadmill testing but is not widely applicable as a screening test for reasons of cost and inherent risk. Dipyridamole thallium-201 scanning, on the other hand, is safe and of relatively low cost and does not require exercise

  12. Prevention of cardiac complications in peripheral vascular surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, B.S.

    1986-04-01

    The prevalence of severe coronary artery disease in peripheral vascular patients exceeds 50 per cent. Complications of coronary artery disease are the most common causes of mortality following peripheral vascular operations. To reduce the incidence of cardiac complications, it is first necessary to identify patients at risk through screening tests. Screening methods in current use include risk factor analysis, exercise testing, routine coronary angiography, and dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy. The risk factor approach has the advantage of being widely applicable since it makes use of historical, physical, and electrocardiographic findings that are already familiar to surgeons and anesthesiologists. It is also inexpensive. However, it may overlook the patient who has no symptoms of coronary artery disease, possibly as a result of the sedentary lifestyle imposed by complications of peripheral vascular disease. The electrocardiographically monitored stress test will identify the asymptomatic patient with occult coronary disease and is helpful in predicting operative risk. However, a meaningful test is dependent on the patient's ability to exercise--an activity that is frequently limited by claudication, amputation, or arthritis. Exercise testing also suffers from a lack of sensitivity and specificity when compared with coronary arteriography. Routine preoperative coronary angiography overcomes the exercise limitation of treadmill testing but is not widely applicable as a screening test for reasons of cost and inherent risk. Dipyridamole thallium-201 scanning, on the other hand, is safe and of relatively low cost and does not require exercise.

  13. Altered baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance during simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Vernikos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Reflex peripheral vasoconstriction induced by activation of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors in response to reduced central venous pressure (CVP) is a basic mechanism for elevating systemic vascular resistance and defending arterial blood pressure during orthostatically-induced reductions in cardiac filling and output. The sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex response [defined as the slope of the relationship between changes in forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and CVP] and the resultant vasoconstriction are closely and inversely associated with the amount of circulating blood volume. Thus, a high-gain FVR response will be elicited by a hypovolemic state. Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in reduced plasma volume. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the FVR response to cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading would be accentuated following adaptation to microgravity. Such data could provide better insight about the physiological mechanisms underlying alterations in blood pressure control following spaceflight. We therefore exposed eleven men to 6 degrees head-down bedrest for 7 days and measured specific hemodynamic responses to low levels of the lower body negative pressure to determine if there are alterations in cardiopulmonary baroreceptor stimulus-FVR reflex response relationship during prolonged exposure to an analog of microgravity.

  14. Systemic sclerosis induces pronounced peripheral vascular dysfunction characterized by blunted peripheral vasoreactivity and endothelial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Frech, Tracy; Walker, Ashley E; Barrett-O’Keefe, Zachary; Hopkins, Paul N.; Richardson, Russell S.; Wray, D. Walter; Donato, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) vasculopathy can result in a digital ulcer (DU) and/or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that bedside brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) testing with duplex ultrasound could be used in SSc patients to identify features of patients at risk for DU or PAH. Thirty-eight SSc patients were compared to 52 age-matched healthy controls from the VAMC Utah Vascular Research Laboratory. Peripheral hemodynamics, arterial structure, and endothelial fu...

  15. MR anatomic and flow imaging in peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging has been used to identify atherosclerotic plaques and assess their effect on flow in a phantom, in six normal subjects, and in 13 patients with documented peripheral vascular disease. Spin-echo images were acquired in transaxial and oblique planes through the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries, and the findings were compared with those of angiography. MR phase mapping was used to produce velocity profiles and to measure blood flow. Plaques were consistently detected on anatomic images, and luminal narrowing could be assessed by changes in the velocity profiles, MR imaging is a nonivasive method that is of potential importance in the study of atheroma

  16. Novel Applications of Radionuclide Imaging in Peripheral Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Mitchel R; Sinusas, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a progressive atherosclerotic disease that leads to stenosis or occlusion of blood vessels supplying the lower extremities. Current diagnostic imaging techniques commonly focus on evaluation of anatomy or blood flow at the macrovascular level and do not permit assessment of the underlying pathophysiology associated with disease progression or treatment response. Molecular imaging with radionuclide-based approaches can offer novel insight into PVD by providing noninvasive assessment of biological processes such as angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. This article discusses emerging radionuclide-based imaging approaches that have potential clinical applications in the evaluation of PVD progression and treatment. PMID:26590787

  17. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters Complicated by Vascular Erosion in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Brian P; Farrow, Kathryn N; Kim, Stan; Hunter, Catherine J

    2016-08-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are widely used in the pediatric population, and their use continues to grow in popularity. These catheters provide a reliable source of venous access to neonatal patients but can also be the cause of life-threatening complications. There are several well-documented complications such as infections, catheter thrombosis, vascular extravasations, and fractured catheters. However, the complication of vascular erosion into the pleural space using both small and silicone-based catheters is rarely described. After obtaining institutional review board approval, we identified 4 cases to review of PICCs complicated by vascular erosions in the past 2 years. Herein, we also review the current literature of PICC complications. Getting the catheter tip as close to the atrial-caval junction as possible and confirmation of this placement are of the utmost importance. The thick wall of the vena cava near the atrium seems to be less likely to perforate; in addition, this position provides increased volume and turbulence to help dilute the hyperosmolar fluid, which seems to also be a factor in this complication. A daily screening chest x-ray in patients with upper extremity PICCs and ongoing parenteral nutrition (PN) are not necessary at this time given the overall low rate of vascular erosion and concerns regarding excessive radiation exposure in pediatric populations. However, a low threshold for chest x-ray imaging in patients with even mild respiratory symptoms in the setting of upper extremity PN is recommended. PMID:25700180

  18. Association between Bacterial Infection and Peripheral Vascular Disease: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyński, Jacek; Wiśniewska, Joanna; Ciecierski, Marek; Kędzia, Anna

    2016-03-01

    There are an increasing number of data showing a clinically important association between bacterial infection and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Bacteria suspected of being involved in PAD pathogenesis are: periodontal bacteria, gut microbiota, Helicobacter pylori, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Infectious agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis via activation of a systemic or local host immunological response to contamination of extravascular tissues or the vascular wall, respectively. A systemic immunological reaction may damage vascular walls in the course of autoimmunological cross-reactions between anti-pathogen antibodies and host vascular antigens (immunological mimicry), pathogen burden mechanisms (nonspecific activation of inflammatory processes in the vascular wall), and neuroendocrine-immune cross-talk. Besides activating the inflammatory pathway, bacterial infection may trigger PAD progression or exacerbation by enhancement of platelet reactivity, by a stimulatory effect on von Willebrand factor binding, factor VIII, fibrinogen, P-selectin activation, disturbances in plasma lipids, increase in oxidative stress, and resistance to insulin. Local inflammatory host reaction and induction of atherosclerotic plaque progression and/or instability result mainly from atherosclerotic plaque colonization by microorganisms. Despite these premises, the role of bacterial infection in PAD pathogenesis should still be recognized as controversial, and randomized, controlled trials are required to evaluate the outcome of periodontal or gut bacteria modification (through diet, prebiotics, and probiotics) or eradication (using antibiotics) in hard and surrogate cardiovascular endpoints. PMID:26900306

  19. Blood pressure variability and cardiovascular autonomic control during hemodialysis in peripheral vascular disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) are at higher risk of mortality. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the hypothesis of an association between the PVD and an altered control system on peripheral resistance in response to volume depletion induced by HD treatment; and to investigate whether HD induced increase of pulse pressure (PP) is associated with PVD. Continuous blood pressure (BP) was recorded during HD treatment at the beginning and at the end of HD. The overhydration condition was evaluated by means of whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy, measured before each HD treatment. BP variability, heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity were then analyzed. Patients affected by PVD reported a prevalence of peripheral local control as shown by higher values of very low frequency in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) variability and a reduced cardiac baroreflex with respect to patients not affected by this pathology. HD treatment induced a significant increase of PP and LF% in DBP series in PVD patients only. Our results suggested that differences in BP variability and PP changes could be related not only to an underlying vascular disease, but also to an alteration in autonomic control. (paper)

  20. Effect of total leucocyte count on whole blood filterability in patients with peripheral vascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, M J; Ridge, A; Morley, A A; Ryall, R. G.; Walsh, J A

    1981-01-01

    An abnormal filterability of whole blood through micropore membranes in vitro has been reported in peripheral vascular disease and has been thought to indicate abnormal red cell deformability. Blood from 68 patients with symptomatic peripheral vascular disease of varying severity and from 32 age-matched controls without a history of peripheral vascular disease was studied by the technique of whole blood filtration. In agreement with earlier findings, whole blood filterability was significantl...

  1. Early experience of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is prevalent affecting up to 16% of the population aged 55 years or older. Endovascular intervention for the treatment of limb ischemia has become the first line therapy but in Pakistan it is in embryonic stage due to dearth of trained persons and dedicated centres. This study was conducted to evaluate procedural success and early outcome of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease. Methods: A prospective single arm multicentre study was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease and National Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2014. A total of 25 patients were enrolled in the study that underwent endovascular treatment. Out of 25 patients 23 (92%) had critical limb ischemia (CLI) as per TASC II classification (A to D) and 2 (8%) had carotid lesion with history of TIA. Patients of acute limb ischemia and stroke were excluded. Ankle brachial index (ABI) was classified as normal (0.9-1.3), mild (0.7-0.9), moderate (0.4-0.69), severe (<0.4). Outcome was taken as immediate success and symptoms, amputation of limb among CLI patients and incidence of stroke in patients with carotid artery lesion at end of six months. Results: Among aortoiliac, femoropopliteal and tibioperoneal lesions, tibioperoneal lesions at six months were found to be more symptomatic 6 (86%) and amputation 4 (57%). Two carotid lesions at follow up were asymptomatic without stroke. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular lesions, i.e., aortoiliac, femoropopliteal tibioperoneal and carotid lesions were satisfactory in immediate outcome. Tibioperoneal lesions were more symptomatic and limb amputation at six months. (author)

  2. Systemic sclerosis induces pronounced peripheral vascular dysfunction characterized by blunted peripheral vasoreactivity and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frech, Tracy; Walker, Ashley E; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Hopkins, Paul N; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter; Donato, Anthony J

    2015-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) vasculopathy can result in a digital ulcer (DU) and/or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that bedside brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) testing with duplex ultrasound could be used in SSc patients to identify features of patients at risk for DU or PAH. Thirty-eight SSc patients were compared to 52 age-matched healthy controls from the VAMC Utah Vascular Research Laboratory. Peripheral hemodynamics, arterial structure, and endothelial function were assessed by duplex ultrasound. A blood pressure cuff was applied to the forearm and 5-min ischemia was induced. Post-occlusion, brachial artery vascular reactivity (peak hyperemia/area under the curve [AUC]), shear rate, and endothelial function (FMD) were measured. SSc patients had smaller brachial artery diameters (p 5.40 %) had less than 15 % chance of DU. All brachial artery FMD measurements were similar between SSc patients with and without PAH (all p > 0.05). Compared to healthy controls, SSc patients had significantly smaller brachial artery diameter and blunted peripheral vascular reactivity and endothelial function. SSc patients with DU have even greater impairments in endothelial function compared to those without DU. FMD testing has clinical utility to identify SSc patients at risk for DU. PMID:25511849

  3. Medicinal therapy for interventional surgery of the peripheral vascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of medicinal treatment, during and after femoral and crural interventions is to prevent early or late onset arterial thrombosis of the treated vascular segments. Therefore, unfractionated heparin is administered during the intervention by an intra-arterial or intravenous approach. To avoid late onset thrombosis, administration of platelet function inhibitors is recommended. However, valid data are only available for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Therefore, ASA is recommended for long term medication. In several cardiological studies on stent implantation in coronary vessels the combination of ASA and clopidogrel for dual platelet inhibition has been proven to be effective. These results have been transferred to antithrombotic therapy of the lower extremities despite the lack of dedicated studies. There is no evidence for the use of vitamin K antagonists after peripheral interventions. (orig.)

  4. Near-infraread spectroscopy during peripheral vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben Veith; Eiberg, Jonas Peter; Vogt, Katja; Secher, Niels Henry

    Original,Near-infraread spectroscopy,Vascular disease,Vascular by-pass surgery,Perioperative oxymetry......Original,Near-infraread spectroscopy,Vascular disease,Vascular by-pass surgery,Perioperative oxymetry...

  5. Peripheral vascular disease in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The prevalence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has been investigated in many different ways. It depends on the diagnostic methods used and definition of atherosclerotic manifestations in the different vascular beds. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of PVD in the lower limbs in group of patients with CAD. Design: This is a prospective observational study. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital/Armed Forces institute of Cardiology, Rawalpindi, over a period of one year (January 1998 to January 1999). Subjects and methods: A total number of 200 patient (171 male and 29 females) aged 55-77 years with CAD. Diagnosed by coronary angiography were included in the study. In all patients blood pressure was recorded in both arms by sphygmomanometer and ankle systolic pressure by Doppler ultrasound. Ankle branchial index was calculated. Demographic data were obtained from the patient's hospital files. Results: The prevalence of PVD was 22.5% in patients with CAD in agreement with the results of most previous investigation. There was tendency towards increasing prevalence of PVD with more advanced CAD. Thirty patients (27%) showed evidence of triple vessel disease as compared to 13 patient (18%) with double vessel and 2 patients (1%) with single vessel disease. Conclusion: A non-invasive investigation of peripheral arterial circulation should be included early in the clinical consideration of patients with chest pain or similar symptoms suggesting coronary artery disease. Ankle systolic pressure appears to be simple and cheap technique for evaluation of results. (author)

  6. Reduced peripheral vascular reactivity in refractory angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondesson, Susanne M; Edvinsson, Marie-Louise; Pettersson, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    compared to matched healthy subjects (n = 20). The cutaneous forearm microvascular blood flow was measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry. The vascular responsiveness to iontophoretic administration of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and local skin warming were studied. Measurements of Canadian......AIMS: To examine if the skin microvascular bed is altered and can be modified by enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) in patients with chronic refractory angina. METHODS: Twenty patients diagnosed with refractory angina were divided into EECP (n = 10) or no EECP (n = 10) groups. The data were...

  7. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.)

  8. Pulse oximetry in the evaluation of peripheral vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawahar, D; Rachamalla, H R; Rafalowski, A; Ilkhani, R; Bharathan, T; Anandarao, N

    1997-08-01

    The role of pulse oximetry in the evaluation of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) was investigated. In addition, the value of elevating the limb to improve the sensitivity of detection of PVD by the pulse oximeter was also determined. Pulse oximetry reading in the toes were obtained in 40 young, healthy volunteers and in 40 randomly selected patients referred to the vascular investigation laboratory over a period of two months. All 40 healthy volunteers had normal pulse oximetry readings. Normal pulse oximetry reading in the toes was defined as > 95% O2 Sat and +/-2 of finger pulse oximetry reading. In all 40 patients, pulse oximetry readings were either normal or not detected at all. Since there was no gradation in decrease in the pulse oximetry reading with severity of disease or with elevation of the patient's lower extremity, an absent or no reading was considered as an abnormal result from the test. The frequency of abnormal pulse oximetry readings increased significantly in groups with abnormal ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and also varied significantly with elevation of the patients' lower limbs. In patients with no PVD detected by Doppler (ABPI > 0.9), pulse oximetry readings were normal in all. However, in patients with moderate PVD (ABPI, 0.5-0.9), 84% of the patients' lower limbs had normal pulse oximetry readings and 16% had an abnormal reading at baseline level (flat). An additional 12% of the lower limbs in this group had an abnormal reading on elevation of the limb to 12 inches. In patients with severe PVD (ABPI < 0.5), 54% of the patients' lower limbs had an abnormal reading at baseline and an additional 23% had an abnormal reading at elevation of the limb to 12 inches. In conclusion, pulse oximetry was not a sensitive test for detecting early PVD. PMID:9269142

  9. Methods of Postcathetrisation Haemostasis in Peripheral Vascular Interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in vascular interventional radiology as for example stentgraft implantation, drug eluting stents, mechanisms and tools for thrombus, embolus or atherosclerotic plaques removal (mechanical thrombectomy and atherectomy devices), intravascular ultrasound utilisation, pulse flow reserve measurement, massive use of modern antithrombotics, anticoagulants and fibrinolytics in cardiovascular medicine, together with epidemy of civilisation diseases (obesitas, hypertension, atherosclerosis, DM), population aging and poly morbidity lead to prolonged manual compression after diagnostic and therapeutic interventions with rapid increase in post puncture complication rate, patient discomfort and prolonged treatment time. Percutaneous closure devices offer new potential possibility of decrease of time to hemo stasis, time to ambulation, time to discharge and decrease in post catheterisation complications after invasive procedures via arterial puncture site and also important rationalisation of department operation. The aim of the article is to offer the review of current methods in achieving hemo stasis after endovascular procedures with percutaneous closure devices from its first till second generation in diagnostic procedures, peripheral interventions up to the use of most sophisticated percutaneous closure devices in the treatment of thoracic and abdominal aorta diseases and our experience and observation with the use of percutaneous closure devices. (author)

  10. Synaptic protein levels altered in vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Lindsey I; Tayler, Hannah M; Love, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral ischaemia is the defining pathophysiological abnormality in most forms of vascular dementia (VAD), but the pathogenesis of the dementia remains poorly understood. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is early loss of synaptic proteins, but these have been little studied in VAD. Materials and Methods We measured synaptophysin, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), drebrin, synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in superior temporal cortex from 11 patients with VAD and, initially, 11 non-dementia controls. We corrected for neuronal content by measurement of neuron-specific enolase. A further 11 controls were subsequently used in a validation study. Simulation of post-mortem delay found that PSD-95 was stable at 4°C but declined slightly at RT. SNAP-25 and drebrin showed good post-mortem stability. Previous studies had shown good post-mortem preservation of synaptophysin and VEGF. Results The VAD cases had lower synaptophysin (but P > 0.05 in initial study), significantly lower SNAP-25 (P = 0.024) and significantly higher drebrin (P = 0.020). On comparison with the second control group, the reduction in synaptophysin was significant (P = 0.008), and the other results were confirmed. Conclusion There is probably a reduction in presynaptic proteins in the temporal cortex in VAD, although not as marked as in AD. In VAD, there is also an increase in drebrin, which may be a response to reduced synaptic input. PMID:25559750

  11. Peripheral Vascular Disease–Related Procedures in Dialysis Patients: Predictors and Prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Plantinga, Laura C; Fink, Nancy E.; Coresh, Josef; Stephen M Sozio; Parekh, Rulan S.; Melamed, Michal L.; Powe, Neil R.; Jaar, Bernard G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is prevalent among dialysis patients, and many dialysis patients undergo PVD-related procedures. We aimed to examine the risk factors for and prognosis after such procedures in the dialysis setting.

  12. Vascularization of the dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerve of the mouse: Implications for chemical-induced peripheral sensory neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melemedjian Ohannes K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although a variety of industrial chemicals, as well as several chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer or HIV, preferentially induce a peripheral sensory neuropathy what remains unclear is why these agents induce a sensory vs. a motor or mixed neuropathy. Previous studies have shown that the endothelial cells that vascularize the dorsal root ganglion (DRG, which houses the primary afferent sensory neurons, are unique in that they have large fenestrations and are permeable to a variety of low and high molecular weight agents. In the present report we used whole-mount preparations, immunohistochemistry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to show that the cell body-rich area of the L4 mouse DRG has a 7 fold higher density of CD31+ capillaries than cell fiber rich area of the DRG or the distal or proximal aspect of the sciatic nerve. This dense vascularization, coupled with the high permeability of these capillaries, may synergistically contribute, and in part explain, why many potentially neurotoxic agents preferentially accumulate and injure cells within the DRG. Currently, cancer survivors and HIV patients constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding groups that have chemically induced peripheral sensory neuropathy. Understanding the unique aspects of the vascularization of the DRG and closing the endothelial fenestrations of the rich vascular bed of capillaries that vascularize the DRG before intravenous administration of anti-neoplastic or anti-HIV therapies, may offer a mechanism based approach to attenuate these chemically induced peripheral neuropathies in these patients.

  13. Vascular transcriptional alterations produced by juvenile obesity in Ossabaw swine

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Lee, Sewon; Zhang, Hanrui; Cui, Jian; Zuidema, Mozow Y.; Zhang, Cuihua; Hill, Michael A; Perfield, James W.; Jamal A. Ibdah; Booth, Frank W.; Davis, J Wade; Laughlin, M. Harold; Rector, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    We adopted a transcriptome-wide microarray analysis approach to determine the extent to which vascular gene expression is altered as a result of juvenile obesity and identify obesity-responsive mRNAs. We examined transcriptional profiles in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), perivascular fat adjacent to the LAD, and descending thoracic aorta between obese (n = 5) and lean (n = 6) juvenile Ossabaw pigs (age = 22 wk). Obesity was experimentally induced by feeding the animals a ...

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy during peripheral vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J P; Schroeder, T V; Vogt, K C; Secher, N H

    1997-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy was performed perioperatively on the dorsum of the foot in 14 patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass surgery using a prosthesis or the greater saphenous vein. Dual-wavelength continuous light spectroscopy was used to assess changes in tissue saturation before, during...... indicate that near-infrared spectroscopy is appropriate for perioperative monitoring during vascular grafting....

  15. Vascular transcriptional alterations produced by juvenile obesity in Ossabaw swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Lee, Sewon; Zhang, Hanrui; Cui, Jian; Zuidema, Mozow Y; Zhang, Cuihua; Hill, Michael A; Perfield, James W; Ibdah, Jamal A; Booth, Frank W; Davis, J Wade; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott

    2013-06-01

    We adopted a transcriptome-wide microarray analysis approach to determine the extent to which vascular gene expression is altered as a result of juvenile obesity and identify obesity-responsive mRNAs. We examined transcriptional profiles in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), perivascular fat adjacent to the LAD, and descending thoracic aorta between obese (n = 5) and lean (n = 6) juvenile Ossabaw pigs (age = 22 wk). Obesity was experimentally induced by feeding the animals a high-fat/high-fructose corn syrup/high-cholesterol diet for 16 wk. We found that expression of 189 vascular cell genes in the LAD and expression of 165 genes in the thoracic aorta were altered with juvenile obesity (false discovery rate ≤ 10%) with an overlap of only 28 genes between both arteries. Notably, a number of genes found to be markedly upregulated in the LAD of obese pigs are implicated in atherosclerosis, including ACP5, LYZ, CXCL14, APOE, PLA2G7, LGALS3, SPP1, ITGB2, CYBB, and P2RY12. Furthermore, pathway analysis revealed the induction of proinflammatory and pro-oxidant pathways with obesity primarily in the LAD. Gene expression in the LAD perivascular fat was minimally altered with juvenile obesity. Together, we provide new evidence that obesity produces artery-specific changes in pretranslational regulation with a clear upregulation of proatherogenic genes in the LAD. Our data may offer potential viable drug targets and mechanistic insights regarding the molecular precursors involved in the origins of overnutrition and obesity-associated vascular disease. In particular, our results suggest that the oxidized LDL/LOX-1/NF-κB signaling axis may be involved in the early initiation of a juvenile obesity-induced proatherogenic coronary artery phenotype. PMID:23592636

  16. CT ANGIOGRAPHY EVALUATION OF PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE AND COMPARISON WITH COLOR DOPPLER ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyabhuwan Singh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available I NTRODUCTION: Peripheral vascular disease is narrowing or occlusion of arteries and comprises of atherosclerosis, burger,s disease, Renoud,s disease and aneurysm. DSA, CT angiography and color Doppler ultrasound are the radiological modalities used for these diseases. Here we compared role of the CT angiography and Color Doppler ultrasonography in detection of peripheral vascular disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of CT angiography in peripheral vascular disease and comparison with color Doppler ultrasound. MATERIAL AND METHOD: we examined 50 patients by CT angiography and color Doppler ultrasound who were suspected for arterial disease. We divided the disease on the ground of severity as follows: No stenosis - grade - 0, 0 - 25% stenosis - grade - 1 , 25 - 50% stenosis - grade - 2, 50 - 75 % stenosis - grade - 3 and 75 - 100% stenosis - grade - 4. We compared the two modalities in terms of diagnosis and grading of peripheral vascular disease . RESULT: We found Color Doppler ultrasound detected more number of normal vessel segment, gra de - 1 and grade - 2 stenosis. In stenosis grade - 3 and grade - 4 CT angiography and Color Doppler ultrasound are equally sensitive. CONCLUSION: Doppler sonography is better than CT angiography in the diagnosis of early onset ( Grade I & II cases, with a better a ssessment of soft plaques, segmental flow and re - canalisation in peripheral arterial disease. CDUS is the initial modality of choice in any case of peripheral arterial disease. CT angiography is more accurate in assessing grade - 3 and grade - 4 stenosis. CT a ngiography exceeds the color Doppler in detecting vascular lesions in cases of gas gangrene and thick patients.

  17. The peripheral vascular effects of diltiazem--dose-response characteristics.

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, M B; Johnston, G D

    1985-01-01

    The acute effects of increasing doses of diltiazem on peripheral blood flow were observed in six subjects. Each subject received, in random order, a single oral dose of placebo or diltiazem 60, 120 or 180 mg. Supine heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, digital systolic pressure, forearm and digital blood flow were recorded before and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h post-dosing. Plasma diltiazem concentrations were measured at each time interval and at 12 and 24 h after the 120 mg dose. At dose...

  18. [Vascular rehabilitation in patients with peripheral arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Ana; Aubourg, Marion; Dubus-Bausière, Valérie; Eveno, Dominique; Abraham, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Lower limb peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a frequent debilitating disease associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. The benefit of rehabilitation in PAD patients has been largely demonstrated, both for patients that undergo amputation, and for patients with claudication. In these latter patients, rehabilitation programs rely on a variety of additional techniques or tools, among which: stretching, specific muscle proprioception, walking and a variety of other physical activities, exercise or situations adapted to community life, lower limb and respiratory physiotherapy, patient's education, support for smoking cessation and healthy nutrition, social support, etc. Whether rehabilitation is performed in specialised integrated structures or performed on a home-based basis, various clinicians are involved. Despite evidence-based proof of efficacy, rehabilitation of PAD patients with claudication is still under-used. PMID:23669319

  19. Simulated Hypergravity Alters Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Shameka; Bettis, Barika; Harris-Hooker, Sandra; Sanford, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    The cellular effects of gravity are poorly understood due to its constancy and nonavailability of altered gravitational models. Such an understanding is crucial for prolonged space flights. In these studies, we assessed the influence of centrifugation at 6G (HGrav) on vascular smooth muscle (SMC) mobility and proliferation. Cells were: (a) plated at low density and subjected to HGrav for 24-72 hr for proliferation studies, or (b) grown to confluency, subjected to HGrav, mechanically denuded and monitored for cell movement into the denuded area. Controls were maintained under normogravity. SMC showed a 50% inhibition of growth under HGrav and 10% serum; HGrav and low serum resulted in greater growth inhibition. The rate of movement of SMC into the denuded area was 2-3-fold higher under HGrav in low serum compared to controls, but similar in 10% serum. These studies show that HGrav has significant effects on SMC growth and mobility, which are dependent on serum levels.

  20. The interventional therapy of diabetic peripheral vascular diseases: its present situation and prospects for the near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of diabetes has been increasing with each passing year and diabetic peripheral vascular disease has become one of the serious complications, which increasingly threatens numerous sufferers' health of limbs. The clinical therapies commonly employed for diabetic peripheral vascular diseases include medication, surgical procedure, interventional management, etc. With the development of interventional techniques in recent years, interventional management has become the treatment of first choice in dealing with diabetes peripheral vascular diseases. This paper aims to make a comprehensive review of the current situation concerning interventional therapy and to make a forecast about what might be developed and emerged in the near future. (authors)

  1. Acute Changes in Peripheral Vascular Tonus and Systemic Circulation during Static Stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Takayuki; Baba, Reizo; Nakagaki, Akemi; Shimizu, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effect of static stretching (SS) on peripheral vascular tonus and to clarify the effect of SS on systemic circulation. Twenty healthy young male volunteers performed a 1-min SS motion of the right triceps surae muscle, repeated five times. The peripheral vascular tonus (|d/a| ratio) was obtained using second derivatives of the photoplethysmogram readings before, during, and after SS. Heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were also measured. The |d/a| ratio and BP were transiently, but significantly, elevated during SS and returned to baseline immediately after SS. Furthermore, we observed a significant correlation between the amount of change in the |d/a| ratio and the ankle range of motion during SS (r = 0.793 to 0.832, P = 0.01). These responses may be caused by mechanical stress during SS. PMID:25833293

  2. Interarm Difference in Blood Pressure: Reproducibility and Association with Peripheral Vascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jesper Mehlsen; Niels Wiinberg

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50–101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and ...

  3. Peripheral artery disease is associated with severe impairment of vascular function

    OpenAIRE

    Kiani, Soroosh; Aasen, Jonathan G; Holbrook, Monika; Khemka, Abhishek; Sharmeen, Farhana; LeLeiko, Rebecca M; Tabit, Corey E; Farber, Alik; Eberhardt, Robert T.; Gokce, Noyan; Vita, Joseph A.; Hamburg, Naomi M.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have higher cardiovascular event rates than patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) and abnormal endothelial function predicts cardiovascular risk in PAD and CAD. We investigated the hypothesis that PAD is associated with a greater degree of impairment in vascular function than CAD. We used several non-invasive tests to evaluate endothelial function in 1320 men and women with combined PAD and CAD (n = 198), PAD alone (n = 179), CAD...

  4. Arm exercise testing with myocardial scintigraphy in asymptomatic patients with peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arm exercise with myocardial scintigraphy and oxygen consumption determinations was performed by 33 men with peripheral vascular disease, 40 to 74 years of age (group 2). None had evidence of coronary disease. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects (group 1) were also tested to determine the normal endurance and oxygen consumption during arm exercise in their age group and to compare the results with those obtained during a standard treadmill performance. The maximal heart rate, systolic blood pressure, pressure rate product, and oxygen consumption were all significantly lower for arm than for leg exercise. However, there was good correlation between all these parameters for both types of exertion. The maximal heart rate, work load and oxygen consumption were greater for group 1 subjects than in patients with peripheral vascular disease despite similar activity status. None of the group 1 subjects had abnormal arm exercise ECGs, while six members of group 2 had ST segment changes. Thallium-201 scintigraphy performed in the latter group demonstrated perfusion defects in 25 patients. After nine to 29 months of follow-up, three patients who had abnormal tests developed angina and one of them required coronary bypass surgery. Arm exercise with myocardial scintigraphy may be an effective method of detecting occult ischemia in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Those with good exercise tolerance and no electrocardiographic changes or 201T1 defects are probably at lower risk for the development of cardiac complications, while those who develop abnormalities at low exercise levels may be candidates for invasive studies

  5. Radionuclide perfusion scanning in patients with peripheral vascular disease of the legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with symptomatic peripheral vascular disease of the legs underwent a radioisotiopic perfusion scanning in order to predict preoperatively the amputation level. An intravenous bolus of 370 MBq 99mTcO4 was applied. 10-30 min p.i. images of both legs were performed (300 Kcts/frame). Evaluation was visual as well as with regions of interest and calculation of counts-per-pixel-ratios. Of the 20 patients with peripheral vascular disease, 17 (85%) showed an increased and 3 (15%) a decreased uptake of radionuclide in the clinically less perfused area. Comparison with angiography showed proximal arterial obstruction in 64% and proximal arterial stenosis in 14%. In 21% an obstruction at the same height of the increased uptake was seen. 14 patients (70%) required amputation. In 12 patients (86%) a correlation of radionuclide image and amputation level was noted, in 2 patients (14%) no correlation was found. These data suggest that radionuclide perfusion scanning is of help in the follow-up of peripheral vascular disease and in the preoperative determination of the amputation level. (orig.)

  6. Peripheral tumors alter neuroinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pyter, Leah M.; Bih, Sarah El Mouatassim; Sattar, Husain; Prendergast, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is associated with an increased prevalence of depression. Peripheral tumors induce inflammatory cytokine production in the brain and depressive-like behaviors. Mounting evidence indicates that cytokines are part of a pathway by which peripheral inflammation causes depression. Neuroinflammatory responses to immune challenges can be exacerbated (primed) by prior immunological activation associated with aging, early-life infection, and drug exposure. This experiment tested the hypothesis ...

  7. PREVALENCE OF PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE IN CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS AS MEASURED BY ANKLE TO BRACHIAL INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Bahadur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ankle - brachial pressure index (ABI, which is the ratio of ankle to brachial systolic blood pressure, is the golden standard for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD and is a highly specific method for the assessment of vascular risk in otherwise asymptomatic patients . ABI value of individual with daily alcohol level >60g/d was significantly lower consumption of less than 60g/d had an inverse association with peripheral atherosclerosis whereas consumption of 60 g/d or more had a positive association. Studies have shown the sensitivity of ABPI is 90% with a corresponding 98% specificity for detecting hemodynamically significant (Serious stenosis >50% in major leg arteries, defined by angiogram. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To determine the prevalence of peripheral vascular disease in chronic alcoholics using ankle to brachial index and to compare the values of ankle brachial index in chronic alcoholics with age and sex matched healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS : In the present study, 50 cases consuming more than 60gm of absolute alcohol per day for more than 12 months attending out p atient department and admitted were enrolled. 50 age and sex matched healthy controls who have never consumed alcohol (never drinkers were also enrolled . After taking detailed history using Doppler ultrasound blood flow detector mean systolic pressure in upper limb and lower limb was calculated and then the mean ABI was calculated. This value was then compared with variables like LDL levels, Triglycerides levels, age, clinical symptoms of PVD, alcohol consumption amount and duration. RESULTS: It was observed that mean ABI was significantly lower (<0.9 in 11(22% cases and majority of them were between age group of 41 - 50 years. Of these only 7(14% showed clinical symptoms of PVD. The prevalence of PVD was 66% in those who consumed 61 - 70 grams alcohol per day for around 6 - 10 years. Results were found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION

  8. Treatment of a High-Risk Diabetic Patient with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Latricia L; Kalmar, Garrett; Driver, Vickie R

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of calcaneal osteomyelitis that was surgically resected from a patient with diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. A 91-year-old male with history of type 2 diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, balloon angioplasty, and recent (2 months ago) stent of the superficial femoral artery presented to the emergency department with a left heel wound infection probed to bone. The patient reported having been on intravenous Zosyn for several months via an outside infectious disease provider for clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis, but noted no improvement. This report includes information regarding the clinical examination and imaging findings, which were used to assess this high-risk patient. Our patient underwent a partial calcanectomy and completed a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics. The purpose of this case report is to illustrate limb preservation in a high-risk patient with compromised vascular supply who underwent a partial calcanectomy for treatment of calcaneal osteomyelitis. The patient underwent surgical resection of the calcaneus without complications and healed unremarkably with the ability to ambulate while wearing an ankle foot orthosis with a custom shoe. This report was authorized for publication as an educational report to contribute to generalizable knowledge and does not include any patient health information. PMID:27423990

  9. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in patients with severe peripheral vascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Mirsharifi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The prevalence of carotid artery stenosis (CAS in the  eneral population is not high enough to justify screening programs. This study was done to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS among patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD.
    • METHODS: Between March 2005 and February 2006, 54 consecutive  atients with severe PVD admitted at a vascular surgery unit and underwent carotid duplex scanning in a prospective study. A  uestionnaire was used to collect data concerning known risk factors. Significant CAS was defined as a stenosis of 70% or greater.
    • RESULTS: The mean age was 62.5 years (51-72. Out of 54 patients, 2 (3.7% had an occluded internal carotid artery. Significant CAS was found in 9 (16.7% and its presence was correlated with diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, coronary artery disease, severity of symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and carotid bruit. On multivariate analysis, only hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit seemed to have independent influence.
    • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of significant ACAS is higher among  atients with severe PVD. This patient population may indicate a  uitable subgroup for screening of ACAS, especially when hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit are present.
    • KEYWORDS: Carotid artery stenosis, duplex ultrasound scanning, peripheral vascular disease, carotid endarterectomy,
    • cerebrovascular accident.

  10. Common Aging Signature in the Peripheral Blood of Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbo; Han, Guangchun; Wang, Jiajia; Zeng, Fan; Li, Yuanming; Shao, Shaoju; Song, Fuhai; Bai, Zhouxian; Peng, Xing; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Shi, Xiangqun; Lei, Hongxing

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the two most dominant forms of dementia in elderly people. Due to the large overlap between AD and VaD in clinical observations, great controversies exist regarding the distinction and connection between these two types of senile dementia. Here for the first time, we resort to the gene expression pattern of the peripheral blood to compare AD and VaD objectively. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that the dysregulation of gene expression in AD is unique among the examined diseases including neurological diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases. In this study, we found that the dysregulation of gene expression in AD and VaD is quite similar to each other at both functional and gene levels. Interestingly, the dysregulation started at the early stages of the diseases, namely mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). We have also shown that this signature is distinctive from that of peripheral vascular diseases. Comparison with aging studies revealed that the most profound change in AD and VaD, namely ribosome, is consistent with the accelerated aging scenario. This study may have implications to the common mechanism between AD and VaD. PMID:26099307

  11. Peripheral vascular insufficiency impairs functional capacity in patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Murayama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF is a complex syndrome in which effort limitation is associated with deterioration of peripheral musculature. Improving survival rates among these patients have led to the appearance of cases in which other pathologies are associated with HF, such as peripheral vascular insufficiency (PVI. The combination of these two pathologies is common, with significant repercussions for affected patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare functional limitations and quality of life between patients with HF in isolation or HF + PVI. METHOD: Twelve patients with HF+PVI were paired to 12 patients with HF in isolation. All had ejection fraction 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The study participants who had mixed disease exhibited a greater degree of functional impairment than the group with HF, without reporting worsened quality of life.

  12. Patterns of vascular invasion of intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocarcinoma examined with angiography and angiographic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the radiological patterns of vascular invasion in peripheral cholangiocarcinomas. Hepatic arteriography and portography in 20 cases with cholangiocarcinoma including 12 cases with angiographic CT were retrospectively analyzed. The arteriography showed no arterioportal shunt, hypertrophy of tumor vessel, or tumor staining extending to central portion of the mass in all cases. However, doughnut shaped peripheral tumor staining was seen until late hepatogram phase in 12 cases and compensatory hyperperfusion around the mass was seen in six cases (eight cases if include arterial CT). Encasement of tumor vessel was seen in 12 cases, and hypertrophy of feeding vessel in nine cases. On portography, the filling defect on segmental portal branch could be demonstrated only in 11 cases. Shape of the portal defect was tapered narrowing in six cases, abrupt narrowing in two cases but intraluminal nodular filling defect was not seen. Remaining three cases were difficult to define the shape. On seven cases of CT during arterial portography, three cases showed mass shaped defect and four showed segmental defect but three of them could demonstrate the partially preserved portal flow in defective portal area. Hepatic arteriography in peripheral cholagiocarcinoma showed no evidence of hypertrophy of tumor vessels and tumor stain extending to central portion but peripheral staining on late hepatogram phase and compensatory hyperperfusion could be seen. Portal vein was more commonly involved through perivascular connective tissue invasion rather than by direct extension into the portal lumen

  13. Patterns of vascular invasion of intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocarcinoma examined with angiography and angiographic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jae Chun; Cho, Hyun Cheol; Park, Won Kyu [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    To evaluate the radiological patterns of vascular invasion in peripheral cholangiocarcinomas. Hepatic arteriography and portography in 20 cases with cholangiocarcinoma including 12 cases with angiographic CT were retrospectively analyzed. The arteriography showed no arterioportal shunt, hypertrophy of tumor vessel, or tumor staining extending to central portion of the mass in all cases. However, doughnut shaped peripheral tumor staining was seen until late hepatogram phase in 12 cases and compensatory hyperperfusion around the mass was seen in six cases (eight cases if include arterial CT). Encasement of tumor vessel was seen in 12 cases, and hypertrophy of feeding vessel in nine cases. On portography, the filling defect on segmental portal branch could be demonstrated only in 11 cases. Shape of the portal defect was tapered narrowing in six cases, abrupt narrowing in two cases but intraluminal nodular filling defect was not seen. Remaining three cases were difficult to define the shape. On seven cases of CT during arterial portography, three cases showed mass shaped defect and four showed segmental defect but three of them could demonstrate the partially preserved portal flow in defective portal area. Hepatic arteriography in peripheral cholagiocarcinoma showed no evidence of hypertrophy of tumor vessels and tumor stain extending to central portion but peripheral staining on late hepatogram phase and compensatory hyperperfusion could be seen. Portal vein was more commonly involved through perivascular connective tissue invasion rather than by direct extension into the portal lumen.

  14. Leg muscle scintigraphy with 99Tcm-MIBI in the assessment of peripheral vascular (arterial) disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for using 99Tcm-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) to evaluate leg muscle perfusion in the assessment of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is described and evaluated. The uptake of MIBI in muscle groups is quantified and normalized to whole body activity. Eleven patients with PVD undergoing angiography and nine controls were studied. There was a significant difference in MIBI uptake in the calf (P99Tcm-MIBI in the assessment of PVD and its advantages over other methods of assessment are discussed. (author)

  15. Association Between Peripheral Vascular Endothelial Function and Progression of Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hsiu; Su, Wei-Wen; Shie, Shian-Sen; Cheng, Shih-Tsung; Su, Cheng-Wen; Ho, Wang-Jing

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between Humphrey visual field progression and peripheral vascular endothelial function in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG), assessed by noninvasive endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD).Forty OAG patients, among which 22 had normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and 18 had primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) were enrolled. Each enrolled patient underwent a thorough ophthalmological examination including the Humphrey visual field test and measurement of FMD via high-resolution 2-dimensional ultrasonographic imaging of the brachial artery. Blood samples were evaluated for biochemistry and lipid profiles as well as levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The annual change of threshold sensitivity of the visual field in each test location were analyzed with pointwise linear regression. The correlation between long-term visual field progression and FMD was evaluated.A mean follow-up of 7.47 ± 1.84 years revealed a faster progression rate over the superior visual field in all 40 OAG patients (superior field -0.24 ± 0.67 dB/y, inferior field -0.10 ± 0.59 dB/y, P = 0.37). However, only the annual sensitivity change of the inferior peripheral field showed correlation with baseline FMD. There was no significant difference in the change slope of visual field between NTG and POAG patients.A correlation between baseline brachial artery FMD and visual field progression was observed in the inferior peripheral field in patients with NTG and POAG. This result suggests that peripheral vascular endothelial dysfunction may be related to glaucoma progression. PMID:26962832

  16. The puerperium alters spinal cord plasticity following peripheral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Silvia; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Eisenach, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue and nerve damage can result in chronic pain. Yet, chronic pain after cesarean delivery is remarkably rare in women and hypersensitivity from peripheral nerve injury in rats resolves rapidly if the injury occurs in the puerperium. Little is known regarding the mechanisms of this protection except for a reliance on central nervous system oxytocin signaling. Here we show that density of inhibitory noradrenergic fibers in the spinal cord is greater when nerve injury is performed in rats du...

  17. Alteration of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslawa Pietruczuk; Milena I Dabrowska; Urszula Wereszczynska-Siemiatkowska; Andrzej Dabrowski

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: Twenty patients with mild AP (M-AP) and 15 with severe AP (S-AP) were included in our study. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined at d 1-3, 5,10 and 30 by means of flow cytometry.RESULTS: A significant depletion of circulating lymphocytes was found in AP. In the early AP, the magnitude of depletion was similar for T- and B- lymphocytes. In the late course of S-AP, B-lymphocytes were much more depleted than T-lymphocytes. At d 10, strong shift in the CD7+/CD19+ ratio implicating predominance of Tover B-lymphocytes in S-AP was found. Among T-lymphocytes, the significant depletion of the CD4+ population was observed in M-AP and S-AP, while CD8+ cells were in the normal range. Lymphocytes were found to strongly express activation markers: CD69, CD25, CD28,CD38 and CD122. Serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5,IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) levels were significantly increased in both forms of AP. The magnitude of elevation of cytokines known to be produced by Th2 was much higher than cytokines produced by Th1 cells.CONCLUSION: AP in humans is characterized by significant reduction of peripheral blood T- and B-lymphocytes.

  18. Usual blood pressure, peripheral arterial disease, and vascular risk: cohort study of 4.2 million adults

    OpenAIRE

    Emdin, Connor A; Anderson, Simon G.; Callender, Thomas; Conrad, Nathalie; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Mohseni, Hamid; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the subgroup specific associations between usual blood pressure and risk of peripheral arterial disease, and to examine the relation between peripheral arterial disease and a range of other types of vascular disease in a large contemporary cohort. Design Cohort study. Setting Linked electronic health records from 1990 to 2013 in the United Kingdom. Participants 4 222 459 people aged 30-90 years, registered at a primary care practice for at least one year and with a blo...

  19. Alterations in transcriptional responses associated with vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oettgen Peter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular aging is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can occur in the absence of other traditional risk factors. Inflammation is a hallmark of vascular aging that ultimately leads to structural changes in the vessel wall including an increase in medial thickness and perivascular fibrosis. Several classes of transcription factors have been identified that participate in the regulation of cellular responses associated with vascular aging. Nuclear factor (NF-κB is the prototypic example of a transcriptional activator in the setting of inflammation, being activated in response to multiple inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial endotoxin. In contrast, the activation of the nuclear hormone receptor and transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α results in its translocation from the cell surface to the nucleus where it exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Vascular aging is also associated with endothelial dysfunction. One important repair mechanism for improving endothelial function is the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. In the setting of aging the number of EPCs diminishes which has been linked to a decrease in the activity and/or expression of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha. A change in the balance of the activity of pro-inflammatory transcription factors versus those that inhibit inflammation likely contributes to the process of vascular aging. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of these age-related changes in transcriptional responses, and to discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting some of these factors.

  20. Interarm difference in blood pressure: reproducibility and association with peripheral vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mmHg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P 20 mmHg. This study confirmed the presence of a systematic but clinically insignificant difference in systolic blood pressure between arms. The interarm difference was larger in hypertension and PAD. Consistent lateralisation is present for differences ≥20 mmHg and an interarm difference >25 mmHg is a reliable indicator of PAD in the legs. PMID:24616810

  1. Appreciating the clinical application of covered stent for peripheral vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Covered stents have been widely utilized in aortic dissections and aortic aneurysms since Parieli treated an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a stent-graft in 1991. Covered stents have also been reported for managing peripheral vascular diseases, including large or wide-neck aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, vascular rupture/perforation and arteriovenous fistula. Encouraging achievements are also bringing in more than one decade, even in China. For transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation, the primary patency rate at 1 year after covered stent grafting is statistically longer than that of bare stent. At present, it is worth studying randomly the covered stent versus bare stent in treating long segmental arterial stenosis and/or occlusion. Furthermore observation should be insisted upon for the long term patency of parent artery after implanting with covered stent. Deploying a covered stent into a tortuous vessel is still a challenge and tough problem. There would still be a long way in China for further development in basic research of improving the substantial property of stent-graft and better design of deploying device. The main target for all interventional radiologists in the foreseen future is how to develop new covered stents with independent knowledge property right and to expand new horizon for its application. (authors)

  2. Mitochondrial DNA alterations of peripheral lymphocytes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations, including mtDNA copy number and mtDNA 4977 bp common deletion (CD), are key indicators of irradiation-induced damage. The relationship between total body irradiation (TBI) treatment and mtDNA alterations in vivo, however, has not been postulated yet. The aim of this study is to analyze mtDNA alterations in irradiated human peripheral lymphocytes from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients as well as to take them as predictors for radiatio...

  3. Cyclic GMP alters Ca exchange in vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contraction and 42K efflux from vascular smooth muscle stimulated either by norepinephrine (NE) or by K-depolarization is dependent on an increase in cytosolic Ca concentration. The purpose of this study was to determine if cyclic GMP (cGMP) inhibited these processes and if inhibition was secondary to the action of cGMP on Ca movements. Basal cGMP content of rat aorta was 1.2 fmol/mg wet wt. Sodium nitroprusside (NP) increased cGMP ∼2-fold at 1 nM and ∼750-fold at 1 μM with no effect on cAMP levels. A 5 min pretreatment with NP (1 μM) completely prevented tension development induced by 3 μM NE. The same concentration of NP also inhibited NE-stimulated 42K and 45Ca efflux > 90 and > 80%, respectively. Removal of NP in the continued presence of NE (3 μM) caused recovery of the 42K efflux response to ∼75% of control with a half-time of ∼2.5 min. NP (1 μM) also caused a rapid relaxation of aorta contracted with 3 μM NE and a loss of the 42K efflux response with half-times of 2-3 min. In contrast, 100 μM NP produced only a 50% inhibition of contraction induced by high K (55 mM). Also, NP (1 μM) inhibited K-stimulated 42K efflux only ∼25%. These results demonstrate both a concentration- and a time-dependent relationship between increases in cGMP induced by NP and decreases in NE-stimulated contraction, 42K and 45Ca effluxes. They also indicate that the sensitivity of NE-induced contraction and 42K efflux to NP is greater than that induced by high K. These studies suggest that cGMP modulates the control sites for Ca exchange in the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum

  4. Cytogenetic alterations in peripheral cells of Alzheimer’s disease patients

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    Plećaš-Solarović Bosiljka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most frequent progressive neurodegenerative disorder in elderly associated with irreversible cognitive impairment and dementia. The vast majority of AD patients are sporadic (SAD in which the disease develops after age of 65. Despite of century of research, we lack understanding of the SAD etiology and pathogenesis. Several hypotheses try to explain the main causes of brain degeneration in SAD, one of them assuming that genomic instability and the reentry of certain neurons into the incomplete cell cycle may be the pathogenic basis of the disease. Although the brain is the most affected organ in AD, numerous studies showed structural and functional alterations in peripheral tissues, suggesting that AD is a generalized systemic disorder. Diverse changes in peripheral cells from AD patients are described in literature including cell cycle aberration and chromosome instability, alterations in cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis, oxidative metabolism, amyloid precursor protein and amyloid β protein metabolism, and other cellular processes. The aim of this paper was to summarize and review the results of our investigations and the growing literature data concerning the multiple chromosomal alterations in peripheral cells of AD patients and to consider their possible role in the disease pathogenesis as well as the importance of such investigations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034

  5. Maternal Hyperleptinemia Is Associated with Male Offspring’s Altered Vascular Function and Structure in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kelly E.; Talton, Omonseigho O.; Foote, Christopher A.; Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino C.; Wu, Ho-Hsiang; Ji, Tieming; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A.; Schulz, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Children of mothers with gestational diabetes have greater risk of developing hypertension but little is known about the mechanisms by which this occurs. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high maternal concentrations of leptin during pregnancy, which are present in mothers with gestational diabetes and/or obesity, alter blood pressure, vascular structure and vascular function in offspring. Wildtype (WT) offspring of hyperleptinemic, normoglycemic, Leprdb/+ dams were compared to genotype matched offspring of WT-control dams. Vascular function was assessed in male offspring at 6, and at 31 weeks of age after half the offspring had been fed a high fat, high sucrose diet (HFD) for 6 weeks. Blood pressure was increased by HFD but not affected by maternal hyperleptinemia. On a standard diet, offspring of hyperleptinemic dams had outwardly remodeled mesenteric arteries and an enhanced vasodilatory response to insulin. In offspring of WT but not Leprdb/+ dams, HFD induced vessel hypertrophy and enhanced vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine, while HFD reduced insulin responsiveness in offspring of hyperleptinemic dams. Offspring of hyperleptinemic dams had stiffer arteries regardless of diet. Therefore, while maternal hyperleptinemia was largely beneficial to offspring vascular health under a standard diet, it had detrimental effects in offspring fed HFD. These results suggest that circulating maternal leptin concentrations may interact with other factors in the pre- and post -natal environments to contribute to altered vascular function in offspring of diabetic pregnancies. PMID:27187080

  6. Neuro-vascular-desmal relationship disturbances in peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglions and motor segmental centers in the etoposide-induced neuropathy.

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    Gerashchenko S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work was to determine the mechanisms of pathologic morphogenesis of the toxic neuropathy caused by etoposide taking into consideration all complex the neuro-vascular-desmal relationship disturbances in peripheral nerves, their motor and sensor segmental centers. It has been shown in the experiments on 86 white rats that single intravenous injection of etoposide at dose of 22 mg/kg body weight induse peripheral neuropathy. The complex of morphologic methods included the neurohistological and electronic microscopic methods of the research, the histochemical markers for study transmissivity of the vessels of the circulatory bed on the light microscopic and ultrastructural levels was used. The recommendations of the Interagency Committee of Neurotoxicology were considered to choose the methods of the research. The presence of 3 stages of morphogenesis has been established - phase of primary axonal reaction (3d day of experiment, phase of disturbance of the microcirculation of peripheral nerves and their segmental centers (7th day of experiment, phase of degenerative changes (15th day. Etoposide-indused neuropathy features are determined by a singularity of interdependent reactive changes, alteration and compensation processes in sensory and motor neurons, glial cells, microcirculatory bed and connective tissue.

  7. Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Peripheral Vascular Disease Concomitant with Coronary

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    Kyomars Abbasi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM on peripheral vascular disease (PVD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods: A total of 13702 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG at Tehran Heart Center between January 2002 and March 2007 were included in this study. The demographic data, PVD, and outcome of these patients were reviewed. CABG patients before surgery were detected for PVD (stenosis ≥70% in the abdominal aorta; renal, carotid, and iliac arteries; or any other peripheral vascular system with physical examination and past medical history. The suspected cases of PVD were, thereafter, confirmed via Doppler sonography or invasive angiography. Results: This study recruited 4344 diabetic patients (mean age 59.30±8.7 years and 9358 non-diabetic patients (mean age 58.42±9.9 years. The diabetics were significantly older and had a higher incidence of PVD (2.7% vs. 1.8%, female gender, hypertension, renal failure, smoking, and dyslipidemia than the non-diabetics (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to family history and left main disease. Also, the mean ejection fraction (EF was 48.85%±10.4 and 49.35%±10. In the patients with and without DM, respectively; and the difference was significant (P=0.008. The in-hospital mortality rate (mortality over a 30-day post-operative period was 1.8% in the diabetics and 0.7% in the non-diabetics (P<0.001. In the multivariate analysis, PVD, left main disease, age, female gender, and EF were significant in the development of mortality amongst the diabetic patients with a respective odds ratio of 4.17, 5.54, 1.03, 2.86, and 0.95 (P≤0.050. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, PVD was significantly higher in the diabetics than in those without DM (OR=1.283, 95% CI: 1.001- 1.644; P=0.049. In the diabetic patients, carotid (1.13% vs. 0.83%, subclavian (0.05% vs. 0

  8. Surgical revascularization versus amputation for peripheral vascular disease in dialysis patients: a cohort study

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    Ramkumar Nirupama

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical treatment of peripheral vascular disease (PVD in dialysis patients is controversial. Methods We examined the post-operative morbidity and mortality of surgical revascularization or amputation for PVD in a retrospective analysis of United States Renal Data System. Propensity scores for undergoing amputation were derived from a multivariable logistic regression model of amputation. Results Of the Medicare patients initiated on dialysis from Jan 1, 1995 to Dec 31, 1999, patients underwent surgical revascularization (n = 1,896 or amputation (n = 2,046 in the first 6 months following initiation of dialysis were studied. In the logistic regression model, compared to claudication, presence of gangrene had a strong association with amputation [odds ratio (OR 19.0, 95% CI (confidence interval 13.86–25.95]. The odds of dying within 30 days and within1 year were higher (30 day OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.45–2.36; 1 yr OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.25–1.71 in the amputation group in logistic regression model adjusted for propensity scores and other baseline factors. Amputation was associated with increased odds of death in patients with low likelihood of amputation (rd percentile of propensity score and moderate likelihood of amputation (33rd to 66th percentile but not in high likelihood group (>66th percentile. The number of hospital days in the amputation and revascularization groups was not different. Conclusion Amputation might be associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients. Where feasible, revascularization might be preferable over amputation in dialysis patients.

