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Sample records for alters l-a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic

  1. Neurotransmitter alteration in a testosterone propionate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirja K; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), one of the leading causes of infertility seen in women, is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism, resulting in ovarian dysfunction. In addition, associations of several metabolic complications like insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and psychological co-morbidities are well known in PCOS. One of the major factors influencing mood and the emotional state of mind is neurotransmitters. Also, these neurotransmitters are very crucial for GnRH release. Hence, the current study investigates the status of neurotransmitters in PCOS. A PCOS rat model was developed using testosterone. Twenty-one-day-old rats were subcutaneously injected with 10 mg/kg body weight of testosterone propionate (TP) for 35 days. The animals were validated for PCOS characteristics by monitoring estrus cyclicity, serum testosterone and estradiol levels and by histological examination of ovarian sections. Neurotransmitter estimation was carried out using fluorometric and spectrophotometric methods. TP-treated animals demonstrated increased serum testosterone levels with unaltered estradiol content, disturbed estrus cyclicity and many peripheral cysts in the ovary compared to control rats mimicking human PCOS. Norepinephrine (NE), dopamine, serotonin, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and epinephrine levels were significantly low in TP-induced PCOS rats compared to control ones, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the PCOS brain was markedly elevated. Neurotransmitter alteration could be one of the reasons for disturbed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, consequently directing the ovarian dysfunction in PCOS. Also, decrease in neurotransmitters, mainly NE, serotonin and dopamine (DA) attributes to mood disorders like depression and anxiety in PCOS.

  2. Propionate Increases Hepatic Pyruvate Cycling and Anaplerosis and Alters Mitochondrial Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Rachel J; Borders, Candace B; Cline, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    /tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly assess pyruvate cycling relative to mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism (VPyr-Cyc/VMito) in vivo using [3-(13)C]lactate as a tracer. Using this approach, VPyr-Cyc/VMito was only 6% in overnight fasted rats. In contrast, when propionate was infused simultaneously...... at doses previously used as a tracer, it increased VPyr-Cyc/VMito by 20-30-fold, increased hepatic TCA metabolite concentrations 2-3-fold, and increased endogenous glucose production rates by 20-100%. The physiologic stimuli, glucagon and epinephrine, both increased hepatic glucose production, but only...... tracer to assess hepatic glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and mitochondrial metabolism in vivo....

  3. Microbial Propionic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid (propionate is a commercially valuable carboxylic acid produced through microbial fermentation. Propionic acid is mainly used in the food industry but has recently found applications in the cosmetic, plastics and pharmaceutical industries. Propionate can be produced via various metabolic pathways, which can be classified into three major groups: fermentative pathways, biosynthetic pathways, and amino acid catabolic pathways. The current review provides an in-depth description of the major metabolic routes for propionate production from an energy optimization perspective. Biological propionate production is limited by high downstream purification costs which can be addressed if the target yield, productivity and titre can be achieved. Genome shuffling combined with high throughput omics and metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities, and biological propionate production is likely to enter the market in the not so distant future. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression, however, a greater understanding of metabolic capabilities of the native producers, the fittest producers, is required.

  4. 21 CFR 582.3081 - Propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propionic acid. 582.3081 Section 582.3081 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Propionic acid. (a) Product. Propionic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  5. Thermal decomposition of lutetium propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of lutetium(III) propionate monohydrate (Lu(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Dehydration takes place around 90 °C. It is followed by the decomposition of the anhydrous...... °C. Full conversion to Lu2O3 is achieved at about 1000 °C. Whereas the temperatures and solid reaction products of the first two decomposition steps are similar to those previously reported for the thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) propionate monohydrate, the final decomposition...... of the oxycarbonate to the rare-earth oxide proceeds in a different way, which is here reminiscent of the thermal decomposition path of Lu(C3H5O2)·2CO(NH2)2·2H2O...

  6. Clinical Spectrum of Propionic Acidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the clinical features, physical findings, diagnosis, and laboratory parameters of the patients with propionic acidaemia (PA. Methods. The records of diagnosed cases of propionic acidaemia were reviewed, retrospectively. Results. Twenty-six patients with PA had 133 admissions. The majority (85% of the patients exhibited clinical manifestations in the 1st week of life. Regarding clinical features, lethargy, fever, poor feeding, vomiting, dehydration, muscular hypotonia, respiratory symptoms, encephalopathy, disturbance of tone and reflexes, and malnutrition were observed in 51–92% admissions. Metabolic crises, respiratory diseases, hyperammonaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypocalcaemia were observed in 30–96% admissions. Pancytopenia, ketonuria, hypoproteinemia, hypoglycaemia, and mildly disturbed liver enzymes were found in 12–41% admissions. Generalised brain oedema was detected in 17% and cerebral atrophy in 25% admissions. Gender-wise odd ratio analysis showed value of 1.9 for lethargy, 1.99 for respiratory diseases, 0.55 for anaemia, and 1.82 for hypocalcaemia. Conclusion. Propionic acidaemia usually presents with wide spectrum of clinical features and disturbances of laboratory parameters in early neonatal age. It is associated with significant complications which deteriorate the patients’ quality of life. Perhaps with early diagnosis of the disease and in time intervention, these may be preventable.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1081 - Propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Propionic acid. 184.1081 Section 184.1081 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1081 Propionic acid. (a) Propionic acid (C3H6O2, CAS Reg. No. 79-09-4) is...

  8. Pathway of propionate formation in Desulfobulbus propionicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Kremer, D.R.; Nicolaij, K.; Weenk, G.; Hansen, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Whole cells of Desulfobulbus propionicus fermented [1-13C]ethanol to [2-13C] and [3-13C]propionate and [1-13C]-acetate, which indicates the involvement of a randomizing pathway in the formation of propionate. Cell-free extracts prepared from cells grown on lactate (without sulfate) contained high

  9. Autism in patients with propionic acidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witters, P.; Debbold, E.; Crivelly, K.; Kerckhove, K. Vande; Corthouts, K.; Debbold, B.; Andersson, H.; Vannieuwenborg, L.; Geuens, S.; Baumgartner, M.; Kozicz, L.T.; Settles, L.; Morava, E.

    2016-01-01

    Certain inborn errors of metabolism have been suggested to increase the risk of autistic behavior. In an animal model, propionic acid ingestion triggered abnormal behavior resembling autism. So far only a few cases were reported with propionic acidemia and autistic features. From a series of twelve

  10. Vibrational spectroscopic study of fluticasone propionate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. R. H.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Kendrick, J.; Scowen, I. J.

    2009-03-01

    Fluticasone propionate is a synthetic glucocorticoid with potent anti-inflammatory activity that has been used effectively in the treatment of chronic asthma. The present work reports a vibrational spectroscopic study of fluticasone propionate and gives proposed molecular assignments on the basis of ab initio calculations using BLYP density functional theory with a 6-31G* basis set and vibrational frequencies predicted within the quasi-harmonic approximation. Several spectral features and band intensities are explained. This study generated a library of information that can be employed to aid the process monitoring of fluticasone propionate.

  11. Solubility of ethylene in methyl propionate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Peters, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the solubility of ethylene in methyl propionate was measured within a temperature range of 283.5–464.8 K and pressures up to 10.7 MPa. Experiments were carried out using the Cailletet apparatus, which uses a synthetic method for the experiments. The critical points of several isopleths

  12. Kinetics of metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 in steers as affected by injecting phlorizin and feeding propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veenhuizen, J.J.; Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of injecting phlorizin subcutaneously and/or feeding propionate on metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 were determined for four steers used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Isotope dilution techniques were used to determine a four-pool kinetic solution for the flux of carbon among plasma glucose, rumen propionate, blood CO2 and rumen CO2. Injecting 1 g of phlorizin twice daily for 19 d resulted in 7.1 mol glucose C/d being excreted in urine. The basal glucose production of 13.4 mol C/d was increased to 17.9 mol C/d with phlorizin. There was no change in glucose oxidation or propionate production. The percentage of plasma glucose derived from propionate was unaffected by phlorizin, but 54 +/- 0.4% of total propionate was converted to plasma glucose during phlorizin treatment versus 40 +/- 0.6% during the basal treatment. When propionate was fed (18.3 mol C/d) glucose production increased to 21.2 mol C/d from the basal value of 13.4 mol C/d, and propionate oxidation to CO2 increased to 14.9 mol C/d from the basal value of 4.1 mol C/d. Glucose derived from propionate was 43 +/- 5% for the basal treatment and 67 +/- 3% during propionate feeding. The percentage of propionate converted to plasma glucose and blood and rumen CO2 was not affected by feeding propionate. An increased need for glucose, because of glucose excretion during phlorizin treatment, caused an increased utilization of propionate for gluconeogenesis, but an increased availability of propionate caused an increase in glucose production without affecting the relative distribution of carbon from propionate

  13. Kinetics of propionate conversion in anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of anaerobic propionate degradation by biomass from 7 continuously stirred tank reactors differing in temperature, hydraulic retention time and substrate composition were investigated. In substrate-depletion experiments (batch) the maximum propionate degradation rate, A......-m, was estimated. The results demonstrate that the rate of endogenous substrate (propionate) production should be taken into account when estimating kinetic parameters in biomass from manure-based anaerobic reactors....

  14. Determination of propionate in bread using capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, M.T.; Ackermans-Loonen, J.C.J.M; Beckers, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the determination of propionate in bread is described. The propionate was extracted from the bread with a repeated extraction procedure and measured using capillary zone electrophoresis in the indirect UV mode applying a background electrolyte of 0.005 M Tris adjusted at pH 4.6 by

  15. Enhancement of Esterification of Propionic Acid with Isopropyl Alcohol by Pervaporation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Rathod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing cost of raw materials and energy, there is an increasing inclination of chemical process industries toward new processes that result in lesser waste generation, greater efficiency, and substantial yield of the desired products. Esterification is a chemical reaction in which two reactants carboxylic acid and alcohol react to form an ester and water. This reaction is a reversible reaction and the equilibrium conversion can be altered by varying the process parameters. Pervaporation reactor can enhance the conversion by shifting the equilibrium of reversible esterification reactions. Polyvinyl alcohol-polyether sulfone composite hydrophilic membrane was used for pervaporation-assisted esterification of propionic acid with isopropyl alcohol. The experiments were carried out in the presence of sulphuric acid as a catalyst at 50°C to 80°C with various reactants ratios. The esterification was carried out for catalyst loadings of 0.089 kmol/m3 to 0.447 kmol/m3. The molar ratios of isopropyl to propionic acid used for the experiment were 1 to 1.5. Maximum conversion was obtained for the ratio of 1.4. Also effect of other parameters such as process temperature and catalyst concentration was discussed. It was found that the use of pervaporation reactor increased the conversion of the propionic acid considerably.

  16. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    with after placebo (7% to 35%, P =.002) and a significantly higher proportion of exacerbation-free patients (61% to 76%, P =.02). Children with less frequent symptoms, no family history of asthma, or both showed no significant treatment effect. There seemed to be no association between response...... to fluticasone propionate and history of rhinitis or eczema or the number of previous exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: Children with frequent symptoms, a family history of asthma, or both showed the greatest response to fluticasone propionate treatment. These findings may help to predict treatment outcome and guide...

  17. Role of formate and hydrogen in the syntrophic degradation of propionate and butyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiuzhu Dong,

    1994-01-01

    Under methanogenic conditions, complex organic matter is mineralized by fermentative, acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria. Propionate and butyrate are two important intermediates; they account for 35% and 8% of the total methane formation, respectively. Propionate and butyrate are

  18. Electrochemical reduction of Eu (III) in propionic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotto, M.E.; Rabockai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some chronopotentiometric studies of Eu (III) electro-reducion in propionic media that suggests the presence of two parallel rections: Eu (III) → Eu (II) and Eu (III) → Eu (II) → Y are presented. Some experimental data, such Eu (III) reducion, electrolysis of solutions and ionic power of the system are discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  19. Neuroprotective effect of creatine against propionic acid toxicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With sufficient research and clinical trials in future, this could prove to be successful in treatment or management of autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder recently related to PA neurotoxicity. Keywords: Propionic acid, creatine, SH-SY5Y, comet assay, DNA fragmentation assay, apoptosis, neuroprotection. African Journal ...

  20. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod; Alabbad, Mohammed; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored

  1. Neuroprotective effect of creatine against propionic acid toxicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edoja

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Neuroprotective effect of creatine against propionic acid toxicity in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in culture. Afaf El-Ansary*, Ghada Abu-Shmais and Abeer Al-Dbass. Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Zip code 11495, Riyadh, ...

  2. Budesonide and fluticasone propionate differentially affect the airway epithelial barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I. H.; Jonker, M.R.; Vries, de Maaike; van Oosterhout, A. J. M.; Telenga, E.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Postma, D. S.; van den Berge, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: COPD patients have a higher risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than with placebo, and a lower risk with budesonide (BUD). We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the mucosal barrier in response to viral infection and/or cigarette smoke. Methods:

  3. Interspecies electron transfer in methanogenic propionate degrading consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Propionate is a key intermediate in the conversion of complex organic matter under methanogenic conditions. Oxidation of this compound requires obligate syntrophic consortia of acetogenic proton- and bicarbonate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Although H-2 acts as an electron-carrier in

  4. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) propionate and butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of yttrium(III) propionate monohydrate (Y(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) and yttrium(III) butyrate dihydrate (Y(C3H7CO2)3·2H2O) were studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage microscopy. These two...

  5. Indução de alterações morfológicas e anatômicas em folhas de abacaxizeiro 'Pérola' pelo ácido 2-(3-clorofenoxi propiônico Induction of leaf morphological and anatomical alterations on 'Pérola' pineapple leaves by the 2-(3-chlorophenoxy propionic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Maria Laranjeira Barbosa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em estudo que visou controlar a floração natural do abacaxizeiro 'Pérola' com fitorreguladores, nas plantas pulverizadas com 50 e 100 mg L-1 (3 aplicações do ácido 2-(3-clorofenoxi propiônico (ACP, foram observadas alterações internas e externas nas folhas. O limbo foliar apresentou ligeiro estrangulamento na porção mediana das folhas 'E' e 'F' e próximo ao ponto de inserção no caule nas C' e 'D'. A cerca de 5-10 cm desse ponto surgiram estruturas similares a calos, que originaram raízes adventícias. A roseta central das plantas apresentou-se torcida, com as folhas mais curtas e largas. Cortes anatômicos permitiram observar, sob microscópio óptico (40X, que as raízes adventícias foram formadas a partir de meristemas nos feixes vasculares (xilema e floema, e que a estrutura anatômica foliar nos pontos de estrangulamento do limbo não foi alterada. Parênquima assimilador formou-se no córtex dessas raízes adventícias, indicando a realização de fotossíntese nesse tecido. A localização das raízes adventícias nas folhas correspondeu às áreas de provável acúmulo do produto pulverizado sobre as plantas. Os efeitos causados pelo ACP neste trabalho sugerem o seu uso em estudos relacionados à indução de enraizamento na propagação vegetativa (convencional e micropropagação e na formação de calos "in vitro". E servem, também, para orientar novos estudos sobre a inibição da floração natural e seu uso prático, a fim de se evitar danos às plantas.In a study w ith the objective of controlling the natural precocious flowering in pineapple 'Perola', the plants treated with the 2-(3-chlorophenoxy propionic acid - CPA (50 and 100 mg L-1, 3 applications showed some internal and external modifications in the leaves. The young 'E' and 'F' leaves presented small constrictions on the central portion of their limbs, while on the 'C' and 'D' ones, those constrictions were observed near to their bases. At about 5-10 cm

  6. Oxidation of propionic acid-3-14C with alkaline permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of oxidation of propionic acid with permanganate in alkaline medium was reinvestigated using methyl- 14 C labelled propionate. The preferential rupture of the αC-βC bond in propionate in highly concentrated alkaline solutions of NaOH (and KOH) was confirmed and the appearance of 14 C-labelled oxalate explained by the formation of the symmetrical intermediate which decomposes in two different modes. (author)

  7. Growth and characterization of organic NLO material: Clobetasol propionate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, R.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of clobetasol propionate (CP) have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique using mixed solvent of methanol-acetone. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm their lattice parameter and space group. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the grown CP has been indexed. Thermal analysis was performed to study the thermal stability of the grown crystals. Photoluminescence spectrum shows broad emission peak observed at 421 nm. Nonlinear optical studies were carried out for the grown crystal and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was found in the crystal.

  8. Agglomerate behaviour of fluticasone propionate within dry powder inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, V N P; Robins, E; Flament, M P

    2012-04-01

    Due to their small size, the respirable drug particles tend to form agglomerates which prevent flowing and aerosolisation. A carrier is used to be mixed with drug in one hand to facilitate the powder flow during manufacturing, in other hand to help the fluidisation upon patient inhalation. Depending on drug concentration, drug agglomerates can be formed in the mixture. The aim of this work was to study the agglomeration behaviour of fluticasone propionate (FP) within interactive mixtures for inhalation. The agglomerate phenomenon of fluticasone propionate after mixing with different fractions of lactose without fine particles of lactose (smaller than 32 μm) was demonstrated by the optical microscopy observation. A technique measuring the FP size in the mixture was developed, based on laser diffraction method. The FP agglomerate sizes were found to be in a linear correlation with the pore size of the carrier powder bed (R(2)=0.9382). The latter depends on the particle size distribution of carrier. This founding can explain the role of carrier size in de-agglomeration of drug particles in the mixture. Furthermore, it gives more structural information of interactive mixture for inhalation that can be used in the investigation of aerosolisation mechanism of powder. According to the manufacturing history, different batches of FP show different agglomeration intensities which can be detected by Spraytec, a new laser diffraction method for measuring aerodynamic size. After mixing with a carrier, Lactohale LH200, the most cohesive batch of FP, generates a lower fine particle fraction. It can be explained by the fact that agglomerates of fluticasone propionate with very large size was detected in the mixtures. By using silica-gel beads as ball-milling agent during the mixing process, the FP agglomerate size decreases accordingly to the quantity of mixing aid. The homogeneity and the aerodynamic performance of the mixtures are improved. The mixing aid based on ball

  9. Regulation and optimization of the biogas process: Propionate as a key parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    .6 to 2.9 mM. A process disturbance caused by overloading with industrial waste was reflected by a significant increase in all VFA concentrations. During the recovery of the process, the return of propionate back to the steady-state level was 2-3 days slower than any other VFA and propionate could best......, a process breakdown caused by organic overloading with meat and bone meal and lipids was indicated by changes in propionate concentration 12-18 days before a decrease in methane production was observed. Furthermore, a more efficient and stable utilization of the substrate was observed when propionate...

  10. Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of volatile fatty acids on propionate metabolism and gluconeogenesis in caprine hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, R.J.; Armentano, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Isolated caprine hepatocytes were incubated with fatty acids of various chain lengths. Short-chain fatty acids effects on rates of gluconeogenesis and oxidation from [2- 14 C] propionate were determined. Additions of glucose (2.5 mM) had no effect on hepatic [2- 14 C]-propionate metabolism in the presence and absence of amino acids. A complete mixture of amino acids increased label incorporation from [2- 14 C] propionate into [ 14 C] glucose by 22%. Butyrate inhibited [2- 14 C] propionate metabolism and increased the apparent Michaelis constant for [2- 14 C] propionate incorporation into [ 14 C] glucose from 2.4 +/- 1.5 to 5.6 +/- .9 mM. Butyrate's effects on propionate were similar in the presence and absence of L-carnitine (1 mM). Isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, and valerate (1.25 mM) had no effect on [ 14 C] glucose production but decreased 14 CO 2 production to 57, 61, and 54% of the control [2- 14 C] propionate (1.25 mM). This inhibition on 14 CO 2 was not competitive. Isovalerate had no effect on either [2- 14 C] propionate incorporation into glucose of CO 2 . An increase in ratio of [ 14 C] glucose to 14 CO 2 from [2- 14 C]-propionate demonstrated that short-chain fatty acids other than butyrate do not inhibit gluconeogenesis from propionate. In addition, fatty acids that generate a net synthesis of intracellular oxaloacetate may partition propionate carbons toward gluconeogenic rather than oxidative pathways in goat hepatocytes

  12. Alterações morfológicas induzidas por butirato, propionato e lactato sobre a mucosa ruminal e epiderme de bezerros: II. Aspectos ultra-estruturais Lactate, propionate, and butyrate induced morphological alterations on calf ruminal mucosa and epidermis: II. Ultra-structurals aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Costa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV sobre a integridade do epitélio no rúmen, no plano nasolabial, na epicera e no perioplum traseiro e dianteiro de bezerros e validou-se a feitura de biópsias tegumentares como indicadores de alterações morfológicas da mucosa ruminal. Dezessete bezerros, com sonda no rúmen, receberam infusões intra-ruminais de AGV ou salina, durante 37 dias. Aos 89 dias de vida, após o abate, foram colhidas amostras dos tecidos. Os AGV aumentaram a área de epitélio total e a área de células metabolicamente ativas no epitélio ruminal, embora o butirato não tenha induzido ao desenvolvimento papilar. A área de epitélio não queratinizado no plano nasolabial foi reduzida pela infusão de AGV. Butirato e lactato foram mais indutores de alterações patológicas no epitélio ruminal. Não foram observadas lesões histológicas nos epitélios do plano nasolabial, da epicera e do perioplum, mostrando que essas são conseqüências do efeito direto dos AGV sobre o epitélio ruminal. Os efeitos indireto e direto dos AGV sobre a morfologia dos tecidos epiteliais queratinizados não foram iguais. Biópsias tegumentares podem ter utilidade como indicadores de alterações morfológicas da mucosa ruminal.The effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA on rumen wall, epidermis of nasolabial surface, perioplum, and epicera of calves was evaluated. The experiment also aimed to validate the procedure of tegument biopsies as indicators of ruminal mucosa alterations. Seventeen neonatal calves with foley catheters received intraruminal infusions of VFA or saline, during 37 days. At 89-day-old, the animals were slaughtered and tissue samples were collected from rumen, nasolabial surface, epicera, and perioplum from face and hindquarters. VFA infusion increased total epithelium area and metabolically active ruminal cell area; although butirate did not induce the papilar development. The effect of nasolabial surface VFA

  13. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0650; FRL-8855-5] Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea.... 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034, and methyl parathion, case no. 0153... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion...

  14. Bubble point pressures of binary system of methanol and methyl propionate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, bubble point pressures of the system of methanol + methyl propionate were measured for several isopleths within temperature and pressure ranges of 382-444 K and 0.437-2.285 MPa, respectively. The vapor pressures of pure methanol and methyl propionate were also measured. The two-suffix

  15. Propionate induces cell swelling and K+ accumulation in shark rectal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.M.; Ziyadeh, F.N.; Mills, J.W.; Booz, G.W.; Kleinzeller, A.

