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Sample records for alters motor behavior

  1. The first mecp2-null zebrafish model shows altered motor behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pietri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder and one of the most common causes of mental retardation in affected girls. Other symptoms include a rapid regression of motor and cognitive skills after an apparently early normal development. Sporadic mutations in the transcription factor MECP2 has been shown to be present in more than 90% of the patients and several models of MeCP2-deficient mice have been created to understand the role of this gene. These models have pointed toward alterations in the maintenance of the central nervous system rather than its development, in line with the late onset of the disease in humans. However, the exact functions of MeCP2 remain difficult to delineate and the animal models have yielded contradictory results. Here, we present the first mecp2-null allele mutation zebrafish model. Surprisingly and in contrast to MeCP2-null mouse models, mecp2-null zebrafish are viable and fertile. They present nonetheless clear behavioral alterations during their early development, including spontaneous and sensory-evoked motor anomalies, as well as defective thigmotaxis.

  2. Prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure alters motor behavior and ultrasonic vocalization in cd-1 mouse pups

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    Calamandrei Gemma

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorpyrifos (CPF is a non-persistent organophosphate (OP largely used as pesticide. Studies from animal models indicate that CPF is a developmental neurotoxicant able to target immature central nervous system at dose levels well below the threshold of systemic toxicity. So far, few data are available on the potential short- and long-term adverse effects in children deriving from low-level exposures during prenatal life and infancy. Methods Late gestational exposure [gestational day (GD 14–17] to CPF at the dose of 6 mg/kg was evaluated in CD-1 mice during early development, by assessment of somatic and sensorimotor maturation [reflex-battery on postnatal days (PNDs 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15] and ultrasound emission after isolation from the mother and siblings (PNDs 4, 7 and 10. Pups' motor skills were assessed in a spontaneous activity test on PND 12. Maternal behavior of lactating dams in the home cage and in response to presentation of a pup previously removed from the nest was scored on PND 4, to verify potential alterations in maternal care directly induced by CPF administration. Results As for the effects on the offspring, results indicated that on PND 10, CPF significantly decreased number and duration of ultrasonic calls while increasing latency to emit the first call after isolation. Prenatal CPF also reduced motor behavior on PND 12, while a tendency to hyporeflexia was observed in CPF pups by means of reflex-battery scoring. Dams administered during gestation with CPF showed baseline levels of maternal care comparable to those of controls, but higher levels of both pup-directed (licking and explorative (wall rearing responses. Conclusion Overall our results are consistent with previous epidemiological data on OP neurobehavioral toxicity, and also indicate ultrasonic vocalization as an early marker of CPF exposure during development in rodent studies, with potential translational value to human infants.

  3. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training: a comparison between motor execution and motor imagery of sequential finger tapping

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    Zhang, Hang; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2011-03-01

    Motor imagery training, as an effective strategy, has been more and more applied to mental disorders rehabilitation and motor skill learning. Studies on the neural mechanism underlying motor imagery have suggested that such effectiveness may be related to the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery. However, as compared to the studies on motor imagery, the studies on motor imagery training are much fewer. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training and the effectiveness of motor imagery training on motor performance improvement still needs further investigation. Using fMRI, we employed a sequential finger tapping paradigm to explore the functional alterations associated with motor imagery training in both motor execution and motor imagery task. We hypothesized through 14 consecutive days motor imagery training, the motor performance could be improved and the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery would be sustained form pre-training phase to post-training phase. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of motor imagery training in improving motor performance and demonstrated in both pre and post-training phases, motor imagery and motor execution consistently sustained the congruence in functional neuroanatomy, including SMA (supplementary motor cortex), PMA (premotor area); M1( primary motor cortex) and cerebellum. Moreover, for both execution and imagery tasks, a similar functional alteration was observed in fusiform through motor imagery training. These findings provided an insight into the effectiveness of motor imagery training and suggested its potential therapeutic value in motor rehabilitation.

  4. Alteration in global motor strategy following lateral ankle sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Bastien, Maude; Moffet, Hélène; Bouyer, Laurent J; Perron, Marc; Hébert, Luc J; Leblond, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral ankle sprain (LAS) has often been considered an injury leading to localized joint impairments affecting the musculoskeletal system. Persistent chronic ankle instability and bilateral alterations in motor control after a first ankle sprain episode suggest that the origin of relapses might be a maladaptive reorganization of central motor commands. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare the quality of motor control through motor strategy variables of two groups (with...

  5. Recruitment of rat diaphragm motor units across motor behaviors with different levels of diaphragm activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seven, Yasin B.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Phrenic motor neurons are recruited across a range of motor behaviors to generate varying levels of diaphragm muscle (DIAm) force. We hypothesized that DIAm motor units are recruited in a fixed order across a range of motor behaviors of varying force levels, consistent with the Henneman Size Principle. Single motor unit action potentials and compound DIAm EMG activities were recorded in anesthetized, neurally intact rats across different motor behaviors, i.e., eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10%...

  6. Cross-species assessments of Motor and Exploratory Behavior related to Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Brook L.; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W.; Martin P Paulus; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in exploratory behavior are a fundamental feature of bipolar mania, typically characterized as motor hyperactivity and increased goal-directed behavior in response to environmental cues. In contrast, abnormal exploration associated with schizophrenia and depression can manifest as prominent withdrawal, limited motor activity, and inattention to the environment. While motor abnormalities are cited frequently as clinical manifestations of these disorders, relatively few empirical st...

  7. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors and stress-related alterations of gut motor function.

    OpenAIRE

    Taché, Yvette; Bonaz, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few decades, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways have been shown to be the main coordinators of the endocrine, behavioral, and immune responses to stress. Emerging evidence also links the activation of CRF receptors type 1 and type 2 with stress-related alterations of gut motor function. Here, we review the role of CRF receptors in both the brain and the gut as part of key mechanisms through which various stressors impact propulsive activity of the gastrointe...

  8. The Neuronal Network Orchestration behind Motor Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter Christian

    inducing different scratch behaviors. We find that neuronal populations in the spinal cord have highly skewed distributions of firing rates. The majority of the neurons was spiking at low firing rates, while a minority had an activity level that was much higher. The distribution is lognormal-like and...... robust across trials, and it remains skewed in different behaviors. Our findings support that the neuronal activity, which is involved in motor behavior, is governed by synaptic fluctuations and as a result thereof is irregular. Similar lognormal- like distributions of firing rates have also been......In biological networks, millions of neurons organize themselves from microscopic noisy individuals to robust macroscopic entities. These entities are capable of producing higher functions like sensory processing, decision-making, and elaborate behavioral responses. Every aspect of these behaviors...

  9. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state...

  10. Parallel Alterations of Functional Connectivity during Execution and Imagination after Motor Imagery Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hang; Xu, Lele; Zhang, Rushao; Hui, Mingqi; Long, Zhiying; Zhao, Xiaojie; Yao, Li

    2012-01-01

    Background Neural substrates underlying motor learning have been widely investigated with neuroimaging technologies. Investigations have illustrated the critical regions of motor learning and further revealed parallel alterations of functional activation during imagination and execution after learning. However, little is known about the functional connectivity associated with motor learning, especially motor imagery learning, although benefits from functional connectivity analysis attract mor...

  11. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  12. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

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    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  13. Cognition and behavior in motor neuron disease

    OpenAIRE

    Raaphorst, J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor neuron loss, leading to weakness of the muscles of arms and legs, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Depending on the involvement of the lower and the upper motor neuron, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; both lower and upper motor neuron affected) and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA; only lower motor neuron affected) are recognized. There is no cure, despite numerous pharmaceutical tria...

  14. Developmental alterations in motor coordination and medium spiny neuron markers in mice lacking pgc-1α.

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    Elizabeth K Lucas

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in the pathophysiology of Huntington Disease (HD. Adult PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit striatal neurodegeneration, and reductions in the expression of PGC-1α have been observed in striatum and muscle of HD patients as well as in animal models of the disease. However, it is unknown whether decreased expression of PGC-1α alone is sufficient to lead to the motor phenotype and striatal pathology characteristic of HD. For the first time, we show that young PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit severe rotarod deficits, decreased rearing behavior, and increased occurrence of tremor in addition to the previously described hindlimb clasping. Motor impairment and striatal vacuolation are apparent in PGC-1α (-/- mice by four weeks of age and do not improve or decline by twelve weeks of age. The behavioral and pathological phenotype of PGC-1α (-/- mice can be completely recapitulated by conditional nervous system deletion of PGC-1α, indicating that peripheral effects are not responsible for the observed abnormalities. Evaluation of the transcriptional profile of PGC-1α (-/- striatal neuron populations and comparison to striatal neuron profiles of R6/2 HD mice revealed that PGC-1α deficiency alone is not sufficient to cause the transcriptional changes observed in this HD mouse model. In contrast to R6/2 HD mice, PGC-1α (-/- mice show increases in the expression of medium spiny neuron (MSN markers with age, suggesting that the observed behavioral and structural abnormalities are not primarily due to MSN loss, the defining pathological feature of HD. These results indicate that PGC-1α is required for the proper development of motor circuitry and transcriptional homeostasis in MSNs and that developmental disruption of PGC-1α leads to long-term alterations in motor functioning.

  15. Recruitment of rat diaphragm motor units across motor behaviors with different levels of diaphragm activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Yasin B; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2014-12-01

    Phrenic motor neurons are recruited across a range of motor behaviors to generate varying levels of diaphragm muscle (DIAm) force. We hypothesized that DIAm motor units are recruited in a fixed order across a range of motor behaviors of varying force levels, consistent with the Henneman Size Principle. Single motor unit action potentials and compound DIAm EMG activities were recorded in anesthetized, neurally intact rats across different motor behaviors, i.e., eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), deep breaths, sustained airway occlusion, and sneezing. Central drive [estimated by root-mean-squared (RMS) EMG value 75 ms after the onset of EMG activity (RMS75)], recruitment delay, and onset discharge frequencies were similar during eupnea and hypoxia-hypercapnia. Compared with eupnea, central drive increased (∼25%) during deep breaths, and motor units were recruited ∼12 ms earlier (P hypoxia-hypercapnia, deep breaths, and airway occlusion, respectively. Reversals in motor unit recruitment order were observed primarily if motor unit pairs were recruited <20 ms apart. These results are consistent with DIAm motor unit recruitment order being determined primarily by the intrinsic size-dependent electrophysiological properties of phrenic motor neurons. PMID:25257864

  16. Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor

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    Muhammad Khan Burdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known

  17. Cognitive alterations in motor imagery process after left hemispheric ischemic stroke.

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    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after

  18. Motor Stereotypies and Volumetric Brain Alterations in Children with Autistic Disorder

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    Goldman, Sylvie; O'Brien, Liam M.; Filipek, Pauline A.; Rapin, Isabelle; Herbert, Martha R.

    2013-01-01

    Motor stereotypies are defined as patterned, repetitive, purposeless movements. These stigmatizing motor behaviors represent one manifestation of the third core criterion for an Autistic Disorder (AD) diagnosis, and are becoming viewed as potential early markers of autism. Moreover, motor stereotypies might be a tangible expression of the…

  19. Alterations in the motor neuron-Renshaw cell circuit in the Sod1G93A mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Wootz, Hanna; FitzSimons-Kantamneni, Eileen; Larhammar, Martin; Rotterman, Travis M.; Enjin, Anders; Patra, Kalicharan; Andre, Elodie; van Zundert, Brigitte; Kullander, Klas; Alvarez, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Motor neurons become hyperexcitable during progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This abnormal firing behavior has been explained by changes in their membrane properties, but more recently it has been suggested that changes in premotor circuits may also contribute to this abnormal activity. The specific circuits that may be altered during development of ALS have not been investigated. Here we examined the Renshaw cell recurrent circuit that exerts inhibitory feedback control on ...

  20. Neuronal–glial alterations in non-primary motor areas in chronic subcortical stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen M. Cirstea; Nudo, Randolph J.; Craciunas, Sorin C.; Popescu, Elena A.; Choi, In-Young; Lee, Phil; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Savage, Cary R.; Brooks, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Whether functional changes of the non-primary motor areas, e.g., dorsal premotor (PMd) and supplementary motor (SMA) areas, after stroke, reflect reorganization phenomena or recruitment of a pre-existing motor network remains to be clarified. We hypothesized that cellular changes in these areas would be consistent with their involvement in post-stroke reorganization. Specifically, we expected that neuronal and glial compartments would be altered in radiologically normal-appearing, i.e., spare...

  1. Differential motor alterations in children with three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Poblano; Belinda Luna; César Reynoso

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine frequency of motor alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method We evaluated 19 children aged 7-12 years with ADHD classified in three sub-types: Combined (ADHD-C), with Inattention (ADHD-I), and with Hyperactivity (ADHD-H). Controls were age- and gender matched healthy children. We utilized Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) for measuring motor skills. Results We observed differences between children with A...

  2. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

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    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  3. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A; Waggett, Rebecca J; Place, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  4. Cortical circuits, learning, and behavior : Local reorganization of synaptic partners and the expansion of the motor repertoire

    OpenAIRE

    Biane, Jeremy Stanford

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate patterning of synaptic circuitry is vital for proper central nervous system function, and neurons retain a significant capacity for synaptic reorganization throughout life. To better understand how synaptic alterations mediate the development and refinement of complex behavior, this dissertation investigates the neurophysiological and circuit-level changes accompanying 1) the emergence of fine motor behavior during development, and 2) motor skill learning in adulthood. We develope...

  5. Interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in cognitive and motor impairment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Agusti, Ana; Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Gomez-Gimenez, Belen; Malaguarnera, Michele; Dadsetan, Sherry; Belghiti, Majedeline; Garcia-Garcia, Raquel; Balzano, Tiziano; Taoro, Lucas; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    The cognitive and motor alterations in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) are the final result of altered neurotransmission and communication between neurons in neuronal networks and circuits. Different neurotransmitter systems cooperate to modulate cognitive and motor function, with a main role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in different brain areas and neuronal circuits. There is an interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in cognitive and motor impairment in HE. This interplay may occur: (a) in different brain areas involved in specific neuronal circuits; (b) in the same brain area through cross-modulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We will summarize some examples of the (1) interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in different areas in the basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit in the motor alterations in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE); (2) interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in cerebellum in the impairment of cognitive function in MHE through altered function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway. We will also comment the therapeutic implications of the above studies and the utility of modulators of glutamate and GABA receptors to restore cognitive and motor function in rats with hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:25447766

  6. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

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    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience. PMID:27059336

  7. REM sleep behavior disorder: motor manifestations and pathophysiology.

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    Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    Patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) enact violent dreams during REM sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia. This disorder is highly frequent in patients with synucleinopathies (60%-100% of patients) and rare in patients with other neurodegenerative disorders. The disorder is detected by interview plus video and sleep monitoring. Abnormal movements expose the patients and bed partners to a high risk of injury and sleep disruption. The disorder is usually alleviated with melatonin and clonazepam. Limb movements are mainly minor, jerky, fast, pseudohallucinatory, and repeated, with a limp wrist during apparently grasping movements, although body jerks and complex violent (fights) and nonviolent culturally acquired behaviors are also observed. Notably, parkinsonism disappears during RBD-associated complex behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease and with multiple system atrophy, suggesting that the upper motor stream bypasses the basal ganglia during REM sleep. Longitudinal studies show that idiopathic RBD predisposes patients to later develop Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and, more rarely, multiple system atrophy, with a rate of conversion of 46% within 5 years. During this time window, patients concomitantly develop nonmotor signs (decreased olfaction and color vision, orthostatic hypotension, altered visuospatial abilities, increased harm avoidance) and have abnormal test results (decreased putamen dopamine uptake, slower EEG). Patients with idiopathic RBD have higher and faster risk for conversion to Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies if abnormalities in dopamine transporter imaging, transcranial sonography, olfaction, and color vision are found at baseline. They constitute a highly specific target for testing neuroprotective agents. PMID:22447623

  8. Motor stereotypies and volumetric brain alterations in children with Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Sylvie; O’Brien, Liam M.; Filipek, Pauline A.; Rapin, Isabelle; Herbert, Martha R.

    2013-01-01

    Motor stereotypies are defined as patterned, repetitive, purposeless movements. These stigmatizing motor behaviors represent one manifestation of the third core criterion for an Autistic Disorder (AD) diagnosis, and are becoming viewed as potential early markers of autism. Moreover, motor stereotypies might be a tangible expression of the underlying neurobiology of this neurodevelopmental disorder. In this study, we videoscored stereotypies recorded during semi-structured play sessions from s...

  9. Differential motor alterations in children with three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Poblano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine frequency of motor alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method We evaluated 19 children aged 7-12 years with ADHD classified in three sub-types: Combined (ADHD-C, with Inattention (ADHD-I, and with Hyperactivity (ADHD-H. Controls were age- and gender matched healthy children. We utilized Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP for measuring motor skills. Results We observed differences between children with ADHD and controls in BOTMP general score and in static coordination, dynamic general- and hand- coordination, and in synkinetic movements. We also found differences in dynamic hand coordination between controls and children with ADHD-C; in dynamic general coordination between controls and children with ADHD-H; and in frequency of synkinetic movements between controls and children with ADHD-H. Conclusion Children with ADHD with a major degree of hyperactivity showed greater frequency of motor alterations.

  10. Motor Deficits and Altered Striatal Gene Expression in aphakia(ak) Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bhupinder; Wilson, Jean H.; Vasavada, Hema H; Guo, Zhenchao; Allore, Heather G.; Zeiss, Caroline J.

    2007-01-01

    Like humans with Parkinsons disease (PD), the ak mouse lacks the majority of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and experiences striatal denervation. The purpose of this study was to test whether motor abnormalities in the ak mouse progress over time, and whether motor function could be associated with temporal alterations in the striatal transcriptome. Ak and wt mice (28 to 180 days old) were tested using paradigms sensitive to nigrostriatal dysfunction. Results were analyzed using a l...

  11. Alterations in axonal transport motor proteins in sporadic and experimental Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Yaping; Morfini, Gerardo A.; Langhamer, Lori B.; He, Yinzhen; Brady, Scott T.; KORDOWER, JEFFREY H.

    2012-01-01

    The progressive loss of the nigrostriatal pathway is a distinguishing feature of Parkinson’s disease. As terminal field loss seems to precede cell body loss, we tested whether alterations of axonal transport motor proteins would be early features in Parkinson’s disease. There was a decline in axonal transport motor proteins in sporadic Parkinson’s disease that preceded other well-known nigral cell-related pathology such as phenotypic downregulation of dopamine. Reductions in conventional kine...

  12. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:19998493

  13. The Feldenkrais Method: A Dynamic Approach to Changing Motor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Patricia A.; Ulrich, Beverly D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Feldenkrais Method of somatic education, noting parallels with a dynamic systems theory (DST) approach to motor behavior. Feldenkrais uses movement and perception to foster individualized improvement in function. DST explains that a human-environment system continually adapts to changing conditions and assembles behaviors…

  14. Motor effort alters changes of mind in sensorimotor decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Burk

    Full Text Available After committing to an action, a decision-maker can change their mind to revise the action. Such changes of mind can even occur when the stream of information that led to the action is curtailed at movement onset. This is explained by the time delays in sensory processing and motor planning which lead to a component at the end of the sensory stream that can only be processed after initiation. Such post-initiation processing can explain the pattern of changes of mind by asserting an accumulation of additional evidence to a criterion level, termed change-of-mind bound. Here we test the hypothesis that physical effort associated with the movement required to change one's mind affects the level of the change-of-mind bound and the time for post-initiation deliberation. We varied the effort required to change from one choice target to another in a reaching movement by varying the geometry of the choice targets or by applying a force field between the targets. We show that there is a reduction in the frequency of change of mind when the separation of the choice targets would require a larger excursion of the hand from the initial to the opposite choice. The reduction is best explained by an increase in the evidence required for changes of mind and a reduced time period of integration after the initial decision. Thus the criteria to revise an initial choice is sensitive to energetic costs.

  15. Motor resonance evoked by observation of subtle nonverbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ulzen, Niek R; Fiorio, Mirta; Cesari, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to combine two, otherwise separated, fields of research regarding motor resonance and mimicry by adopting a naturalistic mimicry paradigm while probing motor resonance with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). At stake was whether the motor system resonates instantaneously with unobtrusive nonverbal behavior of another person. We measured excitability in the left and right hand while participants viewed sequences of video clips and static images. In the video clips an actor performed several clerical tasks, while either inconspicuously touching his face (face-touching (FT) condition) or not (no face-touching (NFT) condition). We found that excitability was higher in the FT condition than in the NFT and baseline conditions. Furthermore, our data showed a general heightened excitability in the left motor cortex relative to the right. Taken together, the results suggest that observed hand-face gestures--even though outside the primary focus of attention and occurring inconspicuously throughout an ongoing action setting--can cause instantaneous resonant activity in the observer's motor system. It thus supports the idea of motor resonance involvement in mimicry and demonstrates that this can be studied using a naturalistic mimicry paradigm. PMID:23758553

  16. [Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: cognition and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Anne Marie; Czernecki, Virginie

    2013-09-01

    Although the diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on motor symptoms, it is now well known that non-motor symptoms are an integral part of this pathology, involving in fact multiple systems. These non-motor symptoms affect large population of patients and can appear sometimes before the motor disorders. The non-motor symptoms include mainly neuropsychological difficulties, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and autonomic disorders, but involve also pain and sleep disturbances for example. Depression may occur at any stage of the disease, and consists in major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder, and dysthymia. During the course of the disease, 50% of patients experience anxiety. Apathy is present in up to 30-40% of patients, due to loss of motivation, appearing in emotional, intellectual and behavioral domains. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome and impulse control disorders are not rare, and in relation with dopaminergic therapies. Impulse control disorders include pathological gambling, hyper sexuality, compulsive shopping, and eating disorder. Visual hallucinations can occur in 30% of patients, mostly induced by dopaminergic therapies. Often, they have deeper impact on the quality of life than the motor symptoms themselves, which stay the focus of attention during consulting. Identifying those can help in providing better care with a positive impact on the quality of life of the patients. PMID:24026132

  17. Altered synaptic plasticity in Tourette's syndrome and its relationship to motor skill learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics that can be considered motor responses to preceding inner urges. It has been shown that Tourette patients have inferior performance in some motor learning tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. However, it has not been investigated whether altered synaptic plasticity is directly linked to impaired motor skill acquisition in Tourette patients. In this study, cortical plasticity was assessed by measuring motor-evoked potentials before and after paired associative stimulation in 14 Tourette patients (13 male; age 18-39 and 15 healthy controls (12 male; age 18-33. Tic and urge severity were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Premonitory Urges for Tics Scale. Motor learning was assessed 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity and 9 months later, using the rotary pursuit task. On average, long-term potentiation-like effects in response to the paired associative stimulation were present in healthy controls but not in patients. In Tourette patients, long-term potentiation-like effects were associated with more and long-term depression-like effects with less severe urges and tics. While motor learning did not differ between patients and healthy controls 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity, the learning curve of the healthy controls started at a significantly higher level than the Tourette patients' 9 months later. Induced synaptic plasticity correlated positively with motor skills in healthy controls 9 months later. The present study confirms previously found long-term improvement in motor performance after paired associative stimulation in healthy controls but not in Tourette patients. Tourette patients did not show long-term potentiation in response to PAS and also showed reduced levels of motor skill consolidation after 9 months compared to healthy controls. Moreover

  18. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  19. Language, motor skills and behavior problems in preschool years

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Child language development is a complex process. This process cannot be understood without considering its relationship to other developmental domains. Language development in preschool years is associated with development of motor skills and behavior problems, and these associations are the focus of the current thesis. Despite a large number of studies examining the co-occurrence of such developmental delays and problems, few studies have examined the developmental relationship between these...

  20. Role of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitters in behavioral alterations observed in rodent model of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, Saurabh; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in behavioral alterations observed in rat model of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following bile duct ligation (BDL). Male Wistar rats subjected to BDL developed biliary fibrosis after four weeks which was supported by altered liver function tests, increased ammonia levels and histological staining (Sirius red). Animals were assessed for their behavioral performance in terms of cognitive, anxiety and motor functions. The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) were estimated in different regions of brain viz. cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum using HPLC along with activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Cognitive assessment of BDL rats revealed a progressive decline in learning, memory formation, retrieval, exploration of novel environment and spontaneous locomotor activity along with decrease in 5-HT and NE levels. This was accompanied by an increase in MAO activity. Motor functions of BDL rats were also altered which were evident from decrease in the time spent on the rotating rod and higher foot faults assessed using narrow beam walk task. A global decrease was observed in the DA content along with an increase in MAO activity. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and cresyl violet exhibited marked neuronal degeneration, wherein neurons appeared more pyknotic, condensed and damaged. The results reveal that dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways are disturbed in chronic liver failure post-BDL which may be responsible for behavioral impairments observed in HE. PMID:25639545

  1. Altered Gene Expression, Mitochondrial Damage and Oxidative Stress: Converging Routes in Motor Neuron Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases (MNDs are a rather heterogeneous group of diseases, with either sporadic or genetic origin or both, all characterized by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons. At the cellular level, MNDs share features such as protein misfolding and aggregation, mitochondrial damage and energy deficit, and excitotoxicity and calcium mishandling. This is particularly well demonstrated in ALS, where both sporadic and familial forms share the same symptoms and pathological phenotype, with a prominent role for mitochondrial damage and resulting oxidative stress. Based on recent data, however, altered control of gene expression seems to be a most relevant, and previously overlooked, player in MNDs. Here we discuss which may be the links that make pathways apparently as different as altered gene expression, mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress converge to generate a similar motoneuron-toxic phenotype.

  2. State- and trait-related alterations of motor cortex excitability in tinnitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schecklmann, Martin; Landgrebe, Michael; Kleinjung, Tobias; Frank, Elmar; Rupprecht, Rainer; Sand, Philipp G.; Eichhammer, Peter; Hajak, Göran; Langguth, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a brain network disorder with involvement of auditory and non-auditory areas. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporal cortex has been investigated for the treatment of tinnitus. Several small studies suggest that motor cortex excitability is altered in people with tinnitus. We retrospectively analysed data from 231 patients with chronic tinnitus and 120 healthy controls by pooling data from different studies. Variables of interest were resting...

  3. Altered motor unit discharge patterns in paretic muscles of stroke survivors assessed using surface electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K.; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Hemispheric stroke survivors often show impairments in voluntary muscle activation. One potential source of these impairments could come from altered control of muscle, via disrupted motor unit (MU) firing patterns. In this study, we sought to determine whether MU firing patterns are modified on the affected side of stroke survivors, as compared with the analogous contralateral muscle. Approach. Using a novel surface electromyogram (EMG) sensor array, coupled with advanced template recognition software (dEMG) we recorded surface EMG signals over the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle on both paretic and contralateral sides. Recordings were made as stroke survivors produced isometric index finger abductions over a large force range (20%–60% of maximum). Utilizing the dEMG algorithm, MU firing rates, recruitment thresholds, and action potential amplitudes were estimated for concurrently active MUs in each trial. Main results. Our results reveal significant changes in the firing rate patterns in paretic FDI muscle, in that the discharge rates, characterized in relation to recruitment force threshold and to MU size, were less clearly correlated with recruitment force than in contralateral FDI muscles. Firing rates in the affected muscle also did not modulate systematically with the level of voluntary muscle contraction, as would be expected in intact muscles. These disturbances in firing properties also correlated closely with the impairment of muscle force generation. Significance. Our results provide strong evidence of disruptions in MU firing behavior in paretic muscles after a hemispheric stroke, suggesting that modified control of the spinal motoneuron pool could be a contributing factor to muscular weakness in stroke survivors.

  4. NEURAL PATHWAYS OF TRIGEMINAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE AFFERENTS COORDINATE ORAL MOTOR BEHAVIORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Pifu; Zhang Jingdong; Li Jishuo

    2003-01-01

    neuroanatomical network to elucidate trigeminal proprioceptive afferents coordinate oral motor behaviors.

  5. The behavioral effects of enriched housing are not altered by serotonin depletion but enrichment alters hippocampal neurochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galani, Rodrigue; Berthel, Marie-Camille; Lazarus, Christine; Majchrzak, Monique; Barbelivien, Alexandra; Kelche, Christian; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2007-07-01

    To assess a possible role for serotonin in the mediation of the behavioral changes induced by enriched housing conditions (EC), adult female Long-Evans rats sustaining a serotonin depletion (150 microg of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, icv) and sham-operated rats were housed postoperatively for 30 days in enriched (12 rats/large cage containing various objects) or standard housing conditions (2 rats/standard laboratory cage). Thereafter, anxiety responses (elevated plus-maze), locomotor activity (in the home-cage), sensori-motor capabilities (beam-walking task), and spatial memory (eight-arm radial maze) were assessed. Monoamine levels were subsequently measured in the frontoparietal cortex and the hippocampus. Overall, EC reduced anxiety-related responses, enhanced sensori-motor performance and improved the memory span in the initial stage of the spatial memory task. Despite a substantial reduction of serotonergic markers in the hippocampus (82%) and the cortex (74%), these positive effects of EC were not altered by the lesion. EC reduced the serotonin levels in the ventral hippocampus (particularly in unlesioned rats: -23%), increased serotonin turnover in the entire hippocampus (particularly in lesioned rats: +36%) and augmented the norepinephrine levels in the dorsal hippocampus (+68% in unlesioned and +49% in lesioned rats); no such alterations were found in the frontoparietal cortex. Our data suggest that an intact serotonergic system is not a prerequisite for the induction of positive behavioral effects by EC. The neurochemical changes found in the hippocampus of EC rats, however, show that the monoaminergic innervation of the hippocampus is a target of EC. PMID:17493843

  6. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  7. Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Velíšek, Libor

    2011-01-01

    In humans, corticosteroids are often administered prenatally to improve lung development in preterm neonates. Studies in exposed children as well as in children, whose mothers experienced significant stress during pregnancy indicate behavioral problems and possible increased occurrence of epileptic spasms. This study investigated whether prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. On gestational day 15, pregnant rats were injected i.p. with hy...

  8. Sex-dependent changes in social behaviors in motor pre-symptomatic R6/1 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Pietropaolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The R6/1 mouse line is one of the most widely employed models of Huntington Disease (HD, a complex syndrome characterized by motor and non-motor deficits. Surprisingly, its behavioral phenotype during the early phases of the pathology when the motor impairments are not manifest yet has been poorly investigated. It is also not clear whether the expression of HD-like symptoms at the pre-motor stage in this mouse model differs between the two sexes. METHODS: Male and female 12 weeks-old R6/1 mice and their wild-type littermates were tested on a battery of tests modeling some of the major neuropsychiatric non-motor symptoms of HD: alterations in social interest, social interaction and communication, as well as disturbances in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI and circadian patterns of activity. The lack of motor symptoms was confirmed during the entire experimental period by means of the tail test for clasping. RESULTS: R6/1 mice displayed marked alterations in all social behaviors which were mainly observed in males. Male R6/1 animals were also the only ones showing reduced body weight. Both male and female transgenic mice displayed mild alterations in the circadian activity patterns, but no deficits in PPI. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the validity of the R6/1 mouse in mimicking selected neuropsychiatric symptoms of HD, the social deficits being the clearest markers of the pre-motor phase of the pathology. Furthermore, our data suggest that male R6/1 mice are more suitable for future studies on the early stages of HD.

  9. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P.

    2015-04-01

    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results.

  10. Analysis of the motor behavior of a patient submitted to radical mastectomy - doi:10.5020/18061230.2009.p61

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Flocke Hack

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the motor behavior of a patient in late postoperative of radical mastectomy during the accomplishment of some daily life activities, her gait and her body posture. Methods: This was an observational and descriptive case report study developed in an academic institution at Novo Hamburgo/RS, Brazil. By means of video recording, the accomplishment of daily life activities, the gait and body posture of a mastectomy patient were evaluated. Results: The most important alterations found were: increased base of support, torso swinging on gait, “S” shape scoliosis, accentuation of the spine physiologic curves and compensatory attitudes for reaching greater amplitudes of arm elevation at the same side of the surgery. Conclusion: We conclude that motor behavior alterations after surgery of radical mastectomy can be reasonably minimized, remaining a small reduction of movement amplitude and of muscular strength on upper limb and torso.

  11. Alteration in forward model prediction of sensory outcome of motor action in Focal Hand Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eLee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Focal hand dystonia in musicians is a movement disorder affecting highly trained movements. Rather than being a pure motor disorder related to movement execution only, movement planning, error prediction and sensorimotor integration are also impaired. Internal models, of which two types, forward and inverse models have been described and most likely processed in the cerebellum, are known to be involved in these tasks. Recent results indicate that the cerebellum may be involved in the pathophysiology of focal dystonia. Thus the aim of our study was to investigate whether an internal model deficit plays a role in focal dystonia. We focused on the forward model, which predicts sensory consequences of motor commands and allows the discrimination between external sensory input and input deriving from motor action. We investigated 19 patients, aged 19-59 and 19 healthy musicians aged 19-36 as controls. Tactile stimuli were applied to fingers II–V of both hands by the experimenter or the patient. After each stimulus the participant rated the stimulus-intensity on a scale between 0 (no sensation and 1 (maximal intensity. The difference of perceived intensity between self- & externally applied stimuli was then calculated for each finger. For assessing differences between patients and controls we performed a cluster analysis of the affected hand and the corresponding hand of the controls using the fingers II–V as variables in a 4-dimensional hyperspace (chance level=0.5. Using a cluster analysis, we found a correct classification of the affected finger in 78,9%-94.7%. There was no difference between patients and healthy controls of the absolute value of the perceived stimulus intensity. Our results suggest an altered forward model function in focal hand dystonia. It has the potential of suggesting a neural correlate within the cerebellum and of helping integrate findings with regard to altered sensorimotor processing and altered prediction in FD in a

  12. Exercise alters resting state functional connectivity of motor circuits in Parkinsonian rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G.; Heintz, Ryan; Peng, Yu-Hao; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined changes in functional connectivity after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of motor circuits of rats subjected to bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the dorsal striatum. Our results showed substantial similarity between lesion-induced changes in rsFC in the rats and alterations in rsFC reported in Parkinson’s disease subjects, including disconnection o...

  13. Motor Prediction at the Edge of Instability: Alteration of Grip Force Control during Changes in Bimanual Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Frederic; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2010-01-01

    Predicting the consequences of actions is fundamental for skilled motor behavior. We investigated whether motor prediction is influenced by the fact that some movements are easier to perform and stabilize than others. Twelve subjects performed a bimanual rhythmical task either symmetrically or asymmetrically (the latter being more difficult and…

  14. LRRK2 overexpression alters glutamatergic presynaptic plasticity, striatal dopamine tone, postsynaptic signal transduction, motor activity and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccano-Kelly, Dayne A; Volta, Mattia; Munsie, Lise N; Paschall, Sarah A; Tatarnikov, Igor; Co, Kimberley; Chou, Patrick; Cao, Li-Ping; Bergeron, Sabrina; Mitchell, Emma; Han, Heather; Melrose, Heather L; Tapia, Lucia; Raymond, Lynn A; Farrer, Matthew J; Milnerwood, Austen J

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (Lrrk2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder affecting 1-2% of those >65 years old. The neurophysiology of LRRK2 remains largely elusive, although protein loss suggests a role in glutamatergic synapse transmission and overexpression studies show altered dopamine release in aged mice. We show that glutamate transmission is unaltered onto striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of adult LRRK2 knockout mice and that adult animals exhibit no detectable cognitive or motor deficits. Basal synaptic transmission is also unaltered in SPNs of LRRK2 overexpressing mice, but they do exhibit clear alterations to D2-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity, behavioral hypoactivity and impaired recognition memory. These phenomena are associated with decreased striatal dopamine tone and abnormal dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kDa signal integration. The data suggest that LRRK2 acts at the nexus of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the adult striatum, where it regulates dopamine levels, presynaptic glutamate release via D2-dependent synaptic plasticity and dopamine-receptor signal transduction. PMID:25343991

  15. Initial Observations of Fruit Fly;s Flight with its b1 Motor Neuron Altered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. Jane; Melfi, James, Jr.

    2015-11-01

    Recently we have suggested that one of the fly's 17 steering muscles, the first basalar muscle (b1) is responsible for maintaining flight stability. To test this, we compare the flight behavior of normal flies with genetically modified flies whose motor neuron to the b1 muscle is silenced. We report our initial observation of the difference and similarity between these two lines supplied by Janelia Farm. We also discuss the basic question for quantifying flight, what makes a good flier? Partly supported by the Visiting Scientist program at HHMI-Janelia Farm.

  16. Structural Brain Alterations Associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucetta, Soufiane; Salimi, Ali; Dadar, Mahsa; Jones, Barbara E; Collins, D Louis; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by dream-enactment motor manifestations arising from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD). Yet the specific neurostructural changes associated with RBD in PD patients remain to be revealed by neuroimaging. Here we identified such neurostructural alterations by comparing large samples of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 69 PD patients with probable RBD, 240 patients without RBD and 138 healthy controls, using deformation-based morphometry (p medullary reticular formation, hypothalamus, thalamus, putamen, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. These results demonstrate that RBD is associated with a prominent loss of volume in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum, where cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons are located and implicated in the promotion of REM sleep and muscle atonia. It is additionally associated with more widespread atrophy in other subcortical and cortical regions whose loss also likely contributes to the altered regulation of sleep-wake states and motor activity underlying RBD in PD patients. PMID:27245317

  17. Modulation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids. A new concept to improve cognitive and motor alterations in hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome affecting patients with liver diseases, mainly those with liver cirrhosis. The mildest form of HE is minimal HE (MHE), with mild cognitive impairment, attention deficit, psychomotor slowing and impaired visuo-motor and bimanual coordination. MHE may progress to clinical HE with worsening of the neurological alterations which may lead to reduced consciousness and, in the worse cases, may progress to coma and death. HE affects several million people in the world and is a serious health, social and economic problem. There are no specific treatments for the neurological alterations in HE. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive and motor alterations in HE are beginning to be clarified in animal models. These studies have allowed to design and test in animal models of HE new therapeutic approaches which have successfully restored cognitive and motor function in rats with HE. In this article we review the evidences showing that. PMID:26307490

  18. Alterations of motor performance and brain cortex mitochondrial function during ethanol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Juanita; Karadayian, Analia G; Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2012-08-01

    Ethanol has been known to affect various behavioral parameters in experimental animals, even several hours after ethanol (EtOH) is absent from blood circulation, in the period known as hangover. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acute ethanol hangover on motor performance in association with the brain cortex energetic metabolism. Evaluation of motor performance and brain cortex mitochondrial function during alcohol hangover was performed in mice 6 hours after a high ethanol dose (hangover onset). Animals were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8 g/kg BW) (hangover group). Ethanol hangover group showed a bad motor performance compared with control animals (p hangover animals showed a 34% decrease in the respiratory control rate as compared with the control group. Mitochondrial complex activities were decreased being the complex I-III the less affected by the hangover condition; complex II-III was markedly decreased by ethanol hangover showing 50% less activity than controls. Complex IV was 42% decreased as compared with control animals. Hydrogen peroxide production was 51% increased in brain cortex mitochondria from the hangover group, as compared with the control animals. Quantification of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential indicated that ethanol injected animals presented 17% less ability to maintain the polarized condition as compared with controls. These results indicate that a clear decrease in proton motive force occurs in brain cortex mitochondria during hangover conditions. We can conclude that a decreased motor performance observed in the hangover group of animals could be associated with brain cortex mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting impairment of its energetic metabolism. PMID:22608205

  19. Behavioral performance altering effects of MK-801 in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison, Margarette; Gerlai, Robert

    2011-07-01

    MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA-R antagonist, has been utilized in the analysis of mammalian learning and memory. The zebrafish is a novel vertebrate study species that has been proposed for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory. Although learning paradigms have been developed for this species, psychopharmacological characterization of its behavioral responses is rudimentary. Before one attempts the analysis of the effects of MK-801 on learning and memory in zebrafish, one needs to know whether this drug affects motor function, perception and/or motivation, factors that may influence performance in learning tasks. Here we conduct dose response analyses investigating the effects of 0, 2, 20 and 100 μM MK-801 administered 24h or 30 min before the behavioral test, or during the test. We analyze responses in the open tank to measure motor and posture patterns, in the light dark paradigm to evaluate visual perception, and in a group preference task to attempt to quantify motivation. Our results show a significant performance alteration only in the highest (100 μM) dose groups. These fish spent more time on the bottom of their tank, showed elevated Erratic movement, increased their clockwise and counterclockwise turning frequency, and reduced the time spent near a shoal stimulus, behavioral alterations that also depended upon the timing of drug administration. Thus, using the current delivery procedures and outbred zebrafish population, the highest dose that may not lead to significant performance deficits is 20 μM, a concentration we propose to use in a future learning study in zebrafish. PMID:21333690

  20. Monitoring tectal neuronal activities and motor behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, Germán; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2013-09-01

    To understand how visuomotor behaviors are controlled by the nervous system, it is necessary to monitor the activity of large populations of neurons with single-cell resolution over a large area of the brain in a relatively simple, behaving organism. The zebrafish larva, a small lower vertebrate with transparent skin, serves as an excellent model for this purpose. Immediately after the larva hatches, it needs to catch prey and avoid predators. This strong evolutionary pressure leads to the rapid development of functional sensory systems, particularly vision. By 5 d postfertilization (dpf), tectal cells show distinct visually evoked patterns of activation, and the larvae are able to perform a variety of visuomotor behaviors. During the early larval stage, zebrafish breathe mainly through the skin and can be restrained under the microscope using a drop of low-melting-point agarose, without the use of anesthetics. Moreover, the transparency of the skin, the small diameter of the neurons (4-5 µm), and the high-neuronal density enable the use of in vivo noninvasive imaging techniques to monitor neuronal activities of up to ∼500 cells within the central nervous system, still with single-cell resolution. This article describes a method for simultaneously monitoring spontaneous and visually evoked activities of large populations of neurons in the optic tectum of the zebrafish larva, using a synthetic calcium dye (Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM) and a conventional confocal or two-photon scanning fluorescence microscope, together with a method for measuring the tail motor behavior of the head-immobilized zebrafish larva. PMID:24003199

  1. Early exposure to dynamic environments alters patterns of motor exploration throughout the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S Lee; Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Barton, Scott J; Rebec, George V

    2016-04-01

    We assessed early rearing conditions on aging-related changes in mouse behavior. Two isolated-housing groups, running wheel (IHRW) and empty cage (IHEC), were compared against two enriched environments, static (EEST) and dynamic (EEDY), both of which included toys and other mice. For EEDY, the location of toys and sources of food and water changed daily, but remained constant for EEST. All mice, randomly assigned to one of the four groups at ∼4 weeks of age, remained in their respective environments for 25 weeks followed by single housing in empty cages. Beginning at ∼40 weeks of age, all mice were tested at monthly intervals in a plus-shaped maze in which we measured the number of arm entries and the probability of entering a perpendicular arm. Despite making significantly more arm entries than any other group, IHEC mice also were less likely to turn into the left or right arm, a sign of motor inflexibility. Both EEDY and EEST mice showed enhanced turning relative to IHRW and IHEC groups, but only EEDY mice maintained their turning performance for up to ∼100 weeks of age. EEDY and EEST mice also were unique in showing an increase in expression of the major glutamate transporter (GLT1) in striatum, but a decrease in motor cortex, suggesting a need for further assessment of environmental manipulations on long-term changes in forebrain glutamate transmission. Our behavioral results indicate that early exposure to continually changing environments, rather than socialization or exercise alone, results in life-long changes in patterns of motor exploration. PMID:26778790

  2. Diabetes alters KIF1A and KIF5B motor proteins in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa I Baptista

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in humans. Diabetic encephalopathy is characterized by cognitive and memory impairments, which have been associated with changes in the hippocampus, but the mechanisms underlying those impairments triggered by diabetes, are far from being elucidated. The disruption of axonal transport is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases and might also play a role in diabetes-associated disorders affecting nervous system. We investigated the effect of diabetes (2 and 8 weeks duration on KIF1A, KIF5B and dynein motor proteins, which are important for axonal transport, in the hippocampus. The mRNA expression of motor proteins was assessed by qRT-PCR, and also their protein levels by immunohistochemistry in hippocampal slices and immunoblotting in total extracts of hippocampus from streptozotocin-induced diabetic and age-matched control animals. Diabetes increased the expression and immunoreactivity of KIF1A and KIF5B in the hippocampus, but no alterations in dynein were detected. Since hyperglycemia is considered a major player in diabetic complications, the effect of a prolonged exposure to high glucose on motor proteins, mitochondria and synaptic proteins in hippocampal neurons was also studied, giving particular attention to changes in axons. Hippocampal cell cultures were exposed to high glucose (50 mM or mannitol (osmotic control; 25 mM plus 25 mM glucose for 7 days. In hippocampal cultures incubated with high glucose no changes were detected in the fluorescence intensity or number of accumulations related with mitochondria in the axons of hippocampal neurons. Nevertheless, high glucose increased the number of fluorescent accumulations of KIF1A and synaptotagmin-1 and decreased KIF5B, SNAP-25 and synaptophysin immunoreactivity specifically in axons of hippocampal neurons. These changes suggest that anterograde axonal transport mediated by these kinesins may be impaired in hippocampal

  3. Hyperammonaemia alters the mechanisms by which metabotropic glutamate receptors in nucleus accumbens modulate motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauli, Omar; Mlili, Nisrin; Rodrigo, Regina; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-10-01

    Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors by injecting (S)3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) increases motor activity by different mechanisms in control rats and in rats with chronic liver failure due to portacaval shunt. In control rats DHPG increases extracellular dopamine in NAcc and induces locomotion by activating the 'normal' circuit: NAcc-->ventral pallidum-->medial-dorsal thalamus-->prefrontal cortex, which is not activated in portacaval shunt rats. In these rats, DHPG activates an 'alternative' circuit: NAcc-->substantia nigra pars reticulata-->ventro-medial thalamus-->prefrontal cortex, which is not activated in control rats. The reasons by which liver failure leads to activation of this 'alternative' circuit remain unclear. The aim of this work was to assess whether hyperammonaemia could be responsible for the alterations found in chronic liver failure. We injected DHPG in NAcc of control or hyperammonaemic rats and analysed, by in vivo brain microdialysis, the neurochemical responses of the 'normal' and 'alternative' circuits. In hyperammonaemic rats DHPG injection in NAcc activates both the 'normal' and 'alternative' circuits. In hyperammonaemia, activation of the 'alternative' circuit and increased motor response following metabotropic glutamate receptors activation in NAcc seem due to an increase in extracellular glutamate which activates AMPA receptors. PMID:17587309

  4. Altered dopamine and serotonin metabolism in motorically asymptomatic R6/2 mice.

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    Fanny Mochel

    Full Text Available The pattern of cerebral dopamine (DA abnormalities in Huntington disease (HD is complex, as reflected by the variable clinical benefit of both DA antagonists and agonists in treating HD symptoms. In addition, little is known about serotonin metabolism despite the early occurrence of anxiety and depression in HD. Post-mortem enzymatic changes are likely to interfere with the in vivo profile of biogenic amines. Hence, in order to reliably characterize the regional and chronological profile of brain neurotransmitters in a HD mouse model, we used a microwave fixation system that preserves in vivo concentrations of dopaminergic and serotoninergic amines. DA was decreased in the striatum of R6/2 mice at 8 and 12 weeks of age while DA metabolites, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid, were already significantly reduced in 4-week-old motorically asymptomatic R6/2 mice. In the striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex of 4, 8 and 12-week-old R6/2 mice, serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased in association with a decreased turnover of serotonin. In addition, automated high-resolution behavioural analyses displayed stress-like behaviours such as jumping and grooming and altered spatial learning in R6/2 mice at age 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Therefore, we describe the earliest alterations of DA and serotonin metabolism in a HD murine model. Our findings likely underpin the neuropsychological symptoms at time of disease onset in HD.

  5. MicroRNA-128 governs neuronal excitability and motor behavior in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Chan Lek; Plotkin, Joshua L.; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard;

    2013-01-01

    The control of motor behavior in animals and humans requires constant adaptation of neuronal networks to signals of various types and strengths. We found that microRNA-128 (miR-128), which is expressed in adult neurons, regulates motor behavior by modulating neuronal signaling networks and...... excitability. miR-128 governs motor activity by suppressing the expression of various ion channels and signaling components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK2 network that regulate neuronal excitability. In mice, a reduction of miR-128 expression in postnatal neurons causes increased motor...... activity and fatal epilepsy. Overexpression of miR-128 attenuates neuronal responsiveness, suppresses motor activity, and alleviates motor abnormalities associated with Parkinson's-like disease and seizures in mice. These data suggest a therapeutic potential for miR-128 in the treatment of epilepsy and...

  6. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAAR) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABAAR agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 μg/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 μg/g body weight) have corroborated a GABAAergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p AR was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABAAR inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  7. Behavior of high efficiency electric motors; Comportamiento de motores electricos de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Austin H. [IEEE, (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The energy efficiency is one of the main parameters in the design of the industrial motors of general purpose; nevertheless, it is avoided that it is at the cost of the reliability or to the global performance of the motor. Exist user groups of this equipment that consider that, in the search of a greater efficiency, the useful life period is diminished and the characteristics of operation of the motor are affected. During the past last years, the author has studied the aspects of quality and reliability, as well as the operative advantages of the high efficiency motors and written down the increasing interest for these aspects. Also he has detected that a great number of users has realized that, additionally to the obvious energy saving, the efficient motor offers a greater reliability and a longer useful life in most of the industrial applications. The objective of this article is to present the differences in the quality levels, reliability and operation parameters of high efficiency squirrel cage type electrical motors with those of the motors of standard manufacture. [Spanish] La eficiencia energetica es uno de los principales parametros en el diseno de los motores industriales de proposito general; sin embargo, se evita que sea a costa de la confiabilidad o del desempeno global del motor. Existen grupos de usuarios de estos equipos que consideran que, en la busqueda de una mayor eficiencia, se disminuye el periodo de vida util y se afectan las caracteristicas de operacion del motor. Durante los ultimos anos, el autor ha estudiado los aspectos de calidad y confiabilidad, asi como las ventajas operativas de los motores de alta eficiencia y anotado el incremento del interes por estos aspectos. Tambien ha detectado que un gran numero de usuarios se ha dado cuenta que, adicionalmente a los obvios ahorros de energia, el motor eficiente ofrece una mayor confiabilidad y una vida util mas larga en la mayoria de las aplicaciones industriales. El objetivo de este

  8. A Model for the Transfer of Perceptual-Motor Skill Learning in Human Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…

  9. Decoding motor responses from the EEG during altered states of consciousness induced by propofol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, Yvonne; Farquhar, Jason; Lerou, Jos; Mourisse, Jo; Scheffer, Gert Jan; van Geffen, Geert-Jan; Spyrou, Loukianos; Bruhn, Jörgen

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Patients undergoing general anesthesia may awaken and become aware of the surgical procedure. Due to neuromuscular blocking agents, patients could be conscious yet unable to move. Using brain-computer interface (BCI) technology, it may be possible to detect movement attempts from the EEG. However, it is unknown how an anesthetic influences the brain response to motor tasks. Approach. We tested the offline classification performance of a movement-based BCI in 12 healthy subjects at two effect-site concentrations of propofol. For each subject a second classifier was trained on the subject’s data obtained before sedation, then tested on the data obtained during sedation (‘transfer classification’). Main results. At concentration 0.5 μg ml-1, despite an overall propofol EEG effect, the mean single trial classification accuracy was 85% (95% CI 81%-89%), and 83% (79%-88%) for the transfer classification. At 1.0 μg ml-1, the accuracies were 81% (76%-86%), and 72% (66%-79%), respectively. At the highest propofol concentration for four subjects, unlike the remaining subjects, the movement-related brain response had been largely diminished, and the transfer classification accuracy was not significantly above chance. These subjects showed a slower and more erratic task response, indicating an altered state of consciousness distinct from that of the other subjects. Significance. The results show the potential of using a BCI to detect intra-operative awareness and justify further development of this paradigm. At the same time, the relationship between motor responses and consciousness and its clinical relevance for intraoperative awareness requires further investigation.

  10. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  11. Distinct motor impairments of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor knockout mice revealed by three types of motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru eNakamura

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Both D1R and D2R knock out (KO mice of the major dopamine receptors show significant motor impairments. However, there are some discrepant reports, which may be due to the differences in genetic background and experimental procedures. In addition, only few studies directly compared the motor performance of D1R and D2R KO mice. In this paper, we examined the behavioral difference among N10 congenic D1R and D2R KO, and wild type (WT mice. First, we examined spontaneous motor activity in the home cage environment for consecutive five days. Second, we examined motor performance using the rota-rod task, a standard motor task in rodents. Third, we examined motor ability with the Step-Wheel task in which mice were trained to run in a motor-driven turning wheel adjusting their steps on foothold pegs to drink water. The results showed clear differences among the mice of three genotypes in three different types of behavior. In monitoring spontaneous motor activities, D1R and D2R KO mice showed higher and lower 24 h activities, respectively, than WT mice. In the rota-rod tasks, at a low speed, D1R KO mice showed poor performance but later improved, whereas D2R KO mice showed a good performance at early days without further improvement. When first subjected to a high speed task, the D2R KO mice showed poorer rota-rod performance at a low speed than the D1R KO mice. In the Step-Wheel task, across daily sessions, D2R KO mice increased the duration that mice run sufficiently close to the spout to drink water, and decreased time to touch the floor due to missing the peg steps and number of times the wheel was stopped, which performance was much better than that of D1R KO mice. These incongruent results between the two tasks for D1R and D2R KO mice may be due to the differences in the motivation for the rota-rod and Step-Wheel tasks, aversion- and reward-driven, respectively. The Step-Wheel system may become a useful tool for assessing the motor ability of WT

  12. Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Elston

    Full Text Available There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs.