  9. Usefulness of abdominal aortic calcification for screening of peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to evaluate the value of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), as detected on CT, as a predictor of atherosclerotic stenotic disease of the lower extremity arteries. One hundred three patients who had CT angiography performed for the evaluation of peripheral vascular disease were enrolled in this retrospective study. The volume (mm3) of the AAC was measured on CT. Each lower extremity was divided into 8 segments. The extent of stenosis of the lower extremity artery was manifested as the sum of the stenosis scores for 16 segments (total stenosis score: TSS). The significant stenosis scores (SSS-50 and SSS-75) were defined as the sum of scores for the lower extremity artery segments that had significant stenosis of more than 50% and 75%, respectively. AAC was correlated to the TSS, SSS-50 and SSS-75 with using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The diagnostic performance of AAC for stenosis of a lower extremity artery of more than 50% and 75%, respectively, was evaluated by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The Spearman's correlation coefficients were 0.728 (AAC vs. TSS), 0.662 (AAC vs. SSS-50), and 0.602 (AAC vs. SSS-75), respectively. For significant stenosis more than 50% and 75%, the areas under the ROC curve were 0.898 and 0.866, respectively. The cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 1030 mm3, 87%, 88%, 89%. 86% and 87% for stenosis more than 50% and 1030 mm3, 87%, 80%, 79%, 88% and 84% for stenosis more than 75%, respectively. Abdominal aortic calcification detected on CT may be a useful predictor of atherosclerotic stenotic disease of lower extremity arteries

  10. Number and function of peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells in Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis children with different degrees of renal vascular lesions

    OpenAIRE

    DANG, XI-QIANG; HE, XIAO-JIE; CHEN, HAI-XIA; HE, QING-NAN; Yi, Zhu-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between different degrees of renal vascular lesions in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) and changes in progenitor cell number and function in peripheral blood. Forty-eight HSPN patients were divided into three groups, mild, moderate and severe, according to the degree of renal vascular lesions. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were identified by immunof...

  11. Achados de imagem e alternativas terapêuticas das malformações vasculares periféricas Imaging findings and therapeutic alternatives for peripheral vascular malformations

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    Lucas Moretti Monsignore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As malformações vasculares periféricas compreendem um espectro de lesões que se tornam aparentes no decorrer da vida e podem ser encontradas em praticamente todo o corpo. São pouco comuns e frequentemente confundidas com o hemangioma infantil. Estas doenças são completamente distintas tanto em relação à história clínica como ao prognóstico e às formas de tratamento. Nestas lesões, a história evolutiva e as características do exame físico são de extrema importância para o adequado diagnóstico clinicorradiológico, que guiará a melhor alternativa terapêutica. As classificações mais recentes dividem as malformações vasculares periféricas levando em consideração o fluxo sanguíneo (alto e baixo e os componentes vasculares envolvidos (arteriais, capilares, linfáticos e venosos. As malformações vasculares periféricas representam um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico, e exames complementares como tomografia computadorizada, ultrassonografia com Doppler e ressonância magnética, em conjunto com a história clínica, podem trazer informações quanto às características de fluxo e à extensão das lesões. Arteriografia e flebografia confirmam o diagnóstico, avaliam a sua extensão e orientam a decisão terapêutica. Malformações de baixo fluxo geralmente são tratadas por abordagem percutânea e injeção de agente esclerosante, enquanto para as malformações de alto fluxo o acesso é endovascular com uso de agentes embolizantes permanentes líquidos ou sólidos.Peripheral vascular malformations represent a spectrum of lesions that appear through the lifetime and can be found in the whole body. Such lesions are uncommon and are frequently confounded with infantile hemangioma, a common benign neoplastic lesion. In the presence of such lesions, the correlation between the clinical and radiological findings is extremely important to achieve a correct diagnosis, which will guide the best therapeutic approach. The

  12. Load dependence of changes in forearm and peripheral vascular resistance after acute leg exercise in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepoli, M; Isea, J E; Pannarale, G; Adamopoulos, S; Sleight, P; Coats, A J

    1994-07-15

    1. It is known that acute exercise is often followed by a reduction in arterial blood pressure. Little is known about the time course of the recovery of the blood pressure or the influence of the intensity of the exercise on this response. Controversy exists, in particular, concerning the changes in peripheral resistance that occur during this period. 2. Eight normal volunteers performed, in random order on separate days, voluntary upright bicycle exercise of three different intensities (maximal, moderate and minimal load) and, on another day, a control period of sitting on a bicycle. They were monitored for 60 min after each test. 3. Diastolic pressure fell after maximal exercise at 5 min (-15.45 mmHg) and 60 min (-9.45 mmHg), compared with the control day. Systolic and mean pressure also fell (non-significantly) after 45 min; heart rate was significantly elevated for the whole hour of recovery (at 60 min, +7.23 beats min-1). No changes in post-exercise blood pressure and heart rate were observed on the days of moderate and minimal exercises. 4. An increase in cardiac index was observed after maximal exercise compared with control (at 60 min, 2.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.2 l min-1 m-2). This was entirely accounted for by the persistent increase in heart rate, with no significant alteration in stroke volume after exercise on any day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7965851

  13. Mitochondrial DNA alterations of peripheral lymphocytes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations, including mtDNA copy number and mtDNA 4977 bp common deletion (CD), are key indicators of irradiation-induced damage. The relationship between total body irradiation (TBI) treatment and mtDNA alterations in vivo, however, has not been postulated yet. The aim of this study is to analyze mtDNA alterations in irradiated human peripheral lymphocytes from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients as well as to take them as predictors for radiation toxicity. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 26 ALL patients 24 hours after TBI preconditioning (4.5 and 9 Gy, respectively). Extracted DNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Average 2.31 times mtDNA and 0.53 fold CD levels were observed after 4.5 Gy exposure compared to their basal levels. 9 Gy TBI produced a greater response of both mtDNA and CD levels than 4.5 Gy. Significant inverse correlation was found between mtDNA content and CD level at 4.5 and 9 Gy (P = 0.037 and 0.048). Moreover, mtDNA content of lymphocytes without irradiation was found to be correlated to age. mtDNA and CD content may be considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity

  14. Mitochondrial DNA alterations of peripheral lymphocytes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation therapy

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    Ji Fuyun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA alterations, including mtDNA copy number and mtDNA 4977 bp common deletion (CD, are key indicators of irradiation-induced damage. The relationship between total body irradiation (TBI treatment and mtDNA alterations in vivo, however, has not been postulated yet. The aim of this study is to analyze mtDNA alterations in irradiated human peripheral lymphocytes from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients as well as to take them as predictors for radiation toxicity. Methods Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 26 ALL patients 24 hours after TBI preconditioning (4.5 and 9 Gy, respectively. Extracted DNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Results Average 2.31 times mtDNA and 0.53 fold CD levels were observed after 4.5 Gy exposure compared to their basal levels. 9 Gy TBI produced a greater response of both mtDNA and CD levels than 4.5 Gy. Significant inverse correlation was found between mtDNA content and CD level at 4.5 and 9 Gy (P = 0.037 and 0.048. Moreover, mtDNA content of lymphocytes without irradiation was found to be correlated to age. Conclusions mtDNA and CD content may be considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity.

  15. Common DNA methylation alterations of Alzheimer's disease and aging in peripheral whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongdong; Guo, Zheng; Guo, You; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Cheng, Jun; Wang, Chenguang; Hong, Guini

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common aging-related neurodegenerative illness. Recently, many studies have tried to identify AD- or aging-related DNA methylation (DNAm) biomarkers from peripheral whole blood (PWB). However, the origin of PWB biomarkers is still controversial. In this study, by analyzing 2565 DNAm profiles for PWB and brain tissue, we showed that aging-related DNAm CpGs (Age-CpGs) and AD-related DNAm CpGs (AD-CpGs) observable in PWB both mainly reflected DNAm alterations intrinsic in leukocyte subtypes rather than methylation differences introduced by the increased ratio of myeloid to lymphoid cells during aging or AD progression. The PWB Age-CpGs and AD-CpGs significantly overlapped 107 sites (P-value = 2.61×10−12) and 97 had significantly concordant methylation alterations in AD and aging (P-value nervous system development, neuron differentiation and neurogenesis. More than 60.8% of these 97 concordant sites were found to be significantly correlated with age in normal peripheral CD4+ T cells and CD14+ monocytes as well as in four brain regions, and 44 sites were also significantly differentially methylated in different regions of AD brain tissue. Taken together, the PWB DNAm alterations related to both aging and AD could be exploited for identification of AD biomarkers. PMID:26943045

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Peripheral Artery Questionnaire: Korean version for patients with peripheral vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Spertus, John; Kim, Seong Man

    2012-08-01

    The Peripheral Artery Questionnaire (PAQ), as developed in US English, is a validated scale to evaluate the health status of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The aim of this study was to translate the PAQ into Korean and to evaluate its reliability and validity. A multi-step process of forward-translation, reconciliation, consultation with the developer, back-translation and proofreading was conducted. The test-retest reliability was evaluated at a 2-week interval using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The validity was assessed by identifying associations between Korean PAQ (KPAQ) scores and Korean Health Assessment Questionnaire (KHAQ) scores. A total of 100 PAD patients were enrolled: 63 without and 37 with severe claudication. The reliability of the KPAQ was adequate, with an ICC of 0.71. There were strong correlations between KPAQ's subscales. Cronbach's alpha for the summary score was 0.94, indicating good internal consistency and congruence with the original US version. The validity was supported by a significant correlation between the total KHAQ score and KPAQ physical function, stability, symptom, social limitation and quality of life scores (r = -0.24 to -0.90; p < 0.001) as well as between the KHAQ walking subscale and the KPAQ physical function score (r = -0.55, p < 0.001). Our results indicate that the KPAQ is a reliable, valid instrument to evaluate the health status of Korean patients with PAD. PMID:22653880

  17. Reduced peripheral vascular reactivity in refractory angina pectoris: Effect of enhanced external counterpulsation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanne M Bondesson; Marie-Louise Edvinsson; Thomas Pettersson; Lars Edvinsson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine if the skin microvascular bed is altered and can be modified by enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) in patients with chronic refractory angina.Methods Twenty patients diagnosed with refractory angina were divided into EECP (n =10) or no EECP (n =10) groups.The data were compared to matched healthy subjects (n =20).The cutaneous forearm microvascular blood flow was measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry.The vascular responsiveness to iontophoretic administration of acetylcholine (ACh),sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and local skin warming were studied.Measurements of Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS)-class,blood pressure and plasma samples were registered.Results EECP patients showed reduced CCS-class compared to no EECP (P < 0.05).Both EECP and no EECP (P < 0.05) groups had decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) as compared to SBP at baseline (P < 0.05).There was no difference in resting blood flow between the two refractory groups at baseline as well as after EECP and seven weeks of follow-up.Responses to heating,the responses to ACh and SNP in the cutaneous microcirculation were lower in both groups of refractory angina patients as compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05).EECP patients corresponded positively to the treatment shown by reduced plasma level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and CCS-class.Conclusions Refractory angina patients have reduced responsiveness in their cutaneous microcirculation to ACh,SNP and heat compared to healthy subjects.Although EECP reduced the CCS-class,this effect was not associated with improvements in responsiveness of the cutaneous microcirculation.

  18. Small pulmonary vascular alteration and acute exacerbations of COPD: quantitative computed tomography analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyue; Chen, Xuesong; Liu, Kouying; Xie, Weiping; Wang, Hong; Wei, Yongyue; Tang, Lijun; Zhu, Yinsu

    2016-01-01

    The morphologic alterations of pulmonary small vessels measured by computed tomography (CT) have been used to evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between small pulmonary vascular alteration and acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessel alterations measured on CT images and investigate its relationship with the COPD severity staged by the degree of airflow limitation and the occurrence of AECOPD. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans, clinical characteristics, and pulmonary function test results of 153 patients with COPD. All the patients were divided into AECOPD and non-AECOPD group according to the COPD staging and pulmonary function test results. The percentages of the total CSA less than 5 mm2 and equal to 5–10 mm2 over the lung area (%CSA<5 and %CSA5–10, respectively) were measured. The %CSA<5 steadily decreased in relation to the increase of COPD severity. In addition, %CSA<5 of the AECOPD group was significantly lower than that of the non-AECOPD group (0.41±0.13 versus 0.68±0.18, P<0.001), and the optimal cutoff value was 0.56 (sensitivity, 0.863; specificity, 0.731). Therefore, small pulmonary vascular alteration, as measured by %CSA<5, could indicate not only the degree of COPD severity, but also the occurrence of AECOPD. PMID:27578971

  19. Peripheral vascular reactivity and serum BDNF responses to aerobic training are impaired by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José R; Alves, Cleber R; de Souza, Sílvia B C; Marsiglia, Julia D C; Silva, Michelle S M; Pereira, Alexandre C; Teixeira, Antônio L; Vieira, Erica L M; Krieger, José E; Negrão, Carlos E; Alves, Guilherme B; de Oliveira, Edilamar M; Bolani, Wladimir; Dias, Rodrigo G; Trombetta, Ivani C

    2016-02-01

    Besides neuronal plasticity, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also important in vascular function. The BDNF has been associated with angiogenesis through its specific receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). Additionally, Val66Met polymorphism decreases activity-induced BDNF. Since BDNF and TrkB are expressed in vascular endothelial cells and aerobic exercise training can increase serum BDNF, this study aimed to test the hypotheses: 1) Serum BDNF levels modulate peripheral blood flow; 2) The Val66Met BDNF polymorphism impairs exercise training-induced vasodilation. We genotyped 304 healthy male volunteers (Val66Val, n = 221; Val66Met, n = 83) who underwent intense aerobic exercise training on a running track three times/wk for 4 mo. We evaluated pre- and post-exercise training serum BDNF and proBDNF concentration, heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MBP), forearm blood flow (FBF), and forearm vascular resistance (FVR). In the pre-exercise training, BDNF, proBDNF, BDNF/proBDNF ratio, FBF, and FVR were similar between genotypes. After exercise training, functional capacity (V̇o2 peak) increased and HR decreased similarly in both groups. Val66Val, but not Val66Met, increased BDNF (interaction, P = 0.04) and BDNF/proBDNF ratio (interaction, P < 0.001). Interestingly, FBF (interaction, P = 0.04) and the FVR (interaction, P = 0.01) responses during handgrip exercise (HG) improved in Val66Val compared with Val66Met, even with similar responses of HR and MBP. There were association between BDNF/proBDNF ratio and FBF (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) and FVR (r = -0.58, P < 0.001) during HG exercise. These results show that peripheral vascular reactivity and serum BDNF responses to exercise training are impaired by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and such responsiveness is associated with serum BDNF concentrations in healthy subjects. PMID:26603150

  20. Perioperative dynamic alterations in peripheral regulatory T and B cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Chen Tianxiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intratumoral and circulating regulatory T cells (Tregs have been shown to be critical in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However there is limited knowledge on the alterations of regulatory B cells (Bregs. We here investigated perioperative dynamic alterations of peripheral circulating Tregs and Bregs in HCC patients to reveal the relationship between regulatory lymphocytes and its clinical implications. Methods 36 patients with HCC, 6 with chronic hepatitis B infection and 10 healthy donors were enrolled for this study. Frequencies of peripheral Tregs and Bregs were measured by flow cytometry with antibodies against CD4, CD25, CD127, CD19 and IL-10 before, and after radical surgery. Then, clinical informatics of HCC patients was achieved through Digital Evaluation Score System (DESS for the assessment of disease severity. Finally, we analysed correlations between digitalized clinical features and kinetics of circulating regulatory lymphocytes. Results Level of circulating CD4+CD25+CD127- Tregs in HCC patients was significantly lower than that in healthy donors and patients with chronic hepatitis B infection before surgery, but was increased after surgery. Preoperative level of CD19+ IL-10+ Bregs in HCC patients was also significantly lower than the other groups. However it dramatically was elevated right after surgery and remained elevated compared to controls (about 7 days after surgery, P = 0.04. Frequency of circulating Tregs was correlated with circulating leukocytes, ferritin, and clinical features suggesting tumor aggressiveness including portal vein thrombosis, hepatic vein involvement and advanced clinical stages. Frequency of circulating Bregs was associated with Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg and Hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA copy number. In addition, DESS was significantly and positively correlated with other staging systems. Conclusion Frequencies of peripheral Tregs and Bregs in HCC patients

  1. The prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery disease in patients with peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and severity of asymptomatic carotid artery disease in patients with peripheral arterial disease using colour duplex ultrasound, and to determine any relationship to the severity of peripheral arterial disease or other associated atherosclerotic risk factors. METHOD: Two hundred patients with known peripheral arterial disease but no previous cerebrovascular history were prospectively screened for carotid artery disease, and any identified internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis graded using established duplex ultrasound criteria. A detailed medical questionnaire established the presence or absence of associated risk factors, and the severity of peripheral arterial disease was graded and correlated with these. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients (25%) were found to have an ICA stenosis of > 50%, with 27 (13.5%) of these having > 70% stenosis. Bilateral ICA stenosis (> 50%) was seen in 21 (10.5%) patients, of which 10 (5%) had bilateral stenoses of > 70%. No correlation was found between the severity of peripheral arterial disease and the presence of significant carotid artery disease, or between the latter and individual atherosclerotic risk factors. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a relatively high prevalence of significant carotid artery disease in patients with peripheral arterial disease compared to the general population. The significance of this with respect to the future screening of defined populations for asymptomatic carotid artery disease is discussed, with reference to recent studies comparing surgical and medical management of asymptomatic carotid artery disease. Pilcher, J.M., Danaher, J., Khaw, K.-T. (2000)

  2. Mortality After Nontraumatic Major Amputation Among Patients With Diabetes and Peripheral Vascular Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorud, Jakob C; Plemmons, Britton; Buckley, Clifford J; Shibuya, Naohiro; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    High mortality rates have been reported after major amputations of a lower limb secondary to diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. However, the mortality rates have varied across studies. A systematic review of the 5-year mortality after nontraumatic major amputations of the lower extremity was conducted. A data search was performed of Medline using OVID, CINHAL, and Cochrane, 365 abstracts were screened, and 79 full text articles were assessed for eligibility. After review, 31 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall, the 5-year mortality rate was very high among patients with any amputation (major and minor combined), ranging from 53% to 100%, and in patients with major amputations, ranging from 52% to 80%. Mortality after below-the-knee amputation ranged from 40% to 82% and after above-the-knee amputation from 40% to 90%. The risk factors for increased mortality included age, renal disease, proximal amputation, and peripheral vascular disease. Although our previous systematic review of the 5-year mortality after ulceration had much lower rates of death, additional studies are warranted to determine whether amputation hastens death or is a marker for underlying disease severity. PMID:26898398

  3. Vascular Dysfunction Induced in Offspring by Maternal Dietary Fat Involves Altered Arterial Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsall, Christopher J.; Hoile, Samuel P.; Irvine, Nicola A.; Masoodi, Mojgan; Torrens, Christopher; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Calder, Philip C; Clough, Geraldine F.; Hanson, Mark A; Burdge, Graham C

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w) or 21%(w/w) fat enriched in either18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w) soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altere...

  4. T4 thyrotoxicosis: an independent disease or the effect of an alteration in the peripheral metabolism of T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six cases of T4 thyrotoxicosis were observed in 250 patients with hyperthyroidism. In the 6 episodes, the thyrotoxicosis was associated with severe systemic illness or with the admnistration of propanolol, which blocked the peripheral convertion of T4 to T3. These data indicate that T4 thyrotoxicosis reflects an alteration in the peripheral metabolism of T4 produced by systemic illness or drugs. (M.A.C.)

  5. Development and Validation of a Preprocedural Risk Score to Predict Access Site Complications After Peripheral Vascular Interventions Based on the Vascular Quality Initiative Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Access site complications following peripheral vascular intervention (PVI are associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality. Prediction of access site complication risk may optimize PVI care; however, there is no tool designed for this. We aimed to create a clinical scoring tool to stratify patients according to their risk of developing access site complications after PVI. Methods: The Society for Vascular Surgery’s Vascular Quality Initiative database yielded 27,997 patients who had undergone PVI at 131 North American centers. Clinically and statistically significant preprocedural risk factors associated with in-hospital, post-PVI access site complications were included in a multivariate logistic regression model, with access site complications as the outcome variable. A predictive model was developed with a random sample of 19,683 (70% PVI procedures and validated in 8,314 (30%. Results: Access site complications occurred in 939 (3.4% patients. The risk tool predictors are female gender, age > 70 years, white race, bedridden ambulatory status, insulin-treated diabetes mellitus, prior minor amputation, procedural indication of claudication, and nonfemoral arterial access site (model c-statistic = 0.638. Of these predictors, insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and prior minor amputation were protective of access site complications. The discriminatory power of the risk model was confirmed by the validation dataset (c-statistic = 0.6139. Higher risk scores correlated with increased frequency of access site complications: 1.9% for low risk, 3.4% for moderate risk and 5.1% for high risk. Conclusions: The proposed clinical risk score based on eight preprocedural characteristics is a tool to stratify patients at risk for post-PVI access site complications. The risk score may assist physicians in identifying patients at risk for access site complications and selection of patients who may benefit from bleeding avoidance

  6. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kinda eKhalaf; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Caroline eRobinson; Cornforth, David J.; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Hayder eAl-Aubaidy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated ...

  7. Tratamiento epidural del dolor en la isquemia vascular periférica (I Treatment of epidural pain in peripheral vascular ischemia (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Orduña González

    2009-03-01

    predictores de preservación de miembros con isquemia crítica en el período de prueba de la NEE.Peripheral arterial ischemia can result from various diseases that compromise limb vascularization, leading to pain, disability, and reduced quality of life; critical limb ischemia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality and chronic pain. The present article aims to provide a historical review of the scientific literature on the distinct types of peripheral ischemia, pain due to this disease, epidural analgesic treatment, and the particular features that should be taken into account in this disease. A MEDLINE search was performed and the main data on the evolution and main lines of research in epidural analgesia and pain in peripheral arterial ischemia were gathered. Since its introduction in peripheral ischemia, epidural infusion has been an effective analgesic method, which in the case of local anesthetics also provides positive hemorheological effects through sympathetic block. Epidural spinal cord stimulation is used to treat chronic pain and has specific indications in peripheral ischemia, with a potential trophic effect and limb salvage capacity even in critical limb ischemia due to atherosclerotic occlusive disease. Indeed, both the analgesic and trophic effects of the various epidural analgesic modalities vary according to their technical characteristics and the distinct types of peripheral ischemia. The limitations and risks of epidural analgesia in limb ischemia should be taken into account. Scientific studies evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of epidural spinal cord stimulation in non-atherosclerotic occlusive peripheral ischemia, as well as research into the clinical vascular parameters that can act as predictors of limb preservation in critical limb ischemia during the test phase of spinal cord stimulation are required.

  8. Peripheral Levels of AGEs and Astrocyte Alterations in the Hippocampus of STZ-Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, Patrícia; Zanotto, Caroline; Hansen, Fernanda; Batassini, Cristiane; Gasparin, Manuela Sangalli; Sesterheim, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic patients and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) models exhibit signals of brain dysfunction, evidenced by neuronal damage and memory impairment. Astrocytes surrounding capillaries and synapses modulate many brain activities that are connected to neuronal function, such as nutrient flux and glutamatergic neurotransmission. As such, cognitive changes observed in diabetic patients and experimental models could be related to astroglial alterations. Herein, we investigate specific astrocyte changes in the rat hippocampus in a model of DM induced by STZ, particularly looking at glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100B protein and glutamate uptake, as well as the content of advanced glycated end products (AGEs) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a consequence of elevated hyperglycemia and the content of receptor for AGEs in the hippocampus. We found clear peripheral alterations, including hyperglycemia, low levels of proinsulin C-peptide, elevated levels of AGEs in serum and CSF, as well as an increase in RAGE in hippocampal tissue. We found specific astroglial abnormalities in this brain region, such as reduced S100B content, reduced glutamate uptake and increased S100B secretion, which were not accompanied by changes in GFAP. We also observed an increase in the glucose transporter, GLUT-1. All these changes may result from RAGE-induced inflammation; these astroglial alterations together with the reduced content of GluN1, a subunit of the NMDA receptor, in the hippocampus may be associated with the impairment of glutamatergic communication in diabetic rats. These findings contribute to understanding the cognitive deficits in diabetic patients and experimental models. PMID:27084774

  9. A new approach to the evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using the gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the degree of impaired perfusion in legs, and the extent of improvement after treatment, a functional test was developed using a gamma camera to follow the perfusion of intravenously injected sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate. An analysis is given of normal and pathologic curve patterns. The influence of the severity of occlusive arterial disease on the arrival and distribution of radioactivity in the leg is demonstrated. After vascular surgery, changes in the curve pattern and the imaging of activity distribution reflected the function of the inserted bypass grafts. The test proved to be useful in the differentiation between patients with false claudication complaints due to non-arterial disease and patients with true claudication. It is concluded that the technique presented in this thesis can serve as a useful, non-invasive, screening test prior to arteriography and as a functional assessment of vascular reconstruction

  10. The Discovery of Novel Genomic, Transcriptomic, and Proteomic Biomarkers in Cardiovascular and Peripheral Vascular Disease: The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Franciscis, Stefano; Metzinger, Laurent; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CD) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in western countries and also responsible of a huge burden in terms of disability, functional decline, and healthcare costs. Biomarkers are measurable biological elements that reflect particular physiological or pathological states or predisposition towards diseases and they are currently widely studied in medicine and especially in CD. In this context, biomarkers can also be used to assess the severity or the evolution of several diseases, as well as the effectiveness of particular therapies. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics have opened new windows on disease phenomena and may permit in the next future an effective development of novel diagnostic and prognostic medicine in order to better prevent or treat CD. This review will consider the current evidence of novel biomarkers with clear implications in the improvement of risk assessment, prevention strategies, and medical decision making in the field of CD. PMID:27298828

  11. Microsecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma stimulation of tissue macrophages for treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V., E-mail: vmiller@coe.drexel.edu; Lin, A.; Brettschneider, J.; Fridman, G.; Fridman, A. [AJ Drexel Plasma Institute, Drexel University, Camden, New Jersey 08103 (United States); Kako, F.; Gabunia, K.; Kelemen, S.; Autieri, M. [Department of Physiology, Independence Blue Cross Cardiovascular Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels and normally occurs during the process of inflammatory reactions, wound healing, tissue repair, and restoration of blood flow after injury or insult. Stimulation of angiogenesis is a promising and an important step in the treatment of peripheral artery disease. Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be involved in stimulation of this process. For this reason, we have developed and validated a non-equilibrium atmospheric temperature and pressure short-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma system, which can non-destructively generate reactive oxygen species and other active species at the surface of the tissue being treated. We show that this plasma treatment stimulates the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and CXCL 1 that in turn induces angiogenesis in mouse aortic rings in vitro. This effect may be mediated by the direct effect of plasma generated reactive oxygen species on tissue.

  12. Microsecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma stimulation of tissue macrophages for treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels and normally occurs during the process of inflammatory reactions, wound healing, tissue repair, and restoration of blood flow after injury or insult. Stimulation of angiogenesis is a promising and an important step in the treatment of peripheral artery disease. Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be involved in stimulation of this process. For this reason, we have developed and validated a non-equilibrium atmospheric temperature and pressure short-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma system, which can non-destructively generate reactive oxygen species and other active species at the surface of the tissue being treated. We show that this plasma treatment stimulates the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and CXCL 1 that in turn induces angiogenesis in mouse aortic rings in vitro. This effect may be mediated by the direct effect of plasma generated reactive oxygen species on tissue

  13. Microsecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma stimulation of tissue macrophages for treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, V.; Lin, A.; Kako, F.; Gabunia, K.; Kelemen, S.; Brettschneider, J.; Fridman, G.; Fridman, A.; Autieri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels and normally occurs during the process of inflammatory reactions, wound healing, tissue repair, and restoration of blood flow after injury or insult. Stimulation of angiogenesis is a promising and an important step in the treatment of peripheral artery disease. Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be involved in stimulation of this process. For this reason, we have developed and validated a non-equilibrium atmospheric temperature and pressure short-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma system, which can non-destructively generate reactive oxygen species and other active species at the surface of the tissue being treated. We show that this plasma treatment stimulates the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and CXCL 1 that in turn induces angiogenesis in mouse aortic rings in vitro. This effect may be mediated by the direct effect of plasma generated reactive oxygen species on tissue.

  14. Regulation of peripheral vascular tone in patients with heart failure: contribution of angiotensin II

    OpenAIRE

    NEWBY, D.; Goodfield, N; Flapan, A; Boon, N.; Fox, K.; Webb, D

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To determine directly the contribution of angiotensin II to basal and sympathetically stimulated peripheral arteriolar tone in patients with heart failure.
Design—Parallel group comparison.
Subjects—Nine patients with New York Heart Association grade II-IV chronic heart failure, and age and sex matched controls.
Interventions—Forearm plethysmography, lower body negative pressure, local intra-arterial administration of losartan, angiotensin II, and noradrenaline, and estimation of pl...

  15. Genetic Susceptibility to Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Dark Corner in Vascular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Joshua W.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Li, Jun; Quertermous, Thomas; Cooke, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by reduced blood flow to the limbs, usually as a consequence of atherosclerosis, and affects ≈12 million Americans. It is a common cause of cardiovascular morbidity and an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Similar to other atherosclerotic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, PAD is the result of the complex interplay between injurious environmental stimuli and genetic predisposing factors of the host. Genetic susceptibi...

  16. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinda eKhalaf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI and cardiovascular disease (CVD as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated with CVD, has not been established. The current study aims to investigate the association between ABPI, and cardiac rhythm, as an indicator of cardiovascular health and functionality, utilising heart rate variability (HRV.Methods and Results: Two hundred and thirty six patients underwent ABPI assessment. Standard time and frequency domain, and non-linear HRV measures were determined from 5-minute electrocardiogram. ABPI data were divided into normal (n=101, low (n=67 and high (n=66 and compared to HRV measures.(DFAα1 and SampEn were significantly different between the low ABPI, high ABPI and control groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: A possible coupling between arterial stenosis and vascular calcification with decreased and increased HRV respectively was observed. Our results suggest a model for interpreting the relationship between vascular pathophysiology and cardiac rhythm. The cardiovascular system may be viewed as a complex system comprising a number of interacting subsystems. These cardiac and vascular subsystems/networks may be coupled and undergo transitions in response to internal or external perturbations. From a clinical perspective, the significantly increased sample entropy compared to the normal ABPI group and the decreased and increased complex correlation properties measured by DFA for the low and high ABPI groups respectively, may be useful indicators that a more holistic treatment approach in line with this more complex clinical picture is required.

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes peripheral nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve transection in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi Rahim; Ahsan Sima; Masoumi Masoume; Amini Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate the local effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on transected sciatic nerve regeneration. Methods: Sixty male white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups randomly (n=15). In transected group the left sciatic nerve was transected and the stump was fixed to adjacent muscle. In treatment group the defect was bridged using a silicone graft filled with 10 µL VEGF. In silicone group the graft was filled with pho...

  18. Dacron® vs. PTFE as bypass materials in peripheral vascular surgery – systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidt Daniela

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In peripheral vascular bypass surgery different synthetic materials are available for bypass grafting. It is unclear which of the two commonly used materials, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or polyester (Dacron® grafts, is to be preferred. Thus, the aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to compare the effectiveness of these two prosthetic bypass materials (Dacron® and PTFE. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, Cochrane-Library – CENTRAL, EMBASE and other databases for relevant publications in English and German published between 1999 and 2008. Only randomized controlled trials were considered for inclusion. We assessed the methodological quality by means of standardized checklists. Primary patency was used as the main endpoint. Random-effect meta-analysis as well as pooling data in life table format was performed to combine study results. Results Nine randomized controlled trials (RCT were included. Two trials showed statistically significant differences in primary patency, one favouring Dacron® and one favouring PTFE grafts, while 7 trials did not show statistically significant differences between the two materials. Meta-analysis on the comparison of PTFE vs. Dacron® grafts yielded no differences with regard to primary patency rates (hazard ratio 1.04 (95% confidence interval [0.85;1.28], no significant heterogeneity (p = 0.32, I2 = 14%. Similarly, there were no significant differences with regard to secondary patency rates. Conclusion Systematic evaluation and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing Dacron® and PTFE as bypass materials for peripheral vascular surgery showed no evidence of an advantage of one synthetic material over the other.

  19. Alterations of miR-132 are novel diagnostic biomarkers in peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-chuan; Wu, Jiao; Zhang, Hong-xing; Zhang, Gao-li; Sui, Juan; Tong, Wen-wen; Zhang, Xin-ya; Nie, Li-li; Duan, Ju-hong; Zhang, Li-rong; Lv, Lu-xian

    2015-12-01

    Alterations in microRNAs (miRNAs) have been considered to have diagnostic implications in most diseases, but few studies have reported dysregulated miRNAs in schizophrenia (SCZ). In order to observe an association between miRNAs and SCZ, this study was designed to investigate expression profiling of miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). miRNA microarray technology was employed to compare the expression of miRNAs in PBMCs from SCZ patients (n=105) and normal controls (n=130), and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) was used to analyze the results. Several important miRNA levels were examined before and after antipsychotic treatment in first-onset SCZ patients. In addition, an SCZ-like rat model was established using dizocilpine (MK-801), and miR-132 expression in PBMCs and whole-brain tissue from SCZ-like rats was studied using QPCR. In humans, dysregulated miRNAs were observed before treatment and QPCR verified that miR-132, miR-134, miR-1271, miR-664(⁎), miR-200c and miR-432 levels were significantly decreased (Panimal assays, miR-132 levels declined in PBMCs and whole-brain tissues (both P<0.05) of the SCZ-like rats compared to controls. For the first time, our results suggest that miR-132 is a potential and superior biomarker in peripheral blood that will allow discrimination of SCZ patients from healthy controls. PMID:25985888

  20. Phytotoxic Mechanism of Nanoparticles: Destruction of Chloroplasts and Vascular Bundles and Alteration of Nutrient Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Le Van; Ma, Chuanxin; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Shutong; Li, Xuguang; Xing, Baoshan; Liu, Liming

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the phytotoxic mechanism of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs): destroying chloroplasts and vascular bundles and altering absorption of nutrients on conventional and Bt-transgenic cottons. Experiments were designed with three concentrations of CeO2 NPs including: 0, 100 and 500 mg·L(-1), and each treatment was three replications. Results indicate that absorbed CeO2 nanoparticles significantly reduced the Zn, Mg, Fe, and P levels in xylem sap compared with the control group and decreased indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in the roots of conventional cotton. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that CeO2 NPs were absorbed into the roots and subsequently transported to the stems and leaves of both conventional and Bt-transgenic cotton plants via xylem sap. In addition, the majority of aggregated CeO2 NPs were attached to the external surface of chloroplasts, which were swollen and ruptured, especially in Bt-transgenic cotton. The vascular bundles were destroyed by CeO2 nanoparticles, and more damage was observed in transgenic cotton than conventional cotton. PMID:26108166

  1. Supplementation with complex milk lipids during brain development promotes neuroplasticity without altering myelination or vascular density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamond B. Guillermo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supplementation with complex milk lipids (CML during postnatal brain development has been shown to improve spatial reference learning in rats. Objective: The current study examined histo-biological changes in the brain following CML supplementation and their relationship to the observed improvements in memory. Design: The study used the brain tissues from the rats (male Wistar, 80 days of age after supplementing with either CML or vehicle during postnatal day 10–80. Immunohistochemical staining of synaptophysin, glutamate receptor-1, myelin basic protein, isolectin B-4, and glial fibrillary acidic protein was performed. The average area and the density of the staining and the numbers of astrocytes and capillaries were assessed and analysed. Results: Compared with control rats, CML supplementation increased the average area of synaptophysin staining and the number of GFAP astrocytes in the CA3 sub-region of the hippocampus (p<0.01, but not in the CA4 sub-region. The supplementation also led to an increase in dopamine output in the striatum that was related to nigral dopamine expression (p<0.05, but did not alter glutamate receptors, myelination or vascular density. Conclusion: CML supplementation may enhance neuroplasticity in the CA3 sub-regions of the hippocampus. The brain regions-specific increase of astrocyte may indicate a supporting role for GFAP in synaptic plasticity. CML supplementation did not associate with postnatal white matter development or vascular remodelling.

  2. Diagnostic value of high-resolution DSA in peripheral vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in vascular diseases of the extremities has been evaluated in 180 patients by using a prototype of a high-resolution system with a 1024 x 1024 matrix and a 40-cm imaging intensifier. Image quality of the lower leg behind stenoses was higher with DSA than with conventional angiography. The radiation dose and the amount of contrast medium were comparable to conventional angiography, but they were lower in patients with severe stenosis or a different flow in both legs. The high imaging quality of digital angiography without the subtraction also allowed excellent functional angiography in patients with an entrapment syndrome

  3. Peripheral and central vascular conductance influence on post-exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endo Masako Y

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-exercise hypotension (PEH following prolonged dynamic exercise arises from increased total vascular conductance (TVC via skeletal muscle vasodilation. However, arterial vasodilation of skeletal musculatures does not entirely account for the rise in TVC. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of vascular conductance (VC of the legs, arms, kidneys and viscera to TVC during PEH. Methods Eight subjects performed a single period of cycling at 60% of heart rate (HR reserve for 60 minutes. Blood flow in the right renal, superior mesenteric, right brachial and right femoral arteries was measured by Doppler ultrasonography in a supine position before exercise and during recovery. HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP were measured continuously. MAP decreased significantly from approximately 25 minutes after exercise cessation compared with pre-exercise baseline. TVC significantly increased (approximately 23%; P Conclusion PEH was not induced by decreased cardiac output, but by increased TVC, two-thirds of the rise in which can be attributed to increased VC in active and inactive limbs.

  4. Peripheral whole blood microRNA alterations in major depression and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Cattaneo, Annamaria; Rosso, Gianluca; Maina, Giuseppe; Maj, Carlo; Gennarelli, Massimo; Tardito, Daniela; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2016-08-01

    Major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are severe and potentially life-threating mood disorders whose etiology is to date not completely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate protein synthesis post-transcriptionally by base-pairing to target gene mRNAs. Growing evidence indicated that miRNAs might play a key role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders and in the action of psychotropic drugs. On these bases, in this study we evaluated the expression levels of 1733 mature miRNAs annotated in miRBase v.17, through a microarray technique, in the blood of 20 MD and 20 BD patients and 20 healthy controls, in order to identify putative miRNA signatures associated with mood disorders. We found that 5 miRNAs (hsa-let-7a-5p, hsa-let-7d-5p, hsa-let-7f-5p, hsa-miR-24-3p and hsa-miR-425-3p) were specifically altered in MD patients and 5 (hsa-miR-140-3p, hsa-miR-30d-5p, hsa-miR-330-5p, hsa-miR-378a-5p and hsa-miR-21-3p) in BD patients, whereas 2 miRNAs (hsa-miR-330-3p and hsa-miR-345-5p) were dysregulated in both the diseases. The bioinformatic prediction of the genes targeted by the altered miRNAs revealed the possible involvement of neural pathways relevant for psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, the observed results indicate a dysregulation of miRNA blood expression in mood disorders and could indicate new avenues for a better understanding of their pathogenetic mechanisms. The identified alterations may represent potential peripheral biomarkers to be complemented with other clinical and biological features for the improvement of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27152760

  5. Role of Peripheral Vascular Resistance for the Association Between Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Wiborg, Ove; Aalkjær, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Major depression and cardiovascular diseases are 2 of the most prevalent health problems in Western society, and an association between them is generally accepted. Although the specific mechanism behind this comorbidity remains to be elucidated, it is clear that it has a complex multifactorial ch....... The changes in arterial structure, contractile and relaxing functions associated with depression symptoms are discussed, and the role of these abnormalities for the pathology of major depression and cardiovascular diseases are suggested.......Major depression and cardiovascular diseases are 2 of the most prevalent health problems in Western society, and an association between them is generally accepted. Although the specific mechanism behind this comorbidity remains to be elucidated, it is clear that it has a complex multifactorial...... character including a number of neuronal, humoral, immune, and circulatory pathways. Depression-associated cardiovascular abnormalities associate with cardiac dysfunctions and with changes in peripheral resistance. Although cardiac dysfunction in association with depression has been studied in detail...

  6. Thoracic sympathectomy for peripheral vascular disease can lead to severe bronchospasm and excessive bronchial secretions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Deep Goyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old male patient suffering from Buerger′s disease presented with pre-gangrenous changes in right foot and ischemic symptoms in right hand. Computed tomographic angiography revealed diffuse distal disease not suitable for vascular bypass and angioplasty. Right lumbar sympathectomy was done using a retroperitoneal approach followed 1 year later by right thoracic sympathectomy using a transaxillary approach. Postoperatively, the patient had severe bronchospasm and excessive secretions in the respiratory tract resistant to theophylline and sympathomimetic group of drugs and without any clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence of infection. The patient was started on anticholinergics in anticipation that sympathectomy might have lead to unopposed cholinergic activity and the symptoms improved rapidly. The patient recovered well and was discharged on 10 th post-operative day.

  7. Ginseng Extracts Restore High-Glucose Induced Vascular Dysfunctions by Altering Triglyceride Metabolism and Downregulation of Atherosclerosis-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hoi-huen Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The king of herbs, Panax ginseng, has been used widely as a therapeutic agent vis-à-vis its active pharmacological and physiological effects. Based on Chinese pharmacopeia Ben Cao Gang Mu and various pieces of literature, Panax ginseng was believed to exert active vascular protective effects through its antiobesity and anti-inflammation properties. We investigated the vascular protective effects of ginseng by administrating ginseng extracts to rats after the induction of diabetes. We found that Panax ginseng can restore diabetes-induced impaired vasorelaxation and can reduce serum triglyceride but not cholesterol level in the diabetic rats. The ginseng extracts also suppressed the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes and altered the expression of lipid-related genes. The results provide evidence that Panax ginseng improves vascular dysfunction induced by diabetes and the protective effects may possibly be due to the downregulation of atherosclerosis-related genes and altered lipid metabolism, which help to restore normal endothelium functions.

  8. Vascular smooth muscle-specific deletion of the leptin receptor attenuates leptin-induced alterations in vascular relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael J; Coleman, T Taylor; Sasser, Jennifer M; Pittman, Katarina M; Hankins, Michael W; Stec, David E

    2016-05-15

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with increased plasma levels of the adipose-derived hormone leptin. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) express leptin receptors (LepR); however, their physiological role is unclear. We hypothesized that leptin, at levels to mimic morbid obesity, impairs vascular relaxation. To test this, we used control and VSM-LepR knockout mice (VSM-LepR KO) created with a tamoxifen-inducible specific Cre recombinase to delete the LepR gene in VSMC. Control (10-12 wk old) and VSM-LepR KO (10-12 wk old) mice were fed a diet containing tamoxifen (50 mg/kg) for 6 wk, after which vascular reactivity was studied in isolated carotid arteries using an organ chamber bath. Vessels were incubated with leptin (100 ng/ml) or vehicle (0.1 mM Tris·HCl) for 30 min. Leptin treatment resulted in significant impairment of vessel relaxation to the endothelial-specific agonist acetylcholine (ACh). When these experiments were repeated in the presence of the superoxide scavenger tempol, relaxation responses to ACh were restored. VSM-LepR deletion resulted in a significant attenuation of leptin-mediated impaired ACh-induced relaxation. These data show that leptin directly impairs vascular relaxation via a VSM-LepR-mediated mechanism, suggesting a potential pathogenic role for leptin to increase cardiovascular risk during obesity. PMID:26936780

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure alters the expression profile of microRNAs associated with vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Petriello, Michael C; Perkins, Jordan T; Shen, Shu; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is correlated with multiple vascular complications including endothelial cell dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PCB-induced activation of the vasculature subsequently leads to oxidative stress and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion proteins. Gene expression of these cytokines/proteins is known to be regulated by small, endogenous oligonucleotides known as microRNAs that interact with messenger RNA. MicroRNAs are an acknowledged component of the epigenome, but the role of environmentally-driven epigenetic changes such as toxicant-induced changes in microRNA profiles is currently understudied. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of PCB exposure on microRNA expression profile in primary human endothelial cells using the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1260. Samples were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip® miRNA 4.0 arrays for high throughput detection and selected microRNA gene expression was validated (RT-PCR). Microarray analysis identified 557 out of 6658 microRNAs that were changed with PCB exposure (p<0.05). In-silico analysis using MetaCore database identified 21 of these microRNAs to be associated with vascular diseases. Further validation showed that Aroclor 1260 increased miR-21, miR-31, miR-126, miR-221 and miR-222 expression levels. Upregulated miR-21 has been reported in cardiac injury while miR-126 and miR-31 modulate inflammation. Our results demonstrated evidence of altered microRNA expression with PCB exposure, thus providing novel insights into mechanisms of PCB toxicity. PMID:27288564

  10. Quantitative optical imaging of vascular response in vivo in a model of peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Kristin M; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M; Sit, Wesley W; Walsh, Alex J; Duvall, Craig L; Skala, Melissa C

    2013-10-15

    The mouse hind limb ischemia (HLI) model is well established for studying collateral vessel formation and testing therapies for peripheral arterial disease, but there is a lack of quantitative techniques for intravitally analyzing blood vessel structure and function. To address this need, non-invasive, quantitative optical imaging techniques were developed to assess the time-course of recovery in the mouse HLI model. Hyperspectral imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used to non-invasively image hemoglobin oxygen saturation and microvessel morphology plus blood flow, respectively, in the anesthetized mouse after induction of HLI. Hyperspectral imaging detected significant increases in hemoglobin saturation in the ischemic paw as early as 3 days after femoral artery ligation (P corkscrew collateral vessels characteristic of the arteriogenic response to HLI. The hyperspectral imaging and OCT data significantly correlated with each other and with laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and tissue oxygenation sensor data (P < 0.01). However, OCT measurements acquired depth-resolved information and revealed more sustained flow deficits following surgery that may be masked by more superficial measurements (LDPI, hyperspectral imaging). Therefore, intravital OCT may provide a robust biomarker for the late stages of ischemic limb recovery. This work validates non-invasive acquisition of both functional and morphological data with hyperspectral imaging and OCT. Together, these techniques provide cardiovascular researchers an unprecedented and comprehensive view of the temporal dynamics of HLI recovery in living mice. PMID:23955718

  11. Presence and vascular pharmacology of KATP channel subtypes in rat central and peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Baun, Michael; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    K(ATP) channel openers are vasodilators and induce headache in normal subjects. We previously identified the Kir6.1/SUR2B K(ATP) channel subtype in major cerebral and dural arteries of rat, pig and man. We hypothesized that craniovascular Kir6.1/SUR2B K(ATP) channels mediate the headache......-inducing effects of K(ATP) channel openers and that a Kir6.1/SUR2B specific blocker might be effective in the treatment of primary headaches such as migraine. Since K(ATP) channels are ubiquitous, we characterized the K(ATP) channel subtypes in major rat cranial and peripheral arteries and organs in order to...... also studied the effects and potencies of a panel of synthetic K(ATP) channel openers and their potential inhibition by the Kir6.1 subunit-specific K(ATP) channel blocker PNU-37883A in segments of the arteries mounted in a wire myograph. Our studies suggest that Kir6.1/SUR2B forms the major functional...

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes peripheral nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve transection in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Sima Ahsan; Masoume Masoumi; Keyvan Amini

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the local effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on transected sciatic nerve regeneration.Methods:Sixty male white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups randomly (n=15).In transected group the left sciatic nerve was transected and the stump was fixed to adjacent muscle.In treatment group the defect was bridged using a silicone graft filled with 10μL VEGF.In silicone group the graft was filled with phosphate-buffered saline.In sham-operated group the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated.Each group was subdivided into three subgroups with five animals in each and nerve fibers were studied 4,8 and 12 weeks after operation.Results:Behavioral test,functional study of sciatic nerve,gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices confirmed a faster recovery of regenerated axons in VEGF group than in silicone group (P<0.05).In immunohistochemical assessment,reactions to S-100 in VEGF group were more positive than that in silicone group.Conclusion:Local administration of VEGF will improve functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve.

  13. Controlled meal frequency without caloric restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF improves healthy lifespan in animals by a mechanism involving reduced oxidative damage and increased resistance to stress. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of controlled meal frequency on immune responses in human subjects. Objective A study was conducted to establish the effects of controlled diets with different meal frequencies, but similar daily energy intakes, on cytokine production in healthy male and female subjects. Design In a crossover study design with an intervening washout period, healthy normal weight middle-age male and female subjects (n = 15 were maintained for 2 months on controlled on-site one meal per day (OMD or three meals per day (TMD isocaloric diets. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs culture supernatants from subjects were analyzed for the presence of inflammatory markers using a multiplex assay. Results There were no significant differences in the inflammatory markers in the serum of subjects on the OMD or TMD diets. There was an increase in the capacity of PBMCs to produce cytokines in subjects during the first month on the OMD or TMD diets. Lower levels of TNF-α, IL-17, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were produced by PBMCs from subjects on the OMD versus TMD diet. Conclusions PBMCs of subjects on controlled diets exhibit hypersensitivities to cellular stimulation suggesting that stress associated with altered eating behavior might affect cytokine production by immune cells upon stimulation. Moreover, stimulated PBMCs derived from healthy individuals on a reduced meal frequency diet respond with a reduced capability to produce cytokines.

  14. Alterations of mtDNA number and 4977 bp deletion induced by ionizing radiation in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) 4977 bp common deletion (CD) and mtDNA copy number induced by ionizing radiation were observed in human different cell lines and total body irradiation patients. However, only few experiments have evaluated the levels of the CD and mtDNA copy number in human peripheral blood exposed to ionizing radiation till now. The aim of this study is to analyze the mtDNA alterations in irradiated human peripheral blood from healthy donors as well as to explore their feasibility as biomarkers for constructing new biodosimeter. Peripheral blood samples were collected from six healthy donors, and exposed to 60Co gamma ray with the doses of 0 Gy, 1 Gy, 2 Gy, 3 Gy, 4 Gy and 5 Gy. Levels of the CD and mtDNA copy number in irradiated samples after 2h or 24 h incubation were detected using TaqMan real-time PCR, and the CD ratio was calculated. The results showed that the mean of the CD ratio and the CD copy number exhibited a dose-dependent increase 2 h in the dose range from 0-5 Gy, and of the mtDNA copy number significantly increased 24 h in irradiated groups compared with 0 Gy group after irradiation. It indicates that the parameters in human peripheral blood may be considered as molecular biomarkers to applying construction of new biodosimeter. (authors)

  15. Reproducibility of Brachial Vascular Changes with Alterations in End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijer, Justin R; Evanoff, Nicholas G; Kelly, Aaron S; Chernin, Michael A; Stoltman, Matthew G; Dengel, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reproducibility of the peripheral vascular response to hypercapnia. Healthy college-aged men (n = 7) and women (n = 10) underwent an iso-oxic 10-mm Hg increase in PetCO2 for 12 min. Brachial artery diameter changes were measured using ultrasound imaging. Two tests were completed on day 1 with 15 min of rest between tests. Tests were repeated on day 2. Paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots and intra-class correlations (ICCs) determined reproducibility. There were no significant differences in peak dilation within day (5.33 ± 3.73% vs. 4.52 ± 2.49%, p = 0.378). The within-day ICC was poor (0.213). Within-day time-to-peak dilation did not significantly differ (660.0 ± 231.8 s vs. 602.7 ± 259.9 s, p = 0.379), and the ICC was fair (0.416, p = 0.113). Between-day peak dilation did not significantly differ (5.24 ± 3.84% vs. 4.71 ± 3.17%, p = 0.123), and the ICC was fair (0.419). Hypercapnia-induced brachial artery dilation is similar within day and between days. The ICC for peak dilation suggests the methodology is not reproducible. PMID:27061149

  16. Feeding Period Restriction Alters the Expression of Peripheral Circadian Rhythm Genes without Changing Body Weight in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hagoon; Lee, Gung; Kong, Jinuk; Choi, Goun; Park, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Jae Bum

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the circadian clock is closely associated with metabolic regulation. However, whether an impaired circadian clock is a direct cause of metabolic dysregulation such as body weight gain is not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that body weight gain in mice is not significantly changed by restricting feeding period to daytime or nighttime. The expression of peripheral circadian clock genes was altered by feeding period restriction, while the ex...

  17. Similar blood-borne DNA methylation alterations in cancer and inflammatory diseases determined by subpopulation shifts in peripheral leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, H; Zheng, T.; Chen, B; Hong, G; Zhang, W.; Shi, T; Li, S.; Ao, L; Wang, C.; Guo, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although many DNA methylation (DNAm) alterations observed in peripheral whole blood/leukocytes and serum have been considered as potential diagnostic markers for cancer, their origin and their specificity for cancer (e.g., vs inflammatory diseases) remain unclear. Methods: From publicly available datasets, we identified changes in the methylation of blood-borne DNA for multiple cancers and inflammatory diseases. We compared the identified changes with DNAm difference between myelo...