    1989-01-01

    Small organic anions have been reported to induce cell solute accumulation and swelling. To investigate the mechanism of swelling, we utilized preparations of rectal gland cells from Squalus acanthias incubated in medium containing propionate. Propionate causes cells to swell by diffusing across membranes in its nonionic form, acidifying cell contents, and activating the Na+-H+ antiporter. The Na+-H+ exchange process tends to correct intracellular pH (pHi), and thus it maintains a favorable gradient for propionic acid diffusion and allows propionate to accumulate. Activation of the Na+-H+ antiport also facilitates Na+ entry into the cell and Nai accumulation. At the same time Na+-K+-ATPase activity, unaffected by propionate, replaces Nai with Ki, whereas the K+ leak rate, decreased by propionate, allows Ki to accumulate. As judged by 86 Rb+ efflux, the reduction in K+ leak was not due to propionate-induced cell acidification or reduction in Cli concentration. Despite inducing cell swelling, propionate did not disrupt cell structural elements and F actin distribution along cell membranes

  16. Propionate induces cell swelling and K+ accumulation in shark rectal gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, G.M.; Ziyadeh, F.N.; Mills, J.W.; Booz, G.W.; Kleinzeller, A. (Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salsbury Cove, ME (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Small organic anions have been reported to induce cell solute accumulation and swelling. To investigate the mechanism of swelling, we utilized preparations of rectal gland cells from Squalus acanthias incubated in medium containing propionate. Propionate causes cells to swell by diffusing across membranes in its nonionic form, acidifying cell contents, and activating the Na+-H+ antiporter. The Na+-H+ exchange process tends to correct intracellular pH (pHi), and thus it maintains a favorable gradient for propionic acid diffusion and allows propionate to accumulate. Activation of the Na+-H+ antiport also facilitates Na+ entry into the cell and Nai accumulation. At the same time Na+-K+-ATPase activity, unaffected by propionate, replaces Nai with Ki, whereas the K+ leak rate, decreased by propionate, allows Ki to accumulate. As judged by {sup 86}Rb+ efflux, the reduction in K+ leak was not due to propionate-induced cell acidification or reduction in Cli concentration. Despite inducing cell swelling, propionate did not disrupt cell structural elements and F actin distribution along cell membranes.

  17. Monitoring and control of the biogas process based on propionate concentration using online VFA measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Steyer, J.P.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Simple logic control algorithms were tested for automatic control of a lab-scale CSTR manure digester. Using an online VFA monitoring system, propionate concentration in the reactor was used as parameter for control of the biogas process. The propionate concentration was kept below a threshold...

  18. Monitoring and control of the biogas process based on propionate concentration using online VFA measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Simple logic control algorithms were tested for automatic control of a lab-scale CSTR manure digester. Using an online VFA monitoring system, propionate concentration in the reactor was used as parameter for control of the biogas process. The propionate concentration was kept below a threshold of 10 mM by manipulating the feed flow. Other online parameters such as pH, biogas production, total VFA, and other individual VFA were also measured to examine process performance. The experimental results showed that a simple logic control can successfully prevent the reactor from overload, but with fluctuations of the propionate level due to the nature of control approach. The fluctuation of propionate concentration could be reduced, by adding a lower feed flow limit into the control algorithm to prevent undershooting of propionate response. It was found that use of the biogas production as a main control parameter, rather than propionate can give a more stable process, since propionate was very persistent and only responded very slowly to the decrease of the feed flow which lead to high fluctuation of biogas production. Propionate, however, was still an excellent parameter to indicate process stress under gradual overload and thus recommended as an alarm in the control algorithm. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  19. Interspecies electron transfer in suspended and aggregated methanogenic propionate-degrading consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Propionate is a key intermediate in the conversion of complex organic matter under methanogenic conditions. Oxidation of propionate to acetate is energetically unfavorable under standard conditions. Therefore, micro organisms are only able to gain energy from this conversion if the concentrations of

  20. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda; Katuri, Krishna; Gorron, Eduardo; Logan, Bruce E.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths

  1. Cellulose acetate propionate coated titanium: characterization and biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme da Silva Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Surfaces of pure titanium and Ti coated with cellulose acetate propionate (CAP have been characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy X ray coupled with elemental microanalysis (SEM-EDS, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM and contact angle measurements. Coating Ti surfaces with CAP ultrathin films reduced original surface roughness. Surface energy and wettability of CAP covered Ti surfaces pure Ti surfaces were similar. The adsorption of lysozyme (LYZ, an antibacterial protein, onto Ti and CAP-coated Ti surfaces has been studied by means of ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The adsorption of LYZ was mainly driven by hydrophobic interaction between protein hydrophobic residues and CAP propyl groups. Pure Ti and CAP coated Ti surfaces presented no cytotoxicity effect and proved to be adequate substrates for cell adhesion. The biocompatibility of CAP coated Ti surfaces was attributed to the surface enrichment in glucopyranosyl residues and short alkyl side groups.

  2. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod

    2016-10-09

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored by detecting CH near 10.532 μm using CO gas laser absorption. In addition, G3//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and master equation calculations were performed to assess the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that CH elimination occurs via a six-centered retro-ene transition state. Our measured rate data are close to the high-pressure limit and showed no discernable temperature fall off.

  3. Decreased activity of a propionate degrading community in a UASB reactor fed with synthetic medium without molybdenum, tungsten and selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, P.; Fermoso, F.G.; Lens, P.N.L.; Plugge, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The composition and dynamics of the propionate degrading community in a propionate-fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor with sludge originating from an alcohol distillery wastewater treating UASB reactor was studied. The rather stable propionate degrading microbial community comprised

  4. Fast and simple method for semiquantitative determination of calcium propionate in bread samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Matayatsuk Phechkrajang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium propionate has been widely used as a preservative in bakery and in bread. It is sometimes not carefully used, or a high concentration is added to preserve products. High consumption of calcium propionate can lead to several health problems. This study aims to develop a fast and simple semiquantitative method based on color complex formation for the determination of calcium propionate in a bread sample. A red–brown complex was obtained from the reaction of ferric ammonium sulfate and propionate anion. The product was rapidly formed and easily observed with the concentration of propionate anion >0.4 mg/mL. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was also developed and validated for comparison. Twenty-two bread samples from three markets near Bangkok were randomly selected and assayed for calcium propionate using the above two developed methods. The results showed that 19/22 samples contained calcium propionate >2000 mg/kg. The results of the complex formation method agreed with the HPLC method.

  5. Fast and simple method for semiquantitative determination of calcium propionate in bread samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phechkrajang, Chutima Matayatsuk; Yooyong, Surin

    2017-04-01

    Calcium propionate has been widely used as a preservative in bakery and in bread. It is sometimes not carefully used, or a high concentration is added to preserve products. High consumption of calcium propionate can lead to several health problems. This study aims to develop a fast and simple semiquantitative method based on color complex formation for the determination of calcium propionate in a bread sample. A red-brown complex was obtained from the reaction of ferric ammonium sulfate and propionate anion. The product was rapidly formed and easily observed with the concentration of propionate anion >0.4 mg/mL. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was also developed and validated for comparison. Twenty-two bread samples from three markets near Bangkok were randomly selected and assayed for calcium propionate using the above two developed methods. The results showed that 19/22 samples contained calcium propionate >2000 mg/kg. The results of the complex formation method agreed with the HPLC method. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Genome-scale model guided design of Propionibacterium for enhanced propionic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Navone

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of propionic acid by fermentation of propionibacteria has gained increasing attention in the past few years. However, biomanufacturing of propionic acid cannot compete with the current oxo-petrochemical synthesis process due to its well-established infrastructure, low oil prices and the high downstream purification costs of microbial production. Strain improvement to increase propionic acid yield is the best alternative to reduce downstream purification costs. The recent generation of genome-scale models for a number of Propionibacterium species facilitates the rational design of metabolic engineering strategies and provides a new opportunity to explore the metabolic potential of the Wood-Werkman cycle. Previous strategies for strain improvement have individually targeted acid tolerance, rate of propionate production or minimisation of by-products. Here we used the P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii and the pan-Propionibacterium genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs to simultaneously target these combined issues. This was achieved by focussing on strategies which yield higher energies and directly suppress acetate formation. Using P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, two strategies were assessed. The first tested the ability to manipulate the redox balance to favour propionate production by over-expressing the first two enzymes of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP, Zwf (glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase and Pgl (6-phosphogluconolactonase. Results showed a 4-fold increase in propionate to acetate ratio during the exponential growth phase. Secondly, the ability to enhance the energy yield from propionate production by over-expressing an ATP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and sodium-pumping methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MMD was tested, which extended the exponential growth phase. Together, these strategies demonstrate that in silico design strategies are predictive and can be used to reduce by-product formation in

  7. Effect of fluticasone propionate on neutrophil chemotaxis, superoxide generation, and extracellular proteolytic activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Hill, S L; Stockley, R A

    1994-03-01

    Corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions but the exact mode of action on neutrophil function is uncertain. Fluticasone propionate is a new topically active synthetic steroid which can be measured in body fluids and which undergoes first pass metabolism. The effects of fluticasone propionate on the function of neutrophils isolated from normal, healthy control subjects and on the chemotactic activity of sputum sol phase were assessed. Preincubation of neutrophils with fluticasone propionate reduced the chemotactic response to 10(-8) mol/l F-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP) and to a 1:5 dilution of sputum sol phase in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, when fluticasone propionate was added to sputum from eight patients with stable chronic obstructive bronchitis the chemotactic activity of a 1:5 dilution of the sol phase fell from a mean (SE) value of 22.2 (1.21) cells/field to 19.6 (0.89), 17.1 (0.74), and 11.9 (0.6) cells field at 1 mumol/l, 10 mumol/l, and 100 mumol/l, respectively. In further experiments fluticasone propionate preincubated with neutrophils inhibited fibronectin degradation by resting cells and by cells stimulated by FMLP (15.2% inhibition of resting cells, 5.1% inhibition of stimulated cells with 1 mumol/l fluticasone propionate, 24% and 18.7% inhibition respectively at 100 mumol/l fluticasone propionate. Fluticasone propionate had no effect on generation of superoxide anion by resting or stimulated cells. These results indicate that fluticasone propionate has a direct suppressive effect on several aspects of neutrophil function and may suggest a role for this agent in the modulation of neutrophil mediated damage to connective tissue.

  8. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  9. Induction of the p75NTR by Aryl Propionic Acids in Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quann, Emily

    2007-01-01

    .... I have found that treatment of prostate cancer cells with the aryl propionic acids R-flurbiprofen and ibuprofen induces reexpression of p75NTR, decreases cell survival, and increases apoptosis...

  10. Gas chromatographic determination of calcium propionate added as preservative to bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, W M; Unruh, N C; Pomeranz, Y

    1987-01-01

    A simple and rapid gas chromatographic procedure was developed for determining low concentrations of propionate added as a preservative to bread. A bread sample to be analyzed was ground in a meat grinder with a 3 mm hole plate and finely divided by rubbing through a No. 8 sieve. The propionate was then extracted into 0.050M formic acid in a blender at low speed for 5 min, and an aliquot of a filtrate was analyzed directly by gas chromatography. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Carbopack C column coated with 0.3% (w/w) Carbowax 20M and 0.1% (w/w) phosphoric acid. Less than 0.2 ppm propionic acid could be detected in the aqueous extract. Over the range of 0.03-0.23% calcium propionate, average relative error was -1.20% with an average coefficient of variation of 2.02%.

  11. Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Bequette, B J

    2015-10-01

    Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep ( = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, a different group of wether sheep ( = 5; 33.6 ± 3.70 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed, on an isonitrogenous basis, either a control (151 g CP/kg DM and 8.4 MJ ME/kg DM) or sodium propionate-supplemented (139 g CP/kg DM and 8.9 MJ ME/kg DM) diet at 2-h intervals. [N] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine was collected by vacuum and feces were collected by a harness bag. Over the last 12 h, [C]glucose was continuously infused intravenously and hourly blood samples were collected during the last 5 h. Propionate treatments increased ( urea entry (synthesis) rate (UER) in Exp. 1; however, sodium propionate infusion tended ( urea elimination (UUE). In Exp. 2, feeding propionate increased ( urea N/d, leading to a reduction ( urea N/d). Between the 2 experiments, the proportion of UER recycled to the gut was greater with the forage-type diet in Exp. 2 (approximately 60%) compared with the concentrate-type diet in Exp. 1 (approximately 40%), although urea N fluxes across the gut remained unchanged in both experiments. In Exp. 1, glucose entry and gluconeogenesis were greater ( < 0.05) and plasma glucose tended ( < 0.1) to be greater with sodium propionate infusion than with sodium acetate infusion, but there was no difference in Cori cycling. In Exp. 2, glucose entry, gluconeogenesis, Cori cycling, and plasma glucose increased ( < 0

  12. Enrichment of Thermophilic Propionate-Oxidizing Bacteria in Syntrophy with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or Methanobacterium thermoformicicum

    OpenAIRE

    Stams, Alfons J. M.; Grolle, Katja C. F.; Frijters, Carla T. M.; Van Lier, Jules B.

    1992-01-01

    Thermophilic propionate-oxidizing, proton-reducing bacteria were enriched from the granular methanogenic sludge of a bench-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor operated at 55°C with a mixture of volatile fatty acids as feed. Thermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens had a high decay rate. Therefore, stable, thermophilic propionate-oxidizing cultures could not be obtained by using the usual enrichment procedures. Stable and reproducible cultivation was possible by enrichment in hydrogen-p...

  13. Genome-scale model guided design of Propionibacterium for enhanced propionic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, Laura; McCubbin, Tim; Gonzalez-Garcia, Ricardo A; Nielsen, Lars K; Marcellin, Esteban

    2018-06-01

    Production of propionic acid by fermentation of propionibacteria has gained increasing attention in the past few years. However, biomanufacturing of propionic acid cannot compete with the current oxo-petrochemical synthesis process due to its well-established infrastructure, low oil prices and the high downstream purification costs of microbial production. Strain improvement to increase propionic acid yield is the best alternative to reduce downstream purification costs. The recent generation of genome-scale models for a number of Propionibacterium species facilitates the rational design of metabolic engineering strategies and provides a new opportunity to explore the metabolic potential of the Wood-Werkman cycle. Previous strategies for strain improvement have individually targeted acid tolerance, rate of propionate production or minimisation of by-products. Here we used the P. freudenreichii subsp . shermanii and the pan- Propionibacterium genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to simultaneously target these combined issues. This was achieved by focussing on strategies which yield higher energies and directly suppress acetate formation. Using P. freudenreichii subsp . shermanii , two strategies were assessed. The first tested the ability to manipulate the redox balance to favour propionate production by over-expressing the first two enzymes of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP), Zwf (glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase) and Pgl (6-phosphogluconolactonase). Results showed a 4-fold increase in propionate to acetate ratio during the exponential growth phase. Secondly, the ability to enhance the energy yield from propionate production by over-expressing an ATP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and sodium-pumping methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MMD) was tested, which extended the exponential growth phase. Together, these strategies demonstrate that in silico design strategies are predictive and can be used to reduce by-product formation in

  14. Response surface methodological approach for optimizing production of geranyl propionate catalysed by carbon nanotubes nanobioconjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, NurRoyhaila; Mahat, Naji Arafat; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul; Huyop, Fahrul; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Terpene esters of short-chain fatty acids are essential oils that have big importance in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as flavours and fragrances. Geraniol and citronellol are the most important substances. Considering the everincreasing demand for such products, their enzymatic production from natural raw materials by using environmentally friendly and economically attractive processes may prove advantageous. In this contribution, we would like to present an alternative option for the production of geranyl propionate using nanobioconjugates consisting of Candida rugosa lipase adsorbed onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CRL-MWCNTs). We investigated the effects of incubation time, temperature, solvent log P and substrate molar ratio, and determined the optimum conditions. The yield of geranyl propionate catalysed by CRL-MWCNTs nanobioconjugates was significantly influenced by two factors, namely, temperature and time of the reaction. Under the optimum reaction conditions of 55 C, solvent n-heptane (log P D 4.0), geraniol to propionic acid molar ratio of 5:1 and reaction time of 6 h, the use of CRL-MWCNTs resulted in 51.3% production of geranyl propionate. Therefore, the investigation revealed that geranyl propionate was successfully synthesized under mild conditions with reasonably high yield within a short period of time. The CRL-MWCNTs nanobioconjugates demonstrated a potential as economical and environmentally smarter biocatalysts for the production of geranyl propionate. Keywords: nanobioconjugates

  15. Propionate oxidation by and methanol inhibition of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Didem; Dapena, Ana; Kartal, Boran; Schmid, Markus C; Maas, Bart; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka; Sozen, Seval; Mendez, Ramon; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc; Schmidt, Ingo

    2005-02-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial pathway and a cost-effective way to remove ammonium from wastewater. Anammox bacteria have been described as obligate chemolithoautotrophs. However, many chemolithoautotrophs (i.e., nitrifiers) can use organic compounds as a supplementary carbon source. In this study, the effect of organic compounds on anammox bacteria was investigated. It was shown that alcohols inhibited anammox bacteria, while organic acids were converted by them. Methanol was the most potent inhibitor, leading to complete and irreversible loss of activity at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM. Of the organic acids acetate and propionate, propionate was consumed at a higher rate (0.8 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1)) by Percoll-purified anammox cells. Glucose, formate, and alanine had no effect on the anammox process. It was shown that propionate was oxidized mainly to CO(2), with nitrate and/or nitrite as the electron acceptor. The anammox bacteria carried out propionate oxidation simultaneously with anaerobic ammonium oxidation. In an anammox enrichment culture fed with propionate for 150 days, the relative amounts of anammox cells and denitrifiers did not change significantly over time, indicating that anammox bacteria could compete successfully with heterotrophic denitrifiers for propionate. In conclusion, this study shows that anammox bacteria have a more versatile metabolism than previously assumed.

  16. Responses of Blood Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon, and Fatty Acids to Intraruminal Infusion of Propionate in Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Oh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood hormones and metabolites in Hanwoo (Korean cattle steers. Four Hanwoo steers (average body wt. 270 kg, 13 month of age equipped with rumen cannula were infused into rumens with 0.0 M (Water, C, 0.5 M (37 g/L, T1, 1.0 M (74 g/L, T2 and 1.5 M (111 g/L, T3 of propionate for 1 hour per day and allotted by 4×4 Latin square design. On the 5th day of infusion, samples of rumen and blood were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 300 min after intraruminal infusion of propionate. The concentrations of serum glucose and plasma glucagon were not affected (p>0.05 by intraruminal infusion of propionate. The serum insulin concentration at 60 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05 higher in T3 than in C, while the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA at 60 and 180 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05 lower in the propionate treatments than in C. Hence, intraruminal infusion of propionate stimulates the secretion of insulin, and decreases serum NEFA concentration rather than the change of serum glucose concentration.

  17. Precipitation of fluticasone propionate microparticles using supercritical antisolvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vatanara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The ability of supercritical fluids (SCFs, such as carbon dioxide, to dissolve and expand or extract organic solvents and as result lower their solvation power, makes it possible the use of SCFs for the precipitation of solids from organic solutions. The process could be the injection of a solution of the substrate in an organic solvent into a vessel which is swept by a supercritical fluid. The aim of this study was to ascertain the feasibility of supercritical processing to prepare different particulate forms of fluticasone propionate (FP, and to evaluate the influence of different liquid solvents and precipitation temperatures on the morphology, size and crystal habit of particles. Method: The solution of FP in organic solvents, was precipitated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 at two pressure and temperature levels. Effects of process parameters on the physicochemical characteristics of harvested microparticles were evaluated. Results: Particle formation was observed only at the lower selected pressure, whilst at the higher pressure, no precipitation of particles was occurred due to dissolution of FP in supercritical antisolvent. The micrographs of the produced particles showed different morphologies for FP obtained from different conditions. The results of thermal analysis of the resulted particles showed that changes in the processing conditions didn't influence thermal behavior of the precipitated particles. Evaluation of the effect of temperature on the size distribution of particles showed that increase in the temperature from 40 oC to 50 oC, resulted in reduction of the mean particle size from about 30 µm to about 12 μm. ‍Conclusion: From the results of this study it may be concluded that, processing of FP by supercritical antisolvent could be an approach for production of diverse forms of the drug and drastic changes in the physical characteristics of microparticles could be achieved by changing the

  18. Interaction of propionate and carnitine metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass, E.P.; Beyerinck, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Propionate (P) and its metabolic products P-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA can disrupt normal hepatic metabolism. Carnitine (Cn) has been shown to partially restore cellular function in the presence of P. This effect of Cn may result from removal of propionyl groups as propionylcarnitine (P-Cn). The present study examined the kinetics of P-Cn formation in rat hepatocytes, and the consequence of P-Cn formation on P and Cn metabolism. 14 C-P was converted to CO 2 , glucose and P-Cn in the hepatocyte system. Increasing concentrations of Cn up to 10.0 mM increased P-Cn formation from P without affecting CO 2 or glucose formation. Thus, 10.0 mM Cn increased total P metabolism by 40%. Metabolism of P was associated with a decrease in Cn concentration and an increase in short chain acylcarnitines (SCCn). In the absence of added Cn, 60 min incubation with P decreased Cn from 6.8 to 2.5 μM with a corresponding increase in SCCn. This effect of P to deplete free Cn was not seen to the same degree with butyrate in place of P. Similar increases in the formation of SCCn in the presence of P at the expense of free Cn were seen when the incubation Cn concentration was increased to 50 μM or 150 μM. HPLC methodologies to study specific acylcarnitines demonstrated the accumulation of large amounts of P-Cn in the incubations containing P, accounting for the depletion of free Cn

  19. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by propionic acid-based ingredients in cured deli-style Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathleen A; McDonnell, Lindsey M; Von Tayson, Roxanne; Wanless, Brandon; Badvela, Mani

    2013-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes growth can be controlled on ready-to-eat meats through the incorporation of antimicrobial ingredients into the formulation or by postlethality kill steps. However, alternate approaches are needed to provide options that reduce sodium content but maintain protection against pathogen growth in meats after slicing. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibition of L. monocytogenes by propionic acid-based ingredients in high-moisture, cured turkey stored at 4 or 7°C. Six formulations of sliced, cured (120 ppm of NaNO2 ), deli-style turkey were tested, including control without antimicrobials, 3.2% lactate-diacetate blend (LD), 0.4% of a liquid propionate-benzoate-containing ingredient, or 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% of a liquid propionate-containing ingredient. Products were inoculated with 5 log CFU L. monocytogenes per 100-g package (3 log CFU/ml rinsate), vacuum-sealed, and stored at 4 or 7°C for up to 12 weeks; and populations were enumerated by plating on modified Oxford agar. As expected, the control without antimicrobials supported rapid growth, with >2 log average per ml rinsate increase within 4 weeks of storage at 4°C, whereas growth was observed at 6 weeks for the LD treatment. For both replicate trials, all treatments that contained liquid propionate or propionate-benzoate limited L. monocytogenes growth to an increase of 1-log increase) was observed in individual samples for all propionate-containing treatments at weeks 10, 11, and 12. As expected, L. monocytogenes grew more rapidly when products were stored at 7°C, but trends in relative inhibition were similar to those observed at 4°C. These results verify that propionate-based ingredients inhibit growth of L. monocytogenes on sliced, high-moisture, cured turkey and can be considered as an alternative to reduce sodium-based salts while maintaining food safety.