  13. Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Thomas W; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Gregory D; Holley, Andrew J; Gao, Nanjing; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs. PMID:25099639

  14. Trial-to-trial reoptimization of motor behavior due to changes in task demands is limited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orban de Xivry J-J

    Full Text Available Each task requires a specific motor behavior that is tuned to task demands. For instance, writing requires a lot of accuracy while clapping does not. It is known that the brain adjusts the motor behavior to different task demands as predicted by optimal control theory. In this study, the mechanism of this reoptimization process is investigated by varying the accuracy demands of a reaching task. In this task, the width of the reaching target (0.5 or 8 cm was varied either on a trial-to-trial basis (random schedule or in blocks (blocked schedule. On some trials, the hand of the subjects was clamped to a rectilinear trajectory that ended 2 cm on the left or right of the target center. The rejection of this perturbation largely varied with target width in the blocked schedule but not in the random schedule. That is, subjects exhibited different motor behavior in the different schedules despite identical accuracy demands. Therefore, while reoptimization has been considered immediate and automatic, the differences in motor behavior observed across schedules suggest that the reoptimization of the motor behavior is neither happening on a trial-by-trial basis nor obligatory. The absence of trial-to-trial mechanisms, the inability of the brain to adapt to two conflicting task demands and the existence of a switching cost are discussed as possible sources of the non-optimality of motor behavior during the random schedule.

  15. Trial-to-trial reoptimization of motor behavior due to changes in task demands is limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Xivry J-J, Orban; de Xivry, Jean-Jacques Orban

    2013-01-01

    Each task requires a specific motor behavior that is tuned to task demands. For instance, writing requires a lot of accuracy while clapping does not. It is known that the brain adjusts the motor behavior to different task demands as predicted by optimal control theory. In this study, the mechanism of this reoptimization process is investigated by varying the accuracy demands of a reaching task. In this task, the width of the reaching target (0.5 or 8 cm) was varied either on a trial-to-trial basis (random schedule) or in blocks (blocked schedule). On some trials, the hand of the subjects was clamped to a rectilinear trajectory that ended 2 cm on the left or right of the target center. The rejection of this perturbation largely varied with target width in the blocked schedule but not in the random schedule. That is, subjects exhibited different motor behavior in the different schedules despite identical accuracy demands. Therefore, while reoptimization has been considered immediate and automatic, the differences in motor behavior observed across schedules suggest that the reoptimization of the motor behavior is neither happening on a trial-by-trial basis nor obligatory. The absence of trial-to-trial mechanisms, the inability of the brain to adapt to two conflicting task demands and the existence of a switching cost are discussed as possible sources of the non-optimality of motor behavior during the random schedule. PMID:23776593

  16. Primary motor cortex of the parkinsonian monkey: Altered neuronal responses to muscle stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pasquereau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Exaggeration of the long-latency stretch reflex (LLSR is a characteristic neurophysiologic feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD that contributes to parkinsonian rigidity. To explore one frequently-hypothesized mechanism, we studied the effects of fast muscle stretches on neuronal activity in the macaque primary motor cortex (M1 before and after the induction of parkinsonism by unilateral administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. We compared results from the general population of M1 neurons and two antidromically-identified subpopulations: distant-projecting pyramidal-tract type neurons (PTNs and intra-telecenphalic-type corticostriatal neurons (CSNs. Rapid rotations of elbow or wrist joints evoked short-latency responses in 62% of arm-related M1 neurons. As in PD, the late electromyographic responses that constitute the LLSR were enhanced following MPTP. This was accompanied by a shortening of M1 neuronal response latencies and a degradation of directional selectivity, but surprisingly, no increase in single unit response magnitudes. The results suggest that parkinsonism alters the timing and specificity of M1 responses to muscle stretch. Observation of an exaggerated LLSR with no change in the magnitude of proprioceptive responses in M1 is consistent with the idea that the increase in LLSR gain that contributes to parkinsonian rigidity is localized to the spinal cord.

  17. Opposing effects of appetitive and aversive cues on go/no-go behavior and motor excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Cools, Roshan; Aron, Adam R

    2014-08-01

    Everyday life, as well as psychiatric illness, is replete with examples where appetitive and aversive stimuli hijack the will, leading to maladaptive behavior. Yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Here we investigate how motivational cues influence action tendencies in healthy individuals with a novel paradigm. Behaviorally, we observed that an appetitive cue biased go behavior (making a response), whereas an aversive cue biased no-go behavior (withholding a response). We hypothesized that the origin of this behavioral go/no-go bias occurs at the motor system level. To test this, we used single-pulse TMS as a motor system probe (rather than a disruptive tool) to index motivational biasing. We found that the appetitive cue biased the participants to go more by relatively increasing motor system excitability, and that the aversive cue biased participants to no-go more by relatively decreasing motor system excitability. These results show, first, that maladaptive behaviors arise from motivational cues quickly spilling over into the motor system and biasing behavior even before action selection and, second, that this occurs in opposing directions for appetitive and aversive cues. PMID:24564469

  18. Mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetic dysfunction is associated with synaptic alterations in mutant SOD1 motor neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Magrané, Jordi; Sahawneh, Mary Anne; Przedborski, Serge; Estévez, Álvaro G.; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), a rapidly fatal motor neuron disease. Mutant SOD1 has pleiotropic toxic effects on motor neurons, among which mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as one of the contributing factors in motor neuron demise. Mitochondria are highly dynamic in neurons; they are constantly reshaped by fusion and move along neurites to localize at sites of high-energy utilization, such as synapses. The findin...

  19. Exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors alters the physiology and motor function of honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GeraldineAWright

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic signalling is fundamental to neuro-muscular function in most organisms. Sub-lethal doses of neurotoxic pesticides that target cholinergic signalling can alter the behaviour of insects in subtle ways; their influence on non-target organisms may not be readily apparent in simple mortality studies. Beneficial arthropods such as honeybees perform sophisticated behavioural sequences during foraging that, if influenced by pesticides, could impair foraging success and reduce colony health. Here, we investigate the behavioural effects on honeybees of exposure to a selection of pesticides that target cholinergic signalling by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE. To examine how continued exposure to AChE inhibitors affected motor function, we fed adult foraging worker honeybees sub-lethal concentrations of these compounds in sucrose solution for 24 h. Using an assay for locomotion in bees, we scored walking, stopped, grooming, and upside down behaviour continuously for 15 min. At a 10nM concentration, all the AChE inhibitors caused similar effects on behaviour, notably increased grooming activity and changes in the frequency of bouts of behaviour such as head grooming. Coumaphos caused dose-dependent effects on locomotion as well as grooming behaviour, and a 1µM concentration of coumaphos induced symptoms of malaise such as abdomen grooming and defecation. Biochemical assays confirmed that the 4 compounds we assayed (coumaphos, aldicarb, chlorpyrifos, and donepezil or their metabolites acted as AChE inhibitors in bees. Furthermore, we show that transcript expression levels of two honeybee acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were selectively upregulated in the brain and in gut tissues in response to AChE inhibitor exposure. The results of our study imply that the effects of pesticides that rely on this mode of action have subtle yet profound effects on physiological effects on behaviour that could lead to reduced survival.

  20. The Role of the Pediatric Cerebellum in Motor Functions, Cognition, and Behavior: A Clinical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Michael S; Tsai, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution of the pediatric cerebellum to locomotion, ocular motor control, speech articulation, cognitive function, and behavior modulation. Hypotheses on cerebellar function are discussed. Clinical features in patients with cerebellar disorders are outlined. Cerebellar abnormalities in cognitive and behavioral disorders are detailed. PMID:27423796

  1. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  2. The Development of Verbal Control over Motor Behavior: A Replication and Extension of Luria's Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Virginia S.; Waters, Harriet Salatas

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments replicate and extend Luria's (1959, 1961) findings on the development of verbal self-regulation during early childhood. Results support Luria's hypothesis that overt verbalizations facilitate control of motor behavior in young children and that language can play an active and integrative role in the development of behavioral and…

  3. Motor Alterations Induced by Chronic 4-Aminopyridine Infusion in the Spinal Cord In vivo: Role of Glutamate and GABA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Gómez, Rafael; Tapia, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Motor neuron (MN) degeneration is the pathological hallmark of MN diseases, a group of neurodegenerative disorders clinically manifested as muscle fasciculations and hyperreflexia, followed by paralysis, respiratory failure, and death. Ample evidence supports a role of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in motor death. In previous work we showed that stimulation of glutamate release from nerve endings by perfusion of the K+-channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in the rat hippocampus induces seizures and neurodegeneration, and that AMPA infusion in the spinal cord produces paralysis and MN death. On these bases, in this work we have tested the effect of the chronic infusion of 4-AP in the spinal cord, using implanted osmotic minipumps, on motor activity and on MN survival, and the mechanisms underlying this effect. 4-AP produced muscle fasciculations and motor deficits assessed in two motor tests, which start 2–3 h after the implant, which ameliorated spontaneously within 6–7 days, but no neurodegeneration. These effects were prevented by both AMPA and NMDA receptors blockers. The role of GABAA receptors was also explored, and we found that chronic infusion of bicuculline induced moderate MN degeneration and enhanced the hyperexcitation produced by 4-AP. Unexpectedly, the GABAAR agonist muscimol also induced motor deficits and failed to prevent the MN death induced by AMPA. We conclude that motor alterations induced by chronic 4-AP infusion in the spinal cord in vivo is due to ionotropic glutamate receptor overactivation and that blockade of GABAergic neurotransmission induces MN death under chronic conditions. These results shed light on the role of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in the regulation of MN excitability in the spinal cord. PMID:27242406

  4. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:21839102

  5. Relationships between problematic behaviors and motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Nanba, Yosifumi; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi; Hujii, Shun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy are related to their problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were children with mental retardation who were undergoing physical therapy. [Methods] Twenty-one examiners, 13 physical therapists, and 8 occupational therapists treated and examined the subjects by using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores were compa...

  6. Setting Up PID DC Motor Speed Control Alteration Parameters Using Particle Swarm Optimization Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumediène ALLAOUA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an intelligent controller of DC Motor drive is designed using particle swarm optimization (PSO method for formative the optimal proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller Tuning parameters. The proposed approach has superior feature, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristics and very good computational performances efficiency. The DC Motor Scheduling PID-PSO controller is modeled in MATLAB environment. Comparing with fuzzy logic controller using PSO intelligent algorithms, the planned method is more proficient in improving the speed loop response stability, the steady state error is reduced, the rising time is perfected and the disturbances do not affect the performances of driving motor with no overtaking.

  7. Misfolded SOD1 associated with motor neuron mitochondria alters mitochondrial shape and distribution prior to clinical onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Vande Velde

    Full Text Available Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1 are causative for inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A proportion of SOD1 mutant protein is misfolded onto the cytoplasmic face of mitochondria in one or more spinal cord cell types. By construction of mice in which mitochondrially targeted enhanced green fluorescent protein is selectively expressed in motor neurons, we demonstrate that axonal mitochondria of motor neurons are primary in vivo targets for misfolded SOD1. Mutant SOD1 alters axonal mitochondrial morphology and distribution, with dismutase active SOD1 causing mitochondrial clustering at the proximal side of Schmidt-Lanterman incisures within motor axons and dismutase inactive SOD1 producing aberrantly elongated axonal mitochondria beginning pre-symptomatically and increasing in severity as disease progresses. Somal mitochondria are altered by mutant SOD1, with loss of the characteristic cylindrical, networked morphology and its replacement by a less elongated, more spherical shape. These data indicate that mutant SOD1 binding to mitochondria disrupts normal mitochondrial distribution and size homeostasis as early pathogenic features of SOD1 mutant-mediated ALS.

  8. Kar3 interaction with Cik1 alters motor structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsiao Mei Annie; Yun, Mikyung; Anderson, David E.; Sage, Harvey; Park, Hee-Won; Endow, Sharyn A.

    2005-01-01

    Kar3, a kinesin-14 motor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for mitosis and karyogamy, reportedly interacts with Cik1, a nonmotor protein, via its central, predicted coiled coil. Despite this, neither Kar3 nor Cik1 homodimers have been observed in vivo. Here we show that Kar3 is a dimer in vitro by analytical ultracentrifugation. The motor domains appear as paired particles by rotary-shadow electron microscopy (EM) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of the nonmotor region shows charac...

  9. Motor system alterations in retired former athletes: the role of aging and concussion history

    OpenAIRE

    De Beaumont, Louis; Tremblay, Sébastien; Henry, Luke C; Poirier, Judes; Lassonde, Maryse; Théoret, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Background Retired athletes with a history of sports concussions experience cognitive and motor declines with aging, and the risk of severe neurodegenerative conditions is magnified in this population. The present study investigated the effects of aging on motor system metabolism and function in former university-level athletes who sustained their last concussion several decades prior to testing. Methods To test the hypothesis that age and remote concussions induce functional as well as metab...

  10. Cerebellar influence on motor cortex plasticity: behavioral implications for Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AshaKishore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal motor behavior involves the creation of appropriate activity patterns across motor networks, enabling firing synchrony, synaptic integration and normal functioning of these net works. Strong topography-specific connections among the basal ganglia, cerebellum and their projections to overlapping areas in the motor cortices suggest that these networks could influence each other’s plastic responses and functions. The defective striatal signaling in Parkinson’s disease (PD could therefore lead to abnormal oscillatory activity and aberrant plasticity at multiple levels within the interlinked motor networks. Normal striatal dopaminergic signaling and cerebellar sensory processing functions influence the scaling and topographic specificity of M1 plasticity. Both these functions are abnormal in PD and appear to contribute to the abnormal M1 plasticity. Defective motor map plasticity and topographic specificity within M1 could lead to incorrect muscle synergies, which could manifest as abnormal or undesired movements, and as abnormal motor learning in PD. We propose that the loss of M1 plasticity in PD reflects a loss of co-ordination among the basal ganglia, cerebellar and cortical inputs which translates to an abnormal plasticity of motor maps within M1 and eventually to some of the motor signs of PD. The initial benefits of dopamine replacement therapy on M1 plasticity and motor signs are lost during the progressive course of disease. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in patients with advanced PD is linked to a loss of M1 sensorimotor plasticity and the attenuation of dyskinesias by cerebellar inhibitory stimulation is associated with restoration of M1 plasticity. Complimentary interventions should target reestablishing physiological communication between the striatal and cerebellar circuits, and within striato-cerebellar loop. This may facilitate correct motor synergies and reduce abnormal movements in PD.

  11. Stochastic kinetics of ribosomes: single motor properties and collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Ashok; Chowdhury, Debashish; Ramakrishnan, T V

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of protein molecules in a cell are carried out by ribosomes. A ribosome can be regarded as a molecular motor which utilizes the input chemical energy to move on a messenger RNA (mRNA) track that also serves as a template for the polymerization of the corresponding protein. The forward movement, however, is characterized by an alternating sequence of translocation and pause. Using a quantitative model, which captures the mechanochemical cycle of an individual ribosome, we derive an {\\it exact} analytical expression for the distribution of its dwell times at the successive positions on the mRNA track. Inverse of the average dwell time satisfies a ``Michaelis-Menten-like'' equation and is consistent with the general formula for the average velocity of a molecular motor with an unbranched mechano-chemical cycle. Extending this formula appropriately, we also derive the exact force-velocity relation for a ribosome. Often many ribosomes simultaneously move on the same mRNA track, while each synthesizes a c...

  12. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blossom, Sarah J., E-mail: blossomsarah@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, 13 Children' s Way, Little Rock, AR 72202 (United States); Cooney, Craig A. [Department of Research and Development, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, John L. McClellan Memorial Veterans Hospital, 4300 West 7th St., Little Rock, AR 72205-5484 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, 13 Children' s Way, Little Rock, AR 72202 (United States); Wessinger, William D. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, 4301 West Markham St., Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor

  13. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor

  14. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matt Q; McCumsey, Stephanie J; Lopez-Darwin, Sereno; Heckscher, Ellie S; Doe, Chris Q

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons) are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence) of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines-chosen for sparse neuronal expression-to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°). A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program. PMID:27172197

  15. tDCS-induced alterations in GABA concentration within primary motor cortex predict motor learning and motor memory: A 7 T magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soyoung; Stephenson, Mary C; Morris, Peter G.; Jackson, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability in a polarity specific manner and has been shown to influence learning and memory. tDCS may have both on-line and after-effects on learning and memory, and the latter are thought to be based upon tDCS-induced alterations in neurochemistry and synaptic function. We used ultra-high-field (7 T) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), together with a robotic force adaptati...

  16. 3. Impact of altered gravity on CNS development and behavior in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sulkowski, V. A.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Baxter, M. G.

    The present study examined the effect of altered gravity on CNS development. Specifically, we compared neurodevelopment, behavior, cerebellar structure and protein expression in rat neonates exposed perinatally to hypergravity. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1.5G-1.75G hypergravity on a 24-ft centrifuge starting on gestational day (G) 10, through giving birth on G22/G23, and nursing their offspring through postnatal day (P) 21. Cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased in 1.75G-exposed male pups by 27.5 percent; in 1.75G-exposed female pups it was decreased by 22.5 percent. The observed cerebellar changes were associated with alterations in neurodevelopment and motor behavior. Exposure to hypergravity impaired performance on the following neurocognitive tests: (1) righting time on P3 was more than doubled in 1.75G-exposed rats and the effect appeared more pronounced in female pups, (2) startle response on P10 was delayed in both male and female HG pups; HG pups were one-fifth as likely to respond to a clapping noise as SC pups, and (3) performance on a rotorod on P21 was decreased in HG pups; the duration of the stay on rotorod recorded for HG pups of both sexes was one tenth of the SC pups. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of selected cerebellar proteins suggested gender-specific changes in glial and neuronal proteins. On P6, GFAP expression was decreased by 59.2 percent in HG males, while no significant decrease was observed in female cerebella. Synaptophysin expression was decreased in HG male neonates by 29.9 percent and in HG female neonates by 20.7 percent as compared to its expression in SC cerebella. The results of this experiment suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development and behavior differently in male and female neonates. If one accepts that hypergravity is a good paradigm to study the effect of microgravity on the CNS, and since males and females were shown to respond differently to hypergravity, it can be

  17. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Hulst, K. van; Gerven, M.H.J.C van; Haaften, L. van; Groot, S.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoo

  18. Mind wandering and motor control: off-task thinking disrupts the online adjustment of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kam, Julia W. Y.; Dao, Elizabeth; Blinn, Patricia; Krigolson, Olav E.; Boyd, Lara A.; Handy, Todd C

    2012-01-01

    Mind wandering episodes have been construed as periods of “stimulus-independent” thought, where our minds are decoupled from the external sensory environment. In two experiments, we used behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to determine whether mind wandering episodes can also be considered as periods of “response-independent” thought, with our minds disengaged from adjusting our behavioral outputs. In the first experiment, participants performed a motor tracking task and wer...

  19. Mind Wandering and Motor Control: Off-Task Thinking Disrupts the Online Adjustment of Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kam, Julia W. Y.; Elizabeth eDao; Patricia eBlinn; Krigolson, Olav E.; Boyd, Lara A.; Handy, Todd C

    2012-01-01

    Mind wandering episodes have been construed as periods of "stimulus-independent" thought, where our minds are decoupled from the external sensory environment. In two experiments, we used behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to determine whether mind wandering episodes can also be considered as periods of "response-independent" thought, with our minds disengaged from adjusting our behavioral outputs. In the first experiment, participants performed a motor t...

  20. Removal of GABA(A receptor γ2 subunits from parvalbumin neurons causes wide-ranging behavioral alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elli Leppä

    Full Text Available We investigated the behavioral significance of fast synaptic inhibition by αβγ2-type GABA(A receptors on parvalbumin (Pv cells. The GABA(A receptor γ2 subunit gene was selectively inactivated in Pv-positive neurons by Cre/loxP recombination. The resulting Pv-Δγ2 mice were relatively healthy in the first postnatal weeks; but then as Cre started to be expressed, the mice progressively developed wide-ranging phenotypic alterations including low body weight, motor deficits and tremor, decreased anxiety levels, decreased pain sensitivity and deficient prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex and impaired spatial learning. Nevertheless, the deletion was not lethal, and mice did not show increased mortality even after one year. Autoradiography with t-butylbicyclophosphoro[(35S]thionate suggested an increased amount of GABA(A receptors with only α and β subunits in central nervous system regions that contained high levels of parvalbumin neurons. Using BAC-transgenesis, we reduced some of the Pv-Δγ2 phenotype by selectively re-expressing the wild-type γ2 subunit back into some Pv cells (reticular thalamic neurons and cerebellar Pv-positive neurons. This produced less severe impairments of motor skills and spatial learning compared with Pv-Δγ2 mice, but all other deficits remained. Our results reveal the widespread significance of fast GABAergic inhibition onto Pv-positive neurons for diverse behavioral modalities, such as motor coordination, sensorimotor integration, emotional behavior and nociception.

  1. Motor behaviors in the sheep evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Linnea; Zhao, Yan; Kelly, Matthew T; Schindeldecker, William; Goetz, Steven; Nelson, Dwight E; Raike, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to treat movement disorders, including advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of PD and the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not well understood. Large animal models are essential for investigating the mechanisms of PD and DBS. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sheep model of STN DBS and quantify the stimulation-evoked motor behaviors. To do so, a large sample of animals was chronically-implanted with commercial DBS systems. Neuroimaging and histology revealed that the DBS leads were implanted accurately relative to the neurosurgical plan and also precisely relative to the STN. It was also possible to repeatedly conduct controlled evaluations of stimulation-evoked motor behavior in the awake-state. The evoked motor responses depended on the neuroanatomical location of the electrode contact selected for stimulation, as contacts proximal to the STN evoked movements at significantly lower voltages. Tissue stimulation modeling demonstrated that selecting any of the contacts stimulated the STN, whereas selecting the relatively distal contacts often also stimulated thalamus but only the distal-most contact stimulated internal capsule. The types of evoked motor behaviors were specific to the stimulation frequency, as low but not high frequencies consistently evoked movements resembling human tremor or dyskinesia. Electromyography confirmed that the muscle activity underlying the tremor-like movements in the sheep was consistent with human tremor. Overall, this work establishes that the sheep is a viable a large-animal platform for controlled testing of STN DBS with objective motor outcomes. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that exaggerated low-frequency activity within individual nodes of the motor network can drive symptoms of human movement disorders, including tremor and dyskinesia. PMID:26231574

  2. Developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphorous pesticides: fetal and neonatal exposure to chlorpyrifos alters sex-specific behaviors at adulthood in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricceri, Laura; Venerosi, Aldina; Capone, Francesca; Cometa, Maria Francesca; Lorenzini, Paola; Fortuna, Stefano; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2006-09-01

    Developmental exposure to the organophosphorous insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) induces long-term effects on brain and behavior in laboratory rodents. We evaluated in adult mice the behavioral effects of either fetal and/or neonatal CPF exposure at doses not inhibiting fetal and neonatal brain cholinesterase. CPF (3 or 6 mg/kg) was given by oral treatment to pregnant females on gestational days 15-18 and offspring were treated sc (1 or 3 mg/kg) on postnatal days (PNDs) 11-14. Serum and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was evaluated at birth and 24 h from termination of postnatal treatments. On PND 70, male mice were assessed for spontaneous motor activity in an open-field test and in a socioagonistic encounter with an unfamiliar conspecific. Virgin females underwent a maternal induction test following presentation of foster pups. Both sexes were subjected to a plus-maze test to evaluate exploration and anxiety levels. Gestational and postnatal CPF exposure (higher doses) affected motor activity in the open field and enhanced synergically agonistic behavior. Postnatal CPF exposure increased maternal responsiveness toward pups in females. Mice of both sexes exposed to postnatal CPF showed reduced anxiety response in the plus-maze, an effect greater in females. Altogether, developmental exposure to CPF at doses that do not cause brain AChE inhibition induces long-term alterations in sex-specific behavior patterns of the mouse species. Late neonatal exposure on PNDs 11-14 was the most effective in causing behavioral changes. These findings support the hypothesis that developmental CPF may represent a risk factor for increased vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders in humans. PMID:16760416

  3. Structural Brain Alterations in Motor Subtypes of Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence from Probabilistic Tractography and Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Griet; Leunissen, Inge; Firbank, Michael; Heremans, Elke; Nackaerts, Evelien; Vandenberghe, Wim; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) and tremor dominant (TD) subtypes of Parkinson’s disease (PD) show different patterns of alterations in functional connectivity (FC) between specific brain regions. This study aimed to investigate the relation between symptomatic heterogeneity in PD and structural alterations underlying these FC changes. Methods 68 PD patients classified as PIGD (n = 41) or TD (n = 19) and 19 age-matched controls underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Diffusion-weighted images were used to assess fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) at the whole-brain level using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In addition, structural connectivity was assessed between regions that previously showed altered FC using probabilistic tractography. Anatomical images were used to determine shape and volume of the putamen, caudate and pallidum. Results TBSS revealed widespread FA reductions in PIGD compared to controls involving the superior longitudinal fasciculi and corpus callosum. No such differences were found in TD. Both PD subgroups had increased MD compared to controls in tracts connecting the left caudate with the bilateral ventral putamen. TD patients additionally showed increased MD compared to PIGD and controls in tracts connecting the right inferior parietal lobule with the right premotor and primary motor cortex, which previously showed altered FC. We also found grey matter atrophy in the rostrodorsal head of the caudate in PIGD compared to controls. Conclusion Microstructural changes in white matter tracts, particularly in those connecting striatal sub-areas, partly underlie FC alterations in PD subtypes. Caudate shape alterations further implicate the striatum in PIGD pathophysiology. PMID:27314952

  4. Early communicative behaviors and their relationship to motor skills in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGAmotor development. In this study, communicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants. PMID:26555385

  5. Behavioral alterations in the gray dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Gervais, 1953) caused by sea traffi

    OpenAIRE

    Francielli Cristine Cunha Melo; Anderson Luis do Valle

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral responses by Sotalia guianensis dolphins in the presence of touristic sea traffic in the bay of Curral, Pipa-RN, Brazil, were measured. The dolphins changed their behavior when boats were closer than 100 meters. The main behavioral alterations were that the dolphins remained submerged for longer and that they formed a more cohesive group as the boats came closer. Although we concluded that the approach of the boats changed the dolphins’ behavioral pattern, we do not know what aspec...

  6. Altering the function of commands presented to boys with oppositional and hyperactive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Danforth, Jeffrey S.

    2002-01-01

    Mentalistic and behavioral analyses of noncompliance among children with hyperactive behavior are contrasted. Then, a behavioral training program for 3 boys with behavior characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder is described. The child-focused training was conducted in conjunction with parent training. In an effort to increase the rate of compliance, the child-training program was designed to alter the function of parent commands by teaching...

  7. A structured assessment of motor function and behavior in patients with Kleefstra syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Nag, Heidi E; Hunn, Bente S; Houge, Gunnar; Hoxmark, Lise B

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to further our understanding of Kleefstra syndrome, especially regarding motor function and behavioral characteristics. In total, four males and four females between two and 27 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of Kleefstra syndrome and their parents participated in this study. Four patients had 9q34.3 deletions that caused Euchromatin Histone Methyl Transferase 1 (EHMT1) haplo-insufficiency, and four patients harbored EHMT1 mutations. The motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist (CBCL, ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment. All patients showed a delayed developmental status. Muscular hypotonia and its manifestations were present in all patients, regardless of their age. The mean values for all VABS II domains (communication, socialization, daily living skills, and motor skills) were significantly lower than the mean of the reference population (p intellectual disabilities such as Smith-Magenis syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The results from the SCQ indicated that all patient values exceeded the cut-off value, suggesting the possibility of autism spectrum disorder. The behavioral and emotional problems assessed by CBCL and ABCL were less frequent. In conclusion, patients with Kleefstra syndrome present with a broad range of clinical problems in all age groups and are therefore in need of a multidisciplinary follow-up also after their transition into adulthood. PMID:26808425

  8. High body mass alters colonic sensory-motor function and transit in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado-Aros, Silvia; Camilleri, Michael; Garcia, Montse Andreu; Burton, Duane; Busciglio, Irene

    2008-01-01

    There is increased prevalence of abdominal pain and diarrhea and decreased gastric sensation with increased body mass index (BMI). Our hypothesis is that increased BMI is associated with increased colonic motility and sensation. The study aim was to assess effect of BMI on colonic sensory and motor functions and transit. We used a database of colonic tone, compliance, and perception of distensions measured by intracolonic, barostat-controlled balloon, and gastrointestinal transit was measured...

  9. Alteration in forward model prediction of sensory outcome of motor action in focal hand dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    André Lee; Matthias Karst

    2013-01-01

    Focal hand dystonia in musicians is a movement disorder affecting highly trained movements. Rather than being a pure motor disorder related to movement execution only, movement planning, error prediction and sensorimotor integration are also impaired. Internal models, of which two types, forward and inverse models have been described and most likely processed in the cerebellum, are known to be involved in these tasks. Recent results indicate that the cerebellum may be involved in the pathophy...

  10. Alterations in multidimensional motor unit number index of hand muscles after incomplete cervical spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Le; LI, XIAOYAN; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a novel multidimensional motor unit number index (MD-MUNIX) technique to examine hand muscles in patients with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The MD-MUNIX was estimated from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and different levels of surface interference pattern electromyogram (EMG) at multiple directions of voluntary isometric muscle contraction. The MD-MUNIX was applied in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), thenar and hypothe...

  11. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Alters Auditory-motor Integration For Voice Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Ziyi; Yan, Nan; Jones, Jeffery A.; Guo, Zhiqiang; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Previous research has shown that patients with TLE exhibit decreased performance in listening to speech sounds and deficits in the cortical processing of auditory information. Whether TLE compromises auditory-motor integration for voice control, however, remains largely unknown. To address this question, event-related potentials (ERPs) and vocal responses to vocal pitch errors (1/2 or 2 semitones upward) heard in auditory feedback were compared across 28 patients with TLE and 28 healthy controls. Patients with TLE produced significantly larger vocal responses but smaller P2 responses than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with TLE exhibited a positive correlation between vocal response magnitude and baseline voice variability and a negative correlation between P2 amplitude and disease duration. Graphical network analyses revealed a disrupted neuronal network for patients with TLE with a significant increase of clustering coefficients and path lengths as compared to healthy controls. These findings provide strong evidence that TLE is associated with an atypical integration of the auditory and motor systems for vocal pitch regulation, and that the functional networks that support the auditory-motor processing of pitch feedback errors differ between patients with TLE and healthy controls. PMID:27356768

  12. Alterations in multidimensional motor unit number index of hand muscles after incomplete cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a novel multidimensional motor unit number index (MD-MUNIX) technique to examine hand muscles in patients with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The MD-MUNIX was estimated from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and different levels of surface interference pattern electromyogram (EMG) at multiple directions of voluntary isometric muscle contraction. The MD-MUNIX was applied in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), thenar and hypothenar muscles of SCI (n = 12) and healthy control (n = 12) subjects. The results showed that the SCI subjects had significantly smaller CMAP and MD-MUNIX in all the three examined muscles, compared to those derived from the healthy control subjects. The multidimensional motor unit size index (MD-MUSIX) demonstrated significantly larger values for the FDI and hypothenar muscles in SCI subjects than those from healthy control subjects, whereas the MD-MUSIX enlargement was marginally significant for the thenar muscles. The findings from the MD-MUNIX analyses provide an evidence of motor unit loss in hand muscles of cervical SCI patients, contributing to hand function deterioration. PMID:26005410

  13. Alterations in multidimensional motor unit number index of hand muscles after incomplete cervical spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le eLi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to apply a novel multidimensional motor unit number index (MD-MUNIX technique to examine hand muscles in patients with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI. The MD-MUNIX was estimated from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP and different levels of surface interference pattern electromyogram (EMG at multiple directions of voluntary isometric muscle contraction. The MD-MUNIX was applied in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI, thenar and hypothenar muscles of SCI (n=12 and healthy control (n=12 subjects. The results showed that the SCI subjects had significantly smaller CMAP and MD-MUNIX in all the three examined muscles, compared to those derived from the healthy control subjects. The multidimensional motor unit size index (MD-MUSIX demonstrated significantly larger values for the FDI and hypothenar muscles in SCI subjects than those from healthy control subjects, whereas the MD-MUSIX enlargement was marginally significant for the thenar muscles. The findings from the MD-MUNIX analyses provide an evidence of motor unit loss in hand muscles of cervical SCI patients, contributing to hand function deterioration.

  14. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS. PMID:26161466

  15. Transition to superdiffusive behavior in intracellular actin-based transport mediated by molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Brunstein, M; Despósito, M A

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular transport of large cargoes, such as organelles, vesicles or large proteins, is a complex dynamical process that involves the interplay of ATP-consuming molecular motors, cytoskeleton filaments and the viscoelastic cytoplasm. The displacements of particles or probes in the cell cytoplasm as a function of time are characterized by different (anomalous) diffusion regimes. We investigate here the motion of pigment organelles (melanosomes) driven by myosin-V motors in \\emph{Xenopus laevis} melanocytes using a high spatio-temporal resolution tracking technique. By analyzing the mean square displacement (MSD) of the obtained trajectories as a function of the time lag, we show that the melanosomes display a transition between subdiffusive to superdiffusive behavior. A stochastic theoretical model is introduced to generalize the interpretation of our data. Starting from a generalized Langevin equation that explicitly considers the collective action of the molecular motors we derive an analytical expressi...

  16. Biographic and behavioral factors are associated with music-related motor skills in children pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Yong, Raymond; Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to identify biographical and behavioral factors associated with children pianists' motor skills using an objective assessment of a music-relevant motor task. Motor skills at the piano were assessed in 30 children pianists by measuring temporal unevenness in standardized scale playing using musical instrument digital interface (MIDI)-based scale analysis. Questionnaires were used to collect detailed information about the amount of time playing the piano, practice characteristics, attitudes toward music and practice, and the environment of music and practice. Associations between performance values and variables from the questionnaire were investigated using multivariable linear regression. A higher number of years playing the piano, more frequent parental involvement in the child's practice, more frequent practice of technical exercises, and greater enjoyment of practice and of the visual arts were associated with better motor performance. In addition to cumulative experience and aspects of practice, extrinsic motivational factors (e.g., parental interest) and intrinsic motivational factors (e.g., an artistic disposition) were associated with better performance on a musically-relevant motor task in children pianists. PMID:25215624

  17. Does changing from a first generation antipsychotic (perphenazin) to a second generation antipsychotic (risperidone) alter brain activation and motor activity? A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Berle, Jan Øystein; Løberg, Else-Marie; Fasmer, Ole Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Background: In patients with schizophrenia, altered brain activation and motor activity levels are central features, reflecting cognitive impairments and negative symptoms, respectively. Newer studies using nonlinear methods have addressed the severe disturbances in neurocognitive functioning that is regarded as one of the core features of schizophrenia. Our aim was to compare brain activation and motor activity in a patient during pharmacological treatment that was switched fr...

  18. A study on the efficiency behavior of Limitorque Actuators for Motor Operated Valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A motor operated valve (MOV) consists of a motor, an actuator, and a valve, and is an essential element to control the piping flow in a nuclear power plant. In fact, the operational failure of a safety-related MOV can have catastrophic results. Therefore, by the regulatory requirement, the operability of the safety-related MOVs should be ensured. The requirement recommends utilities to consider the fact that aging can decrease the thrust/torque output of actuators. Up until now, it has been assumed that the actuator efficiency, one of the most important factors in evaluating the actuator output, does not degrade over time. The purpose of this paper is to confirm the validation of the design efficiency by analyzing the efficiency behavior over time for Limitorque actuators. The diagnostic field test data are used in the calculation of actuator efficiency and its behavior analysis over time

  19. Qualitative alteration of peripheral motor system begins prior to appearance of typical sarcopenia syndrome in middle-aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro eTamaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative changes in the peripheral motor system were examined using Young, Adult, Middle-aged and Old-aged rats in order to assess before and after the appearance of sarcopenia symptoms. Significant loss of muscle mass and strength, and slow-type fiber grouping with a loss of innervated nerve fibers were used as typical markers of sarcopenia. Dynamic twitch and tetanus tension and evoked electromyogram (EEMG were measured via electrical stimulation through the sciatic nerve under anesthesia using our force-distance transducer system before and after sciatectomy. Digital and analogue data sampling was performed and shortening and relaxing velocity of serial twitches was calculated with tension force. Muscle tenderness in passive stretching was also measured as stretch absorption ability, associated with histological quantitation of muscle connective tissues. The results indicated the validity of the present model, in which Old-aged rats clearly showed the typical signs of sarcopenia, specifically in the fast-type plantaris muscles, while the slow-type soleus showed relatively mild syndromes. These observations suggest the following qualitative alterations as the pathophysiological mechanism of sarcopenia: 1 reduction of shortening and relaxing velocity of twitch; 2 decline of muscle tenderness following an increase in the connective tissue component; 3 impaired recruitment of motor units (sudden depression of tetanic force and EEMG in higher stimulation frequencies over 50-60 Hz; and 4 easy fatigability in the neuromuscular junctions. These findings are likely to be closely related to significant losses in fast-type motor units, muscle strength and contraction velocity, which could be a causative factor in falls in the elderly. Importantly, some of these symptoms began in Middle-aged rats that showed no other signs of sarcopenia. Thus, prevention should be started in middle age that could be retained relatively higher movement ability.

  20. Exposure to Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Alters the Physiology and Motor Function of Honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    GeraldineAWright; ChristopherMoffat

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic signalling is fundamental to neuro-muscular function in most organisms. Sub-lethal doses of neurotoxic pesticides that target cholinergic signalling can alter the behaviour of insects in subtle ways; their influence on non-target organisms may not be readily apparent in simple mortality studies. Beneficial arthropods such as honeybees perform sophisticated behavioural sequences during foraging that, if influenced by pesticides, could impair foraging success and reduce colony healt...

  1. Alterations in primary motor cortex neurotransmission and gene expression in hemi-parkinsonian rats with drug-induced dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbach, D; Conti, M M; Ostock, C Y; Dupre, K B; Bishop, C

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) with dopamine replacement relieves symptoms of poverty of movement, but often causes drug-induced dyskinesias. Accumulating clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in the pathophysiology of PD and that modulating cortical activity may be a therapeutic target in PD and dyskinesia. However, surprisingly little is known about how M1 neurotransmitter tone or gene expression is altered in PD, dyskinesia or associated animal models. The present study utilized the rat unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD/dyskinesia to characterize structural and functional changes taking place in M1 monoamine innervation and gene expression. 6-OHDA caused dopamine pathology in M1, although the lesion was less severe than in the striatum. Rats with 6-OHDA lesions showed a PD motor impairment and developed dyskinesia when given L-DOPA or the D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297. M1 expression of two immediate-early genes (c-Fos and ARC) was strongly enhanced by either L-DOPA or SKF81297. At the same time, expression of genes specifically involved in glutamate and GABA signaling were either modestly affected or unchanged by lesion and/or treatment. We conclude that M1 neurotransmission and signal transduction in the rat 6-OHDA model of PD/dyskinesia mirror features of human PD, supporting the utility of the model to study M1 dysfunction in PD and the elucidation of novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic targets. PMID:26363150

  2. Hericium erinaceus extracts alter behavioral rhythm in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Shoko; Kuwahara, Rika; Hiraki, Eri; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Yasuo, Shinobu; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE), an edible mushroom, has been used as a herbal medicine in several Asian countries since ancient times. HE has potential as a medicine for the treatment and prevention of dementia, a disorder closely linked with circadian rhythm. This study investigated the effects of the intake of HE extracts on behavioral rhythm, photosensitivity of the circadian clock, and clock gene mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a central clock, in mice. Although the HE ethanol extract only affected the offset time of activity, the HE water extract advanced the sleep-wake cycle without affecting the free-running period, photosensitivity, or the clock gene mRNA expression in SCN. In addition, both extracts decreased wakefulness around end of active phase. The findings of the present study suggest that HE may serve as a functional food in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and delayed sleep phase syndrome. PMID:27544998

  3. Postpartum behavioral profiles in Wistar rats following maternal separation - altered exploration and risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Nylander

    2010-01-01

    The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim...

  4. Sex-Dependent Changes in Social Behaviors in Motor Pre-Symptomatic R6/1 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pietropaolo, Susanna; Delage, Pauline; Cayzac, Sebastien; Crusio, Wim E; Cho, Yoon H.

    2011-01-01

    Background The R6/1 mouse line is one of the most widely employed models of Huntington Disease (HD), a complex syndrome characterized by motor and non-motor deficits. Surprisingly, its behavioral phenotype during the early phases of the pathology when the motor impairments are not manifest yet has been poorly investigated. It is also not clear whether the expression of HD-like symptoms at the pre-motor stage in this mouse model differs between the two sexes. Methods Male and female 12 weeks-o...

  5. SPEEDY babies: A putative new behavioral syndrome of unbalanced motor-speech development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Leena Haapanen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marja-Leena Haapanen1, Tuomo Aro1, Elina Isotalo21Deparment of Otorhinolaryngology, Phoniatric Division, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Neurology, Peijas Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: Even though difficulties in motor development in children with speech and language disorders are widely known, hardly any attention is paid to the association between atypically rapidly occurring unassisted walking and delayed speech development. The four children described here presented with a developmental behavioral triad: 1 atypically speedy motor development, 2 impaired expressive speech, and 3 tongue carriage dysfunction resulting in related misarticulations. Those characteristics might be phenotypically or genetically clustered. These children didn’t have impaired cognition, neurological or mental disease, defective sense organs, craniofacial dysmorphology or susceptibility to upper respiratory infections, particularly recurrent otitis media. Attention should be paid on discordant and unbalanced achievement of developmental milestones. Present children are termed SPEEDY babies, where SPEEDY refers to rapid independent walking, SPEE and DY to dyspractic or dysfunctional speech development and lingual dysfunction resulting in linguoalveolar misarticulations. SPEEDY babies require health care that recognizes and respects their motor skills and supports their needs for motor activities and on the other hand include treatment for impaired speech. The parents may need advice and support with these children.Keywords: speedy walking, speech disorder, misarticulations

  6. Regression rate behaviors of HTPB-based propellant combinations for hybrid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Li, Yuelong; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the regression rate behavior of hybrid rocket motor propellant combinations, using hydrogen peroxide (HP), gaseous oxygen (GOX), nitrous oxide (N2O) as the oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) as the based fuel. In order to complete this research by experiment and simulation, a hybrid rocket motor test system and a numerical simulation model are established. Series of hybrid rocket motor firing tests are conducted burning different propellant combinations, and several of those are used as references for numerical simulations. The numerical simulation model is developed by combining the Navies-Stokes equations with the turbulence model, one-step global reaction model, and solid-gas coupling model. The distribution of regression rate along the axis is determined by applying simulation mode to predict the combustion process and heat transfer inside the hybrid rocket motor. The time-space averaged regression rate has a good agreement between the numerical value and experimental data. The results indicate that the N2O/HTPB and GOX/HTPB propellant combinations have a higher regression rate, since the enhancement effect of latter is significant due to its higher flame temperature. Furthermore, the containing of aluminum (Al) and/or ammonium perchlorate(AP) in the grain does enhance the regression rate, mainly due to the more energy released inside the chamber and heat feedback to the grain surface by the aluminum combustion.

  7. Caffeine triggers behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, A P; Borges, M F; Rocha, A S; Sallaberry, C; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2014-06-13

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide but concerns arise about the growing intake of caffeine-containing drinks by adolescents since the effects of caffeine on cognitive functions and neurochemical aspects of late brain maturation during adolescence are poorly known. We now studied the behavioral impact in adolescent male rats of regular caffeine intake at low (0.1mg/mL), moderate (0.3mg/mL) and moderate/high (1.0mg/mL) doses only during their active period (from 7:00 P.M. to 7:00 A.M.). All tested doses of caffeine were devoid of effects on locomotor activity, but triggered anxiogenic effects. Caffeine (0.3 and 1mg/mL) improved the performance in the object recognition task, but the higher dose of caffeine (1.0mg/mL) decreased the habituation to an open-field arena, suggesting impaired non-associative memory. All tested doses of caffeine decreased the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptosomal-associated protein-25, but failed to modify neuron-specific nuclear protein immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Caffeine (0.3-1mg/mL) increased the density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and proBDNF density as well as adenosine A1 receptor density in the hippocampus, whereas the higher dose of caffeine (1mg/mL) increased the density of proBDNF and BDNF and decreased A1 receptor density in the cerebral cortex. These findings document an impact of caffeine consumption in adolescent rats with a dual impact on anxiety and recognition memory, associated with changes in BDNF levels and decreases of astrocytic and nerve terminal markers without overt neuronal damage in hippocampal and cortical regions. PMID:24726984

  8. Assessing altered motor unit recruitment patterns in paretic muscles of stroke survivors using surface electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K.; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The advancement of surface electromyogram (sEMG) recording and signal processing techniques has allowed us to characterize the recruitment properties of a substantial population of motor units (MUs) non-invasively. Here we seek to determine whether MU recruitment properties are modified in paretic muscles of hemispheric stroke survivors. Approach. Using an advanced EMG sensor array, we recorded sEMG during isometric contractions of the first dorsal interosseous muscle over a range of contraction levels, from 20% to 60% of maximum, in both paretic and contralateral muscles of stroke survivors. Using MU decomposition techniques, MU action potential amplitudes and recruitment thresholds were derived for simultaneously activated MUs in each isometric contraction. Main results. Our results show a significant disruption of recruitment organization in paretic muscles, in that the size principle describing recruitment rank order was materially distorted. MUs were recruited over a very narrow force range with increasing force output, generating a strong clustering effect, when referenced to recruitment force magnitude. Such disturbances in MU properties also correlated well with the impairment of voluntary force generation. Significance. Our findings provide direct evidence regarding MU recruitment modifications in paretic muscles of stroke survivors, and suggest that these modifications may contribute to weakness for voluntary contractions.

  9. Behavioral alterations in the gray dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Gervais, 1953 caused by sea traffi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielli Cristine Cunha Melo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses by Sotalia guianensis dolphins in the presence of touristic sea traffic in the bay of Curral, Pipa-RN, Brazil, were measured. The dolphins changed their behavior when boats were closer than 100 meters. The main behavioral alterations were that the dolphins remained submerged for longer and that they formed a more cohesive group as the boats came closer. Although we concluded that the approach of the boats changed the dolphins’ behavioral pattern, we do not know what aspects of the boats caused the avoidance. We believe that the noise of the boats is probably responsible for repelling the animals.

  10. Behavioral Symptoms in Motor Neuron Disease and Their Negative Impact on Caregiver Burden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Cui; Li-Ying Cui; Ming-Sheng Liu; Xiao-Guang Li; Jun-Fang Ma; Jia Fang; Qing-Yun Ding

    2015-01-01

    Background:The spectrum of abnormal behaviors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) has been described,but its practical meaning,namely its impact on caregiver burden,has not been clearly documented in Chinese population.This study aimed to assess the distribution of abnormal behaviors in Chinese population,and to analyze the relationship between behavior changes and caregiver burden.Methods:Sixty-five patients with ALS/MND have been consecutively enrolled into registry platform of Peking Union Medical College Hospital.An investigation was performed to these patients and their caregivers using the revised ALS function rating scale,Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS version,the Frontal Assessment Battery,and the Caregiver Burden Inventory.Results:Twenty-eight (43.1%) patients displayed abnormal behaviors of varying degrees,with one fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of frontotemporal lobe degeneration.Irritability,logopenia,and inflexibility ranked top 3 of abnormal behavior list.Correlation analysis revealed that the degree of behavioral change and frontal cognitive status were significantly associated with caregiver burden,with more extensive impact from disinhibitive behaviors.Analysis of covariance analysis showed that after associated factors were corrected,caregivers of patients with moderate to severe behavior change reported significantly heavier developmental burden,physical burden,and total burden than those with no behavioral change.Conclusions:Neurobehavioral symptoms could present in around 40% of Chinese patients with ALS/MND,and the distribution of these behaviors was also unique.Besides,abnormal behaviors were highly related to caregivers' burden.

  11. Parallel evolution of serotonergic neuromodulation underlies independent evolution of rhythmic motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillvis, Joshua L; Katz, Paul S

    2013-02-01

    Neuromodulation can dynamically alter neuronal and synaptic properties, thereby changing the behavioral output of a neural circuit. It is therefore conceivable that natural selection might act upon neuromodulation as a mechanism for sculpting the behavioral repertoire of a species. Here we report that the presence of neuromodulation is correlated with the production of a behavior that most likely evolved independently in two species: Tritonia diomedea and Pleurobranchaea californica (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudipleura). Individuals of both species exhibit escape swimming behaviors consisting of repeated dorsal-ventral whole-body flexions. The central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying these behaviors contain homologous identified neurons: DSI and C2 in Tritonia and As and A1 in Pleurobranchaea. Homologs of these neurons also can be found in Hermissenda crassicornis where they are named CPT and C2, respectively. However, members of this species do not exhibit an analogous swimming behavior. In Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, but not in Hermissenda, the serotonergic DSI homologs modulated the strength of synapses made by C2 homologs. Furthermore, the serotonin receptor antagonist methysergide blocked this neuromodulation and the swimming behavior. Additionally, in Pleurobranchaea, the robustness of swimming correlated with the extent of the synaptic modulation. Finally, injection of serotonin induced the swimming behavior in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, but not in Hermissenda. This suggests that the analogous swimming behaviors of Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea share a common dependence on serotonergic neuromodulation. Thus, neuromodulation may provide a mechanism that enables species to acquire analogous behaviors independently using homologous neural circuit components. PMID:23392697

  12. Antibiotic-induced dysbiosis alters host-bacterial interactions and leads to colonic sensory and motor changes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, M; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Martínez, V

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the commensal microbiota (dysbiosis) seem to be a pathogenic component of functional gastrointestinal disorders, mainly irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and might participate in the secretomotor and sensory alterations observed in these patients.We determined if a state antibiotics-induced intestinal dysbiosis is able to modify colonic pain-related and motor responses and characterized the neuro-immune mechanisms implicated in mice. A 2-week antibiotics treatment induced a colonic dysbiosis (increments in Bacteroides spp, Clostridium coccoides and Lactobacillus spp and reduction in Bifidobacterium spp). Bacterial adherence was not affected. Dysbiosis was associated with increased levels of secretory-IgA, up-regulation of the antimicrobial lectin RegIIIγ, and toll-like receptors (TLR) 4 and 7 and down-regulation of the antimicrobial-peptide Resistin-Like Molecule-β and TLR5. Dysbiotic mice showed less goblet cells, without changes in the thickness of the mucus layer. Neither macroscopical nor microscopical signs of inflammation were observed. In dysbiotic mice, expression of the cannabinoid receptor 2 was up-regulated, while the cannabinoid 1 and the mu-opioid receptors were down-regulated. In antibiotic-treated mice, visceral pain-related responses elicited by intraperitoneal acetic acid or intracolonic capsaicin were significantly attenuated. Colonic contractility was enhanced during dysbiosis. Intestinal dysbiosis induce changes in the innate intestinal immune system and modulate the expression of pain-related sensory systems, an effect associated with a reduction in visceral pain-related responses. Commensal microbiota modulates gut neuro-immune sensory systems, leading to functional changes, at least as it relates to viscerosensitivity. Similar mechanisms might explain the beneficial effects of antibiotics or certain probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:25531553

  13. Motor control of jaw movements: An fMRI study of parafunctional clench and grind behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Donald; Dzemidzic, Mario; Talavage, Thomas M; Romito, Laura M; Byrd, Kenneth E

    2011-04-01

    Jaw-clenching and tooth-grinding associated with bruxism can contribute to abnormal tooth wear and pain in the masticatory system. Clench and tooth-grinding jaw-movement tasks were evaluated in a block-design fMRI study comparing a dental-control (DC) group with a tooth-grinding (TG) group. Group classification was made prior to imaging based upon self-reported parafunctional clench and grind behavior and clinical evidence of abnormal tooth wear. Group differences in brain activation patterns were found for each task compared to the resting baseline. The DC group showed a more widely distributed pattern; more extensive activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) proper that extended into the pre-SMA; and, for clench, activity in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The DC group activated more than the TG subjects the left IPL for clench, and pre-SMA for grind. Neither task elicited more activity in the TG than DC subjects. Our group findings suggest that jaw-movement tasks executed by the TG group elicited (1) more efficient brain activation pattern consistent with other studies that found less extensive activity with executing "over-learned" tasks; (2) "underactive" SMA activity that underlies reduced motor planning; (3) decreased inferior parietal activity that is associated with lesser motor-attentional demands. Thus orofacial parafunctional habits may influence brain circuits recruited for jaw movements, providing a possible basis for understanding involuntary jaw movements in bruxism and oral movement disorders in general. PMID:21295015

  14. Differential genetic regulation of motor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in mice using an automated home cage task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, Annetrude J G; Olivier, Berend; Spruijt, Berry M; van Ree, Jan M

    2008-01-01

    Traditional behavioral tests, such as the open field test, measure an animal's responsiveness to a novel environment. However, it is generally difficult to assess whether the behavioral response obtained from these tests relates to the expression level of motor activity and/or to avoidance of anxiog

  15. Fundamental motor skill, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli

    2016-10-01

    Guided by Stodden et al's conceptual model, the main purpose of the study was to examine the relation between fundamental motor skills (FMS; locomotor and objective control skills), different intensity levels of physical activity (light PA [LPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA], and vigorous PA[VPA]), and sedentary behavior (SB) in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. A prospective design was used in this study and the data were collected across the 2013-2014 academic school year. Participants were 256 (129 boys; 127 girls; Mage = 5.37, SD = 0.48) kindergarteners recruited from three public schools in the southern United States. Results found that FMS were significantly related to LPA, MVPA, VPA, and SB. Regression analyses indicate that locomotor skills explained significant variance for LPA (6.4%; p result in participating in more varied physical activities, thus leading to lower risk of obesity-related behaviors. PMID:26691744

  16. Pomegranate Supplementation Improves Affective and Motor Behavior in Mice after Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Dulcich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavioral skill deficits. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice (48 pomegranate fed and 48 control were irradiated with proton radiation (2 Gy, and two-month postradiation behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests to measure cognitive and motor functions. Proton irradiation was associated with depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test, but this effect was ameliorated by the pomegranate diet. Males, in general, displayed worse coordination and balance than females on the rotarod task, and the pomegranate diet ameliorated this effect. Overall, it appears that proton irradiation, which may be encountered in space, may induce a different pattern of behavioral deficits in males than females and that a pomegranate diet may confer protection against some of those effects.