  18. Nifedipine in semi-solid formulations for topical use in peripheral vascular disease: preparation, characterization, and permeation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santis, Ana Karla; de Freitas, Zaida Maria Faria; Ricci-Junior, Eduardo; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia; Fonseca, Laís Bastos; Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2013-07-01

    Nifedipine (NFD) has been used for the treatment of cutaneous lesions caused by peripheral vascular disease and diabetic ulcers. NFD was formulated at 8% in three semi-solid formulations: Polaxamer 407 Lecithin Organogel (PLO), PLO plus Transcutol(®), and an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In vitro release and permeation tests were carried out using a synthetic (cellulose acetate) or natural membrane (pig ear skin), respectively, mounted in a Franz-type diffusion cell at 37°C in a constant water bath. As a receptor solution, isotonic phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 was used. All samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography by employing a previously validated method. The drug flow values were 6.126 ± 0.288, 4.030 ± 0.081, and 6.660 ± 0.254 μg/cm(2)/h for PLO, PLO plus Transcutol(®), and o/w emulsion, respectively. The three formulations did not show significant differences in drug flow, considering p > 0.05. Furthermore, their penetration profiles in both the epidermis and dermis were statistically different. Thus, the incorporation of NFD in PLO, PLO plus Transcutol(®), and o/w emulsion changed the drug thermodynamic activity, as expected. In addition, Transcutol(®) increased the solubility of NFD in the formulation and promoted its penetration in both the epidermis and dermis. PMID:22901029

  19. Radionuclide angiography and blood pool imaging to assess skin ulcer healing prognosis in patients with peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several non-invasive diagnostic techniques including segmental limb blood pressures, skin fluoresence, and photo plethysmography, have been evaluated as predictors of skin ulcer healing in patients with peripheral vascular disease, but none are widely used. Using 20mCi of Tc-99m phosphate compounds, four phase bone scans were obtained, including (1) radionuclide angiogram (2) blood pool image (3) 2 hour and 4-6 hour static images and (4) 24 hour static delayed images. The first two phases were used to assess vacularity to the region of distal extremity ulceration; the last two phases evaluated presence or absence of osteomyelitis. Studies were performed in 30 patients with non-healing ulcers of the lower extremities. Perfusion to the regions of ulceration on images was graded as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite (presumed normal) limb or some other normal reference area. Hypervascular response was interpreted as good prognosis for healing unless osteomyelitis was present. Clinicians followed patients for 14 days to assess limb healing with optimum care. If there was no improvement, angiography and/or surgery (reconstructive surgery, sympathectomy, or amputation) was done. Results showed: sensitivity for predicting ulcer healing was 94%, specificity 89%. Patients who failed to heal their ulcers showed reduced perfusion, no hypervascular response, or osteomyelitis. Microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing appear predictable by this technique

  20. Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injury (trauma) to a nerve, tumors, toxins, autoimmune responses, nutritional deficiencies, alcoholism, medical procedures, and vascular and metabolic disorders. Acquired peripheral neuropathies are caused by systemic disease, trauma from external agents, or infections or autoimmune disorders ...

  1. Peripheral monocytes are functionally altered and invade the CNS in ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondler, Lisa; Müller, Kathrin; Khalaji, Samira; Bliederhäuser, Corinna; Ruf, Wolfgang P; Grozdanov, Veselin; Thiemann, Meinolf; Fundel-Clemes, Katrin; Freischmidt, Axel; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Strobel, Benjamin; Weydt, Patrick; Witting, Anke; Thal, Dietmar R; Helferich, Anika M; Hengerer, Bastian; Gottschalk, Kay-Eberhard; Hill, Oliver; Kluge, Michael; Ludolph, Albert C; Danzer, Karin M; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2016-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting primarily the upper and lower motor neurons. A common feature of all ALS cases is a well-characterized neuroinflammatory reaction within the central nervous system (CNS). However, much less is known about the role of the peripheral immune system and its interplay with CNS resident immune cells in motor neuron degeneration. Here, we characterized peripheral monocytes in both temporal and spatial dimensions of ALS pathogenesis. We found the circulating monocytes to be deregulated in ALS regarding subtype constitution, function and gene expression. Moreover, we show that CNS infiltration of peripheral monocytes correlates with improved motor neuron survival in a genetic ALS mouse model. Furthermore, application of human immunoglobulins or fusion proteins containing only the human Fc, but not the Fab antibody fragment, increased CNS invasion of peripheral monocytes and delayed the disease onset. Our results underline the importance of peripheral monocytes in ALS pathogenesis and are in agreement with a protective role of monocytes in the early phase of the disease. The possibility to boost this beneficial function of peripheral monocytes by application of human immunoglobulins should be evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:26910103

  2. Effect of liquid nitrogen and formalin-based conservation in the in-vitro measurement of laser-induced fluorescence of peripheral vascular tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Filippidis, G.; Zacharakis, G.; Katsamouris, A; Kouktzela, M; Montan, Sune; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Papazoglou, TG

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of conservation in liquid nitrogen and formalin on peripheral vascular tissue (abdominal aortic, femoral and flank artery tissue) laser-induced fluorescence spectra were recorded during the exposure of these tissues to He-Cd radiation (442 nm). The spectral distribution of tissue fluorescence allowed the development of simple algorithms based on the intensity difference in order to discriminate the tissue samples when they were fresh and after they were sto...

  3. Step‐Monitored Home Exercise Improves Ambulation, Vascular Function, and Inflammation in Symptomatic Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Parker, Donald E.; Montgomery, Polly S.; Blevins, Steve M.

    2014-01-01

    Background This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial compared changes in primary outcome measures of claudication onset time (COT) and peak walking time (PWT), and secondary outcomes of submaximal exercise performance, daily ambulatory activity, vascular function, inflammation, and calf muscle hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) following new exercise training using a step watch (NEXT Step) home‐exercise program, a sup...

  4. Application of DCE-MRI in evaluating lower extremity capillary endothelial function in patients with diabetes mellitus complicated by peripheral vascular disease after PTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To quantify endothelial function of lower extremity capillary in patients with peripheral vascular disease associated with diabetes mellitus by using DCE-MRI, and to explore the feasibility of DCE-MRI in predicting vascular restenosis in lower extremity after PTA. Methods: During the period form May 2009 to Jan. 2012, a total of 51 patients (study group) with diabetic lower extremity vascular diseases (77 diseased legs in total) were admitted to the hospital and were treated with PTA. Another 20 volunteers were used as control group. K-trans values were measured in soleus muscle using DCE-MRI. Based on the results after 6 months follow-up, the patients were classified into restenosis group and non-restenosis group. The K -trans values and others clinical data were compared between the two groups. Results: Although clinical symptoms and signs were improved in both groups after the treatment, K-trans value of restenosis group showed no obvious changes after PTA, while K-trans value of non-restenosis group was improved significantly. Before PTA, the difference in K -trans value between the two groups was not statistically significant, while K-trans values of the two groups were significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: K-trans value can reflect the endothelial function in diabetes mellitus patients with peripheral vascular disease, and it can also predict the occurrence of restenosis, providing a useful evidence for clinical. therapy. (authors)

  5. Arsenic exposure, urinary arsenic speciation, and peripheral vascular disease in blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term exposure to ingested inorganic arsenic is associated with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in the blackfoot disease (BFD)-hyperendemic area in Taiwan. This study further examined the interaction between arsenic exposure and urinary arsenic speciation on the risk of PVD. A total of 479 (220 men and 259 women) adults residing in the BFD-hyperendemic area were studied. Doppler ultrasound was used to diagnose PVD. Arsenic exposure was estimated by an index of cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE). Urinary levels of total arsenic, inorganic arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) were determined. Primary methylation index [PMI = MMAV/(AsIII + AsV)] and secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV) were calculated. The association between PVD and urinary arsenic parameters was evaluated with consideration of the interaction with CAE and the confounding effects of age, sex, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results showed that aging was associated with a diminishing capacity to methylate inorganic arsenic and women possessed a more efficient arsenic methylation capacity than men did. PVD risk increased with a higher CAE and a lower capacity to methylate arsenic to DMAV. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for CAE of 0, 0.1-15.4, and >15.4 mg/L x year were 1.00, 3.41 (0.74-15.78), and 4.62 (0.96-22.21), respectively (P 6.93, PMI > 1.77 and SMI > 6.93, PMI > 1.77 and SMI ≤ 6.93, and PMI ≤ 1.77 and SMI ≤ 6.93 were 1.00, 2.93 (0.90-9.52), 2.85 (1.05-7.73), and 3.60 (1.12-11.56), respectively (P V have a higher risk of developing PVD in the BFD-hyperendemic area in Taiwan

  6. Alterations in vascular function in primary aldosteronism: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, P. B.; Boyle, S; Zimmerli, L U; McQuarrie, E.P.; Delles, C.; Freel, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Excess aldosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone has a permissive effect on vascular fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows study of vascular function by measuring aortic distensibility. We compared aortic distensibility in primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and normal controls and explored the relationship between aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Methods: We studied PA (n=14)...

  7. Dietary vitamin K and therapeutic warfarin alter susceptibility to vascular calcification in experimental chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), with vascular calcification (VC) being a key modifier of disease progression. A local regulator of vascular calcification is vitamin K. This gamma-glutamyl carboxylase substrate is an essential ...

  8. 超声血管增强技术在外周血管疾病中的诊断价值%The value of vascular enhancement technology for diagnosis of peripheral vascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷平; 李文巨; 李波

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价超声血管增强技术(vascular enhancement technology,VET)在外周病变的临床应用价值.方法 对90例外周血管病变的患者(52例颈动脉病变、16例下肢动脉病变及22例下肢深静脉病变)应用超声血管增强技术,显示病变的血管,并与传统二维谐波及彩色多普勒(CDFI)成像相对比.结果 常规二维超声检查28例(31.11%)图像不能清晰显示,应用VET技术,86例(95.56%)外周血管病变患者的血管腔、血管壁及病灶(斑块、血栓)更清晰显示,图像质量评分VET高于传统二维超声,为2.91:2.09,(P<0.01).结论 VET技术可提高能提高血管与周边组织对比分辨力,更清晰显示血管腔、管壁结构及病灶,具有较高的临床应用价值.%Objective To evaluate the application of vascular enhancement technology (VET) to peripheral vascular diseases. Methods 90 patients with peripheral vascular diseases suspected carotid artery plaques and cerebrovascular diseases underwent VET diagnosis. Diseased vessels were detected using vascular enhancement technology and were compared with traditional two-dimensional and color Doppler ultrasonography. Results Peripheral vascular diseases in 28(31.11%) cases were shown non-distinct image on 2-D ultrasonography. Using VET, artery plaques and thrombus in 86 cases (86/90) were shown clearly the contour and outline. The image quality assessment VET was better than that of 2D ultrasound, i, e. , 2. 91:2. 09, ( P <0. 01). Conclusion Vascular enhancement technology can improve the contrast resolution and show distinct superiority of the vessels's display.

  9. Peripheral vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for the evaluation of the cardiovascular system are among the oldest in nuclear medicine. Arm-to-arm circulation times were determined in humans using the naturally occurring radioactivity of radium. In 1948 artificially produced radioactive sodium was used to evaluate the circulation time through the heart in both normal subjects and patients with heart disease. This technique utilized an intravenous injection of sodium-24 into the antecubital vein of one arm and the generation of a graph of the count rate with a Geiger-Muller tube placed over the percordium as the radiolabeled blood passed through the chambers of the heart. This simple measurement had many components to it: a venous phase, a pulmonary circulation phase, and a phase for the cardiac chambers. Since this early work, the development of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals, advances in detection devices, and the introduction of computers into clinical nuclear medicine have permitted separation of these various components, allowing the study of venous, pulmonary, intracardiac, arterial, and capillary phases

  10. Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marfan Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Mitral Valve Prolapse Myocardial Bridge Myocarditis Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pericarditis Rheumatic Fever Sick ... echocardiography or radiological imaging, such as arteriography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CAT or CT) ...

  11. Pulmonary vascular-bronchial interactions: acute reduction in pulmonary blood flow alters lung mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze-Neick, I; Penny, D; Derrick, G; Dhillon, R; Rigby, M.; Kelleher, A.; Bush, A; Redington, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Postoperative pulmonary hypertension in children after congenital heart surgery is a risk factor for death and is associated with severe acute changes in both pulmonary vascular resistance and lung mechanics.
OBJECTIVE—To examine the impact of changes in pulmonary blood flow on lung mechanics in preoperative children with congenital heart disease, in order to assess the cause-effect relation of pulmonary vascular-bronchial interactions.
DESIGN—Prospective, cross sectional study.
SE...

  12. Genetic Deletion of Rheb1 in the Brain Reduces Food Intake and Causes Hypoglycemia with Altered Peripheral Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive food/energy intake is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a critical role in the control of food intake and peripheral metabolism. The signaling pathways in hypothalamic neurons that regulate food intake and peripheral metabolism need to be better understood for developing pharmacological interventions to manage eating behavior and obesity. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase, is a master regulator of cellular metabolism in different cell types. Pharmacological manipulations of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1 activity in hypothalamic neurons alter food intake and body weight. Our previous study identified Rheb1 (Ras homolog enriched in brain 1 as an essential activator of mTORC1 activity in the brain. Here we examine whether central Rheb1 regulates food intake and peripheral metabolism through mTORC1 signaling. We find that genetic deletion of Rheb1 in the brain causes a reduction in mTORC1 activity and impairs normal food intake. As a result, Rheb1 knockout mice exhibit hypoglycemia and increased lipid mobilization in adipose tissue and ketogenesis in the liver. Our work highlights the importance of central Rheb1 signaling in euglycemia and energy homeostasis in animals.

  13. Mitochondrial Alterations in Peripheral Mononuclear Blood Cells from Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbarba, A; Abate, G; Prandelli, C; Marziano, M; Buizza, L; Arce Varas, N; Novelli, A; Cuetos, F; Martinez, C; Lanni, C; Memo, M; Uberti, D

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to neurodegeneration occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, evidences of mitochondrial defects in AD peripheral cells are still inconclusive. Here, some mitochondrial-encoded and nuclear-encoded proteins, involved in maintaining the correct mitochondria machine, were investigated in terms of protein expression and enzymatic activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients and healthy subjects. In addition mitochondrial DNA copy number was measured by real time PCR. We found some differences and some similarities between AD and MCI patients when compared with healthy subjects. For example, cytochrome C and cytochrome B were decreased in AD, while MCI showed only a statistical reduction of cytochrome C. On the other hand, both AD and MCI blood cells exhibited highly nitrated MnSOD, index of a prooxidant environment inside the mitochondria. TFAM, a regulator of mitochondrial genome replication and transcription, was decreased in both AD and MCI patients' blood cells. Moreover also the mitochondrial DNA amount was reduced in PBMCs from both patient groups. In conclusion these data confirmed peripheral mitochondria impairment in AD and demonstrated that TFAM and mtDNA amount reduction could be two features of early events occurring in AD pathogenesis. PMID:26881032

  14. Time course of central and peripheral alterations after isometric neuromuscular electrical stimulation-induced muscle damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fouré

    Full Text Available Isometric contractions induced by neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES have been shown to result in a prolonged force decrease but the time course of the potential central and peripheral factors have never been investigated. This study examined the specific time course of central and peripheral factors after isometric NMES-induced muscle damage. Twenty-five young healthy men were subjected to an NMES exercise consisting of 40 contractions for both legs. Changes in maximal voluntary contraction force of the knee extensors (MVC, peak evoked force during double stimulations at 10 Hz (Db(10 and 100 Hz (Db(100, its ratio (10:100, voluntary activation, muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed before, immediately after and throughout four days after NMES session. Changes in knee extensors volume and T2 relaxation time were also assessed at two (D2 and four (D4 days post-exercise. MVC decreased by 29% immediately after NMES session and was still 19% lower than the baseline value at D4. The decrease in Db(10 was higher than in Db(100 immediately and one day post-exercise resulting in a decrease (-12% in the 10:100 ratio. On the contrary, voluntary activation significantly decreased at D2 (-5% and was still depressed at D4 (-5%. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity increased after NMES and peaked at D2 and D4, respectively. T2 was also increased at D2 (6% and D4 (9%. Additionally, changes in MVC and peripheral factors (e.g., Db(100 were correlated on the full recovery period, while a significant correlation was found between changes in MVC and VA only from D2 to D4. The decrease in MVC recorded immediately after the NMES session was mainly due to peripheral changes while both central and peripheral contributions were involved in the prolonged force reduction. Interestingly, the chronological events differ from what has been reported so far for voluntary exercise-induced muscle damage.

  15. Time Course of Central and Peripheral Alterations after Isometric Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation-Induced Muscle Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouré, Alexandre; Nosaka, Kazunori; Wegrzyk, Jennifer; Duhamel, Guillaume; Le Troter, Arnaud; Boudinet, Hélène; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Vilmen, Christophe; Jubeau, Marc; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Isometric contractions induced by neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) have been shown to result in a prolonged force decrease but the time course of the potential central and peripheral factors have never been investigated. This study examined the specific time course of central and peripheral factors after isometric NMES-induced muscle damage. Twenty-five young healthy men were subjected to an NMES exercise consisting of 40 contractions for both legs. Changes in maximal voluntary contraction force of the knee extensors (MVC), peak evoked force during double stimulations at 10 Hz (Db10) and 100 Hz (Db100), its ratio (10∶100), voluntary activation, muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed before, immediately after and throughout four days after NMES session. Changes in knee extensors volume and T2 relaxation time were also assessed at two (D2) and four (D4) days post-exercise. MVC decreased by 29% immediately after NMES session and was still 19% lower than the baseline value at D4. The decrease in Db10 was higher than in Db100 immediately and one day post-exercise resulting in a decrease (−12%) in the 10∶100 ratio. On the contrary, voluntary activation significantly decreased at D2 (−5%) and was still depressed at D4 (−5%). Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity increased after NMES and peaked at D2 and D4, respectively. T2 was also increased at D2 (6%) and D4 (9%). Additionally, changes in MVC and peripheral factors (e.g., Db100) were correlated on the full recovery period, while a significant correlation was found between changes in MVC and VA only from D2 to D4. The decrease in MVC recorded immediately after the NMES session was mainly due to peripheral changes while both central and peripheral contributions were involved in the prolonged force reduction. Interestingly, the chronological events differ from what has been reported so far for voluntary exercise-induced muscle damage. PMID:25215511

  16. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yansong [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin [Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  17. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion

  18. Altered peripheral vasodilator profile of nitroglycerin during long-term infusion of N-acetylcysteine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Wroblewski, H;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the short- and long-term effects of intravenous nitroglycerin plus placebo and nitroglycerin plus N-acetylcysteine on peripheral arteries, veins and microcirculation in humans. BACKGROUND: The thiol donor N-acetylcysteine may potentiate the hemodyn......) or placebo for 23 h in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study. Venous volume, the diameter of the radial and temporal arteries, calf blood flow and subcutaneous blood flow were measured at baseline and repeated after 1 and 23 h of infusion. RESULTS: Prolonged coadministration of N...

  19. /sup 99m/Tc radionuclide angioscintigraphic perfusion analysis in the assessment and follow-up of peripheral vascular diseases of the lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral arterial diseases (PADs) of the lower limbs such as thromboangitis obliterans (TAO) (Buerger's disease), arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) and diabetes mellitus, produce trophic disturbances occurring most often in the toes. Perfusion analysis of the foot and toes was previously reported. The analysis utilized radionuclide arteriography (RNA) during reactive hyperaemia to obtain peak activity in RNA time-activity curves (TACs). RNA was also used to assess healing capability of skin ulcers of the calf and ankle, which depends on localized enhancement of capillary blood flow. On these bases, detection of capillary blood flow assumes primary importance in the assessment of peripheral vascular disease (PVD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether RNA of the toes at rest could provide adequate assessment of microcirculation in PVD and of microcirculatory changes induced by lumbar sympathectomy (LS)

  20. Alterations in vascular function in primary aldosteronism: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, P B; Boyle, S; Zimmerli, L U; McQuarrie, E P; Delles, C; Freel, E M

    2014-02-01

    Excess aldosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone has a permissive effect on vascular fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows study of vascular function by measuring aortic distensibility. We compared aortic distensibility in primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and normal controls and explored the relationship between aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV). We studied PA (n=14) and EH (n=33) subjects and age-matched healthy controls (n=17) with CMR, including measurement of aortic distensibility, and measured PWV using applanation tonometry. At recruitment, PA and EH patients had similar blood pressure and left ventricular mass. Subjects with PA had significantly lower aortic distensibility and higher PWV compared with EH and healthy controls. These changes were independent of other factors associated with reduced aortic distensibility, including ageing. There was a significant relationship between increasing aortic stiffness and age in keeping with physical and vascular ageing. As expected, aortic distensibility and PWV were closely correlated. These results demonstrate that PA patients display increased arterial stiffness compared with EH, independent of vascular ageing. The implication is that aldosterone invokes functional impairment of arterial function. The long-term implications of arterial stiffening in aldosterone excess require further study. PMID:23884211

  1. Oral P. gingivalis infection alters the vascular reactivity in healthy and spontaneously atherosclerotic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanon Ivanita

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that recent studies have demonstrated endothelial dysfunction in subjects with periodontitis and that there is no information about vascular function in coexistence of periodontitis and atherosclerosis, we assessed the impact of oral inoculation with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis on vascular reactivity in healthy and hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE mice. In vitro preparations of mesenteric arteriolar bed were used to determine the vascular responses to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine (PE. Results Alveolar bone resorption, an evidence of periodontitis, was assessed and confirmed in all infected mice. Acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxations were similar among all groups. Non-infected ApoE mice were hyperreactive to PE when compared to non-infected healthy mice. P gingivalis infection significantly enhanced the vasoconstriction to PE in both healthy and spontaneous atherosclerotic mice, when compared to their respective controls. Conclusions This study demonstrates that oral P gingivalis affects the alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated vascular responsiveness in both healthy and spontaneous atherosclerotic mice, reinforcing the association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Altered astrocyte morphology and vascular development in dystrophin-Dp71-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocanti-Auregan, Audrey; Vacca, Ophélie; Bénard, Romain; Cao, Sijia; Siqueiros, Lourdes; Montañez, Cecilia; Paques, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Sennlaub, Florian; Guillonneau, Xavier; Rendon, Alvaro; Tadayoni, Ramin

    2016-05-01

    Understanding retinal vascular development is crucial because many retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (in adults) or retinopathy of prematurity (in children) are among the leading causes of blindness. Given the localization of the protein Dp71 around the retinal vessels in adult mice and its role in maintaining retinal homeostasis, the aim of this study was to determine if Dp71 was involved in astrocyte and vascular development regulation. An experimental study in mouse retinas was conducted. Using a dual immunolabeling with antibodies to Dp71 and anti-GFAP for astrocytes on retinal sections and isolated astrocytes, it was found that Dp71 was expressed in wild-type (WT) mouse astrocytes from early developmental stages to adult stage. In Dp71-null mice, a reduction in GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes was observed as early as postnatal day 6 (P6) compared with WT mice. Using real-time PCR, it was showed that Dp71 mRNA was stable between P1 and P6, in parallel with post-natal vascular development. Regarding morphology in Dp71-null and WT mice, a significant decrease in overall astrocyte process number in Dp71-null retinas at P6 to adult age was found. Using fluorescence-conjugated isolectin Griffonia simplicifolia on whole mount retinas, subsequent delay of developing vascular network at the same age in Dp71-null mice was found. An evidence that the Dystrophin Dp71, a membrane-associated cytoskeletal protein and one of the smaller Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene products, regulates astrocyte morphology and density and is associated with subsequent normal blood vessel development was provided. GLIA 2016;64:716-729. PMID:26711882

  3. Chronic phase advance alters circadian physiological rhythms and peripheral molecular clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Gretchen; Duncan, Marilyn J; Esser, Karyn A

    2013-08-01

    Shifting the onset of light, acutely or chronically, can profoundly affect responses to infection, tumor progression, development of metabolic disease, and mortality in mammals. To date, the majority of phase-shifting studies have focused on acute exposure to a shift in the timing of the light cycle, whereas the consequences of chronic phase shifts alone on molecular rhythms in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle have not been studied. In this study, we tested the effect of chronic phase advance on the molecular clock mechanism in two phenotypically different skeletal muscles. The phase advance protocol (CPA) involved 6-h phase advances (earlier light onset) every 4 days for 8 wk. Analysis of the molecular clock, via bioluminescence recording, in the soleus and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles and lung demonstrated that CPA advanced the phase of the rhythm when studied immediately after CPA. However, if the mice were placed into free-running conditions (DD) for 2 wk after CPA, the molecular clock was not phase shifted in the two muscles but was still shifted in the lung. Wheel running behavior remained rhythmic in CPA mice; however, the endogenous period length of the free-running rhythm was significantly shorter than that of control mice. Core body temperature, cage activity, and heart rate remained rhythmic throughout the experiment, although the onset of the rhythms was significantly delayed with CPA. These results provide clues that lifestyles associated with chronic environmental desynchrony, such as shift work, can have disruptive effects on the molecular clock mechanism in peripheral tissues, including both types of skeletal muscle. Whether this can contribute, long term, to increased incidence of insulin resistance/metabolic disease requires further study. PMID:23703115

  4. Impact of flavonoid-rich black tea and beetroot juice on postprandial peripheral vascular resistance and glucose homeostasis in obese, insulin-resistant men: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Dagmar; Nyakayiru, Jean; Draijer, Richard; Mulder, Theo P. J.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.; Thijssen, Dick H

    2016-01-01

    Background Insulin-stimulated muscle blood flow facilitates plasma glucose disposal after a meal, a mechanism that is impaired in obese, insulin-resistant volunteers. Nitrate- or flavonoid-rich products, through their proposed effects on nitric oxide, may improve postprandial blood flow and, subsequently, glucose disposal. To investigate whether a single dose of nitrate-rich beetroot juice or flavonoid-rich black tea lowers postprandial muscle vascular resistance in obese volunteers and alter...

  5. Peripheral and central alterations in a chronic model of food restriction : role of ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Méquinion, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic food restriction is one of the major features observed in anorexia nervosa (AN), especially in the restrictive type. This major eating disorder affects mainly teenager girls and young women. Additionally to the restriction behavior, important physical activity is observed in a large number of patients (40-80% of cases). This disease induces various physiological alterations that concern neuroendocrine, metabolic and bone (osteopenia, osteoporosis) pathways, which have dramatic consequ...

  6. The alteration in peripheral neutrophils of patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yevgenyevna Muravlyova Larissa; Molotov-Luchankiy Vilen Borisovich; Yemelyevna Bakirova Ryszhan; Akylbekovna Turmukhambetova Anar; Anatolyevich Klyuyev Dmitriy; Andreevna Demidchik Ludmila; Alexandrovna Kolesnikova Yevgeniya

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated the impaired functions of neutrophils of patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of our research was to study oxidative modified proteins, as well as the histone spectrum in neutrophils drawn from patients with chronic kidney disease, and to estimate the ability of neutrophils to form spontaneous neutrophil extracellular traps. In this work, we have assumed that metabolic alteration in neutrophils may develop at early stages of chronic kidney disease...

  7. Effects of exercise training on stress-induced vascular reactivity alterations: role of nitric oxide and prostanoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise may modify biologic stress responses. Objective: To investigate the impact of exercise training on vascular alterations induced by acute stress, focusing on nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways. Method: Wistar rats were separated into: sedentary, trained (60-min swimming, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, carrying a 5% body-weight load, stressed (2 h-immobilization, and trained/stressed. Response curves for noradrenaline, in the absence and presence of L-NAME or indomethacin, were obtained in intact and denuded aortas (n=7-10. Results: None of the procedures altered the denuded aorta reactivity. Intact aortas from stressed, trained, and trained/stressed rats showed similar reduction in noradrenaline maximal responses (sedentary 3.54±0.15, stressed 2.80±0.10*, trained 2.82±0.11*, trained/stressed 2.97± 0.21*, *P<0.05 relate to sedentary. Endothelium removal and L-NAME abolished this hyporeactivity in all experimental groups, except in trained/stressed rats that showed a partial aorta reactivity recovery in L-NAME presence (L-NAME: sedentary 5.23±0,26#, stressed 5.55±0.38#, trained 5.28±0.30#, trained/stressed 4.42±0.41, #P<0.05 related to trained/stressed. Indomethacin determined a decrease in sensitivity (EC50 in intact aortas of trained rats without abolishing the aortal hyporeactivity in trained, stressed, and trained/stressed rats. Conclusions: Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Stress-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial nitric oxide. Beside the involvement of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway, the vascular response of trained/stressed rats involved an additional mechanism yet to be elucidated. These findings advance on the understanding of the vascular processes after exercise and stress alone and in combination.

  8. Altered hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenomedullary activities in rats bred for high anxiety: central and peripheral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, Nicolas; Viltart, Odile; Lesage, Jean; Landgraf, Rainer; Vieau, Didier; Laborie, Christine

    2006-07-01

    Wistar rats have been selectively bred for high (HABs) or low (LABs) anxiety-related behavior based on results obtained in the elevated-plus maze. They also display robust behavioral differences in a variety of additional anxiety tests. The present study was undertaken to further characterize physiological substrates that contribute to the expression of this anxious trait. We report changes in brain and peripheral structures involved in the regulation of both the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-adrenal systems. Following exposure to a mild stressor, HABs displayed a hyper-reactivity of the HPA axis associated with a hypo-reactivity of the sympatho-adrenal system and a lower serotonin turnover in the lateral septum and amygdala. At rest, HABs showed a higher adrenal weight and lower tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase mRNAs expression in their adrenals than LABs. In the anterior pituitary, HABs also exhibited increased proopiomelanocortin and decreased vasopressin V1b receptor mRNAs expression, whereas glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels remained unchanged. These results indicate that the behavioral phenotype of HABs is associated with peripheral and central alterations of endocrine mechanisms involved in stress response regulation. Data are discussed in relation to coping strategies adopted to manage stressful situations. In conclusion, HABs can be considered as an useful model to study the etiology and pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and their neuroendocrine substrates. PMID:16632209

  9. Doxycycline Alters Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Adhesion, Migration, and Reorganization of Fibrillar Collagen Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Christopher; Ho, Bernard; Mulholland, Diane; Hou, Guangpei; Islam, Muzharul; Donaldson, Katey; Bendeck, Michelle Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Remodeling of injured blood vessels is dependent on smooth muscle cells and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Doxycycline is a broad spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor that is under investigation for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and aneurysms. In the present study, we examine the mechanisms by which doxycycline inhibits smooth muscle cell responses using a series of in vitro assays that mimic critical steps in pathological vascular remodeling. Doxycycline treatment dram...

  10. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α1-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β2-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT1A receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity contribute to ethanol

  11. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestani, Carlos C. [Department of Natural Active Principles and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ. Estadual Paulista—UNESP (Brazil); Lopes da Silva, Andréia [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Scopinho, América A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ruginsk, Silvia G.; Uchoa, Ernane T. [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Correa, Fernando M.A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Resstel, Leonardo B.M., E-mail: leoresstel@yahoo.com.br [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α{sub 1}-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β{sub 2}-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT{sub 1A} receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity

  12. Alterations in hepatic production and peripheral clearance of IGF-I after endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J; Char, D; Kolasa, A J; Pan, W; Maitra, S R; Patlak, C S; Spolarics, Z; Gelato, M C; Lang, C H

    1995-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces a rapid and sustained reduction in the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which may be responsible, in part, for the alterations in protein metabolism observed in these animals. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this drop was due to a decreased hepatic production of IGF-I and/or an increased clearance of the peptide from the blood. Four hours after intravenous injection of LPS the plasma IGF-I concentration was decreased 50%. IGF-I release by in situ perfused livers from control rats was constant throughout the 60-min perfusion period and averaged 111 +/- 3 ng/min. In contrast, hepatic IGF-I output was decreased 46% by in vivo LPS. In contrast, livers from LPS-injected rats released more IGF binding proteins-1, -2 and -4 than did control livers. Hepatic cell isolation indicated that LPS decreased the IGF-I content in Kupffer and parenchymal cells, but not endothelial cells, by approximately 45%. Pharmacokinetic analysis of blood 125I-IGF-I decay curves indicated that the half-life for whole body clearance of 125I-IGF-I from the circulation was not altered by LPS. However, LPS increased 125I-IGF-I uptake by spleen, liver, lung, and kidney while decreasing uptake by the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. These results indicate that the LPS-induced decrease in blood IGF-I concentration is primarily due to a reduction in hepatic production, not a change in whole body peptide clearance, and that a decreased production by both parenchymal and Kupffer cells contributes to this alteration. PMID:7543247

  13. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  14. 4D phase contrast flow imaging for in-stent flow visualization and assessment of stent patency in peripheral vascular stents – A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: 4D phase contrast flow imaging is increasingly used to study the hemodynamics in various vascular territories and pathologies. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and validity of MRI based 4D phase contrast flow imaging for the evaluation of in-stent blood flow in 17 commonly used peripheral stents. Materials and methods: 17 different peripheral stents were implanted into a MR compatible flow phantom. In-stent visibility, maximal velocity and flow visualization were assessed and estimates of in-stent patency obtained from 4D phase contrast flow data sets were compared to a conventional 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) as well as 2D PC flow measurements. Results: In all but 3 of the tested stents time-resolved 3D particle traces could be visualized inside the stent lumen. Quality of 4D flow visualization and CE-MRA images depended on stent type and stent orientation relative to the magnetic field. Compared to the visible lumen area determined by 3D CE-MRA, estimates of lumen patency derived from 4D flow measurements were significantly higher and less dependent on stent type. A higher number of stents could be assessed for in-stent patency by 4D phase contrast flow imaging (n = 14) than by 2D phase contrast flow imaging (n = 10). Conclusions: 4D phase contrast flow imaging in peripheral vascular stents is feasible and appears advantageous over conventional 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and 2D phase contrast flow imaging. It allows for in-stent flow visualization and flow quantification with varying quality depending on stent type

  15. The alteration in peripheral neutrophils of patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgenyevna Muravlyova Larissa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have demonstrated the impaired functions of neutrophils of patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of our research was to study oxidative modified proteins, as well as the histone spectrum in neutrophils drawn from patients with chronic kidney disease, and to estimate the ability of neutrophils to form spontaneous neutrophil extracellular traps. In this work, we have assumed that metabolic alteration in neutrophils may develop at early stages of chronic kidney disease. Materials and methods: Neutrophils obtained from patients with various stages of chronic kidney disease and degrees of chronic renal failure were used. As control, blood samples obtained from 32 healthy individuals was employed. In the examined neutrophils, advanced oxidation protein products, protein reactive carbonyl derivatives, as well as nucleosomal histones were detected. The ability of neutrophils to form spontaneous neutrophil extracellular traps was estimated. Our results have demonstrated an increase of nucleosomal histones in neutrophils of all patients with chronic kidney disease. Moreover, our work fixes the rate of growth of intracellular advanced oxidation protein products and the decreasing of protein reactive carbonyl derivatives in neutrophils from patients with chronic kidney disease. Furthermore, we demonstrate the presence of the neutrophils with altered oxidative status and the decomposition of the histone spectrum in the circulation of patients with chronic kidney disease.

  16. Local cooling alters neural mechanisms producing changes in peripheral blood flow by spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Barron, Kirk W; Chandler, Margaret J; Linderoth, Bengt; Foreman, Robert D

    2003-03-28

    This study was performed to investigate the respective role of sensory afferent and sympathetic fibers in peripheral vasodilatation induced by spinal cord stimulation at different hindpaw skin temperatures. Cooling the skin was used as a strategy to enhance sympathetic activity [Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 263 (1992) H1197]. Cutaneous blood flow in the footpad of anesthetized rats was recorded using laser Doppler flowmetry. Local cooling (copper coil. Spinal cord stimulation delivered at clinically relevant parameters and with 30%, 60%, and 90% of motor threshold induced the early phase of vasodilatation in the cooled and the moderately cooled hindpaw. In addition, spinal cord stimulation at 90% of motor threshold produced the late phase of vasodilatation only in the cooled hindpaw, which was possible to block by the autonomic ganglion-blocking agent, hexamethonium. The early responses to spinal cord stimulation in the moderately cooled hindpaw were not affected by hexamethonium. In contrast, both the early and the late phase responses were eliminated by CGRP (8-37), an antagonist of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor. After dorsal rhizotomy, spinal cord stimulation at 90% of motor threshold elicited hexamethonium-sensitive vasodilatation in the cooled hindpaw (late phase). These results suggest that spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilatation in the cooled hindpaw (<25 degrees C) is mediated via both the sensory afferent (early phase of vasodilatation) and via suppression of the sympathetic efferent activity (late phase) although the threshold for vasodilatation via the sympathetic efferent fibers is higher than that via sensory nerves. In contrast, vasodilatation via sensory afferent fibers may predominate with moderate temperatures (25-28 degrees C). Thus, two complementary mechanisms for spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilatation may exist depending on the basal sympathetic tone. PMID:12648613

  17. IGF-1 Has Plaque-Stabilizing Effects in Atherosclerosis by Altering Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    von der Thüsen, Jan H; Borensztajn, Keren S.; Moimas, Silvia; van Heiningen, Sandra; Teeling, Peter; Van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Biessen, Erik A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is important for the maintenance of plaque stability in atherosclerosis due to its effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) phenotype. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the highly inflammatory milieu of the atherosclerotic plaque on IGF-1 signaling and stability-related phenotypic parameters of murine vSMCs in vitro, and the effects of IGF-1 supplementation on plaque phenotype in an atherosclerotic mouse model. M1-pol...

  18. Altered gene expression pattern in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kiliszek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis and therapy, acute myocardial infarction (MI is a major cause of mortality in the general population. A novel insight into the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction obtained by studying gene expression should help to discover novel biomarkers of MI and to suggest novel strategies of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish gene expression patterns in leukocytes from acute myocardial infarction patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI were included. The blood was collected on the 1(st day of myocardial infarction, after 4-6 days, and after 6 months. Control group comprised 14 patients with stable coronary artery disease, without history of myocardial infarction. Gene expression analysis was performed with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarrays and GCS3000 TG system. Lists of genes showing altered expression levels (fold change >1.5, p<0.05 were submitted to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Gene lists from each group were examined for canonical pathways and molecular and cellular functions. Comparing acute phase of MI with the same patients after 6 months (stable phase and with control group we found 24 genes with changed expression. In canonical analysis three pathways were highlighted: signaling of PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, IL-10 and IL-6 (interleukin 10 and 6. CONCLUSIONS: In the acute phase of STEMI, dozens of genes from several pathways linked with lipid/glucose metabolism, platelet function and atherosclerotic plaque stability show altered expression. Up-regulation of SOCS3 and FAM20 genes in the first days of myocardial infarction is observed in the vast majority of patients.

  19. Cardiac re synchronization therapy: importance of peripheral vascular changes in reducing ventricular after load and ventricular efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the short term, the TRC is associated with increased ventricular efficiency and reducing the blood burden (afterload). Changes in the blood load result isobaric reduction the static and dynamic, Central and peripheral components. The RVP changes enable improvement in ventricular functional capacity associated with CRT occurs in working conditions (afterload) and performance (efficiency) ventricular optimized

  20. Vascular quality of care pilot study: how admission to a vascular surgery service affects evidence-based pharmacologic risk factor modification in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenhof N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Naomi Steenhof,1,2 Francesca Le Piane,1 Kori Leblanc,1–3 Naomi R Eisenberg,4 Yvonne Kwan,1 Christine Malmberg,1,6 Alexandra Papadopoulos,5,7 Graham Roche-Nagle4,7,8 1Department of Pharmacy, University Health Network, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, University Health Network, 4Division of Vascular Surgery, University Health Network, 5Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 6Victoria General Hospital, Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC, 7Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, University Health Network, 8Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD guidelines recommend aggressive risk factor modification to improve cardiovascular outcomes. Recommended pharmacologic therapies include antiplatelets, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, and HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins. Purpose: We studied the degree to which patient admission to a vascular surgery service increased the use of these therapies. Patients and methods: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of 150 patients with PAD admitted to the vascular surgery service at a large Canadian tertiary care hospital. The use of recommended pharmacologic therapies at the time of admission and discharge were compared. A multidisciplinary clinical team established criteria by which patients were deemed ineligible to receive any of the recommended therapies. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs were considered an alternative to ACE inhibitors. Results: Prior to hospital admission, 64% of patients were on antiplatelet therapy, 67% were on an ACE inhibitor or ARB, and 71% were on a statin. At the time of discharge, 91% of patients were on an antiplatelet (or not, with an acceptable reason, 77% were on an ACE inhibitor or an ARB (or not, with an acceptable reason, and 85% were on a statin (or not, with an acceptable reason. While new

  1. Aerobic training prevents oxidative profile and improves nitric oxide and vascular reactivity in rats with cardiometabolic alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Renata F; Gaique, Thaiane G; Bento-Bernardes, Thais; Motta, Nádia A V; Brito, Fernanda C F; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Castro-Pinheiro, Camila; Oliveira, Karen J; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death worldwide; therefore it is important to understand the natural history of the pathophysiologic process and develop strategies to halt its progression. Thus this study investigated the protective effect of aerobic training on pathophysiological mechanisms involved in subclinical cardiometabolic alterations in a model with constant exposure to a prejudicial agent. Male Wistar rats were divided into a control group (C), which received drinking water, fructose group (F), which was fed 10% fructose in drinking water for 10 wk, and control training (CT) and fructose training groups (FT), in which moderate aerobic training was added in the last 8 wk of the study. Insulin, triacylglycerol, and isoprostane were higher and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was lower in the F group. There was no difference in thoracic aorta histology, but a decreased vascularization was seen in the F group, avoided by training in left ventricle. Regarding vascular function, the F group exhibited increased vasoconstrictory reactivity to phenylephrine. The F group presented impaired vasodilation to acetylcholine. Regarding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the F group presented a lower expression, and phosphorylated eNOS was higher in the trained groups than in their respective control groups. This same pattern was observed for nitric oxide bioavailability, antioxidant protein expression in aorta, left ventricle, and muscle (catalase, SOD, and glutathione peroxidase), serum SOD activity, and muscle mass. These results suggest that exercise training enhanced the antioxidant pathway and, as a consequence, the eNOS pathway, preventing an impairment in vascular vasodilatory capacity. PMID:27255525

  2. Effects of tempol on altered metabolism and renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Mohammed H; Sattar, Munavvar A; Johns, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tempol (a superoxide dismutase mimetic) on renal vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists in fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (a model of metabolic syndrome). Rats were fed 20% fructose in drinking water (F) for 8 weeks. One fructose-fed group received tempol (FT) at 1 mmol·L(-1) in drinking water for 8 weeks or as an infusion (1.5 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) intrarenally. At the end of the treatment regimen, the renal responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, methoxamine, and Ang II were determined. F rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia, hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Tempol reduced blood glucose and insulin levels (all p vasoconstriction response to all agonists was lower in F rats than in control rats by about 35%-65% (all p < 0.05). Vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, and methoxamine but not Ang II were about 41%-75% higher in FT rats compared with F rats (all p < 0.05). Acute tempol infusion blunted responses to noradrenaline, methoxamine, and Ang II in control rats by 32%, 33%, and 62%, while it blunted responses to noradrenaline and Ang II in F rats by 26% and 32%, respectively (all p < 0.05), compared with their untreated counterparts. Superoxide radicals play a crucial role in controlling renal vascular responses to adrenergic agonists in insulin-resistant rats. Chronic but not acute tempol treatment enhances renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats. PMID:26789093

  3. MEK1/2 inhibition attenuates vascular ETA and ETB receptor alterations after cerebral ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksson, Marie; Stenman, Emelie; Vikman, Petter;

    2007-01-01

    effect of inhibition of the MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)1/2 on ET receptor alteration, brain damage, and neurology in experimental cerebral ischaemia. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in male Wistar rats by the intraluminal filament technique. The animals received 100 mg...... MCAO, the contractile responses of the ETA and ETB receptors were augmented in the ipsilateral MCA. U0126 decreased this alteration in ET receptor response. Furthermore, treatment with U0126 significantly decreased the brain damage and improved neurological scores. Immunohistochemistry showed that....../kg intraperitoneally of the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 or vehicle in conjunction with the occlusion. After 24 h, the rats were decapitated and the brains removed. The middle cerebral arteries were dissected out and examined with myographs or immunohistochemistry. The ischaemic areas of the brains were compared. After the...

  4. Peripheral and central arterial pressure and its relationship to vascular target organ damage in carotid artery, retina and arterial stiffness. Development and validation of a tool. The Vaso risk study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patino-Alonso Maria C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM shows a better correlation to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality than office blood pressure. A loss of arterial elasticity and an increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity-mortality. Tools have been developed that allow estimation of the retinal arteriovenous index but not all studies coincide and there are contradictory results in relation to the evolution of the arteriosclerotic lesions and the caliber of the retinal vessels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between peripheral and central arterial pressure (clinic and ambulatory and vascular structure and function as evaluated by the carotid artery intima-media thickness, retina arteriovenous index, pulse wave velocity (PWV and ankle-brachial index in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. In turn, software is developed and validated for measuring retinal vessel thickness and automatically estimating the arteriovenous index. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study involving a control group will be made, with a posterior 4-year follow-up period in primary care. The study patients will be type 2 diabetics, with a control group of non-diabetic individuals. Consecutive sampling will be used to include 300 patients between 34-75 years of age and no previous cardiovascular disease, one-half being assigned to each group. Main measurements: age, gender, height, weight and abdominal circumference. Lipids, creatinine, microalbuminuria, blood glucose, HbA1c, blood insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and endothelial dysfunction markers. Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Carotid ultrasound to evaluate IMT, and retinography to evaluate the arteriovenous index. ECG to assess left ventricle hypertrophy, ankle-brachial index, and pulse wave analysis (PWA and pulse wave velocity (PWV with the Sphigmocor

  5. Cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells alter their gene expression when challenged with endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potential to interfere with the hormonal system and may negatively influence human health. Microarray analysis was used in this study to investigate differential gene expression in human peripheral blood cells (PBMCs) after in vitro exposure to EDCs. PBMCs, isolated from blood samples of four male and four female healthy individuals, were exposed in vitro for 18 h to either a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB126, 1 μM), a non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB153, 10 μM), a brominated flame retardant (BDE47, 10 μM), a perfluorinated alkyl acid (PFOA, 10 μM) or bisphenol (BPA, 10 μM). ANOVA analysis revealed a significant change in the expression of 862 genes as a result of EDC exposure. The gender of the donors did not affect gene expression. Hierarchical cluster analysis created three groups and clustered: (1) PCB126-exposed samples, (2) PCB153 and BDE47, (3) PFOA and BPA. The number of differentially expressed genes varied per compound and ranged from 60 to 192 when using fold change and multiplicity corrected p-value as filtering criteria. Exposure to PCB126 induced the AhR signaling pathway. BDE47 and PCB153 are known to disrupt thyroid metabolism and exposure influenced the expression of the nuclear receptors PPARγ and ESR2, respectively. BPA and PFOA did not induce significant changes in the expression of known nuclear receptors. Overall, each compound produced a unique gene expression signature affecting pathways and GO processes linked to metabolism and inflammation. Twenty-nine genes were significantly altered in expression under all experimental conditions. Six of these genes (HSD11B2, MMP11, ADIPOQ, CEL, DUSP9 and TUB) could be associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, microarray analysis identified that PBMCs altered their gene expression response in vitro when challenged with EDCs. Our screening approach has identified a number of gene candidates that warrant

  6. A 3-month age difference profoundly alters the primary rat stromal vascular fraction phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaade, Marlene Louise; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2016-06-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is a heterogeneous population obtained from collagenase digestion of adipose tissue. When cultured the population becomes more homogeneous and the cells are then termed adipose stromal/stem cells (ASCs). Both the freshly isolated primary SVF population and the cultured ASC population possess regenerative abilities suggested to be mediated by paracrine mechanisms mainly. The use of ASCs and SVF cells, both in animal studies and human clinical studies, has dramatically increased during recent years. However, more knowledge regarding optimal donor characteristics such as age is demanded. Here we report that even a short age difference has an impact on the phenotype of primary SVF cells. We observed that a 3-month difference in relatively young adult rats affects the expression pattern of several mesenchymal stem cell markers in their primary SVF. The younger animals had significantly more CD90+/CD44+/CD29+/PDGFRα+primary cells, than the aged rats, suggesting an age dependent shift in the relative cell type distribution within the population. Taken together with recent studies of much more pronounced age differences, our data strongly suggest that donor age is a very critical parameter that should be taken into account in future stem cell studies, especially when using primary cells. PMID:27265810

  7. Medroxyprogesterone acetate alters Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of contraceptive users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léanie Kleynhans

    Full Text Available Most individuals latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb contain the infection by a balance of effector and regulatory immune responses. This balance can be influenced by steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids. The widely used contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA possesses glucocorticoid activity. We investigated the effect of this hormone on immune responses to BCG in household contacts of active TB patients. Multiplex bead array analysis revealed that MPA demonstrated both glucocorticoid and progestogenic properties at saturating and pharmacological concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and suppressed antigen specific cytokine production. Furthermore we showed that PBMCs from women using MPA produced significantly lower levels of IL-1α, IL-12p40, IL-10, IL-13 and G-CSF in response to BCG which corresponded with lower numbers of circulating monocytes observed in these women. Our research study is the first to show that MPA impacts on infections outside the genital tract due to a systemic effect on immune function. Therefore MPA use could alter susceptibility to TB, TB disease severity as well as change the efficacy of new BCG-based vaccines, especially prime-boost vaccine strategies which may be administered to adult or adolescent women in the future.

  8. A High-Fat Diet Causes Impairment in Hippocampal Memory and Sex-Dependent Alterations in Peripheral Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Underwood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While high-fat diets are associated with rising incidence of obesity/type-2 diabetes and can induce metabolic and cognitive deficits, sex-dependent comparisons are rarely systematically made. Effects of exclusive consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD on systemic metabolism and on behavioral measures of hippocampal-dependent memory were compared in young male and female LE rats. Littermates were fed from weaning either a HFD or a control diet (CD for 12 wk prior to testing. Sex-different effects of the HFD were observed in classic metabolic signs associated with type-2 diabetes. Males fed the HFD became obese, and had elevated fasted blood glucose levels, elevated corticosterone, and impaired glucose-tolerance, while females on the HFD exhibited only elevated corticosterone. Regardless of peripheral metabolism alteration, rats of both sexes fed the HFD were equally impaired in a spatial object recognition memory task associated with impaired hippocampal function. While the metabolic changes reported here have been characterized previously in males, the set of diet-induced effects observed here in females are novel. Impaired memory can have significant cognitive consequences, over the short-term and over the lifespan. A significant need exists for comparative research into sex-dependent differences underlying obesity and metabolic syndromes relating systemic, cognitive, and neural plasticity mechanisms.

  9. A High-Fat Diet Causes Impairment in Hippocampal Memory and Sex-Dependent Alterations in Peripheral Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Erica L; Thompson, Lucien T

    2016-01-01

    While high-fat diets are associated with rising incidence of obesity/type-2 diabetes and can induce metabolic and cognitive deficits, sex-dependent comparisons are rarely systematically made. Effects of exclusive consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) on systemic metabolism and on behavioral measures of hippocampal-dependent memory were compared in young male and female LE rats. Littermates were fed from weaning either a HFD or a control diet (CD) for 12 wk prior to testing. Sex-different effects of the HFD were observed in classic metabolic signs associated with type-2 diabetes. Males fed the HFD became obese, and had elevated fasted blood glucose levels, elevated corticosterone, and impaired glucose-tolerance, while females on the HFD exhibited only elevated corticosterone. Regardless of peripheral metabolism alteration, rats of both sexes fed the HFD were equally impaired in a spatial object recognition memory task associated with impaired hippocampal function. While the metabolic changes reported here have been characterized previously in males, the set of diet-induced effects observed here in females are novel. Impaired memory can have significant cognitive consequences, over the short-term and over the lifespan. A significant need exists for comparative research into sex-dependent differences underlying obesity and metabolic syndromes relating systemic, cognitive, and neural plasticity mechanisms. PMID:26819773

  10. Non-invasive and quantitative evaluation of peripheral vascular resistances in rats by combined NMR measurements of perfusion and blood pressure using ASL and dynamic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Jacques C; Giacomini, Eric; Baligand, Céline; Fromes, Yves; Carlier, Pierre G

    2010-02-01

    The in vivo determination of peripheral vascular resistances (VR) is crucial for the assessment of arteriolar function. It requires simultaneous determination of organ perfusion (F) and arterial blood pressure (BP). A fully non-invasive method was developed to measure systolic and diastolic BP in the caudal artery of rats based on dynamic NMR angiography. A good agreement was found between the NMR approach and the gold standard techniques (linear regression slope = 0.98, R(2) = 0.96). This method and the ASL-MRI measurement of skeletal muscle perfusion were combined into one single NMR experiment to quantitatively evaluate the local vascular resistances in the calf muscle of anaesthetized rats, in vivo and non-invasively 1) at rest: VR = 7.0 +/- 1.0 mmHg x min 100 g x ml(-1), F = 13 +/- 3 ml min(-1) x 100 g(-1) and mean BP (MBP) = 88 +/- 10 mmHg; 2) under vasodilator challenge (milrinone): VR = 3.7 +/- 1.1 mmHg min x 100 g ml(-1), F = 21 +/- 4 ml min(-1) x 100 g(-1) and MBP = 75 +/- 14 mmHg; 3) under vasopressor challenge (norepinephrine): VR = 9.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg min 100 g ml(-1), F = 14 +/- 3 ml min(-1) x 100 g(-1) and MBP = 137 +/- 2 mmHg. PMID:19795372

  11. Altered binding of thioflavin t to the peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase after phosphorylation of the active site by chlorpyrifos oxon or dichlorvos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase, when occupied by a ligand, is known to modulate reaction rates at the active site of this important enzyme. The current report utilized the peripheral anionic site specific fluorogenic probe thioflavin t to determine if the organophosphates chlorpyrifos oxon and dichlorvos bind to the peripheral anionic site of human recombinant acetylcholinesterase, since certain organophosphates display concentration-dependent kinetics when inhibiting this enzyme. Incubation of 3 nM acetylcholinesterase active sites with 50 nM or 2000 nM inhibitor altered both the Bmax and Kd for thioflavin t binding to the peripheral anionic site. However, these changes resulted from phosphorylation of Ser203 since increasing either inhibitor from 50 nM to 2000 nM did not alter further thioflavin t binding kinetics. Moreover, the organophosphate-induced decrease in Bmax did not represent an actual reduction in binding sites, but instead likely resulted from conformational interactions between the acylation and peripheral anionic sites that led to a decrease in the rigidity of bound thioflavin t. A drop in fluorescence quantum yield, leading to an apparent decrease in Bmax, would accompany the decreased rigidity of bound thioflavin t molecules. The organophosphate-induced alterations in Kd represented changes in binding affinity of thioflavin t, with diethylphosphorylation of Ser203 increasing Kd, and dimethylphosphorylation of Ser203 decreasing Kd. These results indicate that chlorpyrifos oxon and dichlorvos do not bind directly to the peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase, but can affect binding to that site through phosphorylation of Ser203

  12. Vascular MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project investigates cardiac gated gradient echo pulses sequences for vascular MR imaging. These pulse sequences have been used to acquire and display MR projection angiograms. The authors have applied these methods in two distinct populations of patients for evaluation and comparison with standard angiography. Twenty patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms, and 35 patients with aortoiliac atherosclerotic disease or peripheral vascular disease were investigated using this method and the results are presented

  13. The dose-response characteristics of the acute non-diuretic peripheral vascular effects of frusemide in normal subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, G D; Nicholls, D P; Leahey, W J

    1984-01-01

    The peripheral venous and arterial effects of frusemide, plasma renin activity and plasma frusemide concentrations were examined during the 15 min period following the i.v. administration of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg of frusemide in a group of nine salt depleted volunteers. The responses to 80 mg frusemide given orally during the 1 1 h period after administration were also examined. Increases in venous capacitance 5 min after administration of 5 and 10 mg frusemide were observed (P less than...