  20. Regulation and optimization of the biogas process: Propionate as a key parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bangso; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiaer

    2007-01-01

    The use of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as process indicators in biogas reactors treating manure together with industrial waste was studied. At a full-scale biogas plant, an online VFA sensor was installed in order to study VFA dynamics during stable and unstable operation. During stable operation acetate increased significantly during the feeding periods from a level of 2-4 to 12-17 mM, but the concentration generally dropped to about the same level as before feeding. The fluctuations in the propionate were more moderate than for acetate but the average level rose during 1 week of operation from 0.6 to 2.9 mM. A process disturbance caused by overloading with industrial waste was reflected by a significant increase in all VFA concentrations. During the recovery of the process, the return of propionate back to the steady-state level was 2-3 days slower than any other VFA and propionate could best describe the normalizing of the process. In a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor experiment, with manure as main substrate, the prospective of using either propionate concentration or methane production as single process indicators was studied. Propionate was found to be the best indicator. Thus, a process breakdown caused by organic overloading with meat and bone meal and lipids was indicated by changes in propionate concentration 12-18 days before a decrease in methane production was observed. Furthermore, a more efficient and stable utilization of the substrate was observed when propionate was used as process indicator

  1. Accelerated Stability Testing of a Clobetasol Propionate-Loaded Nanoemulsion as per ICH Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Alam, Mohammad Sarfaraz; Alam, Nawazish; Anwer, Tarique; Safhi, Mohammed Mohsen A

    2013-01-01

    The physical and chemical degradation of drugs may result in altered therapeutic efficacy and even toxic effects. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the stability of clobetasol propionate (CP) in a nanoemulsion. The nanoemulsion formulation containing CP was prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. For the formulation of the nanoemulsion, Safsol, Tween 20, ethanol, and distilled water were used. The drug was incorporated into an oil phase in 0.05% w/v. The lipophilic nature of the drug led to the O/W nanoemulsion formulation. This was characterized by droplet size, pH, viscosity, conductivity, and refractive index. Stability studies were performed as per ICH guidelines for a period of three months. The shelf life of the nanoemulsion formulation was also determined after performing accelerated stability testing (40°C ± 2°C and 75% ± 5% RH). We also performed an intermediate stability study (30°C ± 2°C/65% RH ± 5% RH). It was found that the droplet size, conductivity, and refractive index were slightly increased, while the viscosity and pH slightly decreased at all storage conditions during the 3-month period. However, the changes in these parameters were not statistically significant (p≥0.05). The degradation (%) of the optimized nanoemulsion of CP was determined and the shelf life was found to be 2.18 years at room temperature. These studies confirmed that the physical and chemical stability of CP were enhanced in the nanoemulsion formulation.

  2. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-03-03

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57–96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0–2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  3. MR spectroscopy-based brain metabolite profiling in propionic acidaemia: metabolic changes in the basal ganglia during acute decompensation and effect of liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKiernan Patrick J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propionic acidaemia (PA results from deficiency of Propionyl CoA carboxylase, the commonest form presenting in the neonatal period. Despite best current management, PA is associated with severe neurological sequelae, in particular movement disorders resulting from basal ganglia infarction, although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The role of liver transplantation remains controversial but may confer some neuro-protection. The present study utilises quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS to investigate brain metabolite alterations in propionic acidaemia during metabolic stability and acute encephalopathic episodes. Methods Quantitative MRS was used to evaluate brain metabolites in eight children with neonatal onset propionic acidaemia, with six elective studies acquired during metabolic stability and five studies during acute encephalopathic episodes. MRS studies were acquired concurrently with clinically indicated MR imaging studies at 1.5 Tesla. LCModel software was used to provide metabolite quantification. Comparison was made with a dataset of MRS metabolite concentrations from a cohort of children with normal appearing MR imaging. Results MRI findings confirm the vulnerability of basal ganglia to infarction during acute encephalopathy. We identified statistically significant decreases in basal ganglia glutamate+glutamine and N-Acetylaspartate, and increase in lactate, during encephalopathic episodes. In white matter lactate was significantly elevated but other metabolites not significantly altered. Metabolite data from two children who had received liver transplantation were not significantly different from the comparator group. Conclusions The metabolite alterations seen in propionic acidaemia in the basal ganglia during acute encephalopathy reflect loss of viable neurons, and a switch to anaerobic respiration. The decrease in glutamine + glutamate supports the hypothesis that they are consumed to

  4. Tyrosine B10 triggers a heme propionate hydrogen bonding network loop with glutamine E7 moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Santana, Brenda J.; López-Garriga, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► H-bonding network loop by PheB10Tyr mutation is proposed. ► The propionate group H-bonding network restricted the flexibility of the heme. ► The hydrogen bonding interaction modulates the electron density of the iron. ► Propionate H-bonding network loop explains the heme-ligand stabilization. -- Abstract: Propionates, as peripheral groups of the heme active center in hemeproteins have been described to contribute in the modulation of heme reactivity and ligand selection. These electronic characteristics prompted the question of whether the presence of hydrogen bonding networks between propionates and distal amino acids present in the heme ligand moiety can modulate physiological relevant events, like ligand binding association and dissociation activities. Here, the role of these networks was evaluated by NMR spectroscopy using the hemoglobin I PheB10Tyr mutant from Lucina pectinata as model for TyrB10 and GlnE7 hemeproteins. 1 H-NMR results for the rHbICN PheB10Tyr derivative showed chemical shifts of TyrB10 OHη at 31.00 ppm, GlnE7 N ε1 H/N ε2 H at 10.66 ppm/−3.27 ppm, and PheE11 C δ H at 11.75 ppm, indicating the presence of a crowded, collapsed, and constrained distal pocket. Strong dipolar contacts and inter-residues crosspeaks between GlnE7/6-propionate group, GlnE7/TyrB10 and TyrB10/CN suggest that this hydrogen bonding network loop between GlnE7, TyrB10, 6-propionate group, and the heme ligand contribute significantly to the modulation of the heme iron electron density as well as the ligand stabilization mechanism. Therefore, the network loop presented here support the fact that the electron withdrawing character of the hydrogen bonding is controlled by the interaction of the propionates and the nearby electronic environments contributing to the modulation of the heme electron density state. Thus, we hypothesize that in hemeproteins with similar electrostatic environment the flexibility of the heme-6-propionate promotes a hydrogen

  5. Response of Syntrophic Propionate Degradation to pH Decrease and Microbial Community Shifts in an UASB Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liguo; Ban, Qiaoying; Li, Jianzheng; Jha, Ajay Kumar

    2016-08-28

    The effect of pH on propionate degradation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor containing propionate as a sole carbon source was studied. Under influent propionate of 2,000 mg/l and 35ºC, propionate removal at pH 7.5-6.8 was above 93.6%. Propionate conversion was significantly inhibited with stepwise pH decrease from pH 6.8 to 6.5, 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, and then to 4.0. After long-term operation, the propionate removal at pH 6.5-4.5 maintained an efficiency of 88.5%-70.1%, whereas propionate was hardly decomposed at pH 4.0. Microbial composition analysis showed that propionate-oxidizing bacteria from the genera Pelotomaculum and Smithella likely existed in this system. They were significantly reduced at pH ≤5.5. The methanogens in this UASB reactor belonged to four genera: Methanobacterium, Methanospirillum, Methanofollis, and Methanosaeta. Most detectable hydrogenotrophic methanogens were able to grow at low pH conditions (pH 6.0-4.0), but the acetotrophic methanogens were reduced as pH decreased. These results indicated that propionate-oxidizing bacteria and acetotrophic methanogens were more sensitive to low pH (5.5-4.0) than hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

  6. Evaluating the potential impact of proton carriers on syntrophic propionate oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste-Poinapen, Natacha M. S.; Turner, Mark S.; Rabaey, Korneel; Virdis, Bernardino; Batstone, Damien J.

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic propionic acid degradation relies on interspecies electron transfer (IET) between propionate oxidisers and electron acceptor microorganisms, via either molecular hydrogen, formate or direct transfers. We evaluated the possibility of stimulating direct IET, hence enhancing propionate oxidation, by increasing availability of proton carriers to decrease solution resistance and reduce pH gradients. Phosphate was used as a proton carrying anion, and chloride as control ion together with potassium as counter ion. Propionic acid consumption in anaerobic granules was assessed in a square factorial design with ratios (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 0:1) of total phosphate (TP) to Cl-, at 1X, 10X, and 30X native conductivity (1.5 mS.cm-1). Maximum specific uptake rate, half saturation, and time delay were estimated using model-based analysis. Community profiles were analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The strongest performance was at balanced (1:1) ratios at 10X conductivity where presumptive propionate oxidisers namely Syntrophobacter and Candidatus Cloacamonas were more abundant. There was a shift from Methanobacteriales at high phosphate, to Methanosaeta at low TP:Cl ratios and low conductivity. A lack of response to TP, and low percentage of presumptive electroactive organisms suggested that DIET was not favoured under the current experimental conditions.

  7. Methylmalonic and propionic acidemias: lipid profiles of normal and affected human skin fibroblasts incubated with [1-14C]propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, T.A.; Chen, R.G.; Oizumi, J.; Shaw, K.N.; Ng, W.G.; Donnell, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    Normal human skin fibroblasts and those from methylmalonic acidemia and propionic acidemia patients were grown in culture. Following incubation with [1- 14 C]propionate, the major lipid classes in the cells were separated by thin layer chromatography and isolated fractions analyzed by radio gas chromatography for the presence of odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids; the pattern of even-numbered long-chain fatty acids was obtained also. Normal fibroblasts incorporated a small percentage of propionate into odd-numbered fatty acids which were present in all lipids studied. The abnormal cells incorporated a larger amount while maintaining the characteristic ratios of odd-numbered fatty acids found in the normal line. Most of the radioactivity was associated with phospholipids which are the predominant constituents of cell membranes. A characteristic C15/C17 ratio was found for different phospholipids and the triglyceride fraction; pentadecanoic acid was the principal odd-numbered fatty acid utilized in the assembly of complex lipids. Compared to even-numbered long-chain fatty acids the absolute amount of odd-numbered fatty acids was low (1-2%), even in affected cells. An unusual polar lipid fraction was isolated in the course of the study. In the normal cell it contained several unlabeled eicosanoids which were missing from the same fraction of both affected cell lines

  8. DIFFERENCES IN PROPIONATE-INDUCED INHIBITION OF CHOLESTEROL AND TRIACYLGLYCEROL SYNTHESIS BETWEEN HUMAN AND RAT HEPATOCYTES IN PRIMARY CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LIN, YG; VONK, RJ; SLOOFF, MJH; KUIPERS, F; SMIT, MJ

    Propionate is a short-chain fatty acid formed in the colon and supposedly involved in the cholesterol-lowering effect of soluble fibre. To explore the underlying mechanism(s) of this fibre action, we have used human hepatocytes in primary culture to study the effects of propionate on hepatic lipid

  9. Propionate absorbed from the colon acts as gluconeogenic substrate in a strict carnivore, the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbrugghe, A; Hesta, M; Daminet, S

    2012-01-01

    In six normal-weight and six obese cats, the metabolic effect of propionate absorbed from the colon was assessed. Two colonic infusions were tested in a crossover design with intervals of 4 weeks. The test solution contained 4 mmol sodium propionate per kg ideal body weight in a 0.2% NaCl solutio...

  10. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. AIM: First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical

  11. Propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces NKG2D ligand expression on human-activated T lymphocytes and cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars; Hansen, Karen Aagaard; Jensen, Helle

    2009-01-01

    We found that propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces expression of the NKG2D ligands MICA/B on activated T lymphocytes and different cancer cells, without affecting MICA/B expression on resting peripheral blood cells. Growth supernatant from propionibacteria or propionate alone cou...

  12. Temporal Microbial Community Dynamics in Microbial Electrolysis Cells – Influence of Acetate and Propionate Concentration

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda; Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Katuri, Krishna; Bagchi, Samik; Saikaly, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    at low (0.5 g COD/L) and high (4 g COD/L) concentrations of acetate or propionate, which are important intermediates of fermentation of municipal wastewaters and sludge. The results showed that acetate-fed reactors exhibited higher performance in terms

  13. Subdermal penetration of topically applied clobetasol propionate in ointment base through intact human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Sindrup, J H; Kristensen, J K

    1992-01-01

    Some data have demonstrated a substantial subdermal accumulation of topically applied drugs in animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible effect of epicutaneously applied clobetasol propionate on blood flow in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Nine healthy subjects were studied...

  14. Long-term continuous N-carbamylglutamate treatment in frequently decompensated propionic acidemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummolo, Albina; Melpignano, Livio; Carella, Antonella; Di Mauro, Anna Maria; Piccinno, Elvira; Vendemiale, Marcella; Ortolani, Federica; Fedele, Stefania; Masciopinto, Maristella; Papadia, Francesco

    2018-04-22

    Propionic acidemia is a rare autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder that can inhibit the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate, the obligatory activator in urea synthesis, leading to hyperammonemia. N-carbamylglutamate ameliorates hyperammonemia in decompensated propionic acidemia. The effects of long-term continuous N-acetylglutamate administration in such patients are unknown. We report our clinical experience with continuous administration of N-acetylglutamate for 6 years in a patient with propionic acidemia frequently presenting with hyperammonemia. A male Caucasian patient with frequently decompensated propionic acidemia and hyperammonemia was admitted 78 times for acute attacks during the first 9 years of his life. Continuous daily treatment with oral N-carbamylglutamate 100 mg/kg (50 mg/kg after 6 months) was initiated. During 6 years of treatment, he had a significant decrease in his mean plasma ammonia levels (75.7 μmol/L vs. 140.3 μmol/L before N-carbamylglutamate therapy, p N-acetylglutamate administration outside the emergency setting. If this observation is confirmed, future studies should aim to optimize the dosage and explore effects of the dosage requirements on other drugs and on protein tolerance.

  15. Syntrophic butyrate and propionate oxidation processes: from genomes to reaction mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, N.; Worm, P.; Schink, B.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In anoxic environments such as swamps, rice fields and sludge digestors, syntrophic microbial communities are important for decomposition of organic matter to CO2 and CH4. The most difficult step is the fermentative degradation of short-chain fatty acids such as propionate and butyrate. Conversion

  16. Hypoattenuation of the basal nuclei as a sign of propionic acidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, M.; Moron, A.; Marti, M.; Dominguez, F.

    1999-01-01

    The hypoattenuation of the basal ganglia is an uncommon radiological finding that suggests a metabolic or hypoxic disorder. We report a case of propionic acidemia in a five-year-old boy, presenting as a symmetric hypoattenuation of the basal neclei. We discuss this and other causes of this radiological finding, as well as the possible mechanism and underlying pathology. (Author) 17 refs

  17. Comparison of the effect of acetic, propionic and butyric acids on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    番茄花园

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... Graded levels of mixed VFA sodium salt (the molar proportion of acetate, propionate, and butyrate was 65:25:10), i.e. 0, 5, ... be more associated with the VFA energy level (Ma and. Zhao, 2010) and mediated by IGF-I, insulin ..... Influence of nutrition and bovine growth hormone (GH) on hepatic GH binding, ...

  18. Detection, phylogeny and population dynamics of syntrophic propionate - oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The research described this thesis concerns the diversity and phylogeny of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria and their ecology in granular sludge, from which they were obtained. 16S rRNA was used as a molecular marker to study both the phylogeny and the ecology of these bacteria.

  19. Response of methane production via propionate oxidation to carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes in paddy soil enrichments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH have become a growing concern in terms of their fate and toxicity in aqueous environments. Methane (CH4 is a major product of organic matter degradation in waterlogged environments. In this study, we determined the effect of MWCNTs-COOH on the production of CH4 from propionate oxidation in paddy soil enrichments. The results showed that the methanogenesis from propionate degradation was accelerated in the presence of MWCNTs-COOH. In addition, the rates of CH4 production and propionate degradation increased with increasing concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations showed that the cells were intact and maintained their structure in the presence of MWCNTs-COOH. In addition, SEM and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH images revealed that the cells were in direct contact with the MWCNTs and formed cell-MWCNTs aggregates that contained both bacteria and archaea. On the other hand, nontoxic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 had similar effects on the CH4 production and cell integrity as the MWCNTs-COOH. Compared with no nanomaterial addition, the relative abundances of Geobacter and Methanosarcina species increased in the presence of MWCNTs-COOH. This study suggests that MWCNTs-COOH exerted positive rather than cytotoxic effects on the syntrophic oxidation of propionate in paddy soil enrichments and affected the bacterial and archaeal community structure at the test concentrations. These findings provide novel insight into the consequences of nanomaterial release into anoxic natural environments.

  20. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  1. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a sequencing batch reactor using propionate as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan, M; Saunders, A M; Guisasola, A; Baeza, J A; Casas, C; Blackall, L L

    2004-01-05

    An enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using propionate as the sole carbon source. The microbial community was followed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques and Candidatus 'Accumulibacter phosphatis' were quantified from the start up of the reactor until steady state. A series of SBR cycle studies was performed when 55% of the SBR biomass was Accumulibacter, a confirmed polyphosphate accumulating organism (PAO) and when Candidatus 'Competibacter phosphatis', a confirmed glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO), was essentially undetectable. These experiments evaluated two different carbon sources (propionate and acetate), and in every case, two different P-release rates were detected. The highest rate took place while there was volatile fatty acid (VFA) in the mixed liquor, and after the VFA was depleted a second P-release rate was observed. This second rate was very similar to the one detected in experiments performed without added VFA.A kinetic and stoichiometric model developed as a modification of Activated Sludge Model 2 (ASM2) including glycogen economy, was fitted to the experimental profiles. The validation and calibration of this model was carried out with the cycle study experiments performed using both VFAs. The effect of pH from 6.5 to 8.0 on anaerobic P-release and VFA-uptake and aerobic P-uptake was also studied using propionate. The optimal overall working pH was around 7.5. This is the first study of the microbial community involved in EBPR developed with propionate as a sole carbon source along with detailed process performance investigations of the propionate-utilizing PAOs. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Diagnosis of propionic acidemia by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in a case analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camayd Viera, Ivette; Robaina Jimenez, Zoe; Contreras Roura, Jiovanna

    2011-01-01

    Propionic acidemia is an inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency in the propionyl-CoA carboxilase, a biotin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme. The disorder is a clinically heterogeneous disease and one of the most frequently occurring organic acidurias. We report the first Cuban case with a severe form of propionic acidemia followed by acidosis and death. The diagnosis was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Our aim is to highlight the importance of organic acids urine analysis as part of the first laboratory tests in undiagnosed seriously ill children. The definitive diagnosis is important as it serves as a clear guideline to establish a suitable treatment and allows geneticists to provide patients with a proper genetic counseling

  3. The effect of inhaled fluticasone propionate in the treatment of young asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Gillies, J; Groenewald, M

    1999-01-01

    The response in asthmatic young children to inhaled steroids within the usual pediatric dose range is unknown. We therefore evaluated the dose-related response in young children with moderate asthma to inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) (delivered via the Babyhaler spacer device) within the pedi......The response in asthmatic young children to inhaled steroids within the usual pediatric dose range is unknown. We therefore evaluated the dose-related response in young children with moderate asthma to inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) (delivered via the Babyhaler spacer device) within...... the pediatric dose range. A total of 237 children (mean age 28 mo, range 12 to 47) with moderate asthmatic symptoms were studied in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study of 12 wk treatment following a 4-wk run-in period. The median use of rescue medication was 1...

  4. Synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria thin films by low-temperature thermal decomposition of Ce-propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura, P.; Farjas, J.; Ricart, S.; Aklalouch, M.; Guzman, R.; Arbiol, J.; Puig, T.; Calleja, A.; Peña-Rodríguez, O.; Garriga, M.; Obradors, X.

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of Ce-propionate (thickness below 20 nm) have been deposited by spin coating and pyrolysed into ceria at temperatures below 200 °C. After 1 h of thermal treatment, no signature of the vibrational modes of Ce-propionate is detected by infrared spectroscopy, indicating that decomposition has been completed. The resulting ceria films are nanocrystalline as revealed by X-ray diffraction (average grain size of 2–2.5 nm) and confirmed by microscopy. They are transparent in the visible region and show the characteristic band gap absorption below 400 nm. A direct band gap energy of 3.50 ± 0.05 eV has been deduced irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature (160, 180 and 200 °C).

  5. Methylmalonic aciduria and propionic acidaemia studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iles, R A; Hind, A J; Chalmers, R A

    1986-12-15

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor changes in urinary metabolites in a patient with propionic acidaemia over a period of 10 months and in a patient with methylmalonic aciduria over a period of 11 days. Results could be obtained within 5-10 min of sample receipt. In the spectra on the patient with propionic acidaemia not only could fluctuations in 3-hydroxypropionate and propionylglycine excretion be followed, but also variations in creatine, glycine and betaine, which were often present at millimolar concentrations. The patient with methylmalonic aciduria had an acute episode of severe ketoacidosis during which the glycine excretion fell but creatine excretion rose and then fell on recovery from the episode. The changes in the creatine excretion may reflect disorders in intracellular energy supply. Nuclear magnetic resonance is a powerful technique for monitoring metabolic perturbations in the organic acidurias in 'real-time', allowing the planning and evaluation of therapy. (Auth.). 18 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs.

  6. Suitability of combination of calcium propionate and chitosan for preserving minimally processed banana quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshekari, Amin; Madani, Babak; Golding, John B

    2017-08-01

    The marketability of fresh-cut banana slices is limited by the rapid rate of fruit softening and browning. However, there is no scientific literature available about the role of postharvest calcium propionate and chitosan treatment on the quality attributes of fresh-cut banana. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate these effects. The application of calcium propionate plus chitosan (CaP+Chit) retained higher firmness, higher ascorbic acid content, higher total antioxidant activity and higher total phenolic compounds, along with lower browning, lower polyphenol oxidase, lower peroxidase, lower polygalacturonase and lower pectin methyl esterase activities and microbial growth, compared to control banana slices after 5 days of cold storage. The results of the present study show that CaP+Chit could be used to slow the loss of quality at the same time as maintaining quality and inhibiting microbial loads. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. 2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)propionic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tommy N; Janin, Yves L; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify new subtype-selective (S)-glutamate (Glu) receptor ligands we have synthesized (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)propionic acid [(RS)-TDPA]. Resolution of (RS)-TDPA by chiral chromatography was performed using a Crownpac CR(+) column affording (R)- and (S......)-TDPA of high enantiomeric purity (enantiomeric excess=99.9%). An X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the early eluting enantiomer has R-configuration. Both enantiomers showed high affinity as well as high agonist activity at (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA...... a remarkably low AMPA receptor stereoselectivity, (S)-TDPA showing the highest affinity and (R)-TDPA the most potent agonist activity. In addition, (S)-TDPA was shown to interact with synaptosomal Glu uptake sites displacing [(3)H](R)-aspartic acid (IC(50 ) approximately 390 microM). An enantiospecific...

  8. Methylmalonic aciduria and propionic acidaemia studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iles, R.A.; Hind, A.J.; Chalmers, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor changes in urinary metabolites in a patient with propionic acidaemia over a period of 10 months and in a patient with methylmalonic aciduria over a period of 11 days. Results could be obtained within 5-10 min of sample receipt. In the spectra on the patient with propionic acidaemia not only could fluctuations in 3-hydroxypropionate and propionylglycine excretion be followed, but also variations in creatine, glycine and betaine, which were often present at millimolar concentrations. The patient with methylmalonic aciduria had an acute episode of severe ketoacidosis during which the glycine excretion fell but creatine excretion rose and then fell on recovery from the episode. The changes in the creatine excretion may reflect disorders in intracellular energy supply. Nuclear magnetic resonance is a powerful technique for monitoring metabolic perturbations in the organic acidurias in 'real-time', allowing the planning and evaluation of therapy. (Auth.)

  9. Proposed guidelines for the diagnosis and management of methylmalonic and propionic acidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgartner, Matthias R; Hörster, Friederike; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Methylmalonic and propionic acidemia (MMA/PA) are inborn errors of metabolism characterized by accumulation of propionic acid and/or methylmalonic acid due to deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT) or propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). MMA has an estimated incidence of ~ 1: 50,000 and PA of ~...... recognition and delayed diagnosis due to nonspecific clinical presentation and insufficient awareness of health care professionals because of disease rarity.......:100'000 -150,000. Patients present either shortly after birth with acute deterioration, metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia or later at any age with a more heterogeneous clinical picture, leading to early death or to severe neurological handicap in many survivors. Mental outcome tends to be worse in PA...