  17. Pomegranate supplementation improves affective and motor behavior in mice after radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulcich, Melissa S; Hartman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavioral skill deficits. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice (48 pomegranate fed and 48 control) were irradiated with proton radiation (2 Gy), and two-month postradiation behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests to measure cognitive and motor functions. Proton irradiation was associated with depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test, but this effect was ameliorated by the pomegranate diet. Males, in general, displayed worse coordination and balance than females on the rotarod task, and the pomegranate diet ameliorated this effect. Overall, it appears that proton irradiation, which may be encountered in space, may induce a different pattern of behavioral deficits in males than females and that a pomegranate diet may confer protection against some of those effects. PMID:23662154

  18. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior In Children With Moderate To Severe Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigette Oliver Ryalls

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP, a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 seconds were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM, and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment (PACMI play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System (PIECES. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p<0.001 and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p=0.067 were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment.

  19. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior in Children with Moderate to Severe Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryalls, Brigette O.; Harbourne, Regina; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Wickstrom, Jordan; Stergiou, Nick; Kyvelidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP), a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 s were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p < 0.001) and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p = 0.067) were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment. PMID:27199868

  20. Bimanual coupling paradigm as an effective tool to investigate productive behaviors in motor and body awareness impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eGarbarini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When humans move simultaneously both hands strong coupling effects arise and neither of the two hands is able to perform independent actions. It has been suggested that such motor constraints are tightly linked to action representation rather than to movement execution. Hence, bimanual tasks can represent an ideal experimental tool to investigate internal motor representations in those neurological conditions in which the movement of one hand is impaired. Indeed, any effect on the ‘moving’ (healthy hand would be caused by the constraints imposed by the ongoing motor program of the ‘impaired’ hand. Here, we review recent studies that successfully utilized the above-mentioned paradigms to investigate some types of productive motor behaviors in stroke patients. Specifically, bimanual tasks have been employed in left hemiplegic patients who report illusory movements of their contralesional limbs (anosognosia for hemiplegia. They have also been administered to patients affected by a specific monothematic delusion of body ownership, namely the belief that another person’s arm and his/her voluntary action belong to them. In summary, the reviewed studies show that bimanual tasks are a simple and valuable experimental method apt to reveal information about the motor programs of a paralyzed limb. Therefore, it can be used to objectively examine the cognitive processes underpinning motor programming in patients with different delusions of motor behavior. Additionally, it also sheds light on the mechanisms subserving bimanual coordination in the intact brain suggesting that action representation might be sufficient to produce these effects.

  1. Early onset of behavioral alterations in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Shuichi; Endo, Shogo

    2016-07-15

    Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is inbred lines of mice originally developed from AKR/J mice. Among the six SAM prone (SAMP) substrains, 8- to 12-month-old SAMP8 have long been used as a model of age-related cognitive impairments. However, little is still known for younger SAMP8 mice. Here, we examined the phenotypical characteristics of 4-month-old SAMP8 using a battery of behavioral tests. Four-month-old SAMP8 mice failed to recognize spatially displaced object in an object recognition task and performed poorly in the probe test of the Morris water maze task compared to SAMR1, suggesting that SAMP8 have impaired spatial memory. In addition, young SAMP8 exhibited enhanced anxiety-like behavior in an open field test and showed depression-like behavior in the forced-swim test. Their circadian rhythm was also disrupted. These abnormal behaviors of young SAMP8 are similar to behavioral alterations also observed in aged mice. In summary, age-related behavioral alterations occur in SAMP8 as young as 4 months old. PMID:27093926

  2. Behavioral alterations following blood-brain barrier disruption stimulated by focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Huang, Sheng-Fang; Cheng, Irene Han-Juo

    2016-05-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral alterations and histological changes of the brain after FUS-induced BBB disruption (BBBD). Rats were behaviorally tested using the open field, hole-board, and grip strength tests from day 1 through day 32 after undergoing BBBD induced by FUS with either a mild or heavy parameter. In the open field test, we found an increase in center entries on day 1 and day 9 following heavy FUS treatment and a decrease in center entries at day 18 following mild FUS treatment. With regard to memory-related alterations, rats subjected to heavy FUS treatment exhibited longer latency to start exploring and to find the first baited hole. However, rats subjected to mild FUS treatment exhibited no significant differences in terms of memory performance or grip force. The obtained data suggest that heavy FUS treatment might induce hyperactivity, spatial memory impairment, and forelimb gripping deficits. Furthermore, while mild FUS treatment may have an impact on anxiety-related behaviors, the data suggested it had no impact on locomotor activity, memory, or grip force. Thus, the behavioral alterations following FUS-induced BBBD require further investigation before clinical application. PMID:27034007

  3. Neuropsychological evaluation and parental assessment of behavioral and motor difficulties in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, V; Kemlin, I; Dorison, N; Billette de Villemeur, T; Rodriguez, D; Dellatolas, G

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder, with large inter and intrafamilial clinical variability and uncertain prognosis. In children with NF1 cognitive disorders, learning difficulties and behavioral problems are common. The present study aims to establish the neuropsychological and behavioral profiles of 78 patients with NF1, aged between 5 and 18 years, and to examine the relationship between these profiles and the transmission of NF1 (sporadic vs. familial), clinical manifestations, and environmental factors. We used several questionnaires completed by parents and neuropsychological tests. The results confirmed specific neuropsychological disabilities in children with NF1, especially involving visuospatial and fine motor skills, learning difficulties and behavioral problems. Cognitive difficulties were significantly more frequent in patients with familial than in those with sporadic NF1. All parental questionnaires were correlated with each other, but parental reports were not associated with FSIQ, SES, school status, and clinical manifestations of the disease. Neuropsychological tests were poorly related to parental reports of cognitive and behavioral difficulties. PMID:26625207

  4. Interferon-gamma deficiency modifies the motor and co-morbid behavioral pathology and neurochemical changes provoked by the pesticide paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litteljohn, D; Mangano, E; Shukla, N; Hayley, S

    2009-12-29

    In addition to nigrostriatal pathology and corresponding motor disturbances, Parkinson's disease (PD) is often characterized by co-morbid neuropsychiatric symptoms, most notably anxiety and depression. Separate lines of evidence indicate that inflammatory processes associated with microglial activation and cytokine release may be fundamental to the progression of both PD and its co-morbid psychiatric pathology. Accordingly, we assessed the contribution of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), to a range of PD-like pathology provoked by the ecologically relevant herbicide and dopamine (DA) toxin, paraquat. To this end, paraquat provoked overt motor impairment (reduced home-cage activity and impaired vertical climbing) and signs of anxiety-like behavior (reduced open field exploration) in wild-type but not IFN-gamma-deficient mice. Correspondingly, paraquat promoted somewhat divergent variations in neurochemical activity among wild-type and IFN-gamma null mice at brain sites important for both motor (striatum) and co-morbid affective pathologies (dorsal hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and locus coeruleus). Specifically, the herbicide provoked a dosing regimen-dependent reduction in striatal DA levels that was prevented by IFN-gamma deficiency. In addition, the herbicide influenced serotonergic and noradrenergic activity within the dorsal hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex; and elevated noradrenergic activity within the locus coeruleus. Although genetic ablation of IFN-gamma had relatively few effects on monoamine variations within the locus coeruleus and prefrontal cortex, loss of the pro-inflammatory cytokine did normalize the paraquat-induced noradrenergic alterations within the hippocampus. These findings further elucidate the functional implications of paraquat intoxication and suggest an important role for IFN-gamma in the striatal and motor pathology, as well as the co-morbid behavioral and hippocampal changes induced by

  5. The effect of altering self-descriptive behavior on self-concept and classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J; Muller, D

    1977-09-01

    This research examined the impact of operant reinforcement of positive self-descriptive behavior on the self-concepts and classroom behavior of 60 fifth-grade students. Three groups of 10 male and 10 female low self-concept students wrote a series of eight essays describing their school performance. The first group (P) received written reinforcement for positive self-descriptions of their school performance. The second group (G) received an equal number of reinforcements for general statements. The third group (C) received no reinforcement for written statements. Three areas of self-concept were measured with the Primary Self-Concept Inventory: personal-self, social-self, and intellectual-self. A frequency count was also made of nine classroom behaviors thought to be influenced by self-concept. The P group displayed increases in the frequency of positive self-descriptive statement and in intellectual self-concept but no changes in personal self-concept, social self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors. The G and C groups showed no change in self-description, self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors. PMID:894617

  6. Effects of Infantile Repeated Hyperglycemia on Behavioral Alterations in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Moghadami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety symptoms have been reported to be present in many patients with diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia in critical periods of the central nervous system development. We assessed locomotive, exploratory, and anxiety behaviors in adult rats that remained from infantile repeated hyperglycemia by the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Our findings showed significant hypo activity, reduced locomotive/exploratory activities, increased fear related behaviors, and anxiety state between hyperglycemic and control adult males and the same differences were observed among females. In addition, no significant behavioral alterations between male and female animals were observed. This study determined that repeated increments in daily blood sugar levels in newborns may affect neuronal functions and provide behavioral abnormalities in adults.

  7. Heat acclimation alters the sleep and behavior based thermoregulatory dynamics of rats in heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha RK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well understood that the high environmental heat significantly affects the brain physiology of mammals, particularly the sleep and behavior of the subjects. The objective of the present work is to quantify the effects of acclimatization to the high environmental heat on sleep and behavioral activities in heat stress conditions. Methods: The polygraphic data involved simultaneous recordings of cortical electroencephalogram (EEG, electrooculogram (EOG, and electromyogram (EMG were recorded both on chart as well as in digital format to study the sleep-wake parameters in three different age groups of freely moving rats following exposure to high environmental heat. Each age group was subdivided into four groups: the acute heat stress group, subjected to a single exposure of 4h at 38°C in the biological oxygen demand (BOD incubator; the chronic heat stress group, exposed for 21 days, for 1 h each day, at 38°C in the BOD; acute heat stress followed by 21 days of chronic heat acclimatization and the handling control group. Open field and elevated plus-maze behavior was also analyzed following different exposure setup of high environmental heat. Results: The analyses of results suggest that acclimatization to the high environmental heat significantly alters the effects of acute exposure of high environmental heat on different sleep-wake as well as behavioral parameters. Conclusion: Acclimatization to environmental heat shifts the thermoregulatory set-point and thus these altered changes in sleep and behavior have been observed. Paste Full conclusion here

  8. Implication of Nerve Growth Factor in intestinal mucosal mast cell activity and colonic motor alterations in a model of ovalbumin-induced gut dysfunction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jardí Pujol, Ferran

    2011-01-01

    We determined NGF involvement in MMCs and colonic motor alterations in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced gut dysfunction model in rats. Animals received OVA (6 weeks), with/without simultaneous K252a (TrkA antagonist) treatment. MMCs, rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII) levels and colonic contractility in vitro were assessed. OVA increased MMC density and RMCPII concentration. Spontaneous contractility was similar in both groups and inhibited by K252a. Carbachol responses were increased by OVA in a K...

  9. Cortical Structure Alterations and Social Behavior Impairment in p50-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Sara Anna; Mastinu, Andrea; Maccarinelli, Giuseppina; Mitola, Stefania; Premoli, Marika; La Rosa, Luca Rosario; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Memo, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in genes that regulate neurodevelopment can lead to cortical malformations, resulting in malfunction during postnatal life. The NF-κB pathway has a key role during neurodevelopment by regulating the maintenance of the neural progenitor cell pool and inhibiting neuronal differentiation. In this study, we evaluated whether mice lacking the NF-κB p50 subunit (KO) present alterations in cortical structure and associated behavioral impairment. We found that, compared with wild type (WT), KO mice at postnatal day 2 present an increase in radial glial cells, an increase in Reelin protein expression levels, in addition to an increase of specific layer thickness. Moreover, adult KO mice display abnormal columnar organization in the somatosensory cortex, a specific decrease in somatostatin- and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, altered neurite orientation, and a decrease in Synapsin I protein levels. Concerning behavior, KO mice, in addition to an increase in locomotor and exploratory activity, display impairment in social behaviors, with a reduction in social interaction. Finally, we found that risperidone treatment decreased hyperactivity of KO mice, but had no effect on defective social interaction. Altogether, these data add complexity to a growing body of data, suggesting a link between dysregulation of the NF-κB pathway and neurodevelopmental disorders pathogenesis. PMID:26946128

  10. Prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure alters motor behavior and ultrasonic vocalization in cd-1 mouse pups

    OpenAIRE

    Calamandrei Gemma; Scattoni Maria; Ricceri Laura; Venerosi Aldina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a non-persistent organophosphate (OP) largely used as pesticide. Studies from animal models indicate that CPF is a developmental neurotoxicant able to target immature central nervous system at dose levels well below the threshold of systemic toxicity. So far, few data are available on the potential short- and long-term adverse effects in children deriving from low-level exposures during prenatal life and infancy. Methods Late gestational exposure [ges...

  11. Postpartum behavioral profiles in Wistar rats following maternal separation - altered exploration and risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loudin Daoura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The rodent maternal separation (MS model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15 and prolonged (360 min; MS360 periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e. just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis.

  12. Gender and estrous cycle influences on behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adult rats neonatally administered ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célia Moreira Borella, Vládia; Seeman, Mary V; Carneiro Cordeiro, Rafaela; Vieira dos Santos, Júnia; Romário Matos de Souza, Marcos; Nunes de Sousa Fernandes, Ethel; Santos Monte, Aline; Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Silvânia; Quinn, John P; de Lucena, David F; Carvalho, André F; Macêdo, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in rodents triggers schizophrenia (SCZ)-like alterations during adult life. SCZ is influenced by gender in age of onset, premorbid functioning, and course. Estrogen, the hormone potentially driving the gender differences in SCZ, is known to present neuroprotective effects such as regulate oxidative pathways and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, the aim of this study was to verify if differences in gender and/or estrous cycle phase during adulthood would influence the development of behavioral and neurochemical alterations in animals neonatally administered ketamine. The results showed that ketamine-treated male (KT-male) and female-in-diestrus (KTF-diestrus, the low estrogen phase) presented significant deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and spatial working memory, two behavioral SCZ endophenotypes. On the contrary, female ketamine-treated rats during proestrus (KTF-proestrus, the high estradiol phase) had no behavioral alterations. This correlated with an oxidative imbalance in the hippocampus (HC) of both male and KTF-diestrus female rats, that is, decreased levels of GSH and increased levels of lipid peroxidation and nitrite. Similarly, BDNF was decreased in the KTF-diestrus rats while no alterations were observed in KTF-proestrus and male animals. The changes in the HC were in contrast to those in the prefrontal cortex in which only increased levels of nitrite in all groups studied were observed. Thus, there is a gender difference in the adult rat HC in response to ketamine neonatal administration, which is based on the estrous cycle. This is discussed in relation to neuropsychiatric conditions and in particular SCZ. PMID:26215537

  13. Relaxin-3-deficient mice showed slight alteration in anxiety-related behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa eWatanabe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Relaxin-3 is a neuropeptide belonging to the relaxin/insulin superfamily. Studies using rodents have revealed that relaxin-3 is predominantly expressed in neurons in the nucleus incertus of the pons, the axons of which project to forebrain regions including the hypothalamus. There is evidence that relaxin-3 is involved in several functions, including food intake and stress responses. In the present study, we generated relaxin-3 gene knockout (KO mice and examined them using a range of behavioral tests of sensory/motor functions and emotion-related behaviors. The results revealed that relaxin-3 KO mice exhibited normal growth and appearance, and were generally indistinguishable from wild genotype littermates. There was no difference in bodyweight among genotypes until at least 28 weeks after birth. In addition, there were no significant differences between wild-type and KO mice in locomotor activity, social interaction, hot plate test performance, fear conditioning, depression-like behavior, and Y-maze test performance. However, in the elevated plus maze test, KO mice exhibited a robust increase in the tendency to enter open arms, although they exhibited normal performance in a light/dark transition test and showed no difference from wild-type mice in the time spent in central area in the open field test. On the other hand, a significant increase in the acoustic startle response was observed in KO mice. These results indicate that relaxin-3 is slightly involved in the anxiety-related behavior.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and altered locomotor behavior in the carabid beetle pterostichus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte S.; Krause-Jensen, Lone; Baatrup, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The establishment of cause–effect relationships is fundamental for the interpretation and the predictive value of biomarker responses measured at all levels of biological complexity. In the present study, the biochemical exposure biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition was related to...... locomotor behavior, representing a general effect biomarker at the organismal level. Both sexes of the carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus were intoxicated with three doses of the organophosphorous insecticide dimethoate. Five elements of their locomotor behavior were measured for 4 h employing computer......-aided video tracking, whereupon the whole body AChE activity was measured in the individual beetle. AChE inhibition was strongly correlated with dimethoate dose in both sexes. Alterations in the locomotor behavior were directly correlated with AChE inhibition in male beetles, which responded by reducing the...

  15. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Motor Preparation Deficits in a Visual Cued Spatial Attention Task in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Estate M; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Guela E; El-Baz, Ayman S; Casanova, Manuel F

    2016-03-01

    Abnormalities in motor skills have been regarded as part of the symptomatology characterizing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It has been estimated that 80 % of subjects with autism display "motor dyspraxia" or clumsiness that are not readily identified in a routine neurological examination. In this study we used behavioral measures, event-related potentials (ERP), and lateralized readiness potential (LRP) to study cognitive and motor preparation deficits contributing to the dyspraxia of autism. A modified Posner cueing task was used to analyze motor preparation abnormalities in children with autism and in typically developing children (N = 30/per group). In this task, subjects engage in preparing motor response based on a visual cue, and then execute a motor movement based on the subsequent imperative stimulus. The experimental conditions, such as the validity of the cue and the spatial location of the target stimuli were manipulated to influence motor response selection, preparation, and execution. Reaction time and accuracy benefited from validly cued targets in both groups, while main effects of target spatial position were more obvious in the autism group. The main ERP findings were prolonged and more negative early frontal potentials in the ASD in incongruent trials in both types of spatial location. The LRP amplitude was larger in incongruent trials and had stronger effect in the children with ASD. These effects were better expressed at the earlier stages of LRP, specifically those related to response selection, and showed difficulties at the cognitive phase of stimulus processing rather that at the motor execution stage. The LRP measures at different stages reflect the chronology of cognitive aspects of movement preparation and are sensitive to manipulations of cue correctness, thus representing very useful biomarker in autism dyspraxia research. Future studies may use more advance and diverse manipulations of movement preparation demands in testing more

  16. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Control Environmental Stimulation through a Mouse Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kun-Tsan; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether two people with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to control environmental stimulation using thumb poke ability with a mouse wheel and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replacing standard mouse driver, and turning a mouse into a precise thumb poke detector).…

  17. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Improve Computer Pointing Efficiency through a Mouse Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to improve their pointing performance using finger poke ability with a mouse wheel through a Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (DPAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, changes a…

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. METHOD

  19. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors in electric vehicles caused by unbalanced magnetic pull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changle; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hui; Han, Lijin; Zhang, Xun

    2016-06-01

    Unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) plays a key role in nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in electric vehicles. Based on Jeffcott rotor model, the stiffness characteristics of the rotor system of the PMSM are analyzed and the nonlinear dynamic behaviors influenced by UMP are investigated. In free vibration study, eigenvalue-based stability analysis for multiple equilibrium points is performed which offers an insight in system stiffness. Amplitude modulation effects are discovered of which the mechanism is explained and the period of modulating signal is carried out by phase analysis and averaging method. The analysis indicates that the effects are caused by the interaction of the initial phases of forward and backward whirling motions. In forced vibration study, considering dynamic eccentricity, frequency characteristics revealing softening type are obtained by harmonic balance method, and the stability of periodic solution is investigated by Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The frequency characteristics analysis indicates that the response amplitude is limited in the range between the amplitudes of the two kinds of equilibrium points. In the vicinity of the continuum of equilibrium points, the system hardly provides resistance to bending, and hence external disturbances easily cause loss of stability. It is useful for the design of the PMSM with high stability and low vibration and acoustic noise.

  20. Altered distributions of Gemini of coiled bodies and mitochondria in motor neurons of TDP-43 transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Xiu; Chiang, Po-Min; Price, Donald L.; Wong, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43), a DNA/RNA-binding protein involved in RNA transcription and splicing, has been associated with the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS. However, the function of TDP-43 in motor neurons remains undefined. Here we use both gain- and loss-of-function approaches to determine roles of TDP-43 in motor neurons. Mice expressing human TDP-43 in neurons exhibited growth retardation and premature death that are characterized by abnormal intra...

  1. Neonatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene induces oxidative stress causing altered hippocampal cytomorphometry and behavior during early adolescence period of male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhupesh; Das, Saroj Kumar; Das, Swagatika; Das, Lipsa; Patri, Manorama

    2016-05-01

    Environmental neurotoxicants like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been well documented regarding their potential to induce oxidative stress. However, neonatal exposure to B[a]P and its subsequent effect on anti-oxidant defence system and hippocampal cytomorphometry leading to behavioral changes have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of acute exposure of B[a]P on five days old male Wistar pups administered with single dose of B[a]P (0.2 μg/kg BW) through intracisternal mode. Control group was administered with vehicle i.e., DMSO and a separate group of rats without any treatment was taken as naive group. Behavioral analysis showed anxiolytic-like behavior with significant increase in time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze. Further, significant reduction in fall off time during rotarod test showing B[a]P induced locomotor hyperactivity and impaired motor co-ordination in adolescent rats. B[a]P induced behavioral changes were further associated with altered anti-oxidant defence system involving significant reduction in the total ATPase, Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Mg(2+) ATPase, GR and GPx activity with a significant elevation in the activity of catalase and GST as compared to naive and control groups. Cytomorphometry of hippocampus showed that the number of neurons and glia in B[a]P treated group were significantly reduced as compared to naive and control. Subsequent observation showed that the area and perimeter of hippocampus, hippocampal neurons and neuronal nucleus were significantly reduced in B[a]P treated group as compared to naive and control. The findings of the present study suggest that the alteration in hippocampal cytomorphometry and neuronal population associated with impaired antioxidant signaling and mood in B[a]P treated group could be an outcome of neuromorphological alteration leading to pyknotic cell death or impaired differential migration of neurons during early postnatal brain development. PMID:26946409

  2. Dynamical and Phase Behavior of a Phospholipid Membrane Altered by an Antimicrobial Peptide at Low Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V K; Mamontov, E; Tyagi, M; Qian, S; Rai, D K; Urban, V S

    2016-07-01

    The mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides is traditionally attributed to the formation of pores in the lipid cell membranes of pathogens, which requires a substantial peptide to lipid ratio. However, using incoherent neutron scattering, we show that even at a concentration too low for pore formation, an archetypal antimicrobial peptide, melittin, disrupts the regular phase behavior of the microscopic dynamics in a phospholipid membrane, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). At the same time, another antimicrobial peptide, alamethicin, does not exert a similar effect on the DMPC microscopic dynamics. The melittin-altered lateral motion of DMPC at physiological temperature no longer resembles the fluid-phase behavior characteristic of functional membranes of the living cells. The disruptive effect demonstrated by melittin even at low concentrations reveals a new mechanism of antimicrobial action relevant in more realistic scenarios, when peptide concentration is not as high as would be required for pore formation, which may facilitate treatment with antimicrobial peptides. PMID:27232190

  3. Chronic uranium contamination alters spinal motor neuron integrity via modulation of SMN1 expression and microglia recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Marc, Brice; Elie, Christelle; Manens, Line; Tack, Karine; Benderitter, Marc; Gueguen, Yann; Ibanez, Chrystelle

    2016-07-01

    Consequences of uranium contamination have been extensively studied in brain as cognitive function impairments were observed in rodents. Locomotor disturbances have also been described in contaminated animals. Epidemiological studies have revealed increased risk of motor neuron diseases in veterans potentially exposed to uranium during their military duties. To our knowledge, biological response of spinal cord to uranium contamination has not been studied even though it has a crucial role in locomotion. Four groups of rats were contaminated with increasing concentrations of uranium in their drinking water compared to a control group to study cellular mechanisms involved in locomotor disorders. Nissl staining of spinal cord sections revealed the presence of chromatolytic neurons in the ventral horn. This observation was correlated with a decreased number of motor neurons in the highly contaminated group and a decrease of SMN1 protein expression (Survival of Motor Neuron 1). While contamination impairs motor neuron integrity, an increasing number of microglial cells indicates the trigger of a neuroinflammation process. Potential overexpression of a microglial recruitment chemokine, MCP-1 (Monocyte Chimioattractant Protein 1), by motor neurons themselves could mediate this process. Studies on spinal cord appear to be relevant for risk assessment of population exposed via contaminated food and water. PMID:27153795

  4. Modulation ofTcf7l2 expression alters behavior in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Savic

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of type 2 diabetes (T2D with several psychiatric diseases is well established. While environmental factors may partially account for these co-occurrences, common genetic susceptibilities could also be implicated in the confluence of these diseases. In support of shared genetic burdens, TCF7L2, the strongest genetic determinant for T2D risk in the human population, has been recently implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ risk, suggesting that this may be one of many loci that pleiotropically influence both diseases. To investigate whether Tcf7l2 is involved in behavioral phenotypes in addition to its roles in glucose metabolism, we conducted several behavioral tests in mice with null alleles of Tcf7l2 or overexpressing Tcf7l2. We identified a role for Tcf7l2 in anxiety-like behavior and a dose-dependent effect of Tcf7l2 alleles on fear learning. None of the mutant mice showed differences in prepulse inhibition (PPI, which is a well-established endophenotype for SCZ. These results show that Tcf7l2 alters behavior in mice. Importantly, these differences are observed prior to the onset of detectable glucose metabolism abnormalities. Whether these differences are related to human anxiety-disorders or schizophrenia remains to be determined. These animal models have the potential to elucidate the molecular basis of psychiatric comorbidities in diabetes and should therefore be studied further.

  5. Do environmental influences alter motor abilities acquisition? A comparison among children from day-care centers and private schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Karla Mônica F. T. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Development occurs in a proper rhythm as result of genetic inheritance and environment factors. This study had the aim to identify some environmental risk factors for the motor development in two groups of healthy children. 100 pre-school aged (five years children from two day-care centers and a private school were evaluated, in Recife-PE. All the children underwent to a motor skills assessment and their parents answered a questionnaire. The children from the public nursery remained behind in fine motor skills. The results showed that the biologically healthy children development can suffer negative influence of the environmental risk factors. In this research these factors were: the father absence, improper toys use to the correct age, the place were the child was kept in the early childhood, the lack of pedagogical guidance and extra-parental socialization and low familiar socioeconomic status.

  6. Alteration of the Nonsystemic Behavior of the Pesticide Ferbam on Tea Leaves by Engineered Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruyan; Zhang, Zhiyun; Pang, Shintaro; Yang, Tianxi; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2016-06-21

    A model system consisting of a nonsystemic pesticide (ferbam), engineered gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a plant tissue (tea leaves) was investigated using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Ferbam has no ability by itself to penetrate into tea leaves. When AuNPs were placed with ferbam onto the surface of tea leaves, however, the SERS signal of the ferbam-AuNPs complex was observed inside of the tea leaves. Within 1 h, the ferbam-AuNPs complex rapidly penetrated into the leaf to a depth of approximately 190 μm, about (1)/3 to (1)/2 of the leaf's thickness. The rate of penetration was dependent on the size of AuNPs, with 30 nm AuNPs-ferbam penetrating more rapidly when compared with complexes made with the 50 and 69 nm AuNPs. These results clearly demonstrated an alteration of the nonsystemic behavior of ferbam in the combined presence with AuNPs. This finding might lead to the development of some new pesticide formulations. Conversely, new toxicity issues may arise as the behaviors and fate of pesticides are altered significantly upon interaction with engineered NPs in the pesticide formulation or environment. PMID:27254832

  7. Reduced and Misexpression of 5-HT2 Receptors Alters Development, Behavior and CNS Activity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Cooper

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The misexpression as well as a knock down of the 5-HT2dro receptor produces slower body movements in larvae and altered development. When 1st instar larvae are raised with altered expression levels a high degree of death occurred. Exposure of the CNS to 5-HT in control larva increases motor unit excitability; however, when the 5-HT2dro expression is decreased the relative sensitivity to exogenously applied 5-HT is enhanced. This is likely a function of reduced basal CNS activity in this line. No change was observed for the strain with an over-expression compared to controls. Evoked sensory-CNS-motor circuits as well as spontaneous motor neuronal activity are also reduced. Like CNS activity, Heart Rate (HR in larva is sensitive to 5-HT. When the 1st instar to early 3rd instar were chronically reduced or misexpressed in the 5-HT receptor no alteration to 5-HT sensitivity on HR occurred, although the initial HR was lower in both strains as compared to wild type. Thus, a normal expression of the 5-HT2dro is required for development and CNS responsiveness to 5-HT, but this receptor subtype might not function in acute responsiveness of the heart to 5-HT, although the receptor has some effect on basal heart rate.

  8. Proposed torque optimized behavior for digital speed control of induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, H.M.B.; El-Shewy, H.M.; El-Kholy, M.M. [Zagazig Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Zagazig (Egypt); Abdel-Kader, F.E. [Menoufyia Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Menoufyia (Egypt)

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, a control strategy for speed control of induction motors with field orientation is proposed. The proposed method adjusts the output voltage and frequency of the converter to operate the motor at the desired speed with maximum torque per ampere at all load torques keeping the torque angle equal to 90 deg. A comparison between the performance characteristics of a 2 hp induction motor using three methods of speed control is presented. These methods are the proposed method, the direct torque control method and the constant V/f method. The comparison showed that better performance characteristics are obtained using the proposed speed control strategy. A computer program, based on this method, is developed. Starting from the motor parameters, the program calculates a data set for the stator voltage and frequency required to obtain maximum torque per ampere at any motor speed and load torque. This data set can be used by the digital speed control system of induction motors. (Author)

  9. Costly myths: An analysis of idling beliefs and behavior in personal motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the large contribution of individuals and households to climate change, little has been done in the US to reduce the CO2 emissions attributable to this sector. Motor vehicle idling among individual private citizens is one behavior that may be amenable to large-scale policy interventions. Currently, little data are available to quantify the potential reductions in emissions that could be realized by successful policy interventions. In addition, little is known about the motivations and beliefs that underlie idling. In the fall of 2007, 1300 drivers in the US were surveyed to assess typical idling practices, beliefs and motivations. Results indicate that the average individual idled for over 16 min a day and believed that a vehicle can be idled for at least 3.6 min before it is better to turn it off. Those who held inaccurate beliefs idled, on average, over 1 min longer than the remainder of the sample. These data suggest that idling accounts for over 93 MMt of CO2 and 10.6 billion gallons (40.1 billion liters) of gasoline a year, equaling 1.6% of all US emissions. Much of this idling is unnecessary and economically disadvantageous to drivers. The policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Costly myths. An analysis of idling beliefs and behavior in personal motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the large contribution of individuals and households to climate change, little has been done in the US to reduce the CO2 emissions attributable to this sector. Motor vehicle idling among individual private citizens is one behavior that may be amenable to large-scale policy interventions. Currently, little data are available to quantify the potential reductions in emissions that could be realized by successful policy interventions. In addition, little is known about the motivations and beliefs that underlie idling. In the fall of 2007, 1300 drivers in the US were surveyed to assess typical idling practices, beliefs and motivations. Results indicate that the average individual idled for over 16 min a day and believed that a vehicle can be idled for at least 3.6 min before it is better to turn it off. Those who held inaccurate beliefs idled, on average, over 1 min longer than the remainder of the sample. These data suggest that idling accounts for over 93 MMt of CO2 and 10.6 billion gallons (40.1 billion liters) of gasoline a year, equaling 1.6% of all US emissions. Much of this idling is unnecessary and economically disadvantageous to drivers. The policy implications of these findings are discussed. (author)

  11. Rotating bouncing disks, tossing pizza dough, and the behavior of ultrasonic motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuang-Chen; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2009-10-01

    Pizza tossing and certain forms of standing-wave ultrasonic motors (SWUMs) share a similar process for converting reciprocating input into continuous rotary motion. We show that the key features of this motion conversion process such as collision, separation and friction coupling are captured by the dynamics of a disk bouncing on a vibrating platform. The model shows that the linear or helical hand motions commonly used by pizza chefs and dough-toss performers for single tosses maximize energy efficiency and the dough’s airborne rotational speed; on the other hand, the semielliptical hand motions used for multiple tosses make it easier to maintain dough rotation at the maximum speed. The system’s bifurcation diagram and basins of attraction also provide a physical basis for understanding the peculiar behavior of SWUMs and provide a means to design them. The model is able to explain the apparently chaotic oscillations that occur in SWUMs and predict the observed trends in steady-state speed and stall torque as preload is increased.

  12. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow. PMID:25727024

  13. Intercostal muscle motor behavior during tracheal occlusion conditioning in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Poonam B; Davenport, Paul W

    2016-04-01

    A respiratory load compensation response is characterized by increases in activation of primary respiratory muscles and/or recruitment of accessory respiratory muscles. The contribution of the external intercostal (EI) muscles, which are a primary respiratory muscle group, during normal and loaded breathing remains poorly understood in conscious animals. Consciousness has a significant role on modulation of respiratory activity, as it is required for the integration of behavioral respiratory responses and voluntary control of breathing. Studies of respiratory load compensation have been predominantly focused in anesthetized animals, which make their comparison to conscious load compensation responses challenging. Using our established model of intrinsic transient tracheal occlusions (ITTO), our aim was to evaluate the motor behavior of EI muscles during normal and loaded breathing in conscious rats. We hypothesized that1) conscious rats exposed to ITTO will recruit the EI muscles with an increased electromyogram (EMG) activation and2) repeated ITTO for 10 days would potentiate the baseline EMG activity of this muscle in conscious rats. Our results demonstrate that conscious rats exposed to ITTO respond by recruiting the EI muscle with a significantly increased EMG activation. This response to occlusion remained consistent over the 10-day experimental period with little or no effect of repeated ITTO exposure on the baseline ∫EI EMG amplitude activity. The pattern of activation of the EI muscle in response to an ITTO is discussed in detail. The results from the present study demonstrate the importance of EI muscles during unloaded breathing and respiratory load compensation in conscious rats. PMID:26823339

  14. Rapid virtual prototyping of electric vehicles using DQ behavioral model of a brushless DC motor

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Ian; Wilson, Peter R.; Brown, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a system level for the effective and rapid design and evaluation of a complete electric vehicle system. Several critical components are examined including the mechanical model of the vehicle, the electric motor (with its associated power electronic components) and the energy storage system.A Brushless DC (BLDC) motor Saber model that integrates the DQ axis transformations within the electro-mechanical motor model is developed that facilitates fast and accurate characteriza...

  15. Altered cognitive-emotional behavior in early experimental autoimmune encephalitis--cytokine and hormonal correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, Shaona; Nayani, Nausheen; Tsutsui, Mio; Hill, Matthew N; Ousman, Shalina S; Pittman, Quentin J

    2013-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is often associated with co-morbid behavioural and cognitive impairments; however the presence of these symptoms does not necessarily correlate with neurological damage. This suggests that an alternate mechanism may subserve these impairments relative to motor deficits. We investigated whether these abnormalities could be studied in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. In myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55)-induced EAE mice, no motor deficits were observed until d9 after immunization. This enabled us to carry out a series of neurobehavioral tests during the presymptomatic stage, between d6 and d8 post-immunization. EAE mice spent more time in the outer zone in an open field test and in the closed arms of an elevated plus maze and, showed decreased latency for immobility in the tail suspension and forced swim tests and reduced social interaction compared with controls. These results are indicative of anxiety- and depression- like behavior. In addition, EAE mice appeared to exhibit memory impairment compared to controls based on their reduced time spent in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze and their faster memory extinction in the fear conditioning test. No demyelination, microglial activation or astrogliosis was observed in the brain at this early stage. Transcript analysis by RT-PCR from d6 to d8 brain revealed elevated interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α in the hypothalamus but not in the amygdala or hippocampus of EAE mice. Lastly, plasma corticosterone levels increased in EAE mice compared to controls. In conclusion, emotional and cognitive deficits are observed in EAE prior to demyelination and are associated with elevated IL-1β and TNF-α in the hypothalamus and changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:23886782

  16. LPS alters pattern of sickness behavior but does not affect glutathione level in aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrotek, Sylwia; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Nowakowska, Anna; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral symptoms of sickness, such as fever and motor activity are a coordinated set of changes that develop during infection. The aim of study was to compare the sickness behaviour (SB) in healthy old and young rats treated with pyrogenic dose of endotoxin and to check their glutathione level. Before experimentation male Wistar rats were selected according to standard body mass, motor activity, and white blood cells count. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli was used to provoke SB. The level of liver glutathione, interleukin (IL) -6, deep body temperature (Tb) and motor activity were measured. Glutathione level in old and young rats did not differ significantly. In both young and old rats LPS administration provoked fever (the mean value of Tb was 38.06 ± 0.01 °C in old rats, and 38.19 ± 0.06 °C in young rats). LPS injection affected night-time activity in both groups (12 h averages were 1.56 ± 0.40 counts in old LPS-treated rats vs 2.74 ± 0.53 counts in not-treated old rats and 3.44 ± 0.60 counts for young LPS-treated vs 4.28 ± 0.57 counts for young not-treated rats). The injection of LPS provoked an elevation of plasma IL-6 concentration (from values below the lowest detectable standard in not-treated groups of animals to 6322.82 ± 537.00 pg/mL in old LPS-treated rats and 7415.62 ± 451.88 pg/mL in young LPS-treated rats). Based on these data, we conclude that good health of aged rats prevents decrease in the glutathione level. Old rats are still able to develop SB in response to pyrogenic dose of LPS, although its components have changed pattern compared to young animals. PMID:26829940

  17. A study on the actuator efficiency behavior of safety-related motor operated gate and globe valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periodically, the operability of the safety-related motor-operated valves (MOVs) in nuclear power plants must be verified. Because the actuator efficiency is one of the most important factors in the determination of the actuator output, it should be considered in ensuring the operability of MOVs during the verification duration. In particular, special consideration should be paid to its potential degradation, but the design efficiency provided by manufacturers is usually used because the actuator efficiency calculation is difficult and requires considerable time and effort. In this paper, a method is introduced to calculate actuator efficiency by using diagnostic signals acquired in field tests. The actuator efficiency was calculated from the estimated motor torque, the stem thrust measured in field tests, and overall gear ratio provided by manufactures. The motor torque was estimated by using an algorithm, which can calculate electric torque from the three phases of currents and voltages, resistances between phases acquired in field tests. The validation of the design efficiencies was evaluated by comparing those efficiencies with the calculated actuator efficiencies. And, the age-related degradation was analyzed through the behavior analysis over time of the calculated actuator efficiencies. Most of the actuator efficiencies were found not to be degraded over time and kept efficiency greater than the design efficiency. However, two actuator efficiencies with lower motor speed, overall gear ratio, and maximum motor torque rating are susceptible to be lower than the design efficiencies. For the two actuators, threshold efficiencies were calculated and provided to replace their design efficiencies.

  18. Curcumin alters motor coordination but not total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of adolescent male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ginus Partadiredja; Sutarman; Taufik Nur Yahya; Christiana Tri Nuryana; Rina Susilowati

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The present study aimed at investigating the effects of curcumin on the motor coordination and the estimate of the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of adolescent Wistar rats exposed to ethanol.METHODS:The total of 21 male Wistar rats aged 37 d old were divided into three groups,namely ethanol,ethanol-curcumin,and control groups.The ethanol group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and water given per oral; the ethanol-curcumin group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and curcumin extract given per oral; the control group received saline injection and oral water.The treatment was carried out daily for one month,after which the motor coordination performance of the rats was examined using revolving drum apparatus at test days 1,8,and 15.The rats were finally sacrificed and the cerebellum of the rats was further processed for stereological analysis.The estimate of the total number of Purkinje cells was calculated using physical fractionator method.RESULTS:The ethanol-curcumin group performed better than both ethanol and control groups in the motor coordination ability at day 8 of testing (P< 0.01).No Purkinje cell loss was observed as a result of one month intraperitoneal injection of ethanol.CONCLUSION:Curcumin may exert beneficial effects on the motor coordination of adolescent rats exposed to ethanol via undetermined hormetic mechanisms.

  19. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Grigoriadis, J; Trulsson, M; Svensson, P; Svensson, K G

    2015-10-15

    Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor skill. Hence, the aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that repeated splitting of a food morsel during a short-term training with an oral fine motor task would result in increased performance and optimization of jaw movements, in terms of reduction in duration of various phases of the jaw movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30 min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw movement during the task were recorded. The precision of task performance improved significantly after training (22% mean deviation from ideal split after vs. 31% before; Pfine motor task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation that takes place after a successful prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:26162238

  20. Effect of Implicit Perceptual-Motor Training on Decision-Making Skills and Underpinning Gaze Behavior in Combat Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Nicolas; Farrow, Damian; Fournier, Jean F

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-session, implicit perceptual-motor training program on decision-making skills and visual search behavior of highly skilled junior female karate fighters (M age = 15.7 years, SD = 1.2). Eighteen participants were required to make (physical or verbal) reaction decisions to various attacks within different fighting scenarios. Fighters' performance and eye movements were assessed before and after the intervention, and during acquisition through the use of video-based and on-mat decision-making tests. The video-based test revealed that following training, only the implicit perceptual-motor group (n = 6) improved their decision-making accuracy significantly compared to a matched motor training (placebo, n = 6) group and a control group (n = 6). Further, the implicit training group significantly changed their visual search behavior by focusing on fewer locations for longer durations. In addition, the session-by-session analysis showed no significant improvement in decision accuracy between training session 1 and all the other sessions, except the last one. Coaches should devote more practice time to implicit learning approaches during perceptual-motor training program to achieve significant decision-making improvements and more efficient visual search strategy with elite athletes. PMID:27371637

  1. Laurate Biosensors Image Brain Neurotransmitters In Vivo: Can an Antihypertensive Medication Alter Psychostimulant Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Murthy

    2008-07-01

    NAc and open-field behaviors and (c ketanserin inhibits 5-HT release in NAc and open-field behaviors produced by caffeine, but, surprisingly, acts to increase DA release in NAc. Importantly, the latter effect may be a possible adverse effect of the moderate dose of caffeine in hypertensive patients. Thus, an antihypertensive medication is shown here to play a role in inhibiting brain reward possibly via antihypertensive mechanisms at DA and 5-HT receptor subtypes within DA motor neurons. An explanatory note for the results obtained, is the role likely played by the G Protein Receptor Complex (GPRC family of proteins. Empirical evidence shows that GPRC dimers, heteromers and heterotrimers may cause cross-talk between distinct signalling cascade pathways in the actions of cocaine and caffeine. Ligand-directed functional selectivity, particularly for ketanserin, in addition to GPRCs, may also cause differential responses. The results promise new therapeutic strategies for drug addiction, brain reward and cardiovascular medicine.

  2. Chemosensory cues affect amygdaloid neurogenesis and alter behaviors in the socially monogamous prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Lieberwirth, C; Jia, X; Curtis, J T; Meredith, M; Wang, Z X

    2014-05-01

    The current study examined the effects of pheromonal exposure on adult neurogenesis and revealed the role of the olfactory pathways on adult neurogenesis and behavior in the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Subjects were injected with a cell proliferation marker [5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] and then exposed to their own soiled bedding or bedding soiled by a same- or opposite-sex conspecific. Exposure to opposite-sex bedding increased BrdU labeling in the amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus (DG), of female, but not male, voles, indicating a sex-, stimulus-, and brain region-specific effect. The removal of the main olfactory bulbs or lesioning of the vomeronasal organ (VNOX) in females reduced BrdU labeling in the AMY and DG, and inhibited the male bedding-induced BrdU labeling in the AMY, revealing the importance of an intact olfactory pathway for amygdaloid neurogenesis. VNOX increased anxiety-like behavior and altered social preference, but it did not affect social recognition memory in female voles. VNOX also reduced the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells that co-expressed the neuronal marker TuJ1 in the AMY, but not the DG. Together, our data indicate the importance of the olfactory pathway in mediating brain plasticity in the limbic system as well as its role in behavior. PMID:24641515

  3. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ieraci; Alessandra Mallei; Maurizio Popoli

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation ...

  4. Evaluation of potential gender-related differences in behavioral and cognitive alterations following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos de; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

    2015-05-01

    Together with pharmacoresistant seizures, the quality of life of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients is negatively impacted by behavioral comorbidities including but not limited to depression, anxiety and cognitive deficits. The pilocarpine model of TLE has been widely used to study characteristics of human TLE, including behavioral comorbidities. Since the outcomes of pilocarpine-induced TLE might vary depending on several experimental factors, we sought to investigate potential gender-related differences regarding selected behavioral alterations in C57BL6 mice. We found that epileptic mice, independent of gender, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test. In the object recognition test, epileptic mice, regardless of gender, showed a decreased recognition index at 24 (but not at 4) hours after training. On the other hand, no significant differences were found regarding mice learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze paradigm. Motor coordination and balance as assessed by the beam walk and rotarod tests were not impaired in epileptic mice of both genders. However, female mice, independent of epilepsy, performed the beam walk and rotarod tasks better than their male counterparts. We also found that only male epileptic mice displayed disturbed behavior in the forced swim test, but the mice of both genders displayed anhedonia-like behavior in the taste preference test. Lastly, we found that the extent of hilar cell loss is similar in both genders. In summary, both genders can be successfully employed to study behavioral comorbidities of TLE; however, taking the potential gender differences into account may help choose the more appropriated gender for a given task, which may be of value for the minimization of the number of animals used during the experiments. PMID:25749198

  5. Effects of Vestibular Stimulation on Motor Development and Stereotyped Behavior of Developmentally Delayed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, William E., Jr.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1982-01-01

    Four developmentally delayed babies were given semicircular canal stimulation in an effort to facilitate their motor and reflex development. All of the children showed motor and/or reflex changes that were attributable to the vestibular stimulation. In addition, some evidence was obtained linking changes in stereotypic responding to the vestibular…

  6. Generalized Motor Abilities and Timing Behavior in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Method: Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing…

  7. Discharge behaviors of trapezius motor units during exposure to low and high levels of acute psychosocial stress

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Jennifer L.; Maluf, Katrina S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute psychosocial stress on trapezius single motor unit discharge behaviors. Twenty-one healthy women performed feedback-controlled isometric contractions under conditions of low and high psychosocial stress in the same experimental session. Psychosocial stress was manipulated using a verbal math task combined with social evaluative threat which significantly increased perceived anxiety, heart rate, and blood pressure (P0.121, N=103) and derecruitment (...

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F

    2009-01-01

    Background Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Objective We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. Methods This study was part of the prospective Groningen infant COMPARE (Comparison of Exposure-Effect Pathways to Improve the Assessment of Human Health Risks of Complex Environmental Mixtures of Organoha...

  9. Wheel running from a juvenile age delays onset of specific motor deficits but does not alter protein aggregate density in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spires Tara L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the cerebral cortex and striatum. Transgenic mice (R6/1 line, expressing a CAG repeat encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, closely model HD. We have previously shown that environmental enrichment of these HD mice delays the onset of motor deficits. Furthermore, wheel running initiated in adulthood ameliorates the rear-paw clasping motor sign, but not an accelerating rotarod deficit. Results We have now examined the effects of enhanced physical activity via wheel running, commenced at a juvenile age (4 weeks, with respect to the onset of various behavioral deficits and their neuropathological correlates in R6/1 HD mice. HD mice housed post-weaning with running wheels only, to enhance voluntary physical exercise, have delayed onset of a motor co-ordination deficit on the static horizontal rod, as well as rear-paw clasping, although the accelerating rotarod deficit remains unaffected. Both wheel running and environmental enrichment rescued HD-induced abnormal habituation of locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in the open field. We have found that neither environment enrichment nor wheel running ameliorates the shrinkage of the striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in HD mice, nor the overall decrease in brain weight, measured at 9 months of age. At this age, the density of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the striatum and ACC is also not significantly ameliorated by environmental enrichment or wheel running. Conclusion These results indicate that enhanced voluntary physical activity, commenced at an early presymptomatic stage, contributes to the positive effects of environmental enrichment. However, sensory and cognitive stimulation, as well as motor stimulation not associated with running, may constitute major components of the therapeutic benefits associated with enrichment

  10. Modest alterations in patterns of motor neuron dendrite morphology in the Fmr1 knockout mouse model for Fragile X

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Christina C.; Combe, Crescent L.; Dyar, Kenneth A.; Inglis, Fiona M.

    2008-01-01

    Fragile X, an inheritable form of mental retardation, is caused by the inactivation of a gene on the X chromosome, FMR1 which codes for an RNA binding protein, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein. Loss of this protein is associated with reduced complexities of neuronal dendrites and alterations in spine morphology in a number of cortical brain regions, and these deficits may underlie the cognitive impairment observed in fragile X patients. Among the many symptoms of fragile X are altered mot...

  11. Progress and perspectives of the Brazilian scientific production in international journals in the field of motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kogake Claudio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that one of the key indicators of scientific production is the number of papers published in international journals, and of the apparent growing interest in the area of motor behavior, we conducted a survey of articles published by Brazilian researchers in this area over the last 10 years (1999-2008 in international journals rated “Qualis International-A” and “Qualis International-B” by CAPES. This quantification was performed to provide a qualified viewpoint regarding the profile of Brazilian scientific production of international repercussion in the area of motor behavior. Articles were identified using the Google Scholar, Pubmed, Science Direct, and Scopus search systems, with the search being restricted to characteristic terms involving motor behavior and to researchers associated with Brazilian universities. The results showed an increase in production over the last 5 years of the period studied, with the peak in 2006. In addition, Brazilian scientific production was concentrated in four public universities. These results suggest that in order to keep growing, the new groups should work in collaboration with productive laboratories, decentralizing the scientific production.

  12. The Utility of Impulsive Bias and Altered Decision Making as Predictors of Drug Efficacy and Target Selection: Rethinking Behavioral Screening for Antidepressant Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Gerard J; Day, Mark; Hudzik, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction may be a core feature of major depressive disorder, including affective processing bias, abnormal response to negative feedback, changes in decision making, and increased impulsivity. Accordingly, a translational medicine paradigm predicts clinical action of novel antidepressants by examining drug-induced changes in affective processing bias. With some exceptions, these concepts have not been systematically applied to preclinical models to test new chemical entities. The purpose of this review is to examine whether an empirically derived behavioral screen for antidepressant drugs may screen for compounds, at least in part, by modulating an impulsive biasing of responding and altered decision making. The differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) 72-second schedule is an operant schedule with a documented fidelity for discriminating antidepressant drugs from nonantidepressant drugs. However, a theoretical basis for this empirical relationship has been lacking. Therefore, this review will discuss whether response bias toward impulsive behavior may be a critical screening characteristic of DRL behavior requiring long inter-response times to obtain rewards. This review will compare and contrast DRL behavior with the five-choice serial reaction time task, a test specifically designed for assessing motoric impulsivity, with respect to psychopharmacological testing and the neural basis of distributed macrocircuits underlying these tasks. This comparison suggests that the existing empirical basis for the DRL 72-second schedule as a pharmacological screen for antidepressant drugs is complemented by a novel hypothesis that altering impulsive response bias for rodents trained on this operant schedule is a previously unrecognized theoretical cornerstone for this screening paradigm. PMID:26699144

  13. Altering strength and plastic deformation behavior via alloying and laminated structure in nanocrystalline metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, F., E-mail: wangfei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang, P., E-mail: huangping@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Lu, T.J. [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); MOE Key Laboratory for Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Xu, K.W. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-07-29

    Nanoindentation and electron microscope techniques have been performed on sputtering deposited monolayered nanocrystalline CuNb and multilayered CuNb/Cu thin films. Microstructural features, hardness and surface morphologies of residual indentation have been evaluated to identify the effects of alloying and laminated structure on strength and plastic deformation behavior of nanocrystalline metals. By altering the content of Nb in CuNb alloy and adding crystalline Cu layers into CuNb alloy, the volume fraction of amorphous phase in CuNb alloy and interface structures changed dramatically, resulting in various trends that are related to hardness, indentation induced pileup and shear banding deformation. Based on the experimental results, the dominant deformation mechanisms of the CuNb and CuNb/Cu thin films with various Nb contents were proposed and extended to be discussed.