  14. [Endovascular versus conventional vascular surgery - old-fashioned thinking? : Part 2: carotid artery stenosis and peripheral arterial occlusive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, E S; Manzoni, D; Behrendt, C-A; Heidemann, F; Grundmann, R T

    2016-04-01

    Endovascular therapy has widely replaced conventional open vascular surgical reconstruction. For this reason, both techniques were widely considered to be competing approaches. Evidence-based data from randomized prospective trials, meta-analyses and clinical registries, however, demonstrated that both techniques should be used to complement each other. It became increasingly more evident that the use of either procedure depends on the underlying disease and the anatomical conditions, whereby a combination of both (hybrid approach) may be the preferred option in certain situations. This review focuses on the treatment of patients with carotid artery stenosis, intermittent claudication, critical limb ischemia and acute limb ischemia. PMID:26801751

  15. Dual-energy CT based vascular iodine analysis improves sensitivity for peripheral pulmonary artery thrombus detection: An experimental study in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhlj@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Han, Zong Hong; Zhou, Chang Sheng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Silverman, Justin R. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of dual-energy CT (DECT) based vascular iodine analysis for the detection of acute peripheral pulmonary thrombus (PE) in a canine model with histopathological findings as the reference standard. Materials and methods: The study protocol was approved by our institutional animal committee. Thrombi (n = 12) or saline (n = 4) were intravenously injected via right femoral vein in sixteen dogs, respectively. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in DECT mode was performed and conventional CTPA images and DECT based vascular iodine studies using Lung Vessels application were reconstructed. Two radiologists visually evaluated the number and location of PEs using conventional CTPA and DECT series on a per-animal and a per-clot basis. Detailed histopathological examination of lung specimens and catheter angiography served as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of DECT and CTPA were calculated on a segmental and subsegmental or more distal pulmonary artery basis. Weighted κ values were computed to evaluate inter-modality and inter-reader agreement. Results: Thirteen dogs were enrolled for final image analysis (experimental group = 9, control group = 4). Histopathological results revealed 237 emboli in 45 lung lobes in 9 experimental dogs, 11 emboli in segmental pulmonary arteries, 49 in subsegmental pulmonary arteries, 177 in fifth-order or more distal pulmonary arteries. Overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV for CTPA plus DECT were 93.1%, 76.9%, 87.8%, 89.4%, and 84.2% for the detection of pulmonary emboli. With CTPA versus DECT, sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, PPVs, and NPVs are all 100% for the detection of pulmonary emboli on a segmental pulmonary artery basis, 88.9%, 100%, 96.0%, 100%, and 94.1% for CTPA and 90.4%, 93.0%, 92.0%, 88.7%, and 94.1% for DECT on a subsegmental pulmonary artery basis; 23.8%, 96.4%, 50.4%, 93

  16. Dual-energy CT based vascular iodine analysis improves sensitivity for peripheral pulmonary artery thrombus detection: An experimental study in canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of dual-energy CT (DECT) based vascular iodine analysis for the detection of acute peripheral pulmonary thrombus (PE) in a canine model with histopathological findings as the reference standard. Materials and methods: The study protocol was approved by our institutional animal committee. Thrombi (n = 12) or saline (n = 4) were intravenously injected via right femoral vein in sixteen dogs, respectively. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in DECT mode was performed and conventional CTPA images and DECT based vascular iodine studies using Lung Vessels application were reconstructed. Two radiologists visually evaluated the number and location of PEs using conventional CTPA and DECT series on a per-animal and a per-clot basis. Detailed histopathological examination of lung specimens and catheter angiography served as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of DECT and CTPA were calculated on a segmental and subsegmental or more distal pulmonary artery basis. Weighted κ values were computed to evaluate inter-modality and inter-reader agreement. Results: Thirteen dogs were enrolled for final image analysis (experimental group = 9, control group = 4). Histopathological results revealed 237 emboli in 45 lung lobes in 9 experimental dogs, 11 emboli in segmental pulmonary arteries, 49 in subsegmental pulmonary arteries, 177 in fifth-order or more distal pulmonary arteries. Overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV for CTPA plus DECT were 93.1%, 76.9%, 87.8%, 89.4%, and 84.2% for the detection of pulmonary emboli. With CTPA versus DECT, sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, PPVs, and NPVs are all 100% for the detection of pulmonary emboli on a segmental pulmonary artery basis, 88.9%, 100%, 96.0%, 100%, and 94.1% for CTPA and 90.4%, 93.0%, 92.0%, 88.7%, and 94.1% for DECT on a subsegmental pulmonary artery basis; 23.8%, 96.4%, 50.4%, 93

  17. Dynamic alteration of telomerase expression and its diagnostic significance in liver or peripheral blood for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng-Fu Yao; Wei Wu; Min Yao; Li-Wei Qiu; Xin-Hua Wu; Xiao-Qin Su; Li Zou; Deng-Bing Yao; Xian-Yong Meng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the dynamic alteration of telomerase expression during development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its diagnostic implications in liver tissues or peripheral blood mononuclear cells for HCC.METHODS: Dynamic expressions of liver telomerase during malignant transformation of hepatocytes were observed in Sprague-Dawly (SD) rats fed with 0.05% of 2-fluoenyacetamide (2-FAA). Total RNA and telomerase were extracted from rat or human liver tissues. The telomerase activities in livers and in circulating blood were detected by a telomeric repeat amplification protocol-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TRAPELISA), and its diagnostic value was investigated in patients with benign or malignant liver diseases.RESULTS: The hepatoma model displayed the dynamic expression of hepatic telomerase during HCC development. The telomerase activities were consistent with liver total RNA levels (r = 0.83, P<0.01) at the stages of degeneration, precancerosis, and cancerization of hepatocytes. In HCC patients, the telomerase levels in HCC tissues were significantly higher than in their adjacent non-cancerous tissues, but liver total RNA levels were lower in the former than in the latter. Although the circulating telomerase of HCC patients was abnormally expressed among patients with chronic liver diseases,the telomerase activity was a non-specific marker for HCC diagnosis, because the incidence was 15.7% in normal control, 25% in chronic hepatitis, 45.9% in liver cirrhosis, and 85.2% in HCC, respectively when absorbance value of telomerase activity was more than 0.2. If the value was over 0.6, the incidence was 60%in HCC group and 0% in any of the others (P<0.01)except in two cases with liver cirrhosis. However, the combination of circulating telomerase with serum alphafetoprotein level could increase the positive rate and the accuracy (92.6%, 125 of 135) of HCC diagnosis.CONCLUSION: The overexpression of telomerase is associated with HCC development, and its

  18. Insulin alters the target size of the peripheral cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase but not the integral cyclic GMP-stimulated cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in liver plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation inactivation of the two high affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in liver plasma membranes afforded an estimation of their molecular target sizes in situ. The activity of the peripheral plasma membrane PDE decayed as a single exponential with a target size corresponding to a monomer of circa 54 kDa. The integral, cyclic GMP-stimulated PDE decayed as a dimer of circa 125 kDa. Preincubation of plasma membranes with insulin (10nM), prior to irradiation, caused the target size of only the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to increase. We suggest that insulin addition causes the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to alter its coupling to an integral plasma membrane protein with a target size of circa 90 kDa

  19. Effects of hypercapnia on peripheral vascular reactivity in elderly patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Matthaeis A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela de Matthaeis,1 Antonio Greco,2,* Mariangela Pia Dagostino,2 Giulia Paroni,2 Andrea Fontana,3 Manlio Vinciguerra,1,4,5 Gianluigi Mazzoccoli,1,* Davide Seripa,2 Gianluigi Vendemiale61Division of Internal Medicine and Chronobiology Unit, 2Geriatrics Unit and Gerontology, Geriatrics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Sciences, 3Unit of Biostatistics, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, 4Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Sciences and Technology, Palermo, Italy; 5University College London, Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, Division of Medicine, Royal Free Campus, London, UK; 6Geriatrics Unit, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Blood acid-base imbalance has important effects on vascular reactivity, which can be related to nitric oxide (NO concentration and increased during hypercapnia. Release of NO seems to be linked to H+ and CO2 concentration and to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a common medical condition in the elderly. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD, a valuable cardiovascular risk indicator, allows assessment of endothelial-dependent vasodilation, which is to a certain extent mediated by NO. We investigated the effects of hypercapnia and acid-base imbalance on endothelial-dependent vasodilation by measurement of FMD in 96 elderly patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Patients underwent complete arterial blood gas analysis and FMD measurement before (phase 1 and after (phase 2 standard therapy for acute exacerbation of COPD and recovery. Significant differences between phase 1 and phase 2 were observed in the mean values of pH (7.38±0.03 versus 7.40±0.02, P<0.001, pO2 (59.6±4.9 mmHg versus 59.7±3.6 mmHg, P<0.001, pCO2 (59.3±8.63 mmHg versus 46.7±5.82 mmHg, P<0.001, FMD (10.0%±2.8% versus 8.28%±2.01%, P<0.001 and blood flow rate (1.5±0.3 m/s versus 1.5±0.3 m/s, P=0.001. FMD values were

  20. Qualitative alteration of peripheral motor system begins prior to appearance of typical sarcopenia syndrome in middle-aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro eTamaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative changes in the peripheral motor system were examined using Young, Adult, Middle-aged and Old-aged rats in order to assess before and after the appearance of sarcopenia symptoms. Significant loss of muscle mass and strength, and slow-type fiber grouping with a loss of innervated nerve fibers were used as typical markers of sarcopenia. Dynamic twitch and tetanus tension and evoked electromyogram (EEMG were measured via electrical stimulation through the sciatic nerve under anesthesia using our force-distance transducer system before and after sciatectomy. Digital and analogue data sampling was performed and shortening and relaxing velocity of serial twitches was calculated with tension force. Muscle tenderness in passive stretching was also measured as stretch absorption ability, associated with histological quantitation of muscle connective tissues. The results indicated the validity of the present model, in which Old-aged rats clearly showed the typical signs of sarcopenia, specifically in the fast-type plantaris muscles, while the slow-type soleus showed relatively mild syndromes. These observations suggest the following qualitative alterations as the pathophysiological mechanism of sarcopenia: 1 reduction of shortening and relaxing velocity of twitch; 2 decline of muscle tenderness following an increase in the connective tissue component; 3 impaired recruitment of motor units (sudden depression of tetanic force and EEMG in higher stimulation frequencies over 50-60 Hz; and 4 easy fatigability in the neuromuscular junctions. These findings are likely to be closely related to significant losses in fast-type motor units, muscle strength and contraction velocity, which could be a causative factor in falls in the elderly. Importantly, some of these symptoms began in Middle-aged rats that showed no other signs of sarcopenia. Thus, prevention should be started in middle age that could be retained relatively higher movement ability.

  1. Imaging of vascular dynamics within the foot using dynamic diffuse optical tomography to diagnose peripheral arterial disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. A.; Kim, H. K.; Hoi, J. W.; Kim, I.; Dayal, R.; Shrikande, G.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is the narrowing of the functional area of the artery generally due to atherosclerosis. It affects between 8-12 million people in the United States and if untreated this can lead to ulceration, gangrene and ultimately amputation. The current diagnostic method for PAD is the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The ABI is a ratio of the patient's systolic blood pressure in the foot to that of the brachial artery in the arm, a ratio below 0.9 is indicative of affected vasculature. However, this method is ineffective in patients with calcified arteries (diabetic and end-stage renal failure patients), which falsely elevates the ABI recording resulting in a false negative reading. In this paper we present our results in a pilot study to deduce optical tomography's ability to detect poor blood perfusion in the foot. We performed an IRB approved 30 patient study, where we imaged the feet of the enrolled patients during a five stage dynamic imaging sequence. The patients were split up into three groups: 10 healthy subjects, 10 PAD patients and 10 PAD patients with diabetes and they were imaged while applying a pressure cuff to their thigh. Differences in the magnitude of blood pooling in the foot and rate at which the blood pools in the foot are all indicative of arterial disease.

  2. Mitochondrial Alterations in Peripheral Mononuclear Blood Cells from Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Delbarba, A.; Abate, G; Prandelli, C; Marziano, M.; Buizza, L.; Arce Varas, N.; Novelli, A.; Cuetos, F.; Martinez, C.; C. Lanni; Memo, M.; Uberti, D.

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to neurodegeneration occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, evidences of mitochondrial defects in AD peripheral cells are still inconclusive. Here, some mitochondrial-encoded and nuclear-encoded proteins, involved in maintaining the correct mitochondria machine, were investigated in terms of protein expression and enzymatic activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from AD and Mild Cognitive Impair...

  3. The Vascular Endothelium and Human Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Thangavel, Jayakumar; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal; Sethi, Gautam; Nishigaki, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Alterations of endothelial cells and the vasculature play a central role in the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of the most dreadful of human diseases, as endothelial cells have the key function of participating in the maintenance of patent and functional capillaries. The endothelium is directly involved in peripheral vascular disease, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, insulin resistance, chronic kidney failure, tumor growth, metastasis, venous thrombosis, and severe viral infectious diseases...

  4. Altered Functional Connectivity in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment--A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Ding

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (sVCI have structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites. In this study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC analysis and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC techniques to investigate the alteration of rsFC in patients with sVCI. rsFC and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for 51 patients with subcortical cerebrovascular disease. All patients were subdivided based on cognitive status into 29 with sVCI and 22 controls; patient characteristics were matched. rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and VMHC were calculated separately, and rsFC of the PCC and VMHC between the two groups were compared. The regions showing abnormal rsFC of the PCC or VMHC in sVCI patients were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses. Our results are as follows: The patients with sVCI exhibited increases in rsFC in the left middle temporal lobe, right inferior temporal lobe and left superior frontal gyrus, and significant decreases in rsFC of the left thalamus with the PCC. sVCI patients showed a significant deficit in VMHC between the bilateral lingual gyrus, putamen, and precentral gyrus. Additionally, the z-memory score was significantly positively associated with connectivity between the left thalamus and the PCC (r = 0.41, p = 0.03, uncorrected in the sVCI group. Our findings suggest that the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites play an important role in the pathogenesis of sVCI. Furthermore, rsFC between the left thalamus and the PCC might indicate the severity of sVCI.

  5. The role of miR-126 in embryonic angiogenesis, adult vascular homeostasis, and vascular repair and its alterations in atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2016-08-01

    Expression of microRNA (miR)-126 is enriched in endothelial cells (ECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). MiR-126 is considered a master regulator of physiological angiogenesis. In embryonic vasculogenesis, this miRNA is involved in induction of angiogenic signaling, supports differentiation of embryonic stem cells to EPCs and ECs, and promotes EC maturation. However, in mature ECs and adult EPCs, miR-126 contributes to vascular homeostasis by inhibiting angiogenesis and maintaining the quiescent endothelial phenotype associated with increased vascular integrity and inhibited proliferation and motility. In a case of vessel injury and/or hypoxia, miR-126 up-regulation activates EPCs and ECs and contributes to vascular healing and neovessel formation. Indeed, miR-126 exhibits vasculoprotective and atheroprotective properties. The promising regenerative and proangiogenic potential of this miRNA will be helpful for development of cardioprotective strategies and cardiovascular repair therapies of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and other cardiovascular pathology. PMID:27180261

  6. Altered phase-relationship between peripheral oscillators and environmental time in Cry1 or Cry2 deficient mouse models for early and late chronotypes.

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    Eugin Destici

    Full Text Available The mammalian circadian system is composed of a light-entrainable central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the brain and peripheral clocks in virtually any other tissue. It allows the organism to optimally adjust metabolic, physiological and behavioral functions to the physiological needs it will have at specific time of the day. According to the resonance theory, such rhythms are only advantageous to an organism when in tune with the environment, which is illustrated by the adverse health effects originating from chronic circadian disruption by jetlag and shift work. Using short-period Cry1 and long-period Cry2 deficient mice as models for morningness and eveningness, respectively, we explored the effect of chronotype on the phase relationship between the central SCN clock and peripheral clocks in other organs. Whereas the behavioral activity patterns and circadian gene expression in the SCN of light-entrained Cry1(-/- and Cry2(-/- mice largely overlapped with that of wild type mice, expression of clock and clock controlled genes in liver, kidney, small intestine, and skin was shown to be markedly phase-advanced or phase-delayed, respectively. Likewise, circadian rhythms in urinary corticosterone were shown to display a significantly altered phase relationship similar to that of gene expression in peripheral tissues. We show that the daily dissonance between peripheral clocks and the environment did not affect the lifespan of Cry1(-/- or Cry2(-/- mice. Nonetheless, the phase-shifted peripheral clocks in light-entrained mice with morningness and eveningness-like phenotypes may have implications for personalized preventive and therapeutic (i.e. chronomodulation-based health care for people with early and late chronotypes.

  7. Altered Phase-Relationship between Peripheral Oscillators and Environmental Time in Cry1 or Cry2 Deficient Mouse Models for Early and Late Chronotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destici, Eugin; Jacobs, Edwin H.; Tamanini, Filippo; Loos, Maarten; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Oklejewicz, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system is composed of a light-entrainable central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the brain and peripheral clocks in virtually any other tissue. It allows the organism to optimally adjust metabolic, physiological and behavioral functions to the physiological needs it will have at specific time of the day. According to the resonance theory, such rhythms are only advantageous to an organism when in tune with the environment, which is illustrated by the adverse health effects originating from chronic circadian disruption by jetlag and shift work. Using short-period Cry1 and long-period Cry2 deficient mice as models for morningness and eveningness, respectively, we explored the effect of chronotype on the phase relationship between the central SCN clock and peripheral clocks in other organs. Whereas the behavioral activity patterns and circadian gene expression in the SCN of light-entrained Cry1-/- and Cry2-/- mice largely overlapped with that of wild type mice, expression of clock and clock controlled genes in liver, kidney, small intestine, and skin was shown to be markedly phase-advanced or phase-delayed, respectively. Likewise, circadian rhythms in urinary corticosterone were shown to display a significantly altered phase relationship similar to that of gene expression in peripheral tissues. We show that the daily dissonance between peripheral clocks and the environment did not affect the lifespan of Cry1-/- or Cry2-/- mice. Nonetheless, the phase-shifted peripheral clocks in light-entrained mice with morningness and eveningness-like phenotypes may have implications for personalized preventive and therapeutic (i.e. chronomodulation-based) health care for people with early and late chronotypes. PMID:24386234

  8. Alteration of protein expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from soluble to cell-associated isoform during tumourigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogen for endothelial cells, and its expression has been correlated with increased tumour angiogenesis. Although numerous publications dealing with the measurement of circulating VEGF for diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring have been published, the relationship between the production of tissue VEGF and its concentration in blood is still unclear. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) The expression pattern of VEGF isoforms at the protein level in colorectal and lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to the pattern in corresponding adjacent normal tissues 2) The relationship between the expression pattern of VEGF and total level of circulating VEGF in the blood to clarify whether the results of measuring circulating VEGF can be used to predict VEGF expression in tumour tissues. Ninety-four tissue samples were obtained from patients, 76 colorectal tumour tissues and 18 lung tumour tissues. VEGF protein expression pattern and total circulating VEGF were examined using western blot and capture ELISA, respectively. Three major protein bands were predominately detected in tumour samples with an apparent molecular mass under reducing conditions of 18, 23 and 26 kDa. The 18 kDa VEGF protein was expressed equally in both normal and colorectal tumour tissues and predominately expressed in normal tissues of lung, whereas the 23 and 26 kDa protein was only detected at higher levels in tumour tissues. The 18, 23 and 26 kDa proteins are believed to represent the VEGF121, the VEGF165 and the VEGF189, respectively. There was a significant correlation of the expression of VEGF165 with a smaller tumour size maximum diameter <5 cm (p < 0.05), and there was a significant correlation of VEGF189 with advanced clinical stage of colorectal tumours. The measurement of total circulating VEGF in serum revealed that cancer patients significantly (p < 0.001) possessed a higher level of circulating VEGF (1081 ± 652 pg/ml in colorectal

  9. Conditional beta1-integrin gene deletion in neural crest cells causes severe developmental alterations of the peripheral nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietri, Thomas; Eder, Olivier; Breau, Marie Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that are known to interact with the extracellular matrix and to be required for migration, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. We have generated mice with a neural crest cell-specific deletion of the beta1-integrin gene to analyse the role of beta1-...... almost complete absence of Schwann cells and sensory axon segregation and defective maturation in neuromuscular synaptogenesis. Thus, beta1-integrins are important for the control of embryonic and postnatal peripheral nervous system development....

  10. Altered cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood monocytes across the menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhea: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyue Ma

    Full Text Available Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase, and the first (menstrual phase and the fifth (regenerative phase days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased, 14 (five increased and nine decreased, and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased genes with ≥ 2-fold difference in expression (P<0.05 in the three phases of menstruation, respectively. In the menstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8 were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-β superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-β superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea.

  11. Alterations of peripheral T-lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, K; Röpke, C; Madsbad, S;

    1983-01-01

    Subpopulations of peripheral T-lymphocytes were studied in two groups of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): eleven newly diagnosed diabetics and twenty-one patients having diabetes of long duration (13 +/- 1 yr). Monoclonal antibodies to the surface antigens of helper (OKT 4......-matched healthy control persons. Furthermore, the newly diagnosed diabetics showed a lower percentage of suppressor T-cells (p less than 0.05) and a higher amount of helper T-cells (p less than 0.01) than the patients with long-term diabetes. Concerning the percentage of the total number of T-cells and the...

  12. Blood Samples of Peripheral Venous Catheter or The Usual Way: Do Infusion Fluid Alters the Biochemical Test Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeganzadeh, Mahboobeh; Yazdankhahfard, Mohammadreza; Farzaneh, Mohammadreza; Mirzaei, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most blood tests require venous blood samples. Puncturing the vein also causes pain, infection, or damage to the blood, and lymph flow, or long-term healing. This study aimed to determine and compare the biochemical laboratory value of the blood samples that were provided through: peripheral vein infusion (PVI) receiving continuous intravenous fluid; and the usual method of blood sampling. Methods: This is an interventional, quasi-experimental, and controlled study. The selected study sample included 60 patients, who were hospitalized during 2014, in the Internal Medicine, part of Martyrs of Persian Gulf, teaching hospital at Bushehr. Three blood samples were taken from each patient that were provided through PVI line (5 ml blood collected at beginning of IVC and then another 5 cc), and another case was prepared by common blood sampling (control). All the samples were analyzed in terms of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine using SPSS Ver.19 software, by paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the amount of sodium and potassium in the first blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. However, no significant differences were found among the biochemical amount in the second blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. Conclusions: We can use blood samples taken from peripheral intravenous infusion lines after 5cc discarding from the first part of the sample for measuring the value of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine.

  13. Alteration of Peripheral Blood T-Reg Cells and Cytokines Production in Angiography Personnel Exposed to Scattered X-Rays

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    Ebrahim Torkabadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiocardiography is an X-ray examination of the blood vessels or chambers of the heart. Cardiologists and staff members applying this procedure are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. In our previous study the incidence of unstable chromosomal aberrations and cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei were found to be significantly higher in exposed individuals than the age and sex matched controls. In the present study we assessed cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the above cases and the percentage of Treg cells. According to film dosimeter analysis, personnels received 0.25-15 mSv during the previous year (average of 3 mSv/y. Isolated PBMCs from the test and control groups were stimulated with Phorbol Myristate Acetate/ Ionomycin (PMA/I. Cytokine production was measured in the supernatants of cultured lymphocytes. The percentage of Treg cells was studied by flow cytometry. The production of IL-10 and IL-5 was significantly down-regulated in the test group compared to the control group. In contrast, IL-12 was up-regulated. Yet, no statistically significant difference was found for IFN- γ between two groups. In addition, we found higher percentage of CD4+CD25+bright Treg cells in the study group compared to the controls. Taken together, it was shown that low doses of scattered X-rays could skew cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in favour of inflammatory response causing the increase of Treg cells.

  14. 5α-Reductase inhibitors alter steroid metabolism and may contribute to insulin resistance, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and vascular disease: a medical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M; Guay, Andre T; Zitzmann, Michael

    2014-12-01

    5α-reductases, a unique family of enzymes with a wide host of substrates and tissue distributions, play a key role in the metabolism of androgens, progestins, mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. These enzymes are the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of a host of neurosteroids, which are critical for central nervous system function. Androgens and glucocorticoids modulate mitochondrial function, carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism and energy balance. Thus, the inhibition of these regulatory enzymes results in an imbalance in steroid metabolism and clearance rates, which leads to altered physiological processes. In this report, we advance the hypothesis that inhibition of 5α-reductases by finasteride and dutasteride alters not only steroid metabolism but also interferes with the downstream actions and signaling of these hormones. We suggest that finasteride and dutasteride inhibit 5α-reductase activities and reduce the clearance of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, potentiating insulin resistance, diabetes and vascular disease. PMID:25460297

  15. NT-proBNP levels, atherosclerosis and vascular function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: peripheral reactive hyperaemia index but not NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels; Hansen, Peter R;

    2011-01-01

    Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at cardiovascular (CV) risk factor reduction in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria can diminish fatal and non-fatal CV. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the utility of P-NT-proBNP in screening...... for atherosclerosis is unclear. We examined the interrelationship between P-NT-proBNP, presence of atherosclerosis and/or vascular dysfunction in the coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria that received intensive multifactorial treatment. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: P-NT-proBNP was measured in 200 asymptomatic type 2 patients without known cardiac disease that received intensive multifactorial treatment for CV risk reduction. Patients were examined for coronary, carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis, as defined by coronary calcium score≥400, carotid intima...

  16. NT-proBNP levels, atherosclerosis and vascular function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: peripheral reactive hyperaemia index but not NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels; Hansen, Peter R;

    2011-01-01

    Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at cardiovascular (CV) risk factor reduction in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria can diminish fatal and non-fatal CV. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the utility of P-NT-proBNP in screening...... for atherosclerosis is unclear. We examined the interrelationship between P-NT-proBNP, presence of atherosclerosis and/or vascular dysfunction in the coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria that received intensive multifactorial treatment. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: P-NT-proBNP was measured in 200 asymptomatic type 2 patients without known cardiac disease that received intensive multifactorial treatment for CV risk reduction. Patients were examined for coronary, carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis, as defined by coronary calcium score=400, carotid intima...

  17. A phosphatase activity present in peripheral blood myeloid cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia patients but not normal individuals alters nuclear protein binding to transcriptional enhancers of interferon-inducible genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Seong, D C; Sims, S.; Johnson, E.; Howard, O M; Reiter, B; Hester, J; Talpaz, M; Kantarjian, H; Deisseroth, A

    1990-01-01

    Cytoplasmic protein from peripheral blood myeloid cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients altered the electrophoretic mobility of complexes formed between nuclear proteins and interferon-inducible transcriptional enhancers. Immature myeloid marrow cells (blasts and promyelocytes) have a higher level of this activity than do mature myeloid marrow cells (bands and polys). This activity, which is not detectable in the peripheral blood cells of normal individuals, is at least 50-fold...

  18. Prenatal administration of vitamin A alters pulmonary and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in the developing mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Maria de Lurdes; Rodrigues, Paula; Coelho, Ana Cláudia; Pires, Maria dos Anjos; Santos, Dario Loureiro dos; Gonçalves, Carlos; Bairos, Vasco António

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A and the retinoids play a unique role in mammalian embryonic and foetal development and are essential for both cellular differentiation and the establishment of normal morphogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a known potent mitogenic factor that plays a key role in lung development and function maintenance. In order to contribute to a better knowledge of the modulating effects of vitamin A in lung development, we investigated the effects of the antenatal administra...

  19. Tratamiento epidural del dolor en isquemia vascular periférica: Parte II. Revisión bibliográfica basada en la evidencia del tratamiento epidural en la isquemia vascular periférica Epidural pain treatment in peripheral vascular ischemia: (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Orduña González

    2009-04-01

    érica de base vasoespástica e inflamatoria y la trombosis de pequeños vasos son procesos susceptibles de obtener el máximo efecto terapéutico, tanto analgésico como trófico, de la administración epidural de anestésicos locales; b para determinados pacientes con isquemia crítica no reconstruible de extremidades, la neuroestimulación epidural medular puede representar la última opción terapéutica para evitar la amputación de la extremidad, con un aceptable alivio de dolor asociado, y c todavía hay mitos acerca del uso de la analgesia epidural aplicada a la isquemia arterial periférica, como su posible efecto protector de complicaciones sistémicas en procedimientos anestésicos de revascularización o su papel en la analgesia preventiva postamputación, que no se han podido demostrar con los estudios científicos existentes.Introduction: Peripheral arterial ischemia can be caused by several diseases that compromise limb vascularization, leading to pain and disability and impairing quality of life. Critical ischemia produces substantial morbidity and mortality, as well as chronic pain. Objective: To perform a critical literature review of scientific publications on epidural analgesia to control pain due to peripheral vascular ischemia and on its vascular trophic effects, to compare this treatment modality with other analgesic techniques, and to describe several epidural analgesia strategies and their results. Material and methods: We searched MEDLINE for articles on epidural analgesia and pain in the context of peripheral arterial ischemia to gather data for subsequent critical analysis, following the criteria of evidence-based medicine. Results: a Analgesia with epidural drug infusion in limb ischemia only reached level 4 evidence in the present review; b lumber epidural anesthesia for surgical revascularization of the lower extremities is associated with lower rates of postoperative thrombosis and revascularization reinterventions than general anesthesia

  20. Histopathological alterations in the striatum caused by Karwinskia humboldtiana (Buckthorn) fruit in an experimental model of peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Rosa Nelly; Castillo-González, Juan Antonio; Carcaño-Díaz, Katya; García-Juárez, Jaime; Salazar-Leal, Martha E; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo E; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Roberto; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Soto-Domínguez, Adolfo

    2016-04-01

    The accidental ingestion of Karwinskia humboldtiana (Kh) fruit in humans and animals causes chronic or acute intoxication. Acute poisoning induces respiratory failure that progresses rapidly to death. Studies in animals intoxicated with Kh describe lesions in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, spinal cord, hippocampus and caudate nucleus. Kh intoxication in Wistar rats models the sub-lethal clinical phase observed in humans. Considering these reports, the present study analyzed the histopathological alterations within the striatum following experimental Kh intoxication. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n =5) and were intoxicated with Kh fruit. A control group (n =5) was included. Animals were euthanized at several time points (48, 58 and 170 days post-intoxication). The brain was collected, divided and processed for conventional histology or electron microscopy. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, cresyl violet, Klüver-Barrera, and toluidine blue. Immunolabeling was performed for glial cells in the striatum, and the samples were analyzed with light microscopy. Morphometric and statistical analyses were performed. In control group, neurons, axon bundles and neuropil had a normal appearance. At 48 days, hyperchromic neurons with apparent decreased size were observed interspersed among the normal neurons. At 58 days, we observed an increased number of hyperchromic neurons and disorganization of the myelin sheath and neuropil. At 170 days, these alterations persisted in the paralysis group. In treated groups, we observed signs of gliosis and increased axonal diameters. This study is the first report that describes the histopathological alterations within the striatum caused by chronic intoxication with Kh fruit in the Wistar rat. PMID:26544757

  1. Smoking cessation has no influence on quality of life in patients with peripheral arterial disease 5 years post-vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogwegt, M T; Hoeks, S E; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Scholte op Reimer, W J M; van Gestel, Y R B M; Verhagen, H J M; Poldermans, D

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is an important modifiable risk factor in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We investigated differences in quality of life (QoL) between patients who quitted smoking during follow-up and persistent smokers.......Smoking is an important modifiable risk factor in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We investigated differences in quality of life (QoL) between patients who quitted smoking during follow-up and persistent smokers....

  2. Cell-free cryopreserved arterial allografts from multiorgan donors: a new strategy to fabricate artificial blood vessels suited for peripheral vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopulos, Francesca Marzia

    2012-01-01

    Critical lower limb ischemia is a severe disease. A common approach is infrainguinal bypass. Synthetic vascular prosthesis, are good conduits in high-flow low-resistance conditions but have difficulty in their performance as small diameter vessel grafts. A new approach is the use of native decellularized vascular tissues. Cell-free vessels are expected to have improved biocompatibility when compared to synthetic and are optimal natural 3D matrix templates for driving stem cell growth and tiss...

  3. Altered Peripheral Blood Monocyte Phenotype and Function in Chronic Liver Disease: Implications for Hepatic Recruitment and Systemic Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Gadd

    Full Text Available Liver and systemic inflammatory factors influence monocyte phenotype and function, which has implications for hepatic recruitment and subsequent inflammatory and fibrogenic responses, as well as host defence.Peripheral blood monocyte surface marker (CD14, CD16, CD163, CSF1R, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR3, CXCR4, CX3CR1, HLA-DR, CD62L, SIGLEC-1 expression and capacity for phagocytosis, oxidative burst and LPS-stimulated TNF production were assessed in patients with hepatitis C (HCV (n = 39 or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD (n = 34 (classified as non-advanced disease, compensated cirrhosis and decompensated cirrhosis and healthy controls (n = 11 by flow cytometry.The selected markers exhibited similar monocyte-subset-specific expression patterns between patients and controls. Monocyte phenotypic signatures differed between NAFLD and HCV patients, with an increased proportion of CD16+ non-classical monocytes in NAFLD, but increased expression of CXCR3 and CXCR4 in HCV. In both cohorts, monocyte CCR2 expression was reduced and CCR4 elevated over controls. CD62L expression was specifically elevated in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and positively correlated with the model-for-end-stage-liver-disease score. Functionally, monocytes from patients with decompensated cirrhosis had equal phagocytic capacity, but displayed features of dysfunction, characterised by lower HLA-DR expression and blunted oxidative responses. Lower monocyte TNF production in response to LPS stimulation correlated with time to death in 7 (46% of the decompensated patients who died within 8 months of recruitment.Chronic HCV and NAFLD differentially affect circulating monocyte phenotype, suggesting specific injury-induced signals may contribute to hepatic monocyte recruitment and systemic activation state. Monocyte function, however, was similarly impaired in patients with both HCV and NAFLD, particularly in advanced disease, which likely contributes to the increased

  4. Estudo de associação entre anticorpos anticardiolipinas e fenômenos vasculares periféricos em pacientes com esclerodermia sistêmica Study about the association between anticardiolipin antibodies and peripheral vascular phenomena in patients suffering from systemic scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Torres Liberati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Isquemia é comum em esclerodermia sistêmica e é causada por vasoespasmo e trombose. As autoras analisaram a associação de eventos vasculares periféricos e anticorpos anticardiolipinas (aCl em 54 esclerodérmicos. Em 100% deles existia Raynaud; 59,2% apresentaram cicatrizes estelares; 43,3%, telangiectasias; 14,8%, fenômenos tromboembólicos periféricos. ACl IgG foram positivos em 9,2% dos casos e o IgM, em 7,4%. Fenômenos embólicos periféricos estão associados a aCl IgG (p=0,03, não se encontrando associação com demais manifestações.Ischemia is common in systemic scleroderma and it is caused by vasospasm and thrombosis. In the present study we analyzed the association of peripheral vascular events and anticardiolipin (aCl antibodies in 54 patients suffering from systemic scleroderma. The results showed that 100% of the patients presented Raynaud; 59.2% presented digital micro scars; 43.3%, presented teleangiectasies and 14.8%, presented peripheral thromboembolism. ACl IgG were positive in 9.2% and IgM, in 7.4%. Peripheral tromboembolic phenomena had a positive association with aCl IgG (p=0.03. No other associations were found.

  5. Pulmonary vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélot, C; Naeije, R

    2011-04-01

    Diseases of the pulmonary vasculature are a cause of increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and pulmonary arterial hypertension or decreased PVR in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations on hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, portal hypertension, or cavopulmonary anastomosis. All these conditions are associated with a decrease in both arterial PO2 and PCO2. Gas exchange in pulmonary vascular diseases with increased PVR is characterized by a shift of ventilation and perfusion to high ventilation-perfusion ratios, a mild to moderate increase in perfusion to low ventilation-perfusion ratios, and an increased physiologic dead space. Hypoxemia in these patients is essentially explained by altered ventilation-perfusion matching amplified by a decreased mixed venous PO2 caused by a low cardiac output. Hypocapnia is accounted for by hyperventilation, which is essentially related to an increased chemosensitivity. A cardiac shunt on a patent foramen ovale may be a cause of severe hypoxemia in a proportion of patients with pulmonary hypertension and an increase in right atrial pressure. Gas exchange in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations is characterized by variable degree of pulmonary shunting and/or diffusion-perfusion imbalance. Hypocapnia is caused by an increased ventilation in relation to an increased pulmonary blood flow with direct peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation by shunted mixed venous blood flow. PMID:23737196

  6. Tissue microcirculation measured by vascular occlusion test during anesthesia induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyong; Cho, Youn Joung; Min, Jeong Jin; Murkin, John M; Bahk, Jae-Hyon; Hong, Deok Man; Jeon, Yunseok

    2016-02-01

    Tissue microcirculation measured by vascular occlusion test is impaired during septic shock. However, it has not been investigated extensively during anesthesia induction. The aim of the study is to evaluate tissue microcirculation during anesthesia induction. We hypothesized that during anesthesia induction, tissue microcirculation measured by vascular occlusion test might be enhanced with peripheral vasodilation during anesthesia induction. We conducted a prospective observational study of 50 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. During anesthesia induction, we measured and analyzed tissue oxygen saturation, vascular occlusion test, cerebral oximetry, forearm-minus-fingertip skin temperature gradients and hemodynamic data in order to evaluate microcirculation as related to alterations in peripheral vasodilation as reflected by increased Tforearm-finger thermal gradients. During anesthesia induction, recovery slope during vascular occlusion test and cerebral oxygen saturation increased from 4.0 (1.5) to 4.7 (1.3) % s(-1) (p = 0.02) and 64.0 (10.2) to 74.2 (9.2) % (p Forearm-minus-fingertip skin temperature gradients decreased from 1.9 (2.9) to -1.4 (2.2) °C (p blood pressure and forearm-minus-fingertip skin temperature gradients decrease while cerebral oximetry and vascular occlusion test recovery slope increase. These findings suggest that anesthesia induction increases tissue microcirculation with peripheral vasodilation. PMID:25750016

  7. Peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral neuritis; Neuropathy - peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy ... Katirji B, Koontz D. Disorders of peripheral nerves. In: Daroff RB, ... Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: ...

  8. The Effect of the Postnatal Environment on Altered Fetal Programming of Adult Vascular Function in Mice Lacking Endothelial Nitic Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shannon M.; Makhlouf, Michel; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Anderson, Garland D.; Saade, George R.; Longo, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate vascular reactivity in heterozygous and homozygous offspring with a genetic predisposition for hypertension after postnatal cross fostering to mothers with the opposite genetic inheritance of the NOS3 knockout allele. Study design: Homozygous NOS3 knockout (C57BL/6J-NOS3−/−KO) and wild-type mice (NOS3+/+WT) were bred to obtain heterozygous litters with a paternally-derived (NOS3+/−pat) or maternally-derived (NOS3+/−mat) knockout allele. After delivery, heterozygous and homozygous litters were cross fostered to a mother with the opposite NOS3 gene status. Carotid arteries were placed in a wire myograph for isometric tension recording using contractile and relaxant agents. Statistical analysis with One-Way ANOVA and Neuman-Keuls post-hoc testing was performed. Results: Increased sensitivity to phenylephrine and absent relaxation to acetycholine in NOS3+/−mat was reversed with cross-fostering and vasorelaxation to isoproteronol was increased. Contraction to calcium was increased in the cross fostered paternally-derived and wild-type litters. Conclusion: Postnatal interventions may favorably alter the adult vascular profile resulting from an abnormal intrauterine environment. PMID:17403420

  9. Ultrasound guidance for brachial plexus block decreases the incidence of complete hemi-diaphragmatic paresis or vascular punctures and improves success rate of brachial plexus nerve block compared with peripheral nerve stimulator in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jia-min; YANG Xiao-hu; FU Shu-kun; YUAN Chao-qun; CHEN Kai; LI Jia-yi; LI Quan

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of traditional techniques (such as landmark techniques,paresthesia and peripheral nerve stimulator) for upper-limb anesthesia has often been restricted to the expert or enthusiast,which was blind.Recently,ultrasound (US) has been applied to differ blood vessel,pleura and nerve,thus may reduce the risk of complications while have a high rate of success.The aim of this study was to determine if the use of ultrasound guidance (vs.peripheral nerve stimulator,(PNS)) decreases risk of vascular puncture,risk of hemi-diaphragmatic paresis and risk of Horner syndrome and improves the success rate of nerve block.Methods A search strategy was developed to identify randomized control trials (RCTs) reporting on complications of US and PNS guidance for upper-extremity peripheral nerve blocks (brachial plexus) in adults available through PubMed databases,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials,Embase databases,SinoMed databases and Wanfang data (date up to 2011-12-20).Two independent reviewers appraised eligible studies and extracted data.Risk ratios (OR)were calculated for each outcome and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI) with the software of ReviewManager 5.1.0 System (Cochrane Library).Results Sixteen trials involving 1321 adults met our criteria were included for analysis.Blocks performed using US guidance were more likely to be successful (risk ratio (RR) for block success 0.36,95% CI 0.23-0.56,P <0.00001),decreased incidence of vascular puncture during block performance (RR 0.13,95% CI 0.06-0.27,P <0.00001),decreased the risk of complete hemi-diaphragmatic paresis (RR 0.09,95% CI 0.03-0.52,,P=0.0001).Conclusions US decreases risks of complete hemi-diaphragmatic paresis or vascular puncture and improves success rate of brachial plexus nerve block compared with techniques that utilize PNS for nerve localization.Larger studies are needed to determine whether or not the use of US can decrease risk of neurologic complications.

  10. Exposure to cypermethrin and mancozeb alters the expression profile of THBS1, SPP1, FEZ1 and GPNMB in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarapu, Rajesh; Prakhya, Balakrishna Murthy

    2016-07-01

    The complex immune system displays a coordinated transcriptional response to xenobiotic exposure by altering expression of designated transcription factors that, in turn, trigger immune responses. Despite the identification of several transcription factors that contribute to regulatory response, very little is known about the specific role of factors that are triggered due to exposure to obnoxious pesticides. Here, for the first time, alterations in human peripheral blood lymphocyte expression of transcriptional factors - thrombospondin-1 (THBS-1), secretory phospho-protein-1 (SPP-1), glycoprotein non-metastatic-β (GPNMB) and fasciculation and elongation factor ζ-1 (FEZ-1), due to in vitro exposure to the crop protection chemicals cypermethrin and mancozeb are reported. Results revealed significant changes in expression profiles due to mancozeb exposure, supporting its immune dysfunction potential; in contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant changes. Based on these effects on gene expression across the doses tested, it was likely key components of immune mechanisms such as proliferation, cell adhesion, apoptosis and cell activation in human PBMC were affected. Although these data are from in vitro experiments, the results point out the potential role for changes in these factors in the etiology of defective T-cell immune function seen in humans occupationally exposed to crop protection chemicals like mancozeb. These studies suggest the involvement of transcription factors in regulation of pesticide-induced immune dysfunction; these studies also represent a novel approach for identifying potential immune-related dysfunctions due to exposure to pesticides. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of these in vitro findings. PMID:26796295

  11. Embolia arterial periférica por projétil de arma de fogo em civis: diagnóstico confirmado pelo ultrassom vascular Peripheral arterial emboli due to bullet projectile: diagnosis confirmed by vascular ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos de Morais Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso de oclusão arterial aguda por projétil de arma de fogo. Devido à raridade do caso (23 relatos em 20 anos e a importância do diagnóstico diferencial precoce, uma revisão bibliográfica foi realizada. Foram abordados aspectos do quadro clínico, diagnóstico diferencial e tratamento. Neste caso, o diagnóstico por meio de ultrassom vascular da complicação foi publicado pela primeira vez.We describe a case of acute arterial occlusion caused by a firearm bullet. Since the case is rare (23 cases in 20 years, and due to the importance of early diagnosis, a bibliographic review was performed. Aspects of the clinical picture, differential diagnosis and treatment were approached. In this case, diagnosis by a vascular ultrasound was published for the first time.

  12. Peripheral vascular stiffness, assessed with two-dimensional speckle tracking versus the degree of coronary artery calcification, evaluated by tomographic coronary artery calcification index

    OpenAIRE

    Podgórski, Michał; GRZELAK, PIOTR; Szymczyk, Konrad; Szymczyk, Ewa; Drożdż, Jarosław; Stefańczyk, Ludomir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Even in asymptomatic patients, the result of atherosclerosis progression is deterioration of the function and morphology of the artery wall. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking (2DST) is a sonographic technique that allows for precise evaluation of arterial wall compliance. Together with measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT), it can be applied for quick and non-invasive assessment of the progression of peripheral artery atherosclerosis. Material and methods Fifty-eight patient...

  13. Alterations in peripheral blood memory B cells in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis are dependent on the action of tumour necrosis factor

    OpenAIRE

    Souto-Carneiro, M. Margarida; Mahadevan, Vijayabhanu; Takada, Kazuki; Fritsch-Stork, Ruth; Nanki, Toshihiro; Brown, Margaret; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Wilson, Mildred; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Lipsky, Peter E

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Disturbances in peripheral blood memory B cell subpopulations have been observed in various autoimmune diseases, but have not been fully delineated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Additionally, the possible role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in regulating changes in specific peripheral blood memory B cell subsets in RA is still unclear. METHODS: The frequency and distribution of B cell subsets in the peripheral blood and synovial membrane of active RA patients with long-standing...

  14. Stem cells as a new treatment for peripheral artery disease: hype or hope? The point of view of a vascular surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehalle, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Because many of patients with peripheral arterial disease are not eligible for direct or conventional revascularization procedures, because stem cell therapy is being investigated as to its possible role in the treatment of limb ischemia, there is a need to evaluate this treatment and his true application. On the basis of experimental data, preliminary clinical studies have established the safety and feasibility of stem cells implantation in case of critical limb ischemia. Forthcoming large studies, especially randomized placebo controlled double blind studies, related to the optimal cell type, dosage, administration route, will consolidate this evidence and establish mid and long term effectiveness. PMID:25538058

  15. Clinical Observation of 15 Cases of Peripheral Fractures Combined with Vascular Injury%膝关节周围骨折合并血管损伤15例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓高荣

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨膝关节周围骨折合并血管损伤的诊断及治疗方法。方法:选取2010年8月-2014年9月本院膝关节周围骨折合并血管损伤的患者15例。依据患者的具体病情,对患者进行骨折复位、血管修复治疗,观察并分析其治疗效果。结果:经及时有效的治疗,15例膝关节周围骨折合并血管损伤患者中,14例患者的患肢成活,且未出现严重的并发症,治愈率为93.3%。结论:对膝关节周围骨折合并血管损伤的患者实施及时有效的治疗,能够提升临床治疗效果,改善患者的预后效果,保障患者的生活质量。%Objective:To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral fractures combined with vascular injury.Method: 15 patients with peripheral fractures of the knee joint in our hospital from August 2010 to September 2014 were selected. According to the patient's specific condition, the patients were treated with fracture reduction and blood vessel repair, and the treatment effect was observed and analyzed.Result:15 patients with knee joint fracture combined with vascular injury were treated in time and effective treatment, 14 cases were alive, and there were no serious complications, the cure rate was 93.3%.Conclusion:The effective treatment of patients with knee joint fracture combined with vascular injury, can improve the clinical treatment effect, improve the prognosis of patients, and ensure the quality of life of patients.

  16. Gadobutrol-enhanced moving-table magnetic resonance angiography in patients with peripheral vascular disease: a prospective, multi-centre blinded comparison with digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentsch, Annette [Schering AG, Berlin (Germany); Aschauer, Manuela A.; Ebner, Franz [Department of Magnetic Resonance, University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Balzer, Joern O.; Davis, Kirsten [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Brossmann, Joachim; Schaefer, Fritz K.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Busch, Hans P. [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brueder, Trier (Germany); Douek, Philippe [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Lyon (France); Engelshoven, Jos M.A. van; Leiner, Tim [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Gregor, Michaela; Reimer, Peter [Department of Radiology, Staedtisches Klinikum, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kersting, Christian [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Knuesel, Patrick R. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, MRI Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Leen, Edward [Department of X-ray, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Loewe, Christian; Thurnher, Siegfried A. [Section of Angiography and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology' ' University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); McPherson, Simon [Department of Radiology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Taupitz, Matthias [Department of Radiology, Humboldt University of Berlin (Charite), Berlin (Germany); Tombach, Bernd; Wegener, Robin; Weishaupt, Dominik; Meaney, James F.M.

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare moving-table three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE MRA), using 1.0-mol gadobutrol, with intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a. DSA) for evaluation of pelvic and peripheral arteries in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. A total of 203 patients were examined in a prospective, multi-centre study at 1.0/1.5 T. Ten vessel segments of one leg were evaluated on-site and by three independent blinded reviewers off-site. One hundred eighty-two patients were evaluable in blinded reading. For pelvis and thigh, there was statistically significant diagnostic agreement between CE MRA and i.a. DSA on-site (94%) and off-site (86-88%). Overall, for detection of clinically significant stenoses, 93% sensitivity and 90% specificity were achieved in on-site evaluation, with 71-76 and 87-93% off-site; for detection of occlusion, sensitivity and specificity on-site were 91 and 97%, with 75-82 and 94-98% off-site. Evaluation was more sensitive on-site than off-site for detection of stenoses and occlusion, whereas specificity was similar. The CE MRA with 1.0-mol gadobutrol gave results comparable to those of i.a. DSA for the larger arteries of pelvis and thigh. Results for calf arteries were compromised by spatial resolution and technical limitations. (orig.)

  17. Gadobutrol-enhanced moving-table magnetic resonance angiography in patients with peripheral vascular disease: a prospective, multi-centre blinded comparison with digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare moving-table three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE MRA), using 1.0-mol gadobutrol, with intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a. DSA) for evaluation of pelvic and peripheral arteries in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. A total of 203 patients were examined in a prospective, multi-centre study at 1.0/1.5 T. Ten vessel segments of one leg were evaluated on-site and by three independent blinded reviewers off-site. One hundred eighty-two patients were evaluable in blinded reading. For pelvis and thigh, there was statistically significant diagnostic agreement between CE MRA and i.a. DSA on-site (94%) and off-site (86-88%). Overall, for detection of clinically significant stenoses, 93% sensitivity and 90% specificity were achieved in on-site evaluation, with 71-76 and 87-93% off-site; for detection of occlusion, sensitivity and specificity on-site were 91 and 97%, with 75-82 and 94-98% off-site. Evaluation was more sensitive on-site than off-site for detection of stenoses and occlusion, whereas specificity was similar. The CE MRA with 1.0-mol gadobutrol gave results comparable to those of i.a. DSA for the larger arteries of pelvis and thigh. Results for calf arteries were compromised by spatial resolution and technical limitations. (orig.)

  18. Alteration of Mevalonate Pathway in Proliferated Vascular Smooth Muscle from Diabetic Mice: Possible Role in High-Glucose-Induced Atherogenic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ping Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs is one of the main features of atherosclerosis induced by high glucose. Mevalonate pathway is an important metabolic pathway that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes. The aim of this study was to define whether the enzyme expression in mevalonate pathway is changed in proliferated VSMCs during atherogenic process in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced in BALB/c mice with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days. Induction of diabetes with STZ was associated with an increase of lesion area and media thickness after 8 and 16 weeks of diabetes. In aorta, there were overexpressions of some enzymes, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS, farnesyltransferase (FNT, and geranylgeranyltransferase-1 (GGT-1, and unchanged expression of squalene synthase (SQS and phosphor-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (P-HMGR in 8 and 16 weeks of diabetes. In vitro, VSMCs were cultured and treated with different glucose concentrations for 48 h. High glucose (22.2 mM induced VSMC proliferation and upregulation of HMGR, FPPS, GGPPS, FNT, and GGT-1 but did not change the expressions of SQS and P-HMGR. In conclusion, altered expression of several key enzymes in the mevalonate pathway may play a potential pathophysiological role in atherogenic process of diabetes macrovascular complication.

  19. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  20. Critical role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 in vascular repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaweck, Sebastian; Zimmer, Sebastian; Struck, Rafael [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Bartok, Eva [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Werner, Nikos [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Bauernfeind, Franz [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Latz, Eicke [Institute of Innate Immunity, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Nickenig, Georg [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Hornung, Veit [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Ghanem, Alexander, E-mail: ghanem@uni-bonn.de [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} NLRP3 is not required for systemic cardiovascular function in healthy mice. {yields} NLRP3 deficiency itself does not affect the functional cardiovascular phenotype and that it does not alter peripheral differential blood counts. {yields} NLRP3 is critical in neointima formation following vascular injury. -- Abstract: Vascular remodeling characterized by hyperproliferative neointima formation is an unfavorable repair process that is triggered by vascular damage. This process is characterized by an increased local inflammatory and proliferative response that critically involves the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}). IL-1{beta} is expressed and cytosolically retained as a procytokine that requires additional processing prior to exerting its pro-inflammatory function. Maturation and release of pro IL-1{beta} is governed by a cytosolic protein scaffold that is known as the inflammasome. Here we show that NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pryin domain containing 3), an important activating component of the inflammasome, is involved in neointima formation after vascular injury. NLRP3 deficiency itself does not affect the functional cardiovascular phenotype and does not alter peripheral differential blood counts. However, neointima development following wire injury of the carotid artery was significantly decreased in NLRP3-deficient mice as compared to wild-type controls. In all, NLRP3 plays a non-redundant role in vascular damage mediated neointima formation. Our data establish NLRP3 as a key player in the response to vascular damage, which could open new avenues to therapeutic intervention.