  10. Interspecies Electron Transfer during Propionate and Butyrate Degradation in Mesophilic, Granular Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, J. E.; Ahring, B. K.

    1995-01-01

    Granules from a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor were disintegrated, and bacteria utilizing only hydrogen or formate or both hydrogen and formate were added to investigate the role of interspecies electron transfer during degradation of propionate and butyrate. The data indicate that the major electron transfer occurred via interspecies hydrogen transfer, while interspecies formate transfer may not be essential for interspecies electron transfer in this system during degrada...

  11. Antifungal properties of fermentates and their potential to replace sorbate and propionate in pound cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samapundo, S; Devlieghere, F; Vroman, A; Eeckhout, M

    2016-11-21

    The major objective of this study was to assess the antifungal activities of commercially available 'clean label' fermentates and their potential to replace the preservative function of sorbate and propionate in cake. This study was performed in two parts. In the first part of the study the inhibitory activities of selected fermentates - FA, FB, FC and FD - towards Aspergillus tritici and Aspergillus amstelodami were assessed as a function of pH (5.0-6.5) on malt extract agar (MEA). In the second part of the study, challenge, shelf-life and sensorial tests were used to determine the suitability of these fermentates to replace potassium sorbate and calcium propionate in quarter pound cake. All the fermentates evaluated in this study all had significant (prange for application in bakery products. In all cases, the inhibitory activity of the fermentates increased with a decrease in the pH and an increase in concentration. FC was generally the most inhibitory whilst FD was the least inhibitory. Significant (p0.05) in flavour from the reference cake (0.5% calcium propionate and 0.54% potassium sorbate). However, the challenge and shelf-life tests showed that cakes produced with ≤1% FC were not as microbiologically shelf-stable as the reference cake, especially when sliced. Therefore, it can be concluded that whilst fermentates have appreciable antifungal effects, their use could potentially result in reduced shelf-stabilities. Robust challenge and shelf-life tests would be recommended before the marketing of cakes were propionate and/or sorbate has been replaced to ensure accurate shelf-lives are stated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Masato; Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 mont...

  13. Possibility of using apple pomaces in the process of propionic-acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Piwowarek

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Utilization of by-products is a significant challenge for manufacturing sites and the natural environment. The solution to this problem may involve the use of pomace as a medium component for microorganism cultivation, which is a source of industrially useful metabolites. This study examined the possibility of using apple pomace as a carbon source in the process of propionic-acetic fermentation via wild strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii T82 bacteria.

  14. Determination of dissociation constants or propionic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid) by potentiometry and conductometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeeduddin; Khanzada, A.W.K.

    2004-01-01

    Dissociation constants of propionic acid and 2-hydroxypropionic acid (lactic acid) have been studied at different temperatures between 25 to 50 deg. C interval. Propionic acid is analyzed by conductometry while 2-hydroxypropionic acid is analyzed by potentiometry. Both investigated compounds are symmetrical carboxylic acids having same length of carbon chain but are markedly different in ionic behavior. We were interested to see how the hydroxyl group (-OH) induction in propionic acid affects on pKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid. We observed that as temperature increases pKa values increase. The increase is observed for both the investigated compounds. PKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid are lower as compared to propionic acid because of electron withdrawing (-OH). (author)

  15. Set anode potentials affect the electron fluxes and microbial community structure in propionate-fed microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda; Katuri, Krishna; Logan, Bruce E.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    , but their relative abundance varied among the tested SAPs. Microbial community analysis implies that complete degradation of propionate in all the tested SAPs was facilitated by syntrophic interactions between fermenters and Geobacter at the anode and ferementers

  16. Phenotypic characteristics of nitrate and 3-nitro-1-propionate-respiring enzymes of the obligate respiratory anaerobe Denitrobacterium detoxificans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic respiration consumes reducing equivalents generated during fermentation thereby contributing to the maintenance of hydrogen homoeostasis in gut ecosystems. Nitrate and 3-nitro-1-propionate (NPA) are acceptors used by the nonfermentative, rumen anaerobe, Denitrobacterium detoxificans, whic...

  17. THE EFFECT OF METHANOGENIC INHIBITOR FEED ON PROPIONIC ACID AND LAMB MEAT CHEMICAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Suryanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA on propionic acids and lamb meat chemical quality. The treatment given was R1: feed without medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, while R2 dan R3 were the feed contained 1.0% and 1.5% of MCFA, respectively. The twelve heads of lambs yearling weight of 16-17 kg were used as materials. Biological trial was done for three months and then was slaughtered. Before being slaughtered, the animal was taken rumen fluid to be analyzed for propionic acid. The carcass was sampled to be analyzed for chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids content. This study showed that methanogenic inhibitor feed with 1.0-1.5% MCFA could be used as sheep feed, and the results: the propionic acid content in rumen increased 29.59 – 36.11%. The cholesterol content decreased 7.14-10.06%. For the meat fatty acids composition, unsaturated fatty acids increased 9.05 – 17.96%. while saturated fatty acid decreased 6.59 – 11.88%.

  18. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of sodium propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations in calves of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radojičić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of gluconeogenesis in ruminants is under the direct influence of insulin and glucocorticoid hormones. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of added Na-propionate on the neuroendocrine regulation of blood glucose in calves at three specific physiological periods: on exclusive milk nutrition; on mixed milk and forage nutrition; and with established ruminant digestion. The influence of Na-propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations was examined in the same 20 female Holstein calves at different stages of forestomach development (15 days, 2 months, and 4 months of age of calves. Group 1 of calves (n = 10 received Na-propionate intravenously; group 2 (n = 10 received Na-propionate mixed in milk. Blood sampling was performed 1 and 3 h after Na-propionate administration. After i.v. administration of Na-propionate, a significant increase (P < 0.05 in blood glucose concentration was observed 1 h after administration only in calves aged 2 and 4 months; blood insulin concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01 1 and 3 h after i.v. administration in 2-month-old calves; and cortisol concentration increased (P < 0.01 1 h after administration in each selected calf in all testing periods. Orally administered Na-propionate led to a significant increase (P < 0.01 of insulin concentration 1 and 3 h after administration in 15-day-old calves, and 3 h after administration in 2-month-old calves. Based on these results it could be assumed that i.v. and p.o. administration of Na-propionate affects the neuroendocrine regulation of glycaemia in calves of different age.

  20. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  1. Biokinetics and bacterial communities of propionate oxidizing bacteria in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Parker, Wayne J; Verastegui, Yris; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-03-15

    Phased anaerobic digestion is a promising technology and may be a potential source of bio-energy production. Anaerobic digesters are widely used for sewage sludge stabilization and thus a better understanding of the microbial process and kinetics may allow increased volatile solids reduction and methane production through robust process operation. In this study, we analyzed the impact of phase separation and operational conditions on the bio-kinetic characteristics and communities of bacteria associated with four phased anaerobic digestion systems. In addition to significant differences between bacterial communities associated with different digester operating temperatures, our results also revealed that bacterial communities in the phased anaerobic digestion systems differed between the 1st and 2nd phase digesters and we identified strong community composition correlations with several measured physicochemical parameters. The maximum specific growth rates of propionate oxidizing bacteria (POB) in the mesophilic and thermophilic 1st phases were 11 and 23.7 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively, while those of the mesophilic and thermophilic 2nd-phase digesters were 6.7 and 18.6 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively. Hence, the biokinetic characteristics of the POB population were dependent on the digester loading. In addition, we observed that the temperature dependency factor (θ) values were higher for the less heavily loaded digesters as compared to the values obtained for the 1st-phase digesters. Our results suggested the appropriate application of two sets of POB bio-kinetic that reflect the differing growth responses as a function of propionate concentration (and/or organic loading rates). Also, modeling acetogenesis in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems will be improved considering a population shift in separate phases. On the basis of the bio-kinetic values estimated in various digesters, high levels of propionate in the thermophilic digesters may be

  2. Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 +/- 4 kg) were fed 53 days during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0...

  3. Chromium supplementation alters the glucose and lipid metabolism of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossbreed steers (n = 20; 235 ± 4 kg) were fed 53 d during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brand Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (C...

  4. Effects of hydrogen and formate on the degradation of propionate and butyrate in thermophilic granules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, J E; Ahring, B K

    1993-01-01

    Degradation of propionate and butyrate in whole and disintegrated granules from a thermophilic (55 degrees C) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor fed with acetate, propionate, and butyrate as substrates was examined. The propionate and butyrate degradation rates in whole granules were 1.16 and 4.0 mumol/min/g of volatile solids, respectively, and the rates decreased 35 and 25%, respectively, after disintegration of the granules. The effect of adding different hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (...

  5. Monitoring of clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate as undeclared steroids in cosmetic products manufactured in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yun Sik; Kwon, Il Keun; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2011-07-15

    Some cosmetic products manufactured in Korea have been suspected to contain anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, such as clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, for the treatment of eczema, seborrhea and psoriasis, without any indication on the label of the cosmetic products. Due to their severe side effects, such as permanent skin atopy, these two corticosteroids in cosmetic products need to be monitored from a forensic point of view. Cosmetic product samples (number of samples=47) of manufacturers charged by consumers have been collected in local and online markets of Korea, and they were validated and analyzed by a simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD). LC-MS/MS and LC-MS were used to confirm these steroids in cosmetic samples with diagnostic ions (m/z) and isotope ratio. Linearity was studied with 0.5-10μg/mL range in both steroids. Good correlation coefficients (r(2)≥0.999) were found, and their limits of quantifications were 0.59μg/mL and 0.66μg/mL in clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, respectively. At three different concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges, mean recoveries were always higher than 93%, and precisions for intra-day and inter-day analyses were both less than 3.5%. The results show 32-96.4μg/g levels of clobetasol propionate in five different cosmetic products. Also, betamethasone dipropionate in a sample was monitored at the level of 195.1μg/g. This fact reveals that some manufacturers have added these steroids in their cosmetic products to advertise the treatment effect for skin atopy. Thus, these cosmetic products need to be monitored carefully, and ultimately removed from the market. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Easy method for the preparation of L (+) 2-amino 3-sulfino propionic acid (cysteine sulfinic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emiliozzi, Romeo; Pichat, Louis

    1960-01-01

    Description of a new method of preparing cystine disulphoxide by oxidising cystine hydrochloride with a mixture of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Yield; 85 per cent. The disproportionation of cystine disulphoxide by ammonia gives 2-amino 3-sulfino propionic acid with a yield of 93 per cent. The method had been applied to the preparation of 35 S DL cysteine sulfinic acid. Reprint of a paper published in Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, no. 2653, 4. quarter 1959, p. 1887-1888 [fr

  7. Temporal Microbial Community Dynamics in Microbial Electrolysis Cells – Influence of Acetate and Propionate Concentration

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2017-07-20

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are widely considered as a next generation wastewater treatment system. However, fundamental insight on the temporal dynamics of microbial communities associated with MEC performance under different organic types with varied loading concentrations is still unknown, nevertheless this knowledge is essential for optimizing this technology for real-scale applications. Here, the temporal dynamics of anodic microbial communities associated with MEC performance was examined at low (0.5 g COD/L) and high (4 g COD/L) concentrations of acetate or propionate, which are important intermediates of fermentation of municipal wastewaters and sludge. The results showed that acetate-fed reactors exhibited higher performance in terms of maximum current density (I: 4.25 ± 0.23 A/m), coulombic efficiency (CE: 95 ± 8%), and substrate degradation rate (98.8 ± 1.2%) than propionate-fed reactors (I: 2.7 ± 0.28 A/m; CE: 68 ± 9.5%; substrate degradation rate: 84 ± 13%) irrespective of the concentrations tested. Despite of the repeated sampling of the anodic biofilm over time, the high-concentration reactors demonstrated lower and stable performance in terms of current density (I: 1.1 ± 0.14 to 4.2 ± 0.21 A/m), coulombic efficiency (CE: 44 ± 4.1 to 103 ± 7.2%) and substrate degradation rate (64.9 ± 6.3 to 99.7 ± 0.5%), while the low-concentration reactors produced higher and dynamic performance (I: 1.1 ± 0.12 to 4.6 ± 0.1 A/m; CE: 52 ± 2.5 to 105 ± 2.7%; substrate degradation rate: 87.2 ± 0.2 to 99.9 ± 0.06%) with the different substrates tested. Correlating reactor\\'s performance with temporal dynamics of microbial communities showed that relatively similar anodic microbial community composition but with varying relative abundances was observed in all the reactors despite differences in the substrate and concentrations tested. Particularly, Geobacter was the predominant bacteria on the anode biofilm of all MECs over time suggesting its

  8. The Common Gut Microbe Eubacterium hallii also Contributes to Intestinal Propionate Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Christina; Ruscheweyh, Hans-Joachim; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2016-01-01

    Eubacterium hallii is considered an important microbe in regard to intestinal metabolic balance due to its ability to utilize glucose and the fermentation intermediates acetate and lactate, to form butyrate and hydrogen. Recently, we observed that E. hallii is capable of metabolizing glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA, reuterin) with reported antimicrobial properties. The key enzyme for glycerol to 3-HPA conversion is the cobalamin-dependent glycerol/diol dehydratase PduCDE which also utilizes 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) to form propionate. Therefore our primary goal was to investigate glycerol to 3-HPA metabolism and 1,2-PD utilization by E. hallii along with its ability to produce cobalamin. We also investigated the relative abundance of E. hallii in stool of adults using 16S rRNA and pduCDE based gene screening to determine the contribution of E. hallii to intestinal propionate formation. We found that E. hallii utilizes glycerol to produce up to 9 mM 3-HPA but did not further metabolize 3-HPA to 1,3-propanediol. Utilization of 1,2-PD in the presence and absence of glucose led to the formation of propanal, propanol and propionate. E. hallii formed cobalamin and was detected in stool of 74% of adults using 16S rRNA gene as marker gene (n = 325). Relative abundance of the E. hallii 16S rRNA gene ranged from 0 to 0.59% with a mean relative abundance of 0.044%. E. hallii PduCDE was detected in 63 to 81% of the metagenomes depending on which subunit was investigated beside other taxons such as Ruminococcus obeum, R. gnavus, Flavonifractor plautii, Intestinimonas butyriciproducens, and Veillonella spp. In conclusion, we identified E. hallii as a common gut microbe with the ability to convert glycerol to 3-HPA, a step that requires the production of cobalamin, and to utilize 1,2-PD to form propionate. Our results along with its ability to use a broad range of substrates point at E. hallii as a key species within the intestinal trophic chain with the potential to

  9. The common gut microbe Eubacterium hallii also contributes to intestinal propionate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eEngels

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eubacterium hallii is considered an important microbe in regard to intestinal metabolic balance due to its ability to utilize glucose and the fermentation intermediates acetate and lactate, to form butyrate and hydrogen. Recently, we observed that E. hallii is capable of metabolizing glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA, reuterin with reported antimicrobial properties. The key enzyme for glycerol to 3-HPA conversion is the cobalamin-dependent glycerol/diol dehydratase PduCDE which also utilizes 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD to form propionate. Therefore our primary goal was to investigate glycerol to 3-HPA metabolism and 1,2-PD utilization by E. hallii along with its ability to produce cobalamin. We also investigated the relative abundance of E. hallii in stool of adults using 16S rRNA and pduCDE based gene screening to determine the contribution of E. hallii to intestinal propionate formation. We found that E. hallii utilizes glycerol to produce up to 9 mM 3-HPA but did not further metabolize 3-HPA to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD. Utilization of 1,2-PD in the presence and absence of glucose led to the formation of propanal, propanol and propionate. E. hallii formed cobalamin and was detected in stool of 74% of adults using 16S rRNA gene as marker gene (n = 325. Relative abundance of the E. hallii 16S rRNA gene ranged from 0 to 0.59% with a mean relative abundance of 0.044%. E. hallii PduCDE was detected in 63 to 81% of the metagenomes depending on which subunit was investigated beside other taxons such as Ruminococcus obeum, Ruminococcus gnavus, Flavonifractor prautii, Intestinimonas butyriciproducens, and Veillonella spp. In conclusion, we identified E. hallii as a common gut microbe with the ability to convert glycerol to 3-HPA, a step that requires the production of cobalamin, and to utilize 1,2-PD to form propionate. Our results along with its ability to use a broad range of substrates point at E. hallii as a key species within the intestinal

  10. Green and economical production of propionic acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 in plant fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaohai; Chen, Fei; Xu, Hong; Wu, Bo; Li, Hui; Li, Sha; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2011-05-01

    Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium freudenreichii from molasses and waste propionibacterium cells was studied in plant fibrous-bed bioreactor (PFB). With non-treated molasses as carbon source, 12.69 ± 0.40 g l(-1) of propionic acid was attained at 120 h in free-cell fermentation, whereas the PFB fermentation yielded 41.22 ± 2.06 g l(-1) at 120 h and faster cells growth was observed. In order to optimize the fermentation outcomes, fed-batch fermentation was performed with hydrolyzed molasses in PFB, giving 91.89 ± 4.59 g l(-1) of propionic acid at 254 h. Further studies were carried out using hydrolyzed waste propionibacterium cells as substitute nitrogen source, resulting in a propionic acid concentration of 79.81 ± 3.99 g l(-1) at 302 h. The present study suggests that the low-cost molasses and waste propionibacterium cells can be utilized for the green and economical production of propionic acid by P. freudenreichii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaerobic granule-based biofilms formation reduces propionate accumulation under high H2 partial pressure using conductive carbon felt particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Cuiping; Yan, Kun; Wu, Jing; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2016-09-01

    Syngas based co-digestion is not only more economically attractive than separate syngas methanation but also able to upgrade biogas and increase overall CH4 amount simultaneously. However, high H2 concentration in the syngas could inhibit syntrophic degradation of propionate, resulting in propionate accumulation and even failure of the co-digestion system. In an attempt to reduce propionate accumulation via enhancing both H2 interspecies transfer (HIT) and direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) pathways, layered granule-based biofilms induced by conductive carbon felt particles (CCFP) was employed. The results showed that propionate accumulation was effectively reduced with influent COD load up to 7gL(-1)d(-1). Two types of granule-based biofilms, namely biofilm adhered to CCFP (B-CCFP) and granules formed by self-immobilization (B-SI) were formed in the reactor. Clostridium, Syntrophobacter, Methanospirillum were possibly involved in HIT and Clostridium, Geobacter, Anaerolineaceae, Methanosaeta in DIET, both of which might be responsible for the high-rate propionate degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND CALCIUM PROPIONATE IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.

  13. Co-cultivation of Lactobacillus zeae and Veillonella cricetifor the production of propionic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this work a defined co-culture of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus zeae and the propionate producer Veillonella criceti has been studied in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and in a dialysis membrane reactor. It is the first time that this reactor type is used for a defined co-culture fermentation. This reactor allows high mixing rates and working with high cell densities, making it ideal for co-culture investigations. In CSTR experiments the co-culture showed over a broad concentration range an almost linear correlation in consumption and production rates to the supply with complex nutrients. In CSTR and dialysis cultures a strong growth stimulation of L. zeae by V. criceti was shown. In dialysis cultures very high propionate production rates (0.61 g L-1h-1) with final titers up to 28 g L-1 have been realized. This reactor allows an individual, intracellular investigation of the co-culture partners by omic-technologies to provide a better understanding of microbial communities. PMID:23705662

  14. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria using FTIR Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Nalepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid bacteria have been identified at the genus level with the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Bacterial strains of the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Propionibacterium were analyzed since they deliver health benefits and are routinely used in the food processing industry. The correctness of bacterial identification by ANNs and FTIR was evaluated at two stages. At first stage, ANNs were tested based on the spectra of 66 reference bacterial strains. At second stage, the evaluation involved 286 spectra of bacterial strains isolated from food products, deposited in our laboratory collection, and identified by genus-specific PCR. ANNs were developed based on the spectra and their first derivatives. The most satisfactory results were reported for the probabilistic neural network, which was built using a combination of W5W4W3 spectral ranges. This network correctly identified the genus of 95 % of the lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid bacteria strains analyzed.

  15. Selective Hydrodeoxygenation of Alkyl Lactates to Alkyl Propionates with Fe-based Bimetallic Supported Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; He, Jian; Schill, Leonhard; Yang, Song; Riisager, Anders; Saravanamurugan, Shunmugavel

    2018-02-22

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of methyl lactate (ML) to methyl propionate (MP) was performed with various base-metal supported catalysts. A high yield of 77 % MP was obtained with bimetallic Fe-Ni/ZrO 2 in methanol at 220 °C and 50 bar H 2 . A synergistic effect of Ni increased the yield of MP significantly when using Fe-Ni/ZrO 2 instead of Fe/ZrO 2 alone. Moreover, the ZrO 2 support contributed to improve the yield as a phase transition of ZrO 2 from tetragonal to monoclinic occurred after metal doping giving rise to fine dispersion of the Fe and Ni on the ZrO 2 , resulting in a higher catalytic activity of the material. Interestingly, it was observed that Fe-Ni/ZrO 2 also effectively catalyzed methanol reforming to produce H 2 in situ, followed by HDO of ML, yielding 60 % MP at 220 °C with 50 bar N 2 instead of H 2 . Fe-Ni/ZrO 2 also catalyzed HDO of other short-chain alkyl lactates to the corresponding alkyl propionates in high yields around 70 %. No loss of activity of Fe-Ni/ZrO 2 occurred in five consecutive reaction runs demonstrating the high durability of the catalyst system. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Concurrent non-ketotic hyperglycinemia and propionic acidemia in an eight year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Kruszka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first reported case of a patient with both non-ketotic hyperglycinemia and propionic acidemia. At 2 years of age, the patient was diagnosed with non-ketotic hyperglycinemia by elevated glycine levels and mutations in the GLDC gene (paternal allele: c.1576_1577insC delT and c.1580delGinsCAA; p.S527Tfs*13, and maternal allele: c.1819G>A; p.G607S. At 8 years of age after having been placed on ketogenic diet, he became lethargic and had severe metabolic acidosis with ketonuria. Urine organic acid analysis and plasma acylcarnitine profile were consistent with propionic acidemia. He was found to have an apparently homozygous mutation in the PCCB gene: c.49C>A; p.Leu17Met. The patient was also treated with natural protein restriction, carnitine, biotin, and thiamine and had subjective and biochemical improvement.

  17. Magnetic Vinylphenyl Boronic Acid Microparticles for Surface Catalytic Performance in Esterification of Propionic Acid with Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles, poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-vinylphenyl boronic acid [m-poly(EGDMA-VPBA], produced by suspension polymerization, was found to be efficient solid acid catalyst for the esterification of methanol and propionic acid. Characterization techniques such as FT-IR, Elemental analyses, ICP-AES, ESR, SEM and N2 sorption showed that both of Fe3O4 and H2SO4 are bonded to the polymer successfully. Esterification was studied for different molar percentages of H2SO4 at temperature range of 50-70 oC. The apparent activation energy was found to be 27.7 kj.mol-1 for 10% H2SO4 doped m-poly(EGDMA-VPBA. Combining of strong acid H2SO4 with m-poly(EGDMA-VPBA, leads to materials with different functional properties. In addition, H2SO4 species could be introduced into the structure as acid centers, therefore this micro-dimensional catalyst has potential candidate for applications in the catalytic esterifications such as propionic acid with methanol.