  14. Altering strength and plastic deformation behavior via alloying and laminated structure in nanocrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoindentation and electron microscope techniques have been performed on sputtering deposited monolayered nanocrystalline CuNb and multilayered CuNb/Cu thin films. Microstructural features, hardness and surface morphologies of residual indentation have been evaluated to identify the effects of alloying and laminated structure on strength and plastic deformation behavior of nanocrystalline metals. By altering the content of Nb in CuNb alloy and adding crystalline Cu layers into CuNb alloy, the volume fraction of amorphous phase in CuNb alloy and interface structures changed dramatically, resulting in various trends that are related to hardness, indentation induced pileup and shear banding deformation. Based on the experimental results, the dominant deformation mechanisms of the CuNb and CuNb/Cu thin films with various Nb contents were proposed and extended to be discussed

  15. Do early-life events permanently alter behavioral and hormonal responses to stressors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisman, H; Zaharia, M D; Meaney, M J; Merali, Z

    1998-01-01

    Early-life stimulation (e.g., brief handling) attenuates the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressors encountered in adulthood, particularly with respect to activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity. In contrast, if neonates were subjected to a more severe stressor, such as protracted separation from the dam or exposure to an endotoxin, then the adult response to a stressor was exaggerated. These early-life experiences program HPA functioning, including negative feedback derived from stimulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) coexpression in PVN neurons, to modify the response to subsequent stressor experiences. The persistent variations of HPA activity observed in handled/stimulated animals may stem from alterations in dam-pup interactions (e.g. increased arched-back feeding, licking, grooming). In addition genetic makeup is critical in determining stress reactivity. For instance, BALB/cByJ mice are more reactive to stressors than C57BL/6ByJ mice, exhibiting greater HPA hormonal alterations and behavioral disturbances. BALB/cByJ also fail to acquire a spatial learning response in a Morris water-maze paradigm, which has been shown to be correlated with hippocampal cell loss associated with aging. Early-life handling of BALB/cByJ mice prevented these performance deficits and attenuated the hypersecretion of ACTH and corticosterone elicited by stressors. The stressor reactivity may have been related to maternal and genetic factors. When BALB/cByJ mice were raised by a C57BL/6ByJ dam, the excessive stress-elicited HPA activity was reduced, as were the behavioral impairments. However, cross-fostering the more resilient C57BL/6ByJ mice to a BALB/cByJ dam failed to elicit the behavioral disturbances. It is suggested that genetic factors may influence dam-pup interactive styles and may thus proactively influence the response to subsequent stressors among

  16. Alteration by p11 of mGluR5 localization regulates depression-like behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ko-Woon; Westin, Linda; Kim, Jeongjin; Chang, Jerry C.; Oh, Yong-Seok; Amreen, Bushra; Gresack, Jodi; Flajolet, Marc; Kim, Daesoo; Aperia, Anita; Kim, Yong; Greengard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders and antidepressant therapy involve alterations of monoaminergic and glutamatergic transmission. The protein S100A10 (p11) was identified as a regulator of serotonin receptors, and has been implicated in the etiology of depression and in mediating the antidepressant actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Here we report that p11 can also regulate depression-like behaviors via regulation of a glutamatergic receptor in mice. p11 directly binds to the cytoplasmic tail of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). p11 and mGluR5 mutually facilitate their accumulation at the plasma membranes, and p11 increases cell surface availability of the receptor. While p11 overexpression potentiates mGluR5 agonist-induced calcium responses, overexpression of mGluR5 mutant, which does not interact with p11, diminishes the calcium responses in cultured cells. Knockout of mGluR5 or p11 specifically in glutamatergic neurons in mice causes depression-like behaviors. Conversely, knockout of mGluR5 or p11 in GABAergic neurons causes antidepressant-like behaviors. Inhibition of mGluR5 with an antagonist, MPEP, induces antidepressant-like behaviors in a p11-dependent manner. Notably, the antidepressant-like action of MPEP is mediated by parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons, resulting in a decrease of inhibitory neuronal firing with a resultant increase of excitatory neuronal firing. These results identify a molecular and cellular basis by which mGluR5 antagonism achieves its antidepressant-like activity. PMID:26370144

  17. Clock genes and behavioral responses to light are altered in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahouaoui, Hasna; Coutanson, Christine; Cooper, Howard M; Bennis, Mohamed; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are altered in retinal pathologies. Using a streptozotocin-induced (STZ) model of diabetes, we investigated the impact of diabetic retinopathy on non-visual functions by analyzing ipRGCs morphology and light-induced c-Fos and Period 1-2 clock genes in the central clock (SCN). The ability of STZ-diabetic mice to entrain to light was challenged by exposure animals to 1) successive light/dark (LD) cycle of decreasing or increasing light intensities during the light phase and 2) 6-h advance of the LD cycle. Our results show that diabetes induces morphological changes of ipRGCs, including soma swelling and dendritic varicosities, with no reduction in their total number, associated with decreased c-Fos and clock genes induction by light in the SCN at 12 weeks post-onset of diabetes. In addition, STZ-diabetic mice exhibited a reduction of overall locomotor activity, a decrease of circadian sensitivity to light at low intensities, and a delay in the time to re-entrain after a phase advance of the LD cycle. These novel findings demonstrate that diabetes alters clock genes and behavioral responses of the circadian timing system to light and suggest that diabetic patients may show an increased propensity for circadian disturbances, in particular when they are exposed to chronobiological challenges. PMID:25006976

  18. Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure to aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Poser Toigo, E; Huffell, A P; Mota, C S; Bertolini, D; Pettenuzzo, L F; Dalmaz, C

    2015-04-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution. PMID:25543075

  19. [Fundamental study of memory impairment and non-cognitive behavioral alterations in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniuchi, Nobuhiko; Niidome, Tetsuhiro; Sugimoto, Hachiro

    2015-01-01

    In addition to cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease patients also exhibit non-cognitive symptoms commonly referred to as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, or BPSD. These symptoms have a serious impact on the quality of life of these patients, as well as that of their caregivers, but there are currently no effective therapies. The amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is suspected to play a central role in the cascade leading to Alzheimer's disease, but the precise mechanisms are still incompletely known. To assess the influence of Aβ pathology on cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, we examined locomotor activity, motor coordination, and spatial memory in male and female APPswePS1dE9 mice (Alzheimer's disease model, double transgenic mice expressing an amyloid precursor protein with Swedish mutation and a presenilin-1 with deletion of exon 9) at 5 months of age, when the mice had subtle Aβ deposits, and again at 9 months of age, when the mice had numerous Aβ deposits. Compared to wild-type mice, the male and female APPswe/PS1dE9 mice showed normal motor coordination in the rotarod test at both 5 and 9 months. In the Morris water maze test, male and female APPswe/PS1dE9 mice showed impaired spatial memory at 9 months; however, no such deficits were found at 5 months. In a locomotor activity test, male APPswe/PS1dE9 mice exhibited locomotor hyperactivity at 9 months, while females exhibited locomotor hyperactivity at both 5 and 9 months compared to the control mice. Together, these results indicate that APPswe/PS1dE9 mice developed spatial memory impairment and BPSD-like behavioral alterations resulting from Aβ accumulation. PMID:25747232

  20. The effects of chronic intracortical microstimulation on neural tissue and fine motor behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Alexander T.; Boback, Jessica L.; Dammann, John F.; Tenore, Francesco V.; Wester, Brock A.; Otto, Kevin J.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. One approach to conveying sensory feedback in neuroprostheses is to electrically stimulate sensory neurons in the cortex. For this approach to be viable, it is critical that intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) causes minimal damage to the brain. Here, we investigate the effects of chronic ICMS on the neuronal tissue across a variety of stimulation regimes in non-human primates. We also examine each animal’s ability to use their hand—the cortical representation of which is targeted by the ICMS—as a further assay of possible neuronal damage. Approach. We implanted electrode arrays in the primary somatosensory cortex of three Rhesus macaques and delivered ICMS four hours per day, five days per week, for six months. Multiple regimes of ICMS were delivered to investigate the effects of stimulation parameters on the tissue and behavior. Parameters included current amplitude (10-100 μA), pulse train duration (1, 5 s), and duty cycle (1/1, 1/3). We then performed a range of histopathological assays on tissue near the tips of both stimulated and unstimulated electrodes to assess the effects of chronic ICMS on the tissue and their dependence on stimulation parameters. Main results. While the implantation and residence of the arrays in the cortical tissue did cause significant damage, chronic ICMS had no detectable additional effect; furthermore, the animals exhibited no impairments in fine motor control. Significance. Chronic ICMS may be a viable means to convey sensory feedback in neuroprostheses as it does not cause significant damage to the stimulated tissue.

  1. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  2. PFOS induces behavioral alterations, including spontaneous hyperactivity that is corrected by dexamfetamine in zebrafish larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Spulber

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a widely spread environmental contaminant. It accumulates in the brain and has potential neurotoxic effects. The exposure to PFOS has been associated with higher impulsivity and increased ADHD prevalence. We investigated the effects of developmental exposure to PFOS in zebrafish larvae, focusing on the modulation of activity by the dopaminergic system. We exposed zebrafish embryos to 0.1 or 1 mg/L PFOS (0.186 or 1.858 µM, respectively and assessed swimming activity at 6 dpf. We analyzed the structure of spontaneous activity, the hyperactivity and the habituation during a brief dark period (visual motor response, and the vibrational startle response. The findings in zebrafish larvae were compared with historical data from 3 months old male mice exposed to 0.3 or 3 mg/kg/day PFOS throughout gestation. Finally, we investigated the effects of dexamfetamine on the alterations in spontaneous activity and startle response in zebrafish larvae. We found that zebrafish larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L PFOS habituate faster than controls during a dark pulse, while the larvae exposed to 1 mg/L PFOS display a disorganized pattern of spontaneous activity and persistent hyperactivity. Similarly, mice exposed to 0.3 mg/kg/day PFOS habituated faster than controls to a new environment, while mice exposed to 3 mg/kg/day PFOS displayed more intense and disorganized spontaneous activity. Dexamfetamine partly corrected the hyperactive phenotype in zebrafish larvae. In conclusion, developmental exposure to PFOS in zebrafish induces spontaneous hyperactivity mediated by a dopaminergic deficit, which can be partially reversed by dexamfetamine in zebrafish larvae.

  3. A temporal predictive code for voice motor control: Evidence from ERP and behavioral responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Sangtian, Stacey; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    The predictive coding model suggests that voice motor control is regulated by a process in which the mismatch (error) between feedforward predictions and sensory feedback is detected and used to correct vocal motor behavior. In this study, we investigated how predictions about timing of pitch perturbations in voice auditory feedback would modulate ERP and behavioral responses during vocal production. We designed six counterbalanced blocks in which a +100cents pitch-shift stimulus perturbed voice auditory feedback during vowel sound vocalizations. In three blocks, there was a fixed delay (500, 750 or 1000ms) between voice and pitch-shift stimulus onset (predictable), whereas in the other three blocks, stimulus onset delay was randomized between 500, 750 and 1000ms (unpredictable). We found that subjects produced compensatory (opposing) vocal responses that started at 80ms after the onset of the unpredictable stimuli. However, for predictable stimuli, subjects initiated vocal responses at 20ms before and followed the direction of pitch shifts in voice feedback. Analysis of ERPs showed that the amplitudes of the N1 and P2 components were significantly reduced in response to predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. These findings indicate that predictions about temporal features of sensory feedback can modulate vocal motor behavior. In the context of the predictive coding model, temporally-predictable stimuli are learned and reinforced by the internal feedforward system, and as indexed by the ERP suppression, the sensory feedback contribution is reduced for their processing. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of vocal production and motor control. PMID:26835556

  4. Altered functional connectivity in lesional peduncular hallucinosis with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Maiya R; Tie, Yanmei; Gabrieli, John D E; McGinnis, Scott M; Golby, Alexandra J; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem lesions causing peduncular hallucinosis (PH) produce vivid visual hallucinations occasionally accompanied by sleep disorders. Overlapping brainstem regions modulate visual pathways and REM sleep functions via gating of thalamocortical networks. A 66-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed abrupt-onset complex visual hallucinations with preserved insight and violent dream enactment behavior. Brain MRI showed restricted diffusion in the left rostrodorsal pons suggestive of an acute ischemic stroke. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was diagnosed on polysomnography. We investigated the integrity of ponto-geniculate-occipital circuits with seed-based resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in this patient compared to 46 controls. Rs-fcMRI revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between the lesion and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN), and between LGN and visual association cortex compared to controls. Conversely, functional connectivity between brainstem and visual association cortex, and between visual association cortex and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly increased in the patient. Focal damage to the rostrodorsal pons is sufficient to cause RBD and PH in humans, suggesting an overlapping mechanism in both syndromes. This lesion produced a pattern of altered functional connectivity consistent with disrupted visual cortex connectivity via de-afferentation of thalamocortical pathways. PMID:26656284

  5. The α1 Antagonist Doxazosin Alters the Behavioral Effects of Cocaine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin N. Haile

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Medications that target norepinephrine (NE neurotransmission alter the behavioral effects of cocaine and may be beneficial for stimulant-use disorders. We showed previously that the short-acting, α1-adrenergic antagonist, prazosin, blocked drug-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in rats and doxazosin (DOX, a longer-acting α1 antagonist blocked cocaine’s subjective effects in cocaine-dependent volunteers. To further characterize DOX as a possible pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence, we assessed its impact on the development and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats. Rats (n = 6–8 were administered saline, cocaine (COC, 10 mg/kg or DOX (0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg alone or in combination for 5 consecutive days (development. Following 10-days of drug withdrawal, all rats were administered COC and locomotor activity was again assessed (expression. COC increased locomotor activity across days indicative of sensitization. The high dose (1.0 mg/kg, but not the low dose (0.3 mg/kg of DOX significantly decreased the development and expression of COC sensitization. DOX alone did not differ from saline. These results are consistent with studies showing that α1 receptors are essential for the development and expression of cocaine’s behavioral effects. Results also suggest that blockade of both the development and expression of locomotor sensitization may be important characteristics of possible pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence in humans.

  6. Development and Validation of a Computational Model for Predicting the Behavior of Plumes from Large Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jason E.; Black, David L.; Taylor, Casey L.

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust plumes from large solid rocket motors fired at ATK's Promontory test site carry particulates to high altitudes and typically produce deposits that fall on regions downwind of the test area. As populations and communities near the test facility grow, ATK has become increasingly concerned about the impact of motor testing on those surrounding communities. To assess the potential impact of motor testing on the community and to identify feasible mitigation strategies, it is essential to have a tool capable of predicting plume behavior downrange of the test stand. A software package, called PlumeTracker, has been developed and validated at ATK for this purpose. The code is a point model that offers a time-dependent, physics-based description of plume transport and precipitation. The code can utilize either measured or forecasted weather data to generate plume predictions. Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) data and field observations from twenty-three historical motor test fires at Promontory were collected to test the predictive capability of PlumeTracker. Model predictions for plume trajectories and deposition fields were found to correlate well with the collected dataset.

  7. Identifying Discriminating Features of Motor Patterns for Different Behaviors: Distinguishing Biting, Swallowing and Rejection in Aplysia californica from in vivo recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda J Cullins

    2012-01-01

    Changes in timing and duration of muscle activation create multiple behaviors. In cats, forward versus backward walking is due to changing motor unit activation order (Buford and Smith 1990). Sensory feedback shapes the length of the stance phase during locomotion in cats (Hiebert et al. 1996). Motor patterns for turtle hind limb during swimming and scratching have both shared and distinct elements (Stein 2005). Aplysia californica, which generates different feeding behaviors using the sa...

  8. DEPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR AND METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN MICE ARE MUSICAL STYLE-DEPENDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world population has been affected by two serious psychological disorders, anxiety and depression, but there are few discoveries for new therapies to combat them. Studies have shown that music therapy has its beneficial behavioral effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study it was to investigate the possible effects of two music styles in some lipids and carbohydrate metabolism parameters resulting from behavioral changes related to anxiety and depression. So, mice were used with 30 days of age, divided into 6 groups: G1: saline, G2: Diazepam (DZP, G3: Fluoxetine (FLX, G4: control (no treatment, G5: Rock, and G6: Mozart Sonata. The animals from groups G1, G2 and G3 received treatments by oral route (gavage for 15 days. The music therapy sessions (2x/day 4 hours/day occurred in the same period of time at a 65dB frequency for G5 and G6 groups. After being evaluated in spontaneous locomotion, elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests, the animals were euthanized. The lactate, total cholesterol and plasma glucose levels were measured from the blood. No change was observed in spontaneous locomotion test and elevated plus maze. In the forced swimming test animals exposed to Rock showed an increase in immobility time. Furthermore, it was observed an increase in glucose and a reduction in cholesterol levels in the groups exposed to Rock and Mozart, while a decrease of lactate was observed only in group Rock. It was concluded that the auditory stimulus caused by music in mice was able to encourage depressive behavior and alter some lipids and carbohydrate metabolism parameters dependently of the musical style.

  9. Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons Control Motor Behavior and Basal Ganglia Function in Experimental Parkinsonism

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Maurice; Martine Liberge; Florence Jaouen; Samira Ztaou; Marwa Hanini; Jeremy Camon; Karl Deisseroth; Marianne Amalric; Lydia Kerkerian-Le Goff; Corinne Beurrier

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence showing that anticholinergic drugs are of clinical relevance in Parkinson’s disease (PD), the causal role of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in PD pathophysiology remains elusive. Here, we show that optogenetic inhibition of CINs alleviates motor deficits in PD mouse models, providing direct demonstration for their implication in parkinsonian motor dysfunctions. As neural correlates, CIN inhibition in parkinsonian mice differentially impacts the excitability of stria...

  10. Exposure to altered gravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects growth, development, the cerebellum and motor functions in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  11. C. elegans dopaminergic D2-like receptors delimit recurrent cholinergic-mediated motor programs during a goal-oriented behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Correa

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and Gα(o/i proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context.

  12. A contribution to the study of the thermal behavior and of the electric performance of squirrel-cage induction motors; Uma contribuicao ao estudo do comportamento termico e do desempenho eletrico de motores de inducao com rotor em gaiola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avolio, Edwin

    1992-03-01

    A thermal-electric mathematical model for a squirrel cage induction motors which permits to specify the best motor for specific drive, under thermal and electric aspects based, only on manufacturer technical bulletins and technical information is presented. Changes of rotor parameters due Skin Effect and changes of winding resistances (both stator and rotor) with the temperature are considered. The accuracy of this model is appraised using experimental results. The thermal behavior and electric performance for some motors are obtained for continuos and intermittent duties with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal voltages. (author)

  13. Disruption of motor behavior and injury to the CNS induced by 3-thienylboronic acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán-García, E D; Pérez-Rodríguez, M; Espinosa-García, C; Castillo-Mendieta, N T; Maldonado-Castro, M; Querejeta, E; Trujillo-Ferrara, J G; Soriano-Ursúa, M A

    2016-09-15

    The scarcity of studies on boron containing compounds (BCC) in the medicinal field is gradually being remedied. Efforts have been made to explore the effects of BCCs due to the properties that boron confers to molecules. Research has shown that the safety of some BCCs is similar to that found for boron-free compounds (judging from the acute toxicological evaluation). However, it has been observed that the administration of 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induced motor disruption in CD1 mice. In the current contribution we studied in deeper form the disruption of motor performance produced by the intraperitoneal administration of 3TB in mice from two strains (CD1 and C57BL6). Disruption of motor activity was dependent not only on the dose of 3TB administered, but also on the DMSO concentration in the vehicle. The ability of 3TB to enter the Central Nervous System (CNS) was evidenced by Raman spectroscopy as well as morphological effects on the CNS, such as loss of neurons yielding biased injury to the substantia nigra and striatum at doses ≥200mg/kg, and involving granular cell damage at doses of 400mg/kg but less injury in the motor cortex. Our work acquaints about the use of this compound in drug design, but the interesting profile as neurotoxic agent invite us to study it regarding the damage on the motor system. PMID:27495897

  14. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions. (paper)

  15. How does transcranial DC stimulation of the primary motor cortex alter regional neuronal activity in the human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nicolas; Siebner, Hartwig R; Ward, Nick S; Lee, Lucy; Nitsche, Michael A; Paulus, Walter; Rothwell, John C; Lemon, Roger N; Frackowiak, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor hand area (M1) can produce lasting polarity-specific effects on corticospinal excitability and motor learning in humans. In 16 healthy volunteers, O positron emission tomography (PET) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during finger movements was used to map lasting changes in regional synaptic activity following 10 min of tDCS (+/-1 mA). Bipolar tDCS was given through electrodes placed over the left M1 and right frontopolar cortex. Eight subjects received anodal or cathodal tDCS of the left M1, respectively. When compared to sham tDCS, anodal and cathodal tDCS induced widespread increases and decreases in rCBF in cortical and subcortical areas. These changes in rCBF were of the same magnitude as task-related rCBF changes during finger movements and remained stable throughout the 50-min period of PET scanning. Relative increases in rCBF after real tDCS compared to sham tDCS were found in the left M1, right frontal pole, right primary sensorimotor cortex and posterior brain regions irrespective of polarity. With the exception of some posterior and ventral areas, anodal tDCS increased rCBF in many cortical and subcortical regions compared to cathodal tDCS. Only the left dorsal premotor cortex demonstrated an increase in movement related activity after cathodal tDCS, however, modest compared with the relatively strong movement-independent effects of tDCS. Otherwise, movement related activity was unaffected by tDCS. Our results indicate that tDCS is an effective means of provoking sustained and widespread changes in regional neuronal activity. The extensive spatial and temporal effects of tDCS need to be taken into account when tDCS is used to modify brain function. PMID:16045502

  16. Short and long term neuro-behavioral alterations in type 1diabetes mellitus pediatric population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edna Litmanovitch; Ronny Geva; Marianna Rachmiel

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the mostprevalent chronic conditions affecting individualsunder the age of 18 years, with increasing incidenceworldwide, especially among very young age groups,younger than 5. There is still no cure for the disease,and therapeutic goals and guidelines are a challenge.Currently, despite T1DM intensive management andtechnological interventions in therapy, the majorityof pediatric patients do not achieve glycemic controlgoals. This leads to a potential prognosis of longterm diabetic complications, nephrological, cardiac,ophthalmological and neurological. Unfortunately, theneurological manifestations, including neurocognitiveand behavioral complications, may present soon afterdisease onset, during childhood and adolescence.These manifestations may be prominent, but at timessubtle, thus they are often not reported by patients orphysicians as related to the diabetes. Furthermore, themetabolic mechanism for such manifestations has beeninconsistent and difficult to interpret in practical clinicalcare, as reported in several reviews on the topic ofbrain and T1DM. However, new technological methodsfor brain assessment, as well as the introduction ofcontinuous glucose monitoring, provide new insightsand information regarding brain related manifestationsand glycemic variability and control parameters, whichmay impact the clinical care of children and youth withT1DM. This paper provides a comprehensive reviewof the most recently reported behavioral, cognitivedomains, sleep related, electrophysiological, andstructural alterations in children and adolescences froma novel point of view. The review focuses on reportedimpairments based on duration of T1DM, its timeline,and modifiable disease related risk parameters. Thesefindings are not without controversy, and limitations ofdata are presented in addition to recommendations forfuture research direction.

  17. Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons Control Motor Behavior and Basal Ganglia Function in Experimental Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Nicolas; Liberge, Martine; Jaouen, Florence; Ztaou, Samira; Hanini, Marwa; Camon, Jeremy; Deisseroth, Karl; Amalric, Marianne; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Beurrier, Corinne

    2015-10-27

    Despite evidence showing that anticholinergic drugs are of clinical relevance in Parkinson's disease (PD), the causal role of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in PD pathophysiology remains elusive. Here, we show that optogenetic inhibition of CINs alleviates motor deficits in PD mouse models, providing direct demonstration for their implication in parkinsonian motor dysfunctions. As neural correlates, CIN inhibition in parkinsonian mice differentially impacts the excitability of striatal D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons, normalizes pathological bursting activity in the main basal ganglia output structure, and increases the functional weight of the direct striatonigral pathway in cortical information processing. By contrast, CIN inhibition in non-lesioned mice does not affect locomotor activity, equally modulates medium spiny neuron excitability, and does not modify spontaneous or cortically driven activity in the basal ganglia output, suggesting that the role of these interneurons in motor function is highly dependent on dopamine tone. PMID:26489458

  18. Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons Control Motor Behavior and Basal Ganglia Function in Experimental Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Maurice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence showing that anticholinergic drugs are of clinical relevance in Parkinson’s disease (PD, the causal role of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs in PD pathophysiology remains elusive. Here, we show that optogenetic inhibition of CINs alleviates motor deficits in PD mouse models, providing direct demonstration for their implication in parkinsonian motor dysfunctions. As neural correlates, CIN inhibition in parkinsonian mice differentially impacts the excitability of striatal D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons, normalizes pathological bursting activity in the main basal ganglia output structure, and increases the functional weight of the direct striatonigral pathway in cortical information processing. By contrast, CIN inhibition in non-lesioned mice does not affect locomotor activity, equally modulates medium spiny neuron excitability, and does not modify spontaneous or cortically driven activity in the basal ganglia output, suggesting that the role of these interneurons in motor function is highly dependent on dopamine tone.

  19. The Relationship between Instructor Misbehaviors and Student Antisocial Behavioral Alteration Techniques: The Roles of Instructor Attractiveness, Humor, and Relational Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Christopher J.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie; Chory, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Using rhetorical/relational goal theory as a guiding frame, we examined relationships between instructor misbehaviors (i.e., indolence, incompetence, and offensiveness) and the likelihood of students communicating antisocial behavioral alteration techniques (BATs). More specifically, the study focused on whether students' perceptions of instructor…

  20. Cross-fostering does not alter the neurochemistry or behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Vivienne A

    2009-06-01

    and prefrontal cortex while SD prefrontal cortex released more [3H]norepinephrine than WKY. SHR were resilient, cross-fostering did not reduce their ADHD-like behavior or change their neurochemistry. Cross-fostering of SD pups onto SHR or WKY dams increased their exploratory behavior without altering their anxiety-like behavior. Conclusion The ADHD-like behavior of SHR and their neurochemistry is genetically determined and not dependent on nurturing by SHR dams. The similarity between WKY and SD supports the continued use of WKY as a control for SHR and suggests that SD may be a useful additional reference strain for SHR. The fact that SD behaved similarly to WKY in the elevated-plus maze argues against the use of WKY as a model for anxiety-like disorders.

  1. Paradoxical sleep deprivation: neurochemical, hormonal and behavioral alterations. Evidence from 30 years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tufik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep comprises approximately one-third of a person's lifetime, but its impact on health and medical conditions remains partially unrecognized. The prevalence of sleep disorders is increasing in modern societies, with significant repercussions on people's well-being. This article reviews past and current literature on the paradoxical sleep deprivation method as well as data on its consequences to animals, ranging from behavioral changes to alterations in the gene expression. More specifically, we highlight relevant experimental studies and our group's contribution over the last three decades.O sono ocupa cerca de um terço de nossas vidas, entretanto seu impacto na saúde e sua influência nas condições patológicas ainda não foi completamente elucidado. A prevalência dos distúrbios de sono é cada vez maior, sobretudo nas regiões mais industrializadas, repercutindo diretamente no bem-estar da população. Este artigo tem como objetivo sintetizar e atualizar a literatura a respeito do método de privação de sono paradoxal e seu panorama de conseqüências desde comportamentais até genéticas em animais. Ainda, destacamos a contribuição e relevância dos estudos experimentais realizados por nosso grupo nas ultimas três décadas.

  2. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised.

  3. CRIEPI's research results (2006-2011) and clarified future issues on alteration behavior of bentonite barrier by alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radioactive waste disposal facilities, bentonite barrier would be altered by alkaline solutions which arise by leaching of cementitious materials. Consequently suitable properties of the bentonite barrier would be degraded for a long time period. In CRIEPI, the investigation on the alteration of the bentonite under alkaline conditions was started in 2006, and several CRIEPI reports have been published. Specifically, we have investigated the kinetics of montmorillonite dissolution, the mineralogical alteration of compacted bentonite (with high- and low-dry density) and the change of permeability of the compacted bentonite (with high- and low-dry density) during alteration under the alkaline conditions. Furthermore, stability of saponite, which has similar physical properties to the bentonite, under the alkaline conditions was also examined. In this report, we show the outline of those research results, and lay out the clarified future issues extracted from our results. Ten clarified future issues were divided three categories as follows: 1) the estimation of the alteration behavior of the bentonite by alkaline solutions, 2) the elucidation of the mechanism of physical properties (e.g., permeability, swelling properties and mechanistic properties) change of the compacted bentonites during alteration, and 3) the development of the model building and simulation technology concerning the change in physical properties during alteration under alkaline conditions. (author)

  4. Force and complexity of tongue task training influences behavioral measures of motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Huo, Xueliang;

    2012-01-01

    Relearning of motor skills is important in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the improvement of training success during simple tongue protrusion (two force levels) and a more complex tongue-training paradigm using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). We also compared subject-based reports of fun, pa...

  5. A novel human-specific splice isoform alters the critical C-terminus of Survival Motor Neuron protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joonbae; Singh, Natalia N.; Ottesen, Eric W.; Lee, Brian M.; Singh, Ravindra N.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic disease of children and infants, is caused by mutations or deletions of Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy of SMN1, fails to compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to skipping of exon 7. SMN2 predominantly produces SMNΔ7, an unstable protein. Here we report exon 6B, a novel exon, generated by exonization of an intronic Alu-like sequence of SMN. We validate the expression of exon 6B-containing transcripts SMN6B and SMN6BΔ7 in human tissues and cell lines. We confirm generation of SMN6B transcripts from both SMN1 and SMN2. We detect expression of SMN6B protein using antibodies raised against a unique polypeptide encoded by exon 6B. We analyze RNA-Seq data to show that hnRNP C is a potential regulator of SMN6B expression and demonstrate that SMN6B is a substrate of nonsense-mediated decay. We show interaction of SMN6B with Gemin2, a critical SMN-interacting protein. We demonstrate that SMN6B is more stable than SMNΔ7 and localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Our finding expands the diversity of transcripts generated from human SMN genes and reveals a novel protein isoform predicted to be stably expressed during conditions of stress. PMID:27481219

  6. Altered protein markers related to neural plasticity and motor function following electro-acupuncture treatment in rat model of ischemic-hypoxic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhang; Liping Zou

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that acupuncture treatment could ameliorate impaired motor function, and these positive effects might be due to neural plasticity. OBJECTIVE: Myelin basic protein (MBP), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), and synaptophysin (SYN) were selected as markers of neural remodeling, and expression of these markers was evaluated with regard to altered motor function following brain injury and acupuncture treatment. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A completely randomized experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory of Peking University First Hospital from November 2006 to May 2007. MATERIALS: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rat pups, aged 7 days, were selected for the present experiment. The left common carotid artery was ligated to establish a rat model of ischemic-hypoxic brain injury.METHODS: All animals were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation, model, and electro-acupuncture treatment, with 8 rats in each group. Rats in the model and electro-acupuncture treatment group underwent establishment of ischemic-hypoxic brain injury. Upon model established, rats underwent hypobaric oxygen intervention for 24 hours. Only the left common carotid artery was exposed in rats of the sham operation group, without model establishment or oxygen intervention. The rats in the electro-acupuncture treatment group were treated with electro-acupuncture. One acupuncture needle electrode was inserted into the subcutaneous layer at the Baihui and Dazhui acupoint. The stimulation condition of the electro-acupuncture simulator was set to an amplitude-modulated wave of 0-100% and alternative frequency of 100 cycles/second, as well as frequency-modulated wave of 2-100 Hz and an alternative frequency of 3 cycles/second. Maximal current through the two dectrodes was limited to 3-5 mA. The stimulation lasted for 30 minutes per day for 2 weeks. Rats in the sham operation and model groups were not treated

  7. The impact of motor axon misdirection and attrition on behavioral deficit following experimental nerve injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Daniel de Villiers Alant

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve transection and neuroma-in-continuity injuries are associated with permanent functional deficits, often despite successful end-organ reinnervation. Axonal misdirection with non-specific reinnervation, frustrated regeneration and axonal attrition are believed to be among the anatomical substrates that underlie the poor functional recovery associated with these devastating injuries. Yet, functional deficits associated with axonal misdirection in experimental neuroma-in-continuity injuries have not yet been studied. We hypothesized that experimental neuroma-in-continuity injuries would result in motor axon misdirection and attrition with proportional persistent functional deficits. The femoral nerve misdirection model was exploited to assess major motor pathway misdirection and axonal attrition over a spectrum of experimental nerve injuries, with neuroma-in-continuity injuries simulated by the combination of compression and traction forces in 42 male rats. Sciatic nerve injuries were employed in an additional 42 rats, to evaluate the contribution of axonal misdirection to locomotor deficits by a ladder rung task up to 12 weeks. Retrograde motor neuron labeling techniques were utilized to determine the degree of axonal misdirection and attrition. Characteristic histological neuroma-in-continuity features were demonstrated in the neuroma-in-continuity groups and poor functional recovery was seen despite successful nerve regeneration and muscle reinnervation. Good positive and negative correlations were observed respectively between axonal misdirection (p<.0001, r(2=.67, motor neuron counts (attrition (p<.0001, r(2=.69 and final functional deficits. We demonstrate prominent motor axon misdirection and attrition in neuroma-in-continuity and transection injuries of mixed motor nerves that contribute to the long-term functional deficits. Although widely accepted in theory, to our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence to

  8. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2004-12-01

    protein (UCP-1 mRNA levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT were seen in Phyto-600 fed males. However, decreased core body temperature was recorded in these same animals compared to Phyto-free fed animals. Conclusions This study demonstrates that consumption of a soy-based (isoflavone-rich diet, significantly alters several parameters involved in maintaining body homeostatic balance, energy expenditure, feeding behavior, hormonal, metabolic and neuroendocrine function in male rats.

  9. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few ...

  10. Comments on "the Feldenkrais Method: a dynamic approach to changing motor behavior".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jeffrey C

    2003-06-01

    The Feldenkrais Method has recently been discussed to fit within a dynamic systems model of human movement. One basis for this discussion is that small changes in one system--for example, enhanced body awareness--has far reaching implications across the whole of human performance. An alternative view on the Feldenkrais Method is argued here. It is argued that the clinical data do not support the Feldenkrais Method as being an effective way to improve motor performance. Further, it is argued that positive outcomes in pain and other wellness measures following Feldenkrais interventions can be ascribed to self-regulation. As part of this discussion, the role of body awareness, attentional focus, and kinesthesia in motor leaning and control are explored. PMID:12848224

  11. Walking in School-Aged Children in a Dual-Task Paradigm Is Related to Age But Not to Cognition, Motor Behavior, Injuries, or Psychosocial Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Manicolo, Olivia; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Age-dependent gait characteristics and associations with cognition, motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning were investigated in 138 typically developing children aged 6.7–13.2 years (M = 10.0 years). Gait velocity, normalized velocity, and variability were measured using the walkway system GAITRite without an additional task (single task) and while performing a motor or cognitive task (dual task). Assessment of children’s cognition included tests for intelligence and executive...

  12. Mapping Genetically Controlled Neural Circuits of Social Behavior and Visuo-Motor Integration by a Preliminary Examination of Atypical Deletions with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Dai, Li; Haas, Brian W.; Sheau, Kristen; Mimura, Masaru; Mills, Debra; Galaburda, Albert; Bellugi, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    In this study of eight rare atypical deletion cases with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS; also known as 7q11.23 deletion syndrome) consisting of three different patterns of deletions, compared to typical WS and typically developing (TD) individuals, we show preliminary evidence of dissociable genetic contributions to brain structure and human cognition. Univariate and multivariate pattern classification results of morphometric brain patterns complemented by behavior implicate a possible role for the chromosomal region that includes: 1) GTF2I/GTF2IRD1 in visuo-spatial/motor integration, intraparietal as well as overall gray matter structures, 2) the region spanning ABHD11 through RFC2 including LIMK1, in social cognition, in particular approachability, as well as orbitofrontal, amygdala and fusiform anatomy, and 3) the regions including STX1A, and/or CYLN2 in overall white matter structure. This knowledge contributes to our understanding of the role of genetics on human brain structure, cognition and pathophysiology of altered cognition in WS. The current study builds on ongoing research designed to characterize the impact of multiple genes, gene-gene interactions and changes in gene expression on the human brain. PMID:25105779

  13. Focal dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE)

    OpenAIRE

    Perruchoud, David; Micah M Murray; Lefebvre, Jeremie; Ionta, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characterized b...

  14. Focal Dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE)

    OpenAIRE

    Micah M Murray; Silvio Ionta

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, and the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characteriz...

  15. Phantom limb perception interferes with motor imagery after unilateral upper-limb amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Lyu; Xiaoli Guo; Robin Bekrater-Bodmann; Herta Flor; Shanbao Tong

    2016-01-01

    A potential contributor to impaired motor imagery in amputees is an alteration of the body schema as a result of the presence of a phantom limb. However, the nature of the relationship between motor imagery and phantom experiences remains unknown. In this study, the influence of phantom limb perception on motor imagery was investigated using a hand mental rotation task by means of behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Compared with healthy controls, significantly prolonged response ti...

  16. Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst ameliorates behavioral alterations and oxidative markers in sodium valproate induced autism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, T; Sowjanya, J; Veeresh, B

    2012-05-01

    Early prenatal or post natal exposure to environmental insults such as valproic acid (VPA), thalidomide and ethanol could induce behavioral alterations similar to autistic symptoms. Bacopa monniera, a renowned plant in ayurvedic medicine is useful in several neurological disorders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of B. monniera on VPA induced autism. On 12.5 day of gestation the female pregnant rats were divided into control and VPA treated groups. They were administered saline/VPA (600 mg/kg, i.p.) respectively and allowed to raise their own litters. Group I-male pups of saline treated mothers. On postnatal day (PND) 21 VPA induced autistic male pups were divided into two groups (n = 6); Group II-received saline and Group III-received B. monniera (300 mg/kg/p.o.) from PND 21-35. Behavioral tests (nociception, locomotor activity, exploratory activity, anxiety and social behavior) were performed in both adolescence (PND 30-40) and adulthood (PND 90-110) period. At the end of behavioral testing animals were sacrificed, brain was isolated for biochemical estimations (serotonin, glutathione, catalase and nitric oxide) and histopathological examination. Induction of autism significantly affected normal behavior, increased oxidative stress and serotonin level, altered histoarchitecture of cerebellum (decreased number of purkinje cells, neuronal degeneration and chromatolysis) when compared with normal control group. Treatment with B. monniera significantly (p < 0.05) improved behavioral alterations, decreased oxidative stress markers and restored histoarchitecture of cerebellum. In conclusion, the present study suggests that B. monniera ameliorates the autistic symptoms possibly due to its anti-anxiety, antioxidant and neuro-protective activity. PMID:22322665

  17. Maternal Inflammation Contributes to Brain Overgrowth and Autism-Associated Behaviors through Altered Redox Signaling in Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janel E. Le Belle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A period of mild brain overgrowth with an unknown etiology has been identified as one of the most common phenotypes in autism. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal inflammation during critical periods of embryonic development can cause brain overgrowth and autism-associated behaviors as a result of altered neural stem cell function. Pregnant mice treated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide at embryonic day 9 had offspring with brain overgrowth, with a more pronounced effect in PTEN heterozygotes. Exposure to maternal inflammation also enhanced NADPH oxidase (NOX-PI3K pathway signaling, stimulated the hyperproliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells, increased forebrain microglia, and produced abnormal autism-associated behaviors in affected pups. Our evidence supports the idea that a prenatal neuroinflammatory dysregulation in neural stem cell redox signaling can act in concert with underlying genetic susceptibilities to affect cellular responses to environmentally altered cellular levels of reactive oxygen species.

  18. The role of ECoG magnitude and phase in decoding position, velocity and acceleration during continuous motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri eHammer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In neuronal population signals, including the electroencephalogram (EEG and electrocorticogram (ECoG, the low-frequency component (LFC is particularly informative about motor behavior and can be used for decoding movement parameters for brain-machine interface (BMI applications. An idea previously expressed, but as of yet not quantitatively tested, is that it is the LFC phase that is the main source of decodable information. To test this issue, we analyzed human ECoG recorded during a game-like, one-dimensional, continuous motor task with a novel decoding method suitable for unfolding magnitude and phase explicitly into a complex-valued, time-frequency signal representation, enabling quantification of the decodable information within the temporal, spatial and frequency domains and allowing disambiguation of the phase contribution from that of the spectral magnitude. The decoding accuracy based only on phase information was substantially (at least 2 fold and significantly higher than that based only on magnitudes for position, velocity and acceleration. The frequency profile of movement-related information in the ECoG data matched well with the frequency profile expected when assuming a close time-domain correlate of movement velocity in the ECoG, e.g., a (noisy copy of hand velocity. No such match was observed with the frequency profiles expected when assuming a copy of either hand position or acceleration. There was also no indication of additional magnitude-based mechanisms encoding movement information in the LFC range. Thus, our study contributes to elucidating the nature of the informative low-frequency component of motor cortical population activity and may hence contribute to improve decoding strategies and BMI performance.

  19. Subchronic oral administration of Benzo[a]pyrene impairs motor and cognitive behavior and modulates S100B levels and MAPKs in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Erica Santos; Biasibetti, Regina; Costa, Ana Paula; Lunardi, Paula; Schunck, Rebeca Vargas Antunes; Becker, Gabriela Curbeti; Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Dallegrave, Eliane; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Saldiva, Paulo H Nascimento; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Leal, Mirna Bainy

    2014-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmental contaminant produced during incomplete combustion of organic material that is well known as a mutagenic and carcinogenic toxin. There are few studies addressing the molecular and cellular basis of behavioural alterations related to BaP exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subchronic oral administration of BaP on behavioral and neurochemical parameters. Wistar male rats received BaP (2 mg/kg) or corn oil (control), once a day for 28 days (n = 12/group). Spontaneous locomotor activity and short- and long-term memories were evaluated. Glial fibrillary acid protein and S100B content in the hippocampus, serum and CSF were measured using ELISA and total and phosphorylated forms of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) named extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, p38(MAPK) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinases 1 and 2, in the hippocampus, were evaluated by western blotting. BaP induced a significant increase on locomotor activity and a decrease in short-term memory. S100B content was increased significantly in cerebrospinal fluid. BaP induced a decrease on ERK2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Thus, BaP subchronic treatment induces an astroglial response and impairs both motor and cognitive behavior, with parallel inhibition of ERK2, a signaling enzyme involved in the hippocampal neuroplasticity. All these effects suggest that BaP neurotoxicity is a concern for environmental pollution. PMID:24584819

  20. The kinesin-13 KLP10A motor regulates oocyte spindle length and affects EB1 binding without altering microtubule growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin K. Do

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinesin-13 motors are unusual in that they do not walk along microtubules, but instead diffuse to the ends, where they remove tubulin dimers, regulating microtubule dynamics. Here we show that Drosophila kinesin-13 klp10A regulates oocyte meiosis I spindle length and is haplo-insufficient – KLP10A, reduced by RNAi or a loss-of-function P element insertion mutant, results in elongated and mispositioned oocyte spindles, and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates. KLP10A knockdown by RNAi does not significantly affect microtubule growth rates in oocyte spindles, but, unexpectedly, EB1 binding and unbinding are slowed, suggesting a previously unobserved role for kinesin-13 in mediating EB1 binding interactions with microtubules. Kinesin-13 may regulate spindle length both by disassembling subunits from microtubule ends and facilitating EB1 binding to plus ends. We also observe an increased number of paused microtubules in klp10A RNAi knockdown spindles, consistent with a reduced frequency of microtubule catastrophes. Overall, our findings indicate that reduced kinesin-13 decreases microtubule disassembly rates and affects EB1 interactions with microtubules, rather than altering microtubule growth rates, causing spindles to elongate and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates to form.

  1. Frontocentral DC-potential shifts predicting behavior with or without a motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J M; Wenzl, M; Lang, W; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1992-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the predictive value of the event-related potentials (ERPs) preceding the initiation of a difficult perceptual-memory task and to investigate whether these ERPs require a motor movement on the part of the subject for their occurrence. Across 4 conditions the DC-potential shifts were recorded from 23 right-handed subjects using DC amplifiers. Although the start of each trial began with a ready signal, the conditions differed in that the subjects initiated the task by a button press in 2 conditions and the computer initiated it in 2 others without a press. The results showed that, especially in the frontocentral electrode sites, the DC-potential shifts which began those trials ending in correct performance were more negative relative to those trials ending in an incorrect response. Those conditions which required the subjects to self-initiate the trial and those which were initiated by the computer showed similar results indicating that the negative DC-potential shifts preceding correct performance are neither produced by nor depend on a task initiating motor movement. The onset of the DC-potential shifts preceded task initiation by up to 4.1 sec indicating that they were more than the Bereitschaftspotential. PMID:1281084

  2. Caenorhabditis elegans male sensory-motor neurons and dopaminergic support cells couple ejaculation and post-ejaculatory behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Correa, Paola; Jee, Changhoon; García, L René

    2014-01-01

    The circuit structure and function underlying post-coital male behaviors remain poorly understood. Using mutant analysis, laser ablation, optogenetics, and Ca2+ imaging, we observed that following C. elegans male copulation, the duration of post-coital lethargy is coupled to cellular events involved in ejaculation. We show that the SPV and SPD spicule-associated sensory neurons and the spicule socket neuronal support cells function with intromission circuit components, including the cholinergic SPC and PCB and the glutamatergic PCA sensory-motor neurons, to coordinate sex muscle contractions with initiation and continuation of sperm movement. Our observations suggest that the SPV and SPD and their associated dopamine-containing socket cells sense the intrauterine environment through cellular endings exposed at the spicule tips and regulate both sperm release into the hermaphrodite and the recovery from post-coital lethargy. PMID:24915976

  3. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D.; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as w...

  4. Calculation of slip energy recovery induction motor drive behavior using the equivalent circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, P. (Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Refoufi, L. (Inst. National D' Electricite et d' Electronique, Boumerdes (Algeria))

    A transformer-type equivalent circuit model for the calculation of the steady state performance of a slip energy recovery induction motor drive with a step down chopper in the dc link is described. Experimental data of rms currents, power, reactive power and overall efficiency satisfactorily correlate with calculations over most of the operating speed range. Also, detailed calculations of rotor, stator and supply harmonic currents due to the rectifier and inverter actions are performed using the conventional version of the equivalent circuit. The computed and measured instantaneous current waveforms show satisfactory agreement except at a slip of 1/6 where significant deviations appear. This effect is adequately catered for by using a more rigorous model.

  5. Altered behavior, physiology, and metabolism in fish exposed to polystyrene nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Karin; Ekvall, Mikael T; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Linse, Sara; Malmendal, Anders; Cedervall, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    administered 24 and 27 nm polystyrene nanoparticles to fish through an aquatic food chain, from algae through Daphnia, and studied the effects on behavior and metabolism. We found severe effects on feeding and shoaling behavior as well as metabolism of the fish; hence, we conclude that polystyrene...... nanoparticles have severe effects on both behavior and metabolism in fish and that commonly used nanosized particles may have considerable effects on natural systems and ecosystem services derived from them....

  6. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  7. Genetic alteration of anxiety and stress-like behavior in mice lacking CaMKIV

    OpenAIRE

    Kaang Bong-Kiun; Lee Yong-Seok; Ko Shanelle W; Shum Fanny WF; Zhuo Min

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) phosphorylates the major transcription factor cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB), which plays a role in emotional behavior. Here, CaMKIV knockout mice (CaMKIV-/-) were tested in a battery of stress and anxiety-related behavioral tests, to determine if CaMKIV plays a role in emotional behavior. CaMKIV-/-exhibited a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in both the elevated plus maze and dark-light emergence tests when...

  8. Altered diurnal pattern of steroid hormones in relation to various behaviors, external factors and pathologies: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collomp, K; Baillot, A; Forget, H; Coquerel, A; Rieth, N; Vibarel-Rebot, N

    2016-10-01

    The adrenal and gonadal stress steroids [i.e., cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] have gathered considerable attention in the last few decades due to their very broad physiological and psychological actions. Their diurnal patterns have become a particular focus following new data implicating altered diurnal hormone patterns in various endocrine, behavioral and cardiovascular risk profiles. In this review of the current literature, we present a brief overview of the altered diurnal patterns of these hormones that may occur in relation to chronic stress, nutritional behaviors, physical exercise, drugs and sleep deprivation/shift. We also present data on the altered diurnal hormone patterns implicated in cardiometabolic and psychiatric/neurologic diseases, cancer and other complex pathologies. We consider the occasionally discrepant results of the studies, and summarize the current knowledge in this new field of interest, underlining the potential effects on both biological and psychological functioning, and assess the implications of these effects. Last, we conclude with some practical considerations and perspectives. PMID:27235338

  9. Chronic fluoxetine treatment induces anxiolytic responses and altered social behaviors in medaka, Oryzias latipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Satoshi; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Maegawa, Shingo; Kinoshita, Masato

    2016-04-15

    Medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a small freshwater teleost that is an emerging model system for neurobehavioral research and toxicological testing. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class of antidepressants such as fluoxetine is one of the widely prescribed drugs, but little is known about the effects of these drugs on medaka behaviors. To assess the behavioral effects of fluoxetine, we chronically administrated fluoxetine to medaka adult fish and analyzed the anxiety-related and social behaviors using five behavioral paradigms (diving, open-field, light-dark transition, mirror-biting, and social interaction) with an automated behavioral testing system. Fish chronically treated with fluoxetine exhibited anxiolytic responses such as an overall increased time spent in the top area in the diving test and an increased time spent in center area in the open-field test. Analysis of socially evoked behavior showed that chronic fluoxetine administration decreased the number of mirror biting times in the mirror-biting test and increased latency to first contact in the social interaction test. Additionally, chronic fluoxetine administration reduced the horizontal locomotor activity in the open-field test but not the vertical activity in the diving test. These investigations are mostly consistent with previous reports in the other teleost species and rodent models. These results indicate that behavioral assessment in medaka adult fish will become useful for screening of effects of pharmaceutical and toxicological compounds in animal behaviors. PMID:26821288

  10. Long-term behavior of Embiez archaeological glass: Results after 1800 years of alteration in a marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An archaeological glass initially fractured and altered for 1800 years in a marine environment is now being examined by the CEA because of its strong morphological similarity to the nuclear glasses used for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides (i.e. the presence of fractures and cracks formed during cooling, which significantly increase the surface area accessible to water). The issue concerns glass alteration by water, and in particular the different behavior of the external surfaces in contact with a solution highly renewed and the internal surfaces, which constitute a much more confined medium. The preliminary results of this study are discussed. The cracks in the archaeological glass have been filled by crystallized alteration products formed jointly by elements from the glass and elements dissolved in seawater. The glass is distinctly less altered (by a factor of 10 to 100) on the internal surfaces generated by the cracks than on the external surfaces. The forward glass dissolution rate was measured at different temperatures on pristine glass samples and under conditions that allowed us to estimate the dissolution rate of the external surfaces under realistic conditions at about 200 μm in 1800 years. The implications of this study are then discussed. (author)

  11. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Efficiency through a Mouse Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to improve their Drag-and-Drop (DnD) performance using their finger/thumb poke ability with a mouse scroll wheel through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP). A multiple probe design across participants was used in this study…

  12. The Effect of Voice Ambulatory Biofeedback on the Daily Performance and Retention of a Modified Vocal Motor Behavior in Participants with Normal Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ambulatory biofeedback has potential to improve carryover of newly established vocal motor behaviors into daily life outside of the clinic and warrants systematic research that is lacking in the literature. This proof-of-concept study was designed to establish an empirical basis for future work in this area by formally assessing whether…

  13. Perceptual-Cognitive Changes During Motor Learning: The Influence of Mental and Physical Practice on Mental Representation, Gaze Behavior, and Performance of a Complex Action

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M.; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one’s mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (...

  14. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole M; Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  15. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Baran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adult zebra finches (T. guttata form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homologue of vasopressin and the V1a receptor (V1aR early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird.

  16. Enamel Insulated Copper Wire in Electric Motors: Sliding Behavior and Possible Damage Mechanisms During Die Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiri, Albion

    This study investigates the sliding friction and the forming behaviour of enamel insulated copper wire during the die-forming process. It also aims to determine potential damage mechanisms to the wire during bending process for electric motor coils. In this investigation a wire-bending machine was designed and built in order to simulate the wire forming process in a laboratory scale. Bending angle of the wire and the bending radii were used to control the strain on the wire surface. The effect of speed on COF was investigated for different speeds of of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20mm/s. A positive correlation was observed between the COF and the testing speed. Additionally, the effect of strain on COF was studied for 2% and 23% to determine its influence on the COF. A general trend was observed of decreased COF with increased strain in wires. Finally, the ability of the enamel coating to resist external damage and wire strain was investigated by tensile testing of pre-scratched magnet wire. The results showed that wire enamel can withstand significant surface damage prior to breach and failure. The insulating polymer coating failed under the scratch tests at 20N load using a Rockwell indenter and at 5N load using a 90° conical steel indenter. Additional tests, such as tensile testing, scratch testing and reciprocating friction testing, were used to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of the enamel insulated copper wire.

  17. Visual target distance, but not visual cursor path length produces shifts in motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChristineSutter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When using tools effects in body space and distant space often do not correspond. Findings so far demonstrated that in this case visual feedback has more impact on action control than proprioceptive feedback. The present study varies the dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects and investigates its impact on aftereffects in motor responses. In two experiments participants perform linear hand movements on a covered digitizer tablet to produce ∩-shaped cursor trajectories on the display. The shape of hand motion and cursor motion (linear vs. curved is dissimilar and therefore does not overlap. In one condition the length of hand amplitude and visual target distance is similar and constant while the length of the cursor path is dissimilar and varies. In another condition the length of the hand amplitude varies while the lengths of visual target distance (similar or dissimilar and cursor path (dissimilar are constant. First, we found that aftereffects depended on the relation between hand path length and visual target distance, and not on the relation between hand and cursor path length. Second, increasing contextual interference did not reveal larger aftereffects. Finally, data exploration demonstrated a considerable benefit from gain repetitions across trials when compared to gain switches. In conclusion, dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects modulates human information processing in visually controlled actions. However, adjustment of the internal model seems to occur very fast for this kind of simple linear transformation, so that the impact of prior visual feedback is fleeting.

  18. The effect of geography and citizen behavior on motor vehicle deaths in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Abaid

    Full Text Available Death due to motor vehicle collisions (MVCs remains a leading cause of death in the US and alcohol plays a prominent role in a large proportion of these fatalities nationwide. Rates for these incidents vary widely among states and over time. Here, we explore the extent to which driving volume, alcohol consumption, legislation, political ideology, and geographical factors influence MVC deaths across states and time. We specify structural equation models for extracting associations between the factors and outcomes for MVC deaths and compute correlation functions of states' relative geographic and political positions to elucidate the relative contribution of these factors. We find evidence that state-level variation in MVC deaths is associated with time-varying driving volume, alcohol consumption, and legislation. These relationships are modulated by state spatial proximity, whereby neighboring states are found to share similar MVC death rates over the thirty-year observation period. These results support the hypothesis that neighboring states exhibit similar risk and protective characteristics, despite differences in political ideology.