  1. Critical role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 in vascular repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → NLRP3 is not required for systemic cardiovascular function in healthy mice. → NLRP3 deficiency itself does not affect the functional cardiovascular phenotype and that it does not alter peripheral differential blood counts. → NLRP3 is critical in neointima formation following vascular injury. -- Abstract: Vascular remodeling characterized by hyperproliferative neointima formation is an unfavorable repair process that is triggered by vascular damage. This process is characterized by an increased local inflammatory and proliferative response that critically involves the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). IL-1β is expressed and cytosolically retained as a procytokine that requires additional processing prior to exerting its pro-inflammatory function. Maturation and release of pro IL-1β is governed by a cytosolic protein scaffold that is known as the inflammasome. Here we show that NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pryin domain containing 3), an important activating component of the inflammasome, is involved in neointima formation after vascular injury. NLRP3 deficiency itself does not affect the functional cardiovascular phenotype and does not alter peripheral differential blood counts. However, neointima development following wire injury of the carotid artery was significantly decreased in NLRP3-deficient mice as compared to wild-type controls. In all, NLRP3 plays a non-redundant role in vascular damage mediated neointima formation. Our data establish NLRP3 as a key player in the response to vascular damage, which could open new avenues to therapeutic intervention.

  2. Peripheral injury of pelvic visceral sensory nerves alters GFRa (GDNF family receptor alpha) localization in sensory and autonomic pathways of the sacral spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Peregrine B.

    2015-01-01

    GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), neurturin and artemin use their co-receptors (GFRα1, GFRα2 and GFRα3, respectively) and the tyrosine kinase Ret for downstream signalling. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) most of the unmyelinated and some myelinated sensory afferents express at least one GFRα. The adult function of these receptors is not completely elucidated but their activity after peripheral nerve injury can facilitate peripheral and central axonal regeneration, recov...

  3. Peripheral injury of pelvic visceral sensory nerves alters GFRα (GDNF family receptor alpha) localization in sensory and autonomic pathways of the sacral spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Forrest, Shelley L.; Sophie C Payne; Keast, Janet R; Osborne, Peregrine B.

    2015-01-01

    GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), neurturin and artemin use their co-receptors (GFRα1, GFRα2 and GFRα3, respectively) and the tyrosine kinase Ret for downstream signaling. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) most of the unmyelinated and some myelinated sensory afferents express at least one GFRα. The adult function of these receptors is not completely elucidated but their activity after peripheral nerve injury can facilitate peripheral and central axonal regeneration, recove...

  4. Cost-utility analysis of contrast-enhanced MR angiography with automated table-translation for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the cost-utility of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ceMRA) in the diagnosis and the planning of surgical or interventional treatment in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Materials and methods: Additional costs and incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year for ceMRA were calculated by a decision model. The costs of ceMRA and conventional angiography were compared. Treatment was either surgery or PTA. A retrospective analysis of 24 patients provided the data for the diagnostic accuracy of ceMRA. The data about quality of life assessment were taken from the literature. Costs were calculated in Euro using the current free schedule. The influence of the individual parameters on the model was estimated from a sensitivity analysis. Results: Per quality-adjusted life-year, ceMRA added Euro 24,408.60 in cases undergoing radiologic intervention and Euro 24,191.32 in cases treated surgically. Conclusion: Despite its high costs, ceMRA is an effective diagnostic procedure considering patient benefits. Additional costs do not exceed an acceptable range. (orig.)

  5. Características definidoras de trauma vascular periférico em urgência e emergência: ocorrência e tipos Definición de las características del trauma vascular periférico en urgencia y emergencia: la aparición y los tipos Defining characteristics of peripheral vascular trauma in urgent and emergency: occurrence and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krempser

    2013-03-01

    "traumatismo vascular periférico" en el servicio de Urgencias/Emergencias.Convergent assistance research. The objective was to estimate the occurrence and document the clinical evidence of peripheral vascular trauma in punctures of adults and elderly in an urgency and emergency department in Minas Gerais, Brazil. We considered the following inclusion criteria: the first side punctured and the clinical assessments at intervals of less than 24 hours. The evidences of trauma were recorded by photographs. Sample with a full selection. From the 200 sites evaluated, there were 110 cases of vascular trauma with 288 events of: 1 pain, skin discoloration, local functional capacity decreased, edema, induration, cuts, postulation and local hypo or hyperthermia. The photographs documented every type of event capable of visual record. This investigation led us to reaffirm the defining characteristics for nursing diagnosis of "pheripheral vascular trauma" in the Urgency/Emergency department.

  6. Complicações da terapia anticoagulante com warfarina em pacientes com doença vascular periférica: estudo coorte prospectivo Complications of anticoagulant therapy with warfarin in patients with peripheral vascular disease: a cohort prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernada Cardoso Santos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar prospectivamente a freqüência de complicações em pacientes tratados com warfarina e acompanhados no Ambulatório de Anticoagulação da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu da Universidade Estadual Paulista. MÉTODOS: Pacientes sorteados entre os agendados para consulta de junho de 2002 a fevereiro de 2004. Na primeira consulta, foi preenchida ficha com dados de identificação e clínicos. A cada retorno, ou quando o paciente procurou o hospital por intercorrência, foi preenchida ficha com a razão normatizada internacional, existência e tipo de intercorrência e condições de uso dos antagonistas da vitamina K. RESULTADOS: Foram acompanhados 136 pacientes (61 homens e 75 mulheres, 99 com tromboembolismo venoso e 37 com doença arterial; 59 pacientes eram de Botucatu, e 77, de outros municípios. Foram registradas 30 intercorrências: nove não relacionadas ao uso da warfarina e 21 complicações hemorrágicas (38,8 por 100 pacientes/ano. Uma hematêmese foi considerada grave (1,9 por 100 pacientes/ano. As demais foram consideradas moderadas ou leves. Não houve óbitos, hemorragia intracraniana ou necrose cutânea. A única associação significante foi da freqüência de hemorragia com nível médio de razão normatizada internacional. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados mostram a viabilidade desse tratamento em pacientes vasculares em nosso meio, mesmo em população de baixo nível socioeconômico, quando tratados em ambulatório especializado.OBJECTIVE: To prospectively study the frequency of complications in patients treated with warfarin followed at Botucatu Medical School. METHODS: Patients randomly selected among those with appointments scheduled from June 2002 to February 2004. At the first appointment, a protocol was filled with identification and clinical data. At every return or when the patient went to the hospital due to clinical events, another form was filled with the international normalized ratio, existence

  7. Alterações vasculares em ratos obesos por dieta rica em gordura: papel da Via L-arginina/NO Endotelial Alteraciones vasculares en ratones obesos por dieta rica en grasa: papel de la vía L-arginina/NO endotelial Vascular alterations in high-fat diet-obese rats: role of Endothelial L-arginine/NO Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder Nascimento

    2011-07-01

    from C than in OB rats [EC50 (x10-7M: C = 1.84 (0.83-4.07, O = 2.49 (1.41-4.38; L-NAME presence C = 0.02 (0.01-0.04*, O = 0.21 (0.11-0.40*†,*p < 0.05 vs respective control, †p < 0.05 vs control plus L-NAME, n = 6-7]. None of the protocols altered the reactivity to noradrenaline of denuded aortas. CONCLUSION: High-fat diet-induced obesity promotes metabolic and vascular alterations. The vascular alteration involved an endothelial L-arginine/NO pathway improvement was probably correlated to diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia. The greater resistance to L-NAME effects in aorta of obese rats raises concerns about the lower cardiovascular vulnerability of obese individuals in the presence of associated pathologies that impair NO-system activity.

  8. Vascular Effects of Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeigbe, Anthony B; Talabi, Olufunke O

    2014-01-01

    Four subtypes of receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4) mediate the actions of histamine. In the vascular wall, the effects of histamine are mediated via H1 and H2 receptors and the actions are modulated by H3 receptor subtype located on presynaptic neurones. Alterations in vascular responses to histamine are associated with experimental as well as a human form of hypertension, suggesting a role for histanine in cardiovascular regulation. PMID:26196559

  9. 干细胞治疗糖尿病及外周血管病变研究进展%Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes and Peripheral Vascular Disease Research Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐克雷

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviewed the stem cell transplantation in the treatment of diabetes and peripheral vascular disease research progress, and countries in the fields of scholars experience and the present situation of new ways etc. About stem cell transplantation in the treatment of diabetes clinical efficacy and safety of the countries scholars remains controversial. Summarize the current clinical application research the existence of the related problems and experience. The scholars in all countries carry out the follow-up clinical research should avoid important scheme between the parameters of differences. More to the point, stem cells transplantation is yet to be long-term safety evaluation, and its potential tumorigenic risk has been concern. In the near future, Chinese association of diabetes learn to write the about stem cell therapy for diabetes position statement and stem cell therapy for diabetes peripheral vascular lesions position statement. It is to hope to be able to prevent the current clinical doctors and patients in recognition and medical behavior mess function. Make our country of stem cell clinical research and application in the sound track on development%本文综述干细胞移植治疗糖尿病及外周血管病变研究进展,各国学者在该领域的经验及现状新途径等.关于干细胞移植治疗糖尿病的临床有效性及安全性等方面,各国学者仍然存在争议.总结目前临床应用研究中所存在的相关问题及经验教训,各国学者在开展后续临床研究时,应该避免重要的方案参数之间存在明显差异.更值得一提的是,干细胞移植的长期安全性尚待评估,其潜在的致瘤风险已受到关注.近期,中华医学会糖尿病学分会撰写了《中华医学会糖尿病学分会关于干细胞治疗糖尿病的立场声明》和《中华医学会糖尿病学分会关于干细胞治疗糖尿病外周血管病变的立场声明》,就是希望能够为阻止当前临床医生和患

  10. Ethical Reflection on the Application of Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Vascular Diseases%干细胞移植治疗糖尿病周围血管病的伦理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昌林; 赵湜; 王利

    2011-01-01

    The application of stem cell transplantation in the treatment of diabetic peripheral vascular diseases, like any other newly used technique, has been attracting much attention from the ethical field. Since various ethical issues are concerned in the application, such as the sharp gaps between patients'demand and indication selection, between patients'expectation and therapeutic effect, and between patients'recognition and the current condition of transplating techniques. Therefore, ethical principles should be strictly abided by throughout the procedure including the scientific feature, technological admission, strict indication, and informed consent, to guarantee its legal application. Medicine is a subject of science with endless exploration, and the essential aim of medicine is the priority of the profit of the patients. In order to improve the development of this technique, it is important to standardize the research and application of stem cell transplantation.%运用干细胞移植治疗糖尿病周围血管病引起的伦理争议受到社会广泛关注.在移植治疗实施过程中存在患者渴求与适应症选择、患者期望与治疗有效、患者认知与移植技术现状均有差距等伦理矛盾,因此应该坚持科学性、技术准入、严格适应症、知情同意等原则,以保证在实施过程中遵守法律法规,严守伦理准则,坚守职业道德,这样,既积极解决患者病痛,又不会滥用移植技术,最终造福患者,促进该项技术健康发展.

  11. 周围血5-羟色胺与手传振动接触水平及末梢血管损伤的相关性%Correlation of Peripheral Blood 5-Hydroxytryptamine with Hand-Arm Vibration Exposure and Peripheral Vascular Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎丽; 林瀚生; 陈青松; 肖斌; 曾繁松

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the correlation of peripheral blood 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels with vibration exposure levels and peripheral vascular damage in hand-ann vibration exposed workers.[Methods] Seventy-seven workers exposed to hand-ann vibration from a sports equipment manufacturing company in Guangdong were selected for this study.General information,upper limb symptoms,and vibration-induced white finger (VWF) of the workers were collected by questionnaire.Cumulative vibration exposure level (CVEL) was calculated through on-site tested hand-ann vibration levels of the selected workers.Level of 5-HT in peripheral blood was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Cool water loading test (CWLT) was also conducted for the workers.The association of 5-HT level with hand-arm vibration exposure level and peripheral vascular damage was analyzed using binary non-conditional logistic regression models.[Results] The high CVEL group showed a higher 5-HT level than the low CVEL group (z=-2.352,P=0.034).The 5-HT level in the abnormal CWLT group was much higher than that in the normal CWLT group (z=-3.211,P=0.001).After adjusted for age,smoking,and drinking,according to the logistic regression model,5-HT level was associated with CVEL and CWLT:ORs (95%CIs) were 3.17 (1.12,8.94) for high CVEL vs.low CVEL and 7.34 (1.44,37.30) for abnormal CWLT vs.normal CWLT.The 5-HT level was not correlated with VWF results with OR (95%CI) as 1.92 (0.74,5.00).[Conclusion] The results suggests that hand-arm vibration exposure might result in elevated 5-HT levels,and the level of 5-HT correlates to vibration exposure level or hand peripheral vascular damage degree.%[目的]研究手传振动接触工人周围血5-羟色胺水平与振动接触水平及末梢血管损伤的相关性. [方法]选取广东某运动器材厂77名手传振动作业工人作为研究对象,对其进行问卷调查了解一般情况、手臂自觉症状、是否出现振动性白指(VWF)等;现场检

  12. MicroRNA changes in rat mesentery and serum associated with drug-induced vascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Roberta A., E-mail: Roberta.A.Thomas@gsk.com; Scicchitano, Marshall S.; Mirabile, Rosanna C.; Chau, Nancy T.; Frazier, Kendall S.; Thomas, Heath C.

    2012-08-01

    Regulatory miRNAs play a role in vascular biology and are involved in biochemical and molecular pathways dysregulated during vascular injury. Collection and integration of functional miRNA data into these pathways can provide insight into pathogenesis at the site of injury; the same technologies applied to biofluids may provide diagnostic or surrogate biomarkers. miRNA was analyzed from mesentery and serum from rats given vasculotoxic compounds for 4 days. Fenoldopam, dopamine and midodrine each alter hemodynamics and are associated with histologic evidence of vascular injury, while yohimbine is vasoactive but does not cause histologic evidence of vascular injury in rat. There were 38 and 35 miRNAs altered in a statistically significant manner with a fold change of 2 or greater in mesenteries of fenoldopam- and dopamine-dosed rats, respectively, with 9 of these miRNAs shared. 10 miRNAs were altered in rats given midodrine; 6 were shared with either fenoldopam or dopamine. In situ hybridization demonstrated strong expression and co-localization of miR-134 in affected but not in adjacent unaffected vessels. Mesenteric miRNA expression may provide clarity or avenues of research into mechanisms involved in vascular injury once the functional role of specific miRNAs becomes better characterized. 102 miRNAs were altered in serum from rats with drug-induced vascular injury. 10 miRNAs were commonly altered in serum from dopamine and either fenoldopam or midodrine dosed rats; 18 of these 102 were also altered in mesenteries from rats with drug-induced vascular injury, suggesting their possible utility as peripheral biomarkers. -- Highlights: ► Mesentery and serum were examined from rats given vasoactive compounds for 4 days. ► 72 miRNAs were altered in mesenteries from rats with vascular injury. ► miR-134 was localized to affected but not adjacent unaffected vessels. ► 102 miRNAs were changed in serum from rats with vascular injury. ► 18 miRNAs changed in both

  13. MicroRNA changes in rat mesentery and serum associated with drug-induced vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory miRNAs play a role in vascular biology and are involved in biochemical and molecular pathways dysregulated during vascular injury. Collection and integration of functional miRNA data into these pathways can provide insight into pathogenesis at the site of injury; the same technologies applied to biofluids may provide diagnostic or surrogate biomarkers. miRNA was analyzed from mesentery and serum from rats given vasculotoxic compounds for 4 days. Fenoldopam, dopamine and midodrine each alter hemodynamics and are associated with histologic evidence of vascular injury, while yohimbine is vasoactive but does not cause histologic evidence of vascular injury in rat. There were 38 and 35 miRNAs altered in a statistically significant manner with a fold change of 2 or greater in mesenteries of fenoldopam- and dopamine-dosed rats, respectively, with 9 of these miRNAs shared. 10 miRNAs were altered in rats given midodrine; 6 were shared with either fenoldopam or dopamine. In situ hybridization demonstrated strong expression and co-localization of miR-134 in affected but not in adjacent unaffected vessels. Mesenteric miRNA expression may provide clarity or avenues of research into mechanisms involved in vascular injury once the functional role of specific miRNAs becomes better characterized. 102 miRNAs were altered in serum from rats with drug-induced vascular injury. 10 miRNAs were commonly altered in serum from dopamine and either fenoldopam or midodrine dosed rats; 18 of these 102 were also altered in mesenteries from rats with drug-induced vascular injury, suggesting their possible utility as peripheral biomarkers. -- Highlights: ► Mesentery and serum were examined from rats given vasoactive compounds for 4 days. ► 72 miRNAs were altered in mesenteries from rats with vascular injury. ► miR-134 was localized to affected but not adjacent unaffected vessels. ► 102 miRNAs were changed in serum from rats with vascular injury. ► 18 miRNAs changed in both

  14. Peripheral injury of pelvic visceral sensory nerves alters GFRa (GDNF family receptor alpha localization in sensory and autonomic pathways of the sacral spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Lynne Forrest

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin and artemin use their co-receptors (GFRα1, GFRα2 and GFRα3, respectively and the tyrosine kinase Ret for downstream signalling. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG most of the unmyelinated and some myelinated sensory afferents express at least one GFRα. The adult function of these receptors is not completely elucidated but their activity after peripheral nerve injury can facilitate peripheral and central axonal regeneration, recovery of sensation, and sensory hypersensitivity that contributes to pain. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of spinal cord and sciatic nerve injuries in adult rodents have identified characteristic changes in GFRα1, GFRα2 or GFRα3 in central spinal cord axons of sensory neurons located in dorsal root ganglia. Here we extend and contrast this analysis by studying injuries of the pelvic and hypogastric nerves that contain the majority of sensory axons projecting to the pelvic viscera (e.g., bladder and lower bowel. At 7 d, we detected some effects of pelvic but not hypogastric nerve transection on the ipsilateral spinal cord. In sacral (L6-S1 cord ipsilateral to nerve injury, GFRα1-immunoreactivity (IR was increased in medial dorsal horn and CGRP-IR was decreased in lateral dorsal horn. Pelvic nerve injury also upregulated GFRα1- and GFRα3-IR terminals and GFRα1-IR neuronal cell bodies in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus that provides the spinal parasympathetic preganglionic output to the pelvic nerve. This evidence suggests peripheral axotomy has different effects on somatic and visceral sensory input to the spinal cord, and identifies sensory-autonomic interactions as a possible site of post-injury regulation.

  15. Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be associated with peripheral neuropathy. Metabolic and endocrine disorders impair the body’s ability to transform nutrients into ... to neuropathies as a result of chemical imbalances. Endocrine disorders that lead to hormonal imbalances can disturb normal ...

  16. Alterations of plasma nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor, and soluble form of its receptor (sFlt-1 after resistance exercise: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Shekarchizadeh Esfahanni

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Resistance training does not alter plasma angiogenic factors (NO, VEGF, and sFlt-1, at least in normal rats. More studies are needed to show the effect of resistance training on angiogenesis process.

  17. Tratamiento epidural del dolor en isquemia vascular periférica: Parte II. Revisión bibliográfica basada en la evidencia del tratamiento epidural en la isquemia vascular periférica Epidural pain treatment in peripheral vascular ischemia: (II)

    OpenAIRE

    M.J. Orduña González; C. López Carballo; E. Camblor Suárez; M. López Rouco

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: La isquemia arterial periférica puede ser el resultado de diversas enfermedades que afectan la vascularización de los miembros, generando dolor, discapacidad y deterioro de la calidad de vida del paciente, y en los casos de isquemia crítica, produciendo una considerable morbimortalidad y dolor crónico. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión histórica y crítica de publicaciones científicas sobre la analgesia epidural como método de control del dolor por isquemia vascular periférica y de...

  18. Peripheral drive in Aα/β-fiber neurons is altered in a rat model of osteoarthritis: changes in following frequency and recovery from inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Q

    2013-03-01

    controls. These changes might influence peripheral drive of spinal excitability and plasticity, thus contributing to OA sensory abnormalities, including OA pain.Keywords: dorsal root ganglion, repetitive firing, peripheral drive, electrophysiology, conduction failure, adaptation

  19. Altered miR-143 and miR-150 expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells for diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xiao-li; ZHANG Shao-yan; ZHENG Jun-fang; YUAN Hui; WANG Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitive and specific biomarkers for identifying early stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are urgently needed to improve the therapeutic outcome and reduce the mortality.Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are key components of cancer development and are considered as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and for monitoring treatment.The aim of this study was to determine whether aberrant miRNA expression can be used as a marker in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for the diagnosis of NSCLC.Methods The levels of two mature miRNAs (miR-143 and miR-150) were detected by probe-based stem-loop quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) in PBMC of 64 patients with NSCLC and 26 healthy individuals,and the relationship between miR-143 and miR-150 levels and clinical and pathological factors was explored.Results All endogenous miRNAs were present in peripheral blood in a remarkably stable form and detected by RT-qPCR.MiR-143 expression in the PBMC specimens was significantly lower in NSCLC patients than in healthy individuals (P <0.0001).MiR-150 expression in the PBMC specimens was not significantly different between NSCLC patients and healthy individuals (P=0.260).MiR-150 expression was significantly higher in lung adenocarcinoma patients than in healthy individuals (P=0.001).There was a very strong difference in the expression level of miR-150 between lung adenocarcinoma patients and lung squamous cell caminoma patients (P <0.0001).In receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis,low expression of miR-143 showed the area under the ROC (AUC) of 0.885 for distinguishing cancer patients from healthy subjects.High expression of miR-150 had an AUC of 0.834 for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma patients from healthy subjects.High expression of miR-150 had an AUC of 0.951 for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma from lung squamous cell carcinoma.The miR-150 level was significantly associated with distant metastasis (P=0

  20. Ellagic acid and polyphenolics present in walnut kernels inhibit in vitro human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and alter cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Koren C; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2010-03-01

    Tree nuts, including walnuts, are important elicitors of food allergy. We examined the ability of walnut kernel polyphenolics and purified ellagic acid (EA) to modulate cytokine production and cellular proliferation from stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). IL-13 and TNF-alpha production decreased while no change was observed in IL-4 production. Paradoxically, EA and the walnut polyphenolics all significantly and dose-dependently inhibited stimulated [phytohemagglutin (PHA), alpha-CD3, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin] PBMC proliferation while simultaneously increasing IL-2 production. When added at time 0 min and 2 h, EA dose-dependently inhibited PHA-induced proliferation. However, at 30 min and 1 h, low doses of EA (10 and 1 muM) significantly increased proliferation above that of PHA alone, although higher doses led to inhibition. Our data do not support the hypothesis that walnut polyphenolics skew a cytokine response toward Th2 in an in vitro environment. However, immunomodulatory effects are present, including an inhibition of cellular proliferation despite no decrease in IL-4 or IL-2. PMID:20388139

  1. Exit of pediatric pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood is not associated with cell maturation or alterations in gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a bone marrow (BM derived disease, which often disseminates out of the BM cavity, where malignant cells to a variable degree can be found circulating in the peripheral blood (PB. Normal pre-B cells are absolutely dependent on BM stroma for survival and differentiation. It is not known whether transformed pre-B ALL cells retain any of this dependence, which possibly could impact on drug sensitivity or MRD measurements. Results Pre-B ALL cells, highly purified by a novel method using surface expression of CD19 and immunoglobulin light chains, from BM and PB show a very high degree of similarity in gene expression patterns, with differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF as a notable exception. In addition, the cell sorting procedure revealed that in 2 out of five investigated patients, a significant fraction of the malignant cells had matured beyond the pre-B cell stage. Conclusion The transition of ALL cells from the BM into the circulation does not demand, or result in, major changes of gene expression pattern. This might indicate an independence of BM stroma on the part of transformed pre-B cells, which contrasts with that of their normal counterparts.

  2. Plasma PGE-2 levels and altered cytokine profiles in adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschowitz Edward A

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction PGE-2 is constitutively produced by many non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC and its immunosuppressive effects have been linked to altered immune responses in lung cancer. We asked whether elevated levels of plasma PGE-2 correlated with monocyte IL10 production in the NSCLC environment. Looking for correlation in NSCLC patient blood we assayed plasma from NSCLC patients for PGE2 and IL10; we further evaluated production of IL10 by adherent mononuclear cells from a subset of these patients looking for an altered cytokine profile. Results Our initial in vitro experiments show that monocyte IL10 induction correlates with tumor cell PGE-2 production, confirming similar reports in the literature. Data show plasma PGE-2 levels in 38 NSCLC patients are elevated compared to normal controls. Plasma IL10 levels were not significantly elevated; however, adherent monocytes derived from NSCLC patient blood did produce significantly more IL10 in 24 hr primary culture than those from normal controls (p Conclusions Elevated plasma PGE-2 and monocyte IL10 production are associated with NSCLC. The biological significance to elevated PGE-2 levels in NSCLC are unclear. Further investigation of each as a nonspecific marker for NSCLC tumor is warranted.

  3. Low osmolality contrast media in peripheral arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three new intravascular contrast media of low osmolality (ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol) were compared with a conventional one of high osmolality (diatrizoate) in clinical practice. A total number of 232 injections were performed in 87 cases, and subjective reactions, angiographic opacification and hemodynamic alterations were analysed. The intensity of local pain and heat sensation induced by the low osmolality contrast media were significantly milder than that caused by diatrizoate. Ioxaglate and iohexol were approximately identical in the degree of side reactions, but they were significantly less than iopamidol. Diatrizoate was almost identical to that of iopamidol in the opacification quality, while ioxaglate and iohexol were statistically superior to diatrizoate. The continuous monitorings of femoral blood pressure and electrocardiogram during 146 angiographic examinations revealed that three new low osmolality contrast agents induced significantly less effects on a decrease of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and increase of heart rate, as compared with diatrizoate. No statistical difference was observed among ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. Finger plethysmographies were continuously recorded in total of 20 crossover studies in low osmolality compounds and conventional one. Three low osmolality agents induced less effects on a diminution of pulse wave height after the contrast injection. Slight fluctuations of the cardiac output, stroke volume and peripheral vascular resistance were induced following contrast injection in selective peripheral arteriographies, while aortofemoral arteriography using diatrizoate produced dominant changes. It is concluded that the new low osmolality contrast media are well suited for selective peripheral arteriography as they cause significantly less pain, good opacification quality and induce less hemodynamic effects than diatrizoate. (author)

  4. Adaptation of primate vestibuloocular reflex to altered peripheral vestibular inputs. I. Frequency-specific recovery of horizontal VOR after inactivation of the lateral semicircular canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Hess, B. J.; Arai, Y.; Suzuki, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The adaptive plasticity of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) following a selective lesion of the peripheral vestibular organs was investigated in rhesus monkeys whose lateral semicircular canals were inactivated by plugging of the canal lumen in both ears. Gain and phase of horizontal, vertical, and torsional slow-phase eye velocity were determined from three-dimensional eye movement recordings obtained acutely after the plugging operation, as well as in regular intervals up to 10 mo later. 2. Acutely after plugging, horizontal VOR was minimal during yaw rotation with gains of frequencies. Horizontal VOR gain gradually increased over time, reaching gains of 0.4-0.5 for yaw oscillations at 1.1 Hz approximately 5 mo after lateral canal inactivation. This response recovery was strongly frequency dependent: horizontal VOR gains were largest at the highest frequency tested and progressively decreased for lower frequencies. Below approximately 0.1 Hz, no consistent horizontal VOR could be elicited even 10 mo after plugging. 3. The frequency-dependent changes in gain paralleled changes in horizontal VOR phase. Below approximately 0.1-0.05 Hz large phase leads were present, similarly as in semicircular canal primary afferents. Smaller phase leads were also present at higher frequencies, particularly at 1.1 Hz (the highest frequency tested). 4. Consistent with the afferent-like dynamics of the adapted horizontal VOR, per- and postrotatory horizontal responses to constant-velocity yaw rotations were short lasting. Time constants of the slow-phase eye velocity envelope of the horizontal postrotatory nystagmus were approximately 2 s. Nonetheless, a consistent horizontal optokinetic afternystagmus was evoked in plugged animals. 5. A torsional component that was absent in intact animals was consistently present during yaw rotation acutely after lateral canal inactivation and remained approximately constant thereafter. The frequency response characteristics of this torsional

  5. γ-radiation induced chromosomal aberrations and alteration of gene expression in human peripheral blood lymphocyte show good correlation: implications in molecular biodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humans are at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation due to professional, diagnostic and therapeutic exposures. In addition, large scale exposures triggered either accidentally or by natural calamities or due to perceived terrorist threats are also possible. The median lethal dose of radiation (LD50/60, without medical intervention) for humans is quite low and is estimated to be 4.5 Gy. Due to this, it is imperative that biological dosimetry is conducted on all exposed or suspected-to-be exposed human population in shortest possible time for triage and appropriate medical intervention to save precious human lives. The 'gold standard' of contemporary biological dosimetry is dicentric assay (DCA) wherein dicentrics on chromosomes of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) exposed to radiation is measured. At the present time it is considered as the reliable biomarkers of radiation exposure. However, DCA suffers from methodological limitation making applications of the technique practically impossible for a large number of samples in short time. In order to overcome this limitation of DCA, it is important to look for molecular biomarker of radiation exposure. In this study, it is our endeavor, to identify genes which correlate with radiation exposure to develop a reliable and sensitive molecular biodosimeter. Fresh human blood was exposed to 0.5, 1 and 2 of γ-rays (5.5 Gy min-1) and immediately subjected to DCA as well as DNA Microarray (Affymetrix Platform) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). DNA Microarray revealed 20 early radiation response genes (RRGs) in HPBL exposed to γ-rays. Out of these, 8 genes, which showed dose response relationships, have been validated by qPCR at 0 and 24 h post-irradiation incubation periods using GAPDH and 18 S genes as normalizers. Simultaneous linear regression analysis of dose dependent DCA was performed for each gene, which exhibited good correlation. We do, however, see influence of inter-individual variability

  6. Opiates Upregulate Adhesion Molecule Expression in Brain MicroVascular Endothelial Cells (BMVEC: Implications for Altered Blood Brain Barrier (BBB Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan P.N. Nair

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is an intricate cellular system composed of vascular endothelial cells and perivascular astrocytes that restrict the passage of immunocompetent cells into the central nervous system (CNS. Expression of the adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC and their interaction with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 viral proteins may help enhance viral adhesion and virus-cell fusion resulting in increased infectivity. Additionally, transmigration through the BBB is facilitated by both endothelial and monocyte/macrophage-derived nitric oxide (NO. Dysregulated production of NO by BMVEC due to opiates and HIV-1 viral protein interactions play a pivotal role in brain endothelial injury, resulting in the irreversible loss of BBB integrity, which may lead to enhanced infiltration of virus-carrying cells across the BBB. Opioids act as co-factors in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 by facilitating BBB dysfunction however, no studies have been done to investigate the role of opiates alone or in combination with HIV-1 viral proteins on adhesion molecule expression in BMVEC. We hypothesize that opiates such as heroin and morphine in conjunction with the HIV-1 viral protein gp120 increase the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and these effects are mediated via the modulation of NO. Results show that opiates alone and in synergy with gp120 increase both the genotypic and phenotypic expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by BMVEC, additionally, these opiate induced effects may be the result of increased NO production. These studies will provide a better understanding of how opiate abuse in conjunction with HIV-1 infection facilitates the breakdown of the BBB and exacerbates the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1. Elucidation of the mechanisms of BBB modulation will provide new therapeutic approaches to maintain BBB integrity

  7. The development of autoimmune features in aging mice is closely associated with alterations of the peripheral CD4⁺ T-cell compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, Anja; Nuber, Natko; Wirz, Oliver F; Rolink, Hannie; Andersson, Jan; Rolink, Antonius

    2014-10-01

    Some signs of potential autoimmunity, such as the appearance of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) become prevalent with age. In most cases, elderly people with ANAs remain healthy. Here, we investigated whether the same holds true for inbred strains of mice. Indeed, we show that most mice of the C57BL/6 (B6) strain spontaneously produced IgG ANA at 8-12 months of age, showed IgM deposition in kidneys and lymphocyte infiltrates in submandibular salivary glands. Despite all of this, the mice remained healthy. ANA production is likely CD4(+) T-cell dependent, since old (40-50 weeks of age) B6 mice deficient for MHC class II do not produce IgG ANAs. BM chimeras showed that ANA production was not determined by age-related changes in radiosensitive, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and that the CD4(+) T cells that promote ANA production were radioresistant. Thymectomy of B6 mice at 5 weeks of age led to premature alterations in T-cell homeostasis and ANA production, by 15 weeks of age, similar to that in old mice. Our findings suggest that a disturbed T-cell homeostasis may drive the onset of some autoimmune features. PMID:25044476

  8. Adaptation of primate vestibuloocular reflex to altered peripheral vestibular inputs. II Spatiotemporal properties of the adapted slow-phase eye velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Hess, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The ability of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) to undergo adaptive modification after selective changes in the peripheral vestibular system was investigated in rhesus monkeys by recording three-dimensional eye movements before and after inactivation of selective semicircular canals. In the preceding paper we showed that the horizontal VOR gain evoked by passive yaw oscillations after lateral semicircular canal inactivation recovers gradually over time in a frequency-specific manner. Here we present the spatial tuning of the adapted slow-phase eye velocity and describe its spatiotemporal properties as a function of time after canal inactivation. 2. The spatial organization of the VOR was investigated during oscillations at different head positions in the pitch, roll, and yaw planes, as well as in the right anterior/left posterior and left anterior/right posterior canal planes. Acutely after bilateral inactivation of the lateral semicircular canals, a small horizontal response could still be elicited that peaked during rotations in pitched head positions that would maximally stimulate vertical semicircular canals. In addition, the phase of horizontal slow-phase velocity abruptly reversed through 180 degrees at positions close to upright, similarly to torsional slow-phase velocity. These spatial response properties suggest that the small, residual horizontal response components that are present acutely after plugging of both lateral canals originate from vertical semicircular canal signals. 3. As the horizontal response amplitude increased over time, consistent changes were also observed in the spatiotemporal tuning of horizontal slow-phase velocity. 1) The spatiotemporal response properties of horizontal slow-phase velocity acquired noncosine tuning characteristics, primarily in the pitch plane, in the right anterior/left posterior and left anterior/right posterior canal planes. Accordingly, horizontal response amplitude was nonzero during rotation in any head

  9. APL-2, an altered peptide ligand derived from heat-shock protein 60, induces interleukin-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell derived from juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients and downregulates the inflammatory response in collagen-induced arthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Norailys; Cantera, Dolores; Barberá, Ariana; Alonso, Amaris; Chall, Elsy; Franco, Lourdes; Ancizar, Julio; Nuñez, Yanetsy; Altruda, Fiorella; Silengo, Lorenzo; Padrón, Gabriel; Del Carmen Dominguez, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by autoimmune arthritis of unknown cause with onset before age of 16 years. Methotrexate provides clinical benefits in JIA. For children who do not respond to methotrexate, treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is an option. However, some patients do not respond or are intolerant to anti-TNF therapy. Induction of peripheral tolerance has long been considered a promising approach to the treatment of chronic autoimmune diseases. We aimed to evaluate the potentialities of two altered peptide ligands (APLs) derived from human heat-shock protein 60, an autoantigen involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis, in JIA patients. Interferon (IFN)-γ, TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-10 levels were determined in ex vivo assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these patients. Wild-type peptide and one of these APLs increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. Unlike, the other APLs (called APL2) increased the IL-10 level without affecting IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. On the other hand, APL2 induces a marked activation of T cells since it transforms cell cycle phase's distribution of CD4+ T cells from these patients. In addition, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of APL2 in collagen-induced arthritis model. Therapy with APL2 reduced arthritis scores and histological lesions in mice. This effect was associated to a decrease in TNF-α and IL-17 levels. These results indicate a therapeutic potentiality of APL2 for JIA. PMID:24474501

  10. Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease - an Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Groechenig E

    2003-01-01

    Vascular diseases are the most common diseases and the most common causes of death in developed countries. Many medical disciplines deal with vascular diseases and there is no strict and clear concept in education and training of these physicians. In German-speaking countries "angiology" was established several years ago. The angiologist is a highly qualified physician, who, in most cases, comes from internal medicine (a minority from dermatology). Although peripheral arterial disease (PAD) i...

  11. Alterações vasculares em ratos obesos por dieta rica em gordura: papel da Via L-arginina/NO Endotelial Alteraciones vasculares en ratones obesos por dieta rica en grasa: papel de la vía L-arginina/NO endotelial Vascular alterations in high-fat diet-obese rats: role of Endothelial L-arginine/NO Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Bruder Nascimento; Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira Baptista; Priscila Cristina Pereira; Dijon Henrique Salomé de Campos; André Soares Leopoldo; Ana Paula Lima Leopoldo; Silvio A. de Oliveira Júnior; Carlos Roberto Padovani; Antônio Carlos Cicogna; Sandra Cordellini

    2011-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: Mecanismos subjacentes a anormalidades vasculares na obesidade ainda não estão completamente esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Foi avaliada a via do óxido nítrico/L-arginina na resposta vascular de ratos obesos por dieta rica em gordura, enfocando as células endoteliais e do músculo liso. MÉTODOS: Ratos com 30 dias de vida foram divididos em 2 grupos: controle (C) e obeso (OB, ratos sob dieta rica em gordura por 30 semanas). Após 30 semanas, foram registrados o peso corporal, índice de adip...

  12. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies. PMID:26585821

  13. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release. PMID:27454856

  14. Advanced Coats’ disease treated with intravitreal bevacizumab combined with laser vascular ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas VM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Victor M Villegas,1 Aaron S Gold,1 Audina M Berrocal,2 Timothy G Murray11Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To evaluate the impact of intravitreal bevacizumab combined with laser vascular ablation in the management of advanced Coats’ disease presenting with exudative retinal detachment.Methods: This was a retrospective review of 24 children that presented with exudative retinal detachments associated with advanced Coats’ disease. Mean patient age was 62 months (range 9–160 months. Presenting signs included retinal detachment in 24 children (100%, vascular telangiectasia in 24 children (100%, and retinal ischemia in 24 children (100%. Twenty of 24 children presented with elevated, vascular leakage in the fovea (83%. Two children presented with sub-retinal fibrosis associated with presumed long-standing retinal detachment without evidence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Ten patients exhibited vascular alterations in the periphery of the second eye without clinical evidence of exudation. All 24 children were treated with a large-spot-size diode laser directly to areas of abnormal telangiectatic vasculature. All 24 children received intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Results: All 24 children had resolution of exudative retinal detachment, ablation of vascular telangiectasia, and anatomic improvement of the retina. No child exhibited progressive retinal detachment and no eye required enucleation. No cases of neovascular glaucoma were seen. Fellow eyes with peripheral vascular alterations showed no progression to exudative vasculopathy during the observation period. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection was not associated with endophthalmitis or systemically-observed complications.Conclusion: Repetitive intravitreal bevacizumab combined with laser vascular ablation may be utilized effectively

  15. The pathobiology of vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment defines alterations in cognition, ranging from subtle deficits to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Often coexisting with Alzheimer’s disease, mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. Central to the disease mechanism is the crucial role that cerebral blood vessels play in brain health, not only for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but also for the trophic si...

  16. Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak; O. V. Uspenskaya

    2015-01-01

    Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the exact nature of the relation between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment, and the paucity of identifiable tractable treatment ...

  17. Peripheral MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherosclerotic disease of the lower extremities is a common disorder in western society. Its debilitating nature calls for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The gold standard for diagnosing this disease by depiction of vessel morphology is X-ray angiography (either conventional or digital subtraction angiography). However, the invasive nature of this technique and the possible harmful effects of iodinated contrast agents have led to the idea that non-invasive MR angiography might be a good alternative for acquiring information about vessel morphology. Most extensively studied was time-of-flight MR angiography. Although first results with this technique were encouraging, it is now apparent that time-of-flight MR angiography is hampered by the virtue of which it exists, since blood flow not only generates vessel-to-background contrast, but is also the cause of disturbing artifacts. However, with the introduction of minimally invasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography, using gadolinium chelates to reduce the T1 of blood, image quality has improved dramatically. Moreover, using contrast-enhanced MR angiography, high-resolution three-dimensional data about the entire peripheral vascular tree can be obtained within several minutes, which might make MR angiography a true competitor of X-ray angiography as a diagnostic tool in the clinical work-up of a patient with complaints of peripheral atherosclerosis. The purpose of this article is to explain working mechanisms and usefulness of both time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced MR angiography. (orig.)

  18. Peripheral MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.Y.J.A.M.; Leiner, T.; Haan, M.W. de; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van [University Hospital Maastricht (AZM) (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-07-01

    Atherosclerotic disease of the lower extremities is a common disorder in western society. Its debilitating nature calls for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The gold standard for diagnosing this disease by depiction of vessel morphology is X-ray angiography (either conventional or digital subtraction angiography). However, the invasive nature of this technique and the possible harmful effects of iodinated contrast agents have led to the idea that non-invasive MR angiography might be a good alternative for acquiring information about vessel morphology. Most extensively studied was time-of-flight MR angiography. Although first results with this technique were encouraging, it is now apparent that time-of-flight MR angiography is hampered by the virtue of which it exists, since blood flow not only generates vessel-to-background contrast, but is also the cause of disturbing artifacts. However, with the introduction of minimally invasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography, using gadolinium chelates to reduce the T1 of blood, image quality has improved dramatically. Moreover, using contrast-enhanced MR angiography, high-resolution three-dimensional data about the entire peripheral vascular tree can be obtained within several minutes, which might make MR angiography a true competitor of X-ray angiography as a diagnostic tool in the clinical work-up of a patient with complaints of peripheral atherosclerosis. The purpose of this article is to explain working mechanisms and usefulness of both time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced MR angiography. (orig.)

  19. Update on peripheral ulcerative keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagci A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ayse YagciEge University, School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Izmir, TurkeyAbstract: Ulcerative inflammation of the cornea occurs in the perilimbal cornea, and is associated with autoimmune collagen vascular and arthritic diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most frequent underlying disease. The tendency for peripheral location is due to the distinct morphologic and immunologic characteristics of the limbal conjunctiva, which provides access for circulating immune complexes to the peripheral cornea via the capillary network. Deposition of immune complexes in the terminal ends of limbal vessels initiates immune-mediated vasculitis, and causes inflammatory cell and protein leakage due to vessel wall damage. Development of peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with systemic disease may represent worsening of a potentially life-threatening disease. Accompanying scleritis, particularly the necrotizing form, is usually observed in severe cases, which may result in corneal perforation and loss of vision. Although first-line treatment with systemic corticosteroids is indicated for acute phases, immunosuppressive and cytotoxic agents are required for treatment of peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with multisystem disorders. Recently, infliximab, a chimeric antibody against proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, was reported to be effective in cases refractory to conventional immunomodulatory therapy. The potential side effects of these therapies require close follow-up and regular laboratory surveillance.Keywords: autoimmune disease, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, treatment, tumor necrosis factor-alpha

  20. Peripheral blood flow control in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Jannik

    1991-01-01

    Long term diabetes has a profound effect on the peripheral circulation. This has been demonstrated to be due to the presence of angiopathy and autonomic neuropathy, affecting autoregulation and distensibility of the vessels as well as local and central reflex regulation of the vascular resistance...

  1. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  2. What Is Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  3. Diabetes and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  4. Peripheral Tumor with Osteodentin and Cementum-like Material in an Infant: Odontogenic Hamartoma or Odontoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakianou, Aikaterini; Emmanouil, Dimitris E; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a peripheral tumor on the mandibular alveolar ridge of a seven-month-old Caucasian boy, consisting of ectomesencymal odontogenic tissues, in particular osteodentin and cementum-like material, in a cellular or loose vascular connective tissue stroma. This case may be considered either a peripheral odontogenic hamartoma or a peripheral odontoma. PMID:27098720

  5. Vascular disease and stroke risk in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Lane, Deirdre A;

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease (including myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease) has been proposed as a less well-validated risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. We investigated whether vascular disease is an independent risk factor of stroke/thromboembolism in atrial fibri...

  6. Altered neural and vascular mechanisms in hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pintérová, Mária; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2011), s. 381-402. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0336 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adrenoceptors * G proteins * L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels * potassium channels * RhoA/Rho kinase * genetic hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  7. The value of diffusion tensor imaging in the differential diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Ting (Dept. of Neurology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)); Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Li, Wen-Bin (Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)), Email: liwenbin@sh163.net

    2012-04-15

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a form of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows examination of the microstructural integrity of white matter in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease, and DTI can provide indirect insights of the microstructural characteristics of brains in individuals with different forms of dementia. Purpose: To evaluate the value of DTI in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Material and Methods: The study included 40 patients (20 AD patients and 20 SIVD patients) and 20 normal controls (NC). After routine MRI and DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured and compared in regions of interest (ROI). Results: Compared to NC and AD patients, SIVD patients had lower FA values and higher ADC values in the inferior-fronto-occipital fascicles (IFOF), genu of the corpus callosum (GCC), splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Compared to controls and SIVD patients, AD patients had lower FA values in the anterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, IFOF, GCC, and CF; and higher ADC values in the temporal lobe and hippocampus. Conclusion: DTI can be used to estimate the white matter impairment in dementia patients. There were significant regional reductions of FA values and heightened ADC values in multiple regions in SIVD patients compared to AD patients. When compared with conventional MRI, DTI may provide a more objective method for the differential diagnosis of SIVD and AD disease patients who have only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted imaging

  8. The value of diffusion tensor imaging in the differential diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a form of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows examination of the microstructural integrity of white matter in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease, and DTI can provide indirect insights of the microstructural characteristics of brains in individuals with different forms of dementia. Purpose: To evaluate the value of DTI in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Material and Methods: The study included 40 patients (20 AD patients and 20 SIVD patients) and 20 normal controls (NC). After routine MRI and DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured and compared in regions of interest (ROI). Results: Compared to NC and AD patients, SIVD patients had lower FA values and higher ADC values in the inferior-fronto-occipital fascicles (IFOF), genu of the corpus callosum (GCC), splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Compared to controls and SIVD patients, AD patients had lower FA values in the anterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, IFOF, GCC, and CF; and higher ADC values in the temporal lobe and hippocampus. Conclusion: DTI can be used to estimate the white matter impairment in dementia patients. There were significant regional reductions of FA values and heightened ADC values in multiple regions in SIVD patients compared to AD patients. When compared with conventional MRI, DTI may provide a more objective method for the differential diagnosis of SIVD and AD disease patients who have only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted imaging

  9. Noninvasive blood flow tests in vascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, O.K.; Cole, C W

    1993-01-01

    Noninvasive testing is now routine for assessing vascular conditions. Many noninvasive tests are available for obtaining physiologic and anatomic information that is both precise and reproducible. This paper discusses noninvasive testing with plethysmography, Doppler ultrasonography, and duplex scanning for carotid artery occlusive disease, deep venous thrombosis, and peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

  10. Optoacoustic angiography of peripheral vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey; Su, Richard; Zamora, Mario; Hernandez, Travis; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    We developed a new optoacoustic microangiography system (OmAS) intended for in-vivo vascular imaging of a human finger. The system employs an arc-shaped acoustic array that is rotated 360 degrees around the finger providing optoacoustic data necessary for tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional images of a finger. A near-infrared Q-switched laser is used to generate optoacoustic signals with increased contrast of blood vessels. The laser is coupled through two randomized fiberoptic bundles oriented in orthogonal optoacoustic mode. To demonstrate OmAS capabilities, we present a time-series of optoacoustic images of a human finger taken after the hypothermia stress test. The images show a detailed vascular anatomy of a finger down to the capillary level. A series of quick 30s scans allowed us to visualize the thermoregulatory response within the studied finger as it was manifested via vasomotor activity during the hypothermia recovery. We propose that the developed system can be used for diagnostics of various medical conditions that are manifested in change of the peripheral (finger) blood flow. Examples of the medical conditions that could be diagnosed and staged using the OmAS include the peripheral arterial disease (PAD), thrombosis, frostbite, and traumas.

  11. Association of serum soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and hypersensitivity-CRP levels with peripheral vascular disease of lower limbs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus%2型糖尿病患者血清可溶性细胞间和血管细胞黏附分子1及CRP与下肢血管病变的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭擎缨; 王静; 阮芸; 阮勇; 王秀景; 姚佳琦; 姚乐燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of serum levels of soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1),soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with peripheral vascular disease of lower limbs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods One hundred and thirty T2DM patients admitted from October 2011 to October 2012,and 30 age/sex-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in the study.The serum levels of sICAM-1,sVCAM-1,hs-CRP and other clinical parameters were measured; the peripheral blood vessels of lower limbs were examined with color Doppler ultrasonography.Based on the extent of angiopathy of lower limbs T2DM patients were classified as normal vascular group (n =26),mild angiopathy group (n =45),moderate/severe angiopathy group (n =59).Results The serum levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in moderate/ severe angiopathy group of T2DM patients were higher than those in mild angiopathy group,normal vascular group and healthy controls (t:4.15-8.93,all P <0.05) ; the serum levels of hs-CRP in moderate/severe angiopathy group were higher than those in mild angiopathy group,normal vascular group and healthy controls (t:2.18-4.27,all P < 0.05).The serum sICAM-1 level was positively correlated with total cholesterol (TC),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and sVCAM-1.The serum sVCAM-1 level was positively correlated with course of disease,systolic blood pressure and CRP.Conclusions Serum levels of sICAM-1,sVCAM-1 and hs-CRP are correlated with the extent of angiopathy of lower limbs in T2DM patients,and the elevated sICAM-1 ; sVCAM-1 and hs-CRP levels are also associated with hyper blood pressure,dislipidemia and chronic inflammation.%目的 探讨2型糖尿病患者血清可溶性细胞间黏附分子1(sICAM-1)、血管细胞黏附分子1(sVCAM-1)及高敏CRP(hsCRP)水平与下肢大血管病变程度的关系.方法 对130例2型糖尿病患者(糖尿病组)与30例年龄匹配

  12. Vascular dysfunction in a mouse model of Rett syndrome and effects of curcumin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Panighini

    Full Text Available Mutations in the coding sequence of the X-linked gene MeCP2 (Methyl CpG-binding protein are present in around 80% of patients with Rett Syndrome, a common cause of intellectual disability in female and to date without any effective pharmacological treatment. A relevant, and so far unexplored feature of RTT patients, is a marked reduction in peripheral circulation. To investigate the relationship between loss of MeCP2 and this clinical aspect, we used the MeCP2 null mouse model B6.129SF1-MeCP2tm1Jae for functional and pharmacological studies. Functional experiments were performed on isolated resistance mesenteric vessels, mounted on a pressurized myograph. Vessels from female MeCP2(+/- mice show a reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation, due to a reduced Nitric Oxide (NO availability secondary to an increased Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS generation. Such functional aspects are associated with an intravascular increase in superoxide anion production, and a decreased vascular eNOS expression. These alterations are reversed by curcumin administration (5% (w/w dietary curcumin for 21 days, which restores endothelial NO availability, decreases intravascular ROS production and normalizes vascular eNOS gene expression. In conclusion our findings highlight alterations in the vascular/endothelial system in the absence of a correct function of MeCP2, and uncover related cellular/molecular mechanisms that are rescued by an anti-oxidant treatment.

  13. Peripheral arterial disease: implications beyond the peripheral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Whayne, Thomas F

    2013-11-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects a considerable percentage of the population. The manifestations of this disease are not always clinically overt. As a result, PAD remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. PAD is not just a disease of the peripheral arteries, but also an indication of generalized vascular atherosclerosis. PAD patients also have a high prevalence of other arterial diseases, such as coronary/carotid artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysms. PAD is also a predictor of increased risk of lung and other cancers. The most often used examination for the establishment of the diagnosis of PAD, the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI), is also a predictor of generalized atherosclerosis, future cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Several markers that have been linked with PAD (e.g. C-reactive protein, serum bilirubin levels) may also have predictive value for other conditions besides PAD (e.g. kidney dysfunction). The management of PAD should therefore not be restricted to the peripheral circulation but should include measurements to manage and decrease the systemic atherosclerotic burden of the patient. PMID:23221278

  14. Alterações eletromiográficas dos músculos do tronco de pacientes com hemiparesia após acidente vascular encefálico Electromyographic alterations of trunk muscle of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cesar Iwamoto Marcucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O acidente vascular encefálico é a principal causa de incapacidade crônica em adultos, porém poucos estudos avaliaram a motricidade do tronco nestes indivíduos. OBJETIVO: Comparar a atividade mioelétrica do tronco entre indivíduos hemiparéticos e controle. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados oito indivíduos hemiparéticos e oito controles, por meio de eletromiografia de superfície (EMGs, durante atividades de flexão dos membros inferiores e rotação do tronco em supino; levantar e elevação dos membros superiores na posição sentada. RESULTADOS: O músculo reto abdominal parético apresentou maior ativação que o grupo controle (p=0,031 durante a flexão dos membros inferiores. Os músculos oblíquos apresentaram, bilateralmente, maior ativação na elevação dos membros inferiores do que na rotação (p=0,014 e p=0,002, respectivamente. Não houve diferenças entre músculos eretores durante as atividades. CONCLUSÃO: Os músculos flexores do tronco de indivíduos hemiparéticos apresentaram alterações motoras no reto abdominal do lado parético e realizam compensações por meio dos oblíquos externos.Stroke is the main cause of chronic disability in adults, but few studies evaluated the trunk motor activity in affected subjects. OBJECTIVE: To compare the myoelectrical activity of trunk muscle in hemiparetic and control subjects. METHOD: Eight hemiparetic and eight control subjects were assessed during lower extremities flexion and trunk rotation in supine position; stand up and rise up upper extremities in seated position. RESULTS: Paretic rectus abdominis presented a higher activation than control group (p=0.031 during lower extremities elevation. Obliquus externus abdominis showed a bilateral higher activation during lower extremities elevation than rotation activities (p=0.014 and p=0.002, respectively. There was no difference in extension activities comparison. CONCLUSION: Trunk flexor muscles of hemiparetic subjects demonstrated

  15. Intravascular Ultrasound and its Use in Vascular Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravascular ultrasound has become in invasive vascular radiology in the last decade the important part of diagnostic and also therapeutic procedures in management of vascular diseases. The basic possibilities for the use of IVUS include diagnostic procedures in vascular pathology assessment and therapeutic indications in the field of peripheral vascular interventions (PVI). Unlike other image modalities (CT, MRI, ultrasound) IVUS enables gather unique image in real timeright from the vessel lumen, what helps to add important information regarding vessel wall, plate morphology, thrombi and cross-sectional vessel area. After initial use of intravascular ultrasound in coronary circulation, using IVUS is nowadays widely extended especially in aortic diseases, carotid and renal arteries and arteries of the lower extremities. This review article summarizes possibilities of intravascular ultrasound utilization in diagnostic process and therapy from peripheral vascular diseases up to thoracoabdominal aorta diseases and our experience with this new diagnostic modality. (author)

  16. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  17. PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE IN THE LEG

    OpenAIRE

    Nair P; Justin; Vinu C

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a condition characterized by atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremities. While PAD is a major risk factor for lower-extremity amputation, it is also accompanied by a high likelihood for symptomatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Atherosclerosis accounts for more than 90% of cases of PAD, and uncommon vascular syndromes account for the remaining 10%. The femoral and popliteal arteries are affected in 80% to 90% of ...