  18. Effects of targeted delivery of propionate to the human colon on appetite regulation, body weight maintenance and adiposity in overweight adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Edward S; Viardot, Alexander; Psichas, Arianna; Morrison, Douglas J; Murphy, Kevin G; Zac-Varghese, Sagen E K; MacDougall, Kenneth; Preston, Tom; Tedford, Catriona; Finlayson, Graham S; Blundell, John E; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Ashby, Deborah; Gibson, Glen R; Kolida, Sofia; Dhillo, Waljit S; Bloom, Stephen R; Morley, Wayne; Clegg, Stuart; Frost, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Objective The colonic microbiota ferment dietary fibres, producing short chain fatty acids. Recent evidence suggests that the short chain fatty acid propionate may play an important role in appetite regulation. We hypothesised that colonic delivery of propionate would increase peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in humans, and reduce energy intake and weight gain in overweight adults. Design To investigate whether propionate promotes PYY and GLP-1 secretion, a primary cultured human colonic cell model was developed. To deliver propionate specifically to the colon, we developed a novel inulin-propionate ester. An acute randomised, controlled cross-over study was used to assess the effects of this inulin-propionate ester on energy intake and plasma PYY and GLP-1 concentrations. The long-term effects of inulin-propionate ester on weight gain were subsequently assessed in a randomised, controlled 24-week study involving 60 overweight adults. Results Propionate significantly stimulated the release of PYY and GLP-1 from human colonic cells. Acute ingestion of 10 g inulin-propionate ester significantly increased postprandial plasma PYY and GLP-1 and reduced energy intake. Over 24 weeks, 10 g/day inulin-propionate ester supplementation significantly reduced weight gain, intra-abdominal adipose tissue distribution, intrahepatocellular lipid content and prevented the deterioration in insulin sensitivity observed in the inulin-control group. Conclusions These data demonstrate for the first time that increasing colonic propionate prevents weight gain in overweight adult humans. Trial registration number NCT00750438. PMID:25500202

  19. Propionic acid production in a plant fibrous-bed bioreactor with immobilized Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Dan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2012-12-15

    A plant fibrous-bed bioreactor (PFB) was constructed for propionic acid production. Sugar cane bagasse was applied to the PFB as immobilizing material. Starting at a concentration of 80g/L of glucose, Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 produced 41.20±2.03g/L of propionic acid at 108h in the PFB. The value was 21.07% higher than that produced by free cell fermentation. Intermittent and constant fed-batch fermentations were performed in the PFB to optimize the fermentation results. The highest propionic acid concentration obtained from constant fed-batch fermentation was 136.23±6.77g/L, which is 1.40 times higher than the highest concentration (97.00g/L) previously reported. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that cells exhibited striking changes in morphology after PFB domestication. Compared with free cell fermentation, the fluxes of propionic acid synthesis and the pentose phosphate pathway in PFB fermentation increased by 84.65% and 227.62%, respectively. On the other hand, a decrease in succinic and acetic acid fluxes was also observed. The metabolic flux distributions of the two PFB fed-batch fermentation strategies also demonstrated that constant fed-batch fermentation is a more beneficial method for the immobilized production of propionic acid. The relevant key enzyme activities and metabolic flux variations of the batch cultures showed good consistency. These results suggest that the PFB was effective in high-concentration propionic acid production. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fundamental Insights into Propionate Oxidation in Microbial Electrolysis Cells Using a Combination of Electrochemical, Molecular biology and Electron Balance Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-11-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater and energy is pushing towards the development of alternative technologies that are sustainable. One of the realistic solutions to address this is utilization of the renewable resources like wastewater. Conventional wastewater treatment processes can be highly energy demanding and can fails to recover the full potential of useful resources such as energy in the wastewater. As a consequence, there is an urgent necessity for sustainable wastewater treatment technologies that could harness such resources present in wastewaters. Advanced treatment process based on microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) have a great potential for the resources recovery through a sustainable wastewater treatment process. METs rely on the abilities of microorganisms that are capable of transferring electrons extracellularly by oxidizing the organic matter in the wastewater and producing electrical current for electricity generation (MFC) or H2 and CH4 production (MEC). Propionate is an important volatile fatty acid (VFA) (24-70%) in some wastewaters and accumulation of this VFA can cause a process failure in a conventional anaerobic digestion (AD) system. To address this issue, MECs were explored as a novel, alternative wastewater treatment technology, with a focus on a better understanding of propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs. Having such knowledge could help in the development of more robust and efficient wastewater treatment systems to recover energy and produce high quality effluents. Several studies were conducted to: 1) determine the paths of electron flow in the anode of propionate fed MECs low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations; 2) examine the effect of different set anode potentials on the electrochemical performance, propionate degradation, electron fluxes, and microbial community structure in MECs fed propionate; and 3) examine the temporal

  1. The role of apitoxin in alleviating propionic acid-induced neurobehavioral impairments in rat pups: The expression pattern of Reelin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghestani, Maha H; Selim, Manar E; Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M; Said, Enas N; El-Hameed, Noura E Abd; Khalil, Samah R; El-Tawil, Osama S

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of apitoxin (bee venom; BV) in ameliorating propionic acid (PPA) -induced neurobehavioral impacts was studied. Sixty rat pups were enrolled in a split litter design to six groups: a control group, a PPA-treated group, a BV-treated group, a BV/PPA protective group, a PPA/BV therapeutic group, and a BV/PPA/BV protective and therapeutic group. Exploratory, social, locomotor, and repetitive/stereotype-like activities were assessed and prosocial, empathy, and acquired behavior were evaluated. Levels of neurotransmitter including serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined and a quantitative analysis of Reelin gene expression was performed. PPA treatment induced several behavioral alterations, as reduced exploratory activity and social behaviors, increased repetitive/stereotypic behaviors, and hyperactivity. In addition, a marked decline of neurotransmitters and down-regulation of Reelin mRNA expression were observed. BV exhibited high efficiency in ameliorating the PPA-induced neurobehavioral alterations, particularly when applied both before and after PPA administration. Overall, the results implied that BV has merit as a candidate therapeutic treatment to alleviate PPA-induced neurobehavioral disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective Hydrodeoxygenation of Alkyl Lactates to Alkyl Propionates with Fe-based Bimetallic Supported Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; He, Jian; Schill, Leonhard

    2018-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of methyl lactate (ML) to methyl propionate (MP) was performed with various base-metal supported catalysts. A high yield of 77 % MP was obtained with bimetallic Fe-Ni/ZrO2 in methanol at 220 °C and 50 bar H2 . A synergistic effect of Ni increased the yield of MP...... of the material. Interestingly, it was observed that Fe-Ni/ZrO2 also effectively catalyzed methanol reforming to produce H2 in situ, followed by HDO of ML, yielding 60 % MP at 220 °C with 50 bar N2 instead of H2. Fe-Ni/ZrO2 also catalyzed HDO of other short-chain alkyl lactates to the corresponding alkyl...

  3. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masato; Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens.

  4. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kimura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens.

  5. Effect of Different Skin Penetration Promoters in Halobetasol Propionate Permeation and Retention in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Carvajal-Vidal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Halobetasol propionate (HB is a potent synthetic corticosteroid used against inflammatory skin diseases, such as dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis, among others. The aim of this study is to define how the presence of different skin penetration enhancers (nonane, menthone, limonene, azone, carene, decanol, linoleic acid and cetiol affects the penetration and retention in skin of HB. To determine drug penetration through skin, 5% of each promoter was used in an ex vivo system with human skin on Franz cells. The results showed that the highest permeation occurs in the presence of menthone, followed by nonane. Permeation parameters were determined. The in vivo test was assessed, and the formulation containing HB-menthone presented better anti-inflammatory efficacy. These results are useful to generate a specific treatment according to each patient’s needs, and the inflammatory characteristics of the disease.

  6. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calverley, PM; Anderson, JA; Celli, B

    2007-01-01

    -therapy group and 18.3% in the fluticasone group) than in the placebo group (12.3%, Plevel of statistical...... group, and 16.0% in the fluticasone group. The hazard ratio for death in the combination-therapy group, as compared with the placebo group, was 0.825 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.681 to 1.002; P=0.052, adjusted for the interim analyses), corresponding to a difference of 2.6 percentage points...... or a reduction in the risk of death of 17.5%. The mortality rate for salmeterol alone or fluticasone propionate alone did not differ significantly from that for placebo. As compared with placebo, the combination regimen reduced the annual rate of exacerbations from 1.13 to 0.85 and improved health status...

  7. Enantioselective radical addition/trapping reactions with alpha,beta-disubstituted unsaturated imides. Synthesis of anti-propionate aldols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Petrovic, Goran; Zimmerman, Jake

    2005-03-02

    This manuscript describes a highly diastereo- and enantioselective intermolecular radical addition/hydrogen atom transfer to alpha,beta-disubstituted enoates. Additionally, we show that anti-propionate aldol-like products can be easily prepared from alpha-methyl-beta-acyloxyenoates in good yields and high diastereo- and enantioselectivities.

  8. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenschen, H J; Van de Kerkhof, P C M

    2010-04-01

    Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical practice. Second, to identify subgroup variables that may predict treatment success or failure. A total of 56 patients with scalp psoriasis were treated with short-contact clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Data on treatment satisfaction, user convenience, safety and effectiveness were assessed on a 7-point Likert scale using postal questionnaires. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify variables that may predict treatment outcome. A total of 41 patients returned both questionnaires (73%). Positive treatment satisfaction and user convenience were reported by 66% and 79% of patients respectively. Patient-rated indicators for disease severity improved by 39-46% (P 0.05). Short-contact treatment with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo has high user convenience and patient satisfaction rates. Moreover, the treatment is well-tolerated and efficacious from patients' perspective. Subgroup analyses did not reveal factors predicting treatment outcome, although treatment success tended to be more evident in patients who had received fewer treatments previously.

  9. Effects of carbon dioxide on cell growth and propionic acid production from glycerol and glucose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An; Sun, Jianxin; Wang, Zhongqiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Zhou, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    The effects of CO2 on propionic acid production and cell growth in glycerol or glucose fermentation were investigated in this study. In glycerol fermentation, the volumetric productivity of propionic acid with CO2 supplementation reached 2.94g/L/day, compared to 1.56g/L/day without CO2. The cell growth using glycerol was also significantly enhanced with CO2. In addition, the yield and productivity of succinate, the main intermediate in Wood-Werkman cycle, increased 81% and 280%, respectively; consistent with the increased activities of pyruvate carboxylase and propionyl CoA transferase, two key enzymes in the Wood-Werkman cycle. However, in glucose fermentation CO2 had minimal effect on propionic acid production and cell growth. The carbon flux distributions using glycerol or glucose were also analyzed using a stoichiometric metabolic model. The calculated maintenance coefficient (mATP) increased 100%, which may explain the increase in the productivity of propionic acid in glycerol fermentation with CO2 supplement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Digestibility by lambs offered alfalfa hay treated with a propionic acid hay preservative and baled at different concentrations of moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighteen crossbred wether lambs (76.1 ± 8.18 lb initial BW) were used for a 2 period digestion study to evaluate the effect of hay preservative concentration (0, 0.56, or 0.98% buffered propionic acid) and hay moisture concentration at baling (19.6, 23.8, or 27.4% moisture) on digestibility of alfal...

  11. Plasma total odd-chain fatty acids in the monitoring of disorders of propionate, methylmalonate and biotin metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coker, M.; de Klerk, J. B.; Poll-The, B. T.; Huijmans, J. G.; Duran, M.

    1996-01-01

    Total plasma odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids were analysed in patients with methylmalonic acidaemia (vitamin B12-responsive and unresponsive), combined methylmalonic acidaemia/homocystinuria (CblC), propionic acidaemia (both neonatal-onset and late-onset), biotinidase deficiency and

  12. Fundamental Insights into Propionate Oxidation in Microbial Electrolysis Cells Using a Combination of Electrochemical, Molecular biology and Electron Balance Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-01-01

    for electricity generation (MFC) or H2 and CH4 production (MEC). Propionate is an important volatile fatty acid (VFA) (24-70%) in some wastewaters and accumulation of this VFA can cause a process failure in a conventional anaerobic digestion (AD) system

  13. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) a novel candidate biomarker for propionic and methylmalonic acidemias during expanded newborn screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvagia, Sabrina; Haynes, Christopher A.; Grisotto, Laura; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Moretti, Elisa; McGreevy, Kathleen; Buggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Garg, Uttam; Seeterlin, Mary; Chace, Donald; De Jesus, Victor; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Background 3-hydroxypalmitoleoyl-carnitine (C16:1-OH) was recently reported to be elevated in acylcarnitine profile of propionic acidemia (PA) or methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) patients during expanded newborn screening (NBS). High levels of C16:1-OH, combined with other hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitines are related to long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD). Methods The acylcarnitine profile of two LCHADD patients was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A specific retention time was reported for each hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitine. The same method was applied to some neonatal dried blood spots (DBS) from PA and MMA patients presenting abnormal C16:1-OH concentrations. Results The final retention time of the peak corresponding to C16:1-OH in LCHADD patients differed from those in MMA and PA patients. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) has been identified as the novel biomarker specific for PA and MMA patients through high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) experiments. We found that 21 out of 23 neonates (22 MMA, and 1PA) diagnosed through the Tuscany region NBS program had significantly higher levels of C17 compared to levels detected in controls. Twenty-three maternal deficiencies (21 vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 homocystinuria and 1 gastrin deficiency) and 82 false positive for propionylcarnitine (C3) results were also analyzed. Conclusions This paper reports on the characterization of a novel biomarker able to detect propionate disorders during expanded newborn screening (NBS). The use of this new biomarker may improve the analytical performances of NBS programs especially in laboratories where second tier tests are not performed. PMID:26368264

  14. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) a novel candidate biomarker for newborn screening of propionic and methylmalonic acidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvagia, Sabrina; Haynes, Christopher A; Grisotto, Laura; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Moretti, Elisa; McGreevy, Kathleen S; Biggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Garg, Uttam; Seeterlin, Mary; Chace, Donald; De Jesus, Victor R; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2015-10-23

    3-Hydroxypalmitoleoyl-carnitine (C16:1-OH) has recently been reported to be elevated in acylcarnitine profiles of patients with propionic acidemia (PA) or methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) during expanded newborn screening (NBS). High levels of C16:1-OH, combined with other hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitines are related to long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) and trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency. The acylcarnitine profile of two LCHADD patients was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A specific retention time was determined for each hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitine. The same method was applied to some neonatal dried blood spots (DBSs) from PA and MMA patients presenting abnormal C16:1-OH concentrations. The retention time of the peak corresponding to C16:1-OH in LCHADD patients differed from those in MMA and PA patients. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) has been identified as the novel biomarker specific for PA and MMA patients through high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) experiments. We found that 21 out of 23 neonates (22 MMA, and 1PA) diagnosed through the Tuscany region NBS program exhibited significantly higher levels of C17 compared to controls. Twenty-three maternal deficiency (21 vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 homocystinuria and 1 gastrin deficiency) samples and 82 false positive for elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) were also analyzed. We have characterized a novel biomarker able to detect propionate disorders during expanded newborn screening (NBS). The use of this new biomarker may improve the analytical performances of NBS programs especially in laboratories where second tier tests are not performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Shu Meng,1 Zaixing Chen,2 Liqun Yang,1 Wei Zhang,1 Danhua Liu,1 Jing Guo,1 Yanmin Guan,1 Jianxin Li11Liaoning Research Institute of Family Planning, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modification. The effect of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and cremophor EL-35 on the particle size and zeta potential of the prepared vesicles was investigated. The entrapment efficiency and stability, as well as in vitro and in vivo skin permeation, were studied with the various techniques, such as differential scanning calorimetry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and so on. The results indicated that the ethosomes were defined as spherical, unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (0.100 ± 0.015 and nanometric size (156.5 ± 3.5 nm. The entrapment efficiency of TP in ethosomal and liposomal carriers was 92.7% ± 3.7% and 64.7% ± 2.1%, respectively. The stability profile of the prepared TP ethosomal system assessed for 120 days revealed very low aggregation and very low growth in vesicular size. TP ethosomes also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 37.85 ± 2.8 µg/cm2/hour and a decreased lag time of 0.18 hours across mouse skin. The skin permeation efficiency of the TP ethosomes as further assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of rhodamine red-loaded formulations to the deeper layers of the skin (260 µm than that of the liposomal formation (120 µm.Keywords: testosterone propionate, surfactant-modified ethosomes, liposomes, confocal laser scanning microscopy

  16. Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by Citrobacter sp. TKF04 from acetic and propionic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, M; Ike, M; Tachibana, S; Kitada, G; Kim, S M; Inoue, Z

    2000-01-01

    A bacterial strain, TKF04, capable of producing a bioflocculant from acetic and/or propionic acids was isolated from a biofilm formed in inside a kitchen drain. It was identified as a Citrobacter based on its morphological and physiological characteristics and the partial sequences of its 16S rRNA. TKF04 produced the bioflocculant during the logarithmic phase of growth, and the optimum temperature and pH for the bioflocculant production were 30 degrees C and 7.2-10.0, respectively. It could utilize some organic acids and sugars for its growth as the sole carbon sources when yeast extract was supplemented; however, only acetate and propionate were found to be good substrates for the bioflocculant production. The crude bioflocculant could be recovered from the supernatant of the culture broth by ethanol precipitation and dialysis against deionized water. It was found to be effective for flocculation of a kaolin suspension, when added at a final concentration of 1-10 mg/l, over a wide range of pHs (2-8) and temperatures (approximately 3-95 degrees C), while the co-presence of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Al3+ or Fe3+) did not enhance the flocculating activity. It could efficiently flocculate a variety of inorganic and organic suspended particles, including kaolin, diatomite, bentonite, activated carbon, soil and activated sludge. It contained glucosamine as the major component, and the molecular weight was estimated to be between 232 and 440 kDa by gel filtration. The observation that the flocculating activity was completely lost following chitinase treatment and its analysis with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer suggested that the bioflocculant is a biopolymer structurally-similar to chitin or chitosan.

  17. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra B Nankova

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

  18. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE TERNARY SYSTEMS PROPIONIC ACID - WATER - SOLVENT (n-AMYL ALCOHOL AND n-AMYL ACETATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ÖZMEN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data have been obtained at 25 oC for ternary systems propionic acid-water-n-amyl alcohol and propionic acid-water-n-amyl acetate. The reliability of the experimental tie line data are checked using the methods of Othmer-Tobias and Hand. The distribution coefficients and separation factors were obtained from experimental results and are also reported. The predicted tie line data obtained by UNIFAC method are compared with experimental data. It is concluded that n-amyl alcohol and n-amyl acetate are suitable separating agents for dilute aqueous propionic acid solutions.

  19. Fluticasone propionate and increased risk of pneumonia in COPD: is it PAFR-dependent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohal SS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sukhwinder Singh SohalDiscipline of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Launceston, AustraliaIt was with great interest that I read the recent comprehensive review by Christer Janson et al1 published in the International Journal of COPD, where authors discussed the possible mechanisms behind the increased risk of pneumonia in COPD patients using inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs, especially with fluticasone propionate (FP, where the risk was highest.1 It is an important area, and it is encouraging and reassuring that leading clinical journals are recognizing this. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind pneumococcal infections is critical.2 I would like to suggest that a broader discussion of new insights into the potential mechanisms contributing to the increased adherence of pneumococcus to airway wall and particularly in response to FP might has been appropriate with this opportunity.Authors’ replyChrister Janson,1 Georgios Stratelis,1,2 Anna Miller-Larsson,3 Tim W Harrison,4 Kjell Larsson51Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 2Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity, AstraZeneca Nordic, Södertälje, 3Respiratory GMed, AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden; 4Nottingham Respiratory Research Unit, City Hospital Campus, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 5Lung and Airway Research, National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenWe thank Dr Sohal for his interest in our recently published manuscript discussing the scientific rationale for the possible inhaled corticosteroid (ICS intraclass difference in the risk of pneumonia in COPD. His own work on platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR expression on airway epithelial cells in COPD patients shows a trend toward increased expression of PAFR by 6-month treatment with fluticasone propionate (FP, suggesting an

  20. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth.

  1. Short-contact clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% improves quality of life in patients with scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jerry; Thomas, Richard; Wang, Béatrice; Gratton, David; Vender, Ronald; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2009-03-01

    Scalp psoriasis has a considerable impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients, and most patients are dissatisfied with available treatments. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% has been shown to be effective and safe for moderate to severe scalp psoriasis. We evaluated the effect of clobetasol propionate shampoo on QOL and the degree of participant satisfaction with the product. Participants received once-daily treatment for up to 4 weeks. Their QOL and degree of satisfaction were evaluated by questionnaires. The mean (standard deviation) Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score decreased significantly from 7.0 (4.9) at baseline to 3.2 (3.2) at week 4 (Pshampoo improved the QOL of participants and resulted in high satisfaction.

  2. Growth of Highly Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ Films from a Simple Propionate-Based Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Torres, Pol; Tang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Intensive investigations have been conducted to develop epitaxial oxide thin films with superior electromagnetic performance by low-cost chemical solution deposition routes. In this paper, a novel propionate-based precursor solution without involving any other additive was proposed and employed...... to grow superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films on LaAlO3 (LAO) single crystals. The precursor solutions are stable with a long shelf life of up to several months. Since the primary compositions are propionates after evaporating the solvent, the toxic reagents and evolved gases during solution synthesis...... and heat treatment can be eliminated completely. In this process, rapid pyrolysis and high conversation rate can also be achieved during growth of YBCO films in comparison with the conventional trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition routes. Remarkably, a 210 nm YBCO film exhibits high superconducting...

  3. Antifungal Activity of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria against Dairy-Associated Spoilage Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing

    Bacterial cultures of lactic and propionic acid bacteria are widely used in fermented products including dairy products. Spoilage fungi may constitute a quality and safety issue in these products. The antifungal properties of some lactic and propionic acid bacteria make them potential candidates...... defined interaction medium (CDIM) was developed allowing growth of protective Lb. paracasei and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermaniii as well as the spoilage fungi, Penicillium spp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Debaryomyces hansenii isolated from fermented dairy products. Lb. paracasei and P....... freudenreichii subsp. shermanii grew in CDIM and showed antifungal properties similar to those observed in milk-based systems. Most of the antifungal effect of the protective bacterial ferment was lost after removal of cells. This was explained by a marked decrease in diacetyl concentration, which...

  4. [Detection of clobetasol propionate in a cream advertised to be effective against atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Takita, Yoko; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2009-01-01

    Addition of medical ingredients to cosmetics is prohibited. However, last year some cases of illegal cosmetics containing steroids were successfully identified. We have already reported an analytical method to detect steroids in cosmetics [Bull. Natl. Inst. Health Sci, 126, 51-56 (2008)]. In this study, we initially examined whether this method could be applied for the detection of some new steroids as target chemicals. We then used this developed method to detect steroids in cosmetics obtained from manufacturers by spot checks. These manufacturers have been advertising the effectiveness of a steroid-free cream against atopic dermatitis. The results revealed that clobetasol propionate (CP) was present in this facial moisturizing cream, which was available in the market. The steroid was extracted with methanol. After ultrasonication and centrifugation, the resulting supernatant was injected into the high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with an ODS column. The separation was achieved using a mixture of acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase. The retention times of the observed peaks were in accordance with those of some preservatives and CP. The presence of CP was also confirmed by thin-layer chromatography. The concentration of CP in the cream was approximately 0.039%. CP is a steroid that has the strongest effect as compared to those of other steroids. The cream was therefore recalled for safety reasons.