  19. From one to many: dynamic assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloidal motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Duan, Wentao; Ahmed, Suzanne; Sen, Ayusman; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2015-07-21

    The assembly of complex structures from simpler, individual units is a hallmark of biology. Examples include the pairing of DNA strands, the assembly of protein chains into quaternary structures, the formation of tissues and organs from cells, and the self-organization of bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, and human beings in cities. While the individual behaviors of biomolecules, bacteria, birds, and humans are governed by relatively simple rules, groups assembled from many individuals exhibit complex collective behaviors and functions that do not exist in the absence of the hierarchically organized structure. Self-assembly is a familiar concept to chemists who study the formation and properties of monolayers, crystals, and supramolecular structures. In chemical self-assembly, disorder evolves to order as the system approaches equilibrium. In contrast, living assemblies are typically characterized by two additional features: (1) the system constantly dissipates energy and is not at thermodynamic equilibrium; (2) the structure is dynamic and can transform or disassemble in response to stimuli or changing conditions. To distinguish them from equilibrium self-assembled structures, living (or nonliving) assemblies of objects with these characteristics are referred to as active matter. In this Account, we focus on the powered assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids. These nano- and microparticles, also called nano- and micromotors or microswimmers, autonomously convert energy available in the environment (in the form of chemical, electromagnetic, acoustic, or thermal energy) into mechanical motion. Collections of these colloids are a form of synthetic active matter. Because of the analogy to living swimmers of similar size such as bacteria, the dynamic interactions and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids are interesting in the context of understanding biological active matter and in the development of new applications. The progression

  20. Metarhizium anisopliae infection alters feeding and trophallactic behavior in the ant Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hua-Long; Lu, Li-Hua; Zalucki, M P; He, Yu-Rong

    2016-07-01

    In social insects, social behavior may be changed in a way that preventing the spread of pathogens. We infected workers of the ant Solenopsis invicta with an entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and then videotaped and/or measured worker feeding and trophallactic behavior. Results showed that fungal infected S. invicta enhanced their preference for bitter alkaloid chemical quinine on 3days after inoculation, which might be self-medication of S. invicta by ingesting more alkaloid substances in response to pathogenic infection. Furthermore, infected ants devoted more time to trophallactic behavior with their nestmates on 3days post inoculation, in return receiving more food. Increased interactions between exposed ants and their naive nestmates suggest the existence of social immunity in S. invicta. Overall, our study indicates that S. invicta may use behavioral defenses such as self-medication and social immunity in response to a M. anisopliae infection. PMID:27234423

  1. Repeated neonatal handling with maternal separation permanently alters hippocampal GABAA receptors and behavioral stress responses

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Fu-Chun; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Raol, Yogendra Sinh H.; Valentino, Rita J.; Coulter, Douglas A.; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that postnatal events, such as handling or maternal separation, can produce long-term changes in brain function. These are often expressed as changes in the profile of endocrine or behavioral responses to stress. Changes in γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABARs), which mediate the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in adult brain, have been proposed as one potential mediator of these behavioral effects. In the current article, we use a combination of sing...

  2. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...

  3. Long-term Ovariectomy Alters Social and Anxious Behaviors in Semi-free Ranging Japanese Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Kris; Robertson, Nicola D; Bethea, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of anxiety and depression often occur in young women after complete hysterectomy and in older women during menopause. There are many variables that are hard to control in human population studies, but that are absent to a large extent in stable nonhuman primate troops. However, macaques exhibit depressive and anxious behaviors in response to similar situations as humans such as isolation, stress, instability or aggression. Therefore, we hypothesized that examination of behavior in ov...

  4. Pomegranate Supplementation Improves Affective and Motor Behavior in Mice after Radiation Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Dulcich, Melissa S.; Hartman, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavior...

  5. Dynamic neural control of insect muscle metabolism related to motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflüger, Hans-Joachim; Duch, Carsten

    2011-08-01

    Skeletal muscle innervation differs between vertebrates and insects. Insect muscle fibers exhibit graded electrical potentials and are innervated by excitatory, inhibitory, and also neuromodulatory motoneurons. The latter form a unique class of unpaired neurons with bilaterally symmetrical axons that release octopamine to alter the efficacy of synaptic transmission and regulate muscle energy metabolism by activating glycolysis. Octopaminergic neurons that innervate muscles with a high energy demand, for example, flight muscles that move the wings of a locust up and down, are active during rest but are inhibited during flight and its preparatory phase, a jump. Therefore, it is argued that these neurons are involved in providing locusts with the necessary fuel at takeoff, but then may aid the switch to lipid oxidation during flight. In general, the octopaminergic system may switch the whole organism from a tonic to a dynamic state. PMID:21841077

  6. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups. PMID:27424779

  7. Evidence for distinct brain networks in the control of rule-based motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Joshua A; Sergio, Lauren E

    2015-08-01

    Reach guidance when the spatial location of the viewed target and hand movement are incongruent (i.e., decoupled) necessitates use of explicit cognitive rules (strategic control) or implicit recalibration of gaze and limb position (sensorimotor recalibration). In a patient with optic ataxia (OA) and bilateral superior parietal lobule damage, we recently demonstrated an increased reliance on strategic control when the patient performed a decoupled reach (Granek JA, Pisella L, Stemberger J, Vighetto A, Rossetti Y, Sergio LE. PLoS One 8: e86138, 2013). To more generally understand the fundamental mechanisms of decoupled visuomotor control and to more specifically test whether we could distinguish these two modes of movement control, we tested healthy participants in a cognitively demanding dual task. Participants continuously counted backward while simultaneously reaching toward horizontal (left or right) or diagonal (equivalent to top-left or top-right) targets with either veridical or rotated (90°) cursor feedback. By increasing the overall neural load and selectively compromising potentially overlapping neural circuits responsible for strategic control, the complex dual task served as a noninvasive means to disrupt the integration of a cognitive rule into a motor action. Complementary to our previous results observed in patients with optic ataxia, here our dual task led to greater performance deficits during movements that required an explicit rule, implying a selective disruption of strategic control in decoupled reaching. Our results suggest that distinct neural processing is required to control these different types of reaching because in considering the current results and previous patient results together, the two classes of movement could be differentiated depending on the type of interference. PMID:26133796

  8. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements of the hydrothermal alterations within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doner, Zeynep; Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work reports the geochemical characteristics and behavior of the rare earth elements (REE) of the hydrothermal alteration of the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit located in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Biga peninsula (Locally Balikesir province), NW Turkey. The Cu-Mo-Au mineralization at this deposit hosted in the hornfels rocks and related to the silicic to intermediate intrusion of Eybek pluton. It locally formed with brecciated zones and quartz vein stockworks, as well as the brittle fracture zones associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. Three main alteration zones with gradual boundaries formed in the mine area in the hornfels rock that represents the host rock, along that contact the Eybek pluton; potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration zones. The potassic alteration zone that formed at the center having high amount of Cu-sulfide minerals contains biotite, muscovite, and sericite with less amount of K-feldspar and associated with tourmalinization alteration. The propylitic alteration surrounds the potassic alteration having high amount of Mo and Au and contains chlorite, albite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. The phyllic alteration zone also surrounds the potassic alteration containing quartz, sericite and pyrite minerals. Based on the REE characteristics and content and when we correlate the Alteration index (AI) with the light REEs and heavy REEs of each alteration zone, it concluded that the light REEs decrease and heavy REEs increase during the alteration processes. The relationships between K2O index with Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr* reveals a positive correlation in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones and a negative correlation in the propylitic alteration zone. This refers to the hydrothermal solution which is responsible for the studied porphyry deposits and associated potassic and phyllic alterations has a positive Eu and Sr anomaly as well as these elements were added to the altered rock from the hydrothermal solution. Keywords: Rare

  9. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  10. Exercise Effects on Motor and Affective Behavior and Catecholamine Neurochemistry in the MPTP-Lesioned Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Gorton, Lori M.; Vuckovic, Marta G.; Vertelkina, Nina; Giselle M. Petzinger; Jakowec, Michael W; Wood, Ruth I.

    2010-01-01

    This study used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice to determine if exercise improves behavior and dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) content. Male C57BL/6 mice received MPTP (4×20 mg/kg) or saline. They remained sedentary or exercised by treadmill or voluntary running wheel for 6 weeks (n=8/group). Saline-treated mice ran significantly faster on running wheels (22.8±1.0 m/min) than on treadmill (8.5±0.5 m/min), and MPTP lesion did not reduce voluntary exercise (19.3±1...

  11. Chronic Stress Impairs Spatial Memory and Motivation for Reward Without Disrupting Motor Ability and Motivation to Explore

    OpenAIRE

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Sitomer, Matthew T; Killeen, Peter R.; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses an operant, behavioral model to assess the daily changes in the decay rate of short-term memory, motivation, and motor ability in rats exposed to chronic restraint. Restraint decreased reward-related motivation by 50% without altering memory decay rate or motor ability. Moreover, chronic restraint impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial memory on the Y maze (4-hr delay) and produced CA3 dendritic retraction without altering hippocampal-independent maze navigation (1-min delay) ...

  12. Altered behavior, physiology, and metabolism in fish exposed to polystyrene nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Karin; Ekvall, Mikael T; Hansson, Lars-Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in consumer products, for example, cosmetics, sunscreens, and electrical devices, has increased tremendously over the past decade despite insufficient knowledge about their effects on human health and ecosystem function. Moreover, the amount of plastic waste products that...... administered 24 and 27 nm polystyrene nanoparticles to fish through an aquatic food chain, from algae through Daphnia, and studied the effects on behavior and metabolism. We found severe effects on feeding and shoaling behavior as well as metabolism of the fish; hence, we conclude that polystyrene...... nanoparticles have severe effects on both behavior and metabolism in fish and that commonly used nanosized particles may have considerable effects on natural systems and ecosystem services derived from them....

  13. A low concentration of ethanol impairs learning but not motor and sensory behavior in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks G Robinson

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful model system for the genetic analysis of ethanol-associated behaviors. However, past studies have focused on the response of the adult fly to large, and often sedating, doses of ethanol. The pharmacological effects of low and moderate quantities of ethanol have remained understudied. In this study, we tested the acute effects of low doses of ethanol (∼7 mM internal concentration on Drosophila larvae. While ethanol did not affect locomotion or the response to an odorant, we observed that ethanol impaired associative olfactory learning when the heat shock unconditioned stimulus (US intensity was low but not when the heat shock US intensity was high. We determined that the reduction in learning at low US intensity was not a result of ethanol anesthesia since ethanol-treated larvae responded to the heat shock in the same manner as untreated animals. Instead, low doses of ethanol likely impair the neuronal plasticity that underlies olfactory associative learning. This impairment in learning was reversible indicating that exposure to low doses of ethanol does not leave any long lasting behavioral or physiological effects.

  14. Conessine, an H3 receptor antagonist, alters behavioral and neurochemical effects of ethanol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Silva, Gessynger; Ferreira-Santos, Mariane; Marin, Marcelo T

    2016-05-15

    Ethanol abuse potential is mainly due to its reinforcing properties, crucial in the transition from the recreational to pathological use. These properties are mediated by mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways and neuroadaptations in these pathways seem to be responsible for addiction. Both pathways are modulated by other neurotransmitters systems, including neuronal histaminergic system. Among the histamine receptors, H3 receptor stands out due to its role in modulation of histamine and other neurotransmitters release. Thus, histaminergic system, through H3 receptors, may have an important role in ethanol addiction development. Aiming to understand these interactions, conessine, an H3 receptor antagonist, was given to mice subjected to the evaluation of ethanol-induced psychostimulation, ethanol CPP and quantification of norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways following acute ethanol treatment. Systemic conessine administration exacerbated ethanol effects on locomotor activity. Despite of conessine reinforcing effect on CPP, this drug did not alter acquisition of ethanol CPP. Ethanol treatment affects the serotoninergic neurotransmission in the ventral tegmental area, the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and caudate-putamen nucleus (CPu) and the noradrenergic neurotransmission in the CPu. In the PFC, conessine blocked ethanol effects on dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. The blockade of H3 receptors and ethanol seem to interact in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission of nigrostriatal pathway, decreasing dopamine metabolites in substantia nigra. In conclusion, conessine was able to change psychostimulant effect of ethanol, without altering its reinforcing properties. This exacerbation of ethanol-induced psychostimulation would be related to alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal pathway. PMID

  15. Clock Genes and Behavioral Responses to Light Are Altered in a Mouse Model of Diabetic Retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Lahouaoui, Hasna; Coutanson, Christine; Cooper, Howard M.; Mohamed BENNIS; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are altered in retinal pathologies. Using a streptozotocin-induced (STZ) model of diabetes, we investigated the impact of diabetic retinopathy on non-visual functions by analyzing ipRGCs morphology and light-induced c-Fos and Period 1–2 clock genes in the central clock (SCN). The ability of STZ-diabetic mice to entrain to light was challenged by exposure animals to 1) successive light/dark (LD) cycle of decreasing...

  16. Female Moth Calling and Flight Behavior Are Altered Hours Following Pheromone Autodetection: Possible Implications for Practical Management with Mating Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Stelinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female moths are known to detect their own sex pheromone—a phenomenon called “autodetection”. Autodetection has various effects on female moth behavior, including altering natural circadian rhythm of calling behavior, inducing flight, and in some cases causing aggregations of conspecifics. A proposed hypothesis for the possible evolutionary benefits of autodetection is its possible role as a spacing mechanism to reduce female-female competition. Here, we explore autodetection in two species of tortricids (Grapholita molesta (Busck and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris. We find that females of both species not only “autodetect,” but that learning (change in behavior following experience occurs, which affects behavior for at least 24 hours after pheromone pre-exposure. Specifically, female calling in both species is advanced at least 24 hours, but not 5 days, following pheromone pre-exposure. Also, the propensity of female moths to initiate flight and the duration of flights, as quantified by a laboratory flight mill, were advanced in pre-exposed females as compared with controls. Pheromone pre-exposure did not affect the proportion of mated moths when they were confined with males in small enclosures over 24 hours in laboratory assays. We discuss the possible implications of these results with respect to management of these known pest species with the use of pheromone-based mating disruption.

  17. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  18. Reduced Anxiety-Like Behavior and Altered Hippocampal Morphology in Female p75NTRexon IV−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschban, Zoe; Sah, Anupam; Grutsch, Isabella; Singewald, Nicolas; Dechant, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in adult basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, precursor cells in the subventricular cell layer and the subgranular cell layer of the hippocampus has been linked to alterations in learning as well as anxiety- and depression- related behaviors. In contrast to previous studies performed in a p75NTRexon III−/− model still expressing the short isoform of the p75NTR, we focused on locomotor and anxiety–associated behavior in p75NTRexon IV−/− mice lacking both p75NTR isoforms. Comparing p75NTRexon IV−/− and wildtype mice for both male and female animals showed an anxiolytic-like behavior as evidenced by increased central activities in the open field paradigm and flex field activity system as well as higher numbers of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze test in female p75NTR knockout mice. Morphometrical analyses of dorsal and ventral hippocampus revealed a reduction of width of the dentate gyrus and the granular cell layer in the dorsal but not ventral hippocampus in male and female p75NTRexon IV−/− mice. We conclude that germ-line deletion of p75NTR seems to differentially affect morphometry of dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus and that p75NTR may play a role in anxiety-like behavior, specifically in female mice. PMID:27313517

  19. Alterations in affective behavior during the time course of alcohol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadayian, Analía G; Busso, María J; Feleder, Carlos; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2013-09-15

    Alcohol hangover is a temporary state described as the unpleasant next-day effects after binge-like drinking. Hangover begins when ethanol is absent in plasma and is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms. Affective behavior is impaired during the acute phase of alcohol intoxication; however, no reports indicate if similar effects are observed during withdrawal. The aim of this work was to study the time-extension and possible fluctuations in affective behavior during a hangover episode. Male Swiss mice were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8g/kg BW) (hangover group). Anxiety, fear-related behavior and despair phenotype were evaluated at a basal point (ZT0) and every 2h up to 20h after blood alcohol levels were close to zero (hangover onset). Also, anhedonia signs and pain perception disabilities were studied. Mice exhibited an increase in anxiety-like behavior during 4h and 14h after hangover onset when evaluated by the elevated-plus maze and open field test respectively (phangover animals by the increase of freezing and decrease of line crossings and rearing frequency during 16h after hangover onset (phangover mice during 14h (pHangover mice showed a significant decrease in pain perception when tested by tail immersion test at the beginning of hangover (phangover affective impairments. This study shows the long lasting effects of hangover over the phase of ethanol intoxication. PMID:23850352

  20. Diet induced alterations in gastrointestinal bacterial populations affect memory and learning behavior in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of dietary manipulation to influence learning and behavior is well recognized. While the mechanism of action is almost exclusively interpreted as direct effects of dietary constituents on neural functioning within the central nervous system (CNS), the role of dietary modification on bact...

  1. Brief Report: Altered Social Behavior in Isolation-Reared "Fmr1" Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, Andrew M.; Roth, Alexandra K.; Nawrocki, Lauren; Wrenn, Craige C.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are characterized by social withdrawal, anxiety, and deficits in social cognition. To assess these deficits, a model of FXS, the "Fmr1" knockout mouse ("Fmr1" KO), has been utilized. This mouse model has a null mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene ("Fmr1") and displays…

  2. The effect of dietary alterations during rearing on growth, productivity, and behavior in broiler breeder females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, K L H; Widowski, T; Leeson, S; Sandilands, V; Arnone, A; Torrey, S

    2014-02-01

    Parent stocks of meat birds are severely feed restricted to avoid obesity-related health and fertility problems. This restriction often leads to chronic hunger, accompanied by stereotypic behavior. Research based in the United Kingdom has shown that using diets containing fiber and appetite suppressants may relieve some of the symptoms of hunger. However, few data are available regarding North American-sourced ingredients or nondaily feeding regimens. This study investigated the effects of 2 alternative diets, in combination with 2 feeding frequencies on growth, productivity, and behavior in broiler breeders. Six dietary treatments were tested, each with 5 replicate pens of 12 or 13 birds. Control diets consisted of a commercial crumble, fed on a daily or skip-a-day (SAD) basis. Alternative diets included soybean hulls as a fiber source, and calcium propionate as an appetite suppressant of either a feed-grade or purified quality, fed on either a daily or SAD basis. Birds were weighed weekly and egg production was recorded daily. Video cameras were used to record behavior during and following the morning feeding bout every 2 wk from 11 to 28 wk. Data were analyzed with a mixed model ANOVA, with repeated measures. Diet, feeding frequency, time, or an interaction of the 3 had significant effects on all observed behavior during rearing. These differences appeared to diminish during lay, with most stereotypic behavior no longer present. Very little object pecking and aggression was observed during and immediately following feeding bouts; however, daily-fed control birds still displayed this behavior more often, especially during rearing (P = 0.015). During feeding bouts, SAD birds feather pecked (P = 0.003) and rested more (P = 0.0002) than daily-fed birds. Control birds feather pecked most often (P = 0.033) after feeding bouts. Overall, the feed-grade diet appeared most effective at reducing hunger-related behavior, and the control diet appeared the least effective

  3. High aggression in rats is associated with elevated stress, anxiety-like behavior, and altered catecholamine content in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Atrooz, Fatin; Alkadhi, Isam; Solanki, Naimesh; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    The social defeat paradigm involves aggressive encounters between Long-Evans (LE) (resident) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) (intruder) rats. Successful application of chronic social defeat stress in SD rats is dependent upon selection of highly aggressive LE rats. Half of the LE rats screened for aggression did not meet the criterion for aggression (LE rats performing a defeat, characterized by the intruder surrendering or acquiring a supine position for at least 3 sec). The observation of the differences in the level of aggression between age and weight matched LE rats was quite compelling which led us to the present study. Herein, we measured behavioral differences between aggressor and non-aggressor LE rats. We analyzed their anxiety-like behavior using open-field and elevated plus maze tests. We also measured aggression/violence-like behavior using two tests. In one, time taken to defeat the intruder SD rat was recorded. In the second test, time taken to attack a novel object was compared between the two groups. We observed a significant increase in anxiety-like behavior in aggressor rats when compared to the non-aggressive group. Furthermore, time taken to defeat the intruder rat and to attack a novel object was significantly lower in aggressive LE rats. Biochemical data suggests that heightened anxiety-like behavior and aggression is associated with increased plasma levels of corticosterones and elevated oxidative stress. Significant alterations in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) were observed within the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, suggesting potential involvement of dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in regulation of aggressive behaviors. PMID:25450144

  4. Chronic cocaine or ethanol exposure during adolescence alters novelty-related behaviors in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Kirstie H; Kirstein, Cheryl L

    2007-04-01

    Adolescence is a time of high-risk behavior and increased exploration. This developmental period is marked by a greater probability to initiate drug use and is associated with an increased risk to develop addiction and adulthood dependency and drug use at this time is associated with an increased risk. Human adolescents are predisposed toward an increased likelihood of risk-taking behaviors [Zuckerman M. Sensation seeking and the endogenous deficit theory of drug abuse. NIDA Res Monogr 1986;74:59-70.], including drug use or initiation. In the present study, adolescent animals were exposed to twenty days of either saline (0.9% sodium chloride), cocaine (20 mg/kg) or ethanol (1 g/kg) i.p. followed by a fifteen-day washout period. All animals were tested as adults on several behavioral measures including locomotor activity induced by a novel environment, time spent in the center of an open field, novelty preference and novel object exploration. Animals exposed to cocaine during adolescence and tested as adults exhibited a greater locomotor response in a novel environment, spent less time in the center of the novel open field and spent less time with a novel object, results that are indicative of a stress or anxiogenic response to novelty or a novel situation. Adolescent animals chronically administered ethanol and tested as adults, unlike cocaine-exposed were not different from controls in a novel environment, indicated by locomotor activity or time spent with a novel object. However, ethanol-exposed animals approached the novel object more, suggesting that exposure to ethanol during development may result in less-inhibited behaviors during adulthood. The differences in adult behavioral responses after drug exposure during adolescence are likely due to differences in the mechanisms of action of the drugs and subsequent reward and/or stress responsivity. Future studies are needed to determine the neural substrates of these long lasting drug-induced changes. PMID

  5. Altered behavioral and neural responsiveness to counterfactual gains in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Michael J; Guo, Rong; Gläscher, Jan; Schwarze, Ulrike; Brassen, Stefanie; Büchel, Christian; Obermayer, Klaus; Sommer, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Counterfactual information processing refers to the consideration of events that did not occur in comparison to those actually experienced, in order to determine optimal actions, and can be formulated as computational learning signals, referred to as fictive prediction errors. Decision making and the neural circuitry for counterfactual processing are altered in healthy elderly adults. This experiment investigated age differences in neural systems for decision making with knowledge of counterfactual outcomes. Two groups of healthy adult participants, young (N = 30; ages 19-30 years) and elderly (N = 19; ages 65-80 years), were scanned with fMRI during 240 trials of a strategic sequential investment task in which a particular strategy of differentially weighting counterfactual gains and losses during valuation is associated with more optimal performance. Elderly participants earned significantly less than young adults, differently weighted counterfactual consequences and exploited task knowledge, and exhibited altered activity in a fronto-striatal circuit while making choices, compared to young adults. The degree to which task knowledge was exploited was positively correlated with modulation of neural activity by expected value in the vmPFC for young adults, but not in the elderly. These findings demonstrate that elderly participants' poor task performance may be related to different counterfactual processing. PMID:26864879

  6. Influence of lactation on motor activity and elevated plus maze behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.P. Silva

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Lactating rats show less noise-induced freezing and fewer inhibitory responses on the 6th day post-delivery when submitted to water and food deprivation in a classical conflict paradigm. Lactating mice go more often to the illuminated chamber in a light-dark cage and stay longer in it than virgin females. The present study was designed to assess the influence of this physiological state, i.e. lactation, on the elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field behavior in adult female rats. Total (TL and central (CL locomotion and rearing (RF frequencies were measured in an open-field. Number of entries into the open and closed arms as well as the time spent in each of these arms were measured in the EPM. Percent time spent and number of entries into the open arms were calculated and compared. In the open-field, TL was significantly decreased (115 ± 10.6 vs 150 ± 11.6 while CL and RF did not differ from those presented by virgin rats. In the EPM, lactating rats displayed a significant reduction in percent time spent (10.9 ± 1.5 vs 17.4 ± 2.3 in the open arms as well as a tendency to a reduction in percent entries into the open arms (35.7 ± 4.7 vs 45.7 ± 4.3. These results show that the physiological state of lactation modulates the open-field and EPM behaviors in rats

  7. Gestational exposure to low dose bisphenol A alters social behavior in juvenile mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Wolstenholme

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a man-made compound used to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins; public health concerns have been fueled by findings that BPA exposure can reduce sex differences in brain and some behaviors. We asked if a low BPA dose, within the range measured in humans, ingested during pregnancy, would affect social behaviors in prepubertal mice. We noted sex differences in social interactions whereby females spent more time sitting side-by-side, while males engaged in more exploring and sitting alone. In addition BPA increased display of nose-to-nose contacts, play solicitations and approaches in both sexes. Interactions between sex and diet were found for self grooming, social interactions while sitting side-by-side and following the other mouse. In all these cases interactions were produced by differences between control and BPA females. We examined brains from embryos during late gestation to determine if gene expression differences might be correlated with some of the sexually dimorphic or BPA affected behaviors we observed. Because BPA treatments ended at birth we took the brains during embryogenesis to increase the probability of discovering BPA mediated effects. We also selected this embryonic age (E18.5 because it coincides with the onset of sexual differentiation of the brain. Interestingly, mRNA for the glutamate transporter, Slc1a1, was enhanced by exposure to BPA in female brains. Also we noted that BPA changed the expression of two of the three DNA methyltransferase genes, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a. We propose that BPA affects DNA methylation of Sc1a1 during neural development. Sex differences in juvenile social interactions are affected by BPA and in particular this compound modifies behavior in females.

  8. Activation of the Maternal Immune System During Pregnancy Alters Behavioral Development of Rhesus Monkey Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Bauman, Melissa D.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Smith, Stephen E. P.; Bregere, Catherine; Amaral, David G.; Patterson, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Supporting this correlation, experimentally activating the maternal immune system during pregnancy in rodents produces offspring with abnormal brain and behavioral development. We have developed a nonhuman primate model to bridge the gap between clinical populations and rodent models of maternal immune activation (MIA). Methods: A modified form of the ...

  9. Behavioral performance altering effects of MK-801 in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Sison, Margarette; Gerlai, Robert

    2011-01-01

    MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA-R antagonist, has been utilized in the analysis of mammalian learning and memory. The zebrafish is a novel vertebrate study species that has been proposed for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory. Although learning paradigms have been developed for this species, psychopharmacological characterization of its behavioral responses is rudimentary. Before one attempts the analysis of the effects of MK-801 on learning and memory in zebrafish, one need...

  10. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bu Lihong; Lund Trent D; Porter James P; Lephart Edwin D; Setchell Kenneth DR; Ramoz Gina; Crowley William R

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones) have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a) age-related diseases, b) hormone-dependent cancers and c) postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the h...

  11. Altered behavior, physiology, and metabolism in fish exposed to polystyrene nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Karin; Ekvall, Mikael T; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Linse, Sara; Malmendal, Anders; Cedervall, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in consumer products, for example, cosmetics, sunscreens, and electrical devices, has increased tremendously over the past decade despite insufficient knowledge about their effects on human health and ecosystem function. Moreover, the amount of plastic waste products that enter natural ecosystems, such as oceans and lakes, is increasing, and degradation of the disposed plastics produces smaller particles toward the nano scale. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to gain knowledge about how plastic nanoparticles enter and affect living organisms. Here we have administered 24 and 27 nm polystyrene nanoparticles to fish through an aquatic food chain, from algae through Daphnia, and studied the effects on behavior and metabolism. We found severe effects on feeding and shoaling behavior as well as metabolism of the fish; hence, we conclude that polystyrene nanoparticles have severe effects on both behavior and metabolism in fish and that commonly used nanosized particles may have considerable effects on natural systems and ecosystem services derived from them. PMID:25380515

  12. Subchronic and mild social defeat stress alter mouse nest building behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otabi, Hikari; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Okayama, Tsuyoshi; Kohari, Daisuke; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological evaluations of animal models of depression are essential to thoroughly understand the mechanisms of depression in humans. Various models have been developed and characterized, and the socially defeated mouse has been widely used for studying depression. Here, we developed and characterized a mouse model of social aversion using a subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) paradigm. Compared to control mice, sCSDS mice showed significantly increased body weight gain, water intake, and social aversion to dominant mice on the social interaction test. We observed nest building behavior in sCSDS mice using the pressed cotton as a nest material. Although sCSDS mice eventually successfully built nests, the onset of nest building was severely delayed compared to control mice. The underlying mechanism of this significant delay in nest building by sCSDS mice is unclear. However, our results demonstrate that nest building evaluation is a simple and useful assay for understanding behavior in socially defeated mice and screening drugs such as antidepressants. PMID:26524409

  13. Behavioral sensitization and long-term neurochemical alterations associated with the fungicide triadimefon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Ruth; Thiruchelvam, Mona; Richfield, Eric K; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

    2003-09-01

    Triadimefon (TDF), a widely used triazole fungicide, blocks reuptake of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), similarly to cocaine. Preliminary studies show that intermittent intraperitoneal injections of TDF increase ambulatory and vertical activity across repeated injections [Neurotoxicology (in press)] leading to the hypothesis tested here, that exposure to TDF may influence the development and expression of behavioral sensitization, a model of psychostimulant-induced psychosis. Exposure of adult male C57BL/6 mice to 75 mg/kg i.p. TDF (TDF75) twice a week for 7 weeks increased vertical activity at each injection. Following a 2-week withdrawal period, a TDF challenge to test for expression of behavioral sensitization revealed further increases in vertical activity levels relative to all other conditions. TDF induction/expression of behavioral sensitization was associated with long-term, perhaps permanent modulation of dopaminergic function that included increases in striatal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and DA turnover, increases in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine transporter (DAT) binding, as well as decreases in DA D1 and increases in DA D2 and DAT receptor binding that appeared to target the nucleus accumbens shell (NAs) subregion. Thus, TDF exposure may serve as an environmental risk factor for DA system dysfunctions. PMID:14592684

  14. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and ex...

  15. Curcumin Treatment Improves Motor Behavior in α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateri J Spinelli

    Full Text Available The curry spice curcumin plays a protective role in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases, and can also directly modulate aggregation of α-synuclein protein in vitro, yet no studies have described the interaction of curcumin and α-synuclein in genetic synucleinopathy mouse models. Here we examined the effect of chronic and acute curcumin treatment in the Syn-GFP mouse line, which overexpresses wild-type human α-synuclein protein. We discovered that curcumin diet intervention significantly improved gait impairments and resulted in an increase in phosphorylated forms of α-synuclein at cortical presynaptic terminals. Acute curcumin treatment also caused an increase in phosphorylated α-synuclein in terminals, but had no direct effect on α-synuclein aggregation, as measured by in vivo multiphoton imaging and Proteinase-K digestion. Using LC-MS/MS, we detected ~5 ng/mL and ~12 ng/mL free curcumin in the plasma of chronic or acutely treated mice, with a glucuronidation rate of 94% and 97%, respectively. Despite the low plasma levels and extensive metabolism of curcumin, these results show that dietary curcumin intervention correlates with significant behavioral and molecular changes in a genetic synucleinopathy mouse model that mimics human disease.

  16. Time Course of Behavioral Alteration and mRNA Levels of Neurotrophic Factor Following Stress Exposure in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikawa, Naoya; Ogawa, Takumi; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Ogawa, Mami; Matsuo, Yumi; Zamami, Yoshito; Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi

    2015-08-01

    Stress is known to affect neurotrophic factor expression, which induces depression-like behavior. However, whether there are time-dependent changes in neurotrophic factor mRNA expression following stress remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether chronic stress exposure induces long-term changes in depression-related behavior, serum corticosterone, and hippocampal proliferation as well as neurotrophic factor family mRNA levels, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), in the mouse hippocampus. The mRNA level of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, NT-3, and CNTF) was measured using the real-time PCR. The serum corticosterone level was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and, for each subject, the hippocampal proliferation was examined by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining. Mice exhibited depression-like behavior in the forced-swim test (FST) and decreased BDNF mRNA and hippocampal proliferation in the middle of the stress exposure. After 15 days of stress exposure, we observed increased immobility in the FST, serum corticosterone levels, and BDNF mRNA levels and degenerated hippocampal proliferation, maintained for at least 2 weeks. Anhedonia-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and NGF mRNA levels were decreased following 15 days of stress. NGF mRNA levels were significantly higher 1 week after stress exposure. The current data demonstrate that chronic stress exposure induces prolonged BDNF and NGF mRNA changes and increases corticosterone levels and depression-like behavior in the FST, but does not alter other neurotrophic factors or performance in the sucrose preference test. PMID:25820756

  17. Deletion of vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) in mice alters behavioral effects of ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Blednov, Y.A.; Harris, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is activated by ethanol and this may be important for some of the central and peripheral actions of ethanol. To determine if this receptor has a role in ethanol-mediated behaviors, we studied null mutant mice in which the Trpv1 gene was deleted. Mice lacking this gene showed significantly higher preference for ethanol and consumed more ethanol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild type littermates. Null mutant mice showed shorter duration of loss of ri...

  18. Prenatal SSRI alters the hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in female mice: Possible role for glucocorticoid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitsur, Ronit; Grinshpahet, Rachel; Goren, Naama; Weinstein, Ido; Kirshenboim, Or; Chlebowski, Noa

    2016-08-01

    Life time prevalence of major depression disorder (MDD) is higher in women compared to men especially during the period surrounding childbirth. Women suffering from MDD during pregnancy use antidepressant medications, particularly Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI). These drugs readily cross the placental barrier and impact the developing fetal brain. The present study assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), an SSRI antidepressant drug, on corticosterone and behavioral responses to stress in female mice. In young females, prenatal FLX significantly elevated corticosterone response to continuous stress. In adults, prenatal FLX augmented corticosterone response to acute stress and suppressed the response to continuous stress. Additionally, prenatal FLX significantly augmented stress-induced increase in locomotion and reduced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in adult, but not young mice. The dexamethasone suppression test revealed that prenatal FLX induced a state of glucocorticoid resistance in adult females, indicating that the negative feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress was disrupted. These findings provide the first indication of altered hormonal and behavioral responses to continuous stress and suggest a role for the development of glucocorticoid resistance in these effects. According to these findings, prenatal environment may have implications for stress sensitivity and responsiveness to life challenges. Furthermore, this study may assist in understanding the limitations and precautions that should be taken in the use of SSRIs during pregnancy. PMID:27283378

  19. Time course study of microglial and behavioral alterations induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago Pereira da; Poli, Anicleto; Hara, Daniela Balz; Takahashi, Reinaldo Naoto

    2016-05-27

    Understanding the mechanisms responsible for nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) is crucial in the search for new therapeutic approaches. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the time course of behavioral, neurochemical, and microglial responses after a retrograde partial lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway induced by bilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The results showed that 6-OHDA was able to produce both anhedonic and anxiety behaviors; however, an increase of microglial density in some brain areas (substantia nigra, hippocampus and striatum) and deficits in locomotor activity was observed only one week after the lesion. Striatal levels of dopamine (DA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were reduced by approximately 60% at all times tested. Conversely, increased levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite were also noted in the striatum only at the first week. These data extend our previous findings and suggest that the retrograde and partial damage of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra can induce effects resembling premotor symptoms of PD, two and three weeks after injury. PMID:27113204

  20. Protective effect of Labisia pumila on stress-induced behavioral, biochemical, and immunological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Kiranjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Koul, Surrinder; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Bani, Sarang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antistress potential of LABISIA PUMILA aqueous extract (LPPM/A003) using a battery of tests widely employed in different stressful situations. Pretreatment of experimental animals with LPPM/A003 caused an increase in the swimming endurance and hypoxia time and also showed the recovery of physical stress-induced depletion of neuromuscular coordination and scopolamine induced memory deficit. LPPM/A003 at graded doses reversed the chronic restraint stress (RST), induced depletion of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T lymphocytes, NK cell population, and corresponding cytokines expression besides downregulating the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone, a major stress hormone. In addition, LPPM/A003 reversed the chronic stress-induced increase in adrenal gland weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and augmented the RST induced decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH), thymus and spleen weight. Thus, we conclude that LPPM/A003 has the ability to reverse the alterations produced by various stressful stimuli and therefore restores homeostasis. PMID:20217640

  1. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ming-Huan; Chung, Shiang-Sheng; Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperat...

  2. Does respondent driven sampling alter the social network composition and health-seeking behaviors of illicit drug users followed prospectively?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby E Rudolph

    Full Text Available Respondent driven sampling (RDS was originally developed to sample and provide peer education to injection drug users at risk for HIV. Based on the premise that drug users' social networks were maintained through sharing rituals, this peer-driven approach to disseminate educational information and reduce risk behaviors capitalizes and expands upon the norms that sustain these relationships. Compared with traditional outreach interventions, peer-driven interventions produce greater reductions in HIV risk behaviors and adoption of safer behaviors over time, however, control and intervention groups are not similarly recruited. As peer-recruitment may alter risk networks and individual risk behaviors over time, such comparison studies are unable to isolate the effect of a peer-delivered intervention. This analysis examines whether RDS recruitment (without an intervention is associated with changes in health-seeking behaviors and network composition over 6 months. New York City drug users (N = 618 were recruited using targeted street outreach (TSO and RDS (2006-2009. 329 non-injectors (RDS = 237; TSO = 92 completed baseline and 6-month surveys ascertaining demographic, drug use, and network characteristics. Chi-square and t-tests compared RDS- and TSO-recruited participants on changes in HIV testing and drug treatment utilization and in the proportion of drug using, sex, incarcerated and social support networks over the follow-up period. The sample was 66% male, 24% Hispanic, 69% black, 62% homeless, and the median age was 35. At baseline, the median network size was 3, 86% used crack, 70% used cocaine, 40% used heroin, and in the past 6 months 72% were tested for HIV and 46% were enrolled in drug treatment. There were no significant differences by recruitment strategy with respect to changes in health-seeking behaviors or network composition over 6 months. These findings suggest no association between RDS recruitment and changes in

  3. Language and Motor Abilities of Preschool Children Who Stutter: Evidence from Behavioral and Kinematic Indices of Nonword Repetition Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and…

  4. Restraint use and risky driving behaviors across drug types and drug and alcohol combinations for drivers involved in a fatal motor vehicle collision on U.S. roadways

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chang; Huang, Yanlan; Pressley, Joyce C.

    2016-01-01

    Background While driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle (MV) crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and/or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash. Methods The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008–2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations/errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger v...

  5. Neuronavigation Increases the Physiologic and Behavioral Effects of Low-Frequency rTMS of Primary Motor Cortex in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, S.; Edwards, D; Pascual-Leone, A

    2010-01-01

    Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can exert local and inter-hemispheric neuromodulatory effects on cortical excitability. These physiologic effects can translate into changes in motor behavior, and may offer valuable therapeutic interventions in recovery from stroke. Neuronavigated TMS can maximize accurate and consistent targeting of a given cortical region, but is a lot more involved that conventional TMS. We aimed to assess whether neuronavigation enhances t...

  6. Neural correlates of the age-related changes in motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley R King

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s population ages, a deeper understanding of the relationship between aging and motor learning will become increasingly relevant in basic research and applied settings. In this context, this review aims to address the effects of age on motor sequence learning (MSL and motor adaptation (MA with respect to behavioral, neurological and neuroimaging findings. Previous behavioral research investigating the influence of aging on motor learning has consistently reported the following results. First, the initial acquisition of motor sequences is not altered, except under conditions of increased task complexity. Second, older adults demonstrate deficits in motor sequence memory consolidation. And, third, although older adults demonstrate deficits during the exposure phase of MA paradigms, the aftereffects following removal of the sensorimotor perturbation are similar to young adults, suggesting that the adaptive ability of older adults is relatively intact. This paper will review the potential neural underpinnings of these behavioral results, with a particular emphasis on the influence of age-related dysfunctions in the cortico-striatal system on motor learning.

  7. Behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal is altered after prefrontocortical dopamine depletion in rats: monoaminergic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, E F; Serrano, M I; Caillé, S; Stinus, L

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the effects of prefrontocortical dopamine depletion on opiate withdrawal and prefrontocortical neurochemical changes elicited by morphine dependence and withdrawal. The dopaminergic content was also measured in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal, in order to detect reactive changes induced by prefrontocortical lesion. Withdrawal was induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent rats. Monoamine levels were analyzed post-mortem by high performance liquid cromatography. The results showed that chronic morphine dependence did not modify basal levels of monoamines in sham rats, revealing neuroadaptation of prefrontocortical dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin systems to chronic morphine. The neuroadaptive phenomenon remained after prefrontocortical lesion (> 79% dopamine depletion). On the other hand, a strong increase of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents in the medial prefrontal cortex of sham rats was detected during opiate withdrawal. However, in lesioned rats, the increase of prefrontocortical dopamine and serotonin content, but not that of noradrenaline, was much lower. In the nucleus accumbens, prefrontocortical lesion reactively enhanced the dopaminergic tone and, although opiate withdrawal reduced dopaminergic activity in both sham and lesioned rats, this reduction was less intense in the latter group. At a behavioral level, some symptoms of physical opiate withdrawal were exacerbated in lesioned rats (writhing, mastication, teeth-chattering, global score) and exploration was reduced. The findings hence indicate that: (i) prefrontocortical monoaminergic changes play a role in the behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal; (ii) the severity of some withdrawal signs are related to the dopaminergic and serotonergic tone of the medial prefrontal cortex rather than to the noradrenergic one, and (iii) an inverse relationship between mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems exists. PMID:11425504

  8. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Yoon

    Full Text Available In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA, body temperature (BT, blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42% of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  9. Altered Neuroinflammation and Behavior after Traumatic Brain Injury in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokiko-Cochran, Olga; Ransohoff, Lena; Veenstra, Mike; Lee, Sungho; Saber, Maha; Sikora, Matt; Teknipp, Ryan; Xu, Guixiang; Bemiller, Shane; Wilson, Gina; Crish, Samuel; Bhaskar, Kiran; Lee, Yu-Shang; Ransohoff, Richard M; Lamb, Bruce T

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has acute and chronic sequelae, including an increased risk for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). TBI-associated neuroinflammation is characterized by activation of brain-resident microglia and infiltration of monocytes; however, recent studies have implicated beta-amyloid as a major manipulator of the inflammatory response. To examine neuroinflammation after TBI and development of AD-like features, these studies examined the effects of TBI in the presence and absence of beta-amyloid. The R1.40 mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis was used, with a focus on time points well before robust AD pathologies. Unexpectedly, in R1.40 mice, the acute neuroinflammatory response to TBI was strikingly muted, with reduced numbers of CNS myeloid cells acquiring a macrophage phenotype and decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines. At chronic time points, macrophage activation substantially declined in non-Tg TBI mice; however, it was relatively unchanged in R1.40 TBI mice. The persistent inflammatory response coincided with significant tissue loss between 3 and 120 days post-injury in R1.40 TBI mice, which was not observed in non-Tg TBI mice. Surprisingly, inflammatory cytokine expression was enhanced in R1.40 mice compared with non-Tg mice, regardless of injury group. Although R1.40 TBI mice demonstrated task-specific deficits in cognition, overall functional recovery was similar to non-Tg TBI mice. These findings suggest that accumulating beta-amyloid leads to an altered post-injury macrophage response at acute and chronic time points. Together, these studies emphasize the role of post-injury neuroinflammation in regulating long-term sequelae after TBI and also support recent studies implicating beta-amyloid as an immunomodulator. PMID:26414955

  10. A magnetic-dependent protein corona of tailor-made superparamagnetic iron oxides alters their biological behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziyao; Zhan, Xiaohui; Yang, Minggang; Yang, Qi; Xu, Xianghui; Lan, Fang; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, it is becoming increasingly evident that once nanoparticles come into contact with biological fluids, a protein corona surely forms and critically affects the biological behaviors of nanoparticles. Herein, we investigate whether the formation of protein corona on the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) is influenced by static magnetic field. Under static magnetic field, there is no obvious variation in the total amount of protein adsorption, but the proportion of adsorbed proteins significantly changes. Noticeably, certain proteins including apolipoproteins, complement system proteins and acute phase proteins, increase in the protein corona of SPIOs in the magnetic field. More importantly, the magnetic-dependent protein corona of SPIOs enhances the cellular uptake of SPIOs into the normal cell line (3T3 cells) and tumor cell line (HepG2 cells), due to increased adsorption of apolipoprotein. In addition, SPIOs with the magnetic-dependent protein corona cause high cytotoxicity to 3T3 cells and HepG2 cells. This work discloses that superparamagnetism as a key feature of SPIOs affects the composition of protein corona to a large extent, which further alters the biological behaviors of SPIOs.In recent years, it is becoming increasingly evident that once nanoparticles come into contact with biological fluids, a protein corona surely forms and critically affects the biological behaviors of nanoparticles. Herein, we investigate whether the formation of protein corona on the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) is influenced by static magnetic field. Under static magnetic field, there is no obvious variation in the total amount of protein adsorption, but the proportion of adsorbed proteins significantly changes. Noticeably, certain proteins including apolipoproteins, complement system proteins and acute phase proteins, increase in the protein corona of SPIOs in the magnetic field. More importantly, the magnetic-dependent protein

  11. Behavioral and molecular neuroepigenetic alterations in prenatally stressed mice: relevance for the study of chromatin remodeling properties of antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, E; Tueting, P; Matrisciano, F; Grayson, D R; Guidotti, A

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that mice born from dams stressed during pregnancy (PRS mice), in adulthood, have behavioral deficits reminiscent of behaviors observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorder patients. Furthermore, we have shown that the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus of adult PRS mice, like that of postmortem chronic SZ patients, are characterized by increases in DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), ten-eleven methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) and exhibit an enrichment of 5-methylcytosine (5MC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5HMC) at neocortical GABAergic and glutamatergic gene promoters. Here, we show that the behavioral deficits and the increased 5MC and 5HMC at glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (Gad1), reelin (Reln) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) promoters and the reduced expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and proteins corresponding to these genes in FC of adult PRS mice is reversed by treatment with clozapine (5 mg kg(-1) twice a day for 5 days) but not by haloperidol (1 mg kg(-1) twice a day for 5 days). Interestingly, clozapine had no effect on either the behavior, promoter methylation or the expression of these mRNAs and proteins when administered to offspring of nonstressed pregnant mice. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, reduced the elevated levels of DNMT1 and TET1, as well as the elevated levels of DNMT1 binding to Gad1, Reln and Bdnf promoters in PRS mice suggesting that clozapine, unlike haloperidol, may limit DNA methylation by interfering with DNA methylation dynamics. We conclude that the PRS mouse model may be useful preclinically in screening for the potential efficacy of antipsychotic drugs acting on altered epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, PRS mice may be invaluable for understanding the etiopathogenesis of SZ and BP disorder and for predicting treatment responses at early stages of the illness allowing for early detection and remedial intervention. PMID:26756904

  12. Altered resting-state neural activity and changes following a craving behavioral intervention for Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Potenza, Marc N; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Ma, Shan-Shan; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. Evaluating the benefits of interventions for IGD is of great significance. Thirty-six young adults with IGD and 19 healthy comparison (HC) subjects were recruited and underwent resting-state fMRI scanning. Twenty IGD subjects participated in a group craving behavioral intervention (CBI) and were scanned before and after the intervention. The remaining 16 IGD subjects did not receive an intervention. The results showed that IGD subjects showed decreased amplitude of low fluctuation in the orbital frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and exhibited increased resting-state functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, compared with HC subjects. Compared with IGD subjects who did not receive the intervention, those receiving CBI demonstrated significantly reduced resting-state functional connectivity between the: (1) orbital frontal cortex with hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus; and, (2) posterior cingulate cortex with supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. These findings suggest that IGD is associated with abnormal resting-state neural activity in reward-related, default mode and executive control networks. Thus, the CBI may exert effects by reducing interactions between regions within a reward-related network, and across the default mode and executive control networks. PMID:27381822

  13. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  14. Miniaturized Technologies for Enhancement of Motor Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira eMoorjani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea that the damaged brain can functionally reorganize itself ⎯ so when one part fails, there lies the possibility for another to substitute ⎯ is an exciting discovery of the twentieth century. We now know that motor circuits once presumed to be hardwired are not, and motor-skill learning, exercise, and even mental rehearsal of motor tasks can turn genes on or off to shape brain architecture, function and, consequently, behavior. This is a very significant alteration from our previously static view of the brain, and has profound implications for the rescue of function after a motor injury. Presentation of the right cues, applied in relevant spatiotemporal geometries, is required to awaken the dormant plastic forces essential for repair. The focus of this review is to highlight some of the recent progress in neural interfaces designed to harness motor plasticity, and the role of miniaturization in development of strategies that engage diverse elements of the neuronal machinery to synergistically facilitate recovery of function after motor damage.

  15. Miniaturized Technologies for Enhancement of Motor Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorjani, Samira

    2016-01-01

    The idea that the damaged brain can functionally reorganize itself - so when one part fails, there lies the possibility for another to substitute - is an exciting discovery of the twentieth century. We now know that motor circuits once presumed to be hardwired are not, and motor-skill learning, exercise, and even mental rehearsal of motor tasks can turn genes on or off to shape brain architecture, function, and, consequently, behavior. This is a very significant alteration from our previously static view of the brain and has profound implications for the rescue of function after a motor injury. Presentation of the right cues, applied in relevant spatiotemporal geometries, is required to awaken the dormant plastic forces essential for repair. The focus of this review is to highlight some of the recent progress in neural interfaces designed to harness motor plasticity, and the role of miniaturization in development of strategies that engage diverse elements of the neuronal machinery to synergistically facilitate recovery of function after motor damage. PMID:27148525

  16. Automated Behavioral Phenotyping Reveals Presymptomatic Alterations in a SCA3 Genetrap Mouse Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeannette Hübener; Nicolas Casadei; Peter Teismann; Mathias W. Seeliger; Maria Bj(o)rkqvist; Stephan von H(o)rsten; Olaf Riess; Huu Phuc Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of disease models of neurodegenerative disorders requires a systematic and comprehensive phenotyping in a highly standardized manner,Therefore,automated high-resolution behavior test systems such as the homecage based LabMaster system are of particular interest.We demonstrate the power of the automated LabMaster system by discovering previously unrecognized features of a recently characterized atxn3 mutant mouse model.This model provided neurological symptoms including gait ataxia,tremor,weight loss and premature death at the age of t2 months usually detectable just 2 weeks before the mice died.Moreover,using the LabMaster system we were able to detect hypoactivity in presymptomatic mutant mice in the dark as well as light phase.Additionally,we analyzed inflammation,immunological and hematological parameters,which indicated a reduced immune defense in phenotypic mice.Here we demonstrate thai a detailed characterization even of organ systems that are usually not affected in SCA3 is important for further studies of pathogenesis and required for the preclinical therapeutic studies.

  17. Caffeine Consuming Children and Adolescents Show Altered Sleep Behavior and Deep Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrina Aepli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most commonly ingested psychoactive drug worldwide with increasing consumption rates among young individuals. While caffeine leads to decreased sleep quality in adults, studies investigating how caffeine consumption affects children’s and adolescents’ sleep remain scarce. We explored the effects of regular caffeine consumption on sleep behavior and the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG in children and adolescents (10–16 years. While later habitual bedtimes (Caffeine 23:14 ± 11.4, Controls 22:17 ± 15.4 and less time in bed were found in caffeine consumers compared to the control group (Caffeine 08:10 ± 13.3, Controls 09:03 ± 16.1, morning tiredness was unaffected. Furthermore, caffeine consumers exhibited reduced sleep EEG slow-wave activity (SWA, 1–4.5 Hz at the beginning of the night compared to controls (20% ± 9% average reduction across all electrodes and subjects. Comparable reductions were found for alpha activity (8.25–9.75 Hz. These effects, however, disappeared in the morning hours. Our findings suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents may lead to later bedtimes and reduced SWA, a well-established marker of sleep depth. Because deep sleep is involved in recovery processes during sleep, further research is needed to understand whether a caffeine-induced loss of sleep depth interacts with neuronal network refinement processes that occur during the sensitive period of adolescent development.

  18. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario U Manto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibodies. We found that glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7 and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15 recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10 or limbic encephalitis (n = 4. We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibody representing this epitope specificity (1 disrupted in vitro the association of glutamate decarboxylase with γ-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles, (2 depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect, (3 significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task, (4 markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm, and (5 induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of glutamate decarboxylase by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such glutamate decarboxylase antibodies could be envisioned.

  19. Mice deficient for the close homologue of the neural adhesion cell L1 (CHL1) display alterations in emotional reactivity and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, M; Rougon, G; Schachner, M; Jamon, M

    2003-12-17

    Motor and cognitive phenotypes were assessed in mice deficient for the close homologue of the L1 adhesion molecule (CHL1). The CHL1-deficient mice displayed signs of decreased stress and a modification of exploratory behaviour. The mice also showed motor impairments on the Rotarod, but they were able to move as fast as controls in the alleys of a T-maze. The observed changes were assumed to be related to a deficit in attention. In addition, gender differences in CHL1 deficits were found and are discussed in view of a possible interaction with other cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) during development. The results are discussed in relation with motor and cognitive deficits in the human, caused by mutations of the distal part of the chromosome 3 which contains the CHL1 orthologue. PMID:14659567

  20. Markov Process of Muscle Motors

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratiev, Yu; Pirogov, S

    2007-01-01

    We study a Markov random process describing a muscle molecular motor behavior. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spend an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at its velocity proportional to average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays at the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a non-linear equation appearing in the limit of infinite number of the motors.