  18. Society for Vascular Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and find out! Patient Information Pages from Vascular Medicine August 2016 The Vascular Laboratory More info for ... Learn more. Trending Now: Hot Topics in Vascular Medicine Video Series Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) with Drs. Jeffrey ...

  19. Application of case-based learning (CBL)combined with virtual reality simulator in peripheral vascular intervention training for refresher doctors%血管介入模拟器结合案例教学在周围血管介入进修医师培训中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔世军; 罗涛; 杨盛家; 齐一侠; 张建

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of case-based learning(CBL) combined with virtual reality simulator in peripheral vascular intervention training for refresher doctors.Methods Total 30 peripheral vascular refresher doctors were selected in department of vascular surgery,Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University and were randomly divided into the observation group(n=15) and control group(n=15).Doctors in observation group were trained by CBL combined with virtual reality simulator while those in control group were taught by traditional teaching method.Theory examination,skill examination in real environment were performed after the training and achievement differences were compared between 2 groups.Questionnaires were given to the simulator CBL group,to learn refresher doctors' recognition of the teaching method and groups were compared using independent samples t test.Results Theory examination average score was (84.5 ± 7.7) in observation group,higher than the score(72.6 ± 8.7) in control group(P=0.024).Skill examination average score was(85.3 ± 9.3) in observation group,higher than the score(70.2 ± 10.2) in control group(P=0.013).Compared with control group,the mean performance errors in training group,the contrast volume,the mean angiography procedure time,the time of X-ray exposure,the total volume of X-ray exposure and the total volume of X-ray exposure every square meter all decreased significantly and the difference was statistically significant.P value<0.05.100% (15/15) simulator CBL group refresher doctors recognized CBL combined with vascular interventional simulator teaching method.Conclusions Teaching method of CBL combined with virtual reality simulator can stimulate the refresher doctors' interest in learning and help them master peripheral vascular interventional techniques.%目的 探讨血管介入模拟器结合案例教学(case-based learning,CBL)在周围血管介入进修医师培训中的应用效果.方法 选取进修医师30人

  20. Vascular Epiphytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author makes reference to the epiphytes, as vegetable species that don't develop his complete vital cycle in the soil, but rather they live on other plants, without obtaining nutritious of them as the orchids, they are constituted partly important in the composition floristic of the Colombian forest; he also mentions that the over-exploitation of some arboreal species and the destruction or alteration of his habitats, they have placed to the epiphytes in extinction danger

  1. Angiotensin II receptor alterations during pregnancy in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite activation of the renin-angiotensin system during pregnancy, renal and peripheral vascular blood flows increase, and the systemic blood pressure and the pressor response to exogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) fall. Gestational alterations in Ang II receptors could contribute to these changes. Ang II binding parameters were determining utilizing 125I-Ang II in vascular (glomeruli and mesenteric arteries) and nonvascular (adrenal glomerulosa) tissues from 24- to 28-day pregnant rabbits. Comparisons were made utilizing tissues from nonpregnant rabbits. Binding site concentrations (N) and dissociation constants (K/sub d/) were obtained by Scatchard analyses of binding inhibition data. Meclofenamate (M) inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, reduces plasma renin activity, and enhances the pressor response to infused Ang II in pregnant rabbits. Administration of M to pregnant rabbits increased N in glomerular and in mesenteric artery membranes. These data demonstrate that Ang II receptors in glomeruli and mesenteric arteries are down regulated during gestation in rabbits. Elevated endogenous Ang II during pregnancy in rabbits may contribute to the down regulation of vascular Ang II receptors

  2. Vascular calcification: Inducers and inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghyun, E-mail: dhlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Types of vascular calcification processes. {center_dot} Inducers of vascular calcification. {center_dot} Inhibitors of vascular calcifications. {center_dot} Clinical utility for vascular calcification therapy. {center_dot} Implications for the development of new tissue engineering strategies. - Abstract: Unlike the traditional beliefs, there are mounting evidences suggesting that ectopic mineral depositions, including vascular calcification are mostly active processes, many times resembling that of the bone mineralization. Numbers of agents are involved in the differentiation of certain subpopulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the osteoblast-like entity, and the activation and initiation of extracellular matrix ossification process. On the other hand, there are factors as well, that prevent such differentiation and ectopic calcium phosphate formation. In normal physiological environments, activities of such procalcific and anticalcific regulatory factors are in harmony, prohibiting abnormal calcification from occurring. However, in certain pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes, such balances are altered, resulting in abnormal ectopic mineral deposition. Understanding the factors that regulate the formation and inhibition of ectopic mineral formation would be beneficial in the development of tissue engineering strategies for prevention and/or treatment of such soft-tissue calcification. Current review focuses on the factors that seem to be clinically relevant and/or could be useful in developing future tissue regeneration strategies. Clinical utilities and implications of such factors are also discussed.

  3. Propylthiouracil and peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Van Boekel

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy is a rare manifestation in hyperthyroidism. We describe the neurological manifestations of a 38 year old female with Graves' disease who developed peripheral neuropathy in the course of her treatment with propylthiouracil. After the drug was tapered off, the neurological signs disappeared. Therefore, we call attention for a possible toxic effect on peripheral nervous system caused by this drug.

  4. Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or atherectomy may be used to help improve blood flow. What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? How is peripheral artery disease evaluated? How ... PAD are diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Most cases occur in ... is peripheral artery disease evaluated? Several imaging tests can be used to ...

  5. Peripheral Arterial Disease Study (PERART): Prevalence and predictive values of asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Bundó Magda; Llussà Judith; Albaladejo Carlos; Reina María; Pera Guillem; Vicheto Marisa; Toran Pere; Forés Rosa; Sorribes Marta; Baena-Díez José; Alzamora María; Sancho Amparo; Heras Antonio; Rubiés Joan; Arenillas Juan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index (AAI) is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the PERART study (PERipheral ARTerial disease) is to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (both silent and sympto...

  6. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  7. Peripheral artery disease in patients with diabetes:Epidemiology, mechanisms, and outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the atherosclerosisof lower extremity arteries and is also associated withatherothrombosis of other vascular beds, includingthe cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems. Thepresence of diabetes mellitus greatly increases therisk of PAD, as well as accelerates its course, makingthese patients more susceptible to ischemic eventsand impaired functional status compared to patientswithout diabetes. To minimize these cardiovascularrisks it is critical to understand the pathophysiology ofatherosclerosis in diabetic patients. This, in turn, canoffer insights into the therapeutic avenues available forthese patients. This article provides an overview of theepidemiology of PAD in diabetic patients, followed by ananalysis of the mechanisms by which altered metabolismin diabetes promotes atherosclerosis and plaqueinstability. Outcomes of PAD in diabetic patients are alsodiscussed, with a focus on diabetic ulcers and criticallimb ischemia.

  8. A case of William's syndrome associated peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William's syndrome, in order to more completely delineate the total spectrum of the disorder, indicates that 'infantile hypercalcemia', 'peculiar facies' and 'supravalvular aortic stenosis.' In has other many vascular anomalies, such as peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis, coronary arterial stenosis, celiac arterial stenosis, and renal aterial stenosis. Only 32% of the patients have evidence of supravalvular aortic stenosis. And it is very rare disease entity that has been reported rarely in Korea. Recently authors experienced a case that was questioned William's syndrome with peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis, clinically and preliminary radiologically and this case was confirmed by operation. Here we report a case of William's syndrome with peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis and reviewed literatures

  9. A work atlas of vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a practical, atlas of technique - ideal as a single source reference for radiologists, radiology residents, and internists and surgeons interested in vascular disease. It aids in the performance and interpretation of peripheral angiography, and of patient care for the procedure. In addition it provides a cross-reference between angiographic findings and disease entities, and helps reader to correlate angiography, DSA, CT, ultrasound and nuclear medicine for the most efficient and productive management of the patient

  10. Osteoprotegerin is higher in peripheral arterial disease regardless of glycaemic status.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2010-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are both associated with excessive vascular calcification and elevated levels of inflammatory markers IL-6 and hsCRP. The recently identified Osteoprotegerin(OPG)\\/RANKL\\/TRAIL pathway has been implicated in vascular calcification, but data on levels in PAD and effect of co-existent DM are lacking.

  11. Thallium-201 peripheral perfusion scans: feasibility of single-dose, single-day, rest and stress study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and redistribution kinetics of thallium-201 in the lower extremities were investigated to determine the relationships among the rest, stress, and delayed-stress perfusion studies. The distribution of perfusion when the tracer was administered at rest was compared with that when administered during stress, and the distribution 5 to 6 h after the stress injection. In nine of 10 subjects without peripheral vascular disease, the 5 to 6 h poststress redistribution pattern was unchanged from the stress pattern and was different from the rest pattern. However, in all patients with peripheral vascular disease, the delayed poststress perfusion distribution had greater similarity to the rest pattern and was substantially different from that noted immediately after stress. Using the time frame of this study, the stress and delayed-stress 201Tl perfusion study of the lower extremities cannot be used to represent true rest perfusion. However, because of the similarity of the delayed-stress to the true rest distribution in abnormals, it may be clinically useful in defining rest and stress alterations

  12. Collagen vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many of many ...

  13. Heart and vascular services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... branch of medicine that focuses on the cardiovascular system. ... Circulatory system; Vascular system; Cardiovascular system ... to diagnose, monitor or treat diseases of the circulatory and vascular system include: Cardiac CT for calcium scoring Cardiac MRI ...

  14. Airway vascular reactivity and vascularisation in human chronic airway disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Simon R; Boustany, Sarah; Burgess, Janette K; Hirst, Stuart J; Sharma, Hari S; Simcock, David E; Suravaram, Padmini R; Weckmann, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Altered bronchial vascular reactivity and remodelling including angiogenesis are documented features of asthma and other chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Expansion of the bronchial vasculature under these conditions involves both functional (vasodilation, hyperperfusion, increased microvascular

  15. How to Prevent Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our CEO Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Board History of Vascular Cures Impact Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic ...

  16. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  17. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S.; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju [Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  18. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Print this page Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  19. Mitochondrial DNA damage and vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fetterman, Jessica L.; Holbrook, Monica; Westbrook, David G.; Brown, Jamelle A.; Kyle P. Feeley; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Linder, Erika A.; Berk, Brittany D.; Weisbrod, Robert M.; Widlansky, Michael E.; Gokce, Noyan; Ballinger, Scott W.; Hamburg, Naomi M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prior studies demonstrate mitochondrial dysfunction with increased reactive oxygen species generation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress-mediated damage to mitochondrial DNA promotes atherosclerosis in animal models. Thus, we evaluated the relation of mitochondrial DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells s with vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Approach and results ...

  20. Decellularized ovine arteries as small-diameter vascular grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherosclerosis and its complications still represent the leading cause of death in the developed countries. While autologous blood vessels may be regarded as the best solution for peripheral and coronary bypass, they are unavailable in most patients. Even though tissue engineering techniques are often applied to the development of small-diameter vascular grafts, limiting factors of this approach are represented by the lack of essential extracellular matrix proteins and/or poor biomechanical properties of the scaffolds used. Along these lines, the aim of this study was to develop a decellularization protocol for ovine carotids to be used as suitable small-diameter vascular grafts. Samples were treated either with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or with Trypsin and Triton X-100; a final nuclease digestion was performed for both protocols. Morphological analyses demonstrate complete removal of nuclei and cellular components in treated vessels, also confirmed by significant reduction in wall thickness and DNA content. Essential extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, elastin, and fibronectin are well preserved after decellularization. From a mechanical point of view, Trypsin and Triton X-100 treated arteries show elastic modules and compliance comparable to native carotids, whereas the use of SDS makes samples stiffer, with a significant decrease in the compliance mean value and an increase in longitudinal and circumferential Young’s modules. It is demonstrated that the treatment where Trypsin and Triton X-100 are combined guarantees complete decellularization of carotids, with no significant alteration of biomechanical and structural properties, thus preserving a suitable environment for adhesion, proliferation, and migration of cells. (paper)

  1. Wall morphology, blood flow and wall shear stress: MR findings in patients with peripheral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Liao, Yihua [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); McDermott, Mary M. [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding. During 1 year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age, 70 ± 12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contra-indications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with three-directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling and plaque progression. (orig.)

  2. Wall morphology, blood flow and wall shear stress: MR findings in patients with peripheral artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding. During 1 year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age, 70 ± 12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contra-indications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with three-directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling and plaque progression. (orig.)

  3. Cardiovascular whole-body MR imaging in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine patients with peripheral-arterial-occlusive-disease (PAOD) for systemic effects associated with atherosclerosis using a comprehensive state-of-the-art whole-body MR examination protocol. The protocol comprises the assessment of the complete arterial vasculature (except coronary arteries), the brain, and the heart. Materials and methods: Multi-station whole-body 3D MR angiography was performed in sixty consecutive patients with clinical suspicion for PAOD at 1.5 T (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Functional and delayed enhancement cardiac images were acquired, as well as FLAIR images of the brain and TOF angiography of intracranial vessels. MR and DSA images were assessed by independent observers for artherosclerotic manifestations and other pathology. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of vascular pathology was calculated for MR data using conventional DSA of the symptomatic region as standard-of-reference. Results: Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of significant vascular stenosis (>70% luminal narrowing) was 94% and 96% (PPV 87%, NPV 98%). Significant microangiopathic tissue alterations (n=7) and/or cerebral infarction (n=18) were diagnosed in 23/60 patients. Thirty-eight of 60 patients presented with systolic left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. In 24 patients subendocardial or transmural delayed enhancement was detected in corresponding regions, indicating prior myocardial infarction. Conclusion: For patients with PAOD and suspected systemic atherosclerotic disease a comprehensive diagnosis of accompanying cardiovascular pathology and therefore staging of systemic atherosclerotic disease is feasible within one MR examination. (orig.)

  4. eNOS activation and NO function: pregnancy adaptive programming of capacitative entry responses alters nitric oxide (NO) output in vascular endothelium--new insights into eNOS regulation through adaptive cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, D S; Yi, F X; Bird, I M

    2011-09-01

    In pregnancy, vascular nitric oxide (NO) production is increased in the systemic and more so in the uterine vasculature, thereby supporting maximal perfusion of the uterus. This high level of functionality is matched in the umbilical vein, and in corresponding disease states such as pre-eclampsia, reduced vascular responses are seen in both uterine artery and umbilical vein. In any endothelial cell, NO actually produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is determined by the maximum capacity of the cell (eNOS expression levels), eNOS phosphorylation state, and the intracellular [Ca(2+)](i) concentration in response to circulating hormones or physical forces. Herein, we discuss how pregnancy-specific reprogramming of NO output is determined as much by pregnancy adaptation of [Ca(2+)](i) signaling responses as it is by eNOS expression and phosphorylation. By examining the changes in [Ca(2+)](i) signaling responses from human hand vein endothelial cells, uterine artery endothelial cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in (where appropriate) nonpregnant, normal pregnant, and pathological pregnant (pre-eclamptic) state, it is clear that pregnancy adaptation of NO output occurs at the level of sustained phase 'capacitative entry' [Ca(2+)](i) response, and the adapted response is lacking in pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Moreover, gap junction function is an essential permissive regulator of the capacitative response and impairment of NO output results from any inhibitor of gap junction function, or capacitative entry using TRPC channels. Identifying these [Ca(2+)](i) signaling mechanisms underlying normal pregnancy adaptation of NO output not only provides novel targets for future treatment of diseases of pregnancy but may also apply to other common forms of hypertension. PMID:21555345

  5. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  6. Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... unless they are treated. Rheumatoid arthritis is what causes peripheral ulcerative keratitis and death due to a ...

  7. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and level of C-reactive protein, which is produced only when inflammation is present. ... people with occlusive peripheral arterial disease also have coronary artery disease. Amputation of a limb may be necessary if ...

  8. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  9. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  10. Vascularity in thyroid neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Andersen, Niels Frost; Melsen, Flemming;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of four different methods (vascular grading, Chalkley count, microvessel density (MVD) and stereological estimation) for quantifying intratumoral microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms, by comparing the variability within and between...... count should be the preferred method for assessing microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed a tendency towards higher degree of vascularity in FA compared to both FC and PC for all methods. No statistically significant association was seen between vascular density and...

  11. PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE IN PEOPLE WITH DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletea A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a condition characterized by atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremities. While PAD is a major risk factor for lower-extremity amputation, it is also accompanied by a high likelihood for symptomatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. In people with diabetes, the risk of PAD is increased by age, duration of diabetes, and presence of peripheral neuropathy. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a prospective study of 196 diabetic patients admitted in Surgery Department of County Hospital Bacau, Romania between January 1999 and December 2003. All patients had diabetic foot ulcerations. For the vascular status evaluation we performed: manual pulse examination, oscilometry and Doppler arterial pressures. RESULTS: There were 125 men (64% and 71 women (36% with median age 66 years (range 33 to 87 years. From these, 54 patients (28% had type I diabetes and 142 (72% had type II. 145 patients (74% had PAD and Doppler pressure was the most accurate method for evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Manual pulse examination and oscilometry are very simple methods, but have many false results. Through appropriate testing and determination of vascular status, treatment expectations and wound closure potential may be established and treatment prognosis and potential clearly explained to the patient. A patient that understands his or her own medical status and risks, including risks associated with morbidity and mortality, is less likely to take legal action in the face of a complication secondary to treatment.

  12. Peripheral neuroepithelioma of the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, K W; Ha, D. H.; Jung, W. H.

    1995-01-01

    Peripheral neuroepithelioma is a rare tumor, comprising less than 1% of all soft tissue malignancies arising from the peripheral nonautonomic nervous system. Most peripheral neuroepitheliomas reported were located in the extremities, thoraco-pulmonary region, and pelvic areas, and as many as 30% of cases were associated with peripheral nerve. We report one case of peripheral neuroepithelioma arising in the kidney, mimicking renal cell carcinoma on the CT scan.

  13. Craniocerebral injury promotes the repair of peripheral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Gao, Jun; Na, Lei; Jiang, Hongtao; Xue, Jingfeng; Zhenjun YANG; Wang, Pei

    2014-01-01

    The increase in neurotrophic factors after craniocerebral injury has been shown to promote fracture healing. Moreover, neurotrophic factors play a key role in the regeneration and repair of peripheral nerve. However, whether craniocerebral injury alters the repair of peripheral nerve injuries remains poorly understood. Rat injury models were established by transecting the left sciatic nerve and using a free-fall device to induce craniocerebral injury. Compared with sciatic nerve injury alone ...

  14. Effect of firefighter masks on monocular and binocular peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samo, Daniel G; Bahk, Jane K; Gerkin, Richard D

    2003-04-01

    Peripheral vision can impact essential job functions of firefighters and other workers who use Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus and other full face masks. It is important for physicians to know how these masks alter peripheral vision. Also, one must understand the effect of monocular vision on peripheral vision. Using the Goldman Perimeter Machine we measured peripheral vision in the monocular and binocular state, with and without two different types of masks. The results show that monocularity causes an average loss of 23 degrees in the nasal meridian. The use of the masks did not affect this difference. Also, the masks caused an average loss of 28 degrees of peripheral vision in the inferior meridian. How these losses affect the ability of the users of the masks to perform their essential job functions still needs to be researched. PMID:12708146

  15. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According to...... intervention and 21 as controls. There was no difference in 30-day complication rates or 6-week abstinence rates between the two groups. Conclusions: A trial assessing the effect of smoking cessation on postoperative complications on the day of soft tissue surgery is still needed. If another trial is to be...

  16. RENAL INVOLVEMENT IN SUBJECTS WITH PERIPHERAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischemic nephropathy is an important cause of renal failure.Sub-clinical renal function abnormalities may exist in patients with extra renal atherosclerosis and may precede the onset of overt ischemic nephropathy. To assess the impact of extrarenal atherosclerosis on the kidney, the study evaluated renal function in 50 subjects with differing degrees of peripheral atherosclerosis without manifest clinical or laboratory signs of ischemic nephropathy and renovascular hypertension.All laboratory testing including total LDL and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, ultrasonography with Doppler analysis for the localization of peripheral vascular disease (carotid and lower limb arteries), and non-invasive evaluation of renal function by radionuclide studies of renal plasma flow (MAG3 clearance) and glomerular filtration (DTPA clearance) were determined as well as smoking habit was recorded. By combining sonographic data on arterial tree stenosis (ATS), the subjects were grouped according to the atherosclerotic vascular damage (ATS involvement). The results showed no change in plasma creatinine while DTPA clearance was increased from 91.58±26.53 to 93.47±24.82 ml/min/1.73 m. MAG3 clearance was progressively declined with the severity of vascular damage from 244.86 ± 60.60 to 173.59±58.74 ml/min/1.73 m.Stepwise, multiple regression analysis indicated that MAG3 clearance was best explained by ATS involvement (standardized B coefficient -0.40; P< 0.001), smoking habit (-0.34;P=0.004) and serum LDL-cholesterol (-0.24; P<0.035).It could be concluded that the renal hemodynamic profile in atherosclerotic patients might constitute functional evidence of the silent phase of ischemic renal disease. The findings suggest that renal function should be carefully assessed in patients with extrarenal atherosclerosis, particularly in those with classic cardiovascular risk factors

  17. Constructions of Peripherality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Helen Frances Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    rural area of Northern Ireland, and the manner in which peripherality is constructed by a variety of different actors in this debate. In the case discussed in the article, peripherality is constructed in different ways by different actors, yet the debate becomes somewhat polarised into the environmental......In this paper I focus on the concept of peripheralisation. In particular, I consider how peripheries can be discursively constructed in the debates surrounding planning cases, and how this might serve to legitimate particular interests. This is related to the case of a proposed golf resort in a...... values of a periphery versus the ‘need’ for economic development in such a periphery. In this paper I will analyse these constructions of peripherality and discuss the manner in which different framings of the region affects planning, and perhaps legitimates certain developments. This offers a...

  18. 股动脉僵硬度、内中膜厚度和踝臂指数在2 型糖尿病患者下肢血管评价中的价值%Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease with femoral artery wall thickness,stiffness and ankle brachium index in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂芳; 陈慧; 陈斌娟; 车岩; 鲁虹霞; 胥萍

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨股动脉僵硬度、内中膜厚度和踝臂指数(ABI)评价2型糖尿病患者外周血管疾病(PVD)的价值.方法 151例2型糖尿病患者以有无下肢临床症状分为PVD症状组和无PVD症状组;以ABI值分为ABI异常组(<0.9)和ABI正常组(≥0.9).二维超声测量股动脉内中膜厚度(FA-IMT),彩色流速流量定量技术测量股动脉收缩期及舒张期的内径(Ds及Dd),计算股动脉僵硬度(FA-β).比较FA-IMT和FA-β的组间差异;探讨FA-IMT与FA-β的相关性;多元回归分析FA-IMT、FA-β与PVD症状及ABI减低的相关性.结果 与无PVD症状组比较,PVD症状组FA-IMT、FA-β增高(P<0.01);与ABI正常组相比,ABI异常组FA-IMT、FA-β增高(P<0.01).在PVD症状组中,FA-IMT与FA-β无相关性.多元回归分析显示FA-β与PVD症状密切相关;FA-IMT与ABI减低密切相关.结论 动脉僵硬度在2型糖尿病患者下肢血管疾病评价中有重要作用.%Objective To evaluate the effects of femoral artery wall thickness, stillness and ankle brachium index(ABI) on clinical manifestation of peripheral vascular disease(PVD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods According to the presence of lower limb and reduced ABI (ABI<0.9), 151 patients with type 2 diabetes were divided into group of patients with and without PVD symptoms, and group of patients with and without reduced ABI. Intima-media thickness of femoral artery (FA-IMT) and stiffness of femoral artery (FA-β) were measured by ultrasound. FA-IMA and FA-β of femoral arteries were compared between group of patients with and without PVD symptoms as well as between group of patients with and without reduced ABI. Correlation between FA-IMT and FA-β was analyzed. Factors affecting symptoms of lower limb and ABI were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results FA-IMT and FA-β in group of PVD symptoms were higher than those in group without PVD symptoms. Similarly, patients with reduced ABI had greater FA-IMT and FA-β than those

  19. Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy L

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65 year old lady presented with generalised pruritus and discolouration of skin and mucous membranes of 5 years duration. The histopathology from the cutaneous lesions revealed features suggestive of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA. Investigations did not reveal any underlying connective tissue disease,lymphoma or systemic disease. A diagnosis of idiopathic poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans was made.

  20. Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy L; Prasad PVS; Prasanna K; Rao L

    1994-01-01

    A 65 year old lady presented with generalised pruritus and discolouration of skin and mucous membranes of 5 years duration. The histopathology from the cutaneous lesions revealed features suggestive of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA). Investigations did not reveal any underlying connective tissue disease,lymphoma or systemic disease. A diagnosis of idiopathic poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans was made.

  1. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  2. Deleterious effects of tributyltin on porcine vascular stem cells physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Chiara; Zannoni, Augusta; Bertocchi, Martina; Bianchi, Francesca; Salaroli, Roberta; Botelho, Giuliana; Bacci, Maria Laura; Ventrella, Vittoria; Forni, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The vascular functional and structural integrity is essential for the maintenance of the whole organism and it has been demonstrated that different types of vascular progenitor cells resident in the vessel wall play an important role in this process. The purpose of the present research was to observe the effect of tributyltin (TBT), a risk factor for vascular disorders, on porcine Aortic Vascular Precursor Cells (pAVPCs) in term of cytotoxicity, gene expression profile, functionality and differentiation potential. We have demonstrated that pAVPCs morphology deeply changed following TBT treatment. After 48h a cytotoxic effect has been detected and Annexin binding assay demonstrated that TBT induced apoptosis. The transcriptional profile of characteristic pericyte markers has been altered: TBT 10nM substantially induced alpha-SMA, while, TBT 500nM determined a significant reduction of all pericyte markers. IL-6 protein detected in the medium of pAVPCs treated with TBT at both doses studied and with a dose response. TBT has interfered with normal pAVPC functionality preventing their ability to support a capillary-like network. In addition TBT has determined an increase of pAVPC adipogenic differentiation. In conclusion in the present paper we have demonstrated that TBT alters the vascular stem cells in terms of structure, functionality and differentiating capability, therefore effects of TBT in blood should be deeply explored to understand the potential vascular risk associated with the alteration of vascular stem cell physiology. PMID:26965667

  3. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bak, M; Vach, W; Rose, C

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... had clinical impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  4. [Vascular factors in glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottet, B; Aptel, F; Geiser, M; Romanet, J P; Chiquet, C

    2015-12-01

    The exact pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood. Understanding of the vascular pathophysiology of glaucoma requires: knowing the techniques for measuring ocular blood flow and characterizing the topography of vascular disease and the mechanisms involved in this neuropathy. A decreased mean ocular perfusion pressure and a loss of vascular autoregulation are implicated in glaucomatous disease. Early decrease in ocular blood flow has been identified in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma, contributing to the progression of optic neuropathy. The vascular damage associated with glaucoma is present in various vascular territories within the eye (from the ophthalmic artery to the retina) and is characterized by a decrease in basal blood flow associated with a dysfunction of vasoregulation. PMID:26597554

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging-based computational modelling of blood flow and nanomedicine deposition in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Shaolie S.; Zhang, Yongjie; Fu, Xiaoyi; Brunner, Gerd; Singh, Jaykrishna; Hughes, Thomas J.R.; Shah, Dipan; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is generally attributed to the progressive vascular accumulation of lipoproteins and circulating monocytes in the vessel walls leading to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. This is known to be regulated by the local vascular geometry, haemodynamics and biophysical conditions. Here, an isogeometric analysis framework is proposed to analyse the blood flow and vascular deposition of circulating nanoparticles (NPs) into the superficial femoral artery (SFA)...

  6. Peripheral arterial disease: Epidemiology, natural history, diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaliwal, Gurbir; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2007-01-01

    Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects approximately 10% of the American population, with 30% to 40% of these patients presenting with claudication symptoms. The prevalence of PAD increases with age and the number of vascular risk factors. More importantly, it is a marker of atherosclerotic disease burden, and is associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular causes. There have been recent advances in noninvasive imaging, endovascular approaches...

  7. Dynamic diffuse optical tomography imaging of peripheral arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Michael A.; Kim, Hyun K.; Kim, In-Kyong; Flexman, Molly; Dayal, Rajeev; Shrikhande, Gautam; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the narrowing of arteries due to plaque accumulation in the vascular walls. This leads to insufficient blood supply to the extremities and can ultimately cause cell death. Currently available methods are ineffective in diagnosing PAD in patients with calcified arteries, such as those with diabetes. In this paper we investigate the potential of dynamic diffuse optical tomography (DDOT) as an alternative way to assess PAD in the lower extremities. DDOT is a ...

  8. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  9. Pediatric vascular access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, James S. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  10. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Mar 23,2016 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) ... critical regions of the body. Quick Facts about PAD View an illustration of PAD The most common ...

  11. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  12. A causal role for endothelin-1 in the vascular adaptation to skeletal muscle deconditioning in spinal cord injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Ellenkamp, R.; Kooijman, M.; Pickkers, P.; Rongen, G.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Smits, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) contributes to the increased peripheral resistance in heart failure and hypertension. Physical inactivity is associated with cardiovascular disease and characterized by increased vascular tone. In this study, we assess the contribution of ET-1 to the increased vascular

  13. Subtracted versus non-subtracted digital imaging in peripheral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) plays an important role in the management of vascular diseases of the lower extremities. A disadvantage is the lack of an automatically moving table top. We used a 1,024x1,024 matrix with a large-screen intensifier system and an automated 'stepping' facility. In 161 examinations of the arteries of the lower extremity digital peripheral arteriography was performed with and without the subtraction technique. We compared the influence of different iodine concentrations in DA and DSA. Peripheral DA proved to be equal to peripheral DSA in the region of the pelvis, thigh and knee, with no adequate contrasting being obtained merely in the region of the lower leg arteries in about 45%. It is necessary to use contrast medium at a concentration of 300 mg I/ml. The installation of an automated 'stepping' facility reduces the amount of contrast' medium needed and the exposure time. (orig.)

  14. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plexopathies and peripheral neuropathies appear progressively and with several years delay after radiotherapy. These lesions are observed principally after three clinical situations: supraclavicular and axillar irradiations for breast cancer, pelvic irradiations for various pathologies and limb irradiations for soft tissue sarcomas. Peripheral nerves and plexus (brachial and lumbosacral) are described as serial structures and are supposed to receive less than a given maximum dose linked to the occurrence of late injury. Literature data, mostly ancient, define the maximum tolerable dose to a threshold of 60 Gy and highlight also a great influence of fractionation and high fraction doses. For peripheral nerves, most frequent late effects are pain with significant differences of occurrence between 50 and 60 Gy. At last, associated pathologies (diabetes, vascular pathology, neuropathy) and associated treatments have probably to be taken into account as additional factors, which may increase the risk of these late radiation complications. (authors)

  15. Peripheral neuropathy in Lyme borreliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kindstrand, Eva

    1999-01-01

    Tick-transmitted Lyme borreliosis (LB) is frequently associated with manifestations from the peripheral nervous system. One aim of the thesis was to describe the relationship between peripheral neuropathy and LB by prospective studies of a) LB in some defined neurological conditions with peripheral nerve engagement and b) peripheral neuropathy in the late dermatological LB manifestation acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA). A second aim was to evaluate the effect of ant...

  16. Peripheral artery disease in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmer, B; Jogestrand, T; Laska, J; Lund, F

    1995-03-01

    The prevalence of peripheral vascular disease in patients with coronary artery disease has been investigated in many different ways and depends on the diagnostic methods and the definition of the atherosclerotic manifestations in the different vascular beds. In this study we used the non-invasive methods digital volume pulse plethysmography and ankle and toe blood pressure measurements to identify arterial abnormalities in the lower limbs in 58 patients (49 males and 9 females; age 37-72 years) examined with coronary angiography. The prevalence of peripheral artery disease was 22%, in agreement with the results of most previous investigations. There was a tendency towards increasing prevalence of peripheral artery disease with more advanced coronary artery disease: 14% of the patients with no or minimal coronary atheromotous lesions, 18% of the patients with moderate coronary atheromotous lesions and 32% of the patients with marked coronary atheromotous disease. For this reason a non-invasive investigation of the peripheral arterial circulation should be included early in the clinical consideration of patients with chest pain or similar symptoms suggesting coronary heart disease. Toe pressure measurement appears to be the most appropriate technique being rather simple in management and also in evaluation of results. PMID:7658111

  17. Congenital Vascular Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clots, obstruction of major vessels, causing progressive limb asymmetry by overgrowth, and for cosmetic indications or because ... t he Vascular Disease Foundation (VDF) develops educational information and initiatives for patients, their families and friends, ...

  18. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for short-term use. [ Top ] What is an arteriovenous fistula? An AV fistula is a connection, made by ... to remove and return blood during hemodialysis. An arteriovenous (AV) fistula is a connection, made by a vascular surgeon, ...

  19. Heart and vascular services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Repair of aneurysms (dilated/enlarged portions) of the aorta and its branches Procedures may also be used ... Nutrition and lifestyle counseling, including smoking cessation and diabetes education Supervised exercise Alternative Names Circulatory system; Vascular ...

  20. Management of Vascular Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanori Akita, MD, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Treatment of vascular malformations is an integral part of multidisciplinary approaches. Venous malformations are more frequent in combination surgery, and if there are fewer complications, the patients’ satisfaction increases.

  1. Melatonin differentially affects vascular blood flow in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Jonathan S.; Sauder, Charity L.; Ray, Chester A.

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin is synthesized and released into the circulation by the pineal gland in a circadian rhythm. Melatonin has been demonstrated to differentially alter blood flow to assorted vascular beds by the activation of different melatonin receptors in animal models. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of melatonin on blood flow to various vascular beds in humans. Renal (Doppler ultrasound), forearm (venous occlusion plethysmography), and cerebral blood flow (transcranial...

  2. Vascular health late after Kawasaki disease: implications for accelerated atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yiu-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute vasculitis that primarily affects young children, is the most common acquired paediatric cardiovascular disease in developed countries. While sequelae of arterial inflammation in the acute phase of KD are well documented, its late effects on vascular health are increasingly unveiled. Late vascular dysfunction is characterized by structural alterations and functional impairment in term of arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction and shown to involve both ...

  3. Digital vascular imaging (DVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digitization of the video signals from an image intensifier/TV chain, followed by subtraction, contrast enchancement and reconversion to analogue signals, enables high quality angiographic images to be obtained from an intravenous injection of contrast medium. As the examination is basically noninvasive it can be used in outpatients. The possibilities of Digital Vascular Imaging are demonstrated by images obtained from the various vascular regions using a triple-mode 14 in. image intensifier with a Plumbicon. TV tube. (Auth.)

  4. Thrombolysis in vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Thrombolysis is in common use in the treatment of acute forms of vascular disease. It may be used both systemically and locally, in the latter case through an endovascular approach, socalled catheter-directed thrombolysis. The aims of this thesis were to investigate how thrombolysis affects performance-related outcomes pertaining to vascular patency after thrombolysis, and how it affects patient safety and the development of complications. Metho...

  5. Characteristics of peripheral hemodynamics athletes with loads of adaptation to a different direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. N. Kudrya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of the peripheral circulation of the first athletes from different directions of the training process by rheovasography. Changes at the peripheral level of the cardiovascular system in athletes, coaching speed and endurance, designed to create conditions enabling environment for maximum extraction of oxygen from the blood into the tissues, which manifests itself in reducing zhenii-tone of blood vessels and reducing the vascular tone at the exchange level.

  6. The Peripheral Arterial disease study (PERART/ARTPER): prevalence and risk factors in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Vicheto Marisa; Sorribes Marta; Toran Pere; Pera Guillem; Baena-Díez José; Forés Rosa; Alzamora María; Reina María; Sancho Amparo; Albaladejo Carlos; Llussà Judith

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the study is to know the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in the general population. Methods We perfo...

  7. Surgical infrainguinal revascularization for peripheral arterial disease: factors affecting patency rate

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarian, Ali; Elyasinia, Fezzeh; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Farham; Parsaei, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peripheral arterial disease is a source of morbidity and mortality. Surgical vascular reconstruction is a treatment option but probability of failure and complications are important concerns. In this study, we evaluated outcome of surgical infrainguinal reconstruction and factors affecting graft patency for a period of one year. Methods: In this cohort study, 85 consecutive patients with chronic ischemia who underwent lower extremity surgical vascular reconstruction (including 52 ...

  8. [Zaidemberg's vascularized radial graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cast, Y

    2010-12-01

    In 1991, Carlos Zaidemberg described a new technique to repair scaphoid non-unions with a vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process. An anatomic study based on 30 dissections after colorized latex injection established the constancy of the radial styloid process's artery, while showing that its origin, course and length were subject to variations. In a retrospective series of 38 cases over a period of 10 years, the vascularized bone graft was indicated for: (1) scaphoid non-union with the presence of avascular changes of the proximal fragment (23 cases); (2) failed prior reconstruction with bone graft and internal fixation (nine cases); (3) degenerative styloid-scaphoid arthritis (three cases); (4) fracture on Preiser dystrophy (three cases). The five steps of the simplified operative technique without dissection of the vascular pedicle include: (1) longitudinal dorso-radial approach, identification of the periosteal portion of the radial styloid process artery; (2) incision of the first and second compartments, longitudinal arthrotomy under the second compartment; (3) styloidectomy and transversal resection of the scaphoid non-union and sclerotic bone; (4) elevation of the vascularized bone graft; (5) transversal and radial insertion of the vascularized bone graft, osteosynthesis by two or three K-wire touching the scaphoid's radial edge. Scaphoid union was obtained in 33 cases out of 38. The only postoperative complications were two transient radial paresthesia. The standardized surgical procedure using vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process provides an efficient scaphoid reconstruction. PMID:21087882

  9. [Ganglia of peripheral nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatagiba, M; Penkert, G; Samii, M

    1993-01-01

    The authors present two different types of ganglion affecting the peripheral nerves: extraneural and intraneural ganglion. Compression of peripheral nerves by articular ganglions is well known. The surgical management involves the complete removal of the lesion with preservation of most nerve fascicles. Intraneural ganglion is an uncommon lesion which affects the nerve diffusely. The nerve fascicles are usually intimately involved between the cysts, making complete removal of all cysts impossible. There is no agreement about the best surgical management to be applied in these cases. Two possibilities are available: opening of the epineural sheath lengthwise and pressing out the lesion; or resection of the affected part of the nerve and performing a nerve reconstruction. While in case of extraneural ganglion the postoperative clinical evolution is very favourable, only long follow up studies will reveal in case of intraneural ganglion the best surgical approach. PMID:8128785

  10. Painful peripheral neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bo; Xu-sheng HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy (PPN) is characterized by neuropathic pain (NP), which is accompanied by dysfunction of motor, sensory and autonomic nervous system. It always involves small nerve fibers, including A δ and C fibers. PPN can be classified into two types according to etiology: hereditary and acquired. Pain of PPN can manifest as spontaneous pain and stimulus-evoked pain (allodynia, hyperalgesia and hyperpathia). The manifestation of typical cases is length-dependent, which firstly...

  11. Peripheral Realism Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Schenoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we summarize the precepts of Peripheral Realism, its place in the intellectual history of International Relations Theory, its contributions to interpreting Latin American international politics and its insights for the future. After revising the intellectual merits and tenets of the theory in the four initial sections, we show how it predicted the behavior of Latin American states under unipolarity. Finally, we review its implications for a world where China may hold economic primacy.

  12. Peripheral Realism Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Schenoni; Carlos Escudé

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this article we summarize the precepts of Peripheral Realism, its place in the intellectual history of International Relations Theory, its contributions to interpreting Latin American international politics and its insights for the future. After revising the intellectual merits and tenets of the theory in the four initial sections, we show how it predicted the behavior of Latin American states under unipolarity. Finally, we review its implications for a world where China may hold ...

  13. Management of peripheral polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy with intravitreal bevacizumab and indocyanine green angiography-guided laser photocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 69-year-old lady presented with complaints of decreased vision in left eye since one month. Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA was 6/18 in that eye. Fundus examination revealed non-central geographic atrophy and soft drusens at macula in both eyes. Temporal periphery of left eye revealed subretinal exudates with altered sub-RPE hemorrhage mimicking peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR. Fundus Fluorescein Angiogram showed window defects at macula and blocked fluorescence at temporal periphery in left eye. However, Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA revealed active peripheral choroidal polyps. The patient was successfully treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and ICGA-guided laser photocoagulation. 27 months after laser treatment, BCVA improved to 6/9. Rationale of consecutive anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF treatment followed by more definitive laser photocoagulation is that anti-VEGF aids in resolution of subretinal fluid, thus making the polyp more amenable to focal laser photocoagulation which stabilizes the choroidal vasculature and prevents further leakage.

  14. Erythropoietin-enhanced endothelial progenitor cell recruitment in peripheral blood and renal vessels during experimental acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Figen; Enders-Comberg, Sora Maria; Pagel, Horst; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Kramer, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have been reported in acute kidney injury (AKI) when administered prior to induction of AKI. We studied the effects of EPO administration on renal function shortly after ischemic AKI. For this purpose, rats were subjected to renal ischemia for 30 min and EPO was administered at a concentration of 500 U/kg either i.v. as a single shot directly after ischemia or with an additional i.p. dose until 3 days after surgery. The results were compared with AKI rats without EPO application and a sham-operated group. Renal function was assessed by measurement of serum biochemical markers, histological grading, and using an isolated perfused kidney (IPK) model. Furthermore, we performed flow cytometry to analyze the concentration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood and renal vessels. Following EPO application, there was only a statistically non-significant tendency of serum creatinine and urea to improve, particularly after daily EPO application. Renal vascular resistance and the renal perfusion rate were not significantly altered. In the histological analysis, acute tubular necrosis was only marginally ameliorated following EPO administration. In summary, we could not demonstrate a significant improvement in renal function when EPO was applied after AKI. Interestingly, however, EPO treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in CD133- and CD34-positive EPC both in the peripheral blood and renal vessels. PMID:26616141

  15. Alterações citológicas do sangue periférico e da medula óssea de cães com cinomose Cytological alterations of the bone marrow and peripheral blood of dogs with canine distemper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Almeida

    2009-12-01

    total leukocytes counting (11,600 cells/µL and segmented neutrophils (8,802 cells/µL within the limits of reference. Lymphopenia and left shift neutrophils were observed in 55.6% and 88.9% of the dogs, respectively. Additionally, the average counts of lymphocytes and neutrophils were 1,054 and 1,508cells/µL, respectively. The myelogram of all animals presented cellularity and M:E relation within the limits of reference. Haemogram and bone marrow of the control dogs had no alteration. Moreover, no apoptotic cells were detected in the smear of the peripheral blood of control animals. On the other side, dogs with CD presented a higher apoptotic index (AI, both in the peripheral blood (AI: 0.73% and in the bone marrow (AI: 1.87%. Therefore, apoptosis may contribute to hematological changes observed in CD.

  16. Gasotransmitters in Vascular Complications of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Born, Joost C; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Greffrath, Wolfgang; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2016-02-01

    In the past decades three gaseous signaling molecules-so-called gasotransmitters-have been identified: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). These gasotransmitters are endogenously produced by different enzymes in various cell types and play an important role in physiology and disease. Despite their specific functions, all gasotransmitters share the capacity to reduce oxidative stress, induce angiogenesis, and promote vasorelaxation. In patients with diabetes, a lower bioavailability of the different gasotransmitters is observed when compared with healthy individuals. As yet, it is unknown whether this reduction precedes or results from diabetes. The increased risk for vascular disease in patients with diabetes, in combination with the extensive clinical, financial, and societal burden, calls for action to either prevent or improve the treatment of vascular complications. In this Perspective, we present a concise overview of the current data on the bioavailability of gasotransmitters in diabetes and their potential role in the development and progression of diabetes-associated microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy) and macrovascular (cerebrovascular, coronary artery, and peripheral arterial diseases) complications. Gasotransmitters appear to have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects in the course of vascular disease development. This Perspective concludes with a discussion on gasotransmitter-based interventions as a therapeutic option. PMID:26798119

  17. Whole-body MR vascular screening detects unsuspected concomitant vascular disease in coronary heart disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) patients often show atherosclerotic vascular disease in other vascular territories. We evaluated how often whole-body MR imaging detects concomitant arterial pathologies in CHD patients, and how often these pathologies were not known to the patients previously. Of 4,814 participants in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, 327 reported CHD (i.e., previous coronary bypass surgery, angioplasty); of those, 160 patients (mean age 66.4 years) were examined using MR of the brain, the heart (excluding the coronary arteries), and whole-body MR angiography. The prevalence of each vascular pathology was assessed, correlated to the others and compared to patients' histories. Of the 160 CHD patients, 16 (10%) showed MR signs of stroke, and 77 (48.1%) had a stenosis >50% in at least one extracerebral peripheral artery (other than the coronaries), including 28 (17.5%) with relevant renal artery stenoses, and 20 (12.5%) with relevant extracerebral internal carotid artery stenoses. False negative histories were reported in 12 of 81 cases with myocardial infarctions, and in 11 of 16 cases with cerebrovascular infarctions. This whole-body atherosclerosis MR screening program allows previously unknown concomitant vascular disease to be detected in coronary heart disease patients. Its prospective value should be assessed in further studies. (orig.)

  18. Whole-body MR vascular screening detects unsuspected concomitant vascular disease in coronary heart disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Susanne C.; Nuefer, Michael; Gizewski, Elke; Wanke, Isabel; Ladd, Mark E.; Forsting, Michael [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Debatin, Joerg F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Stang, Andreas [Martin-Luther University, Medical Faculty, Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biometry and Informatics, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Bromen, Katja [DG INFSO, European Commission, Brussels (Belgium); Moebus, Susanne; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz [University Hospital, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Essen (Germany); Doerfler, Arnd [University of Erlangen Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Benemann, Jens [University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Essen (Germany); Erbel, Raimund; Schmermund, Axel [University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Essen (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) patients often show atherosclerotic vascular disease in other vascular territories. We evaluated how often whole-body MR imaging detects concomitant arterial pathologies in CHD patients, and how often these pathologies were not known to the patients previously. Of 4,814 participants in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, 327 reported CHD (i.e., previous coronary bypass surgery, angioplasty); of those, 160 patients (mean age 66.4 years) were examined using MR of the brain, the heart (excluding the coronary arteries), and whole-body MR angiography. The prevalence of each vascular pathology was assessed, correlated to the others and compared to patients' histories. Of the 160 CHD patients, 16 (10%) showed MR signs of stroke, and 77 (48.1%) had a stenosis >50% in at least one extracerebral peripheral artery (other than the coronaries), including 28 (17.5%) with relevant renal artery stenoses, and 20 (12.5%) with relevant extracerebral internal carotid artery stenoses. False negative histories were reported in 12 of 81 cases with myocardial infarctions, and in 11 of 16 cases with cerebrovascular infarctions. This whole-body atherosclerosis MR screening program allows previously unknown concomitant vascular disease to be detected in coronary heart disease patients. Its prospective value should be assessed in further studies. (orig.)

  19. The Effects of Augmented Levels of Stress on Reaction Time in the Peripheral Visual Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Harriet L.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if reaction time in the peripheral visual field and size of the functional visual field were altered by augmented levels of physical stress while performing on a bicycle ergometer. (JD)

  20. Congenital vascular anomalies: current perspectives on diagnosis, classification, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blei F

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Francine Blei,1 Mark E Bittman2 1Vascular Anomalies Program, Lenox Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, 2Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The term "congenital vascular anomalies" encompasses those vascular lesions present at birth. Many of these lesions may be detected in utero. This review serves to apprise the readership of newly identified diagnoses and updated classification schemes. Attention is focused on clinical features, patterns of presentation, clinical manifestations and behavior, diagnostic tools, and treatment modalities. It is an invigorating period for this field, with a surge in vascular anomalies-related basic and clinical research, genetics, pharmacology, clinical trials, and patient advocacy. A large number of professional conferences now include vascular anomalies in the agenda, and trainees in multiple specialties are gaining expertise in this discipline. We begin with a summary of classification schemes and introduce the updated classification adopted by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. Disease entities are described, with liberal use of photographs, as many diagnoses can be established based on a thorough history and visual appearance and it is thus essential to develop a familiarity with diagnosis-specific physical features. Peripheral (non-central nervous system vascular anomalies are the focus of this review. We focus on those entities in which diagnostic radiology is routinely used and accentuate when histologic confirmation is essential. We also underscore some differences in approach to the pediatric vs adolescent or adult patient. A list of Internet-based resources is included, with hyperlinks to informative sites. References are limited to seminal discoveries and review articles. We hope that our enthusiasm in writing this review will be shared by those who read this review. Keywords: vascular anomalies, hemangiomas, vascular

  1. [Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Agnieszka; Starosławska, Elzbieta; Kubiatowski, Tomasz; Kieszko, Dariusz; Cisek, Paweł; Patyra, Krzysztof Ireneusz; Surdyka, Dariusz; Mocarska, Agnieszka; Burdan, Franciszek

    2013-11-01

    Modern cancer therapy prolongs patients life but commonly increases incidence of treatment-related complications. One of such adverse effect is a neurotoxicity, which usually manifestates as peripheral neuropathies (CIPN), characterised by various sensory (tingling, numbness, pain), motor (foot and hands drop, fastening buttons difficulties) and autonomic (constipation, arythmia) abnormalities as well as pain. Despite of intensive epidemiological and clinical studies, standardized diagnostic criteria and methods of the neuropathy prevention and treatment have not been fully established. The most commonly used form of treatment is symptomatic therapy, including anticonvulsant and antidepressant drugs. Proper education of patients and their families of symptoms and neuropathy consequences is desirable to reduce anxiety and stress. PMID:24575651

  2. An effect of wrapping peripheral nerve anastomosis with pedicled muscle flap on nerve regeneration in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumenko L.Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite intrinsic capacity of peripheral nerves to regenerate, functional outcomes of peripheral nerves injury remain poor. Nerve ischemia, intra-/perineurial fibrosis and neuroma formation contribute a lot to that. Several authors demonstrated beneficial effects of increased vascularization at the site of injury on peripheral nerves regeneration. The use of highly vascularized autologous tissues (greater omentum as a source of peripheral nerves neovascularization shows promising re-sults. We proposed a surgical technique in which injured peripheral nerves anastomosis was wrapped in a pedicled muscular flap and performed morphological assessment of the efficacy of such technique with the aid of immunohistochemistry. 14 rats (which underwent sciatic nerve transection were operated according to proposed technique. Another 14 rats, in which only end-to-end nerve anastomosis (without muscular wrapping was performed served as controls. Morphological changes were evaluated at 3 weeks and 3 months periods. Higher blood vessel and axon counts were observed in experimental groups at both checkpoints. There was also an increase in Schwann cells and macrophages counts, and less collagen content in pe-ripheral nerves of experimental groups. Axons in neuromas of experimental groups showed a higher degree of arrangement. We conclude that proposed surgical technique provides better vascularisation of injured peripheral nerves, which is beneficial for nerve regeneration.

  3. Diacylglycerol Kinase Inhibition and Vascular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyehun; Allahdadi, Kyan J; Tostes, Rita C A; Webb, R Clinton

    2009-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), a family of lipid kinases, convert diacylglycerol (DG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). Acting as a second messenger, DG activates protein kinase C (PKC). PA, a signaling lipid, regulates diverse functions involved in physiological responses. Since DGK modulates two lipid second messengers, DG and PA, regulation of DGK could induce related cellular responses. Currently, there are 10 mammalian isoforms of DGK that are categorized into five groups based on their structural features. These diverse isoforms of DGK are considered to activate distinct cellular functions according to extracellular stimuli. Each DGK isoform is thought to play various roles inside the cell, depending on its subcellular localization (nuclear, ER, Golgi complex or cytoplasm). In vascular smooth muscle, vasoconstrictors such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and norepinephrine stimulate contraction by increasing inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)), calcium, DG and PKC activity. Inhibition of DGK could increase DG availability and decrease PA levels, as well as alter intracellular responses, including calcium-mediated and PKC-mediated vascular contraction. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate a role of DGK in vascular function. Selective inhibition of DGK isoforms may represent a novel therapeutic approach in vascular dysfunction. PMID:21547002

  4. Poldip2 sustains vascular structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Roy L.; Hilenski, Lula L.; Amanso, Angélica M.; Parastatidis, Ioannis; Dikalova, Anna E.; Hansen, Laura; Datla, Srinivasa Raju; Long, James S.; El-Ali, Alexander M.; Joseph, Giji; Gleason, Rudolph L.; Taylor, W. Robert; Hart, C. Michael; Griendling, Kathy K.; Lassègue, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Objective Based on previous evidence that polymerase delta interacting protein 2 (Poldip2) increases NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) activity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), we hypothesized that in vivo knockdown of Poldip2 would inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and alter vascular function. Approach and Results Because homozygous Poldip2 deletion is lethal, Poldip2+/− mice were employed. Poldip2 mRNA and protein levels were reduced by about 50% in Poldip2+/− aorta, with no change in p22phox, Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 mRNAs. NADPH oxidase activity was also inhibited in Poldip2+/− tissue. Isolated aortas from Poldip2+/− mice demonstrated impaired phenylephrine and potassium chloride-induced contractions, increased stiffness and reduced compliance, associated with disruption of elastic lamellae and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Collagen I secretion was elevated in cultured VSMC from Poldip2+/− mice and restored by H2O2 supplementation, suggesting that this novel function of Poldip2 is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, Poldip2+/− mice were protected against aortic dilatation in a model of experimental aneurysm, an effect consistent with increased collagen secretion. Conclusions Poldip2 knockdown reduces H2O2 production in vivo, leading to increases in extracellular matrix, greater vascular stiffness and impaired agonist-mediated contraction. Thus, unaltered expression of Poldip2 is necessary for vascular integrity and function. PMID:23825363

  5. Relationship between vascular endothelium and periodontal disease in atherosclerotic lesions: Review article

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco; Aurélio; Lumertz; Saffi; Mariana; Vargas; Furtado; Carisi; Anne; Polanczyk; Márlon; Munhoz; Montenegro; Ingrid; Webb; Josephson; Ribeiro; Cassio; Kampits; Alex; Nogueira; Haas; Cassiano; Kuchenbecker; R?sing; Eneida; Rejane; Rabelo-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies suggest that periodontal infection and the ensuing increase in the levels of inflammatory markers may be associated with myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular disease. The present article aimed at reviewing contemporary data on the pathophysiology of vascular endothelium and its association with periodontitis in the scenario of cardiovascular disease.