  5. Functional characterization of novel genotypes and cellular oxidative stress studies in propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Villar, Lorena; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Pérez, Belén; Abia, David; Ugarte, Magdalena; Richard, Eva; Desviat, Lourdes R

    2013-09-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA), caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial biotin dependent enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) is one of the most frequent organic acidurias in humans. PA is caused by mutations in either the PCCA or PCCB genes encoding the α- and β-subunits of the PCC enzyme which are assembled as an α6β6 dodecamer. In this study we have investigated the molecular basis of the defect in ten fibroblast samples from PA patients. Using homology modeling with the recently solved crystal structure of the PCC holoenzyme and a eukaryotic expression system we have analyzed the structural and functional effect of novel point mutations, also revealing a novel splice defect by minigene analysis. In addition, we have investigated the contribution of oxidative stress to cellular damage measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and apoptosis parameters in patient fibroblasts, as recent studies point to a secondary mitochondrial dysfunction as pathophysiological mechanism in this disorder. The results show an increase in intracellular ROS content compared to controls, correlating with the activation of the JNK and p38 signaling pathways. Highest ROS levels were present in cells harboring functionally null mutations, including one severe missense mutation. This work provides molecular insight into the pathogenicity of PA variants and indicates that oxidative stress may be a major contributing factor to the cellular damage, supporting the proposal of antioxidant strategies as novel supplementary therapy in this rare disease.

  6. Towards the development of an enzyme replacement therapy for the metabolic disorder propionic acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Darvish-Damavandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acidemia (PA is a life-threatening disease caused by the deficiency of a mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme known as propionyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (PCC. This enzyme is responsible for degrading the metabolic intermediate, propionyl coenzyme-A (PP-CoA, derived from multiple metabolic pathways. Currently, except for drastic surgical and dietary intervention that can only provide partial symptomatic relief, no other form of therapeutic option is available for this genetic disorder. Here, we examine a novel approach in protein delivery by specifically targeting and localizing our protein candidate of interest into the mitochondrial matrix of the cells. In order to test this concept of delivery, we have utilized cell penetrating peptides (CPPs and mitochondria targeting sequences (MTS to form specific fusion PCC protein, capable of translocating and localizing across cell membranes. In vitro delivery of our candidate fusion proteins, evaluated by confocal images and enzymatic activity assay, indicated effectiveness of this strategy. Therefore, it holds immense potential in creating a new paradigm in site-specific protein delivery and enzyme replacement therapeutic for PA.

  7. Comparison of Clobetasol Propionate Generics Using Simplified in Vitro Bioequivalence Method for Topical Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Kelen Carine Costa; de Souza, Weidson Carlos; de Souza Texeira, Leonardo; da Cunha-Filho, Marcilio Sergio Soares; Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Tais

    2017-11-20

    The aim of this paper is to propose a simple in vitro skin penetration experiment in which the drug is extracted from the whole skin piece as a test valid for formulation screening and optimization during development process, equivalence assessment during quality control or post-approval after changes to the product. Twelve clobetasol propionate (CP) formulations (six creams and six ointments) from the local market were used as a model to challenge the proposed methodology in comparison to in vitro skin penetration following tape-stripping for drug extraction. To support the results, physicochemical tests for pH, viscosity, density and assay, as well as in vitro release were performed. Both protocols, extracting the drug from the skin using the tape-stripping technique or extracting from the full skin were capable of differentiating CP formulations. Only one formulation did not present statistical difference from the reference drug product in penetration tests and only other two oitments presented equivalent release to the reference. The proposed protocol is straightforward and reproducible. Results suggest the bioinequavalence of tested CP formulations reinforcing the necessity of such evaluations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Causality Assessment of Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction Associated with Intranasal Fluticasone Propionate: Application of the Bradford Hill Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Muganurmath, Chandrashekhar S.; Curry, Amy L.; Schindzielorz, Andrew H.

    2018-01-01

    Causality assessment is crucial to post-marketing pharmacovigilance and helps optimize safe and appropriate use of medicines by patients in the real world. Self-reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction are common in the general population as well as in patients with allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis. Intranasal corticosteroids, including intranasal fluticasone propionate (INFP), are amongst the most effective drugs indicated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis. W...

  9. Quantifying Effect of Lactic, Acetic, and Propionic Acids on Growth of Molds Isolated from Spoiled Bakery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gauvry, Emilie; Onno, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    The combined effect of undissociated lactic acid (0 to 180 mmol/liter), acetic acid (0 to 60 mmol/liter), and propionic acid (0 to 12 mmol/liter) on growth of the molds Aspergillus niger, Penicillium corylophilum, and Eurotium repens was quantified at pH 3.8 and 25°C on malt extract agar acid medium. The impact of these acids on lag time for growth (λ) was quantified through a gamma model based on the MIC. The impact of these acids on radial growth rate (μ) was analyzed statistically through polynomial regression. Concerning λ, propionic acid exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect (MIC of 8 to 20 mmol/liter depending on the mold species) than did acetic acid (MIC of 23 to 72 mmol/liter). The lactic acid effect was null on E. repens and inhibitory on A. niger and P. corylophilum. These results were validated using independent sets of data for the three acids at pH 3.8 but for only acetic and propionic acids at pH 4.5. Concerning μ, the effect of acetic and propionic acids was slightly inhibitory for A. niger and P. corylophilum but was not significant for E. repens. In contrast, lactic acid promoted radial growth of all three molds. The gamma terms developed here for these acids will be incorporated in a predictive model for temperature, water activity, and acid. More generally, results for μ and λ will be used to identify and evaluate solutions for controlling bakery product spoilage.

  10. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread.

  11. Distribution of Rhodium in Mice Submitted to Treatment With the Adduct of Rhodium Propionate and Sodium Isonicotinate

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Aparecido Ribeiro; Najjar, Renato; de Oliveira, Elizabeth; Zyngier, Szulim Ber

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of rhodium in Balb/c mice following intraperitoneal (ip) administration of a solution of adduct of rhodium propionate and sodium isonicotinate has been investigated. The metal concentration was determined in blood and in the following organ tissues: brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, testes, and uterus/ovary, and the rhodium concentration was obtained by Inductively Coupled Argon Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The metal was detected in all organ tissues exami...

  12. The preparation of highly absorbing cellulosic copolymers -the cellulose acetate/propionate-g.co-acrylic acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, V.; Guthrie, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A series of copolymers based on the cellulose acetate/propionate-g.co-acrylic acid system has been prepared under radiation-induced control. These copolymers have been assessed for their water-retention capacity both in an unmodified state and after ''decrystallization'' or ''neutralization'' treatments. The grafting of acrylic acid onto the cellulose acetate/propionate had little effect on the water retention power of the cellulose acetate/propionate. However, improvements to the water retentivity was obtained after ''decrystallization'' procedures had been carried out on the copolymers using selected alkali metal salts with methanol as the continuous medium. The water-retentivity of the copolymers increased with increase in the extent of grafting, though the effect is less pronounced at high graft levels. Neutralization of the functional groups of the grafted branches provided a route to obtaining a marked increase in the level of water retentivity. Excessive salt concentrations gave reduced levels of water retentivity. Cesium carbonate and sodium carbonate have been shown to be effective in providing marked improvements in the water-retaining capacity of the copolymers. Maxima in performance are shown with respect to the treatment conditions. (author)

  13. A new highly productive Propionibacterium acidipropionici FL-48 strain with increased resistance to propionic acid and the scaling up of its production for industrial bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kartashov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid bacteria, including Propionibacterium acidipropionici, are widely used in the chemical industry to produce propionic acid and also for food and feed preservation. However, the efficiency of the industrial production of these bacteria is limited by their sensitivity to high concentrations of propionic acid excreted into the cultivation medium. Therefore, the development of new biotechnological processes and strains able to overcome this limitation and to improve the profitability of the microbiological production remains  a relevant problem. A new P. acidipropionici FL-48 strain characterized by an increased resistance to 10 g/L of propionic acid (the number of viable cells after 24-h cultivation reached 1.05 × 106 was developed by a two-step induced mutagenesis using UV and diethyl sulphate from the P. acidipropionici VKPM B-5723 strain. The mutant strain exceeded the parental strain in the biomass accumulation rate and the amount of produced propionic and acetic acids by 35%, 20%, and 16%, respectively. The stability of such important characteristics as the biomass accumulation rate and the viability on media containing heightened concentrations of propionic acid was confirmed by three sequential monoclonal subculturings on a medium supplemented with 10 g/L of propionic acid. The optimization of the cultivation technology made it possible to determine the optimum seed inoculum dose (10% of the fermentation medium volume and the best pH level for the active growth stage (6.1 ± 0.1. The scaling up of the fermentation to a 100-L bioreactor under observance of optimum cultivation conditions demonstrated a high biomass growth rate with a sufficient reproducability; after 20 h of fermentation, the number of viable cells in the culture broth exceeded 1 × 1010 CFU/mL. The new strain could be interesting as the component of silage and haylage biopreservatives and also could be used as an efficient producer of propionic acid.

  14. Awakening sleeping beauty: production of propionic acid in Escherichia coli through the sbm operon requires the activity of a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Ricardo Axayacatl; McCubbin, Tim; Wille, Annalena; Plan, Manuel; Nielsen, Lars Keld; Marcellin, Esteban

    2017-07-17

    Propionic acid is used primarily as a food preservative with smaller applications as a chemical building block for the production of many products including fabrics, cosmetics, drugs, and plastics. Biological production using propionibacteria would be competitive against chemical production through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene if native producers could be engineered to reach near-theoretical yield and good productivity. Unfortunately, engineering propionibacteria has proven very challenging. It has been suggested that activation of the sleeping beauty operon in Escherichia coli is sufficient to achieve propionic acid production. Optimising E. coli production should be much easier than engineering propionibacteria if tolerance issues can be addressed. Propionic acid is produced in E. coli via the sleeping beauty mutase operon under anaerobic conditions in rich medium via amino acid degradation. We observed that the sbm operon enhances amino acids degradation to propionic acid and allows E. coli to degrade isoleucine. However, we show here that the operon lacks an epimerase reaction that enables propionic acid production in minimal medium containing glucose as the sole carbon source. Production from glucose can be restored by engineering the system with a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase from Propionibacterium acidipropionici (0.23 ± 0.02 mM). 1-Propanol production was also detected from the promiscuous activity of the native alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE). We also show that aerobic conditions are favourable for propionic acid production. Finally, we increase titre 65 times using a combination of promoter engineering and process optimisation. The native sbm operon encodes an incomplete pathway. Production of propionic acid from glucose as sole carbon source is possible when the pathway is complemented with a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Although propionic acid via the restored succinate dissimilation pathway is considered a fermentative process, the engineered pathway

  15. Using a feed-grade zinc propionate to achieve molt induction in laying hens and retain postmolt egg production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S Y; Kim, W K; Birkhold, S G; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2004-11-01

    A commercial-feed-grade form of zinc propionate was examined as a potential feed amendment at a concentration of 1% zinc to induce molt in 90-wk-old hens. Dietary treatments consisted of 4 treatment groups of 28 birds each randomly assigned to either (1) molted conventionally by feed withdrawal, (2) 1% zinc as Zn acetate, (3) 1% zinc as Zn propionate, or (4) nonmolted control for 9 d. Ovary weights of hens fed Zn acetate or Zn propionate were not significantly different from each other, but hens fed Zn acetate or Zn propionate were significantly (phens. Zinc concentrations in the kidney and liver were significantly (phens when compared to either nonmolted control-fed hens or feed-withdrawal molted hens. Over the entire 3-mo postmolt period, there were no significant differences in interior or exterior egg qualities among the four treatments. Egg production of hens fed Zn acetate was significantly lower than feed-withdrawal hens, Zn propionate-fed hens, or nonmolted control hens (pfeeding a feed grade of Zn propionate (1% Zn)-supplemented diet can induce molt and retain postmolt egg quality and production comparable to hens molted by feed withdrawal.

  16. Regioselectively nucleus and/or side-chain fluorinated 2-(Phenanthryl)propionic acids by an effective combination of radical and organometallic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giacomo; Ruzziconi, Renzo

    2005-01-21

    Regioselectively nucleus and/or side-chain fluorinated 2-(phenanthr-1-yl)- and 2-(phenanthr-2-yl)propionic acids 1-5 were prepared using phenanthren-1(2H)-ones 6a-c as key intermediates. Thus, ethyl 2-(fluorophenanthryl)propionates 11 were obtained in good yields by Reformatsky reaction of 6a-c with ethyl 2-bromopropionate followed by dehydratation and DDQ-promoted aromatization of the resulting beta-hydroxyesters. Side-chain alkyl 2-hydroxy-2-(phenanthr-1-yl)propionates 14 were obtained by bromine/lithium permutation of dihydrophenanthryl bromides 12a-c with butyllithium followed by quenching of the lithiated intermediates with methyl pyruvate or ethyl 3,3,3-trifluoropyruvate and subsequent DDQ-promoted aromatization. The alkyl 2-hydroxy-2-(phenanthr-1-yl)propionates 25 were prepared by reacting 8-bromo-1,3-difluorophenanthrene 24 with butyllithium for 10 seconds at -110 degrees C and subsequent addition of the suitable pyruvate to the lithiated intermediates. Alkyl 2-hydroxy-2-(phenanthr-2-yl)propionates 26 and 29 were suitably obtained by site-selective metalation of 1,3-difluorophenanthrene 28 and the bromophenanthrene 24, respectively, with LDA followed by quenching of the metalated intermediates with the suitable alkyl pyruvate. Fluorination of the above alpha-hydroxypropionates with DAST, followed by the alkaline hydrolysis, allowed the expected 2-(phenanthryl)propionic acids 1-5 to be obtained in satisfactory overall yields.

  17. In Vivo Assessment of Clobetasol Propionate-Loaded Lecithin-Chitosan Nanoparticles for Skin Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenyiğit, Taner; Sonvico, Fabio; Rossi, Alessandra; Tekmen, Işıl; Santi, Patrizia; Colombo, Paolo; Nicoli, Sara; Özer, Özgen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess in vivo the anti-inflammatory efficacy and tolerability of clobetasol propionate (CP) loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles incorporated into chitosan gel for topical application (CP 0.005%). As a comparison, a commercial cream (CP 0.05% w/w), and a sodium deoxycholate gel (CP 0.05% w/w) were also evaluated. Lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembling of the components obtained by direct injection of soybean lecithin alcoholic solution containing CP into chitosan aqueous solution. Nanoparticles obtained had a particle size around 250 nm, narrow distribution (polydispersity index below 0.2) and positive surface charge, provided by a superficial layer of the cationic polymer. The nanoparticle suspension was then loaded into a chitosan gel, to obtain a final CP concentration of 0.005%. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test on Wistar rats, the effect of formulations on the barrier property of the stratum corneum were determined using transepidermal water loss measurements (TEWL) and histological analysis was performed to evaluate the possible presence of morphological changes. The results obtained indicate that nanoparticle-in-gel formulation produced significantly higher edema inhibition compared to other formulations tested, although it contained ten times less CP. TEWL measurements also revealed that all formulations have no significant disturbance on the barrier function of skin. Furthermore, histological analysis of rat abdominal skin did not show morphological tissue changes nor cell infiltration signs after application of the formulations. Taken together, the present data show that the use of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles in chitosan gel as a drug carrier significantly improves the risk-benefit ratio as compared with sodium-deoxycholate gel and commercial cream formulations of CP. PMID:28035957

  18. In Vivo Assessment of Clobetasol Propionate-Loaded Lecithin-Chitosan Nanoparticles for Skin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenyiğit, Taner; Sonvico, Fabio; Rossi, Alessandra; Tekmen, Işıl; Santi, Patrizia; Colombo, Paolo; Nicoli, Sara; Özer, Özgen

    2016-12-26

    The aim of this work was to assess in vivo the anti-inflammatory efficacy and tolerability of clobetasol propionate (CP) loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles incorporated into chitosan gel for topical application (CP 0.005%). As a comparison, a commercial cream (CP 0.05% w / w ), and a sodium deoxycholate gel (CP 0.05% w / w ) were also evaluated. Lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembling of the components obtained by direct injection of soybean lecithin alcoholic solution containing CP into chitosan aqueous solution. Nanoparticles obtained had a particle size around 250 nm, narrow distribution (polydispersity index below 0.2) and positive surface charge, provided by a superficial layer of the cationic polymer. The nanoparticle suspension was then loaded into a chitosan gel, to obtain a final CP concentration of 0.005%. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test on Wistar rats, the effect of formulations on the barrier property of the stratum corneum were determined using transepidermal water loss measurements (TEWL) and histological analysis was performed to evaluate the possible presence of morphological changes. The results obtained indicate that nanoparticle-in-gel formulation produced significantly higher edema inhibition compared to other formulations tested, although it contained ten times less CP. TEWL measurements also revealed that all formulations have no significant disturbance on the barrier function of skin. Furthermore, histological analysis of rat abdominal skin did not show morphological tissue changes nor cell infiltration signs after application of the formulations. Taken together, the present data show that the use of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles in chitosan gel as a drug carrier significantly improves the risk-benefit ratio as compared with sodium-deoxycholate gel and commercial cream formulations of CP.

  19. An overview of biotechnological production of propionic acid: From upstream to downstream processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Ahmadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for propionic acid (PA production and its wide applications in several industries, especially the food industry (as a preservative and satiety inducer, have led to studies on the low-cost biosynthesis of this acid. This paper gives an overview of the biotechnological aspects of PA production and introduces Propionibacterium as the most popular organism for PA production. Moreover, all process variables influencing the production yield, different simple and complex carbon sources, the metabolic pathway of production, engineered mutants with increased productivity, and modified tolerance against high concentrations of acid have been described. Furthermore, possible methods of extraction and analysis of this organic acid, several applied bioreactors, and different culture systems and substrates are introduced. It can be concluded that maximum biomass and PA production may be achieved using metabolically engineered microorganisms and analyzing the most significant factors influencing yield. To date, the maximum reported yield for PA production is 0.973 g·g-1, obtained from Propionibacterium acidipropionici in a three-electrode amperometric culture system in medium containing 0.4 mM cobalt sepulchrate. In addition, the best promising substrate for PA bioproduction may be achieved using glycerol as a carbon source in an extractive continuous fermentation. Simultaneous production of PA and vitamin B12 is suggested, and finally, the limitations of and strategies for competitive microbial production with respect to chemical process from an economical point of view are proposed and presented. Finally, some future trends for bioproduction of PA are suggested.

  20. The influence of secondary processing on the structural relaxation dynamics of fluticasone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depasquale, Roberto; Lee, Sau L; Saluja, Bhawana; Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the structural relaxation of micronized fluticasone propionate (FP) under different lagering conditions and its influence on aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of binary and tertiary carrier-based dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Micronized FP was lagered under low humidity (LH 25 C, 33% RH [relative humidity]), high humidity (HH 25°C, 75% RH) for 30, 60, and 90 days, respectively, and high temperature (HT 60°C, 44% RH) for 14 days. Physicochemical, surface interfacial properties via cohesive-adhesive balance (CAB) measurements and amorphous disorder levels of the FP samples were characterized. Particle size, surface area, and rugosity suggested minimal morphological changes of the lagered FP samples, with the exception of the 90-day HH (HH90) sample. HH90 FP samples appeared to undergo surface reconstruction with a reduction in surface rugosity. LH and HH lagering reduced the levels of amorphous content over 90-day exposure, which influenced the CAB measurements with lactose monohydrate and salmeterol xinafoate (SX). CAB analysis suggested that LH and HH lagering led to different interfacial interactions with lactose monohydrate but an increasing adhesive affinity with SX. HT lagering led to no detectable levels of the amorphous disorder, resulting in an increase in the adhesive interaction with lactose monohydrate. APSD analysis suggested that the fine particle mass of FP and SX was affected by the lagering of the FP. In conclusion, environmental conditions during the lagering of FP may have a profound effect on physicochemical and interfacial properties as well as product performance of binary and tertiary carrier-based DPI formulations.

  1. Effect of fluticasone propionate on sputum of patients with chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Harris, T A; Stockley, R A

    1996-02-01

    The effects of fluticasone propionate (FP) on sputum chemotactic activity, elastase inhibitory potential, albumin concentrations, and peripheral neutrophil function were studied in a group of patients with clinically stable, smoking-related chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Seventeen patients (50 to 75 yr of age) were entered into a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 1.5 mg inhaled FP/d for 8 wk. Following treatment with FP the chemotactic activity of the sputum sol phase was lower than the corresponding values for the placebo group (p < 0.01). Values fell from a mean of 21.75 (+/- 1.58) during the run-in period to 18.37 (+/- 1.46; p < 0.01) after 4 wk and 17.63 (+/- 1.86; p < 0.05) after 8 wk treatment returning to 22.08 (+/- 1.26) cell/field after the washout period. The neutrophil elastase inhibitory capacity of the sputum sol phase increased (p < 0.025) with treatment from a mean of 0.177 microM elastase inhibited/L (+/- 0.05) pretreatment to 0.413 microM (+/- 0.054) after 4 wk and 0.415 microM (+/- 0.054) after 8 wk returning to 0.270 microM (+/- 0.07) after the washout period. Treatment with FP did not result in a change in the peripheral neutrophil functions studied or sputum albumin and myeloperoxidase concentrations. The results suggest that FP may play a protective role in these patients through a reduction in the chemotactic activity of lung secretions and potentially a reduction in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung, and also by directly affecting the proteinase/antiproteinase balance, in favor of antiproteinases, within lung secretions.

  2. Therapeutic potency of bee pollen against biochemical autistic features induced through acute and sub-acute neurotoxicity of orally administered propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, Huda S; Bhat, Ramesa Shafi; Al-Ayadhi, Laila; El-Ansary, Afaf

    2016-04-23

    It is now well documented that postnatal exposure to certain chemicals has been reported to increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. Propionic acid (PA), as a metabolic product of gut microbiotaandas a commonly used food additive, has been reported to mediate the effects of autism. Results from animal studies may help to identify environmental neurotoxic agents and drugs that can ameliorate neurotoxicity and may thereby aid in the treatment of autism. The present study investigated the ameliorative effects of natural bee pollen against acute and sub-acute brain intoxication induced by (PA) in rats. Twenty-four young male Western Albino ratswere enrolled in the present study. They were classified into four equal groups, eachwith6 rats. The control group received only phosphate buffered saline; the oral buffered PA-treated groups (II and III) received a neurotoxic dose of 750 mg/kg body weight divided in 3 dose of 250 mg/kg body weight/day serving asthe acute group and 750 mg/kg body weight divided in 10 equal dose of 75 mg/kg body weight/day as the sub-acute group. The fourth group received 50 mg bee pollen for 30 days after PA-acute intoxication. The obtained data showed that the PA-treated groups demonstrated multiple signs of brain toxicity, as indicated by a depletion of serotonin (5HT), dopamine and nor-adrenaline, together withan increase in IFN-γ and caspase 3. Bee pollen was effective in ameliorating the neurotoxic effect of PA. All measured parameters demonstrated minimal alteration in comparison with thecontrol animal than did those of acute and sub-acute PA-treated animals. In conclusion, bee pollen demonstrates anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects while ameliorating the impaired neurochemistry of PA-intoxicated rats.