  1. Dialectical behavior therapy alters emotion regulation and amygdala activity in patients with borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; Carpenter, David; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Avedon, Jennifer; Fernandez, Nicolas; Mascitelli, Kathryn A.; Blair, Nicholas J.; New, Antonia S.; Triebwasser, Joseph; Siever, Larry J.; Hazlett, Erin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Siever and Davis’ (1991) psychobiological framework of borderline personality disorder (BPD) identifies affective instability (AI) as a core dimension characterized by prolonged and intense emotional reactivity. Recently, deficient amygdala habituation, defined as a change in response to repeated relative to novel unpleasant pictures within a session, has emerged as a biological correlate of AI in BPD. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an evidence-based treatment, targets AI by teaching emotion-regulation skills. This study tested the hypothesis that BPD patients would exhibit decreased amygdala activation and improved habituation, as well as improved emotion regulation with standard 12-month DBT. Methods Event-related fMRI was obtained pre- and post-12-months of standard-DBT in unmedicated BPD patients. Healthy controls (HCs) were studied as a benchmark for normal amygdala activity and change over time (n = 11 per diagnostic-group). During each scan, participants viewed an intermixed series of unpleasant, neutral and pleasant pictures presented twice (novel, repeat). Change in emotion regulation was measured with the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation (DERS) scale. Results fMRI results showed the predicted Group × Time interaction: compared with HCs, BPD patients exhibited decreased amygdala activation with treatment. This post-treatment amygdala reduction in BPD was observed for all three pictures types, but particularly marked in the left hemisphere and during repeated-emotional pictures. Emotion regulation measured with the DERS significantly improved with DBT in BPD patients. Improved amygdala habituation to repeated-unpleasant pictures in patients was associated with improved overall emotional regulation measured by the DERS (total score and emotion regulation strategy use subscale). Conclusion These findings have promising treatment implications and support the notion that DBT targets amygdala hyperactivity—part of the disturbed neural

  2. Trypanosoma brucei modifies the tsetse salivary composition, altering the fly feeding behavior that favors parasite transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van Den Abbeele

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the notorious transmitters of African trypanosomiasis, a disease caused by the Trypanosoma parasite that affects humans and livestock on the African continent. Metacyclic infection rates in natural tsetse populations with Trypanosoma brucei, including the two human-pathogenic subspecies, are very low, even in epidemic situations. Therefore, the infected fly/host contact frequency is a key determinant of the transmission dynamics. As an obligate blood feeder, tsetse flies rely on their complex salivary potion to inhibit host haemostatic reactions ensuring an efficient feeding. The results of this experimental study suggest that the parasite might promote its transmission through manipulation of the tsetse feeding behavior by modifying the saliva composition. Indeed, salivary gland Trypanosoma brucei-infected flies display a significantly prolonged feeding time, thereby enhancing the likelihood of infecting multiple hosts during the process of a single blood meal cycle. Comparison of the two major anti-haemostatic activities i.e. anti-platelet aggregation and anti-coagulation activity in these flies versus non-infected tsetse flies demonstrates a significant suppression of these activities as a result of the trypanosome-infection status. This effect was mainly related to the parasite-induced reduction in salivary gland gene transcription, resulting in a strong decrease in protein content and related biological activities. Additionally, the anti-thrombin activity and inhibition of thrombin-induced coagulation was even more severely hampered as a result of the trypanosome infection. Indeed, while naive tsetse saliva strongly inhibited human thrombin activity and thrombin-induced blood coagulation, saliva from T. brucei-infected flies showed a significantly enhanced thrombinase activity resulting in a far less potent anti-coagulation activity. These data clearly provide evidence for a trypanosome-mediated modification of the tsetse

  3. Predator odor stress alters corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor (CRF1R)-dependent behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roltsch, Emily A; Baynes, Brittni B; Mayeux, Jacques P; Whitaker, Annie M; Baiamonte, Brandon A; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2014-04-01

    Humans with stress-related anxiety disorders exhibit increases in arousal and alcohol drinking, as well as altered pain processing. Our lab has developed a predator odor stress model that produces reliable and lasting increases in alcohol drinking. Here, we utilize this predator odor stress model to examine stress-induced increases in arousal, nociceptive processing, and alcohol self-administration by rats, and also to determine the effects of corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptors (CRF1Rs) in mediating these behavioral changes. In a series of separate experiments, rats were exposed to predator odor stress, then tested over subsequent days for thermal nociception in the Hargreaves test, acoustic startle reactivity, or operant alcohol self-administration. In each experiment, rats were systemically injected with R121919, a CRF1R antagonist, and/or vehicle. Predator odor stress increased thermal nociception (i.e., hyperalgesia) and acoustic startle reactivity. Systemic administration of R121919 reduced thermal nociception and hyperarousal in stressed rats but not unstressed controls, and reduced operant alcohol responding over days. Stressed rats exhibited increased sensitivity to the behavioral effects of R121919 in all three tests, suggesting up-regulation of brain CRF1Rs number and/or function in stressed rats. These results suggest that post-stress alcohol drinking may be driven by a high-nociception high-arousal state, and that brain CRF1R signaling mediates these stress effects. PMID:24269607

  4. Qualitatively Assessing the Experiences of College Students Completing AlcoholEdu: Do Participants Report Altering Behavior After Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Hobbs, Laura Ansley; Haas, Emily J; Gibson, Gregory

    2016-03-01

    To reduce college student drinking and associated alcohol-related consequences, many universities are turning to e-interventions, such as AlcoholEdu. To date, however, results of evaluations examining the impact of AlcoholEdu are mixed. Among these evaluations, few qualitative assessments have examined the experiences and perceptions of students who complete AlcoholEdu. This investigation aimed to assess whether students (a) find the program educational and engaging, (b) implemented specific strategies learned from participation, and (c) self-report altering their behavior as a result of participation. Even though respondents universally reported an increase in alcohol-related knowledge, there was an evident disconnect between this knowledge and their actual behavior. In other words, respondents reported that they did not implement what was taught in AlcoholEdu. Moreover, students highlighted several limitations associated with the program that would have influenced its overall impact, such as ignoring video segments of the program and clicking through assessments simply to complete the task. If used, college administrators and health professionals should implement e-interventions such as AlcoholEdu as one component of a multifaceted approach rather than a panacea for the current high-risk drinking practices of college students. PMID:26134110

  5. Selenium exposure results in reduced reproduction in an invasive ant species and altered competitive behavior for a native ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Riva, Deborah G; Trumble, John T

    2016-06-01

    Competitive ability and numerical dominance are important factors contributing to the ability of invasive ant species to establish and expand their ranges in new habitats. However, few studies have investigated the impact of environmental contamination on competitive behavior in ants as a potential factor influencing dynamics between invasive and native ant species. Here we investigated the widespread contaminant selenium to investigate its potential influence on invasion by the exotic Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, through effects on reproduction and competitive behavior. For the fecundity experiment, treatments were provided to Argentine ant colonies via to sugar water solutions containing one of three concentrations of selenium (0, 5 and 10 μg Se mL(-1)) that fall within the range found in soil and plants growing in contaminated areas. Competition experiments included both the Argentine ant and the native Dorymyrmex bicolor to determine the impact of selenium exposure (0 or 15 μg Se mL(-1)) on exploitation- and interference-competition between ant species. The results of the fecundity experiment revealed that selenium negatively impacted queen survival and brood production of Argentine ants. Viability of the developing brood was also affected in that offspring reached adulthood only in colonies that were not given selenium, whereas those in treated colonies died in their larval stages. Selenium exposure did not alter direct competitive behaviors for either species, but selenium exposure contributed to an increased bait discovery time for D. bicolor. Our results suggest that environmental toxins may not only pose problems for native ant species, but may also serve as a potential obstacle for establishment among exotic species. PMID:27038576

  6. Prenatal stress alters the developmental pattern of behavioral indices of sexual maturation and copulation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Arteaga, Enrique; Hernández-González, Marisela; Rentería, Mayra Liliana Ramírez-; Almanza-Sepúlveda, Mayra Linné; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Silva, Marcela Arteaga; Jaime, Herlinda Bonilla

    2016-09-01

    Gestation and pre-puberty are critical periods during which several environmental factors can drastically affect the adequate development of subjects. Considering that stress is one of the most common factors to which subjects may be exposed during gestation, the present study evaluated the effects of prenatal stress on the behavioral indices of sexual maturation in male rats, including genital grooming (GG), preputial separation (PS), and spontaneous penile erections (SPE) during puberty, and on copulatory parameters during adulthood. Stress was exerted by immobilizing the female rats once per day for 2h from days 14-21 of pregnancy. The young rats born to the dams in the stressed group (SG) later presented a delayed occurrence of PS with a delayed onset and lower frequency and duration of GG compared to a control group (CG). Less than half of the subjects in SG presented SPE, and those that did showed delayed onset and lower frequency and duration. In adulthood, fewer subjects in SG showed sexual behavior responses (intromission and ejaculation), and their mount and intromission latencies on the first day they ejaculated were longer than those of the CG rats. Findings from this study provide additional evidence that stress caused by immobilization during the third period of pregnancy exerts a negative effect in the short-term (i.e., around puberty) by altering the typical development of GG and SPE and the occurrence of PS, while also demonstrating that this effect persists in the long-term, when it affects the performance of copulatory behavior in mature male rats. PMID:27174612

  7. Chronic treatment with a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist alters the behavioral and neurochemical effects of ethanol in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajan, Pradeep; Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Shinde, Anil; Benade, Vijay; Muddana, Nageswara Rao

    2016-04-01

    Experimental evidence indicates a potential role of 5-HT6 receptors in the regulation of addictive behavior. We studied the effects of a potent and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist (compound A) on voluntary ethanol intake and behavioral/neurochemical changes induced by ethanol. The pharmacokinetic interaction of compound A and ethanol was assessed. The effect of compound A on schedule-induced ethanol polydipsia was studied to determine its effect on voluntary ethanol intake. Open-field and ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex assays were carried out to determine the effect of compound A on the ataxic and sedative effects of ethanol. The effect on motor learning was evaluated using rotarod and brain microdialysis was carried out to study the effect on monoaminergic neurotransmission. No significant changes were observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters of compound A when cotreated with ethanol. Compound A significantly decreased voluntary ethanol consumption and attenuated the effects of ethanol on motor learning. Compound A also antagonized the sedative and ataxic effects of ethanol. The effect of ethanol on the dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission was blocked by compound A. The effects of compound A were evident only after chronic treatment. Compound A may have attenuated the behavioral effects of ethanol by blocking the ethanol-induced efflux of dopamine and norepinephrine in the motor cortex. PMID:25932717

  8. Effect of Intraperitoneal Administration of Hydroalcoholic and Hexanic Extract of Heated Female Cannabis Sativa Flowertops on Anxiety Behavior, Motor Coordination and Locomotor Activity in the Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Farhadi Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decarboxylated phytocannabinoids activates CB1 receptors of endocannabinoid system in the central nervous system. Endocannabinoid system interacts with dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, which seems to be effective on the behavior processes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic and hexanic extract of heated female Cannabis sativa flowertops containing decarboxylated cannabinoids on anxiety, motor coordination and locomotor activity. Methods: In this experimental study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly (200 to 250 g used in two groups(n=7 of control and sham (administration of the solution vehicle (Tween 80, ethanol and saline with 1:1:8 proportions. IP administration of hydroalcoholic extract (50mg/kg dosage, and hexanic extract (50mg/kg dosage were applied. The elevated plus maze, open field and rotarod apparatus were used in order to measure the anxiety, locomotor activity and motor coordination in each group, respectively. Moreover, the data analysis was carried out by one-way ANOVA and Neumann-keuls post-hoc test. Results: The study results indicated that IP administration of hexanic extract (50mg/kg dosage significantly reduced the numbers of entries into the open arms (P<0.05 as well as time of stay in the open arms (P<0.01 in evaluated plus maze. Furthermore, motor activity (P <0.01 and time coordination (P <0.001 were reported to significantly reduce. Conclusion: The study findings revealed thst administration of hexanic extract has probably more decarboxylated cannabinoids than hydroalcoholic extract resulting in a decrease in the motor activity and time of motor coordination, yet an increase in anxiety via activation of CB1 receptors.

  9. Prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol alters social behavior in adult rats: Relationship to structural plasticity and immediate early gene expression in frontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Derek A Hamilton; Akers, Katherine G.; Rice, James P.; Johnson, Travis E.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Maes, Levi I.; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to characterize the effects of prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol on adult social behavior, and to evaluate fetal-ethanol-related effects on dendritic morphology, structural plasticity and activity-related immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the agranular insular (AID) and prelimbic (Cg3) regions of frontal cortex. Baseline fetal-ethanol-related alterations in social behavior were limited to reductions in social investigation in males. Rep...

  10. Neurophysiology of spontaneous facial expressions: I. Motor control of the upper and lower face is behaviorally independent in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliott D; Gupta, Smita S; Adnan, Asif M; Holden, Thomas L; Havlicek, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar

    2016-03-01

    Facial expressions are described traditionally as monolithic entities. However, humans have the capacity to produce facial blends, in which the upper and lower face simultaneously display different emotional expressions. This, in turn, has led to the Component Theory of facial expressions. Recent neuroanatomical studies in monkeys have demonstrated that there are separate cortical motor areas for controlling the upper and lower face that, presumably, also occur in humans. The lower face is represented on the posterior ventrolateral surface of the frontal lobes in the primary motor and premotor cortices and the upper face is represented on the medial surface of the posterior frontal lobes in the supplementary motor and anterior cingulate cortices. Our laboratory has been engaged in a series of studies exploring the perception and production of facial blends. Using high-speed videography, we began measuring the temporal aspects of facial expressions to develop a more complete understanding of the neurophysiology underlying facial expressions and facial blends. The goal of the research presented here was to determine if spontaneous facial expressions in adults are predominantly monolithic or exhibit independent motor control of the upper and lower face. We found that spontaneous facial expressions are very complex and that the motor control of the upper and lower face is overwhelmingly independent, thus robustly supporting the Component Theory of facial expressions. Seemingly monolithic expressions, be they full facial or facial blends, are most likely the result of a timing coincident rather than a synchronous coordination between the ventrolateral and medial cortical motor areas responsible for controlling the lower and upper face, respectively. In addition, we found evidence that the right and left face may also exhibit independent motor control, thus supporting the concept that spontaneous facial expressions are organized predominantly across the horizontal facial

  11. Exposure to the Contraceptive Progestin, Gestodene, Alters Reproductive Behavior, Arrests Egg Deposition, and Masculinizes Development in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Tyler E; Meyer, Michael T; Kolpin, Dana W; Gillis, Amanda B; Alvarez, David A; Orlando, Edward F

    2016-06-01

    Endogenous progestogens and pharmaceutical progestins enter the environment through wastewater treatment plant effluent and agricultural field runoff. Lab studies demonstrate strong, negative exposure effects of these chemicals on aquatic vertebrate reproduction. Behavior can be a sensitive, early indicator of exposure to environmental contaminants associated with altered reproduction yet is rarely examined in ecotoxicology studies. Gestodene is a human contraceptive progestin and a potent activator of fish androgen receptors. Our objective was to test the effects of gestodene on reproductive behavior and associated egg deposition in the fathead minnow. After only 1 day, males exposed to ng/L of gestodene were more aggressive and less interested in courtship and mating, and exposed females displayed less female courtship behavior. Interestingly, 25% of the gestodene tanks contained a female that drove the male out of the breeding tile and displayed male-typical courtship behaviors toward the other female. Gestodene decreased or arrested egg deposition with no observed gonadal histopathology. Together, these results suggest that effects on egg deposition are primarily due to altered reproductive behavior. The mechanisms by which gestodene disrupts behavior are unknown. Nonetheless, the rapid and profound alterations of the reproductive biology of gestodene-exposed fish suggest that wild populations could be similarly affected. PMID:27129041

  12. Contributions of altered permeability of intestinal barrier and defecation behavior to toxicity formation from graphene oxide in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuli; Yin, Li; Li, Xing; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Dayong

    2013-09-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been extensively studied for potential biomedical applications. Meanwhile, potential GO toxicity arises in both biomedical applications and non-biomedical products where environmental exposures may occur. In the present study, we examined the potential adverse effects of GO and the underlying mechanism using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the assay system. We compared the in vivo effects of GO between acute exposure and prolonged exposure, and found that prolonged exposure to 0.5-100 mg L-1 of GO caused damage on functions of both primary (intestine) and secondary (neuron and reproductive organ) targeted organs. In the intestine, ROS production was significantly correlated with the formation of adverse effects on functions of both primary and secondary targeted organs. GO could be translocated into intestinal cells with loss of microvilli, and distributed to be adjacent to or surrounding mitochondria. Prolonged exposure to GO resulted in a hyper-permeable state of the intestinal barrier, an increase in mean defecation cycle length, and alteration of genes required for intestinal development and defecation behavior. Thus, our data suggest that prolonged exposure to GO may cause potential risk to environmental organisms after release into the environment. GO toxicity may be due to the combinational effects of oxidative stress in the intestinal barrier, enhanced permeability of the biological barrier, and suppressed defecation behavior in C. elegans.Graphene oxide (GO) has been extensively studied for potential biomedical applications. Meanwhile, potential GO toxicity arises in both biomedical applications and non-biomedical products where environmental exposures may occur. In the present study, we examined the potential adverse effects of GO and the underlying mechanism using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the assay system. We compared the in vivo effects of GO between acute exposure and prolonged exposure, and found that prolonged

  13. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles are related to motor dysfunction in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia born preterm: A DTI tractography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: jelly_66@126.com; Fan, Guo Guang, E-mail: cjr.fanguoguang@vip.163.com; Xu, Ke, E-mail: cjr.xuke@vip.163.com; Wang, Ci, E-mail: xiangxuehai19850224@yahoo.cn

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the microstructural integrity of superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) by using DTI tractography method, and further to detect whether the microstructural integrity of these major cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) born preterm. Materials and methods: 46 children with diffuse PVL (30 males and 16 females; age range 3–48 months; mean age 22.4 ± 6.7 months; mean gestational age 30.5 ± 2.2 weeks) and 40 healthy controls (27 males and 13 females; age range 3.5–48 months; mean age 22.1 ± 5.8 months) were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, fractional anisotropy (FA), for the SCP, MCP and cortical spinal tract (CST) were calculated. The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was used for assessing motor functions. Results: Compared to the controls, patients with diffuse PVL had a significantly lower FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST. There was a significant negative correlation between GMFCS levels and FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST in the patients group. In addition, significant inverse correlation of FA value was found between not only the contralateral but also the ipsilateral CST and SCP/MCP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the injury of SCP and MCP may contribute to the motor dysfunction of diffuse PVL. Moreover, the correlations we found between supratentorial and subtentorial injured white matter extend our knowledge about the cerebro-cerebellar white matter interaction in children with diffuse PVL.

  14. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of the 5-benzyl analogue of 14-methoxymetopon, a novel μ opioid analgesic with reduced propensity to alter motor function

    OpenAIRE

    Spetea, Mariana; Bohotin, Catalina R.; Asim, Muhammad F; Stübegger, Kurt; Schmidhammer, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Opioids are the most effective analgesics for pain management, and efficient pain control is a therapeutic priority. Herein, we describe the synthesis and pharmacological activities of the 5-benzyl analogue of the μ opioid analgesic 14-methoxymetopon (14-MM). The result of the replacement of the 5-methyl in 14-MM with a benzyl group on in vitro opioid receptor binding and functional profiles, and in vivo behavioural properties, i.e. nociception and motor activity, was investigated. In rodent ...

  15. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles are related to motor dysfunction in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia born preterm: A DTI tractography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the microstructural integrity of superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) by using DTI tractography method, and further to detect whether the microstructural integrity of these major cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) born preterm. Materials and methods: 46 children with diffuse PVL (30 males and 16 females; age range 3–48 months; mean age 22.4 ± 6.7 months; mean gestational age 30.5 ± 2.2 weeks) and 40 healthy controls (27 males and 13 females; age range 3.5–48 months; mean age 22.1 ± 5.8 months) were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, fractional anisotropy (FA), for the SCP, MCP and cortical spinal tract (CST) were calculated. The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was used for assessing motor functions. Results: Compared to the controls, patients with diffuse PVL had a significantly lower FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST. There was a significant negative correlation between GMFCS levels and FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST in the patients group. In addition, significant inverse correlation of FA value was found between not only the contralateral but also the ipsilateral CST and SCP/MCP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the injury of SCP and MCP may contribute to the motor dysfunction of diffuse PVL. Moreover, the correlations we found between supratentorial and subtentorial injured white matter extend our knowledge about the cerebro-cerebellar white matter interaction in children with diffuse PVL

  16. Altered ratio of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in mouse striatum is associated with behavioral sensitization to cocaine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Thompson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drugs of abuse elevate brain dopamine levels, and, in vivo, chronic drug use is accompanied by a selective decrease in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R availability in the brain. Such a decrease consequently alters the ratio of D1R:D2R signaling towards the D1R. Despite a plethora of behavioral studies dedicated to the understanding of the role of dopamine in addiction, a molecular mechanism responsible for the downregulation of the D2R, in vivo, in response to chronic drug use has yet to be identified. METHODS AND FINDINGS: ETHICS STATEMENT: All animal work was approved by the Gallo Center IACUC committee and was performed in our AAALAC approved facility. In this study, we used wild type (WT and G protein coupled receptor associated sorting protein-1 (GASP-1 knock out (KO mice to assess molecular changes that accompany cocaine sensitization. Here, we show that downregulation of D2Rs or upregulation of D1Rs is associated with a sensitized locomotor response to an acute injection of cocaine. Furthermore, we demonstrate that disruption of GASP-1, that targets D2Rs for degradation after endocytosis, prevents cocaine-induced downregulation of D2Rs. As a consequence, mice with a GASP-1 disruption show a reduction in the sensitized locomotor response to cocaine. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our data suggests that changes in the ratio of the D1:D2R could contribute to cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity and demonstrates a role of GASP-1 in regulating both the levels of the D2R and cocaine sensitization.

  17. Female Flinders Sensitive Line rats show estrous cycle-independent depression-like behavior and altered tryptophan metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelund, Amanda; Budac, David P; Sanchez, Connie; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2016-08-01

    Clinical studies suggest a link between depression and dysfunctional tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. Even though depression is twice as prevalent in women as men, the impact of the estrous cycle on TRP metabolism is not well-understood. Here we investigated 13 kynurenine and serotonin metabolites in female Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic rat model of depression. FSL rats and controls (Flinders Resistant Line rats), 12-20weeks old, were subject to the forced swim test (FST), a commonly used measure of depression-like behavior. Open field was used to evaluate locomotor ability and agoraphobia. Subsequently, plasma and hemispheres were collected and analyzed for their content of TRP metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Vaginal saline lavages were obtained daily for ⩾2 cycles. To estimate the effects of sex and FST we included plasma from unhandled, naïve male FSL and FRL rats. Female FSL rats showed a depression-like phenotype with increased immobility in the FST, not confounded by anxiety. In the brain, 3-hydroxykynurenine was increased whereas anthranilate and 5-hydroxytryptophan were decreased. In plasma, anthranilate and quinolinate levels were lower in FSL rats compared to the control line, independent of sex and FST. The estrous cycle neither impacted behavior nor TRP metabolite levels in the FSL rat. In conclusion, the female FSL rat is an interesting preclinical model of depression with altered TRP metabolism, independent of the estrous cycle. The status of the pathway in brain was not reflected in the plasma, which may indicate that an inherent local, cerebral regulation of TRP metabolism occurs. PMID:27210075

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the GhKCH2 motor domain: alteration of pH significantly improved the quality of the crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GhKCH2 motor domain was crystallized and the pH of the crystallization buffer was shown to have a significant effect on the crystal morphology and diffraction quality. GhKCH2, a member of the kinesin superfamily, is a plant-specific microtubule-dependent motor protein from cotton with the ability to bind to both microtubules and microfilaments. Here, the motor domain of GhKCH2 (GhKCH2MD; amino acids 371–748) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The pH of the crystallization buffer was shown to have a significant effect on the crystal morphology and diffraction quality. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.7, b = 78.6, c = 162.8 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated as 2.27 Å3 Da−1 and 45.87%, respectively. X-ray diffraction data for GhKCH2MD were collected on beamline BL17U1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility and processed to 2.8 Å resolution

  19. Are my motors oversized?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-phase induction motors accounts with an important share of the electricity consumption in industrialized countries. Therefore, the misapplication of such machines conducts to efficiency reduction and large amounts of energy waste. Motor oversize is one of the most frequently misapplication encountered and difficult to be fixed. The paper presents a road map to evaluate whether a direct line fed three-phase induction motor is oversized, considering not only its steady loading, but also its dynamic behavior. In addition, case studies are presented and some solutions to increase the energy efficiency of the whole motor-load system are proposed.

  20. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulates autism-like behavioral and motor abnormalities in pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Kenshi; Suemaru, Katsuya; Kiyoi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akihiro; Araki, Hiroaki

    2016-03-15

    Epilepsy is associated with several psychiatric disorders, including cognitive impairment, autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the psychopathology of epilepsy is frequently unrecognized and untreated in patients. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ABT-418, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled mice with behavioral and motor abnormalities. PTZ-kindled mice displayed impaired motor coordination (in the rotarod test), anxiety (in the elevated plus maze test) and social approach impairment (in the three-chamber social test) compared with control mice. ABT-418 treatment (0.05mg/kg, intraperitoneally) alleviated these behavioral abnormalities in PTZ-kindled mice. Immunolabeling of tissue sections demonstrated that expression of the α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in the medial habenula was similar in control and PTZ-kindled mice. However, expression was significantly decreased in the piriform cortex in PTZ-kindled mice. In addition, we examined the expression of the synaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin 3 (NLG3). NLG3 expression in the piriform cortex was significantly higher in PTZ-kindled mice compared with control mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that ADHD-like or autistic-like behavioral abnormalities associated with epilepsy are closely related to the downregulation of the α4 nicotinic receptor and the upregulation of NLG3 in the piriform cortex. In summary, this study indicates that ABT-418 might have therapeutic potential for attentional impairment in epileptic patients with psychiatric disorders such as autism and ADHD. PMID:26868186

  1. GBR 12909 administration as an animal model of bipolar mania: time course of behavioral, brain oxidative alterations and effect of mood stabilizing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana Isabelle G; de Araújo, Maíra Moraes; da Silva Araújo, Tatiane; de Souza, Greicy Coelho; Cavalcante, Lígia Menezes; de Jesus Souza Machado, Michel; de Lucena, David Freitas; Quevedo, João; Macêdo, Danielle

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms in the human dopamine transporter (DAT) are associated with bipolar endophenotype. Based on this, the acute inhibition of DAT using GBR12909 causes behavioral alterations that are prevented by valproate (VAL), being related to a mania-like model. Herein our first aim was to analyze behavioral and brain oxidative alterations during a 24 h period post-GBR12909 to better characterize this model. Our second aim was to determine the preventive effects of lithium (Li) or VAL 2 h post-GBR12909. For this, adult male mice received GBR12909 or saline being evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 12 or 24 h post-administration. Hyperlocomotion, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation in brain areas were assessed at all these time-points. GBR12909 caused hyperlocomotion at 2 and 24 h. Rearing behavior increased only at 2 h. GSH levels decreased in the hippocampus and striatum at the time points of 2, 4, 8 and 12 h. Increased lipid peroxidation was detected at the time-points of 2 and 12 h in all brain areas studied. At the time-point of 2 h post-GBR12909 Li prevented the hyperlocomotion and rearing alterations, while VAL prevented only rearing alterations. Both drugs prevented pro-oxidative changes. In conclusion, we observed that the main behavioral and oxidative alterations took place at the time-period of 2 h post-GBR12909, what points to this time-period as the best for the assessment of alterations in this model. Furthermore, the present study expands the predictive validity of the model by the determination of the preventive effects of Li. PMID:26073232

  2. May functional imaging be helpful for behavioral assessment in children? Regions of motor and associative cortico-subcortical circuits can be differentiated by laterality and rostrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. August

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cortico-subcortical circuits are organized into the sensorimotor, associative and limbic loop. These neuronal preconditions play an important role regarding the understanding and treatment of behavioral problems in children. Differencing evidence argues for a lateralized organization of the sensorimotor loop and a bilateral (i.e. non-lateralized organization of the associative loop. However, a firm behavioral-neurobiological distinction of these circuits has been difficult, specifically in children. Objectives: Thus, the aim was a comprehensive functional visualization and differentiation of the sensorimotor and the associative circuit during childhood. As a new approach, laterality and rostrality features were used to distinguish between the two circuits within one single motor task. Methods: 24 healthy boys performed self-paced index finger tapping with each hand separately during functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. Results: A contrast analysis for left against right hand movement revealed lateralized activation in typical sensorimotor regions such as primary sensorimotor cortex, caudal supplementary motor area (SMA, caudal putamen and thalamus. A conjunction analysis confirmed bilateral involvement of known associative regions including pre-SMA, rostral SMA and rostral putamen. Conclusion: A functional visualization of two distinct corticostriatal circuits is provided in childhood. Both, the sensorimotor and associative circuit may be discriminated by their laterality characteristics already in minors. Additionally, the results support the concept of a modified functional subdivision of the SMA in a rostral (associative and caudal (motor part. A further development of this approach might help to nurture behavioral assessment and neurofeedback training in child mental health.

  3. Driver`s behavior and the motion of motorized wheelchair when driving over rough surfaces; Dansa nado fuseichi sokoji no dendo kurumaisu no undo to join no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, A.; Yokomori, M.; Yamaguchi, S. [Meijo University, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We analyzed about the motion of motorized wheelchairs and the driver`s behavior when passing over the small obstacles in place of the rough surface road or the gateway of house and road by experiment. The tested two type wheelchairs are the front wheel drive and the rear wheel drive. The lean angle of head and the pulse rate of driver, the feeling for stability and the yaw angle and the roll angle of the wheelchair bodies, and the deflection angle of front wheels of rear drive. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effects of administering testosterone undecanoate in rats subjected to physical exercise: effects on the estrous cycle, motor behavior and morphology of the liver and kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Tolentino Bento-Silva; Maria do Carmo de Carvalho e Martins; Francisco Leonardo Torres-Leal; Talvany Luiz Barros; Ingrid Lara do Nascimento Ferreira de Carvalho; Hugo Aparecido Carvalho Filho; Fernanda Regina de Castro Almeida

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the work was evaluate the effects of testosterone undecanoate (TU) treatment combined with moderate physical training on: the estrous cycle, body weight (BW), motor behavior (MB), and the morphohistology of the reproductive system, the liver and kidney in rats. Female Wistar rats (180 g - 250 g) were divided as follows: sedentary + TU (S + TU), trained + TU (T + TU), sedentary + vehicle (S + V), trained + vehicle (T + V). The rats swam 50 min/Day, strapped with a 5% BW load, for 4 ...

  5. Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey Among Individuals with Motor Vehicle Accident-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Baker, Aaron S.; Litwack, Scott D.; Sloan, Denise M.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2013-01-01

    Data suggest anxious drivers may engage in problematic behaviors that place themselves and others at increased risk of negative traffic events. Three domains of problematic behavior – exaggerated safety/caution, performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive behaviors – previously were identified during development of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), a novel measure of anxiety-related behavior. Extending this research, the current study examined the psychometric properties of DBS scores among...

  6. Functional and structural alterations in the cingulate motor area relate to decreased fronto-striatal coupling in major depressive disorder with psychomotor disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eLiberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances are a classic feature of major depressive disorders. These can manifest as lack of facial expressions and decreased speech production, reduced body posture and mobility, and slowed voluntary movement. The neural correlates of psychomotor disturbances in depression are poorly understood but it has been suggested that outputs from the cingulate motor area (CMA to striatal motor regions, including the putamen, could be involved. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging to conduct a region-of-interest analysis to test the hypotheses that neural activation patterns related to motor production and gray matter volumes in the CMA would be different between depressed subjects displaying psychomotor disturbances (n=13 and matched healthy controls (n=13. In addition, we conducted a psychophysiological interaction analysis to assess the functional coupling related to self-paced finger-tapping between the caudal CMA and the posterior putamen in patients compared to controls. We found a cluster of increased neural activation, adjacent to a cluster of decreased gray matter volume in the caudal CMA in patients compared to controls. The functional coupling between the left caudal CMA and the left putamen during finger-tapping task performance was additionally decreased in patients compared to controls. In addition, the strength of the functional coupling between the left caudal CMA and the left putamen was negatively correlated with the severity of psychomotor disturbances in the patient group. In conclusion, we found converging evidence for involvement of the caudal CMA and putamen in the generation of psychomotor disturbances in depression.

  7. Auditory plasticity and speech motor learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sazzad M.; Ostry, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Is plasticity in sensory and motor systems linked? Here, in the context of speech motor learning and perception, we test the idea sensory function is modified by motor learning and, in particular, that speech motor learning affects a speaker's auditory map. We assessed speech motor learning by using a robotic device that displaced the jaw and selectively altered somatosensory feedback during speech. We found that with practice speakers progressively corrected for the mechanical perturbation a...

  8. Behavior of Paramecium sp. in solutions containing Sr and Pb: Do Paramecium sp. alter chemical forms of those metals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of Paramecium sp. (Paramecium bursaria) in aqueous solutions containing Sr and Pb was investigated to determine the role of protozoa in the migration of radionuclides in the environment. Precultured living cells of P. bursaria were exposed to aqueous solutions containing 0.01 or 0.05 mM Sr or Pb at pH 7 for 24 h. For comparison, pre-killed cells were treated with the metal solutions in the same way. Two-dimensional elemental mappings of cells were obtained by micro-PIXE. Aquatic species of Sr and Pb were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled online to ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and inductivity coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The amounts of Sr adsorbed or taken up by the cells surviving for 24 h and adsorbed on pre-killed cells were below the detection limit. Cells of P. bursaria adsorbed or took up a fraction of Pb. The Pb adsorbed or taken up by the cells surviving for 24 h in the Pb solution was barely detectable, while the Pb adsorbed on pre-killed cells was clearly mappable. These findings suggest that living cells of P. bursaria have functions that reduce adsorption or uptake of Pb on the cells. Quantitative and SEC-UV-ICP-MS analyses of the Sr and Pb in aqueous phases showed no clear evidences that living cells of P. bursaria alter the chemical form of Sr or Pb remaining in the aqueous phases after the cell-solution contact.

  9. Behavior of Paramecium sp. in solutions containing Sr and Pb: Do Paramecium sp. alter chemical forms of those metals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozai, Naofumi, E-mail: kozai.naofumi@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Sciences Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ohnuki, Toshihiko [Advanced Sciences Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Koka, Masahi; Satoh, Takahiro; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The behavior of Paramecium sp. (Paramecium bursaria) in aqueous solutions containing Sr and Pb was investigated to determine the role of protozoa in the migration of radionuclides in the environment. Precultured living cells of P. bursaria were exposed to aqueous solutions containing 0.01 or 0.05 mM Sr or Pb at pH 7 for 24 h. For comparison, pre-killed cells were treated with the metal solutions in the same way. Two-dimensional elemental mappings of cells were obtained by micro-PIXE. Aquatic species of Sr and Pb were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled online to ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and inductivity coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The amounts of Sr adsorbed or taken up by the cells surviving for 24 h and adsorbed on pre-killed cells were below the detection limit. Cells of P. bursaria adsorbed or took up a fraction of Pb. The Pb adsorbed or taken up by the cells surviving for 24 h in the Pb solution was barely detectable, while the Pb adsorbed on pre-killed cells was clearly mappable. These findings suggest that living cells of P. bursaria have functions that reduce adsorption or uptake of Pb on the cells. Quantitative and SEC-UV-ICP-MS analyses of the Sr and Pb in aqueous phases showed no clear evidences that living cells of P. bursaria alter the chemical form of Sr or Pb remaining in the aqueous phases after the cell-solution contact.

  10. Changes in sensitivity of reward and motor behavior to dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic drugs in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W Fish

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a leading cause of intellectual disability. FXS is caused by loss of function of the FMR1 gene, and mice in which Fmr1 has been inactivated have been used extensively as a preclinical model for FXS. We investigated the behavioral pharmacology of drugs acting through dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic systems in fragile X (Fmr1 (-/Y mice with intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS and locomotor activity measurements. We also measured brain expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis. Fmr1 (-/Y mice were more sensitive than wild type mice to the rewarding effects of cocaine, but less sensitive to its locomotor stimulating effects. Anhedonic but not motor depressant effects of the atypical neuroleptic, aripiprazole, were reduced in Fmr1 (-/Y mice. The mGluR5-selective antagonist, 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynylpyridine (MPEP, was more rewarding and the preferential M1 antagonist, trihexyphenidyl, was less rewarding in Fmr1 (-/Y than wild type mice. Motor stimulation by MPEP was unchanged, but stimulation by trihexyphenidyl was markedly increased, in Fmr1 (-/Y mice. Numbers of midbrain TH+ neurons in the ventral tegmental area were unchanged, but were lower in the substantia nigra of Fmr1 (-/Y mice, although no changes in TH levels were found in their forebrain targets. The data are discussed in the context of known changes in the synaptic physiology and pharmacology of limbic motor systems in the Fmr1 (-/Y mouse model. Preclinical findings suggest that drugs acting through multiple neurotransmitter systems may be necessary to fully address abnormal behaviors in individuals with FXS.

  11. Perceptual-Cognitive Changes During Motor Learning: The Influence of Mental and Physical Practice on Mental Representation, Gaze Behavior, and Performance of a Complex Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one's mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45) were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, combined physical plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of 3 days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning. PMID:26779089

  12. Activity changes in jaw motor neurons induced by egg-laying hormone contribute to the feeding suppression during egg-laying behavior in Aplysia kurodai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusuye, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Aya; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2013-01-01

    Egg-laying behavior in Aplysia is accompanied by behavioral changes such as feeding suppression. We investigated the effects of the egg-laying hormone (ELH) on food intake, the activity patterns of jaw muscles, and the activity of buccal neurons (multi-action neuron [MA1] and jaw-closing motor neuron [JC2]), which are elements of the feeding neural circuits controlling jaw movements in Aplysia kurodai. Injection of ELH into the body cavity inhibited the intake of seaweed. After ELH application, the rhythmic activity of jaw muscles that was induced by preferred taste stimulation elicited fewer ingestion-like responses and increased the number of rejection-like responses. ELH applied to the buccal ganglia increased the firing activity of JC2 during spontaneous rhythmic responses and during the rhythmic feeding-like responses that were evoked by electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerves. In the 2 types of rhythmic responses, the Dn (normalized value of the delay time of JC2 firing onset) decreased after ELH application as compared with the control. Furthermore, ELH decreased the size of MA1-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents in JC2. These results suggest that ELH changes the buccal motor program from ingestion to rejection on the basis of our previous results, and may contribute to a decrease in food intake during egg laying. PMID:23501243

  13. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  14. Modulation of swimming behavior in the medicinal leech. IV. Serotonin-induced alteration of synaptic interactions between neurons of the swim circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, P S; Cometa, A K; Friesen, W O

    1994-12-01

    Serotonin enhances the expression of swimming in the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. These two reports examine the physiological causes underlying this modulation. The initial paper (Mangan et al. 1994) demonstrated that serotonin enhanced the participation of inhibitory swim motor neurons (MNs) in the generation of the swimming rhythm in the isolated nerve cord. In experiments reported here, we examined whether synaptic interactions between neurons of the swim circuit are altered by serotonin. Following exposure to 50 microM serotonin, pairwise intracellular recording revealed the presence of a time-dependent synaptic decrement. Synaptic decrement was characterized by: 1) a substantial decline in synaptic inhibition (half-decay time about 0.4 s) during constant presynaptic excitation; 2) a reduced half-time of recovery from synaptic inhibition; and 3) a strong dependence on the presynaptic neuron's membrane potential. We found little alteration in the physiology of synaptic transmission involving MNs following amine depletion in leech nerve cords. We propose that alterations in synaptic interactions resulting from exposure to elevated serotonin levels, coupled with the changes in MN cellular properties described earlier, are crucial to the increased efficacy of MNs in participating in generating and expressing the leech swimming rhythm. PMID:7807416

  15. Reach task-associated excitatory overdrive of motor cortical neurons following infusion with ALS-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayani, R; Raghavan, Mohan; Nalini, A; Laxmi, T R; Raju, T R

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence from transgenic animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and human studies suggest alterations in excitability of the motor neurons in ALS. Specifically, in studies on human subjects with ALS the motor cortex was reported to be hyperexcitable. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that infusion of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with sporadic ALS (ALS-CSF) into the rat brain ventricle can induce hyperexcitability and structural changes in the motor cortex leading to motor dysfunction. A robust model of sporadic ALS was developed experimentally by infusing ALS-CSF into the rat ventricle. The effects of ALS-CSF at the single neuron level were examined by recording extracellular single unit activity from the motor cortex while rats were performing a reach to grasp task. We observed an increase in the firing rate of the neurons of the motor cortex in rats infused with ALS-CSF compared to control groups. This was associated with impairment in a specific component of reach with alterations in the morphological characteristics of the motor cortex. It is likely that the increased cortical excitability observed in the present study could be the result of changes in the intrinsic properties of motor cortical neurons, a dysfunctional inhibitory mechanism and/or an underlying structural change culminating in a behavioral deficit. PMID:23900732

  16. Pre- and neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide or the enteric metabolite, propionic acid, alters development and behavior in adolescent rats in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kelly A; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin; Macfabe, Derrick F

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome and/or immune system function may have a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study examined the effects of prenatal and early life administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial mimetic, and the short chain fatty acid, propionic acid (PPA), a metabolic fermentation product of enteric bacteria, on developmental milestones, locomotor activity, and anxiety-like behavior in adolescent male and female offspring. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were subcutaneously injected once a day with PPA (500 mg/kg) on gestation days G12-16, LPS (50 µg/kg) on G15-16, or vehicle control on G12-16 or G15-16. Male and female offspring were injected with PPA (500 mg/kg) or vehicle twice a day, every second day from postnatal days (P) 10-18. Physical milestones and reflexes were monitored in early life with prenatal PPA and LPS inducing delays in eye opening. Locomotor activity and anxiety were assessed in adolescence (P40-42) in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open-field. Prenatal and postnatal treatments altered behavior in a sex-specific manner. Prenatal PPA decreased time spent in the centre of the open-field in males and females while prenatal and postnatal PPA increased anxiety behavior on the EPM in female rats. Prenatal LPS did not significantly influence those behaviors. Evidence for the double hit hypothesis was seen as females receiving a double hit of PPA (prenatal and postnatal) displayed increased repetitive behavior in the open-field. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that by-products of enteric bacteria metabolism such as PPA may contribute to ASD, altering development and behavior in adolescent rats similar to that observed in ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24466331

  17. The importance of measurement precision and behavioral homologies in evaluating the behavioral consequences of fetal-ethanol exposure: commentary on Williams and colleagues ("Sensory-motor deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder assessed using a robotic virtual reality platform").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    The recent study by Willams and colleagues utilized a novel robotic virtual reality measurement system to measure sensory-motor processing deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). This system and the precise quantitation of distinct constituent behavioral processes may hold considerable utility and importance for the study of FASD-related motor deficits, their neural bases, and translational research efforts using homologous behavioral approaches in animal and human studies.. PMID:24299062

  18. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C deficiency causes motor impairment and hypoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Patricia; Jacas, Jordi; Sahún, Ignasi; Muley, Helena; Ramírez, Sara; Puisac, Beatriz; Mezquita, Pau; Pié, Juan; Dierssen, Mara; Casals, Núria

    2013-11-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1c (CPT1C), a brain-specific protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons, is expressed in almost all brain regions, but its only known functions to date are involved in the hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis and in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. To identify other physiological and behavioral functions of this protein, we performed a battery of neurological tests on Cpt1c-deficient mice. The animals showed intact autonomic and sensory systems, but some motor disturbances were observed. A more detailed study of motor function revealed impaired coordination and gait, severe muscle weakness, and reduced daily locomotor activity. Analysis of motor function in these mice at ages of 6-24 weeks showed that motor disorders were already present in young animals and that impairment increased progressively with age. Analysis of CPT1C expression in different motor brain areas during development revealed that CPT1C levels were low from birth to postnatal day 10 and then rapidly increased peaking at postnatal day 21, which suggests that CPT1C plays a relevant role in motor function during and after weaning. As CPT1C is known to regulate ceramide levels, we measured these biolipids in different motor areas in adult mice. Cerebellar, striatum, and motor cortex extracts from Cpt1c knockout mice showed reduced levels of ceramide and its derivative sphingosine when compared to wild-type animals. Our results indicate that altered ceramide metabolism in motor brain areas induced by Cpt1c deficiency causes progressive motor dysfunction from a young age. PMID:23973755

  19. Gangliosides attenuate stress-induced changes on body weight, motor activity and on the behavioral response to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, L M; Volosin, M; Molina, V A

    1996-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of gangliosides (GANG) treatment on the onset of adaptive changes and the sequelae induced by stress exposure. With this purpose, the behavioral response to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT, 5 mg/kg, IP) and motor activity were evaluated in rats previously submitted either to a single restraint session (2 h) or to a daily restraint event for 3 consecutive days, combined or not to GANG administration (30 mg/kg IP). GANG was always injected 2 h before stress exposure. In addition, differences in body weights were recorded throughout the experiments. A similar behavioral response after 5-MeODMT was observed between saline (SAL) and GANG unstressed rats. Exposure to one or three restraint sessions did not modify the behavioral response to 5-MeODMT, whereas the association of GANG and stress during 3 consecutive days enhanced forepaw treading and hindlimb abduction. SAL-treated animals submitted to a single or to three stressful stimuli showed reduced locomotion and rearing. The combination of GANG and stress for 3 days, but not after a unique association, reversed the decrease on motor activity induced by the aversive experience. The decrease of body weights produced by one or three stress sessions was recovered only in animals treated with GANG and stress for 3 days. These findings suggest that GANG may accelerate the onset of adaptive changes on 5-HT1 sites and attenuate certain sequelae induced by previous stress experience. PMID:8724427

  20. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  1. Single motor unit firing behavior in the right trapezius muscle during rapid movement of right or left index finger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen; Olsen, Henrik B; Blangsted, Anne K; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    shoulder joint as a biomechanical prerequisite for precise finger manipulation. This study examines single motor unit (MU) firing pattern in the right trapezius muscle during fast movements of ipsilateral or contralateral index finger. A modulation of the MU firing rate would support the existence of a...... presented as %MVE. The intramuscular EMG signals were decomposed into individual MU action potential trains using a computer algorithm based on signal shape recognition and manual editing. Instantaneous firing rate (IFR) was calculated as the inverse of each inter-spike interval (ISI). All ISI shorter than...

  2. Cerebellar Plasticity and Motor Learning Deficits in a Copy Number Variation Mouse Model of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Piochon, Claire; Kloth, Alexander D.; Grasselli, Giorgio; Titley, Heather K.; Nakayama, Hisako; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Wan, Vivian; Simmons, Dana H; Eissa, Tahra; Nakatani, Jin; Cherskov, Adriana; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko; Takumi, Toru; Kano, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    A common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the impairment of motor control and learning, occurring in a majority of children with autism, consistent with perturbation in cerebellar function. Here we report alterations in motor behavior and cerebellar synaptic plasticity in a mouse model (patDp/+) for the human 15q11-13 duplication, one of the most frequently observed genetic aberrations in autism. These mice show ASD-resembling social behavior deficits. We find that in patDp/+ mice...

  3. Differential effects of magnetic field exposure from domestic power supply on loco motor and exploratory behavior of an adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we have examined the low intense magnetic field exposed on adult rats to understand effect of several behavioral parameters. The rats are tested in the open field and spontaneous alternation task after either a single or chronic exposure to the magnetic field. We found that magnetic field exposure had no effect on locomotor behavior in the adult. However, the exploratory behavior of adult rats in the open field was significantly affected. Indeed, we found a consistent increase in behavior performance viz. exploration time and number of exploration events in rats exposed to magnetic field. Our results demonstrate behavioral changes after magnetic field exposure in adult subjects. This also suggests possible deleterious effects of magnetic field exposure in the brain. (author)

  4. Alteration of rhyolitic (volcanic) glasses in natural Bolivian salt lakes. - Natural analogue for the behavior of radioactive waste glasses in rock salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alteration experiments with the R7T7 glass in three salt brines, saturated respectively in MgCl2, MgCl2-CaCl2 and NaCl, showed that the solubilities of most radionuclides are controlled by the secondary phases. Nd, La, and Pr are trapped in powellite, Ce in cerianite, U in coffinite, and Sr is partially immobilized in barite. There is a good similarity between the secondary phases formed experimentally on volcanic glasses and the R7T7 glass altered in MgCl2CaCl2-saturated brine (formation of hydrotalcite and chlorite-serpentine at short-term and saponite at long-term). These results support the use of volcanic glasses alteration patterns in Mg-rich solutions (seawater, brines) to understand the long-term behavior of nuclear waste glasses and to evaluate the stability of the secondary phases. The study of the sediments of Uyuni (Bolivia) showed that the corrosion rate of the rhyolitic glass in brines at 10 C is 12 to 30 time lower than those of rhyolitic glasses altered in high dilute conditions. The neoformed phases in the sediments are: Smectite, alunite, pyrite, barite, celestite and cerianite. The low alteration rate of rhyolitic glasses in brines and the formation of secondary phases such as smectite, barite and cerianite (also formed during the experimental alteration of the R7T7 glass), permit us to expect the low alteration of nuclear waste glasses at long-term in brines and the trapping of certain radionuclides in secondary phases. (orig.)

  5. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...... publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 39 is July 08, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates....

  6. Sex differences in the adult HPA axis and affective behaviors are altered by perinatal exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Zhou, Libin; Bai, Yinyang; Zhou, Rong; Chen, Ling

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimicking endocrine disrupter, when administered perinatally can affect affective behaviors in adult rodents, however the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Postnatal day (PND) 80 vehicle-injected control female rats showed more obvious depression- and anxiety-like behaviors than males, indicative of sexually dimorphic affective behaviors. When female breeders were subcutaneously injected with BPA (2µg/kg) from gestation day 10 to lactation day 7, sex difference of affective behaviors was impaired in their offspring (PND80 BPA-rats), as results that female BPA-rats showed a visible "antianxiety-like" behavior, and male BPA-rats increased depression-like behavior compared to vehicle-injected controls. Notably, basal levels of serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA were increased in male BPA-rats, but not in female BPA-rats, in comparison with vehicle-injected controls. Following mild-stressor the elevation of corticosterone or ACTH levels was higher in male BPA-rats, whereas it was lower in female BPA-rats than vehicle-injected controls. In comparison with vehicle-injected controls, the level of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA in hippocampus or hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was increased in female BPA-rats, while decreased in male BPA-rats. In addition, the levels of hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and phospho-cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) were increased in female BPA-rats, but were decreased in male BPA-rats. Furthermore, the testosterone level was reduced in male BPA-rats. The results indicate that the perinatal exposure to BPA through altering the GR and MR expression disrupts the GR-mediated feedback of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and MR-induced nNOS-CREB signaling, which alters sex difference in affective behaviors. PMID:24857958

  7. AAV-mediated overexpression of the CB1 receptor in the mPFC of adult rats alters cognitive flexibility, social behavior and emotional reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eKlugmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid (ECB system is strongly involved in the regulation of cognitive processing and emotional behavior and evidence indicates that ECB signaling might affect these behavioral abilities by modulations of prefrontal cortical functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the CB1 receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC on cognitive flexibility and emotional behavior. Therefore, the CB1 receptor was overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene transfer specifically in the mPFC of adult Wistar rats. Animals were then tested in different anxiety-related paradigms for emotional reactivity (e.g. elevated plus maze (EPM, light/dark emergence test (EMT, social interaction and the attentional set shift task (ASST - an adaptation of the human Wisconsin card sorting test - for cognitive abilities and behavioral flexibility. A subtle increase in exploratory behavior was found in CB1 receptor overexpressing animals (CB1-R compared to empty vector injected controls (Empty in the EMT and EPM, although general locomotor activity did not differ between the groups. During social interaction testing, social contact behavior towards the unknown conspecific was found to be decreased, whereas social withdrawal was increased in CB1-R animals and they showed an inadequate increase in exploratory behavior compared to control animals. In the ASST, impaired reversal learning abilities were detected in CB1-R animals compared to controls, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. In conclusion, upregulation of the CB1 receptor specifically in the rat mPFC induces alterations in emotional reactivity, leads to inadequate social behavior and impairs cognitive flexibility. These findings might be relevant for neuropsychiatric disorders, since higher cortical CB1 receptor expression levels as well as similar behavioral impairments as observed in the present study have been described in schizophrenic patients.

  8. Early Adolescence as a Critical Window During Which Social Stress Distinctly Alters Behavior and Brain Norepinephrine Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, Brian; McFadden, Kile; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Bhatnagar, Seema; Beck, Sheryl; Valentino, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Many neural programs that shape behavior become established during adolescence. Adverse events at this age can have enduring consequences for both adolescent and adult mental health. Here we show that repeated social stress at different stages of adolescent development differentially affects rat behavior and neuronal activity. Early-adolescent (PND 28, EA), mid-adolescent (PND 42, MA), and adult (PND 63) rats were subjected to resident-intruder social stress (7 days) and behavior was examined...

  9. Biomolecular motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hess

    2005-12-01

    Here, we give a brief introduction to molecular motors, with an emphasis on motor proteins, describe the challenges in interfacing these bionanomachines with an artificial environment, and provide examples of emerging applications.