  6. (−)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats

    OpenAIRE

    Copp, Steven W.; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Ferguson, Scott K.; Holdsworth, Clark T.; Sims, Gabrielle E.; Poole, David C.; Musch, Timothy I.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (−)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/m...

  7. Myocardial ischemia, carotid, and peripheral arterial disease and their interrelationship in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Dahl, Jordi; Johansen, Allan; Møller, Jacob E; Gerke, Oke; Vach, Werner; Haghfelt, Torben; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2009-01-01

    for the first time and age-matched nondiabetic reference subjects (n = 40) were screened for myocardial ischemia, carotid, and peripheral arterial disease by means of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, carotid artery ultrasonography, and peripheral ankle and toe systolic blood pressure measurements....... RESULTS: In the T2DM patients, the prevalence of myocardial ischemia, carotid, and peripheral arterial disease was 30%, 42%, and 15%, respectively, almost three times higher than in the reference subjects (P = 0.007, P = 0.001, and P = 0.09, respectively). T2DM patients with myocardial ischemia, carotid......, or peripheral arterial disease had a significantly increased risk of CVD in other vascular territories as well (OR: 1.99, 2.09, and 3.09, respectively). However, 40%, 52%, and 22% of the T2DM patients with myocardial ischemia, carotid, or peripheral arterial disease demonstrated exclusively this...

  8. Pumps, Aqueducts, and Drought Management: vascular physiology in vascular cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Randolph S.; Lazar, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment has been traditionally defined by structural pathology – an accumulation of infarcts -- leading to progressive cognitive decline. Recent evidence, however, suggests that cognitive impairment may be independently mediated by hemodynamic dysfunction including global and hemispheral hypoperfusion and altered cerebral blood flow regulation. In this review we examine evidence for the contribution of hemodynamic impairment to cognitive dysfunction in the setting of lar...

  9. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors as Modulators of Vascular Function and Their Application in Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf A. Khalil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance and hypertension (HTN. In VSM, activation of surface receptors by vasoconstrictor stimuli causes an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, which forms a complex with calmodulin, activates myosin light chain (MLC kinase and leads to MLC phosphorylation, actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Vasoconstrictor agonists could also increase the production of diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C (PKC. PKC is a family of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isozymes that have different distributions in various blood vessels, and undergo translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or the nucleus during cell activation. In VSM, PKC translocation to the cell surface may trigger a cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and MAPK kinase (MEK, a pathway that ultimately increases the myofilament force sensitivity to [Ca2+]i, and enhances actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. PKC translocation to the nucleus may induce transactivation of various genes and promote VSM growth and proliferation. PKC could also affect endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the extracellular matrix further affecting vascular reactivity and remodeling. In addition to vasoactive factors, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic factors could affect PKC activity. Increased PKC expression and activity have been observed in vascular disease and in certain forms of experimental and human HTN. Targeting of vascular PKC using PKC inhibitors may function in

  10. Impaired autonomic regulation of resistance arteries in mice with low vascular endothelial growth factor or upon vascular endothelial growth factor trap delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storkebaum, Erik; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Meens, Merlijn; Zacchigna, Serena; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Vanhoutte, Greet; Vinckier, Stefan; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Poesen, Koen; Lambrechts, Diether; Janssen, Ger M J; Fazzi, Gregorio E; Verstreken, Patrik; Haigh, Jody; Schiffers, Paul M; Rohrer, Hermann; Van der Linden, Annemie; De Mey, Jo G R; Carmeliet, Peter

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Control of peripheral resistance arteries by autonomic nerves is essential for the regulation of blood flow. The signals responsible for the maintenance of vascular neuroeffector mechanisms in the adult, however, remain largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report that VEGF...

  11. Peripheral and Central Mechanisms Involved in the Hormonal Control of Male and Female Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, L M; Bentley, G E; Calandra, R S; Paredes, A H; Tesone, M; Wu, T J; Micevych, P E

    2016-07-01

    Reproduction involves the integration of hormonal signals acting across multiple systems to generate a synchronised physiological output. A critical component of reproduction is the luteinising hormone (LH) surge, which is mediated by oestradiol (E2 ) and neuroprogesterone interacting to stimulate kisspeptin release in the rostral periventricular nucleus of the third ventricle in rats. Recent evidence indicates the involvement of both classical and membrane E2 and progesterone signalling in this pathway. A metabolite of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH-(1-5), has been shown to stimulate GnRH expression and secretion, and has a role in the regulation of lordosis. Additionally, gonadotrophin release-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) projects to and influences the activity of GnRH neurones in birds. Stress-induced changes in GnIH have been shown to alter breeding behaviour in birds, demonstrating another mechanism for the molecular control of reproduction. Peripherally, paracrine and autocrine actions within the gonad have been suggested as therapeutic targets for infertility in both males and females. Dysfunction of testicular prostaglandin synthesis is a possible cause of idiopathic male infertility. Indeed, local production of melatonin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone could influence spermatogenesis via immune pathways in the gonad. In females, vascular endothelial growth factor A has been implicated in an angiogenic process that mediates development of the corpus luteum and thus fertility via the Notch signalling pathway. Age-induced decreases in fertility involve ovarian kisspeptin and its regulation of ovarian sympathetic innervation. Finally, morphological changes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus influence female sexual receptivity in rats. The processes mediating these morphological changes have been shown to involve the rapid effects of E2 controlling synaptogenesis in this hypothalamic nucleus. In summary, this review highlights new

  12. Relaxin as a natural agent for vascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniele BaniDepartment of Anatomy, Histology and Forensic Medicine, Sect. Histology, University of Florence, ItalyAbstract: Hypertension, atherothrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and renal failure are the main manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD, the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. Continuing insight into the pathophysiology of CVD can allow identification of effective therapeutic strategies to reduce the occurrence of death and/or severe disabilities. In this context, a healthy endothelium is deemed crucial to proper functioning and maintenance of anatomical integrity of the vascular system in many organs. Of note, epidemiologic studies indicate that the incidence of CVD in women is very low until menopause and increases sharply thereafter. The loss of protection against CVD in post-menopausal women has been chiefly attributed to ovarian steroid deficiency. However, besides steroids, the ovary also produces the peptide hormone relaxin (RLX, which provides potent vasoactive effects which render it the most likely candidate as the elusive physiological shield against CVD in fertile women. In particular, RLX has a specific relaxant effect on peripheral and coronary vasculature, exerted by the stimulation of endogenous nitric oxide (NO generation by cells of the vascular wall, and can induce angiogenesis. Moreover, RLX inhibits the activation of inflammatory leukocytes and platelets, which play a key role in CVD. Experimental studies performed in vascular and blood cell in vitro and in animal models of vascular dysfunction, as well as pioneer clinical observations, have provided evidence that RLX can prevent and/or improve CVD, thus offering background to clinical trials aimed at exploring the broad therapeutic potential of human recombinant RLX as a new cardiovascular drug.Keywords: relaxin, blood vessels, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle, nitric oxide

  13. Newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes complicated by ketoacidosis and peripheral thrombosis leading to transfemoral amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard Jørgensen, Line; Skov, Ole; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral vascular thromboembolism is a rarely described complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We report a 41-year-old otherwise healthy man admitted with ketoacidosis and ischaemia of the left foot. The patient was unsuccessfully treated with thromboendarterectomy, and the extremity was...

  14. The Dysexecutive Syndrome Associated with Ischaemic Vascular Disease and Related Subcortical Neuropathology: A Boston Process Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Lamar; Price, Cate C.; Tania Giovannetti; Rod Swenson; Libon, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia has helped to re-define the impact of various subcortical neuropathologies on aging; however, state-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques and autopsy studies suggest that not all structural brain alterations associated with vascular dementia are exclusive to this neurodegenerative process alone. Thus, a detailed analysis of the cognitive phenotype associated with ischaemic vascular disease is key to our understanding of subcortical ne...

  15. Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, Ole Jakob; Christensen, Alex Alban; Zedan, Ahmed;

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by medication, and various descriptions have been applied for this condition. In this MiniReview, the term 'drug-induced peripheral neuropathy' (DIPN) is used with the suggested definition: Damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system caused by a chemical...... substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention or diagnosis of a disease. Optic neuropathy is included in this definition. A distinction between DIPN and other aetiologies of peripheral neuropathy is often quite difficult and thus, the aim of this MiniReview is to discuss the major agents associated with...

  16. Plant vascular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybel, De Bert; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Helariutta, Yrjö; Weijers, Dolf

    2016-01-01

    Vascular tissues in plants are crucial to provide physical support and to transport water, sugars and hormones and other small signalling molecules throughout the plant. Recent genetic and molecular studies have identified interconnections among some of the major signalling networks that regulate

  17. Matrix ageing and vascular impacts: focus on elastin fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, Laurent; Blaise, Sébastien; Romier, Béatrice; Laffargue, Muriel; Gayral, Stéphanie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Kawecki, Charlotte; Guillot, Alexandre; Martiny, Laurent; Debelle, Laurent; Maurice, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide and represent a major problem of public health. Over the years, life expectancy has considerably increased throughout the world, and the prevalence of CVD is inevitably rising with the growing ageing of the population. The normal process of ageing is associated with progressive deterioration in structure and function of the vasculature, commonly called vascular ageing. At the vascular level, extracellular matrix (ECM) ageing leads to molecular alterations in long half-life proteins, such as elastin and collagen, and have critical effects on vascular diseases. This review highlights ECM alterations occurring during vascular ageing with a specific focus on elastin fragmentation and also the contribution of elastin-derived peptides (EDP) in age-related vascular complications. Moreover, current and new pharmacological strategies aiming at minimizing elastin degradation, EDP generation, and associated biological effects are discussed. These strategies may be of major relevance for preventing and/or delaying vascular ageing and its complications. PMID:27009176

  18. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  19. Defective peripheral nerve development is linked to abnormal architecture and metabolic activity of adipose tissue in Nscl-2 mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ruschke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammals the interplay between the peripheral nervous system (PNS and adipose tissue is widely unexplored. We have employed mice, which develop an adult onset of obesity due to the lack the neuronal specific transcription factor Nscl-2 to investigate the interplay between the nervous system and white adipose tissue (WAT. METHODOLOGY: Changes in the architecture and innervation of WAT were compared between wildtype, Nscl2-/-, ob/ob and Nscl2-/-//ob/ob mice using morphological methods, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Metabolic alterations in mutant mice and in isolated cells were investigated under basal and stimulated conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that Nscl-2 mutant mice show a massive reduction of innervation of white epididymal and paired subcutaneous inguinal fat tissue including sensory and autonomic nerves as demonstrated by peripherin and neurofilament staining. Reduction of innervation went along with defects in the formation of the microvasculature, accumulation of cells of the macrophage/preadipocyte lineage, a bimodal distribution of the size of fat cells, and metabolic defects of isolated adipocytes. Despite a relative insulin resistance of white adipose tissue and isolated Nscl-2 mutant adipocytes the serum level of insulin in Nscl-2 mutant mice was only slightly increased. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the reduction of the innervation and vascularization of WAT in Nscl-2 mutant mice leads to the increase of preadipocyte/macrophage-like cells, a bimodal distribution of the size of adipocytes in WAT and an altered metabolic activity of adipocytes.

  20. Nuclear Receptor Nur77 inhibits vascular outward remodeling and reduces macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.I. Bonta; H.L. Matlung; M. Vos; S.L.M. Peters; H. Pannekoek; E.N.T.P. Bakker; C.J.M. de Vries

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Structural adaptation of the vessel wall in response to sustained alterations in hemodynamic forces is known as vascular remodeling. Detailed knowledge on the mechanism underlying this vascular response is limited and we aimed to study the function of Nur77 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in art

  1. Peripheral tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Hessel, Trine Witzner; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of regional tissue oxygenation (rStO2) by near infrared spectroscopy enables non-invasive end-organ oxygen balance monitoring and could be a valuable tool in intensive care. However, the diverse absolute values and dynamics of different devices, and overall poor repeatability of...... measurements are a problem. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that INVOS 5100C, FORE-SIGHT and NONIN EQUANOX 7600 have similar properties concerning absolute values, repeatability, and sensitivity to changes in rStO2. To test repeatability the sensors were repositioned 20 times during...... hemodynamic steady state on the adult forearm. Afterwards six vascular occlusions by inflation of an upper arm cuff were done to achieve low oxygenation in the forearm. Absolute values were compared by repeated-measures ANOVA, repeatability was estimated by the within-subject standard deviation, Sw, and...

  2. Vascular manifestations of Behcet's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Georgiyeva Goloeva

    2010-04-01

    Conclusion. Vascular disorders in BD were diagnosed in one fourth of the patients, mainly in young male patients. Severe thromboses with the development of chronic venous insignificance, Budd-Chiari syndrome, pulmonary and iliac artery aneurysms, and arterial thromboses were observed in male patients only. Vascular events were associated with erythema nodosum and epididymitis; in these concomitances, the vascular risk was substantially increased. Vascular death rates were 2,2%.

  3. Calcium handling by vascular myocytes in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A. Tostes

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium ions (Ca2+ trigger the contraction of vascular myocytes and the level of free intracellular Ca2+ within the myocyte is precisely regulated by sequestration and extrusion mechanisms. Extensive evidence indicates that a defect in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ plays a role in the augmented vascular reactivity characteristic of clinical and experimental hypertension. For example, arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR have an increased contractile sensitivity to extracellular Ca2+ and intracellular Ca2+ levels are elevated in aortic smooth muscle cells of SHR. We hypothesize that these changes are due to an increase in membrane Ca2+ channel density and possibly function in vascular myocytes from hypertensive animals. Several observations using various experimental approaches support this hypothesis: 1 the contractile activity in response to depolarizing stimuli is increased in arteries from hypertensive animals demonstrating increased voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activity in hypertension; 2 Ca2+ channel agonists such as Bay K 8644 produce contractions in isolated arterial segments from hypertensive rats and minimal contraction in those from normotensive rats; 3 intracellular Ca2+ concentration is abnormally increased in vascular myocytes from hypertensive animals following treatment with Ca2+ channel agonists and depolarizing interventions, and 4 using the voltage-clamp technique, the inward Ca2+ current in arterial myocytes from hypertensive rats is nearly twice as large as that from myocytes of normotensive rats. We suggest that an alteration in Ca2+ channel function and/or an increase in Ca2+ channel density, resulting from increased channel synthesis or reduced turnover, underlies the increased vascular reactivity characteristic of hypertension

  4. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14% had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, Kim R.; ter Elst, Arja; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This review is designed to provide an overview of the current literature concerning vascular endothelial growth factor signaling (VEGF) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Aberrant VEGF signaling operates in the bone marrow of AML patients and is related to a poor prognosis. The altered signaling pathw

  6. Deriving stress from peripheral physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, J.J.G.; Van Dooren, M.; Van Beek, W.H.M.; Dijk, E.O.; Ouwerkerk, M.; Westerink, J.H.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We set up an experiment to explore whether peripheral physiological parameters are capable of reflecting human (short term) stress. Methods For 30 participants, we measured peripheral physiology (SCR, ECG, RSP, TEMP, EMG) during several tasks (3 relaxing, 3 physically stressful, 3 mental

  7. Progress of peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  8. Peripheral Polyneuropathy and Mefloquine Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Chester, Alexander C.; Sandroni, Paola

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a woman who developed a peripheral polyneuropathy shortly after completing 4 weekly doses of mefloquine hydrochloride (250 mg) malaria prophylaxis. Although mefloquine-related central nervous system neuropathy is well described in the literature, peripheral polyneuropathy similar to this case has been documented only once before, to our knowledge.

  9. Progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Fan; Haichao Li; Yuwei Wang; Yanglin Zheng; Lianjun Jia; Zhihui Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of progesterone on peripheral nerve regeneration.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Medline and OVID databases was under taken to identify articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration published in English between January 1990 and June 2004 by using the keywords of "peripheral nerve, injury, progesterone, regeneration".STUDY SELECTION: The data were primarily screened, those correlated with progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were involved, and their original articles were further searched, the repetitive studies or reviews were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 59 articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were collected, and 26 of them were involved, the other 33 excluded ones were the repetitive studies or reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS: Recent researches found that certain amount of progesterone could be synthetized in peripheral nervous system, and the expression of progesterone receptor could be found in sensory neurons and Schwann cells. After combined with the receptor, endogenous and exogenous progesterone can accelerate the formation of peripheral nerve myelin sheath, also promote the axonal regeneration.CONCLUSION: Progesterone plays a role in protecting neurons, increasing the sensitivity of nerve tissue to nerve growth factor, and accelerating regeneration of nerve in peripheral nerve regeneration, which provides theoretical references for the treatment of demyelinated disease and nerve injury, as well as the prevention of neuroma, especially that the in vivo level of progesterone should be considered for the elderly people accompanied by neuropathy and patients with congenital luteal phase defect, which is of positive significance in guiding the treatment.

  10. Transluminal angioplasty, fibrinolysis, and newer vascular interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This refresher course presents an overview of the current status of transluminal angioplasty in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, renovascular hypertension, and upper extremity vasculature. Indications for therapy, accepted techniques, and the diagnosis and treatment of complications are major topic areas. Newer areas of increasing application are discussed, particularly popliteal and tibial angioplasty. Newer devices and procedures such as lasers, percutaneous atherectomy, and mechanical recanalization devices are reviewed and their role in the current therapeutic armamentarium discussed. The current status of catheter-directed fibrinolytic techniques is presented, particularly as they relate to the concomitant use of transluminal angioplasty. The choice of lytic agents and newer agents is reviewed. Long-term results and complication rates are discussed by anatomic area

  11. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef W; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) has gained wide acceptance as a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease. This review presents current concepts in peripheral CE-MRA with emphasis on MRI technique and contrast......-state MRA. Gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents are used for CE-MRA of the peripheral arteries. Extracellular Gd agents have a pharmacokinetic profile similar to iodinated contrast media. Accordingly, these agents are employed for first-pass MRA. Blood-pool Gd-based agents are characterized by prolonged...... agents. Peripheral CE-MRA is defined as an MR angiogram of the arteries from the aortic bifurcation to the feet. Advantages of CE-MRA include minimal invasiveness and lack of ionizing radiation. The basic technique employed for peripheral CE-MRA is the bolus-chase method. With this method a paramagnetic...

  12. Supply and demand: Will we have enough vascular surgeons by 2030?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katherine; Schneider, Brandon; Lajos, Paul; Marin, Michael; Faries, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The increase in prevalence of certain cardiovascular risk factors increases susceptibility to vascular disease, which may create demand for surgical intervention. In our study, data collected by the American Association of Medical Colleges Physician Specialty Databook of 2012, the United States Census Bureau, and other nationwide organizations were referenced to calculate future changes in vascular surgeon supply and prevalence of people at risk for vascular disease. In 2010, there were 2853 active vascular surgeons. By 2040, the workforce is expected to linearly rise to 3573. There will be an exponential rise in people with cardiovascular risk factors. Adding to concern, in 2030, an estimated 3333 vascular surgeons will be available for 180,000,000 people with at least one risk factor for peripheral arterial disease. The paucity of properly trained surgeons entering the workforce needs to be addressed before this shortage becomes a larger burden on healthcare providers and governmental spending. PMID:26199290

  13. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  14. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  15. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Claudia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments that document the demographic data in a standardized manner and undertake a systematic effort to identify the underlying aetiology in each case. Increased effort should be targeted towards the concept of and criteria for Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Post-Stroke Dementia as well as for genetic factors involved, especially as these categories hold promise for early prevention and treatment.

  16. HIV peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbai, Alberto Alain; Castelo, Adauto; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are the most common neurological manifestations occurring in HIV-infected individuals. Distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is the most common form encountered today and is one of the few that are specific to HIV infection or its treatment. The wide variety of other neuropathies is akin to the neuropathies seen in the general population and should be managed accordingly. In the pre-ART era, neuropathies were categorized according to the CD4 count and HIV viral load. In the early stages of HIV infection when CD4 count is high, the inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies predominate and in the late stages with the decline of CD4 count opportunistic infection-related neuropathies prevail. That scenario has changed with the present almost universal use of ART (antiretroviral therapy). Hence, HIV-associated peripheral neuropathies are better classified according to their clinical presentations: distal symmetrical polyneuropathy, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), mononeuropathies, mononeuropathies multiplex and cranial neuropathies, autonomic neuropathy, lumbosacral polyradiculomyelopathy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like motor neuropathy. Treated with ART, HIV-infected individuals are living longer and are at a higher risk of metabolic and age-related complications; moreover they are also prone to the potentially neurotoxic effects of ART. There are no epidemiological data regarding the incidence and prevalence of the peripheral neuropathies. In the pre-ART era, most data were from case reports, series of patients, and pooled autopsy data. At that time the histopathological evidence of neuropathies in autopsy series was almost 100%. In large prospective cohorts presently being evaluated, it has been found that 57% of HIV-infected individuals have distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy and 38% have neuropathic pain. It is now clear that

  17. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo Claudia; Duro Giovanni; Iemolo Francesco; Castiglia Laura; Hachinski Vladimir; Caruso Calogero

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD) has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments th...

  18. PET/CT and vascular disease: Current concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its introduction in 2001, positron emission tomography associated to computed tomography (PET/CT) has been established as a standard tool in cancer evaluation. Being a multimodality imaging method, it combines in a single session the sensitivity granted by PET for detection of molecular targets within the picomolar range, with an underlying submilimetric resolution inherent to CT, that can precisely localize the PET findings. In this last decade, there have been new insights regarding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, particularly about plaque rupture and vascular remodeling. This has increased the interest for research on PET/CT in vascular diseases as a potential new diagnostic tool, since some PET molecular targets could identify diseases before the manifestation of gross anatomic features. In this review, we will describe the current applications of PET/CT in vascular diseases, emphasizing its usefulness in the settings of vasculitis, aneurysms, vascular graft infection, aortic dissection, and atherosclerosis/plaque vulnerability. Although not being properly peripheral vascular conditions, ischemic cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease will be briefly addressed as well, due to their widespread prevalence and importance.

  19. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:27502303

  20. Vascular Cambium Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Kaisa; Blomster, Tiina; Helariutta, Ykä; Mähönen, Ari Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Secondary phloem and xylem tissues are produced through the activity of vascular cambium, the cylindrical secondary meristem which arises among the primary plant tissues. Most dicotyledonous species undergo secondary development, among them Arabidopsis. Despite its small size and herbaceous nature, Arabidopsis displays prominent secondary growth in several organs, including the root, hypocotyl and shoot. Together with the vast genetic resources and molecular research methods available for it, this has made Arabidopsis a versatile and accessible model organism for studying cambial development and wood formation. In this review, we discuss and compare the development and function of the vascular cambium in the Arabidopsis root, hypocotyl, and shoot. We describe the current understanding of the molecular regulation of vascular cambium and compare it to the function of primary meristems. We conclude with a look at the future prospects of cambium research, including opportunities provided by phenotyping and modelling approaches, complemented by studies of natural variation and comparative genetic studies in perennial and woody plant species. PMID:26078728

  1. Peripheral arterial disease in general and diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, K; Khoo, E M

    2007-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is stenosis or occlusion of peripheral arterial vessels by atherosclerotic plaque. It may present as intermittent claudication, rest pain and impotence. PAD of the lower limbs is the third most important site of atherosclerotic disease after coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Increasing age, family history, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and more decisively diabetes are significant risk factors. PAD is a clinical condition that has often been neglected, underdiagnosed, undertreated and has a serious outcome. It may lead to nonhealing wounds, gangrene and amputation of the lower limbs. Hence, early identification of patients at risk of PAD and timely referral to the vascular surgeon in severe cases is crucial. PMID:18705464

  2. Epidemiology, classification, and modifiable risk factors of peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas W Shammas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas W ShammasMidwest Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Cardiovascular Medicine, PC, Davenport, IA, USAAbstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is part of a global vascular problem of diffuse atherosclerosis. PAD patients die mostly of cardiac and cerebrovascular-related events and much less frequently due to obstructive disease of the lower extremities. Aggressive risk factors modification is needed to reduce cardiac mortality in PAD patients. These include smoking cessation, reduction of blood pressure to current guidelines, aggressive low density lipoprotein lowering, losing weight, controlling diabetes and the use of oral antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel. In addition to quitting smoking and exercise, cilostazol and statins have been shown to reduce claudication in patients with PAD. Patients with critical rest limb ischemia or severe progressive claudication need to be treated with revascularization to minimize the chance of limb loss, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, epidemiology, risk factors, classification

  3. Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Youl Rhee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral arterial disease (PAD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM exhibits broad clinical characteristics and various consequences and is known as one of the major macrovascular complications of T2DM. Atherosclerosis is recognized as the most direct and important cause of PAD, but acute or chronic limb ischemia may be the result of various risk factors. In light of the increasing number of patients who undergo peripheral vascular procedures, the number of subjects who are exposed to the risks for PAD and related complications is increasing. In this review, we will discuss the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of PAD, as well as the clinical significance of PAD in T2DM subjects.

  4. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals β2 Integrin-mediated Cytoskeletal Rearrangement in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-induced Retinal Vascular Hyperpermeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Bae, Jingi; Chae, Sehyun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Han, Jong-Hee; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2016-05-01

    Retinal vascular hyperpermeability causes macular edema, leading to visual deterioration in retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal vascular occlusion. Dysregulation of junction integrity between endothelial cells by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was shown to cause retinal vascular hyperpermeability. Accordingly, anti-VEGF agents have been used to treat retinal vascular hyperpermeability. However, they can confer potential toxicity through their deleterious effects on maintenance and survival of neuronal and endothelial cells in the retina. Thus, it is important to identify novel therapeutic targets for retinal vascular hyperpermeability other than VEGF. Here, we prepared murine retinas showing VEGF-induced vascular leakage from superficial retinal vascular plexus and prevention of VEGF-induced leakage by anti-VEGF antibody treatment. We then performed comprehensive proteome profiling of these samples and identified retinal proteins for which abundances were differentially expressed by VEGF, but such alterations were inhibited by anti-VEGF antibody. Functional enrichment and network analyses of these proteins revealed the β2 integrin pathway, which can prevent dysregulation of junction integrity between endothelial cells through cytoskeletal rearrangement, as a potential therapeutic target for retinal vascular hyperpermeability. Finally, we experimentally demonstrated that inhibition of the β2 integrin pathway salvaged VEGF-induced retinal vascular hyperpermeability, supporting its validity as an alternative therapeutic target to anti-VEGF agents. PMID:26969716

  5. Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease - an Interdisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groechenig E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular diseases are the most common diseases and the most common causes of death in developed countries. Many medical disciplines deal with vascular diseases and there is no strict and clear concept in education and training of these physicians. In German-speaking countries "angiology" was established several years ago. The angiologist is a highly qualified physician, who, in most cases, comes from internal medicine (a minority from dermatology. Although peripheral arterial disease (PAD is the most frequent disease angiology deals with, the angiologist has to have a broad knowledge of general vascular medicine and has to be qualified in all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. PAD is just like the tip of an iceberg and has to be mentioned as a severe disease with a bad overall prognosis similar to that of Duke-B colon carcinoma. So, global access with staging and grading of atherosclerosis, evaluation of concomitant diseases, control of risk factors and adequate treatment of PAD is the gold standard. Therefore, several medical specialities are involved with the angiologist functioning as the integrative "general manager" between the disciplines for the welfare of the patient. Periphere arterielle Verschlußkrankheit - ein interdisziplinärer Ansatz. Gefäßkrankheiten sind die häufigsten Erkrankungs- und Todesursachen in den industrialisierten Ländern. Gefäßerkrankungen können sich an verschiedensten Organen manifestieren und dazu führen, daß unterschiedliche medizinische Disziplinen damit beschäftigt werden, ohne daß häufig eine gefäßspezifische Ausbildung vorhanden ist. Um diesem Umstand Rechnung zu tragen, wurde in den deutschsprachigen Ländern vor einigen Jahren der Additivfacharzt für Angiologie eingeführt. Der Angiologe ist ein hochqualifizierter Spezialist mit einer internistischen (seltener dermatologischen Basisausbildung. Der Angiologe hat einerseits ein breites Wissen über die allgemeine Gefäßpathologie und

  6. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  7. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  8. Bypass materials in vascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stephan N.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arteriosclerotic changes can lead to circulatory disturbances in various areas of the human vascular system. In addition to pharmacological therapy and the management of risk factors (e. g. hypertension, diabetes, lipid metabolism disorders, and lifestyle, surgical interventions also play an important role in the treatment of arteriosclerosis. Long-segment arterial occlusions, in particular, can be treated successfully with bypass sur-gery. A number of different materials are available for this type of operation, such as autologous vein or pros-thetic grafts comprised of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Dacron®. Prosthetic materials are used especially in the treatment of peripheral artery disease, such as in aortoiliac or femoropopliteal bypass surgery. The present report will thus focus on this area in order to examine the effectiveness of different bypass materials. Among the efforts being made to refine the newly introduced DRG system in Germany, analysing the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery is particularly important. Indeed, in its current version the German DRG system does not distinguish between bypass materials in terms of reimbursement rates. Differences in cost structures are thus of especial interest to hospitals in their budget calculations, whereas both private and statutory health insurance funds are primarily interested in long-term results and their costs. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to compare the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery in terms of their medical efficiency and cost-effectiveness, as well as with regard to their ethical, social and legal implications. In addition, this report aims to point out the areas in which further medical, epidemiological and health economic research is still needed. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information

  9. Craniocerebral injury promotes the repair of peripheral nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Gao, Jun; Na, Lei; Jiang, Hongtao; Xue, Jingfeng; Yang, Zhenjun; Wang, Pei

    2014-01-01

    The increase in neurotrophic factors after craniocerebral injury has been shown to promote fracture healing. Moreover, neurotrophic factors play a key role in the regeneration and repair of peripheral nerve. However, whether craniocerebral injury alters the repair of peripheral nerve injuries remains poorly understood. Rat injury models were established by transecting the left sciatic nerve and using a free-fall device to induce craniocerebral injury. Compared with sciatic nerve injury alone after 6–12 weeks, rats with combined sciatic and craniocerebral injuries showed decreased sciatic functional index, increased recovery of gastrocnemius muscle wet weight, recovery of sciatic nerve ganglia and corresponding spinal cord segment neuron morphologies, and increased numbers of horseradish peroxidase-labeled cells. These results indicate that craniocerebral injury promotes the repair of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25374593

  10. Central versus peripheral cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.KevinShoemaker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS; i.e. 3 of 5 of the following risk factors (RFs: elevated blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, blood glucose or reduced HDL are thought to be prone to serious cardiovascular disease and there is debate as to whether the disease begins in the peripheral vasculature or centrally. This study investigates hemodynamics, cardiac function/morphology, as well as mechanical properties of the central (heart, carotid artery and peripheral (total peripheral resistance, forearm vascular bed vasculature in individuals without (1-2 RFs; n=28, or with (≥3 RFs; n=46 MetS. After adjustments for statin and blood pressure medication use, those with MetS had lower mitral valve E/A ratios (<3 RFs: 1.24±0.07; ≥3 RFs: 1.01±0.04; P=0.025, and higher total peripheral resistance index (<3 RFs: 48±2 mmHg/L/min/m2; ≥3 RFs: 53±2 mmHg/L/min/m2; P=0.04. There were no differences in heart size, carotid artery measurements, cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity, pulse wave velocity, stroke volume index, or cardiac output index due to MetS after adjustments for statin and blood pressure medication use. In a separate analysis, the use of statins was associated with increased inertia in the brachial vascular bed, increased HbA1c and decreased LDL cholesterol. The independent use of anti-hypertensive medication was associated with decreased predicted VO2max, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, interventricular septum thickness, calculated left ventricle mass, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, and left ventricle pre-ejection period, but increased carotid stiffness, HDL cholesterol, and heart rate. These data imply that both a central cardiac effect and a peripheral effect of vascular resistance are expressed in MetS. These data also indicate that variance in between-group responses due to pharmacological treatments are important factors to consider in studying cardiovascular changes in these individuals.

  11. [How Treatable is Vascular Dementia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Etsuro

    2016-04-01

    Vascular dementia is an umbrella term, encompassing the pathological changes in the brain due to cerebrovascular disease that result in dementia. Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia, after Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, I outline the concept of vascular dementia, the key aspects of the disease that are yet to be clarified, and the current status of clinical trials. Assessing these factors, I discuss how treatable vascular dementia presently is. Use of the term'vascular dementia'is riddled with uncertainties regarding disease classification, and non-standardized diagnostic criteria. There are difficulties in determining the exact relationship between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment. The comorbid effects of Alzheimer's pathology in some individuals also present an obstacle to reliable clinical diagnosis, and hinder research into effective management approaches. Vascular dementia is preventable and treatable, as there are established primary and secondary prevention measures for the causative cerebrovascular diseases, such as vascular risk factor intervention, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulation, amongst others. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no established symptomatic treatments for vascular dementia. Clinical trials of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine indicate that they produce small cognitive benefits in patients with vascular dementia, though the exact clinical significance of these is uncertain. Data are insufficient to support the widespread use of these drugs in vascular dementia. Rehabilitation and physical and cognitive exercise may be beneficial, but evidence of cognitive benefit and relief of neuropsychiatric symptoms due to exercise is lacking. PMID:27056862

  12. The Vascular Depression Hypothesis: Mechanisms Linking Vascular Disease with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Warren D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Vascular Depression’ hypothesis posits that cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes. This hypothesis stimulated much research that has improved our understanding of the complex relationships between late-life depression (LLD), vascular risk factors, and cognition. Succinctly, there are well-established relationships between late-life depression, vascular risk factors, and cerebral hyperintensities, the radiological hallmark o...

  13. Cardiovascular whole-body MR imaging in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease; Kardiovaskulaere MR-Ganzkoerperbildgebung bei Patienten mit symptomatischer Atherosklerose der peripheren Gefaesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenchel, M.; Kramer, U.; Stauder, N.; Bretschneider, C.; Klumpp, B.; Claussen, C.D.; Miller, S. [Abt. fuer Radiologie, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Jost, D.; Scheule, A. [Abt. fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Naegele, T. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: To examine patients with peripheral-arterial-occlusive-disease (PAOD) for systemic effects associated with atherosclerosis using a comprehensive state-of-the-art whole-body MR examination protocol. The protocol comprises the assessment of the complete arterial vasculature (except coronary arteries), the brain, and the heart. Materials and methods: Multi-station whole-body 3D MR angiography was performed in sixty consecutive patients with clinical suspicion for PAOD at 1.5 T (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Functional and delayed enhancement cardiac images were acquired, as well as FLAIR images of the brain and TOF angiography of intracranial vessels. MR and DSA images were assessed by independent observers for artherosclerotic manifestations and other pathology. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of vascular pathology was calculated for MR data using conventional DSA of the symptomatic region as standard-of-reference. Results: Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of significant vascular stenosis (>70% luminal narrowing) was 94% and 96% (PPV 87%, NPV 98%). Significant microangiopathic tissue alterations (n=7) and/or cerebral infarction (n=18) were diagnosed in 23/60 patients. Thirty-eight of 60 patients presented with systolic left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. In 24 patients subendocardial or transmural delayed enhancement was detected in corresponding regions, indicating prior myocardial infarction. Conclusion: For patients with PAOD and suspected systemic atherosclerotic disease a comprehensive diagnosis of accompanying cardiovascular pathology and therefore staging of systemic atherosclerotic disease is feasible within one MR examination. (orig.)

  14. Reactive oxygen species and angiotensin II signaling in vascular cells: implications in cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touyz R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are associated with vascular functional and structural changes including endothelial dysfunction, altered contractility and vascular remodeling. Cellular events underlying these processes involve changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC growth, apoptosis/anoikis, cell migration, inflammation, and fibrosis. Many factors influence cellular changes, of which angiotensin II (Ang II appears to be amongst the most important. The physiological and pathophysiological actions of Ang II are mediated primarily via the Ang II type 1 receptor. Growing evidence indicates that Ang II induces its pleiotropic vascular effects through NADPH-driven generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS function as important intracellular and intercellular second messengers to modulate many downstream signaling molecules, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases, protein tyrosine kinases, transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and ion channels. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to VSMC growth and migration, regulation of endothelial function, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, and modification of extracellular matrix. In addition, ROS increase intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, a major determinant of vascular reactivity. ROS influence signaling molecules by altering the intracellular redox state and by oxidative modification of proteins. In physiological conditions, these events play an important role in maintaining vascular function and integrity. Under pathological conditions ROS contribute to vascular dysfunction and remodeling through oxidative damage. The present review focuses on the biology of ROS in Ang II signaling in vascular cells and discusses how oxidative stress contributes to vascular damage in cardiovascular disease.

  15. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  16. Deriving stress from peripheral physiology

    OpenAIRE

    De Vries, J.J.G.; van Dooren, M.; Van Beek, W.H.M.; Dijk, E.O.; Ouwerkerk, M; Westerink, J.H.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We set up an experiment to explore whether peripheral physiological parameters are capable of reflecting human (short term) stress. Methods For 30 participants, we measured peripheral physiology (SCR, ECG, RSP, TEMP, EMG) during several tasks (3 relaxing, 3 physically stressful, 3 mentally stressful). After each task, we measured their blood pressure, asked them to complete the Stress ArousalChecklist, and took a saliva swab to measure the cortisol concentration. For each participa...

  17. Microfluidic Technology in Vascular Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. van der Meer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cell biology is an area of research with great biomedical relevance. Vascular dysfunction is involved in major diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. However, when studying vascular cell biology in the laboratory, it is difficult to mimic the dynamic, three-dimensional microenvironment that is found in vivo. Microfluidic technology offers unique possibilities to overcome this difficulty. In this review, an overview of the recent applications of microfluidic technology in the field of vascular biological research will be given. Examples of how microfluidics can be used to generate shear stresses, growth factor gradients, cocultures, and migration assays will be provided. The use of microfluidic devices in studying three-dimensional models of vascular tissue will be discussed. It is concluded that microfluidic technology offers great possibilities to systematically study vascular cell biology with setups that more closely mimic the in vivo situation than those that are generated with conventional methods.

  18. Vascular Remodelling and Mesenchymal Transition in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Andrea Nicolosi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis of the skin and of internal organs, autoimmunity, and vascular inflammation are hallmarks of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. The injury and activation of endothelial cells, with hyperplasia of the intima and eventual obliteration of the vascular lumen, are early features of SSc. Reduced capillary blood flow coupled with deficient angiogenesis leads to chronic hypoxia and tissue ischemia, enforcing a positive feed-forward loop sustaining vascular remodelling, further exacerbated by extracellular matrix accumulation due to fibrosis. Despite numerous developments and a growing number of controlled clinical trials no treatment has been shown so far to alter SSc natural history, outlining the need of further investigation in the molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. We review some processes potentially involved in SSc vasculopathy, with attention to the possible effect of sustained vascular inflammation on the plasticity of vascular cells. Specifically we focus on mesenchymal transition, a key phenomenon in the cardiac and vascular development as well as in the remodelling of injured vessels. Recent work supports the role of transforming growth factor-beta, Wnt, and Notch signaling in these processes. Importantly, endothelial-mesenchymal transition may be reversible, possibly offering novel cues for treatment.

  19. Vascular injuries of the upper extremity Lesões vasculares de membros superiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat Shalabi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the causes of injuries, presentations, surgical approaches, outcome and complications of vascular trauma of the upper limbs, in spite of limited hospital resources. METHODS: A 5-year retrospective analysis. From 01/01/2001 to 31/12/2005, 165 patients were operated for vascular injuries at King Fahd Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia. Of all peripheral vascular trauma patients (115, upper limb trauma was present in 58. Diagnosis was made by physical examination and hand-held Doppler alone or in combination with Doppler scan/angiography. Primary vascular repair was performed whenever possible; otherwise, the interposition vein graft was used. Fasciotomy was considered when required. Patients with unsalvageable lower extremity injury requiring primary amputation were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Fifty patients were male (86% and eight were female (14%, aged between 2.5-55 years (mean 23 years. Mean duration of presentation was 8 h after the injury. The most common etiological factor was road traffic accidents, accounting for 50.5% in the blunt trauma group and 33% among all penetrating and stab wound injuries. Incidence of concomitant orthopedic injuries was very high in our study (51%. The brachial artery was the most affected (51%. Interposition vein grafts were used in 53% of the cases. Limb salvage rate was 100%. CONCLUSION: Patients who suffer vascular injuries of the upper extremities should be transferred to vascular surgery centers as soon as possible. Decisive management of peripheral vascular trauma will maximize patient survival and limb salvage. Priorities must be established in the management of associated injuries, and delay must be avoided when ischemic changes are present.OBJETIVO: Este estudo analisa as causas de lesões, apresentação, abordagens cirúrgicas, desfechos e complicações do trauma vascular de membros superiores, apesar de recursos hospitalares limitados. MÉTODOS: An

  20. MRI evaluation of vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yicheng Liu; Hongxing Zhang; Wei Huang; Wenjun Wan; Hongfen Peng

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTTVE: To explain the association between vascular dementia and the cranial MRI manifestations, and recognize the value of cranial MRI in the early diagnosis of vascular dementia and the assessment of disease conditions.DATA SOURCES: Pubmed database was searched to identify articles about the cranial MRI manifestations of patients with vascular dementia published in English from January 1992 to June 2006 by using the key words of "MRI, vascular dementia". Others were collected by searching the name of journals and title of articles in the Chinese full-text journal database.STUDY SELECTTON: The collected articles were primarily checked, those correlated with the cranial MRI manifestations of patients with vascular dementia were selected, while the obviously irrelative ones were excluded, and the rest were retrieved manually, the full-texts were searched.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 255 articles were collected, 41 of them were involved, and the other 214 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: MRI can be taken as one of the effective methods for the early diagnosis and disease evaluation of vascular dementia. White matter lesions are the important risk factors of vascular dementia.Vascular dementia is accompanied by the atrophy of related brain sites, but further confirmation is needed to investigate whether there is significant difference. MRI can be used to quantitatively investigate the infarcted sites and sizes of patients with vascular dementia after infarction, but there is still lack of systematic investigation on the association of the infarcted sites and sizes with the cognitive function of patients with vascular dementia.CONCLUSTON: Cranial MRI can detect the symptoms of vascular dementia at early period, so that corresponding measures can be adopted to prevent and treat vascular dementia in time.

  1. Clinicopathological study of vasculitic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-fang DONG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical features and neuropathological characteristics in patients with vasculitic peripheral neuropathy (VPN. Methods Clinical manifestations, laboratory examination and neuromuscular biopsy characteristics of 11 patients with VPN were retrospectively analyzed. The lesion of nerve, muscle and skin was observed under optical and electron microscope. Immunohistochemical analyses were carried out to detect neurofilament (NF, myelin basic protein (MBP, peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 and S-100 protein (S-100 and further observing the neuropathy of neuraxon, myelin sheath and Schwann cells, and to detect human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR, CD68, CD3 and CD20 to observe inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the deposition of IgA, IgM, IgG and addiment C3 on vascular wall. The staining of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, NADH-tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR and modified Gomori trichrome (MGT were used to judge the myopathy. Results 1 Angiopathies were mainly manifested by small vessels of epineurium and perineurium, and infiltrated inflammatory cells were mainly CD3 + T cells. Three patients had active vasculitis, and 8 patients had non-active vasculitis. Among these 8 patients, 4 patients mainly presented fibrous obliteration of blood vessel, with slight inflammatroy cell infiltration, and the other 4 patients mainly showed perivascular inflammation. 2 Neuropathy: 6 patients had axon degeneration, and 5 patients had axon degeneration associated with demyelination. All of them demonstrated a reduction in myelinated fibers, mainly large diameter myelinated fibers, even on end-stage. 3 Muscle biopsy showed neurogenic atrophy. 4 Clinicopathologic diagnosis: among these 11 patients, 8 patients were diagnosed as systemic vasculitic peripheral neuropathy (SVPN, among whom 5 patients were diagnosed as primary systemic vasculitis [including 1 patient as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS, 2 patients as

  2. Alteration of Th17 cells in the peripheral blood of patients with Vogt-koyanagi-Harada disease and its significance%Vogt-小柳原田病患者外周血Th17细胞的变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璇; 王玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To mvestigate the alteration of Thl7 cells and the level of IL-17 in patients with Vogt-koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH) and their significance. Methods' Blood samples were taken from 30 patients with VKH disease (17 with active uveitis and 13 with inactive uveitis) and 20 healthy control subjects. The proportion of Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed with flow cytometry. Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate mRNA expression of retinoid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt). The level of EL-17 was determined by ELISA. Results Expression of RORγt mRNA, the proportion of Thl7 cells and the level of IL-17 were significantly higher in VKH patients with active -uveitis than in VKH patients with inactive uveitis and normal control subjects (P 0. 05). Conclusion Th17 cells and IL-17 increase in VKH patients with active uveitis and may be responsible for the development of uveitis in patients with VKH.%目的 探讨不同时期Vogt-小柳原田病(VKH)患者外周血Th17细胞的变化和白介素-17(IL-17)的水平及其意义.方法 选择30例VKH患者(17例活动期和13例静止期)及20例健康人(对照组),抽取外周血,应用荧光定量PCR法检测RORγt的表达;分离外周血单个核细胞(PBMC),应用细胞内细胞因子染色和流式细胞技术检测Th17细胞的数量,并将其培养后应用ELISA方法检测培养液上清液中IL-17的含量.结果 活动期VKH患者外周血Th17细胞的数量和其特异性转录因子RORγt的基因表达水平均明显高于静止期患者和正常对照组.同时活动期VKH患者外周血PBMC分泌的IL-17水平也明显高于静止期VKH患者及健康人,两者比较均差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).静止期VKH患者Th17细胞的数量和RORγt的基因表达水平及IL-17的含量与正常对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 活动期VKH患者Th17细胞数量增多,且IL-17的水平增高,因此Th17细胞可能在VKH患者葡萄膜炎

  3. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood

  4. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  5. Peripheral blood signatures of lead exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather G LaBreche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that even low-level lead (Pb exposure can have detrimental effects, especially in children. We tested the hypothesis that Pb exposure alters gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and that these changes reflect dose-specific alterations in the activity of particular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of female Balb/c mice following exposure to per os lead acetate trihydrate or plain drinking water for two weeks and after a two-week recovery period. Data sets were RMA-normalized and dose-specific signatures were generated using established methods of supervised classification and binary regression. Pathway activity was analyzed using the ScoreSignatures module from GenePattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The low-level Pb signature was 93% sensitive and 100% specific in classifying samples a leave-one-out crossvalidation. The high-level Pb signature demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in the leave-one-out crossvalidation. These two signatures exhibited dose-specificity in their ability to predict Pb exposure and had little overlap in terms of constituent genes. The signatures also seemed to reflect current levels of Pb exposure rather than past exposure. Finally, the two doses showed differential activation of cellular pathways. Low-level Pb exposure increased activity of the interferon-gamma pathway, whereas high-level Pb exposure increased activity of the E2F1 pathway.

  6. Spinal vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Timo [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Mull, Michael; Thron, Armin [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Gilsbach, Joachim M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  7. Spinal vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  8. Hematological and vascular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous blood-related disorders will demonstrate skeletal alterations. These include various anemias, leukemias, lymphomas, and clotting-deficient diseases (hemophilia). Of all the various types of anemias only those that are chronic and severe will result in radiographically visible osseous changes. The skeletal alterations which are observed are invariably related to the direct effects on the bone marrow or are secondary to the inherent complications of the disease. The most notable osseous changes are seen in the congenital hemolytic anemias, especially thalassemia (Cooley's anemia), sickle cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Chronic iron deficiency anemia produces very minor skeletal changes, usually isolated to the skull. Leukemia demonstrates characteristic changes largely dependent on age. Hemophilia primarily alters joint function due to recurrent intraarticular hemorrhage. This chapter discusses blood-related disorders that affect the bones

  9. Vascular dysregulation in normal-tension glaucoma is not affected by structure and function of the microcirculation or macrocirculation at rest: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossuyt, Jelle; Vandekerckhove, Gwendolijn; De Backer, Tine L M; Van de Velde, Sandrien; Azermai, Majda; Stevens, Anna-Maria; Kestelyn, Philippe; Raemdonck, Tia; Segers, Patrick; Vanmolkot, Floris; Van Bortel, Luc M

    2015-01-01

    In normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), optic nerve damage occurs despite a normal intraocular pressure. Studies implicating systemic blood pressure or, more recently, arterial stiffness in the pathophysiology of NTG have produced conflicting results. Our aim was to investigate whether NTG is associated with alterations in the macrocirculation or microcirculation, cardiac function, and peripheral and central hemodynamics. Thirty patients with NTG (mean age 65 years, range 46-79) and 33 healthy subjects (mean age 67 years, range 42-79) matched for age and sex were included in the study. Exclusion criteria (for both cases and controls) were history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, severe hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Aortic stiffness was measured using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), central hemodynamics using carotid artery applanation tonometry, and diameter, stiffness, and intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid and femoral artery using echo-tracking. Total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) was derived from mean arterial pressure and cardiac index, measured using ultrasound. There were no statistically significant differences in arterial structure nor function between NTG patients and age and sex-matched controls. NTG versus controls, respectively: brachial blood pressure 126 ± 15/77 ± 8 versus 127 ± 16/76 ± 7 mm Hg, P = 0.81; carotid-femoral PWV 9.8 ± 2.1 versus 10.1 ± 1.9 m/s, P = 0.60; TPRI 1833 ± 609 versus 1779 ± 602 dyne.s/cm5/m2, P = 0.79; and carotid IMT 0.65 ± 0.14 versus 0.68 ± 0.13 mm, P = 0.39. This study could not show an association of NTG with altered IMT, arterial stiffness, total peripheral resistance, cardiac output, and peripheral or central hemodynamics at rest. Although the majority of these NTG patients do exhibit symptoms of vascular dysregulation, in the present study this was not translated into alterations in the microcirculation or macrocirculation at rest. PMID:25590850

  10. Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography : a method for preoperative cardiac risk stratification in patients undergoing major vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Poldermans, Don

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAtherosclerosis is a systemic disease that may affect several blood vessels in different organs simultaneously. The spectrum of disease ranges from stroke to myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysms and peripheral vascular insufficiency. Patients suffering from one aspect of atherosclerotic disease will often have asymptomatic lesions elsewhere. Most patients seen with vascular disease by the internist or surgeon have a high prevalence of coronary artery disease, for example, 40-70...

  11. Clinical application of 3D Ce MRA in diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To probe the value of clinical application of three dimensional contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (3D CE MRA) for diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive diseases (PAOD) and to assess its accuracy. Methods: One hundred and three cases of PAOD received 3D CE MRA before operation. And 579 vascular segments were displayed. The diagnosis of 3D CE MRA before operation were compared with the results of vascular reconstruction surgeries of lower extremities. The image quality and how 3D CE MRA revealed the abnormal blood vessels were evaluated. Results: Satisfactory images of the main arteries of the lower extremities were achieved by 3D CE MRA. In 579 vascular segments of 103 patients with PAOD, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of severe stenosis and occlusions were 97.6% and 95.4%, respectively. In 206 vascular segments of tibiofibula artery, the sensitivity was 100%. In 196 vascular segments of femoral artery, the specificity was 97%. Conclusion: 3D CE MRA is accurate and reliable for determination of the degree of peripheral artery stenosis. The results of 3D CE MRA are concordant with that of operation. (authors)

  12. [Local vascular complications after iatrogenic femoral artery puncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhwirth, J; Pascher, O; Hauser, H; Amann, W

    1996-01-01

    Over a period of 5 years 81 vascular complications after 15,460 catheterizations of the femoral artery for diagnostic (n = 11,883) or therapeutic (n = 3577) procedures were registered. The following complications were observed in declining frequency: 1. False aneurysm (n = 65), 2. arterial occlusion (dissection, embolia, thrombosis) (n = 8), 3. vascular lesion causing profuse bleeding (n = 7), 4. AV-fistula (n = 1). The total complication rate was 0.52%. The complication rate was significantly higher in therapeutical procedures (1,03%) than in diagnostic investigations (0.37%). Pseudoaneurysms were complicated by thrombosis of the femoral vein (n = 3), lymphatic fistula (n = 3) and deep wound infection (n = 9); secondary complication rate 18.5%. Risk factors for local vascular complications are old age, female gender, high grade arteriosclerosis at the puncture site, overweight, manifest arterial hypertension and medication with cumarin, acetylsalicylic acid or heparin. Further complicating factors are connected with technical risks such as duration of the procedure. French size of the catheter, the catheter sheath and multiple punctures. Vascular repair was performed by simple angiography in most cases, but in 14.8% more extensive surgical procedures were required. In patients with signs of occlusive vascular disease the external iliac artery was replaced by a PTFE-vascular access graft in 4 cases and an arterioplasty of the deep femoral artery was performed in 2 patients. 36% of the operations were undertaken as emergencies. Reintervention was necessary for a postoperative bleeding complication in 1 case (surgical complication rate 1.2%). A female patient suffering from aortic valve stenosis died during emergency operation due to massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage after cardiac catheterization (mortality rate 1.2%). Over a median follow-up period of 37 months no late complications of the intervention were recorded, nor recurrences of peripheral arterial occlusive

  13. Angiogenic potential of human macrophages on electrospun bioresorbable vascular grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, K; Sell, S A; Madurantakam, P; Bowlin, G L, E-mail: glbowlin@vcu.ed [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage interactions with electrospun scaffolds and quantify the expression of key angiogenic growth factors in vitro. This study will further help in evaluating the potential of these electrospun constructs as vascular grafts for tissue repair and regeneration in situ. Human peripheral blood macrophages were seeded in serum free media on electrospun (10 mm) discs of polydioxanone (PDO), elastin and PDO:elastin blends (50:50, 70:30 and 90:10). The growth factor secretion was analyzed by ELISA. Macrophages produced high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and acidic fibroblast growth factor. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) secretion was relatively low and there was negligible production of basic fibroblast growth factor. Therefore, it can be anticipated that these scaffolds will support tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. (communication)

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor: a neurovascular target in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian; Storkebaum, Erik; de Almodóvar, Carmen Ruiz; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Brain function critically relies on blood vessels to supply oxygen and nutrients, to establish a barrier for neurotoxic substances, and to clear waste products. The archetypal vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, arose in evolution as a signal affecting neural cells, but was later co-opted by blood vessels to regulate vascular function. Consequently, VEGF represents an attractive target to modulate brain function at the neurovascular interface. On the one hand, VEGF is neuroprotective, through direct effects on neural cells and their progenitors and indirect effects on brain perfusion. In accordance, preclinical studies show beneficial effects of VEGF administration in neurodegenerative diseases, peripheral neuropathies and epilepsy. On the other hand, pathologically elevated VEGF levels enhance vessel permeability and leakage, and disrupt blood-brain barrier integrity, as in demyelinating diseases, for which blockade of VEGF may be beneficial. Here, we summarize current knowledge on the role and therapeutic potential of VEGF in neurological diseases. PMID:27364743

  15. Dopexamine: a novel agonist at peripheral dopamine receptors and beta 2-adrenoceptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. A.; Dixon, J; Farmer, J. B.; Hall, J.C.; Humphries, R. G.; Ince, F.; O'Connor, S. E.; Simpson, W T; Smith, G W

    1985-01-01

    Dopexamine is an agonist at peripheral dopamine receptors and at beta 2-adrenoceptors. Dopexamine has approximately one-third the potency of dopamine in stimulating the vascular DA1-receptor in the dog, resulting in a fall in renal vascular resistance of 20% at 2.3 X 10(-8) mol kg-1 (i.a.). Prejunctional DA2-receptors are also stimulated by dopexamine, resulting in a reduction of neurogenic vasoconstriction in the rabbit isolated ear artery (IC50 of 1.15 X 10(-6)M) and of neurogenic tachycard...