  3. Ketamine-induced inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 contributes to the augmentation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurel, Eléonore; Grieco, Steven F; Amadei, Celeste; Downey, Kimberlee; Jope, Richard S

    2016-09-01

    Sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine have been found to provide rapid antidepressant actions, indicating that the cellular signaling systems targeted by ketamine are potential sites for therapeutic intervention. Ketamine acts as an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and animal studies indicate that subsequent augmentation of signaling by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors is critical for the antidepressant outcome. In this study, we tested if the inhibitory effect of ketamine on glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) affected hippocampal cell-surface AMPA receptors using immunoblotting of membrane and synaptosomal extracts from wild-type and GSK3 knockin mice. Treatment with an antidepressant dose of ketamine increased the hippocampal membrane level of the AMPA glutamate receptor (GluA)1 subunit, but did not alter the localization of GluA2, GluA3, or GluA4. This effect of ketamine was abrogated in GSK3 knockin mice expressing mutant GSK3 that cannot be inhibited by ketamine, demonstrating that ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK3 is necessary for up-regulation of cell surface AMPA GluA1 subunits. AMPA receptor trafficking is regulated by post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95), a substrate for GSK3. Ketamine treatment decreased the hippocampal membrane level of phosphorylated PSD-95 on Thr-19, the target of GSK3 that promotes AMPA receptor internalization. These results demonstrate that ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK3 causes reduced phosphorylation of PSD-95, diminishing the internalization of AMPA GluA1 subunits to allow for augmented signaling through AMPA receptors following ketamine treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Neonatal programming with testosterone propionate reduces dopamine transporter expression in nucleus accumbens and methylphenidate-induced locomotor activity in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Tatiana; Martínez-Pinto, Jonathan; Reyes-Parada, Miguel; Torres, Gonzalo E; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2018-07-02

    Research in programming is focused on the study of stimuli that alters sensitive periods in development, such as prenatal and neonatal stages, that can produce long-term deleterious effects. These effects can occur in various organs or tissues such as the brain, affecting brain circuits and related behaviors. Our laboratory has demonstrated that neonatal programming with sex hormones affects the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, increasing the synthesis and release of dopamine (DA) in striatum and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, the behavioral response to psychostimulant drugs such as methylphenidate and the possible mechanism(s) involved have not been studied in adult rats exposed to sex hormones during the first hours of life. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the locomotor activity induced by methylphenidate (5mg/kg i.p.) and the expression of the DA transporter (DAT) in NAcc of adult rats exposed to a single dose of testosterone propionate (TP: 1mg/50μLs.c.) or estradiol valerate (EV: 0.1mg/50μLs.c.) at postnatal day 1. Our results demonstrated that adult female rats treated with TP have a lower methylphenidate-induced locomotor activity compared to control and EV-treated adult female rats. This reduction in locomotor activity is related with a lower NAcc DAT expression. However, neither methylphenidate-induced locomotor activity nor NAcc DAT expression was affected in EV or TP-treated adult male rats. Our results suggest that early exposure to sex hormones affects long-term dopaminergic brain areas involved in the response to psychostimulants, which could be a vulnerability factor to favor the escalating doses of drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene expression profiling in psoriatic scalp hair follicles: clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% normalizes psoriasis disease markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, J; Reiniche, P; Fogel, P; Poulin, Y; Lui, H; Lynde, C; Shapiro, J; Villemagne, H; Soto, P; Voegel, J J

    2010-11-01

    Clobetasol propionate shampoo is effective and safe in treatment of scalp psoriasis (SP). Gene expression profiling of psoriatic skin biopsies led to the identification of numerous disease-related genes. However, it remained unknown whether the gene expression profile of hair follicles of SP patients was also affected. To determine whether psoriasis-related genes are differentially regulated in the hair follicles of SP patients and whether the modulation of these genes can be correlated with clinical severity scores. A single arm, open study was conducted in three centres. SP patients received daily treatment with clobetasol propionate shampoo. At Baseline, Weeks 2 and 4, investigators assessed clinical severity parameters and collected scalp hair follicles in anagen phase. Total RNA extracted from hair follicles was used to determine the expression level of 44 genes, which were reported previously to be upregulated in the skin of psoriasis patients. RNA of good quality and sufficient quantity was obtained from hair follicles of psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers (HV). The expression level of 10 inflammation-related genes was significantly increased in psoriatic hair follicles. The patient's exploratory transcriptomic score, defined as the mean fold modulation of these 10 genes compared with HV, correlated with clinical severity scores. Clobetasol propionate shampoo was effective in decreasing both the exploratory transcriptomics and the clinical severity scores. Hair follicles of SP patients are affected by the inflammatory process. The change in the expression level of inflammation-related genes correlates with the severity of the disease. © 2010 Galderma R&D. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. On the protective effect of omega-3 against propionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rat pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gezeery Amina R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds The investigation of the environmental contribution for developmental neurotoxicity is very important. Many environmental chemical exposures are now thought to contribute to the development of neurological disorders, especially in children. Results from animal studies may guide investigations of human populations toward identifying environmental contaminants and drugs that produce or protect from neurotoxicity and may help in the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Objective To study the protective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on brain intoxication induced by propionic acid (PPA in rats. Methods 24 young male Western Albino rats were enrolled in the present study. They were grouped into three equal groups; oral buffered PPA-treated group given a nuerotoxic dose of 250 mg/Kg body weight/day for 3 days; omega-3 - protected group given a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day omega-3 orally daily for 5 days followed by PPA for 3 days, and a third group as control given only phosphate buffered saline. Tumor necrosis factor-α, caspase-3, interlukin-6, gamma amino-buteric acid (GABA, serotonin, dopamine and phospholipids were then assayed in the rats brain's tissue of different groups. Results The obtained data showed that PPA caused multiple signs of brain toxicity as measured by depletion of gamaaminobyteric acid (GABA, serotonin (5HT and dopamine (DA as three important neurotransmitters that reflect brain function. A high significant increase of interlukin-6 (Il-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as excellent markers of proinflammation and caspase-3 as a proapotic marker were remarkably elevated in the intoxicated group of rats. Moreover, brain phospholipid profile was impaired in PPA-treated young rats recording lower levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidylcholine (PC. Conclusions Omega-3 fatty acids showed a protective effects on PPA - induced changes in rats as

  7. Li-Ion Cells Employing Electrolytes With Methyl Propionate and Ethyl Butyrate Co-Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring Mars and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate at low temperatures to satisfy the requirements of such applications as landers, rovers, and penetrators. A number of terrestrial applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) also require energy storage devices that can operate over a wide temperature range (i.e., -40 to +70 C), while still providing high power capability and long life. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-30 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. These limitations at very low temperatures are due to poor electrolyte conductivity, poor lithium intercalation kinetics over the electrode surface layers, and poor ionic diffusion in the electrode bulk. Two wide-operating-temperature-range electrolytes have been developed based on advances involving lithium hexafluorophosphate-based solutions in carbonate and carbonate + ester solvent blends, which have been further optimized in the context of the technology and targeted applications. The approaches employed include further optimization of electrolytes containing methyl propionate (MP) and ethyl butyrate (EB), which are effective co-solvents, to widen the operating temperature range beyond the baseline systems. Attention was focused on further optimizing ester-based electrolyte formulations that have exhibited the best performance at temperatures ranging from -60 to +60 C, with an emphasis upon improving the rate capability at -20 to -40 C. This was accomplished by increasing electrolyte salt concentration to 1.20M and increasing the ester content to 60 percent by volume to increase the ionic conductivity at low temperatures. Two JPL-developed electrolytes 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MP (20:20:60 v/v %) and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+EB (20:20:60 v/v %) operate effectively over a wide

  8. Studies on acetate, propionate and glucose utilization for milk fat and other milk components in buffalo and cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahal, C.K.; Varma, A.; Singh, U.B.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on two lactating buffaloes and two lactating cows, to study the differences in the utilization of 14 C-acetate, 14 C-propionate and 3 H-glucose for the synthesis of milk fat, milk casein and milk lactalbumin. The animals were maintained on identical condition of feed. Single infusion technique was used throughout the course of investigation. Samples of milk were collected at different time intervals between 0 to 48 h and the radioactivity was determined in different milk fractions after separation. (author)

  9. Studies on acetate, propionate and glucose utilization for milk fat and other milk components in buffalo and cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahal, C K; Varma, A; Singh, U B; Ranjhan, S K [Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Izatnagar. Div. of Animal Nutrition

    1974-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on two lactating buffaloes and two lactating cows, to study the differences in the utilization of /sup 14/C-acetate, /sup 14/C-propionate and /sup 3/H-glucose for the synthesis of milk fat, milk casein and milk lactalbumin. The animals were maintained on identical condition of feed. Single infusion technique was used throughout the course of investigation. Samples of milk were collected at different time intervals between 0 to 48 h and the radioactivity was determined in different milk fractions after separation.

  10. Electrochemical behaviour of the Eu3+/Eu2+ system in propionic media studied by cyclic chrono potentiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotto, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of the Eu 3 + / Eu 2 + system in propionic media was studied by means of current reversal chrono potentiometry and cyclic chrono potentiometry. Sodium perchlorate was employed as supporting electrolyte. The experiments were carried out at (25.0 ± 0.1) 0 C. The studied variables were the concentration of the electro active species, the composition of the solution and the current density. The cyclic chrono potentiometry results reveal that the charge transfer reaction is followed by the (H 3 O) + ion assisted irreversible catalytic reaction in which the Eu 3 + species is regenerated. (author)

  11. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  12. Set anode potentials affect the electron fluxes and microbial community structure in propionate-fed microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-12-09

    Anode potential has been shown to be a critical factor in the rate of acetate removal in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), but studies with fermentable substrates and set potentials are lacking. Here, we examined the impact of three different set anode potentials (SAPs; −0.25, 0, and 0.25 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode) on the electrochemical performance, electron flux to various sinks, and anodic microbial community structure in two-chambered MECs fed with propionate. Electrical current (49–71%) and CH4 (22.9–41%) were the largest electron sinks regardless of the potentials tested. Among the three SAPs tested, 0 V showed the highest electron flux to electrical current (71 ± 5%) and the lowest flux to CH4 (22.9 ± 1.2%). In contrast, the SAP of −0.25 V had the lowest electron flux to current (49 ± 6%) and the highest flux to CH4 (41.1 ± 2%). The most dominant genera detected on the anode of all three SAPs based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing were Geobacter, Smithella and Syntrophobacter, but their relative abundance varied among the tested SAPs. Microbial community analysis implies that complete degradation of propionate in all the tested SAPs was facilitated by syntrophic interactions between fermenters and Geobacter at the anode and ferementers and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in suspension.

  13. Protective Effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Aqueous Extract and Lycopene on Testosterone Propionate-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Aboshora, Waleed; Li, Jing; Xiao, Tiancun; Zhang, Lianfu

    2017-08-01

    The inhibitory effect of maca extractant, lycopene, and their combination was evaluated in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) mice induced by testosterone propionate. Mice were divided into a saline group, solvent control group and testosterone propionate-induced BPH mice [BPH model group, solvent BPH model group, benzyl glucosinolate group (1.44 mg/kg), maca group (60 mg/kg), lycopene treated (15, 5, and 2.5 mg/kg), maca (30 mg/kg) combine lycopene treated (7.5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/kg), and finasteride treated]. Benzyl glucosinolate was used in order to evaluate its pharmacological activity on BPH to find out whether it is the major active component of maca aqueous extract. Finasteride was used as positive control. The compounds were administered once for 30 successive days. Compared with solvent BPH model group, BPH mice fed with maca (30 mg/kg) and lycopene (7.5 mg/kg) combination exhibited significant reductions in the prostatic index, prostatic acid phospatase, estradiol, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone levels in serum. They also had similar histological compared with those aspects observed in the mice in the solvent control group. The results indicated that combination of maca and lycopene synergistically inhibits BPH in mice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Guenther, Lyn; Tan, Jerry; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Clobetasol propionate (CP) shampoo 0.05% is an efficacious and safe treatment for scalp psoriasis. The aim of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to determine if CP shampoo is suitable for long-term disease control. Participants with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis (global severity score [GSS] of 3 or 4 on a scale of 0 [clear] to 5 [very severe]) first received once daily CP shampoo treatment for up to 4 weeks. Responders were subsequently randomized to receive the CP shampoo or vehicle twice weekly maintenance regimen for up to 6 months. When relapse occurred (defined as GSS > 2), participants resumed once daily CP shampoo treatment; when symptoms diminished (GSS shampoo did not relapse compared with participants treated with vehicle (P shampoo group. After 6 months 31.1% (33/106) of participants in the CP shampoo group were still relapse free versus 8.1% (9/111) of participants in the vehicle group. There was no greater incidence of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in the CP shampoo group compared with the vehicle group. Clobetasol propionate shampoo is efficacious and safe for acute management and long-term maintenance of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  15. Development and scintigraphic evaluation of submicron sized dry powder inhalation formulation of fluticasone propionate in healthy human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Sultana S.; Ahmad, F.J.; Khar, R.K.; Rathore, V.P.; Ali, Rashid; Rawat, H.S.; Chopra, M.K.; Mittal, G.; Bhatnagar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Objective of the present study concerns formulation and evaluation of submicron sized dry powder inhalation formulation of Fluticasone propionate for the treatment of bronchial asthma, COPD and a new life saving treatment option in restrictive lung diseases such as Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD), toxic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary inflammations or pulmonary edema, which have no effective treatment presently. Materials and Methods: The submicron sized particles were prepared by precipitation method using acetone as solvent and water as antisolvent. Poloxamer F127 was used as stabilizer. Both submicronized and micronized particles were characterized using FTIR, XRD, DSC, SEM and TEM. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the submicronized and micronized API was calculated using Andersen cascade impactor. The prepared particles and micronized Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) were radiolabeled with 99m Tc. Size3 HPMC capsules were filled with the 12.5 mg radiolabeled blend (100μg Fluticasone propionate and 12.4mg inhalable lactose) and given to healthy volunteers to assess the comparative pulmonary deposition. Results: The prepared formulation has shown better lung deposition as compared to micronized API. The MMAD of submicronized particles was in the range of 1 - 5 μm while the MMAD of micronized API was in the range of 5 - 15μm. Conclusion: The developed submicron sized dry powder inhalation formulation has better lung deposition as compared to micron sized API and it will become a better treatment option for the bronchial asthma, COPD and ILDs

  16. Resolution, configurational assignment, and enantiopharmacology at glutamate receptors of 2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA) and demethyl-ACPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Stensbøl, T B; Nielsen, B

    2001-01-01

    We have previously described (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA) as a potent agonist at the (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subtype of (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) receptors. We now report the chromatographic resolution...... of ACPA and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (demethyl-ACPA) using a Sumichiral OA-5000 column. The configuration of the enantiomers of both compounds have been assigned based on X-ray crystallographic analyses, supported by circular dichroism spectra and elution orders on chiral HPLC...... columns. Furthermore, the enantiopharmacology of ACPA and demethyl-ACPA was investigated using radioligand binding and cortical wedge electrophysiological assay systems and cloned metabotropic Glu receptors. (S)-ACPA showed high affinity in AMPA binding (IC(50) = 0.025 microM), low affinity in kainic acid...

  17. Synthesis of a cleavable heterobifunctional photolabelling reagent: ring-labelled 3-((4-azidophenyl)dithio)propionic acid- sup 14 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaswami, Varadarajan (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Tirrell, D.A. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (USA). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering)

    1989-08-01

    An efficient synthesis of ring-labelled 3-((4-azidophenyl)dithio)propionic acid-{sup 14}C is described. Chlorosulfonation of uniformly ring-labelled acetanilide-{sup 14}C followed by reductive dimerization of the sulfonyl chloride with HI afforded 4-acetamidophenyl disulfide. Hydrolysis and diazotization then gave 4-azidophenyl disulfide, which was converted to the title compound via the sulfur transfer reagent N-(4-azidophenylthio)phthalimide. The overall yield of 3-((4-azidophenyl)dithio)propionic acid-{sup 14}C was 22%. 3-((4-Azidophenyl)dithio)propionic acid-{sup 14}C is a cleavable heterobifunctional photolabelling reagent of potential utility in studies of biomembrane structure and intermacromolecular interaction. (author).

  18. Effects of excessive energy intake and supplementation with chromium propionate on insulin resistance parameters in nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Aboin, A C; Drago, F L; Gennari, R; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to compare insulin resistance parameters in cows with adequate or excessive energy intake as well as in cows with excessive energy intake receiving Cr supplementation as chromium propionate. Thirteen multiparous, nonlactating Gir × Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments on d 0: 1) diet to meet their ME requirements without Cr supplementation (MAN; n = 4), 2) diet to exceed their ME requirements without Cr supplementation (HIGH; n = 4), and 3) HIGH with 2.5 g/d of chromium propionate (HIGHCR; n = 5, with 10 mg of Cr/cow daily). Diets were formulated to provide 100% of daily ME requirements of MAN and 177% of daily ME requirements of HIGH and HIGHCR cows and offered twice daily via individual self-locking head gates from d 0 to 88. Cow BW and BCS were recorded on d 0 and 88 of the experiment. Blood samples were collected before and 2 h after the morning feeding twice weekly. Preprandial revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was determined using serum glucose, insulin, and NEFA concentrations obtained before feeding. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed on d 32 and 88 by infusing cows with 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW whereas blood samples were collected at -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min relative to infusion. Change in BCS tended to be greater in HIGH and HIGHCR (P = 0.09) compared with MAN cows. Within samples collected twice weekly, serum concentrations of glucose, insulin (beginning on d 14 of the experiment), and NEFA (preprandial samples only) were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in HIGH compared with HIGHCR cows and tended to be greater in HIGH compared with MAN cows (P ≤ 0.10) but did not differ (P ≥ 0.52) between HIGHCR and MAN cows. Moreover, HIGH cows had reduced RQUICKI compared with MAN (P = 0.02) and HIGHCR cows (P = 0.05) whereas RQUICKI was similar between MAN and HIGHCR cows (P = 0.53). Within samples collected during the GTT, mean serum insulin concentrations

  19. Defect states and room temperature ferromagnetism in cerium oxide nanopowders prepared by decomposition of Ce-propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihalache, V.; Grivel, J. C.; Secu, M.

    2018-01-01

    . An improvement of ferromagnetism and intensity of defect-related PL emission was observed when annealing the products in which nanocrystalline cerium oxide coexists with Ce - oxicarbonate traces, Ce2O2CO3. The experimental results were explained based on the following considerations: room temperature......Four batches of cerium oxide powders (with nanocrystallite size of 6.9 nm–572 nm) were prepared from four precursor nanopowders by thermal decomposition of Ce-propionate and annealing in air between 250 °C–1200 °C for 10 min–240 min. Ceria formation reactions, structure, vibrational, luminescence...... and magnetic properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence and SQUID. All the samples exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism, RTFM, (with coercivity, Hc, of 8 Oe - 121 Oe and saturation magnetization, Ms...

  20. Histological and histochemical studies on the female reproductive system of rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) after testosterone propionate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, A K; Seth, T N

    1975-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of testosterone propionate (Perandren, CIBA) at a dose level of 2.5 mg per day for 10 days into adult female parakeet caused an increment of differentiated follicles in the ovary. The histological study of the testosterone treated oviduct of the bird showed well developed villi with a significant number of tubular glands particularly in the middle and distal parts of the oviduct. The high level of alkaline phosphatase activity and ascorbic acid concentration in the distal part of the oviduct in treated birds probably increase the power of hatchable eggs which has a close relationship with the enzyme and vitamin C concentration in the uterus. The testosterone treatment causes a marked depletion of granulosal vitamins from ovary but augments the ascorbate mobilization in the thecal region to a very great extent probably due to more LH secretion from the pituitary.

  1. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for ternary mixtures of (water + propionic acid + organic solvent) at T = 303.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh, H.; Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Bahrpaima, Kh.; Sariri, R.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental tie-line results and phase diagrams were obtained for the ternary systems of {water + propionic acid + organic solvent (cyclohexane, toluene, and methylcyclohexane)} at T = 303.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The organic solvents were two cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons (i.e., cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane) and an aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene). The experimental tie-lines values were also compared with those calculated by the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. The consistency of the values of the experimental tie-lines was determined through the Othmer-Tobias and Hands plots. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated over the immiscibility regions and a comparison of the extracting capabilities of the solvents was made with respect to distribution coefficients and separation factors. The Kamlet LSER model was applied to correlate distribution coefficients and separation factors in these ternary systems. The LSER model values showed a good regression to the experimental results.

  2. SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF [(1-ARYL-5-FORMYL-1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-ILTHIO]PROPIONIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Palamar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Derivatives of imidazole belong to the promising group of compounds for antioxidant activity study, due to the series of recent publications. This is defined by special features of their structure, specific reactivity and significant potential of pharmacological action. Earlier during process of looking for new antioxidants we studied significant amount of imidazole derivatives, among which the [(1-aryl-5-formylimidazole-4-ilthio]acetic acids structurally modified by the formyl group and thioacetic acid fragment, are especially worth noting. The purpose of the study. Synthesis of [(1-aryl-5-formylimidazole-4-ilthio]propionic acids and comparison of their antioxidant effect with [(1-aryl-5-formylimidazole-4-ilthio]acetic acids with to identify prospects of in-depth study of the most active compounds as antioxidants. Materials and methods. The method based on interaction of available 4-chloro-5-formylimidazoles with thiopropionic acid was proposed for the synthesis of [(1-aryl-5-formylimidazole-4-ilthio]propionic acids. The reaction takes place in ethanol in presence of potassium hydroxide and leads to the target compounds with yields of 81-86%. The study of antioxidant activity of synthesized compounds was conducted in vitro by speed inhibition value of rats’ liver endogenous lipids ascorbate-dependent peroxide oxidation. It was determined by concentration of one of the final products of free radical oxidation of lipids (FROL – maleic aldehyde (MA in the investigated sample. Concentrations of synthesized compounds were chosen within concentrations which were studied for thiotriazolin (manufactured by corporation “Arterium”, Ukraine, solution for injection, 25 mg/ml. The results of the study and their discussion. Preparative method for the synthesis of [(1-aryl-5-formylimidazole-4-ilthio]propionic acids has been designed. Imidazolylthiopropionic acids have been synthesized; they are crystalline compounds, of light

  3. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of moderate scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Barber, Kirk; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated in this study the efficacy and safety of an alternate regimen using clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo (CP shampoo) for long-term control of scalp psoriasis. Patients with moderate scalp psoriasis (Global Severity Score [GSS] of 3 on a 0-5 scale) first received CP shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Patients with a GSS shampoo or vehicle twice weekly. When relapse (GSS > 2) occurred, patients received the 4-week daily CP shampoo treatment. Patients who had a GSS shampoo, almost 4 months later than with vehicle (30.5 days;p shampoo (40.3%) than with vehicle (11.6%;p shampoo was also safe during the 7-month study period, without leading to more cases of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression or adverse events compared to vehicle. The alternate treatment regimen with CP shampoo is efficacious and safe for long-term management of moderate scalp psoriasis.

  4. Twelve-month safety and efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate in children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Allen, David; Milanowski, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    , exacerbations, and requirements for oral steroid treatment and more symptom-free days and days without use of rescue treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve months of treatment with inhaled FP (100 microg twice daily) in preschool children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheeze has no effect on growth and no other......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the 12-month safety and efficacy of fluticasone propionate (FP) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in children aged 1 to 3 years with mild to moderate recurrent wheeze. METHODS: The study was a randomized, parallel-group, open-label multicenter study of 625 children......, aged 1 to 3 years, with recurrent wheeze randomized in a 3:1 ratio to treatment for 52 weeks with FP (100 microg twice daily) via metered-dose inhaler and Babyhaler spacer device or SCG (5 mg 4 times daily) via metered-dose inhaler and Nebuhaler spacer device, respectively. RESULTS...