  10. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  11. Bidirectional grey matter changes after complex motor skill learning

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    Martin eGryga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term motor skill learning has been consistently shown to result in functional as well as structural changes in the adult human brain. However, the effect of short learning periods on brain structure is not well understood. In the present study, subjects performed a sequential pinch force task (SPFT for 20 minutes on 5 consecutive days. Changes in brain structure were evaluated with anatomical MRI scans acquired on the first and last day of motor skill learning. Behaviorally, the SPFT resulted in sequence-specific learning with the trained (right hand. Structural grey matter (GM alterations in left M1, right ventral premotor cortex (PMC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC correlated with performance improvements in the SPFT. More specifically we found that subjects with strong sequence-specific performance improvements in the SPFT also had larger increases in GM volume in the respective brain areas. On the other hand, subjects with small behavioral gains either showed no change or even a decrease in GM volume during the time course of learning. Furthermore, cerebellar GM volume before motor skill learning predicted (A individual learning related changes in the SPFT and (B the amount of structural changes in left M1, right ventral PMC and DLPFC. In summary, we provide novel evidence that short-term motor skill learning is associated with learning-related structural brain alterations. Additionally, we showed that practicing a motor skill is not exclusively accompanied by increased GM volume. Instead, bidirectional structural alterations explained the variability of the individual learning success.

  12. Transgenic overexpression of the alpha-synuclein interacting protein synphilin-1 leads to behavioral and neuropathological alterations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuber, Silke; Franck, Thomas; Wolburg, Hartwig; Schumann, Ulrike; Casadei, Nicolas; Fischer, Kristina; Calaminus, Carsten; Pichler, Bernd J; Chanarat, Sittinan; Teismann, Peter; Schulz, Jörg B; Luft, Andreas R; Tomiuk, Jürgen; Wilbertz, Johannes; Bornemann, Antje; Krüger, Rejko; Riess, Olaf

    2010-02-01

    Synphilin-1 has been identified as an interacting protein of alpha-synuclein, Parkin, and LRRK2, proteins which are mutated in familial forms of Parkinson disease (PD). Subsequently, synphilin-1 has also been shown to be an intrinsic component of Lewy bodies in sporadic PD. In order to elucidate the role of synphilin-1 in the pathogenesis of PD, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing wild-type and mutant (R621C) synphilin-1 driven by a mouse prion protein promoter. Transgenic expression of both wild-type and the R621C variant synphilin-1 resulted in increased dopamine levels of the nigrostriatal system in 3-month-old mice. Furthermore, we found pathological ubiquitin-positive inclusions in cerebellar sections and dark-cell degeneration of Purkinje cells. Both transgenic mouse lines showed significant reduction of motor skill learning and motor performance. These findings suggest a pathological role of overexpressed synphilin-1 in vivo and will help to further elucidate the mechanisms of protein aggregation and neuronal cell death. PMID:19760259

  13. Altered behavior and neural activity in conspecific cagemates co-housed with mouse models of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyunwoo; Jung, Seungmoon; Seo, Jinsoo; Khalid, Arshi; Yoo, Jung-Seok; Park, Jihyun; Kim, Soyun; Moon, Jangsup; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun; Jeon, Daejong

    2016-09-01

    The psychosocial environment is one of the major contributors of social stress. Family members or caregivers who consistently communicate with individuals with brain disorders are considered at risk for physical and mental health deterioration, possibly leading to mental disorders. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. To address this, we developed a social stress paradigm in which a mouse model of epilepsy or depression was housed long-term (>4weeks) with normal conspecifics. We characterized the behavioral phenotypes and electrophysiologically investigated the neural activity of conspecific cagemate mice. The cagemates exhibited deficits in behavioral tasks assessing anxiety, locomotion, learning/memory, and depression-like behavior. Furthermore, they showed severe social impairment in social behavioral tasks involving social interaction or aggression. Strikingly, behavioral dysfunction remained in the cagemates 4weeks following co-housing cessation with the mouse models. In an electrophysiological study, the cagemates showed an increased number of spikes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons. Our results demonstrate that conspecifics co-housed with mouse models of brain disorders develop chronic behavioral dysfunctions, and suggest a possible association between abnormal mPFC neural activity and their behavioral pathogenesis. These findings contribute to the understanding of the psychosocial and psychiatric symptoms frequently present in families or caregivers of patients with brain disorders. PMID:27211331

  14. Early Presymptomatic and Long-Term Changes of Rest Activity Cycles and Cognitive Behavior in a MPTP-Monkey Model of Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vezoli, Julien; Fifel, Karim; Leviel, Vincent; Dehay, Colette; Kennedy, Henry; Cooper, Howard M.; Gronfier, Claude; Procyk, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Background It is increasingly recognized that non-motor symptoms are a prominent feature of Parkinson's disease and in the case of cognitive deficits can precede onset of the characteristic motor symptoms. Here, we examine in 4 monkeys chronically treated with low doses of the neurotoxin MPTP the early and long-term alterations of rest-activity rhythms in relationship to the appearance of motor and cognitive symptoms. Methodology/Principal Findings Behavioral activity recordings as well as mo...

  15. Progesterone regulates corticosterone elevation and alterations in spatial memory and exploratory behavior induced by stress in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Diaz-Burke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is sensitive to high levels of glucocorticoids during stress responses; it suffers biochemical and cellular changes that affect spatial memory and exploratory behavior, among others. We analyzed the influence of the neurosteroid progesterone (PROG on stress-induced changes in urinary corticosterone (CORT levels, spatial memory and exploratory behavior.Castrated adult male rats were implanted with PROG or vehicle (VEHI,and then exposed for ten days to chronic stress created by overcrowding or ultrasonic noise. PROG and CORT levels were assessed in urine using highperformanceliquid chromatography (HPLC. Implanted PROG inhibited the rise of stress-induced CORT, prevented spatial memory impairment in the Morris water maze, and eliminated increased exploratory behavior in the hole-board test. These results suggest a protective role of PROG, possibly mediated by its anxiolytic mechanisms, against corticosteroids elevation and the behavioral deficit generated by stressful situations.

  16. Performances of survival, feeding behavior, and gene expression in aphids reveal their different fitness to host alteration

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Lu; Pengcheng Yang; Yongyu Xu; Lan Luo; Junjie Zhu; Na Cui; Le Kang; Feng Cui

    2016-01-01

    Insect populations feeding on different plant species are under selection pressure to adapt to these differences. A study integrating elements of the ecology, behavior, and gene expression of aphids on different host plants has not yet been well-explored. The present study explores the relationship between host fitness and survival, feeding behavior, and salivary gland gene expression of a pea (Pisum sativum) host race of Acyrthosiphon pisum feeding on a common host Vicia faba and on three ge...

  17. Pre-stress performance in an instrumental training predict post-stress behavioral alterations in chronically stressed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shigenobu Toda

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD), but few studies have assessed individual risk based on pre-stress traits. In this study, we employed appetitive instrumental lever pressing with a progressive ratio schedule to assess the individual pre-stress behavioral and cognitive traits in experimentally naïve Sprague–Dawley rats. Based on the behavioral data, the animals were classified into four subgroups (Low Motivation, Quick Learner, Slow Learner, and Hy...

  18. Progesterone regulates corticosterone elevation and alterations in spatial memory and exploratory behavior induced by stress in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Diaz-Burke; Claudia Elena Gonzalez-Sandoval; Carlos Eduardo Valencia-Alfonso; Miguel Huerta; Xóchitl Trujillo; Lourdes Diaz; Joaquín García-Estrada; Sonia Luquín

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus is sensitive to high levels of glucocorticoids during stress responses; it suffers biochemical and cellular changes that affect spatial memory and exploratory behavior, among others. We analyzed the influence of the neurosteroid progesterone (PROG) on stress-induced changes in urinary corticosterone (CORT) levels, spatial memory and exploratory behavior. Castrated adult male rats were implanted with PROG or vehicle (VEHI), and then exposed for ten days to chronic stress create...

  19. Avoidance Prone Individuals Self Reporting Behavioral Inhibition Exhibit Facilitated Acquisition and Altered Extinction of Conditioned Eyeblinks With Partial Reinforcement Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Todd Allen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance in the face of novel situations or uncertainty is a prime feature of behavioral inhibition which has been put forth as a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Recent work has found that behaviorally inhibited individuals acquire conditioned eyeblinks faster than non-inhibited individuals in omission and yoked paradigms in which the predictive relationship between the conditioned stimulus (CS and unconditional stimulus (US is less than optimal as compared to standard training with CS-US paired trials (Holloway et al., 2014. In the current study, we tested explicitly partial schedules in which half the trials were CS alone or US alone trials in addition to the standard CS-US paired trials. One hundred and forty nine college-aged undergraduates participated in the study. All participants completed the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (i.e., AMBI which was used to group participants as behaviorally inhibited and non-inhibited. Eyeblink conditioning consisted of 3 US alone trials, 60 acquisition trials, and 20 CS-alone extinction trials presented in one session. Conditioning stimuli were a 500 ms tone conditioned stimulus (CS and a 50-ms air puff unconditional stimulus (US. Behaviorally inhibited individuals receiving 50% partial reinforcement with CS alone or US alone trials produced facilitated acquisition as compared to non-inhibited individuals. A partial reinforcement extinction effect was evident with CS alone trials in behaviorally inhibited but not non-inhibited individuals. These current findings indicate that avoidance prone individuals self-reporting behavioral inhibition over-learn an association and are slow to extinguish conditioned responses when there is some level of uncertainty between paired trials and CS or US alone presentations.

  20. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Behavioral Alterations Are Alleviated by Sodium Phenylbutyrate via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammatory Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-08-01

    Oxido-nitrosative stress, neuroinflammation, and reduced level of neurotrophins are implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depressive illness. A few recent studies have revealed the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathophysiology of stress and depression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the neuroprotective potential of sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), an ER stress inhibitor against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior in Swiss albino mice. Anxiety and depressive-like behavior was induced by LPS (0.83 mg/kg; i.p.) administration. Various behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the anxiety and depressive-like behavior in mice. Real-time PCR was employed for the detection and expression of ER stress markers (78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)). Pretreatment with SPB significantly ameliorated the LPS-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior as revealed by behavioral paradigm results. LPS-induced oxidative stress was ameliorated by SPB pretreatment in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) region. Neuroinflammation was significantly reduced by SPB pretreatment in LPS-treated mice as evident from reduction in proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α). Importantly, LPS administration significantly up-regulated the GRP78 mRNA expression level in the HC which suggests the involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) in LPS-evoked behavioral anomalies. These results highlight the neuroprotective potential of SPB in LPS-induced anxiety and depressive illness model which may be partially due to inhibition of oxidative stress-neuroinflammatory cascade. PMID:27192986

  1. Corticosterone in ovo modifies aggressive behaviors and reproductive performances through alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelkareem A; Ma, Wenqiang; Ni, Yingdong; Wang, Song; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to excess glucocorticoids during embryonic development affects offspring reproduction and suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in mammals. However, whether corticosterone (CORT) causes similar effects in the chicken remains unclear. In the present study, we injected low (0.2μg) and high (1μg) doses of CORT in ovo before incubation and detected changes in aggressive behavior, tonic immobility (TI), reproductive performances, and HPG axis gene expression in posthatch chickens of different ages. High dose of CORT suppressed growth rate from 3 weeks of age, increased the frequency of aggressive behaviors, which was associated with elevated plasma CORT concentration. High-dose CORT significantly (PGnRH1), while significantly (Pchicken through alterations of HPG axis. PMID:24630043

  2. Gestational and early postnatal hypothyroidism alters VGluT1 and VGAT bouton distribution in the neocortex and hippocampus, and behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eNavarro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are fundamental for the expression of genes involved in the development of the CNS and their deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological diseases including mental retardation, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders. We examined in rat whether developmental and early postnatal hypothyroidism affects the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGluT1; glutamatergic and vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VGAT; GABAergic immunoreactive (ir boutons in the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex, and the behavior of the pups. Hypothyroidism was induced by adding 0.02% methimazole (MMI and 1% KClO4 to the drinking water starting at embryonic day 10 (E10; developmental hypothyroidism and E21 (early postnatal hypothyroidism until day of sacrifice at postnatal day 50. Behavior was studied using the acoustic prepulse inhibition (somatosensory attention and the elevated plus-maze (anxiety-like assessment tests. The distribution, density and size of VGlut1-ir and VGAT-ir boutons in the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex was abnormal in MMI pups and these changes correlate with behavioral changes, as prepulse inhibition of the startle response amplitude was reduced, and the percentage of time spent in open arms increased. In conclusion, both developmental and early postnatal hypothyroidism significantly decreases the ratio of GABAergic to glutamatergic boutons in dentate gyrus leading to an abnormal flow of information to the hippocampus and infragranular layers of the somatosensory cortex, and alter behavior in rats. Our data show cytoarchitectonic alterations in the basic excitatory hippocampal loop, and in local inhibitory circuits of the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus that might contribute to the delayed neurocognitive outcome observed in thyroid hormone deficient children born in iodine deficient areas, or suffering from congenital hypothyroidism.

  3. Orbitofrontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor mediates chronic stress-induced depressive-like behaviors and alterations of spine density and Kalirin7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Ma, Xin-Ming; Chen, Hui-Bin; Zhou, Meng-He; Qiao, Hui; An, Shu-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies show that patients with major depression have reduced volume of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Although the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor, which is abundant in the OFC, has been implicated in depression, the underlying mechanisms in the development of stress-induced depression remain unclear. Kalirin-7 (Kal7) is an essential component of mature excitatory synapses for maintaining dendritic spines density, size and synaptic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of orbitofrontal 5-HT and 5-HT2A receptors in depressive-like behaviors and their associations with Kal7 and dendritic spines using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), an established animal model of depression. CUMS had no effect on the levels of 5-HT or the 5-HT2A receptor in the OFC. However, CUMS or microinjection of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist (±)-1-(2, 5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)- 2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI, 5 μg/0.5 μL) into the OFC induced depressive-like behaviors, including anhedonia in the sucrose preference test and behavioral despair in the tail suspension test, a significant reduction in body weight gain and locomotor activity in the open field test, which were accompanied by decreased expression of Kal7 and PSD95 as well as decreased density of dendritic spines in the OFC. These alterations induced by CUMS were reversed by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist Ketanserin (Ket, 5 μg/0.5 μL into the OFC). These results suggest that CUMS alters structural plasticity through activation of the orbital 5-HT2A receptor and is associated with decreased expression of Kal7, thereby resulting in depressive-like behaviors in rats, suggesting an important role of Kal7 in the OFC in depression. PMID:26921771

  4. Passive listening to preferred motor tempo modulates corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Kelly; Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2014-01-01

    Rhythms are an essential characteristic of our lives, and auditory-motor coupling affects a variety of behaviors. Previous research has shown that the neural regions associated with motor system processing are coupled to perceptual rhythmic and melodic processing such that the perception of rhythmic stimuli can entrain motor system responses. However, the degree to which individual preference modulates the motor system is unknown. Recent work has shown that passively listening to metrically strong rhythms increases corticospinal excitability, as indicated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Furthermore, this effect is modulated by high-groove music, or music that inspires movement, while neuroimaging evidence suggests that premotor activity increases with tempos occurring within a preferred tempo (PT) category. PT refers to the rate of a hypothetical endogenous oscillator that may be indicated by spontaneous motor tempo (SMT) and preferred perceptual tempo (PPT) measurements. The present study investigated whether listening to a rhythm at an individual's PT preferentially modulates motor system excitability. SMT was obtained in human participants through a tapping task in which subjects were asked to tap a response key at their most comfortable rate. Subjects listened a 10-beat tone sequence at 11 log-spaced tempos and rated their preference for each (PPT). We found that SMT and PPT measurements were correlated, indicating that preferred and produced tempos occurred at a similar rate. Crucially, single-pulse TMS delivered to left M1 during PPT judgments revealed that corticospinal excitability, measured by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), was modulated by tempos traveling closer to individual PT. However, the specific nature of this modulation differed across individuals, with some exhibiting an increase in excitability around PT and others exhibiting a decrease. These findings suggest that auditory-motor coupling induced by rhythms is preferentially

  5. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  6. Motor neglect.

    OpenAIRE

    Laplane, D.; Degos, J D

    1983-01-01

    Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection...

  7. Motor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances. PMID:22377850

  8. Altered Circulating Levels of Serotonin and Immunological Changes in Laying Hens Divergently Selected for Feather Pecking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Kjaer, Jørgen B.; Labouriau, Rodrigo;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in immunological parameters as well as changes with respect to plasma levels of serotonin and tryptophan in lines selected for and against feather pecking (FP) behavior [high FP (HP) line and low FP (LP) line] for 5 generations. The hens from the...

  9. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U;

    1995-01-01

    effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  10. Pre-stress performance in an instrumental training predict post-stress behavioral alterations in chronically stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio eIguchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD, but few studies have assessed individual risk based on pre-stress traits. In this study, we employed appetitive instrumental lever pressing with a progressive ratio schedule to assess the individual pre-stress behavioral and cognitive traits in experimentally naïve Sprague–Dawley rats. Based on the behavioral data, the animals were classified into four subgroups (Low Motivation, Quick Learner, Slow Learner, and Hypermotivation, and exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS before monitoring their post-stress responses once each week for 4 weeks to identify early- and late-appearing CUS-induced behavioral phenotypes. The four subgroups exhibited different behavioral phenotypes after CUS. Therefore, we identified distinct relationships between pre-stress traits and the post-stress phenotypes in each subgroup. In addition, many of the CUS-induced phenotypes in rats corresponded to symptoms in human MDD or they had putative relationships with them. We concluded that the consequences of stress may be predicted before stress exposure by determining the pre-stress traits of each individual.

  11. Embryonic GABA(B receptor blockade alters cell migration, adult hypothalamic structure, and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors sex specifically in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Stratton

    Full Text Available Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system. Females lacking functional GABA(B receptors because of a genetic disruption of the R1 subunit have altered cellular characteristics in and around the PVN at birth. The genetic disruption precluded appropriate assessments of physiology or behavior in adulthood. The current study was conducted to test the long term impact of a temporally restricting pharmacological blockade of the GABA(B receptor to a 7-day critical period (E11-E17 during embryonic development. Experiments tested the role of GABA(B receptor signaling in fetal development of the PVN and later adult capacities for adult stress related behaviors and physiology. In organotypic slices containing fetal PVN, there was a female specific, 52% increase in cell movement speeds with GABA(B receptor antagonist treatment that was consistent with a sex-dependent lateral displacement of cells in vivo following 7 days of fetal exposure to GABA(B receptor antagonist. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, open-field activity, and HPA mediated responses to restraint stress were measured in adult offspring of mothers treated with GABA(B receptor antagonist. Embryonic exposure to GABA(B receptor antagonist resulted in reduced HPA axis activation following restraint stress and reduced depression-like behaviors. There was also increased anxiety-like behavior selectively in females and hyperactivity in males. A sex dependent response to disruptions of GABA(B receptor signaling was identified for PVN formation and key aspects of physiology and behavior. These changes correspond to sex specific prevalence in similar human disorders, namely anxiety disorders and hyperactivity.

  12. Embryonic GABAB Receptor Blockade Alters Cell Migration, Adult Hypothalamic Structure, and Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors Sex Specifically in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Matthew S.; Staros, Michelle; Budefeld, Tomaz; Searcy, Brian T.; Nash, Connor; Eitel, Chad; Carbone, David; Handa, Robert J.; Majdic, Gregor; Tobet, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system. Females lacking functional GABAB receptors because of a genetic disruption of the R1 subunit have altered cellular characteristics in and around the PVN at birth. The genetic disruption precluded appropriate assessments of physiology or behavior in adulthood. The current study was conducted to test the long term impact of a temporally restricting pharmacological blockade of the GABAB receptor to a 7-day critical period (E11–E17) during embryonic development. Experiments tested the role of GABAB receptor signaling in fetal development of the PVN and later adult capacities for adult stress related behaviors and physiology. In organotypic slices containing fetal PVN, there was a female specific, 52% increase in cell movement speeds with GABAB receptor antagonist treatment that was consistent with a sex-dependent lateral displacement of cells in vivo following 7 days of fetal exposure to GABAB receptor antagonist. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, open-field activity, and HPA mediated responses to restraint stress were measured in adult offspring of mothers treated with GABAB receptor antagonist. Embryonic exposure to GABAB receptor antagonist resulted in reduced HPA axis activation following restraint stress and reduced depression-like behaviors. There was also increased anxiety-like behavior selectively in females and hyperactivity in males. A sex dependent response to disruptions of GABAB receptor signaling was identified for PVN formation and key aspects of physiology and behavior. These changes correspond to sex specific prevalence in similar human disorders, namely anxiety disorders and hyperactivity. PMID:25162235

  13. Embryonic GABA(B) receptor blockade alters cell migration, adult hypothalamic structure, and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors sex specifically in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Matthew S; Staros, Michelle; Budefeld, Tomaz; Searcy, Brian T; Nash, Connor; Eitel, Chad; Carbone, David; Handa, Robert J; Majdic, Gregor; Tobet, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system. Females lacking functional GABA(B) receptors because of a genetic disruption of the R1 subunit have altered cellular characteristics in and around the PVN at birth. The genetic disruption precluded appropriate assessments of physiology or behavior in adulthood. The current study was conducted to test the long term impact of a temporally restricting pharmacological blockade of the GABA(B) receptor to a 7-day critical period (E11-E17) during embryonic development. Experiments tested the role of GABA(B) receptor signaling in fetal development of the PVN and later adult capacities for adult stress related behaviors and physiology. In organotypic slices containing fetal PVN, there was a female specific, 52% increase in cell movement speeds with GABA(B) receptor antagonist treatment that was consistent with a sex-dependent lateral displacement of cells in vivo following 7 days of fetal exposure to GABA(B) receptor antagonist. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, open-field activity, and HPA mediated responses to restraint stress were measured in adult offspring of mothers treated with GABA(B) receptor antagonist. Embryonic exposure to GABA(B) receptor antagonist resulted in reduced HPA axis activation following restraint stress and reduced depression-like behaviors. There was also increased anxiety-like behavior selectively in females and hyperactivity in males. A sex dependent response to disruptions of GABA(B) receptor signaling was identified for PVN formation and key aspects of physiology and behavior. These changes correspond to sex specific prevalence in similar human disorders, namely anxiety disorders and hyperactivity. PMID:25162235

  14. Subchronic treatment with phencyclidine in adolescence leads to impaired exploratory behavior in adult rats without altering social interaction or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, A; Willems, R; Kooijman, E J M; Renjaän, V A; Klein, P J; Windhorst, A D; Donck, L Ver; Leysen, J E; Berckel, B N M van

    2014-11-01

    Although both the onset of schizophrenia and human phencyclidine (PCP) abuse typically present within the interval from adolescence to early adulthood, the majority of preclinical research employing the PCP model of schizophrenia has been conducted on neonatal or adult animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence. Male 35-42-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously administered either saline (10 ml · kg(-1) ) or PCP hydrochloride (10 mg · kg(-1) ) once daily for a period of 14 days (n = 6/group). The animals were allowed to withdraw from treatment for 2 weeks, and their social and exploratory behaviors were subsequently assessed in adulthood by using the social interaction test. To examine the effects of adolescent PCP administration on the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), quantitative autoradiography was performed on brain sections of adult, control and PCP-withdrawn rats by using 20 nM (3) H-MK-801. Prior subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence had no enduring effects on the reciprocal contact and noncontact social behavior of adult rats. Spontaneous rearing in response to the novel testing arena and time spent investigating its walls and floor were reduced in PCP-withdrawn animals compared with control. The long-term behavioral effects of PCP occurred in the absence of persistent deficits in spontaneous locomotion or self-grooming activity and were not mediated by altered NMDAR density. Our results document differential effects of adolescent PCP administration on the social and exploratory behaviors of adult rats, suggesting that distinct neurobiological mechanisms are involved in mediating these behaviors. PMID:24953757

  15. Prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol alters social behavior in adult rats: Relationship to structural plasticity and immediate early gene expression in frontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A.; Akers, Katherine G.; Rice, James P.; Johnson, Travis E.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Maes, Levi I.; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to characterize the effects of prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol on adult social behavior, and to evaluate fetal-ethanol-related effects on dendritic morphology, structural plasticity and activity-related immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the agranular insular (AID) and prelimbic (Cg3) regions of frontal cortex. Baseline fetal-ethanol-related alterations in social behavior were limited to reductions in social investigation in males. Repeated experience with novel cage-mates resulted in comparable increases in wrestling and social investigation among saccharin- and ethanol-exposed females, whereas social behavioral effects among males were more evident in ethanol-exposed animals. Male ethanol-exposed rats also displayed profound increases in wrestling when social interaction was motivated by 24 hours of isolation. Baseline decreases in dendritic length and spine density in AID were observed in ethanol-exposed rats that were always housed with the same cage-mate. Modest experience-related decreases in dendritic length and spine density in AID were observed in saccharin-exposed rats housed with various cage-mates. In contrast, fetal-ethanol-exposed rats displayed experience-related increases in dendritic length in AID, and no experience-related changes in spine density. The only effect observed in Cg3 was a baseline increase in basilar dendritic length among male ethanol-exposed rats. Robust increases in activity-related IEG expression in AID (c-fos and Arc) and Cg3 (c-fos) were observed following social interaction in saccharin-exposed rats, however, activity-related increases in IEG expression were not observed in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats in either region. The results indicate that deficits in social behavior are among the long-lasting behavioral consequences of moderate ethanol exposure during brain development, and implicate AID, and to a lesser degree Cg3, in fetal-ethanol-related social behavior

  16. Effects of quercetin on predator stress-related hematological and behavioral alterations in pregnant rats and their offspring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohamed L Toumi; Sameha Merzoug; Abdelkrim Tahraoui

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of a psychogenic stress during gestation on the behaviour and haematological indices in dams as well as on the neonatal haematological status and periadolescent behaviour in their offspring. Moreover, the ability of quercetin, a natural flavonoid, to prevent the stress-induced changes was estimated. Pregnant Wistar rats were pretreated with quercetin before the exposure to a predator stress on gestational day 19. Post-stress maternal anxiety-like behaviour was assessed with a concomitant haematological analysis. In the offspring, haematological analysis and behavioural testing were performed during the postnatal stage. Our results revealed that predator stress causes an anxiety-like behaviour in dams along with a decrease in erythrocytes, a microcytosis, and a thrombocytosis. Prenatally stressed neonates manifested microcytosis and thrombocytosis with a significant polycythemia. Signs of motor hyperactivity, anxiety-like behaviour, and memory dysfunction were detected at periadolescence. Quercetin pretreatment alleviated the stress-induced behavioural and haematological impairments in dams but failed to attenuate the haematological changes in neonates. A sex-dependent effect of quercetin on behaviour was found at periadolescence. Our findings suggest that, besides a beneficial effect on haematological and behavioural anomalies in traumatized dams, quercetin may lastingly modulate the behaviour of their progeny.

  17. Effects of quercetin on predator stress-related hematological and behavioral alterations in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Mohamed L; Merzoug, Sameha; Tahraoui, Abdelkrim

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of a psychogenic stress during gestation on the behaviour and haematological indices in dams as well as on the neonatal haematological status and periadolescent behaviour in their offspring. Moreover, the ability of quercetin, a natural flavonoid, to prevent the stress-induced changes was estimated. Pregnant Wistar rats were pretreated with quercetin before the exposure to a predator stress on gestational day 19. Post-stress maternal anxiety-like behaviour was assessed with a concomitant haematological analysis. In the offspring, haematological analysis and behavioural testing were performed during the postnatal stage. Our results revealed that predator stress causes an anxiety-like behaviour in dams along with a decrease in erythrocytes, a microcytosis, and a thrombocytosis. Prenatally stressed neonates manifested microcytosis and thrombocytosis with a significant polycythemia. Signs of motor hyperactivity, anxiety-like behaviour, and memory dysfunction were detected at periadolescence. Quercetin pretreatment alleviated the stress-induced behavioural and haematological impairments in dams but failed to attenuate the haematological changes in neonates. A sex-dependent effect of quercetin on behaviour was found at periadolescence. Our findings suggest that, besides a beneficial effect on haematological and behavioural anomalies in traumatized dams, quercetin may lastingly modulate the behaviour of their progeny. PMID:27240984

  18. Measuring Motor Coordination in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Deacon, Robert M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Mice are increasingly being used in behavioral neuroscience, largely replacing rats as the behaviorist's animal of choice. Before aspects of behavior such as emotionality or cognition can be assessed, however, it is vital to determine whether the motor capabilities of e.g. a mutant or lesioned mouse allow such an assessment. Performance on a maze task requiring strength and coordination, such as the Morris water maze, might well be impaired in a mouse by motor, rather than cognitive, impairme...

  19. Impact of Nintendo Wii Games on Physical Literacy in Children: Motor Skills, Physical Fitness, Activity Behaviors, and Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. George

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical literacy is the degree of fitness, behaviors, knowledge, and fundamental movement skills (agility, balance, and coordination a child has to confidently participate in physical activity. Active video games (AVG, like the Nintendo Wii, have emerged as alternatives to traditional physical activity by providing a non-threatening environment to develop physical literacy. This study examined the impact of AVGs on children’s (age 6–12, N = 15 physical literacy. For six weeks children played one of four pre-selected AVGs (minimum 20 min, twice per week. Pre and post measures of motivation, enjoyment, and physical literacy were completed. Results indicated a near significant improvement in aiming and catching (p = 0.06. Manual dexterity significantly improved in males (p = 0.001, and females felt significantly less pressured to engage in PA (p = 0.008. Overall, there appears to be some positive impact of an AVG intervention on components of physical literacy.

  20. Effects of administering testosterone undecanoate in rats subjected to physical exercise: effects on the estrous cycle, motor behavior and morphology of the liver and kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Tolentino Bento-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was evaluate the effects of testosterone undecanoate (TU treatment combined with moderate physical training on: the estrous cycle, body weight (BW, motor behavior (MB, and the morphohistology of the reproductive system, the liver and kidney in rats. Female Wistar rats (180 g - 250 g were divided as follows: sedentary + TU (S + TU, trained + TU (T + TU, sedentary + vehicle (S + V, trained + vehicle (T + V. The rats swam 50 min/Day, strapped with a 5% BW load, for 4 weeks. During this training, (BW was monitored daily as well as the estrous cycle (EC by vaginal smear. The TU (15 mg/kg s.c was administered 3 times/week for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, data on MB, BW and morphohistopathological changes in viscera were compiled. The (T + TU group had on average, a higher (BW in the fourth week compared to the first week, and (BW higher than (S + V and (S + TU groups. We noted an interruption in the EC and a decrease in weight of ovaries in animals treated with TU. In addition, there was an increase in the relative weight of the heart in groups (T + V and (T+ TU, and kidneys in group (T + TU. Histopathological analysis showed periportal congestion and isolated foci of hepatic necrosis in rats with TU. Thus, TU combined with training abolished the EC, promoted ovarian atrophy, liver necrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and a decrease in motor activity.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento com undecanoato de testosterona (UT combinado ao treinamento físico moderado sobre ciclo estral, peso corporal, estruturas do sistema reprodutor, comportamento motor e morfologia hepática e renal em ratas. Ratas Wistar (180 a 250 g foram divididas em: sedentárias + UT (S+UT, treinadas + UT (T+UT, sedentárias + veículo (S+V, treinadas + veículo (T+V. As ratas nadaram 50 min/dia com sobrecarga de ~5% do peso corporal por 4 semanas. Durante o período de treinamento foi realizado acompanhamento diário do peso corporal (PC e do

  1. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge H.; Giordano., Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica M.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced h...

  2. Dietary Restriction Mitigates Cocaine-Induced Alterations of Olfactory Bulb Cellular Plasticity and Gene Expression, and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiangru; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Hall, F. Scott; Perona, Maria T. G.; Pistell, Paul J.; Lathia, Justin D.; Chigurupati, Srinivasulu; Becker, Kevin G.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Niklason, Laura E.; Uhl, George R; Cadet, Jean Lud; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Because the olfactory system plays a major role in food consumption, and because “food addiction” and associated morbidities have reached epidemic proportions, we tested the hypothesis that dietary energy restriction can modify adverse effects of cocaine on behavior and olfactory cellular and molecular plasticity. Mice maintained on an alternate day fasting (ADF) diet exhibited increased baseline locomotion and increased cocaine-sensitized locomotion during cocaine conditioning, despite no ch...

  3. Anhedonic behavior in cryptochrome 2-deficient mice is paralleled by altered diurnal patterns of amygdala gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Savalli, Giorgia; Diao, Weifei; Berger, Stefanie; Ronovsky, Marianne; Partonen, Timo; Pollak, Daniela D.

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders are frequently paralleled by disturbances in circadian rhythm-related physiological and behavioral states and genetic variants of clock genes have been associated with depression. Cryptochrome 2 (Cry2) is one of the core components of the molecular circadian machinery which has been linked to depression, both, in patients suffering from the disease and animal models of the disorder. Despite this circumstantial evidence, a direct causal relationship between Cry2 expression and d...

  4. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothe- sis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consis...

  5. Performances of survival, feeding behavior, and gene expression in aphids reveal their different fitness to host alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Yang, Pengcheng; Xu, Yongyu; Luo, Lan; Zhu, Junjie; Cui, Na; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Insect populations feeding on different plant species are under selection pressure to adapt to these differences. A study integrating elements of the ecology, behavior, and gene expression of aphids on different host plants has not yet been well-explored. The present study explores the relationship between host fitness and survival, feeding behavior, and salivary gland gene expression of a pea (Pisum sativum) host race of Acyrthosiphon pisum feeding on a common host Vicia faba and on three genetically-related hosts (Vicia villosa, Medicago truncatula, and Medicago sativa). Life table data indicated that aphids on non-favored hosts exhibited small size, low reproduction rate, slow population increase and individual development, and long lifespan. Electrical penetration graph results showed that the aphids spent significantly less time in passive ingestion of phloem sap on all non-preferred host plants before acclimation. After a period of acclimation on M. truncatula and V. villosa, pea host race individuals showed improved feeding behavior. No individuals of the pea host race completed its life history on M. sativa. Interestingly, the number of host-specific differentially-expressed salivary gland genes was negatively correlated with the fitness of aphids on this host plant. This study provided important cues in host plant specialization in aphids. PMID:26758247

  6. Early-onset motor impairment and increased accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in the motor cortex of normal aging mice are ameliorated by coenzyme Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhide; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Shirasawa, Takuji; Takahashi, Mayumi

    2016-08-01

    Brain mitochondrial function declines with age; however, the accompanying behavioral and histological alterations that are characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD) are poorly understood. We found that the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and coenzyme Q (CoQ) content were reduced in aged (15-month-old) male mice compared to those in young (6-month-old) male mice. Concomitantly, motor functions, including the rate of movement and exploratory and voluntary motor activities, were significantly reduced in the aged mice compared to the young mice. In the motor cortex of the aged mouse brain, the accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) phosphorylated at serine129 (Ser129) significantly increased, and the level of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1) decreased compared with that in the young mouse brain. The administration of exogenous water-soluble CoQ10 to aged mice via drinking water restored the mitochondrial OCR, motor function, and phosphorylated α-syn and VGluT1 levels in the motor cortex. These results suggest that early-onset motor impairment and the increased accumulation of Ser129-phosphorylated α-syn in the motor cortex are ameliorated by the exogenous administration of CoQ10. PMID:27143639

  7. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Whipp

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education. Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical and student learning outcomes within high school physical education classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59 were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach. Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in physical education.

  8. Effects of enriched environment on alterations in the prefrontal cortex GFAP- and S100B-immunopositive astrocytes and behavioral deficits in MK-801-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahati, M; Nozari, M; Eslami, H; Shabani, M; Basiri, M

    2016-06-21

    A plethora of studies have indicated that enriched environment (EE) paradigm provokes plastic and morphological changes in astrocytes with accompanying increments of their density and positively affects the behavior of rodents. We also previously documented that EE could be employed to preclude several behavioral abnormalities, mainly cognitive deficits, attributed to postnatal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (MK-801) treatment, as a rodent model of schizophrenia (SCH) aspects. Given this, the current study quantitatively investigated the number of cells, presumed to be astrocytes, expressing two astroglia-associated proteins (S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)) by immunohistochemistry in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), along with anxiety and passive avoidance (PA) learning behaviors by utilizing elevated plus maze (EPM) and shuttle-box tests, in MK-801-treated male wistar rats submitted to EE and non-EE rats. Following a treatment regime of sub-chronic MK-801 (1.0mg/kg i.p. daily for five consecutive days from postnatal day (P) 6), S-100B-positive cells and anxiety level were markedly increased, while the GFAP-positive cells and PA learning were notably attenuated. The trend of diminished GFAP-immunopositive cells and elevated S100B-immunostained cells in the PFC was reversed in the SCH-like rats by exposure of animals to EE, commencing from birth up to the time of experiments on P28-85. Additionally, EE exhibited an ameliorating effect on the behavioral abnormalities evoked by MK-801. Overall, present findings support that improper astrocyte functioning and behavioral changes, reminiscent of the many facets of SCH, occur consequential to repetitive administration of MK-801 and that raising rat pups in an EE mitigates these alterations. PMID:27063100

  9. Mutant Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) Induces Protein Secretion Pathway Alterations and Exosome Release in Astrocytes IMPLICATIONS FOR DISEASE SPREADING AND MOTOR NEURON PATHOLOGY IN AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Basso, M; Pozzi, S.; Tortarolo, M.; Fiordaliso, F; C. Bisighini; Pasetto, L; Spaltro, G.; Lidonnici, D.; Gensano, F.; Battaglia, E.; Bendotti, C; Bonetto, V.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most common motor neuron disease and is still incurable. The mechanisms leading to the selective motor neuron vulnerability are still not known. The interplay between motor neurons and astrocytes is crucial in the outcome of the disease. We show that mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) overexpression in primary astrocyte cultures is associated with decreased levels of proteins involved in secretory pathways. This is linked to a general reduction...

  10. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsive to price increases caused by an increase in either pre-tax prices or taxes. Therefore, fuel market in Turkey is open to opportunistic behavior by firms (through excessive profits) and the government (through excessive taxes). Besides, the paper focuses on the impact of high motor fuel prices on road transport associated activities, including the pattern of passenger transportation, motorization rate, fuel use, total kilometers traveled and CO2 emissions from road transportation. The impact of motor fuel prices on income distribution in Turkey and Turkish public opinion about high motor fuel prices are also among the subjects investigated in the course of the study. - Highlights: • The key issues (e.g. taxes) related to motor fuel prices in Turkey are explored. • Their impact on transport activities and income distribution is also investigated. • An econometric analysis is performed to estimate motor fuel demand in Turkey. • Motor fuel demand in Turkey is found to be quite inelastic. • Turkish fuel market is open to opportunistic behavior by firms and the government

  11. Dysregulation of the Axonal Trafficking of Nuclear-encoded Mitochondrial mRNA alters Neuronal Mitochondrial Activity and Mouse Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Amar N.; Sun, Ching-Yu; Reichard, Kathryn; Gervasi, Noreen M.; Pickel, James; Nakazawa, Kazu; Gioio, Anthony E.; Kaplan, Barry B.

    2013-01-01

    Local translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs is essential for mitochondrial activity, yet there is little insight into the role that axonal trafficking of these transcripts play in neuronal function and behavior. Previously, we identified a 38 nucleotide stem-loop structure (zipcode) in the 3′ untranslated region of the Cytochrome C oxidase IV (COXIV) mRNA that directs the transport of a reporter mRNA to the axon of superior cervical ganglion neurons (SCG). Over-expression of a ch...

  12. 3xTgAD mice exhibit altered behavior and elevated Aβ after chronic mild social stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Herdener, Nathan; Camandola, Simonetta; Texel, Sarah J.; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Cong, Wei-na; Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress may be a risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but most studies of the effects of stress in models of AD utilize acute adverse stressors of questionable clinical relevance. The goal of this work was to determine how chronic psychosocial stress affects behavioral and pathological outcomes in an animal model of AD, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. A triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTgAD mice) and nontransgenic control mice were used to test for an affe...

  13. Effects of normal aging on visuo-motor plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Carrie A.; Cohen, Helen S.; Kimball, Kay T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2002-01-01

    Normal aging is associated with declines in neurologic function. Uncompensated visual and vestibular problems may have dire consequences including dangerous falls. Visuo-motor plasticity is a form of behavioral neural plasticity, which is important in the process of adapting to visual or vestibular alteration, including those changes due to pathology, pharmacotherapy, surgery or even entry into microgravity or an underwater environment. To determine the effects of aging on visuo-motor plasticity, we chose the simple and easily measured paradigm of visual-motor rearrangement created by using visual displacement prisms while throwing small balls at a target. Subjects threw balls before, during and after wearing a set of prisms which displace the visual scene by twenty degrees to the right. Data obtained during adaptation were modeled using multilevel modeling techniques for 73 subjects, aged 20 to 80 years. We found no statistically significant difference in measures of visuo-motor plasticity with advancing age. Further studies are underway examining variable practice training as a potential mechanism for enhancing this form of behavioral neural plasticity.

  14. Long-term exposure to paraquat alters behavioral parameters and dopamine levels in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotto, Josiane W; Cognato, Giana P; Christoff, Raissa R; Roesler, Laura N; Leite, Carlos E; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Mauricio R; Vianna, Monica R; Bonan, Carla D

    2014-04-01

    Chronic exposure to paraquat (Pq), a toxic herbicide, can result in Parkinsonian symptoms. This study evaluated the effect of the systemic administration of Pq on locomotion, learning and memory, social interaction, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels, and dopamine transporter (DAT) gene expression in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish received an i.p. injection of either 10 mg/kg (Pq10) or 20 mg/kg (Pq20) of Pq every 3 days for a total of six injections. Locomotion and distance traveled decreased at 24 h after each injection in both treatment doses. In addition, both Pq10- and Pq20-treated animals exhibited differential effects on the absolute turn angle. Nonmotor behaviors were also evaluated, and no changes were observed in anxiety-related behaviors or social interactions in Pq-treated zebrafish. However, Pq-treated animals demonstrated impaired acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory in the Y-maze task. Interestingly, dopamine levels increased while DOPAC levels decreased in the zebrafish brain after both treatments. However, DAT expression decreased in the Pq10-treated group, and there was no change in the Pq20-treated group. The amount of TH protein showed no significant difference in the treated group. Our study establishes a new model to study Parkinson-associated symptoms in zebrafish that have been chronically treated with Pq. PMID:24568596

  15. Alteration of cellular behavior and response to PI3K pathway inhibition by culture in 3D collagen gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fallica

    Full Text Available Most investigations into cancer cell drug response are performed with cells cultured on flat (2D tissue culture plastic. Emerging research has shown that the presence of a three-dimensional (3D extracellular matrix (ECM is critical for normal cell behavior including migration, adhesion, signaling, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigate differences between cancer cell signaling in 2D culture and a 3D ECM, employing real-time, live cell tracking to directly observe U2OS human osteosarcoma and MCF7 human breast cancer cells embedded in type 1 collagen gels. The activation of the important PI3K signaling pathway under these different growth conditions is studied, and the response to inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR with PI103 investigated. Cells grown in 3D gels show reduced proliferation and migration as well as reduced PI3K pathway activation when compared to cells grown in 2D. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that a collagen ECM can protect U2OS cells from PI103. Overall, our data suggests that 3D gels may provide a better medium for investigation of anti-cancer drugs than 2D monolayers, therefore allowing better understanding of cellular response and behavior in native like environments.

  16. Visuomotor learning by passive motor experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eSakamoto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans can adapt to unfamiliar dynamic and/or kinematic transformations through the active motor experience. Recent studies of neurorehabilitation using robots or brain-computer interface (BCI technology suggest that passive motor experience would play a measurable role in motor recovery, however our knowledge of passive motor learning is limited. To clarify the effects of passive motor experience on human motor learning, we performed arm reaching experiments guided by a robotic manipulandum. The results showed that the passive motor experience had an anterograde transfer effect on the subsequent motor execution, whereas no retrograde interference was confirmed in the ABA paradigm experiment. This suggests that the passive experience of the error between visual and proprioceptive sensations leads to the limited but actual compensation of behavior, although it is fragile and cannot be consolidated as a persistent motor memory.

  17. Female Flinders Sensitive Line rats show estrous cycle-independent depression-like behavior and altered tryptophan metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Amanda; Budac, David P; Sanchez, Connie;

    2016-01-01

    female Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic rat model of depression. FSL rats and controls (Flinders Resistant Line rats), 12-20weeks old, were subject to the forced swim test (FST), a commonly used measure of depression-like behavior. Open field was used to evaluate locomotor ability and......Clinical studies suggest a link between depression and dysfunctional tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. Even though depression is twice as prevalent in women as men, the impact of the estrous cycle on TRP metabolism is not well-understood. Here we investigated 13 kynurenine and serotonin metabolites in...... male FSL and FRL rats. Female FSL rats showed a depression-like phenotype with increased immobility in the FST, not confounded by anxiety. In the brain, 3-hydroxykynurenine was increased whereas anthranilate and 5-hydroxytryptophan were decreased. In plasma, anthranilate and quinolinate levels were...

  18. Neuropeptide s alters anxiety but not depression-like behaviors in the flinders sensitive line rats, a genetic animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, A.; Wegener, Gregers; Finger, B.;

    2010-01-01

    day FST. In selected animals effect of NPS on home cage activity was explored. Finally, brains from separate groups of naive animals were harvested; hippocampi, amygdalae and PVN punched out, and mRNA transcripts measured with the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (rt-qPCR). Results...... the effects of centrally administered NPS on depression- and anxiety-related behaviors, using a well validated animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats and their controls the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). Methods: Male and female were tested. Seven days following insertion...... of cannula, 0.25 or 1.0 nmol NPS, or vehicle/5 ml were infused into the lateral ventricle. 45 min after NPS infusion animals were tested on elevated plus maze (EPM). Five days later the animals were subjected to the two-day forced swim test (FST); NPS or vehicle were injected 45 min before the second...

  19. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements associated with hydrothermal alteration. Implication for the migration and retardation of Am and Cm in hydrothermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth element (REE) contents of hydrothermally altered dacitic and basaltic rocks in the Kuroko mining area were analyzed. It was found that geochemical features of REE (Light REE/Total REE ratio, La/Sm ratio, Eu anomaly) are related to K2O index (=K2O/(K2O+Na2O+CaO+MgO)x100) and oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O). This relation indicates that LREE (light rare earth element) did not remove from the rocks to hydrothermal solution and were probably added to the rocks from hydrothermal solution at and near the site of hydrothermal ore deposition. This geochemical behavior of LREE which are considered to be chemical analogue elements for Am and Cm suggests that Am and Cm would not remove from the high level nuclear waste glass if the hydrothermal solution ascent to the disposal site and contacted with the high level nuclear waste. (author)

  20. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  1. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  2. Multimotor Driven Cargos: From Single Motor under Load to the Role of Motor-Motor Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Itay; Granek, Rony

    2016-07-01

    Motor proteins constitute an essential part of the cellular machinery. They have been the subject of intensive studies in the past two decades. Yet, when several motors simultaneously carry a single cargo, the effect of motor-motor coupling, such as mutual stalling and jamming, remains unclear. We commence by constructing a general model for single motor motion, which is a product of a derived load-dependent expression and a phenomenological motor specific function. Forming the latter according to recent single molecule measurements for a given load, the model correctly predicts the motor full step-size distribution for all other measured loads. We then use our proposed model to predict transport properties of multimotor complexes, with particular attention to 1-dimensional constructs with variable flexibility, motor density, and number of motors: (i) a chain of motors connected by springs, a recently studied construction of a pair, and (ii) an array of motors all connected by identical springs to a stiff rod, which is essentially a mirror image of standard gliding motility assays. In both systems, and for any number of carrying motors, we find that, while low flexibility results in a strongly damped velocity, increased flexibility renders an almost single motor velocity. Comparing our model based simulations to recent gliding assays we find remarkable qualitative agreement. We also demonstrate consistency with other multimotor motility assays. In all cases, the characteristic spring constant, that controls the crossover behavior between high and low velocity regimes, is found to be the stalling force divided by the mean step size. We conjecture that this characteristic spring constant can serve as a tool for engineering multimotor complexes. PMID:27044876

  3. Preserved motor learning after stroke is related to the degree of proprioceptive deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Lara A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most motor learning theories posit that proprioceptive sensation serves an important role in acquiring and performing movement patterns. However, we recently demonstrated that experimental disruption of proprioception peripherally altered motor performance but not motor learning in humans. Little work has considered humans with central nervous system damage. The purpose of the present study was to specifically consider the relationship between proprioception and motor learning at the level of the central nervous system in humans. Methods Individuals with chronic (> 6mo stroke and similarly aged healthy participants performed a continuous tracking task with an embedded repeating segment over two days and returned on a third day for retention testing. A limb-position matching task was used to quantify proprioception. Results Individuals with chronic stroke demonstrated the ability to learn to track a repeating segment; however, the magnitude of behavioral change associated with repeated segment-specific learning was directly related to the integrity of central proprioceptive processing as indexed by our limb-position matching task. Conclusion These results support the importance of central sensory processing for motor learning. The confirmation of central sensory processing dependent motor learning in humans is discussed in the context of our prior report of preserved motor learning when sensation is disrupted peripherally.

  4. Stimulation of motor tracts in multiple sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Berardelli, A; Inghilleri, M; Cruccu, G.; Fornarelli, M; Accornero, N; Manfredi, M.

    1988-01-01

    Percutaneous electrical stimulation of the motor cortex was used to evaluate corticospinal conduction to upper-limb motoneurons in 29 patients with multiple sclerosis. Central motor conduction abnormalities were correlated with clinical signs and somatosensory evoked potentials. Muscle responses to cortical stimulation were altered in 20 patients. The most common abnormality was increased central motor conduction time; in two cases the responses to cortical stimulation were absent. Abnormalit...

  5. Oral administration of curcumin relieves behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of ovariectomized Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Morrone, Maurilio; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Gasparotto, Juciano; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Bittencourt, Leonardo; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-06-01

    Menopause occurs gradually and is characterized by increased susceptibility to developing mood disorders. Several studies have suggested treatments based on the antioxidant properties of vitamins and herbal compounds as an alternative to hormone replacement therapies, with few or none reporting toxicity. The present study was performed to explore the effects of curcumin oral supplementation on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress parameters in different central nervous system (CNS) areas of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into either sham-operated or OVX groups. Sham-operated group (n=8) and an OVX group (n=11) were treated with vehicle, and the other two OVX groups received curcumin at 50 or 100mg/kg/day doses (n=8/group). Elevated plus maze (EPM) test was performed on the 28th day of treatment. On the 30th day, animals were killed and the dissected brain regions were removed and stored at-80°C until analysis. Ovariectomy induced deficit in the locomotor activity and increased anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, OVX rats showed increased lipid oxidized in the frontal cortex and striatum, increased hippocampal and striatal carbonylated protein level, and decreased striatal thiol content of non-protein fraction indicative of a glutathione (GSH) pool. Curcumin oral treatment for 30days reduced oxidative stress in the CNS areas as well as the behavior alterations resulting from ovariectomy. Curcumin supplementation attenuated most of these parameters to sham comparable values, suggesting that curcumin could have positive effects against anxiety-like disturbances and brain oxidative damage due to hormone deprivation. PMID:27142750

  6. Altered striatal intrinsic functional connectivity in pediatric anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Julia; Benson, Brenda; Farber, Madeline; Pine, Daniel; Ernst, Monique

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders of adolescence. Behavioral and task-based imaging studies implicate altered reward system function, including striatal dysfunction, in adolescent anxiety. However, no study has yet examined alterations of the striatal intrinsic functional connectivity in adolescent anxiety disorders. The current study examines striatal intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC), using six bilateral striatal seeds, among 35 adolescents with anxiety disorders and 36 healthy comparisons. Anxiety is associated with abnormally low iFC within the striatum (e.g., between nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus), and between the striatum and prefrontal regions, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, posterior insula and supplementary motor area. The current findings extend prior behavioral and task-based imaging research, and provide novel data implicating decreased striatal iFC in adolescent anxiety. Alterations of striatal neurocircuitry identified in this study may contribute to the perturbations in the processing of motivational, emotional, interoceptive, and motor information seen in pediatric anxiety disorders. This pattern of the striatal iFC perturbations can guide future research on specific mechanisms underlying anxiety. PMID:27004799

  7. Anti-inflammatory cytokine gene therapy decreases sensory and motor dysfunction in experimental Multiple Sclerosis: MOG-EAE behavioral and anatomical symptom treatment with cytokine gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sloane, Evan; Ledeboer, A.; Seibert, W.; Coats, B.; van Strien, M.; MAIER, S. F.; Johnson, K. W.; Chavez, R.; Watkins, L.R.; Leinwand, L; Milligan, E. D.; Van Dam, A M

    2008-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that presents clinically with a range of symptoms including motor, sensory, and cognitive dysfunction as well as demyelination and lesion formation in brain and spinal cord. A variety of animal models of MS have been developed that share many of the pathological hallmarks of MS including motor deficits (ascending paralysis), demyelination and axonal damage of central nervous system (CNS) tissue. In recent years, neuropathic pain ha...

  8. Alterations in local thyroid hormone signaling in the hippocampus of the SAMP8 mouse at younger ages: association with delayed myelination and behavioral abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawano, Erika; Negishi, Takayuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Masami; Tashiro, Tomoko

    2013-03-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains were established through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain based on phenotypic variations of aging and consist of senescence-prone (SAMP) and senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Among them, SAMP8 is considered as a model of neurodegeneration displaying age-associated learning and memory impairment and altered emotional status. Because adult hypothyroidism is one of the common causes of cognitive impairment and various psychiatric disorders, we examined the possible involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the pathological aging of SAMP8 using the senescence-resistant SAMR1 as control. Although plasma TH levels were similar in both strains, a significant decrease in type 2 deiodinase (D2) gene expression was observed in the SAMP8 hippocampus from 1 to 8 months of age, which led to a 35-50% reductions at the protein level and 20% reduction of its enzyme activity at 1, 3, and 5 months. D2 is responsible for local conversion of thyroxine into transcriptionally active 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), so the results suggest a reduction in T3 level in the SAMP8 hippocampus. Attenuation of local TH signaling was confirmed by downregulation of TH-dependent genes and by immunohistochemical demonstration of delayed and reduced accumulation of myelin basic protein, the expression of which is highly dependent on TH. Furthermore, we found that hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were not age-associated but were characteristic of young SAMP8 before they start showing impairments in learning and memory. Early alterations in local TH signaling may thus underlie behavioral abnormalities as well as the pathological aging of SAMP8. PMID:23224839

  9. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Khodaverdi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls' physical activity behavior.A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire. Children's physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine whether perceived motor competence or motor skill competence best predicts moderate-to-vigorous self-report physical activity.Multiple regression analysis indicated that motor skill competence and perceived motor competence predicted 21% variance in physical activity (R(2=0.21, F=48.9, P=0.001, and motor skill competence (R(2=0.15, ᵝ=0.33, P= 0.001 resulted in more variance than perceived motor competence (R(2=0.06, ᵝ=0.25, P=0.001 in physical activity.Results revealed motor skill competence had more influence in comparison with perceived motor competence on physical activity level. We suggest interventional programs based on motor skill competence and perceived motor competence should be administered or implemented to promote physical activity in young girls.