  16. Vascular anatomy and physiology studied with MRI techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular anatomy can be evaluated with MRI without the injection of contrast agents. Contrast between moving blood and surrounding tissue can be obtained by effectively using MR relaxation phenomenon, which are different in fluid and solid tissue as well as in moving and static structures. Rapidly moving blood may provide better contrast than slowly moving blood. The aorta and pulmonary vasculature have been effectively evaluated with MRI. Peripheral vasculature (venous and arterial) have also been evaluated using MRI. It may be possible in the near future to evaluate tissue perfusion with MRI techniques

  17. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  18. Effect of the α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine on vascular regulation of the middle cerebral artery and the ophthalmic artery in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S; Kolodjaschna, J; Berisha, F; Polska, E; Pemp, B; Garhöfer, G; Schmetterer, L

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that vascular beds distal to the ophthalmic artery (OA) show vasoconstriction in response to a step decrease in systemic blood pressure (BP). The mediators of this response are mostly unidentified. The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that α2-adrenoreceptors may contribute to the regulatory process in response to a decrease in BP. In this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study 14 healthy male volunteers received either 22mg yohimbine hydrochloride or placebo. Beat-to-beat BP was measured by analysis of arterial pressure waveform; blood flow velocities in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the OA were measured with Doppler ultrasound. Measurements were done before, during and after a step decrease in BP. The step decrease in BP was induced by bilateral thigh cuffs at a suprasystolic pressure followed by a rapid cuff deflation. After cuff deflation, BP returned to baseline after 7-8 pulse cycles (PC). Blood velocities in the MCA returned to baseline earlier (4 PC) than BP indicating peripheral vasodilatation. Blood velocities in the OA returned to baseline later (15-20 PC) indicating peripheral vasoconstriction. Yohimbine did not affect the blood velocity response in the MCA, but significantly shortened the time of OA blood velocities to return to baseline values (6-7 PC, p<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that yohimbine did not alter the regulatory response in the MCA, but modified the response of vascular beds distal to the OA. This suggests that α2-adrenoceptors play a role in the vasoconstrictor response of the vasculatures distal to the OA. PMID:20934440

  19. Very High Resolution Ultrasound Imaging for Real-Time Quantitative Visualization of Vascular Disruption after Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Soubeyrand, Marc; Badner, Anna; Vawda, Reaz; Chung, Young Sun; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by vascular disruption with intramedullary hemorrhage, alterations in blood-spinal cord barrier integrity, and perilesional ischemia. A safe and easily applied imaging technique to quantify evolving intraspinal vascular changes after SCI is lacking. We evaluated the utility of very high resolution ultrasound (VHRUS) imaging to assess SCI-induced vascular disruption in a clinically relevant rodent model. The spinal cords of Wistar rats were lesioned at...

  20. Coronary endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle proliferation are programmed by early-gestation dexamethasone exposure in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Kenneth A.; Roghair, Robert D.; Jung, Felicia; Scholz, Thomas D.; Lamb, Fred S.; SEGAR, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of the early-gestation ovine fetus to exogenous glucocorticoids induces changes in postnatal cardiovascular physiology. We sought to characterize coronary artery vascular function in this model by elucidating the contribution of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species to altered coronary vascular reactivity and examining the proliferative potential of coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone (dex, 0.28 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 48 h) was administered to pregnant ewes at 2...

  1. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in the evaluation of peripheral edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon; Zeon, Seok Kil [School of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    It has been difficulty to visualize lymphatics in living patients. Conventional or direct lymphography has been the gold standard for delineation of the lymphatic system, but this procedure is invasive, difficulty to perform, and harmful to the lymphatic vascular endothelium. The aim of our study was to determine its severity, and to understand the drainage patterns on patients with peripheral edema by functional lymphatic studies. Tc-99m antimony sulfide colloid 25 MBq with 0.4 ml volume was injected intradermally in the first, second and third web space of the foot or hand in 40 patients with peripheral edema (5 in upper extremity and 35 in lower extremity). Initial flow after injection and whole body images at approximately 30 minutes. 1-4 hours were obtained. In 9/40 cases with peripheral edema normal lymphoscintigram were revealed, primary lymphedema was observed in 5/31 cases. The imaging patterns in primary lymphedema were absent (3 cases) or delayed (2 cases) transport, lymphatic duct dilatation (1), cutoff (1), decrease in size and number of lymph nodes (2). The Common caused of edema in secondry lymphedema (26/31) were carcinoma (13), inflammation (5), post-operation (5), and unknown origin (3). The common imaging findings in carcinoma showed non-visualization of lymph nodes (13), dermal backflow (8), collateral circulation (5), and in inflammation lymphatic obstruction (2), increase in size and number of lymph nodes (2), delayed transport (1), and in post-operation dermal backflow (3), delayed transport (2), decrease in number and size of lymph node (2) Clear images patterns were observed difference between primary lymphedema an secondary lymphedema. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy is essentially non-invasive, easy to perform repeatedly, and harmless to the lymphatic vascular endothelium for evaluation of a patient with lymphedema.

  2. Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Branching in Plants, Animals and Humans by VESGEN Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, P. A.; Vickerman, M. B.; Keith, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Humans face daunting challenges in the successful exploration and colonization of space, including adverse alterations in gravity and radiation. The Earth-determined biology of plants, animals and humans is significantly modified in such extraterrestrial environments. One physiological requirement shared by larger plants and animals with humans is a complex, highly branching vascular system that is dynamically responsive to cellular metabolism, immunological protection and specialized cellular/tissue function. VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis has been developed as a mature beta version, pre-release research software for mapping and quantification of the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching. Alterations in vascular branching pattern can provide informative read-outs of altered vascular regulation. Originally developed for biomedical applications in angiogenesis, VESGEN 2D has provided novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and other microvascular remodeling phenomena. Vascular trees, networks and tree-network composites are mapped and quantified. Applications include disease progression from clinical ophthalmic images of the human retina; experimental regulation of vascular remodeling in the mouse retina; avian and mouse coronary vasculature, and other experimental models in vivo. We envision that altered branching in the leaves of plants studied on ISS such as Arabidopsis thaliana cans also be analyzed.

  3. [Vasculitic Peripheral Neuropathies: Clinical Features and Diagnostic Laboratory Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Katsuhisa

    2016-03-01

    Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy (VPN) occurs due to ischemic changes of peripheral nerves, resulting from a deficit of vascular blood supply due to damaged vasa nervorum leading to vasculitis. VPN usually manifests as sensorimotor or sensory disturbances accompanied by pain, presenting as a type of multiple mononeuropathy, with a scattered distribution in distal limbs. VPN may also present as a mononeuropathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, plexopathy, or radiculopathy. The rapidity of VPN is variable, ranging from days to months, with symptoms occasionally changing with the appearance of new lesions. Careful history taking and neurological examination provides an exact diagnosis. The most common cause of VPN is primary vasculitis predominantly affecting small vessels, including vasa nervorum, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, and polyarteritis nodosa. Similar vasculitic processes can also result from a systemic collagen disorder or secondary vasculitis. Electrophysiological studies and pathological investigation of biopsied peripheral nerves and muscles are important for diagnosis of vasculitis. Serological tests, including ANCA, are useful for diagnosis of vasculitis. Accurate neurological examinations are essential for diagnosis and evaluation of clinical course. PMID:27001769

  4. [Complex assessment of vasomotor function of vascular endothelium in patients with hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gel'tser, B I; Savchenko, S V; Kotel'nikov, V N; Plotnikova, I V

    2004-01-01

    Vasomotor function of vascular endothelium was studied in 62 patients with grade 1-2 hypertension with moderate and high added risk. Methods included study of brachial and middle cerebral artery endothelium dependent and independent vasodilation/vasoconstriction, measurement of plasma levels of nitric oxide metabolites (NO(n)-), endothelin-1, and antithrombin, as well as registration of their changes during vasomotor tests with calculation of integral indexes. Most patients with hypertension differed from controls by preponderance of vasoconstrictor over vasodilator reactions both in peripheral and cerebral vascular bed. At the same time patients with hypertension had pronounced dissociation between vasomotor responses of cerebral and peripheral vessels compared with subjects with normal blood pressure (pconcentration of endothelin-1 patients with hypertension were characterized by hyperreactivity of nitricoxidergic system, augmented lability of endothelin producing system, and impaired athrombogenecity of vascular endothelium. Complex assessment of vasomotor function of vascular endothelium by sequential vasoactive tests characterizes functional and metabolic activity of cerebral and peripheral vessels and can be used for improvement of risk stratification and monitoring of efficacy of treatment of patients with hypertension. PMID:15111971

  5. Vascular damage in testicular cancer patients : A study on endothelial activation by bleomycin and cisplatin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuver, Janine; De Haas, Esther C.; Van Zweeden, Martine; Gietema, Jourik A.; Meijer, Coby

    2010-01-01

    Following treatment with bleomycin- and cisplatin-containing chemotherapy, testicular cancer patients frequently develop vascular complications, which may result from damage to endothelial cells. Understanding bleomycin- and cisplatin-induced endothelial alterations may help to develop strategies to

  6. Risk indicators in coronary cardiac disease and occlusive disease of the peripheral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 160 patients with clinically confirmed coronary heart diseases, angiograms of the coronary vessels, the left ventricle, the abdominal aorta, the pelvic and femoral arteries and the supra-aortic vessels were taken. At the same time the incidence of the risk indicators overweight, hypercholesterinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperuricaemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cigarette smoking was established and compared with the angiograms. Hypercholesterinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, diabetes mellitus and hypertension are found to be in a clearly positive correlation with the frequency and severity of coronary and peripheral vascular diseases. For hyperuricaemia and overweight a relation to the frequency and severity of peripheral but not coronary vascular stenoses is outlined. Cigarette smoking, again, proves to be a clear risk indicator. (orig./MG)

  7. Role of homocysteine in age-related vascular and non-vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnetti, L; Bottiglieri, T; Lowenthal, D

    1997-08-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) may represent a metabolic link in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular diseases and old-age dementias. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease, and is also associated with cerebrovascular disease; specifically, the risk of extracranial carotid atherosclerosis significantly increases in relation to Hcy levels. Hcy is a reliable marker of vitamin B12 deficiency, a common condition in the elderly which is known to induce neurological deficits including cognitive impairment; a high prevalence of folate deficiency has been reported in psychogeriatric patients suffering from depression and dementia. Both these vitamins occupy a key position in the remethylation and synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), a major methyl donor in CNS; therefore, deficiencies in either of these vitamins lead to a decrease in SAMe and increase in Hcy, which can be critical in the aging brain. Another pathogenetic mechanism linking high Hcy levels to reduced cognitive performances in the elderly might be represented by excitotoxicity, since hyperhomocysteinemia may lead to an excessive production of homocysteic acid and cysteine sulphinic acid, which act as endogenous agonists of NMDA receptors. Considering the reasonably high prevalence in the general population of a genetic predisposition to a thermolabile form of the enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), hyperhomocysteinemia can be seen as the result of multiple genetic and environmental factors leading to vascular and/or neurodegenerative disorders where age-related involutive phenomena represent a common pathogenetic ground. Systematic studies in different psychogeriatric conditions monitoring Hcy levels and clinical features before and after vitamin supplementation are therefore highly recommended. PMID:9359935

  8. Altered gut and adipose tissue hormones in overweight and obese individuals: cause or consequence?

    OpenAIRE

    Lean, M E J; Malkova, D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the research into the main peripheral appetite signals altered in human obesity, together with their modifications after body weight loss with diet and exercise and after bariatric surgery, which may be relevant to strategies for obesity treatment. Body weight homeostasis involves the gut–brain axis, a complex and highly coordinated system of peripheral appetite hormones and centrally mediated neuronal regulation. The list of peripheral anorexigenic and or...

  9. Treatment of refractory cutaneous ulcers with mixed sheets consisting of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Ueno; Yuriko Takeuchi; Makoto Samura; Yuya Tanaka; Tamami Nakamura; Arata Nishimoto; Tomoaki Murata; Tohru Hosoyama; Kimikazu Hamano

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the therapeutic effects of mixed sheets consisting of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) and fibroblasts on cutaneous skin ulcers. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in mixed cell sheets was much higher than in PBMNCs and fibroblasts. Concerning the mechanism, transforming growth factor beta 1 and platelet-derived growth factor BB secreted from PBMNCs enhanced VEGF production in fibroblasts. In wounds created on the backs of d...

  10. Peripheral blood flow in menopausal women who have hot flushes and in those who do not.

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsburg, J; Hardiman, P.; O'Reilly, B.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare blood pressure, heart rate, and peripheral vascular responsiveness in menopausal women who have hot flushes and in those who do not, and to assess the effect on these variables of treating women who have hot flushes with oestriol, a natural oestrogen, given vaginally. DESIGN--An open, non-randomised cohort study of flushing and non-flushing menopausal women. A before and after investigation of the effects of vaginal oestriol treatment on the circulation. SETTING--Referra...

  11. Searching of the peripheric arterial disease in which patient have cerebrovascular event

    OpenAIRE

    Kanar, Rayiha Görkem

    2012-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic disease a systemic disease. Arteriosclerotic disease may affect more than one region in vascular system. In the presence of risk factors of arteriosclerosis; clinical manifestations will emerge depending on organ involvement. The aim of our study is searching the association of peripheral artery disease and determining related risk factors in patients who had cerebrovascular event. This study was performed by Cardiovascular Surgery Department of Trakya Universty Faculty of Me...

  12. Gene Expression Patterns in Peripheral Blood Correlate with the Extent of Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnaeve, Peter R; Donahue, Mark P.; Grass, Peter; Seo, David; Vonderscher, Jacky; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Kraus, William E.; Sketch, Michael; Nelson, Charlotte; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J.; Granger, Christopher B.

    2009-01-01

    Systemic and local inflammation plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, but the relationship of whole blood gene expression changes with coronary disease remains unclear. We have investigated whether gene expression patterns in peripheral blood correlate with the severity of coronary disease and whether these patterns correlate with the extent of atherosclerosis in the vascular wall. Patients were selected according to their coronary artery disea...

  13. Decrease in Circulating Dendritic Cell Precursors in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kretzschmar; Ilonka Rohm; Sebastian Schäller; Stefan Betge; Rudin Pistulli; Yevgeniya Atiskova; Hans-R. Figulla; Atilla Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis. Inflammation is important for initiation and progression of the disease. Dendritic cells (DCs) as antigen-presenting cells play an important role in the immune system. Therefore, we hypothesize that, in patients with PAD, DCPs might be reduced in blood due to their recruitment into the vascular wall and induce a proinflammatory response. The numbers of myeloid DCPs, plasmacytoid DCPs, and total DCPs were analyzed by...

  14. Bias in Peripheral Depression Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect...

  15. Retina vascular network recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Guido; Passerini, Giorgio; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of morphological and structural modifications of the retina vascular network is an interesting investigation method in the study of diabetes and hypertension. Normally this analysis is carried out by qualitative evaluations, according to standardized criteria, though medical research attaches great importance to quantitative analysis of vessel color, shape and dimensions. The paper describes a system which automatically segments and recognizes the ocular fundus circulation and micro circulation network, and extracts a set of features related to morphometric aspects of vessels. For this class of images the classical segmentation methods seem weak. We propose a computer vision system in which segmentation and recognition phases are strictly connected. The system is hierarchically organized in four modules. Firstly the Image Enhancement Module (IEM) operates a set of custom image enhancements to remove blur and to prepare data for subsequent segmentation and recognition processes. Secondly the Papilla Border Analysis Module (PBAM) automatically recognizes number, position and local diameter of blood vessels departing from optical papilla. Then the Vessel Tracking Module (VTM) analyses vessels comparing the results of body and edge tracking and detects branches and crossings. Finally the Feature Extraction Module evaluates PBAM and VTM output data and extracts some numerical indexes. Used algorithms appear to be robust and have been successfully tested on various ocular fundus images.

  16. Abdominopelvic vascular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriussadaporn, S

    2000-01-01

    The clinical records of 25 patients with 32 abdominopelvic vascular injuries were reviewed. Sixty per cent of patients sustained blunt trauma and 40 per cent sustained penetrating trauma. Nineteen patients (76%) were in shock on arrival, 2 of them underwent ER thoracotomy when they first arrived in the emergency room. Nine patients (36%) had signs of lower extremity ischemia. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 16-50, mean 29 +/- 10.0. Nineteen patients (76%) had 35 associated injuries. Of the 32 injured vessels; 8 were external iliac artery, 5 were renal vein, 4 were abdominal aorta, 3 were common iliac artery, common iliac vein, external iliac vein and inferior vena cava, and 1 was superior mesenteric artery, superior mesenteric vein and median sacral artery. Treatments included: 13 lateral repair, 4 prosthetic grafting, 4 nephrectomy, 3 ligation, 3 reversed saphenous vein grafting, 2 end to end anastomosis, 1 internal iliac artery grafting, 1 intravascular shunt and packing and 1 perihepatic packing. Nine patients (36%) died. High mortality was observed in injuries to the abdominal aorta (75%), inferior vena cava (66.7%), common iliac vein (66.7%) and associated major pelvic fractures (50%). Factors significantly associated with mortality were the presence of shock on arrival, associated injuries and high Injury Severity Score. The author concludes that short prehospital time, effective resuscitation and proper surgical decision making are important for survival in these critically injured patients. PMID:10710864

  17. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Bo; Su

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smo-king, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide(NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease.

  18. Role of endothelin receptor A and NADPH oxidase in vascular abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Zai Dai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available De-Zai Dai, Yin DaiResearch Division of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, ChinaAbstract: Vascular dilatation is critically impaired in many diseases and is encountered by an upregulated endothelin receptor A (ETA in the vasculature in association with a decline in nitric oxide bioavailability. Diabetic vasculopathy is characterized as a compromised vascular dilatation, implicated in many diabetic complications. It appears to be activated ETA and NADPH (­nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the vasculature. Glucose-lowering agents do not always blunt these changes, as these changes may be progressive leading to the end stage of renal disease. The vascular insults by hypertension, hyperglycemia and aging may share the changes with diabetic vascular beds. Endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213 and ingredients from plant origins such as CPU86017, p-benzyl-tetra-hydro-berberine are effective in attenuating vascular abnormality by normalizing changes of biomarkers in the ­vascular wall. The early sign of subclinical atherosclerosis presented as an intima media thickness in the carotid may indicate endothelium dysfunction. The reduced ABI (ankle brachial index has been taken to predict patients at risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and an increased risk of mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease. An application of agents which ­suppress the activated ET-NADPH oxidase in the vascular wall is beneficial to attenuate vascular abnormalities. It is worth testing the activity of these agents further for the potential in relieving abnormal vascular activity, reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients at risk.Keywords: diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, ETA, peripheral artery disease, vascular dilatation

  19. Vascular function in health, hypertension, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann, Lasse; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    , the increase in muscle blood flow required for oxygen supply during exercise is achieved through a substantial increase in vasodilators locally formed in the active muscle tissue that overcome the vasoconstrictor signals. Most of the vasodilator signals are mediated via endothelial cells, which lead......Regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow is a complex process, which involves an integration of multiple mechanisms and a number of vasoactive compounds. Overall, muscle blood flow is regulated through a balance between vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals. In a healthy cardiovascular system...... the skeletal muscle, which can affect muscle function. Central aspects in the vascular impairments are alterations in the formation of prostacyclin, the bioavailability of NO and an increased formation of vasoconstrictors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regular physical activity effectively...

  20. Ultrasound in vascular disease & introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, C; S.Castellani; B. Brkljacic

    2012-01-01

    Il capitolo descrive i prin cipi generali fondamentali delle tecniche per la valutazione ultrasonografica con doppler vascolare The chapter describes the fundamental principles underlying the use of ultrasonographic techniques of vascular doppler

  1. Bletilla colloid as a vascular embolization agent: experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the efficacy, safety and related characteristics of bletilla colloid as a vascular embolization agent. Materials and methods: The authors prepared bletilla colloid as a vascular embolization agent from the stem tubers of bletilla of Chinese medicinal herb. Related characteristics of bletilla colloid were studied. In four pigs hepatic arterial embolization was performed with the bletilla colloid. Results: The bletilla colloid was a homogenous viscous colloid whose relative viscosity was 2324.6 mm2/s. It was easily injected through 4-F catheter and hyperattenuating under fluoroscopy, meanwhile, with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility, without pyrogenetic response and toxicity. In vitro, the mixture of bletilla colloid and MMC did not produce separation and suspension phenomena but released 50% of MMC at 1.8h and 100% at 3.4h. The bletilla colloid mainly embolized peripheral arteries, maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. The injuries of normal hepatic tissues were slight, without hepatic cytonecrosis. Conclusions: Bletilla colloid, safe and effective in use with angioembolic function and characteristics of carrier and slow-release, is a potential peripheral embolization agent

  2. Age-associated vascular inflammation promotes monocytosis during atherogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Wong, Christine; Song, Yang; Shen, Hua; Mori, Daniel; Rotllan, Noemi; Price, Nathan; Dobrian, Anca D; Meng, Hailong; Kleinstein, Steven H; Fernandez-Hernando, Carlos; Goldstein, Daniel R

    2016-08-01

    Aging leads to a proinflammatory state within the vasculature without disease, yet whether this inflammatory state occurs during atherogenesis remains unclear. Here, we examined how aging impacts atherosclerosis using Ldlr(-/-) mice, an established murine model of atherosclerosis. We found that aged atherosclerotic Ldlr(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced atherogenesis within the aorta. Aging also led to increased LDL levels, elevated blood pressure on a low-fat diet, and insulin resistance after a high-fat diet (HFD). On a HFD, aging increased a monocytosis in the peripheral blood and enhanced macrophage accumulation within the aorta. When we conducted bone marrow transplant experiments, we found that stromal factors contributed to age-enhanced atherosclerosis. To delineate these stromal factors, we determined that the vasculature exhibited an age-enhanced inflammatory response consisting of elevated production of CCL-2, osteopontin, and IL-6 during atherogenesis. In addition, in vitro cultures showed that aging enhanced the production of osteopontin by vascular smooth muscle cells. Functionally, aged atherosclerotic aortas displayed higher monocyte chemotaxis than young aortas. Hence, our study has revealed that aging induces metabolic dysfunction and enhances vascular inflammation to promote a peripheral monocytosis and macrophage accumulation within the atherosclerotic aorta. PMID:27135421

  3. Lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic peripheral nerve sheath. 1. Lectin binding pattern of normal peripheral nerve in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, K; Nakasu, S; Nioka, H; Handa, J

    1993-01-01

    The binding patterns of lectins to normal peripheral nerves were examined. Twelve biotinylated lectins were used in this study; Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Pisum sativum (PSA), Lens culinaris (LCA), Ricinus communis 1 (RCA-1), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Glycine max (SBA), Sophora japonica (SJA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia 1 (BSL-1), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), succinylated WGA (s-WGA), Ulex europaeus 1 (UEA-1) and Helix pomatia (HPA). Cytoplasm of Schwann cells and perineurial cells was stained by Con A, PSA, LCA, s-WGA and WGA. PNA showed specific binding to perineurial cells, while after neuraminidase treatment stain with this lectin was demonstrated also in Schwann cells. Myelin sheaths were stained with fewer lectins. SBA and HPA with sialic acid removal rarely showed reactivity to the peripheral nerve structure in surgical specimens, in contrast to clear staining of Schwann cells, perineurial cells and myelin sheaths in autopsy specimens. The present study shows distinct lectin stainings of specific structures of the normal human peripheral nerves, and provides important basic information on the alterations of lectin binding patterns during pathological processes in the peripheral nerves. PMID:8310810

  4. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J;

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis that...... the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  5. The relationships of vascular plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenrick, P

    2000-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic research indicates that vascular plants evolved from bryophyte-like ancestors and that this involved extensive modifications to the life cycle. These conclusions are supported by a range of systematic data, including gene sequences, as well as evidence from comparative morphology and the fossil record. Within vascular plants, there is compelling evidence for two major clades, which have been termed lycophytes (clubmosses) and euphyllophytes (seed plants, ferns, horsetails)...

  6. Determination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in circulating blood: significance of VEGF in various leucocytes and platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The sources of increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in peripheral blood from cancer patients are not known in detail. The aim of the present study was to evaluate correlations between the VEGF content in isolated leucocyte subpopulations and VEGF concentrations ...

  7. Fibulin-1 is a marker for arterial extracellular matrix alterations in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cangemi, Claudia; Skov, Vibe; Poulsen, Michael Kjaer;

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix alterations are important elements in the arterial changes seen in diabetes, being associated with increased vascular stiffness and the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, no biomarkers for diabetes-related arterial changes have been defined.......Extracellular matrix alterations are important elements in the arterial changes seen in diabetes, being associated with increased vascular stiffness and the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, no biomarkers for diabetes-related arterial changes have been defined....

  8. A case of William's syndrome associated peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hwang, Mi Soo; Kim, Sun Yong; Chang, Jae Chun; Park, Bok Hwan [College of Medicine, Yeungam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-06-15

    William's syndrome, in order to more completely delineate the total spectrum of the disorder, indicates that 'infantile hypercalcemia', 'peculiar facies' and 'supravalvular aortic stenosis.' In has other many vascular anomalies, such as peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis, coronary arterial stenosis, celiac arterial stenosis, and renal aterial stenosis. Only 32% of the patients have evidence of supravalvular aortic stenosis. And it is very rare disease entity that has been reported rarely in Korea. Recently authors experienced a case that was questioned William's syndrome with peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis, clinically and preliminary radiologically and this case was confirmed by operation. Here we report a case of William's syndrome with peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis and reviewed literatures.

  9. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  10. PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE IN THE LEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a condition characterized by atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremities. While PAD is a major risk factor for lower-extremity amputation, it is also accompanied by a high likelihood for symptomatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Atherosclerosis accounts for more than 90% of cases of PAD, and uncommon vascular syndromes account for the remaining 10%. The femoral and popliteal arteries are affected in 80% to 90% of symptomatic PAD patients, the tibial and peroneal arteries in 40% to 50%, and the aortoiliac arteries in 30%.Although 65–75% of patients with PAD are asymptomatic, the classic presenting symptom is usually described as muscle cramps, fatigue or pain in the lower legs induced by exercise and rapidly relieved by rest; often the symptom location indicates the level of arterial involvement. RISK FACTORS: Diabetes and smoking are the strongest risk factors for PAD. Other well-known risk factors are advanced age, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. DIAGNOSIS: PAD can be easily and accurately diagnosed by calculating the ankle-brachial index (ABI.The ABI is defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure in the ankle divided by the systolic blood pressure at the arm. The tools required to perform the ABI measurement include a hand-held 5–10 MHz Doppler probe and a blood pressure cuff. MANAGEMENT: Most patients' symptoms improve with optimal medical treatment and invasive intervention is often not required. Smoking cessation and exercise are considered the two most important treatments for PAD. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic PAD often impairs a patient's quality of life and untreated disease can lead to limb loss. Aggressive management of atherosclerotic risk factors, a structured exercise program, use of antiplatelet agents and when indicated percutaneous or surgical revascularizations are the keys for successful management.

  11. Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, K; Vinberg, M; Kessing, L V

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder, speculated to mirror alterations in brain expression of BDNF. The research area is rapidly evolving; however, recent...... investigations have yielded conflicting results with substantial variation in outcomes, highlighting the need to critically assess the state of current evidence. The aims of the study were to investigate differences in peripheral blood BDNF concentrations between bipolar disorder patients and healthy control...... subjects and between affective states in bipolar disorder patients, including assessment of the effect of treatment of acute episodes on BDNF levels. A systematic review of English language studies without considering publication status was conducted in PubMed (January 1950-November 2014), Embase (1974...

  12. Simulation of blood flow in a small-diameter vascular graft model with a swirl (spiral) flow guider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; GUIDOIN

    2008-01-01

    Small-diameter vascular grafts are in large demand for coronary and peripheral bypass procedures, but present products still fail in long-term clinical application. In the present communication, a new type of small-diameter graft with a swirl flow guider was proposed to improve graft patency rate. Flow pattern in the graft was simulated numerically and compared with that in a conventional graft. The numerical results revealed that the swirl flow guider could indeed make the blood flow rotate in the new graft. The swirling flow distal to the flow guider significantly altered the flow pattern in the new graft and the ve- locity profiles were re-distributed. Due to the swirling flow, the blood velocity near the vessel wall and wall shear rate were greatly enhanced. We believe that the increased blood velocity near the wall and the wall shear rate can impede the occurrence of acute thrombus formation and intimal hyperplasia, hence can improve the graft patency rate for long-term clinical use.

  13. Calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Gregory C.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are ultimately responsible for determining vascular luminal diameter and blood flow. Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium are a critical mechanism regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Processes influencing intracellular calcium are therefore important regulators of vascular function with physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review we discuss the major dynamic calcium signals identified and characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  14. Red wine polyphenols prevent metabolic and cardiovascular alterations associated with obesity in Zucker fatty rats (Fa/Fa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelali Agouni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with increased risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies report an inverse association between dietary flavonoid consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. We studied the potential beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of red wine polyphenol extract, Provinols, on obesity-associated alterations with respect to metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular functions in Zucker fatty (ZF rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ZF rats or their lean littermates received normal diet or supplemented with Provinols for 8 weeks. Provinols improved glucose metabolism by reducing plasma glucose and fructosamine in ZF rats. Moreover, it reduced circulating triglycerides and total cholesterol as well as LDL-cholesterol in ZF rats. Echocardiography measurements demonstrated that Provinols improved cardiac performance as evidenced by an increase in left ventricular fractional shortening and cardiac output associated with decreased peripheral arterial resistances in ZF rats. Regarding vascular function, Provinols corrected endothelial dysfunction in aortas from ZF rats by improving endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine (Ach. Provinols enhanced NO bioavailability resulting from increased nitric oxide (NO production through enhanced endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS activity and reduced superoxide anion release via decreased expression of NADPH oxidase membrane sub-unit, Nox-1. In small mesenteric arteries, although Provinols did not affect the endothelium-dependent response to Ach; it enhanced the endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor component of the response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Use of red wine polyphenols may be a potential mechanism for prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic alterations associated with obesity.

  15. Peripheral DSA with automated stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral digital angiography can now be applied with automated stepping to evaluate the complete lower extremity, with one single injection of contrast medium. In general, good-quality images have been obtained. In some cases, a stationary run had to be carried out with a digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) technique. The authors report a further improvement of this method: it allows angiographic evaluation of the complete lower extremity with DSA technique after a single contrast medium injection of 60 mL. Altogether, 25 examinations were evaluated and compared with results of the nonsubtracted technique. With the DSA-technique, additional series could be reduced to only those where significant differences in flow between the extremities necessitated different timing, as known from conventional angiography as well. In conclusion, the use of DSA technique with automated stepping may totally replace conventional angiography of the peripheral arteries

  16. Limb neurovascular control during altered otolithic input in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin D.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    Head-down rotation (HDR), which activates the vestibulosympathetic reflex, increases leg muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and produces calf vasoconstriction with no change in either cardiac output or arterial blood pressure. Based on animal studies, it was hypothesized that differential control of arm and leg MSNA explains why HDR does not alter arterial blood pressure. Fifteen healthy subjects were studied. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, forearm and calf blood flow, and leg MSNA responses were measured during HDR in these subjects. Simultaneous recordings of arm and leg MSNA were obtained from five of the subjects. Forearm and calf blood flow, vascular conductances, and vascular resistances were similar before HDR, as were arm and leg MSNA. HDR elicited similar significant increases in leg (Delta 6 +/- 1 bursts min(-1); 59 +/- 16 % from baseline) and arm MSNA (Delta 5 +/- 1 bursts min(-1); 80 +/- 28 % from baseline). HDR significantly decreased calf (-19 +/- 2 %) and forearm vascular conductance (-12 +/- 2 %) and significantly increased calf (25 +/- 4 %) and forearm vascular resistance (15 +/- 2 %), with 60 % greater vasoconstriction in the calf than in the forearm. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were not altered by HDR. These results indicate that there is no differential control of MSNA in the arm and leg during altered feedback from the otolith organs in humans, but that greater vasoconstriction occurs in the calf than in the forearm. These findings indicate that vasodilatation occurs in other vascular bed(s) to account for the lack of increase in arterial blood pressure during HDR.

  17. Towards a European Peripherality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Schürmann, Carsten; Talaat, Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Accessibility and peripherality indicators are used to measure the location performance of cities and regions. In particular after the improvements of the pan-European transport networks it becomes an important political issue to measure the success and effectiveness of these projects to identify those regions, whose accessibility is still low and who still need additional political assistance. The user manual describes the software system developed for the calculation of the indices in detai...

  18. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  19. Assessment of Peripheral Lung Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H. T.; Suki, Béla

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the lung periphery are major determinants of overall lung function, and can change dramatically in disease. In this review we examine the various experimental techniques that have provided data pertaining to the mechanical properties of the lung periphery, together with the mathematical models that have been used to interpret these data. These models seek to make a clear distinction between the central and peripheral compartments of the lung by encapsulating funct...

  20. Biomarkers of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, John P.; Wilson, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease affecting the lower extremities is also known as peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This disorder affects 8 to 12 million individuals in the United States, and is also increasingly prevalent in Europe and Asia (1–4). Unfortunately, most patients are not diagnosed and are not optimally treated. A blood test for PAD, if sufficiently sensitive and specific, would be expected to improve recognition and treatment of these individuals. Even a biomarker pan...

  1. Obesity in Indian subjects with Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    CHANDRA, Mina; Anand, Kuljeet Singh Anand

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Obesity is considered a public health challenge in South Asia. Obesity is an independent risk factor in vascular dementia. It also contributes to other risk factors of vascular dementia like hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. As the rate of obesity in Indian subjects with vascular dementia is not known, we decided to assess obesity in subjects with vascular dementia. Methods: Subjects with vascular dementia presenting to Mem...

  2. The experimental studies of Chinese herbs as a vascular embolization agent for the hepatic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the efficacy, safety and correlative characteristics of Chinese herb as a vascular embolization agent. Methods: Vascular embolization agent combined from several kinds of Chinese herb was manufactured and served as anticarcinogen and coagulant according to the chinese Pharmacopoeia. The characteristics of the combination embolization agent through embolizing the hepatic arteries in eight pigs were studied. Results: The combination agent was a non-homogenous suspension, easily to be injected through 5-F catheter with hyper attenuation under fluoroscopy; simultaneously with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility and without feverish response and toxicity. The combination agent mainly embolized the peripheral arteries with maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. Slight injuries of normal hepatic tissues with hepatic cytonecrosis and endochyloma focal necrosis were found through optical and electronic microscopy. Conclusions: The Chinese herb combination agent is safe and effective in experimental application with good angioembolic function and a potential peripheral embolization agent. (authors)

  3. Novel risk factors for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease in non-diabetic patients: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M Bérard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genetic and environmental vascular risk factors in non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease, either peripheral arterial occlusive disease or thromboangiitis obliterans, the two main entities of peripheral arterial disease, and to established whether some of them are specifically associated with one or another of the premature peripheral arterial disease subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 113 non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease (diagnosis <45-year old presenting either a peripheral arterial occlusive disease (N = 64 or a thromboangiitis obliterans (N = 49, and 241 controls matched for age and gender. Both patient groups demonstrated common traits including cigarette smoking, low physical activity, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (active form of B6 vitamin and zinc. Premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease was characterized by the presence of a family history of peripheral arterial and carotid artery diseases (OR 2.3 and 5.8 respectively, 95% CI, high lipoprotein (a levels above 300 mg/L (OR 2.3, 95% CI, the presence of the factor V Leiden (OR 5.1, 95% CI and the glycoprotein Ia(807T,837T,873A allele (OR 2.3, 95% CI. In thromboangiitis obliterans group, more patients were regular consumers of cannabis (OR 3.5, 95% CI and higher levels in plasma copper has been shown (OR 6.5, 95% CI. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results from a non exhaustive list of study parameters, we might hypothesize for 1 a genetic basis for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease development and 2 the prevalence of environmental factors in the development of thromboangiitis obliterans (tobacco and cannabis. Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrated that the 807T/837T/873A allele of platelet glycoprotein Ia may confer an additional risk for development of peripheral

  4. Vascular access in chronic dialysis: a plastic surgeon's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieptu, Dragos; Luchian, Stefan; Hriscu, Mihaela; Mititiuc, Irina; Florea, Manuela; Romete, Simona; Popa, Maria; Ungureanu, Angela; Chirita, Loredana

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-five years after Brescia et al. (N Engl J Med 275:1089-1092, 1966) realized the first peripheral autogenous arteriovenous fistula, the "Achilles' heel" of chronic dialysis is still the absence of a good-quality permanent vascular access. The number of patients depending on hemodialysis is increasing. Until 10 years ago, in Romania, there was a need to treat isolated critical cases. Nowadays, every dialysis center needs algorithms for a standardized approach, adaptable for each case. We reviewed 171 consecutive arteriovenous fistulas (132 patients) performed in adults in identical standard conditions: use of an inflatable tourniquet during the vascular dissection, microsurgical techniques, and use of only autogenous tissues. We analyzed our results, the technical difficulties encountered, and their management in long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to set up the basic principles of our algorithms. Our approach, based on our education as plastic surgeons involved in hand surgery and microsurgery, might present the advantage of sparing renal patients vascular capital. PMID:12833323

  5. 'Multi-associations': predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interpretation of peripheral circulation in ill neonates is crucial but difficult. The aim was to analyse parameters potentially influencing peripheral oxygenation and circulation. In a prospective observational cohort study in 116 cardio-circulatory stable neonates, peripheral muscle near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with venous occlusion was performed. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI), mixed venous oxygenation (SvO2), fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE), haemoglobin flow (Hbflow), oxygen delivery (DO2), oxygen consumption (VO2), and vascular resistance (VR) were assessed. Correlation coefficients between NIRS parameters and demographic parameters (gestational age, birth weight, age, actual weight, diameter of calf, subcutaneous adipose tissue), monitoring parameters (heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), mean blood pressure (MAP), core/peripheral temperature, central/peripheral capillary refill time) and laboratory parameters (haemoglobin concentration (Hb-blood), pCO2) were calculated. All demographic parameters except for Hbflow and DO2 correlated with NIRS parameters. Heart rate correlated with TOI, SvO2, VO2 and VR. SaO2 correlated with FOE/FTOE. MAP correlated with Hbflow, DO2, VO2 and VR. Core temperature correlated with FTOE. Peripheral temperature correlated with all NIRS parameters except VO2. Hb-blood correlated with FOE and VR. pCO2 levels correlated with TOI and SvO2. The presence of multiple interdependent factors associated with peripheral oxygenation and circulation highlights the difficulty in interpreting NIRS data. Nevertheless, these findings have to be taken into account when analysing peripheral oxygenation and circulation data

  6. Bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: an electrophysiological, behavioral, morphological and mechanistic study in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Carozzi

    Full Text Available Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor with significant antineoplastic activity for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma as well as other hematological and solid neoplasms. Peripheral neurological complications manifesting with paresthesias, burning sensations, dysesthesias, numbness, sensory loss, reduced proprioception and vibratory sensitivity are among the major limiting side effects associated with bortezomib therapy. Although bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is clinically easy to diagnose and reliable models are available, its pathophysiology remains partly unclear. In this study we used well-characterized immune-competent and immune-compromised mouse models of bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. To characterize the drug-induced pathological changes in the peripheral nervous system, we examined the involvement of spinal cord neuronal function in the development of neuropathic pain and investigated the relevance of the immune response in painful peripheral neuropathy induced by bortezomib. We found that bortezomib treatment induced morphological changes in the spinal cord, dorsal roots, dorsal root ganglia (DRG and peripheral nerves. Neurophysiological abnormalities and specific functional alterations in Aδ and C fibers were also observed in peripheral nerve fibers. Mice developed mechanical allodynia and functional abnormalities of wide dynamic range neurons in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Bortezomib induced increased expression of the neuronal stress marker activating transcription factor-3 in most DRG. Moreover, the immunodeficient animals treated with bortezomib developed a painful peripheral neuropathy with the same features observed in the immunocompetent mice. In conclusion, this study extends the knowledge of the sites of damage induced in the nervous system by bortezomib administration. Moreover, a selective functional vulnerability of peripheral nerve fiber subpopulations

  7. Peripheral vasodilatation determines cardiac output in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bada, A A; Svendsen, J H; Secher, N H; Saltin, B; Mortensen, S P

    In dogs, manipulation of heart rate has no effect on the exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. Whether these findings apply to humans remain uncertain, because of the large differences in cardiovascular anatomy and regulation. To investigate the role of heart rate and peripheral...... arterial ATP infusion at rest. Exercise and ATP infusion increased cardiac output, leg blood flow and vascular conductance (P <0.05), whereas cerebral perfusion remained unchanged. During atrial pacing increasing heart rate by up to 54 beats min(−1), cardiac output did not change in any of the three...... demonstrate that the elevated cardiac output during steady-state exercise is regulated by the increase in skeletal muscle blood flow and venous return to the heart, whereas the increase in heart rate appears to be secondary to the regulation of cardiac output....

  8. Acute responses of regional vascular conductance to oral ingestion of fructose in healthy young humans

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Masako Y; Fujihara, Chizuko; Yamazaki, Chinami; Kashima, Hideaki; Eguchi, Kouhei; Miura, Akira; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, it was reported in healthy young subjects that fructose containing drinks increased blood pressure acutely, without any apparent change in total vascular conductance (TVC). However, because it is well known that the splanchnic vasculature is dilated by oral fructose ingestion, it is assumed to be the concomitant vasoconstriction in other peripheral region(s) that is responsible for this finding. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute response of region...

  9. The female advantage in cardiovascular disease: Do vascular beds contribute equally?

    OpenAIRE

    Kardys, Isabella; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe female advantage in coronary heart disease occurrence is not completely understood. To characterize gender differences in cardiovascular disease by vascular site, the authors compared degrees of coronary, carotid, peripheral, and aortic atherosclerosis in men and women aged ≥55 years from the population-based Rotterdam Study (Rotterdam, the Netherlands). Data were collected between 1997 and 2000. A subset of 2,013 participants had data on both coronary calcification and one or...

  10. Study of altered platelet morphology with changes in glycaemic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitakshara Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that platelet morphology is altered with increasing glycaemic levels. These changes can be known by measurements of PVI which is an important simple and effortless tool can be used more extensively to predict the acute vascular events and thereby help curb morbidity and mortality. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 757-761

  11. A two-week reduction of ambulatory activity attenuates peripheral insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Thyfault, John P; Broholm, Christa;

    2009-01-01

    activity would influence peripheral insulin sensitivity. We aimed to explore if healthy, non-exercising subjects who went from a normal to a low level of ambulatory activity for two weeks would display metabolic alterations including reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity. -To do this, ten healthy young...... number of daily steps induced a significant reduction of 17% in the glucose infusion rate (GIR) during the clamp. This reduction was due to a decline in peripheral insulin sensitivity with no effect on hepatic endogenous glucose production. The insulin-stimulated ratio of pAkt(thr308)/total Akt decreased...... possible biological cause for the public health problem of type 2 diabetes has been identified. Reduced ambulatory activity for two weeks in healthy, non-exercising young men significantly reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular fitness, and lean leg mass. Key words: Inactivity, Insulin...

  12. Hepatic abscess versus peripheral cholangiocarcinoma: Sonographic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the sonographic findings that are useful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Twenty-two hepatic abscesses and 22 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas which had been confirmed histologically were included in this study. Objective points were echo characteristics of the lesion, internal septation, presence of peripheral low echoic rim, demarcation from normal liver(well or poorly defined), posterior enhancement, multiplicity, dilatation of bile duct(obstructive or non-obstructive), intrahepatic duct stone, pleural effusion, and intra-abdominal fluid collection. Echo characteristics of the lesion were classified in-to four types. Type I; Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, type II; Echogenic without hypoechoic portion, type III; Predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, type IV; Hypoechoic without echogenic portion. 1)Nine abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type I(p=0.037), 2)One abscess and 18 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type II(p=0.001), 3)Seven abscesses and none of peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type III(p=0.001), 4)Five abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type IV(p=0.410). Only 7 abscesses showed internal septations(p=0.013). One abscess and 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed peripheral hypoechoic halos(p=0.012). Only 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed obstructive bile duct dilatation (p=0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between abscess and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma on other objective points. Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, and internal septation are the features suggestive of hepatic abscess, and echogenic without hypoechoic portion, peripheral hypoechoic halo, obstructive bile duct dilatation are suggestive of peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Therefore these sonographic findings are helpful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral

  13. Characterization of peripheral-blood lymphocytes in lymphocytopenic dogs exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitogen stimulation assays of canine peripheral-blood lymphocytes in whole-blood and density-gradient-isolated lymphocyte cultures showed that a functional decrease had occurred in these lymphocyte populations from plutonium-exposed dogs, suggesting an alteration in immunocompetence

  14. Model of arterial tree and peripheral control for the study of physiological and assisted circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzarone, E; Liani, P; Baselli, G; Costantino, M L

    2007-06-01

    Peripheral vasomotion, interstitial liquid exchange, and cardiovascular system behaviour are investigated by means of a lumped parameter model of the systemic and peripheral circulation, from the aortic valve to the venules. This modelling work aims at combining arterial tree hemodynamics description, active peripheral flow regulation, and fluid exchange. The arterial compartment is constructed with 63 RCL segments and 30 peripheral districts including myogenic control on arterioles, metabolic control on venules, and Starling filtration through capillary membrane. The arterial behaviour is characterised as to the long term stability of pressure/flow waves in the different segments. Peripheral districts show autoregulatory capabilities against pressure changes over a wide range and also self-sustained oscillations mimicking vasomotor activity. A preliminary study was carried out as to the model response to changes induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Among the induced alterations, the system responds mainly to hemodilution, which increased peripheral fluid loss and oedema beyond the compensatory capabilities of local regulation mechanisms. This resulted in an overall increase total arterial resistance. Local transport deficits were assessed for each district according to the different metabolic demand. This study shows the requirement of a suitable description of both arteries and peripheral mechanisms in order to describe cardiovascular response non-physiological conditions, as well as assisted circulation or other pathological conditions. PMID:17011809

  15. Impairment of blood brain barrier is related with the neuroinflammation induced peripheral immune status in intracerebroventricular colchicine injected rats: An experimental study with mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Susmita; Ghosh, Arijit; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2016-09-01

    The neurodegeneration in AD patients may be associated with changes of peripheral immune responses. Some peripheral immune responses are altered due to neuroinflammation in colchicine induced AD (cAD) rats. The leaky blood brain barrier (BBB) in cAD-rats may be involved in inducing peripheral inflammation, though there is no report in this regard. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of BBB in cADrats by altering the BBB in a time dependent manner with injection (i.v.) of mannitol (BBB opener). The inflammatory markers in the brain and serum along with the peripheral immune responses were measured after 30 and 60min of mannitol injection in cAD rats. The results showed higher inflammatory markers in the hippocampus and serum along with alterations in peripheral immune parameters in cAD rats. Although the hippocampal inflammatory markers did not further change after mannitol injection in cAD rats, the serum inflammatory markers and peripheral immune responses were altered and these changes were greater after 60min than that of 30min of mannitol injection. The present study shows that the peripheral immune responses in cAD rats after 30 and 60min of mannitol injection are related to magnitude of impairment of BBB in these conditions. It can be concluded from this study that impairment of BBB in cAD rats is related to the changes of peripheral immune responses observed in that condition. PMID:27288705

  16. Peripheral communications of intercostobrachial nerve Peripheral communications of the intercostobrachial nerve in relation to the alar thoracic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaifaly Madan Rustagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN is often encountered during axillary dissection for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for diagnostic and therapeutic surgery for mastectomy. The present report is a case observed in the Department of Anatomy at Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Delhi during routine dissection of the upper extremity of a male cadaver for first year undergraduate medical students. On the right side , the medial cord of brachial plexus gave two medial cutaneous nerves of arm. Both the nerves were seen communicating with the branches of the ICBN. The ICBN and one of its branches were surrounding the termination of an alar thoracic artery. These peripheral neural connections of the ICBN with the branches of the medial cord can be a cause of sensory impairment during axillary procedures done for mastectomy or exploration of long thoracic nerves. The alar thoracic artery found in relation to the ICBN could further be a cause of vascular complications during such procedures.

  17. Decreased microRNA is involved in the vascular remodeling abnormalities in chronic kidney disease (CKD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal X Chen

    Full Text Available Patients with CKD have abnormal vascular remodeling that is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs control mRNA expression intracellularly and are secreted into the circulation; three miRNAs (miR-125b, miR-145 and miR-155 are known to alter vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation and differentiation. We measured these vascular miRNAs in blood from 90 patients with CKD and found decreased circulating levels with progressive loss of eGFR by multivariate analyses. Expression of these vascular miRNAs miR-125b, miR-145, and miR-155 was decreased in the thoracic aorta in CKD rats compared to normal rats, with concordant changes in target genes of RUNX2, angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R, and myocardin. Furthermore, the expression of miR-155 was negatively correlated with the quantity of calcification in the aorta, a process known to be preceded by vascular de-differentiation in these animals. We then examined the mechanisms of miRNA regulation in primary VSMC and found decreased expression of miR-125b, 145, and 155 in VSMC from rats with CKD compared to normal littermates but no alteration in DROSHA or DICER, indicating that the low levels of expression is not due to altered intracellular processing. Finally, overexpression of miR-155 in VSMC from CKD rats inhibited AT1R expression and decreased cellular proliferation supporting a direct effect of miR-155 on VSMC. In conclusion, we have found ex vivo and in vitro evidence for decreased expression of these vascular miRNA in CKD, suggesting that alterations in miRNAs may lead to the synthetic state of VSMC found in CKD. The decreased levels in the circulation may reflect decreased vascular release but more studies are needed to confirm this relationship.

  18. Retinal vascular caliber is associated with cardiovascular biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation: the POLA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Daien

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Retinal vascular caliber has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk and is predictive of cardiovascular pathology, including stroke and coronary heart disease. Oxidative stress, as well as inflammatory mechanisms, plays a major role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, plaque rupture and vascular thrombotic propensity. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between retinal vascular calibers and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in subjects free of cardiovascular pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from a community-dwelling cohort comprising 1224 individuals aged 60 years and over, without a history of coronary or peripheral artery disease or stroke. Retinal vascular caliber was measured from fundus photographs using semi-automated standardized imaging software. Oxidative stress was evaluated using plasma superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3 activities, and inflammatory state was assessed using plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and orosomucoid. RESULTS: In a multivariate model controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, larger retinal arteriolar caliber was independently related to higher level of GPx-3 activity (p = 0.003 whereas larger venular caliber was associated with higher levels of hsCRP (p = 0.0001 and orosomucoid (p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: In the present study, biomarkers of oxidative stress regulation and inflammation were independently associated with retinal vascular calibers. This suggests that an assessment of retinal vessels may offer early and non-invasive detection of subclinical vascular pathology.

  19. Vascular Injury in Orthopedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Panagopoulos, George N; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Koulouvaris, Panayiotis; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Igoumenou, Vasilios; Mantas, George; Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Sfyroeras, George S; Lazaris, Andreas; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2016-07-01

    Vascular injury in orthopedic trauma is challenging. The risk to life and limb can be high, and clinical signs initially can be subtle. Recognition and management should be a critical skill for every orthopedic surgeon. There are 5 types of vascular injury: intimal injury (flaps, disruptions, or subintimal/intramural hematomas), complete wall defects with pseudoaneurysms or hemorrhage, complete transections with hemorrhage or occlusion, arteriovenous fistulas, and spasm. Intimal defects and subintimal hematomas with possible secondary occlusion are most commonly associated with blunt trauma, whereas wall defects, complete transections, and arteriovenous fistulas usually occur with penetrating trauma. Spasm can occur after either blunt or penetrating trauma to an extremity and is more common in young patients. Clinical presentation of vascular injury may not be straightforward. Physical examination can be misleading or initially unimpressive; a normal pulse examination may be present in 5% to 15% of patients with vascular injury. Detection and treatment of vascular injuries should take place within the context of the overall resuscitation of the patient according to the established principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Advances in the field, made mostly during times of war, have made limb salvage the rule rather than the exception. Teamwork, familiarity with the often subtle signs of vascular injuries, a high index of suspicion, effective communication, appropriate use of imaging modalities, sound knowledge of relevant technique, and sequence of surgical repairs are among the essential factors that will lead to a successful outcome. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on a subject that generates significant controversy and confusion among clinicians involved in the care of trauma patients. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):249-259.]. PMID:27322172

  20. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.