  10. Conserved role of Drosophila melanogaster FoxP in motor coordination and courtship song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Kristy J; Wassmer, Taryn L; Deitcher, David L

    2014-07-15

    FoxP2 is a highly conserved vertebrate transcription factor known for its importance in human speech and language production. Disruption of FoxP2 in several vertebrate models indicates a conserved functional role for this gene in both sound production and motor coordination. Although FoxP2 is known to be strongly expressed in brain regions important for motor coordination, little is known about FoxP2's role in the nervous system. The recent discovery of the well-conserved Drosophila melanogaster homolog, FoxP, provides an opportunity to study the role of this crucial gene in an invertebrate model. We hypothesized that, like FoxP2, Drosophila FoxP is important for behaviors requiring fine motor coordination. We used targeted RNA interference to reduce expression of FoxP and assayed the effects on a variety of adult behaviors. Male flies with reduced FoxP expression exhibit decreased levels of courtship behavior, altered pulse-song structure, and sex-specific motor impairments in walking and flight. Acute disruption of synaptic activity in FoxP expressing neurons using a temperature-sensitive shibire allele dramatically impaired motor coordination. Utilizing a GFP reporter to visualize FoxP in the fly brain reveals expression in relatively few neurons in distributed clusters within the larval and adult CNS, including distinct labeling of the adult protocerebral bridge - a section of the insect central complex known to be important for motor coordination and thought to be homologous to areas of the vertebrate basal ganglia. Our results establish the necessity of this gene in motor coordination in an invertebrate model and suggest a functional homology with vertebrate FoxP2. PMID:24747661

  11. Numerical calculation on behavior of fuel regression in hybrid rocket motor%混合火箭发动机燃料退移特性的数值计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单繁立; 侯凌云; 朴英

    2011-01-01

    混合火箭发动机在航天推进领域优势明显,但由于氧化剂和燃料相态不同,燃料退移的机理和特性比较复杂.采用自行编写的混合火箭发动机程序(HRM)模拟了这种发动机的非稳态工作过程.通过该程序实时数值求解了从氧化剂注入端到尾喷管的全部物理化学过程,并基于燃料表面上气固间的质量和能量耦合,运用燃料表面动态退移和两步计算方法,模拟了燃料退移.在与发动机推力和燃料退移量等实验数据对比的基础上,给出了燃料退移速率方程和燃料退移速率随燃烧室直径的变化规律,确定并分析了影响混合火箭发动机尺度效应的因素.%Hybrid rocket motor has many advantages for space propulsion applications. The mechanism and behavior of the fuel regression in the motor are complicated due to different phase states of the oxidizer and the fuel. The hybrid rocket motor code ( HRM) for the unsteady simulation of motor operation has been programmed. This code can calculate physical and chemical processes from the oxidizer injector to the nozzle during motor operation. The mass and energy coupling between gas and solid phases as well as a dynamic fuel surface regression technique with a two-step calculation method is applied to simulate the fuel regression. The calculated motor thrust and fuel regression are compared to the experimental data for the code validation. The fuel regression rate equation and the relation between fuel regression rate and chamber diameter have been derived. The reasons for scale effect in hybrid rocket motor have been determined and analyzed.

  12. Motor Magnates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABEL DING

    2008-01-01

    @@ The automotive industry is often seen as a man's world. Wang Fengying (王风英) begs to differ. The 38-year-old has presided over Great Wall Motors (长城汽车), the leading pick-up truck and Sport Utility Vehicle(SUV) manufacturer in China for the past five years.

  13. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  14. Motor radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Afsha; Camilleri, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    A 48-year-old immunosuppressed woman presented to a rheumatology follow-up clinic after suffering from herpes zoster infection. She had manifestations of foot drop 3 months after the initial infection. She was diagnosed with motor radiculopathy following herpes zoster infection that was effectively managed by physiotherapy and amitriptyline.

  15. Communication of brain network core connections altered in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia but possibly preserved in early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Mendez, Mario F.; Bartzokis, George; Jimenez, Elvira E.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion imaging and brain connectivity analyses can assess white matter deterioration in the brain, revealing the underlying patterns of how brain structure declines. Fiber tractography methods can infer neural pathways and connectivity patterns, yielding sensitive mathematical metrics of network integrity. Here, we analyzed 1.5-Tesla wholebrain diffusion-weighted images from 64 participants - 15 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 19 with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), and 30 healthy elderly controls. Using whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural brain connectivity networks to map connections between cortical regions. We evaluated the brain's networks focusing on the most highly central and connected regions, also known as hubs, in each diagnostic group - specifically the "high-cost" structural backbone used in global and regional communication. The high-cost backbone of the brain, predicted by fiber density and minimally short pathways between brain regions, accounted for 81-92% of the overall brain communication metric in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found that the set of pathways interconnecting high-cost and high-capacity regions of the brain's communication network are globally and regionally altered in bvFTD, compared to healthy participants; however, the overall organization of the high-cost and high-capacity networks were relatively preserved in EOAD participants, relative to controls. Disruption of the major central hubs that transfer information between brain regions may impair neural communication and functional integrity in characteristic ways typical of each subtype of dementia.

  16. Resting State Interhemispheric Motor Connectivity and White Matter Integrity Correlate with Motor Impairment in Chronic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Joyce L.; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Functional and structural reorganization in the brain occurs after stroke. The ability to predict motor outcomes may depend on patterns of brain functional and structural connectivity. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in motor transcallosal and corticospinal connections correlate with motor impairment in patients with chronic stroke. Eleven ischemic stroke patients underwent the Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer (UE-FM) assessment, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and di...

  17. Emergent Transport Properties of Molecular Motor Ensemble Affected by Single Motor Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaban, Shreyas; Materassi, Donatello; Li, Mingang; Hays, Thomas; Salapaka, Murti

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular transport is an essential function in eucaryotic cells, facilitated by motor proteins - proteins converting chemical energy into kinetic energy. It is known that motor proteins work in teams enabling unidirectional and bidirectional transport of intracellular cargo over long distances. Disruptions of the underlying transport mechanisms, often caused by mutations that alter single motor characteristics, are known to cause neurodegenerative diseases. For example, phosphorylation o...

  18. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    , intermittent social defeats throughout entire adolescence in hamsters impact their adult responses at multiple levels. Our results also suggest that the "social threat" group may serve as an appropriate control. This study further suggest that the alterations of behavioral responses and neurobiological functions in the body and brain might provide potential markers to measure the negative consequences of chronic social defeats. PMID:27375450

  19. Motor and Visuospatial Attention and Motor Planning After Stroke: Considerations for the Rehabilitation of Standing Balance and Gait

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Sue; Handy, Todd C.; Lakhani, Bimal; Boyd, Lara A.; Garland, S. Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Attention and planning can be altered by stroke, which can influence motor performance. Although the influence of these factors on recovery from stroke has been explored for the upper extremity (UE), their impact on balance and gait are unknown. This perspective article presents evidence that altered motor and visuospatial attention influence motor planning of voluntary goal-directed movements poststroke, potentially affecting balance and gait. Additionally, specific strategies for rehabilita...

  20. Advanced Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, “Motors and Generators for the 21st Century”. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to

  1. Novice motor performance: better not to verbalize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Ruthruff, Eric; Didierjean, André; Hartley, Alan A

    2013-02-01

    Offline verbalization about a new motor experience is often assumed to positively influence subsequent performance. Here, we evaluated this presumed positive influence and whether it originates from declarative or from procedural knowledge using the explicit/implicit motor-learning paradigm. To this end, 80 nongolfers learned to perform a golf-putting task with high error rates (i.e., explicit motor learning), and thus relied on declarative knowledge, or low error rates (i.e., implicit motor learning), and thus relied on procedural knowledge. Afterward, they either put their memories of the previous motor experience into words or completed an irrelevant verbal task. Finally, they performed the putting task again. Verbalization did not improve novice motor performance: Putting was impaired, overall, and especially so for high-error learners. We conclude that declarative knowledge is altered by verbalization, whereas procedural knowledge is not. PMID:23073721

  2. An eight month randomized controlled exercise intervention alters resting state synchrony in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, C E; Pierce, J E; Schwarz, N F; Chi, L; Weinberger, A L; Schaeffer, D J; Rodrigue, A L; Camchong, J; Allison, J D; Yanasak, N E; Liu, T; Davis, C L; McDowell, J E

    2014-01-01

    Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) children 8-11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Independent components analysis identified several networks, with four chosen for between-group analysis: salience, default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks. The default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks showed more spatial refinement over time in the exercise group compared to controls. The motor network showed increased synchrony in the exercise group with the right medial frontal gyrus compared to controls. Exercise behavior may enhance brain development in children. PMID:24096138

  3. Motor learning by observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Andrew A G; Gribble, Paul L

    2005-04-01

    Learning complex motor behaviors like riding a bicycle or swinging a golf club is based on acquiring neural representations of the mechanical requirements of movement (e.g., coordinating muscle forces to control the club). Here we provide evidence that mechanisms matching observation and action facilitate motor learning. Subjects who observed a video depicting another person learning to reach in a novel mechanical environment (imposed by a robot arm) performed better when later tested in the same environment than subjects who observed similar movements but no learning; moreover, subjects who observed learning of a different environment performed worse. We show that this effect is not based on conscious strategies but instead depends on the implicit engagement of neural systems for movement planning and control. PMID:15820701

  4. Pre-fibrillar α-synuclein mutants cause Parkinson's disease-like non-motor symptoms in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Babu Gajula Balija

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is linked to the formation of insoluble fibrillar aggregates of the presynaptic protein α-Synuclein (αS in neurons. The appearance of such aggregates coincides with severe motor deficits in human patients. These deficits are often preceded by non-motor symptoms such as sleep-related problems in the patients. PD-like motor deficits can be recapitulated in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster when αS is pan-neurally expressed. Interestingly, both these deficits are more severe when αS mutants with reduced aggregation properties are expressed in flies. This indicates that that αS aggregation is not the primary cause of the PD-like motor symptoms. Here we describe a model for PD in Drosophila which utilizes the targeted expression of αS mutants in a subset of dopadecarboxylase expressing serotonergic and dopaminergic (DA neurons. Our results show that targeted expression of pre-fibrillar αS mutants not only recapitulates PD-like motor symptoms but also the preceding non-motor symptoms such as an abnormal sleep-like behavior, altered locomotor activity and abnormal circadian periodicity. Further, the results suggest that the observed non-motor symptoms in flies are caused by an early impairment of neuronal functions rather than by the loss of neurons due to cell death.

  5. Adolescent Social Defeat Induced Alterations in Social Behavior and Cognitive Flexibility in Adult Mice: Effects of Developmental Stage and Social Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Sanna; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using “resident-intruder” stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In Experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, postnatal days [PND] 28–37), late adolescence (LA, PND 38–47), and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70–79) and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST), were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning (RL) on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting (EDS) in adulthood but not during adolescence. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress) on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in Experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive

  6. Alterations in body temperature, corticosterone, and behavior following the administration of 5-methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine ('foxy') to adult rats: a new drug of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael T; Herring, Nicole R; Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Campbell, Nicholas G; Lipton, Jack W; McCrea, Anne E; Vorhees, Charles V

    2007-06-01

    Many drugs are used or abused in social contexts without understanding the ramifications of their use. In this study, we examined the effects of a newly popular drug, 5-methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MEO-DIPT; 'foxy' or 'foxy-methoxy'). Two experiments were performed. In the first, 5-MEO-DIPT (0, 10, or 20 mg/kg) was administered to rats four times on a single day and animals were examined 3 days later. The animals that received 5-MEO-DIPT demonstrated hypothermia during the period of drug administration and delayed mild hyperthermic rebound for at least 48 h. Corticosterone levels in plasma were elevated in a dose-dependent manner compared to saline-treated animals with minor changes in 5-HT turnover and no changes in monoamine levels. In experiment 2, rats were examined in behavioral tasks following either 0 or 20 mg/kg of 5-MEO-DIPT. The animals treated with 5-MEO-DIPT showed hypoactivity and an attenuated response to (+)-methamphetamine-induced stimulation (1 mg/kg). In a test of path integration (Cincinnati water maze), 5-MEO-DIPT-treated animals displayed deficits in performance compared to the saline-treated animals. No differences were noted in the ability of the animals to perform in the Morris water maze or on tests of novel object or place recognition. The data demonstrate that 5-MEO-DIPT alters the ability of an animal to perform certain cognitive tasks, while leaving others intact and disrupts the endocrine system. 5-MEO-DIPT may have the potential to induce untoward effects in humans. PMID:17047665

  7. Sleep Physiology Alterations Precede Plethoric Phenotypic Changes in R6/1 Huntington’s Disease Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lebreton, Fanny; Cayzac, Sebastien; Pietropaolo, Susanna; Jeantet, Yannick; Cho, Yoon H.

    2015-01-01

    In hereditary neurodegenerative Huntington’s disease (HD), there exists a growing consideration that sleep and circadian dysregulations may be important symptoms. It is not known, however, whether sleep abnormalities contribute to other behavioral deficits in HD patients and mouse models. To determine the precise chronology for sleep physiology alterations and other sensory, motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms of HD, the same R6/1 HD transgenics and their wild-type littermates were reco...

  8. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab Khodaverdi; Abbas Bahram; Hassan Khalaji; Anoshirvan Kazemnejad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls’ physical activity behavior. Methods A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh’s Self-Description Questionnaire. Children’s physical activit...

  9. Chronic hyperammonemia, glutamatergic neurotransmission and neurological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Cauli, Omar; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Agustí, Ana; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; González-Usano, Alba; Felipo, Vicente

    2013-06-01

    This mini-review focus on our studies on alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission and their role in neurological alterations in rat models of chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hyperammonemia impairs the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in cerebellum, which is responsible for reduced learning ability. We studied the underlying mechanisms and designed treatments to restore the pathway and learning. This was achieved by treatment with: phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, cGMP, anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen), p38 inhibitors or GABAA receptor antagonists (bicuculline). Hyperammonemia alters signal transduction associated to metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Hypokinesia in hyperammonemia and HE is due to increased extracellular glutamate and mGluR1 activation in substantia nigra; blocking this receptor restores motor activity. The motor responses to mGluRs activation in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) are altered in hyperammonemia and HE, with reduced dopamine and increased glutamate release. This leads to activation of different neuronal circuits and enhanced motor responses. These studies show that altered responses to activation of NMDA receptors and mGluRs play essential roles in cognitive and motor alterations in hyperammonemia and HE and provide new treatments restoring cognitive and motor function. PMID:23010935

  10. Age-Dependent Effects of A53T Alpha-Synuclein on Behavior and Dopaminergic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Oaks, Adam W; Maya Frankfurt; Finkelstein, David I.; Anita Sidhu

    2013-01-01

    Expression of A53T mutant human alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion promoter is among the most successful transgenic models of Parkinson's disease. Accumulation of A53T alpha-synuclein causes adult mice to develop severe motor impairment resulting in early death at 8-12 months of age. In younger, pre-symptomatic animals, altered motor activity and anxiety-like behaviors have also been reported. These behavioral changes, which precede severe neuropathology, may stem from non-pathological fun...

  11. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette;

    2014-01-01

    denervation affects neural processing in the denervated striatal motor territory. In contrast, fronto-parietal motor areas display both increases as well as decreases in movement related activation. This points to a more complex relationship between altered cortical physiology and nigrostriatal dopaminergic...... and yielded consistent alterations in neural activity in patients with PD. Differences in cortical activation between PD patients and healthy controls converged in a left-lateralized fronto-parietal network comprising the presupplementary motor area, primary motor cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and...... posterior motor putamen, which improved with dopaminergic medication. The likelihood of detecting a decrease in putaminal activity increased with motor impairment. This reduced motor activation of the posterior putamen across previous neuroimaging studies indicates that nigrostriatal dopaminergic...

  12. Locomotor hypoactivity and motor disturbances--behavioral effects induced by intracerebellar microinjections of dopaminergic DA-D2/D3 receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasiewicz, W; Maj, J

    2001-01-01

    In the light of recent findings, DA-D3 dopamine receptors with an unclear physiological function are present in the cerebellar cortex. Our preliminary results seem to indicate that bilateral injection of 7-OH-DPAT, a DA-D2/D3 receptor agonist (1 and 10 microg/0.5 microl), to lobule 9/10 of rat cerebellar cortex reduces spontaneous locomotor activity (hypolocomotor effects) and induces balance and motor coordination disturbances, respectively. Similar effects can be observed in the case of analogous microinjection of the DA-D3/D2 agonist pramipexole. In earlier studies, peripheral (ip) injection of nafadotride (0.6 mg/kg), a D3 receptor antagonist, neither affected per se spontaneous motor activity, nor modified the above described effects of 7-OH-DPAT. Participation of cerebellar DA-D3 and DA-D2 receptors in hypolocomotor effects, as well as putative participation of other receptors in the generation of motor disturbances, has been discussed. PMID:11990070

  13. Neuroinflammation and neurological alterations in chronic liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Carmina Montoliu; Marta Llansola; Vicente Felipo

    2015-01-01

    Several million people with chronic liver diseases (cirrhosis, hepatitis) show neurological alterations, named hepatic encephalopathy (HE) with cognitive and motor alterations that impair quality of life and reduces life span. Inflammation acts synergistically with hyperammonemia to induce cognitive and motor alterations in patients with chronic liver disease and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Previous studies in animal models have suggested that neuroinflammation is a major player in ...

  14. Dyrk1A Is Dynamically Expressed on Subsets of Motor Neurons and in the Neuromuscular Junction: Possible Role in Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Arqué, Glòria; Casanovas i Llorens, Anna; Dierssen, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) present important motor deficits that derive from altered motor development of infants and young children. DYRK1A, a candidate gene for DS abnormalities has been implicated in motor function due to its expression in motor nuclei in the adult brain, and its overexpression in DS mouse models leads to hyperactivity and altered motor learning. However, its precise role in the adult motor system, or its possible involvement in postnatal locomotor development has...

  15. Pharmacological, morphological and behavioral analysis of motor impairment in experimentally vitamin C deficient guinea pigs Análise farmacológica, morfológica e comportamental do comprometimento motor em cobaios com deficiência de vitamina C induzida experimentalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Barreto Oriá

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The scurvy shows an inflammatory disease and gingival bleeding. Nevertheless, in an animal model for guinea pigs, described by Den Hartog Jager in 1985, scurvy was associated with a motor neuron disease with demyelinization of the pyramidal tract, provoking neurogenic atrophy of muscles. Aiming at searching the protective role of vitamin C in nervous system, a pharmacological, morphological and behavioral study was conducted. Three experimental groups were used: A100, animals receiving 100 mg/ vitamin C/ day; A5.0, animals receiving 5.0 mg/vitamin C/ day; and A0, animals without vitamin C. We analyzed the weight gain, muscular diameter and behavioral tests. In all tests examined, we found significant differences between the supplemented groups in comparison with scorbutic group (pO escorbuto se caracteriza por doença inflamatória e sangramento gengival. Contudo, num modelo animal em cobaios, descrito por Den Hartog Jager em 1985, o estado escorbútico foi associado à doença do neurônio motor com desmielinização do trato piramidal, provocando atrofia neurogênica dos músculos. Objetivando investigar o papel protetor da vitamina C no sistema nervoso, um estudo farmacológico, morfológico e comportamental foi conduzido. Três grupos experimentais foram usados: A100, animais recebendo 100 mg/vitamina C/ dia; A5,0, animais recebendo 5,0 mg/ vitamina C/ dia; e A0, animais sem vitamina C. Nós avaliamos o ganho de peso, diâmetro muscular e realizamos testes comportamentais. Em todos os testes examinados, detectamos diferenças significantes dos grupos suplementados em relação ao grupo escorbútico (p<0,05. Os animais foram sacrificados para histopatologia do músculo gastrocnemius, medula espinhal e tecidos dentários. Também foi realizado estudo morfométrico da espessura do periodonto e do diâmetro dos corpos celulares dos neurônios motores alfa. A carência de vitamina C parece comprometer a morfologia da medula espinhal envolvendo o

  16. Altered Anxiety-like Behavior and Long-term Potentiation in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Adult Mice Exposed to Chronic Social Isolation, Unpredictable Stress and Ethanol Beginning in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Kelly L; Winder, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and chronic stress exposure, especially during adolescence, can lead to an increased risk in adulthood of developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs). To date, however, no study has assessed the potential long-term effects of chronic intermittent and unpredictable ethanol (EtOH) exposure in mice chronically stressed beginning in adolescence on brain function and anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. In particular, alterations in function of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a...

  17. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle ...

  18. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Fact Sheet See a list of all ... can I get more information? What are motor neuron diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  19. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  20. The tuning of human motor response to risk in a dynamic environment task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Dunning

    Full Text Available The role of motor uncertainty in discrete or static space tasks, such as pointing tasks, has been investigated in many experiments. These studies have shown that humans hold an internal representation of intrinsic and extrinsic motor uncertainty and compensate for this variability when planning movement. The aim of this study was to investigate how humans respond to uncertainties during movement execution in a dynamic environment despite indeterminate knowledge of the outcome of actions. Additionally, the role of errors, or lack thereof, in predicting risk was examined. In the experiment, subjects completed a driving simulation game on a two-lane road. The road contained random curves so that subjects were forced to use sensory feedback to complete the task and could not rely only on motor planning. Risk was manipulated by using horizontal perturbations to create the illusion of driving on a bumpy road, thereby imposing motor uncertainty, and altering the cost function of the road. Results suggest continual responsiveness to cost and uncertainty in a dynamic task and provide evidence that subjects avoid risk even in the absence of errors. The results suggest that humans tune their statistical motor behavior based on cost, taking into account probabilities of possible outcomes in response to environmental uncertainty.

  1. Early functional impairment of sensory-motor connectivity in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mentis, George Z.; Blivis, Dvir; Liu, Wenfang; Drobac, Estelle; Crowder, Melissa E.; Kong, Lingling; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; O'Donovan, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    To define alterations of neuronal connectivity that occur during motor neuron degeneration, we characterized the function and structure of spinal circuitry in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) model mice. SMA motor neurons show reduced proprioceptive reflexes that correlate with decreased number and function of synapses on motor neuron somata and proximal dendrites. These abnormalities occur at an early stage of disease in motor neurons innervating proximal hindlimb muscles and medial motor neuro...

  2. Line start permanent magnet synchronous motors: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanpour Isfahani, Arash; Vaez-Zadeh, Sadegh [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, North Kargar Ave., P.O. Box: 14395/515, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    Future energy challenges, likewise the environmental crises such as fossil fuel emissions and global warming urge the world to focus on energy saving programs more than ever. An effective way to face these challenges is to improve electric motors efficiency as one of the greatest energy consumption apparatuses in the world. Induction motors constitute, by far, the largest portion of electric motors both in terms of quantity and total power ratings among all electric motors. However, more efficient motor types gradually appear as alternatives. In this paper, line start permanent magnet motors as a powerful candidate with growing market are investigated in some details. The motor opportunities like high efficiency, high power factor and high power density are explored against the challenges associated with this motor including higher cost, extra manufacturing burden and transient and synchronization behaviors. Finally, some concluding comments and remarks are drawn for future research and manufacturing of line start permanent magnet motors. (author)

  3. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  4. Morphological differences in skeletal muscle atrophy of rats with motor nerve and/or sensory nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhao; Guangming Lv; Shengyang Jiang; Zhiqiang Yan; Junming Sun; Ling Wang; Donglin Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs after denervation. The present study dissected the rat left ventral root and dorsal root at L4-6 or the sciatic nerve to establish a model of simple motor nerve injury, sensory nerve injury or mixed nerve injury. Results showed that with prolonged denervation time, rats with simple motor nerve injury, sensory nerve injury or mixed nerve injury exhibited abnormal behavior, reduced wet weight of the left gastrocnemius muscle, decreased diameter and cross-sectional area and altered ultrastructure of muscle cells, as well as decreased cross-sectional area and increased gray scale of the gastrocnemius muscle motor end plate. Moreover, at the same time point, the pathological changes were most severe in mixed nerve injury, followed by simple motor nerve injury, and the changes in simple sensory nerve injury were the mildest. These findings indicate that normal skeletal muscle morphology is maintained by intact innervation. Motor nerve injury resulted in larger damage to skeletal muscle and more severe atrophy than sensory nerve injury. Thus, reconstruction of motor nerves should be considered first in the clinical treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy caused by denervation.

  5. Music-supported training is more efficient than functional motor training for recovery of fine motor skills in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, S.; Münte, TF.; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni; Sailer, M; Altenmüller, E.

    2010-01-01

    MOTOR IMPAIRMENTS ARE COMMON AFTER STROKE but efficacious therapies for these dysfunctions are scarce. Extending an earlier study on the effects of music-supported training (MST), behavioral indices of motor function were obtained before and after a series of training sessions to assess whether this new treatment leads to improved motor functions. Furthermore, music-supported training was contrasted to functional motor training according to the principles of constraint-induced therapy (CIT). ...

  6. Predicting daily gait behaviors after anterior cruciate ligament surgery: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Eric; Lin, Paige; Hemmati, Sadra; Sigward, Susan

    2015-08-01

    After surgical interventions such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr), people exhibit altered gait mechanics due to joint impairments. Persistence of altered mechanics after resolution of impairments may be related to daily reinforcement of maladaptive behavior. Quantifying the contribution of such maladaptive motor strategies requires continuous monitoring of locomotor behaviors in the home setting. In this paper, we investigate an inertial sensor based approach to monitoring ambient activities. We evaluate the relative performance of our predictive algorithm on one control and one individual post-ACL reconstruction. PMID:26737843

  7. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  8. The transfection of BDNF to dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of dopamine D3 receptor agonist recovering the striatal innervation, dendritic spines and motor behavior in an aged rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Razgado-Hernandez

    Full Text Available The progressive degeneration of the dopamine neurons of the pars compacta of substantia nigra and the consequent loss of the dopamine innervation of the striatum leads to the impairment of motor behavior in Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, an efficient therapy of the disease should protect and regenerate the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Nigral neurons express Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF and dopamine D3 receptors, both of which protect the dopamine neurons. The chronic activation of dopamine D3 receptors by their agonists, in addition, restores, in part, the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Here we explored whether the over-expression of BDNF by dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of the activation of D3 receptors restoring nigrostriatal innervation. Twelve-month old Wistar rats were unilaterally injected with 6-hydroxydopamine into the striatum. Five months later, rats were treated with the D3 agonist 7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propy1-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT administered i.p. during 4½ months via osmotic pumps and the BDNF gene transfection into nigral cells using the neurotensin-polyplex nanovector (a non-viral transfection that selectively transfect the dopamine neurons via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor expressed by these neurons. Two months after the withdrawal of 7-OH-DPAT when rats were aged (24 months old, immunohistochemistry assays were made. The over-expression of BDNF in rats receiving the D3 agonist normalized gait and motor coordination; in addition, it eliminated the muscle rigidity produced by the loss of dopamine. The recovery of motor behavior was associated with the recovery of the nigral neurons, the dopamine innervation of the striatum and of the number of dendritic spines of the striatal neurons. Thus, the over-expression of BDNF in dopamine neurons associated with the chronic activation of the D3 receptors appears to be a promising strategy

  9. Structural connectivity analyses in motor recovery research after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Philipp; Schulz, Robert; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Structural connectivity analyses by means of diffusion‐weighted imaging have substantially advanced the understanding of stroke‐related network alterations and their implications for motor recovery processes and residual motor function. Analyses of the corticospinal tract, alternate corticofugal pathways as well as intrahemispheric and interhemispheric corticocortical connections have not only been related to residual motor function in cross‐sectional studies, but have also been eval...

  10. Motor Abilities in Autism: A Review Using a Computational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Emma; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Altered motor behaviour is commonly reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder, but the aetiology remains unclear. Here, we have taken a computational approach in order to break down motor control into different components and review the functioning of each process. Our findings suggest abnormalities in two areas--poor integration of information for…

  11. 19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... set forth in 49 CFR part 571. A motor vehicle (“vehicle”) or item of motor vehicle equipment... alteration, and the statement required by 19 CFR 12.80(c)(2) or (c)(3) is attached to the declaration. (viii... of Transportation (49 CFR parts 555, 567, 568 and 571) under section 114 of the Act (15 U.S.C....

  12. Resting-state interhemispheric motor connectivity and white matter integrity correlate with motor impairment in chronic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    GottfriedSchlaug; JoyceLChen

    2013-01-01

    Functional and structural reorganization in the brain occurs after stroke. The ability to predict motor outcomes may depend on patterns of brain functional and structural connectivity. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in motor transcallosal and corticospinal connections correlate with motor impairment in patients with chronic stroke. Eleven ischemic stroke patients underwent the Upper Extremity Fugl Meyer assessment, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion ...

  13. Disc Motor: Conventional and Superconductor Simulated Results Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, David; Martins, João; Neves, Mário Ventim; Álvarez, Alfredo; Rodrigues, Amadeu Leão

    Taking into consideration the development and integration of electrical machines with lower dimensions and higher performance, this paper presents the design and development of a three-phase axial flux disc motor, with 50 Hz frequency supply. It is made with two conventional semi-stators and a rotor, which can be implemented with a conventional aluminum disc or a high temperature-superconducting disc. The analysis of the motor characteristics is done with a 2D commercial finite elements package, being the modeling performed as a linear motor. The obtained results allow concluding that the superconductor motor provides a higher force than the conventional one. The conventional disc motor presents an asynchronous behavior, like a conventional induction motor, while the superconductor motor presents both synchronous and asynchronous behaviors.

  14. Sex and Exercise Interact to Alter the Expression of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid-Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Onakomaiya, Marie M.; Porter, Donna M.; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that volunta...

  15. Repeated social defeat increases reactive emotional coping behavior and alters functional responses in serotonergic neurons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Evan D; Hale, Matthew W.; Lukkes, Jodi L.; Valentine, McKenzie J.; Sarchet, Derek M.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress is a vulnerability factor for a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and affective disorders. Social defeat in rats has proven to be a useful paradigm to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying physiologic and behavioral adaptation to acute and chronic stress. Previous studies suggest that serotonergic systems may contribute to the physiologic and behavioral adaptation to chronic stress, including social defeat in rodent models. In order to test the hypothesi...

  16. Neonatal lesions of orbital frontal areas 11/13 in monkeys alter goal-directed behavior but spare fear conditioning and safety signal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M Kazama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in monkeys have demonstrated that damage to the lateral subfields of orbital frontal cortex (OFC areas 11/13 yields profound changes in flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and a lack in fear regulation. Yet, little consideration has been placed on its role in emotional and social development throughout life. The current study investigated the effects of neonatal lesions of the OFC on the flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and fear responses in monkeys. Infant monkeys received neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 or sham-lesions during the first post-natal week. Modulation of goal-directed behaviors was measured with a devaluation task at 3-4 years and 6-7 years. Modulation of fear reactivity by safety signals was assessed with the AX+/BX- potentiated-startle paradigm at 6-7 years. Similar to adult-onset OFC lesions, selective neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 yielded a failure to modulate behavioral responses guided by changes in reward value, but spared the ability to modulate fear responses in the presence of safety signals. These results suggest that these areas play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation during goal-directed behaviors, but not, or less so, in the development of the ability to process emotionally salient stimuli and to modulate emotional reactivity using environmental contexts, which could be supported by other OFC subfields, such as the most ventromedial subfields (i.e. areas 14/25. Given similar impaired decision-making abilities and spared modulation of fear followed both neonatal lesions of either OFC areas 11 and 13 or amygdala (Kazama et al., 2012; Kazama & Bachevalier, 2013, the present results suggest that interactions between these two neural structures play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation; an ability essential for the self-regulation of emotion and behavior that assures the maintenance of successful social relationships.

  17. Altered microglia morphology and higher resilience to stress-induced depression-like behavior in CX3CR1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Sabine; Brioschi, Simone; Dieni, Sandra; Frings, Lars; Masuch, Annette; Blank, Thomas; Biber, Knut

    2016-07-01

    Microglia are suggested to be involved in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed changes in microglia morphology have been reported in different mouse models of depression. A crucial regulatory system for microglia function is the well-defined CX3C axis. Thus, we aimed to clarify the role of microglia and CX3CR1 in depressive behavior by subjecting CX3CR1-deficient mice to a particular chronic despair model (CDM) paradigm known to exhibit face validity to major depressive disorder. In wild-type mice we observed the development of chronic depressive-like behavior after 5days of repetitive swim stress. 3D-reconstructions of Iba-1-labeled microglia in the dentate molecular layer revealed that behavioral effects were associated with changes in microglia morphology towards a state of hyper-ramification. Chronic treatment with the anti-depressant venlafaxine ameliorated depression-like behavior and restored microglia morphology. In contrast, CX3CR1 deficient mice showed a clear resistance to either (i) stress-induced depressive-like behavior, (ii) changes in microglia morphology and (iii) antidepressant treatment. Our data point towards a role of hyper-ramified microglia in the etiology of chronic depression. The lack of effects in CX3CR1 deficient mice suggests that microglia hyper-ramification is controlled by neuron-microglia signaling via the CX3C axis. However, it remains to be elucidated how hyper-ramified microglia contribute to depressive-like behavior. PMID:26576722

  18. Factors affecting athletes’ motor behavior after the observation of scenes of cooperation and competition in competitive sport: the effect of sport attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eDe Stefani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: This study delineated how observing sports scenes of cooperation or competition modulated an action of interaction, in expert athletes, depending on their specific sport attitude. Method: In a kinematic study, athletes were divided into two groups depending on their attitude towards teammates (cooperative or competitive. Participants observed sport scenes of cooperation and competition (basketball, soccer, water polo, volleyball, and rugby and then they reached for, picked up, and placed an object on the hand of a conspecific (giving action. Mixed-design ANOVAs were carried out on the mean values of grasping-reaching parameters. Results: Data showed that the type of scene observed as well as the athletes’ attitude affected reach-to-grasp actions to give. In particular, the cooperative athletes were speeded during reach-to-grasp movements when they observed scenes of cooperation compared to when they observed scenes of competition. Discussion: Participants were speeded when executing a giving action after observing actions of cooperation. This occurred only when they had a cooperative attitude. A match between attitude and intended action seems to be a necessary prerequisite for observing an effect of the observed type of scene on the performed action. It is possible that the observation of scenes of competition activated motor strategies which interfered with the strategies adopted by the cooperative participants to execute a cooperative (giving sequence.

  19. Free Energy Transduction in a Chemical Motor Model

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, J E

    2003-01-01

    Motor enzymes catalyze chemical reactions, like the hydrolysis of ATP, and in the process they also perform work. Recent studies indicate that motor enzymes perform work with specific intermediate steps in their catalyzed reactions, challenging the classic view (in Brownian motor models) that work can only be performed within biochemical states. An alternative class of models (chemical motor models) has emerged in which motors perform work with biochemical transitions, but many of these models lack a solid physicochemical foundation. In this paper, I develop a self consistent framework for chemical motor models. This novel framework accommodates multiple pathways for free energy transfer, predicts rich behaviors from the simplest multi motor systems, and provides important new insights into muscle and motor function.

  20. Review of dissertation The Association Of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, And Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior In Individuals With Williams Syndrome by Juhsin Trista Fu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Juhsin Trista Fu (Taiwan is an American clinical psychologist, doctor of philosophy (PhD, on the national register of health professionals of United States National Provider Identifiers (NPI Registry. The proposed material gives a systematic description of the dynamics of specific behavioral construct in adults in situation of genetic anomalies. The author regards this condition as a volatile state which to a certain extent responds to interventions.

  1. Knockout of the norepinephrine transporter and pharmacologically diverse antidepressants prevent behavioral and brain neurotrophin alterations in two chronic stress models of depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenisch, Britta; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; Caron, Marc G.; Bönisch, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Diverse factors such as changes in neurotrophins and brain plasticity have been proposed to be involved in the actions of antidepressant drugs (ADs). However, in mouse models of depression based on chronic stress, it is still unclear whether simultaneous changes in behavior and neurotrophin expression occur and whether these changes can be corrected or prevented comparably by chronic administration of ADs or genetic manipulations that produce antidepressant-like effects such as the knockout (KO) of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene. Here we show that chronic restraint or social defeat stress induce comparable effects on behavior and changes in the expression of neurotrophins in depression-related brain regions. Chronic stress caused down-regulation of BDNF, NGF and NT-3 in hippocampus and cerebral cortex and up-regulation of these targets in striatal regions. In wild-type mice, these effects could be prevented by concomitant chronic administration of five pharmacologically diverse ADs. In contrast, NETKO mice were resistant to stress-induced depressive-like changes in behavior and brain neurotrophin expression. Thus, the resistance of the NETKO mice to the stress-induced depression-associated behaviors and biochemical changes highlight the importance of noradrenergic pathways in the maintenance of mood. In addition, these mice represent a useful model to study depression-resistant behaviors, and they might help to provide deeper insights into the identification of downstream targets involved in the mechanisms of antidepressants. PMID:19694905

  2. An endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A, affects development in the protochordate Ciona intestinalis: Hatching rates and swimming behavior alter in a dose-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used industrially to produce polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Numerous studies document the harmful effects caused by low-dose BPA exposure especially on nervous systems and behavior in experimental animals such as mice and rats. Here, we exposed embryos of a model chordate, Ciona intestinalis, to seawater containing BPA to evaluate adverse effects on embryonic development and on the swimming behavior of subsequent larvae. Ciona is ideal because its larva develops rapidly and has few cells. The rate of larval hatching decreased in a dose-dependent manner with exposures to BPA above 3 μM; swimming behavior was also affected in larvae emerging from embryos exposed to 1 μM BPA. Adverse effects were most severe on fertilized eggs exposed to BPA within 7 h post-fertilization. Ciona shares twelve nuclear receptors with mammals, and BPA is proposed to disturb the physiological functions of one or more of these. - Highlights: ► Embryos of Ciona intestinalis were exposed to BPA to evaluate its developmental effects. ► The rate of larval hatching decreased in a dose-dependent manner. ► Swimming behavior was affected in larvae that emerge from embryos exposed to 1 μM BPA. ► Our findings will support a new strategy to analyze the developmental effects induced by BPA. - Exposure of fertilized Ciona embryos to BPA decreased their hatch rate in a dose-dependent manner and led to abnormal larval swimming behavior.

  3. The spinning task: a new protocol to easily assess motor coordination and resistance in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazina, Ana R; Vianna, Mônica R; Lara, Diogo R

    2013-12-01

    The increasing use of adult zebrafish in behavioral studies has created the need for new and improved protocols. Our investigation sought to evaluate the swimming behavior of zebrafish against a water current using the newly developed Spinning Task. Zebrafish were individually placed in a beaker containing a spinning magnetic stirrer and their latency to be swept into the whirlpool was recorded. We characterized that larger fish (>4 cm) and lower rpm decreased the swimming time in the Spinning Task. There was also a dose-related reduction in swimming after acute treatment with haloperidol, valproic acid, clonazepam, and ethanol, which alter coordination. Importantly, at doses that reduced swimming time in the Spinning Task, these drugs influenced absolute turn angle (ethanol increased and the other drugs decreased), but had no effect of distance travelled in a regular water tank. These results suggest that the Spinning Task is a useful protocol to add information to the assessment of zebrafish motor behavior. PMID:24044654

  4. Sleep Physiology Alterations Precede Plethoric Phenotypic Changes in R6/1 Huntington's Disease Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Lebreton

    Full Text Available In hereditary neurodegenerative Huntington's disease (HD, there exists a growing consideration that sleep and circadian dysregulations may be important symptoms. It is not known, however, whether sleep abnormalities contribute to other behavioral deficits in HD patients and mouse models. To determine the precise chronology for sleep physiology alterations and other sensory, motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms of HD, the same R6/1 HD transgenics and their wild-type littermates were recorded monthly for sleep electroencephalogram (EEG together with a wide range of behavioral tests according to a longitudinal plan. We found an early and progressive deterioration of both sleep architecture and EEG brain rhythms in R6/1 mice, which are correlated timely with their spatial working memory impairments. Sleep fragmentation and memory impairments were accompanied by the loss of delta (1-4 Hz power in the transgenic mice, the magnitude of which increased with age and disease progression. These precocious sleep and cognitive impairments were followed by deficits in social behavior, sensory and motor abilities. Our data confirm the existence and importance of sleep physiology alterations in the widely used R6/1 mouse line and highlight their precedence over other plethoric phenotypic changes. The brainwave abnormalities, may represent a novel biomarker and point to innovative therapeutic interventions against HD.

  5. Sleep Physiology Alterations Precede Plethoric Phenotypic Changes in R6/1 Huntington's Disease Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Fanny; Cayzac, Sebastien; Pietropaolo, Susanna; Jeantet, Yannick; Cho, Yoon H

    2015-01-01

    In hereditary neurodegenerative Huntington's disease (HD), there exists a growing consideration that sleep and circadian dysregulations may be important symptoms. It is not known, however, whether sleep abnormalities contribute to other behavioral deficits in HD patients and mouse models. To determine the precise chronology for sleep physiology alterations and other sensory, motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms of HD, the same R6/1 HD transgenics and their wild-type littermates were recorded monthly for sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) together with a wide range of behavioral tests according to a longitudinal plan. We found an early and progressive deterioration of both sleep architecture and EEG brain rhythms in R6/1 mice, which are correlated timely with their spatial working memory impairments. Sleep fragmentation and memory impairments were accompanied by the loss of delta (1-4 Hz) power in the transgenic mice, the magnitude of which increased with age and disease progression. These precocious sleep and cognitive impairments were followed by deficits in social behavior, sensory and motor abilities. Our data confirm the existence and importance of sleep physiology alterations in the widely used R6/1 mouse line and highlight their precedence over other plethoric phenotypic changes. The brainwave abnormalities, may represent a novel biomarker and point to innovative therapeutic interventions against HD. PMID:25966356

  6. Traffic of cytoskeletal motors with disordered attachment rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeschik, H.; Harris, R. J.; Santen, L.

    2010-03-01

    Motivated by experimental results on the interplay between molecular motors and tau proteins, we extend lattice-based models of intracellular transport to include a second species of particle which locally influences the motor-filament attachment rate. We consider various exactly solvable limits of a stochastic multiparticle model before focusing on the low-motor-density regime. Here, an approximate treatment based on the random-walk behavior of single motors gives good quantitative agreement with simulation results for the tau dependence of the motor current. Finally, we discuss the possible physiological implications of our results.

  7. Long-Term Provision of Environmental Resources Alters Behavior but not Physiology or Neuroanatomy of Male and Female BALB/c and C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Ingrao, Joelle C; Ruggiero, Laura; Batista, Lucas; Ovari, Jelena; Hammermueller, Jutta; Armstrong, John N; Bienzle, Dorothee; Choleris, Elena; Turner, Patricia V

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of providing environmental resources to mice. This consideration is important given that mice are often maintained in vivaria for months. We evaluated the effects of providing simple cage resources (wood wool, cotton nesting material, a plastic tunnel, and oat cereal) compared with standard housing (solid-bottom cage with hardwood chips) to group-housed adult male and female C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice (n = 20/sex/strain/group) over 6 mo to determine whether these resources had a lasting effect on animal physiology, anatomy, and behavior. Body weights increased in all groups over time but were proportionately higher in male and female BALB/c mice housed in resource-supplemented environments. Throughout the study, adding environmental resources had no effect on hematology and lymphocyte subsets, fecal corticoid metabolite levels, response to LPS injection, or dendritic spine length or density. Strain- or sex×environmentspecific changes occurred in dark-light activity and thermal nociceptive responses. Dominant agonistic behaviors, abnormal conspecific sexual behaviors, and social nonagonistic behaviors demonstrated sex and strain×environment interactions such that fewer maladaptive social behaviors were noted in mice that were provided with environmental resources. This association was particularly evident in male mice of both strains in resource-supplemented environments. A small but significant increase in brain weight:body weight ratios occurred in mice in resource-supplemented environments. Under the conditions evaluated here, consistent use of simple environmental resources had a positive long-term effect on the behavioral wellbeing of male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice yet minimally affected other aspects of murine physiology and neuroanatomy. PMID:26632781

  8. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  9. Directed flux motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  10. Unstable force analysis for induction motor eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Palazzolo, Alan

    2016-05-01

    The increasing popularity of motors in machinery trains has led to an intensified interest in the forces they produce that may influence machinery vibration. Motor design typically assumes a uniform air gap, however in practice all motors operate with the rotor slightly displaced from the motor centerline in what is referred to as an eccentric position. Rotor center eccentricity can cause a radially unbalanced magnetic field when the motor is operating. This will results in both a radial force pulling the motor further away from the center, and a tangential force which can induce a vibration stability problem. In this paper, a magnetic equivalent circuit MEC modeling method is proposed to calculate both the radial and tangential motor eccentric force. The treatment of tangential force determination is rarely addressed, but it is very important for rotordynamic vibration stability evaluation. The proposed model is also coupled with the motor electric circuit model to provide capability for transient vibration simulations. FEM is used to verify the MEC model. A parametric study is performed on the motor radial and tangential eccentric forces. Also a Jeffcott rotor model is used to study the influence of the motor eccentric force on mechanical vibration stability and nonlinear behavior. Furthermore, a stability criteria for the bearing damping is provided. The motor radial and tangential eccentric forces are both curved fitted to include their nonlinearity in time domain transient simulation for both a Jeffcott rotor model and a geared machinery train with coupled torsional-lateral motion. Nonlinear motions are observed, including limit cycles and bifurcation induced vibration amplitude jumps.

  11. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  12. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  13. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ming-Huan [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Neuroscience, National Changchi University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Shiang-Sheng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Yuli Veterans Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Chen, Hwei-Hsien, E-mail: hwei@nhri.org.tw [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Division of Mental Health and Addiction Medicine, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  14. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  15. Continuous theta-burst stimulation of the primary motor cortex in essential tremor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellriegel, Helge; Schulz, Eva M; Siebner, Hartwig R; Deuschl, Günther; Raethjen, Jan H

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether essential tremor (ET) can be altered by suppressing the corticospinal excitability in the primary motor cortex (M1) with transcranial magnetic stimulation.......We investigated whether essential tremor (ET) can be altered by suppressing the corticospinal excitability in the primary motor cortex (M1) with transcranial magnetic stimulation....

  16. Phantom limb perception interferes with motor imagery after unilateral upper-limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiaoli; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Flor, Herta; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-01-01

    A potential contributor to impaired motor imagery in amputees is an alteration of the body schema as a result of the presence of a phantom limb. However, the nature of the relationship between motor imagery and phantom experiences remains unknown. In this study, the influence of phantom limb perception on motor imagery was investigated using a hand mental rotation task by means of behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Compared with healthy controls, significantly prolonged response time for both the intact and missing hand were observed specifically in amputees who perceived a phantom limb during the task but not in amputees without phantom limb perception. Event-related desynchronization of EEG in the beta band (beta-ERD) in central and parietal areas showed an angular disparity specifically in amputees with phantom limb perception, with its source localized in the right inferior parietal lobule. The response time as well as the beta-ERD values were significantly positively correlated with phantom vividness. Our results suggest that phantom limb perception during the task is an important interferential factor for motor imagery after amputation and the interference might be related to a change of the body representation resulting from an unnatural posture of the phantom limb. PMID:26879749

  17. Tau reduction does not prevent motor deficits in two mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan Morris

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases are increasing in prevalence and cannot be prevented or cured. If they shared common pathogenic mechanisms, treatments targeting such mechanisms might be of benefit in multiple conditions. The tau protein has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD. Tau reduction prevents cognitive deficits, behavioral abnormalities and other pathological changes in multiple AD mouse models. Here we examined whether tau reduction also prevents motor deficits and pathological alterations in two mouse models of PD, generated by unilateral striatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA or transgene-mediated neuronal expression of human wildtype α-synuclein. Both models were evaluated on Tau(+/+, Tau(+/- and Tau(-/- backgrounds in a variety of motor tests. Tau reduction did not prevent motor deficits caused by 6-OHDA and slightly worsened one of them. Tau reduction also did not prevent 6-OHDA-induced loss of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum. Similarly, tau reduction did not prevent motor deficits in α-synuclein transgenic mice. Our results suggest that tau has distinct roles in the pathogeneses of AD and PD and that tau reduction may not be of benefit in the latter condition.

  18. Enhancing plant resistance at the seed stage: low concentrations of methyl jasmonate reduce the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta but do not alter the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Paudel, Sulav; Rajotte, Edwin G; Felton, Gary W; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2014-10-01

    Plants express inducible direct and indirect defenses in response to herbivory. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related signaling compounds referred to as jasmonates play a central role in regulating defense responses to a wide range of herbivores.We assessed whether treating tomato seeds with 0.8 mM of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) affected the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta, and whether possible changes in volatile profiles altered the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa. MeJA-treatment significantly lengthened larval development and decreased the pupal weight of T. absoluta. Herbivory alone increased the emissions of α-pinene, 6-methyl 5-hepten-2-one, β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, isoterpinolene, TMTT, (Z)-3-hexenyl butyrate, and hexyl salicylate. MeJA seed treatment significantly decreased the emissions of α-cubebene from undamaged and herbivore-infested plants. In addition, the emissions of several compounds were lower in the absence of herbivory. Chrysoperla. externa preferred odors from herbivore-infested plants over those from control plants, regardless of the MeJA-treatment, and they did not show any preference for herbivore-infested plants for any of the MeJA-treatments. Our results show preliminary evidence that the treatment of tomato seeds with MeJA can reduce the performance of Tuta absoluta, and that the chemical differences observed in plant VOC profiles do not alter the behavior of the model predator. PMID:25319361

  19. 6-羟多巴胺诱导帕金森病大鼠模型行为学评价方法的探讨%Assessment of 6-hydroxydopamine-Lesion Induced Behavioral Alteration as a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨谦谦; 孙芳龄; 艾厚喜; 张丽; 王文

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To systematically evaluate 6-hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA)-induced behavioral alteration as a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Methods:6-OHDA was microinjected into the left side of the substantia nigra striatum to damage the dopaminergic neurons in the SD rats. Three weeks later,intraperitoneal injection of apomorphine(APO)to observe the rotational behavior. The motoric function of animals was analyzed with rotarod test and open field test, and the rat’s muslce vibration frequency and amplitude were determined using the myoelectricity test. The severity of the behavioral alterations of the individual animals was also categorized. Results:The time of rats that remained on the rotarod was significantly reduced in model group as compared to sham group. In the open field test,the horizontal travel distance was decreased in the model group. The myoelectricity test result showed that the muscle vibration frequency and amplitude was increased in animals receiving 6-OHDA microinjection. Conclusion:These results provided behavioral evidence in future studies to evaluate and categorize Parkinson-like behaviors in rats.%目的:复制帕金森病(Parkinsonʼs disease,PD)大鼠模型并根据行为学检查结果对此模型进行较为全面的评价,以期建立治疗此疾病的新型实验平台。方法:运用6-羟多巴胺(6-hydroxydopamine)单点定向注射黑质-纹状体的方法,损毁SD大鼠左侧中脑多巴胺能神经元,动物术后3周腹腔注射(intrapertioneal injection,ip)阿扑吗啡(apomorphine,APO)观察是否诱导动物向健侧旋转行为,复制PD模型。分别应用转棒实验和旷场实验分析测定动物的运动功能,应用肌电测试实验测定大鼠的震颤频率和幅度,并据此对动物模型进行评价和分类。结果:造模后,部分大鼠转棒实验在棒时间显著缩短,旷场实验横向跨格次数减少,出现运动功能障碍;肌电检测结果显示部分

  20. Opposing effects of dopamine antagonism in a motor sequence task - tiapride increases cortical excitability and impairs motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Lissek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dopaminergic system is involved in learning and participates in the modulation of cortical excitability (CE. CE has been suggested as a marker of learning and use-dependent plasticity. However, results from separate studies on either motor CE or motor learning challenge this notion, suggesting opposing effects of dopaminergic modulation upon these parameters: while agonists decrease and antagonists increase CE, motor learning is enhanced by agonists and disturbed by antagonists. To examine whether this discrepancy persists when complex motor learning and motor CE are measured in the same experimental setup, we investigated the effects of dopaminergic (DA antagonism upon both parameters and upon task-associated brain activation. Our results demonstrate that DA-antagonism has opposing effects upon motor CE and motor sequence learning. Tiapride did not alter baseline CE, but increased CE post training of a complex motor sequence while simultaneously impairing motor learning. Moreover, tiapride reduced activation in several brain regions associated with motor sequence performance, i.e. dorsolateral PFC, supplementary motor area, Broca's area, cingulate and caudate body. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent ( BOLD intensity in anterior cingulate and caudate body, but not CE, correlated with performance across groups. In summary, our results do not support a concept of CE as a general marker of motor learning, since they demonstrate that a straightforward relation of increased CE and higher learning success does not apply to all instances of motor learning. At least for complex motor tasks that recruit a network of brain regions outside motor cortex, CE in primary motor cortex is probably no central determinant for learning success.