  5. Mechanism of reactivation of the UV-inactivated cells of Escherichia coli by cell extracts of propionic acid bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'eva, L.I.; Khodzhaev, E.Y.; Ponomareva, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Two mechanisms of reactivation of UV-inactivated Escherichia coli cells - photoreactivation (PhR) and reactivation by the dialyzate of cell extract of propionic acid bacteria - are shown to be different but not completely additive. PhR displays an insignificant negative effect on the reactivaton by active substances (peptides) of the dialyzate, whereas reactivation by dialyzate inhibits PhR. The maximal reactivation can be attained under complete PhR followed by the protective action of dialyzate. The dialyzate protects UV-irradiated E. coli cells with PolA, UvrA, and RecA mutations and Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 (UvrB) cells, and also exerts an antimutagenic effect on S. typhimurium TA 100. Protection by dialyzate is suggested to be due to restoration of the cell division mechanism damaged by UV irradiation. 14 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large, round bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from two cuttings that were harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large, round bales. A total of 87 large...

  7. Effects of a propionic-acid based preservative on storage characteristics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay in large-rectangular bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    For many years, various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, most specifically for use on hays that could not be field-dried to moisture concentrations low enough to reduce or eliminate spontaneous heating during storage. These preservatives are often propionic-acid-bas...

  8. Synthesis of 1-[11c]methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate ([11c]pmp) for in vivo measurements of acetylcholinesterase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Scott E.; Tluczek, Louis; Jewett, Douglas M.; Nguyen, Thinh B.; Kuhl, David E.; Kilbourn, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Synthesis of 1-[ 11 C]methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate ([ 11 C]PMP), an in vivo substrate for acetylcholinesterase, is reported. An improved preparation of 4-piperidinyl propionate (PHP), the immediate precursor for radiolabeling, was accomplished in three steps from 4-hydroxypiperidine by (a) protection of the amine as the benzyl carbamate, (b) acylation with propionyl chloride, and (c) deprotection of the carbamate by catalytic hydrogenation. The final product was obtained in an overall 82% yield. Reaction of the free base form of PHP with [ 11 C]methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate at room temperature in N,N-dimethylformamide, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification, provided [ 11 C]PMP in 57% radiochemical yield, >99% radiochemical purity, and >1500 Ci/mmol at the end of synthesis. The total synthesis time from end-of-bombardment was 35 min. [ 11 C]PMP can thus be reliably prepared for routine clinical studies of acetylcholinesterase in human brain using positron emission tomography

  9. Feeding of the water extract from Ganoderma lingzhi to rats modulates secondary bile acids, intestinal microflora, mucins, and propionate important to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongshou; Nirmagustina, Dwi Eva; Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Okazaki, Yukako; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2017-09-01

    Consumption of reishi mushroom has been reported to prevent colon carcinogenesis in rodents, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate this effect, rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% water extract from either the reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) (WGL) or the auto-digested reishi G. lingzhi (AWGL) for three weeks. Both extracts markedly reduced fecal secondary bile acids, such as lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid (colon carcinogens). These extracts reduced the numbers of Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum (secondary bile acids-producing bacteria) in a per g of cecal digesta. Fecal mucins and cecal propionate were significantly elevated by both extracts, and fecal IgA was significantly elevated by WGL, but not by AWGL. These results suggest that the reishi extracts have an impact on colon luminal health by modulating secondary bile acids, microflora, mucins, and propionate that related to colon cancer.

  10. Polyaspartamide-Based Nanoparticles Loaded with Fluticasone Propionate and the In Vitro Evaluation towards Cigarette Smoke Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fabiola Craparo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs as a potential carrier for lung administration of fluticasone propionate (FP. The chosen polymeric material to produce NPs was a copolymer based on α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl-d,l-aspartamide (PHEA whose backbone was derivatised with different molecules, such as poly(lactic acid (PLA and polyethylenglycol (PEG. The chosen method to produce NPs from PHEA-PLA-PEG2000 was the method based on high-pressure homogenization and subsequent solvent evaporation by adding Pluronic F68 during the process and trehalose before lyophilisation. Obtained colloidal FP-loaded NPs showed a slightly negative surface charge and nanometric dimensions that are maintained after storage for one year at −20 °C and 5 °C. The FP loading was about 2.9 wt % and the drug was slowly released in simulated lung fluid. Moreover, the obtained NPs, containing the drug or not, were biocompatible and did not induce cell necrosis and cell apoptosis on bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE. Further in vitro testing on cigarette smoke extract (CSE-stimulated 16-HBE revealed that FP-loaded NPs were able to reduce the survivin expression, while either free FP or empty NPs were not able to significantly reduce this effect.

  11. Combined fluticasone propionate and salmeterol reduces RSV infection more effectively than either of them alone in allergen-sensitized mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledford Dennis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection is the major cause of bronchiolitis in infants and is a risk factor for the development of asthma. Allergic asthmatics are more susceptible to RSV infection and viral exacerbation. Methods Since the effectiveness of corticosteroids in treating RSV infection has been controversial, we tested fluticasone propionate (FP and salmeterol (Sal alone versus FP plus Sal (FPS on RSV-induced airway inflammation. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA and infected with RSV. Following infection they were treated with FP, Sal, or FPS intranasally and airway hyperreactivity (AHR, inflammation and RSV titers were examined. Results The group treated with FPS showed significantly lower AHR compared to the group treated with FP or Sal alone. The group treated with FP alone showed slightly decreased (non-significant AHR compared to controls. Treatment with FPS resulted in significant decreases in the percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in lung pathology compared to FP or Sal. FP alone decreased eosinophils but not neutrophils or lymphocytes, while Sal alone decreased eosinophils and neutrophils but not lymphocytes. FPS treatment of mice infected with RSV in the absence of allergen sensitization resulted in a 50% decrease of RSV titer in the lung and a reduction in neutrophils compared to FP or Sal. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that fluticasone in combination with salmeterol is a more effective treatment for decreasing airway hyperreactivity and inflammation than either of them alone in allergen-sensitized, RSV-infected mice.

  12. Molecular structure, spectroscopic and docking analysis of 1,3-diphenylpyrazole-4-propionic acid: A good prostaglandin reductase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, T.; Velraj, G.

    2018-03-01

    The molecule 1,3-diphenylpyrazole-4-propionic acid (DPPA) was optimized to its minimum energy level using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The vibrational frequencies of DPPA were calculated along with their potential energy distribution (PED) and the obtained values are validated with the help of experimental calculations. The reactivity nature of the molecule was investigated with the aid of various DFT methods such as global reactivity descriptors, local reactivity descriptors, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBOs), etc. The prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) result forecast that, DPPA can be more active as a prostaglandin (PG) reductase inhibitor. The PGs are biologically synthesized by the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme which exists in COX1 and COX2 forms. The PGs produced by COX2 enzyme induces inflammation and fungal infections and hence the inhibition of COX2 enzyme is indispensable in anti-inflammation and anti-fungal activities. The docking analysis of DPPA with COX enzymes (both COX1 and COX2) were carried out and eventually, it was found that DPPA can selectively inhibit COX2 enzyme and can serve as a PG reductase inhibitor thereby acting as a lead compound for the treatment of inflammation and fungal diseases.

  13. Enhanced thermostability of silica-immobilized lipase from Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 and synthesis of ethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satyendra; Pahujani, Shweta; Ola, R P; Kanwar, S S; Gupta, Reena

    2006-06-01

    A lipase from the thermophilic isolate Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 was produced and purified. The enzyme was purified 40-fold to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. Its molecular weight was 31 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified lipase was immobilized on silica and its binding efficiency was found to be 60%. The enzyme took 60 min to bind maximally onto the support. The pH and temperature optima of immobilized lipase were same as those of the free enzyme, i.e. 8.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively. The immobilized enzyme had shown marked thermostability on the elevated temperatures of 55, 60, 65 and 70 degrees C. The immobilized enzyme was reused for eigth cycles as it retained almost 80% of its activity. The catalytic activity of immobilized enzyme was enhanced in n-hexane and ethanol. The immobilized enzyme when used for esterification of ethanol and propionic acid showed 96% conversion in n-hexane in 12 h at 55 degrees C.

  14. Effects of calcium propionate by different numbers of applications in first week postpartum of dairy cows on hypocalcemia, milk production and reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Kovanlıkaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effects of calcium propionate on hypocalcemia, dry matter intake, body condition score, milk production and reproductive disorders in dairy cows. Twenty four multiparous Holstein cows were sorted by parity, body condition score (BCS in close-up period and season of calving and assigned to one of the three treatments. The cows in treatment 1 (T1 received two drenches at calving and 24h after calving. The cows in treatment 2 (T2 received three drenches at calving, 24h after calving and 7 days after calving. The cows in treatment 3 (T3 were the control. Each drench contained 143g of calcium as calcium propionate (0.68kg. Parameters studied were serum calcium, glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations, dry matter intake (DMI, BCS, milk production (MP, incidence of retained placenta (RP and metritis. Milk fever developed in 5 of 8 cows, in 3 of 8 cows and in 3 of 8 cows in T1, T2 and T3, respectively, at calving. There was no cow with milk fever in T1 and T2 at 4h after second drench (about 28h after calving but 3 of 8 cows in T3 had still milk fever at this time. The cows receiving two drenches recovered from milk fever in a shorter term as compared to the cows in T3. There were no differences among treatments for DMI, BCS, MP, RP, serum glucose and NEFA concentrations during the experimental period. There was no difference for metritis between T1 and T3 but incidence of metritis in T2 was significantly lower as compared to T3 (P<0.05. Two drenches of calcium propionate were beneficial in treating milk fever and three drenches of calcium propionate were considered to have had a preventive effect for metritis.

  15. Preconcentration and extraction of copper(II) on activated carbon using ethyl-2-quinolyl-β (p-carboxyphenyl hydrazone)dioxo propionate

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrorang Ghaedi; Farshid Ahmadi; M.R. Baezat; J. Safari

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon modified method was used for the preconcentration and determination of copper content in real samples such as tap water, wastewater and a synthetic water sample by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The copper(II) was adsorbed quantitatively on activated carbon due to its complexation with ethyl-2-quinolyl-β(p-carboxyphenyl hydrazone)dioxo propionate (EQCPDP). The adsorbed copper(II) ion on solid phase was eluted quantitatively by using nitric acid. The important parameter...

  16. Desulfomusa hansenii gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine propionate-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Zostera marina roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, K; Thomsen, T R; Ramsing, N B

    2001-11-01

    The physiology and phylogeny of a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium, isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the marine macrophyte Zostera marina, are presented. The strain, designated P1T, was enriched and isolated in defined oxygen-free, bicarbonate-buffered, iron-reduced seawater medium with propionate as sole carbon source and electron donor and sulfate as electron acceptor. Strain P1T had a rod-shaped, slightly curved cell morphology and was motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Cells generally aggregated in clumps throughout the growth phase. High CaCl2 (10 mM) and MgCl2 (50 mM) concentrations were required for optimum growth. In addition to propionate, strain P1T utilized fumarate, succinate, pyruvate, ethanol, butanol and alanine. Oxidation of propionate was incomplete and acetate was formed in stoichiometric amounts. Strain P1T thus resembles members of the sulfate-reducing genera Desulfobulbus and Desulforhopalus, which both oxidize propionate incompletely and form acetate in addition to CO2. However, sequence analysis of the small-subunit rDNA and the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene revealed that strain P1T was unrelated to the incomplete oxidizers Desulfobulbus and Desulforhopalus and that it constitutes a novel lineage affiliated with the genera Desulfococcus, Desulfosarcina, Desulfonema and 'Desulfobotulus'. Members of this branch, with the exception of 'Desulfobotulus sapovorans', oxidize a variety of substrates completely to CO2. Strain P1T (= DSM 12642T = ATCC 700811T) is therefore proposed as Desulfomusa hansenii gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain p1T thus illustrates the difficulty of extrapolating rRNA similarities to physiology and/or ecological function.

  17. Impact of temperature and substrate concentration on degradation rates of acetate, propionate and hydrogen and their links to microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Westerholm, Maria; Qiao, Wei; Yin, Dongmin; Bi, Shaojie; Jiang, Mengmeng; Dong, Renjie

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates the conversion of acetate, propionate and hydrogen consumption linked to the microbial community structure and related to temperature and substrate concentration. Biogas reactors were continuously fed with coffee powder (20 g-COD/L) or acetate (20, 40, and 60 g-COD/L) and operated for 193 days at 37 °C or 55 °C conditions. Starting HRT was 23 days which was then reduced to 7 days. The kinetics of acetate and propionate degradation and hydrogen consumption rates were measured in batch assays. At HRT 7 days, the degradation rate of propionate was higher in thermophilic batches, while acetate degradation rate was higher at mesophilic conditions. The gaseous hydrogen consumption in acetate reactors increased proportionally with temperature and substrate concentration, while the dissolved hydrogen was not affected. The relative high abundance of hydrogentrophic methanogens indicated that the methanogenesis was directed towards the syntrophic acetate oxidation pathway at high acetate concentration and high temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using clobetasol propionate in the form of a shampoo for the treatment of patients suffering from psoriasis localized in the scalp area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Bakulev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 80 adult psoriatic patients with scalp affections at the dermatosis progressing stage. The authors compared scalp psoriasis topical treatment options such as using 0.05% clobetasol propionate in the form of a shampoo, and successive administration of the 2% salicylic acid ointment and aforesaid short-term topical product in patients with vulgar or exudative dermatoses using dynamic scores such as mPASI, DLQI and itching intensity degree. It was demonstrated that 0.05% clobetasol propionate used in the form of a shampoo is characterized by a high efficacy and safety profile for patients with vulgar or exudative psoriasis of the scalp. At the same time, in case of exudative dermatosis successive topical treatment with the use of the 2% salicylic acid ointment and 0.05% clobetasol propionate in the form of a shampoo contributes to the clearance of psoriatic foci from accumulated scales and enables a potent topical corticosteroid such as clobetasol to efficiently reduce principal clinical symptoms of scalp psoriasis such as erythema, infiltration, exfoliation and itching. Using the clobetasol shampoo reduces the scalp itching intensity as the key psoriatic symptom preventing an isomorphic reaction as a result of foci traumatization related to scratching.

  19. Purification of Peptide Components including Melittin from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Chon Choi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was conducted to carry out Purification of Melittin and other peptide components from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Methods : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. Results : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. The fractions obtained from gel filtration chromatography was analyzed by using SDS-PAGE and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The melittin obtained from the gel filtration contained residual amount of phospholipase A2 and a protein with molecular weight of 6,000. The contaminating proteins were removed by the second gel filtration chromatography. Conclusion : Gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are useful to separate peptide components including melittin from bee venom.

  20. Comparison of lactate, formate, and propionate as hydrogen donors for the reductive dehalogenation of trichloroethene in a continuous-flow column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mohammad F.; Marshall, Ian P. G.; Behrens, Sebastian; Spormann, Alfred M.; Semprini, Lewis

    2010-04-01

    A continuous-flow column study was conducted to analyze the reductive dehalogenation of trichloroethene (TCE) with aquifer material with high content of iron oxides. The column was bioaugmented with the Point Mugu (PM) culture, which is a mixed microbial enrichment culture capable of completely transforming TCE to ethene (ETH). We determined whether lactate, formate, or propionate fermentation resulted in more effective dehalogenation. Reductive dehalogenation, fermentation, and sulfate, Fe(III), and Mn(IV) reduction were all exhibited within the column. Different steady-states of dehalogenation were achieved based on the concentration of substrates added, with effective transformation to ETH obtained when ample electron donor equivalents were provided. Most of the metabolic reducing equivalents were channeled to sulfate, Fe(III), and Mn(IV) reduction. When similar electron reducing equivalents were added, the most effective dehalogenation was achieved with formate, with 14% of the electron equivalents going towards dehalogenation reactions, compared to 6.5% for lactate and 9.6% for propionate. Effective dehalogenation was maintained over 1000 days of column operation. Over 90% of electron equivalents added could be accounted for by the different electron accepting processes in the column, with 50% associated with soluble and precipitated Fe(II) and Mn(II). Bulk Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction was rather associated with lactate and propionate addition than formate addition. Sulfate reduction was a competing electron acceptor reaction with all three electron donors. DNA was extracted from solid coupon samples obtained during the course of the experiment and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and quantitative PCR. Lactate and propionate addition resulted in a significant increase in Geobacter, Spirochaetes, and Desulfitobacterium phylotypes relative to " Dehalococcoides" when compared to formate addition. Results from the molecular biological analyses support

  1. Modulation of Immunological Pathways in Autistic and Neurotypical Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines by the Enteric Microbiome Metabolite Propionic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E; Nankova, Bistra; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Rose, Shannon; Bennuri, Sirish C; MacFabe, Derrick F

    2017-01-01

    Propionic acid (PPA) is a ubiquitous short-chain fatty acid which is a fermentation product of the enteric microbiome and present or added to many foods. While PPA has beneficial effects, it is also associated with human disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We previously demonstrated that PPA modulates mitochondrial dysfunction differentially in subsets of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from patients with ASD. Specifically, PPA significantly increases mitochondrial function in LCLs that have mitochondrial dysfunction at baseline [individuals with autistic disorder with atypical mitochondrial function (AD-A) LCLs] as compared to ASD LCLs with normal mitochondrial function [individuals with autistic disorder with normal mitochondrial function (AD-N) LCLs] and control (CNT) LCLs. PPA at 1 mM was found to have a minimal effect on expression of immune genes in CNT and AD-N LCLs. However, as hypothesized, Panther analysis demonstrated that 1 mM PPA exposure at 24 or 48 h resulted in significant activation of the immune system genes in AD-A LCLs. When the effect of PPA on ASD LCLs were compared to the CNT LCLs, both ASD groups demonstrated immune pathway activation, although the AD-A LCLs demonstrate a wider activation of immune genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified several immune-related pathways as key Canonical Pathways that were differentially regulated, specifically human leukocyte antigen expression and immunoglobulin production genes were upregulated. These data demonstrate that the enteric microbiome metabolite PPA can evoke atypical immune activation in LCLs with an underlying abnormal metabolic state. As PPA, as well as enteric bacteria which produce PPA, have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases which have components of immune dysfunction, including ASD, diabetes, obesity, and inflammatory diseases, insight into this metabolic modulator may have wide applications for both health and disease.

  2. Indoline-3-propionate and 3-aminopropyl carbamates reduce lung injury and pro-inflammatory cytokines induced in mice by LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkin-Groner, E; Moradov, D; Shifrin, H; Bejar, C; Nudelman, A; Weinstock, M

    2015-02-01

    In the search for safer and effective anti-inflammatory agents, we investigated the effect of methyl indoline-3-propionate and indoline-3-(3-aminopropyl) carbamates on LPS-induced lung injury and pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice. Their mechanism of action was determined in murine peritoneal macrophages. Lung injury was induced by intratracheal infusion of LPS and assessed by the change in lung weight and structure by light microscopy after staining by haematoxylin and eosin. In LPS-activated macrophages, MAPK proteins and IκBα were measured by Western blotting and the transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-κB by electromobility shift assay. Cytokines in the plasma and spleen of mice injected with LPS were measured by elisa-based assay. AN917 and AN680 (1-10 pM) decreased TNF-α protein in macrophages by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, IκBα degradation and activation of AP-1 and NF-κB without affecting cell viability. In vivo, these compounds (10 μmol · kg(-1)) markedly decreased lung injury induced by LPS and the elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 in lung, plasma and spleen. Activation of α-7nACh receptors contributed to the reduction of TNF-α by AN917, which inhibited AChE in the spleen by 35%. Indoline carbamates are potent inhibitors of pro-inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages and in mice injected with LPS, acting via the p38 MAPK, AP-1 and NF-κB cascades. Indirect α-7nACh receptor activation by AN917, through inhibition of AChE, contributes to its anti-inflammatory effect. Indoline carbamates may have therapeutic potential for lung injury and other diseases associated with chronic inflammation without causing immunosuppression. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. The impact of manufacturing variables on in vitro release of clobetasol 17-propionate from pilot scale cream formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzee, Ayeshah Fateemah Beebee; Khamanga, Sandile Maswazi; Walker, Roderick Bryan

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of different homogenization speeds and times, anchor speeds and cooling times on the viscosity and cumulative % clobetasol 17-propionate released per unit area at 72 h from pilot scale cream formulations. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design for four independent variables were investigated. Thirty pilot scale batches of cream formulations were manufactured using a Wintech® cream/ointment plant. The viscosity and in vitro release of CP were monitored and compared to an innovator product that is commercially available on the South African market, namely, Dermovate® cream. Contour and three-dimensional response surface plots were produced and the viscosity and cumulative % CP released per unit area at 72 h were found to be primarily dependent on the homogenization and anchor speeds. An increase in the homogenization and anchor speeds appeared to exhibit a synergistic effect on the resultant viscosity of the cream whereas an antagonistic effect was observed for the in vitro release of CP from the experimental cream formulations. The in vitro release profiles were best fitted to a Higuchi model and diffusion proved to be the dominant mechanism of drug release that was confirmed by use of the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The research was further validated and confirmed by the high prognostic ability of response surface methodology (RSM) with a resultant mean percentage error of (±SD) 0.17 ± 0.093 suggesting that RSM may be an efficient tool for the development and optimization of topical formulations.

  4. Degradation of fructans and production of propionic acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are enhanced by shortage of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eAdamberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by the catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae, two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (DP > 3. Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h, followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of D-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will be studied in

  5. Preparation and Evaluation of Surface Modified Lactose Particles for Improved Performance of Fluticasone Propionate Dry Powder Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepak J; Jain, Rajesh R; Soni, P S; Abdul, Samad; Darshana, Hegde; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Menon, Mala D

    2015-08-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPI) are generally formulated by mixing micronized drug particles with coarse lactose carrier particles to assist powder handling during the manufacturing and powder aerosol delivery during patient use. In the present study, surface modified lactose (SML) particles were produced using force control agents, and their in vitro performance on dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of Fluticasone propionate was studied. With a view to reduce surface passivation of high surface free energy sites on the most commonly used DPI carrier, α- lactose monohydrate, effects of various force control agents such as Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate, polyethylene glycol 6000, magnesium stearate, and soya lecithin were studied. DPI formulations prepared with SML showed improved flow properties, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies revealed decrease in surface roughness. The DSC and X-ray diffraction patterns of SML showed no change in the crystal structure and thermal behavior under the experimental conditions. The fine particle fraction (FPF) values of lactose modified with Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate were improved, with increase in concentration up to 0.5%. Soya lecithin and PEG 6000 modified lactose showed decrease in FPF value with increase in concentration. Increase in FPF value was observed with increasing concentration of magnesium stearate. Two different DPI devices, Rotahaler(®) and Diskhaler(®), were compared to evaluate the performance of SML formulations. FPF value of all SML formulations were higher using both devices as compared to the same formulations prepared using untreated lactose. One month stability of SML formulations at 40°C/75% RH, in permeable polystyrene tubes did not reveal any significant changes in FPF values. SML particles can help in reducing product development hindrances and improve inhalational properties of DPI.

  6. Quantification of Propionic Acid in the Bovine Spinal Disk After Infection of the Tissue With Propionibacteria acnes Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnitsky, Sergey; Dudli, Stefan; Tang, Xinyan; Kaur, Jaskanwaljeet; Diaz, Joycelyn; Miller, Steve; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2018-06-01

    Research. The goal of this study was to investigate whether Propionibacteria acnes infection of the intervertebral disc can be detected noninvasively by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Microbiological studies of surgical samples suggest that a significant subpopulation of back pain patients may have occult disc infection with P. acnes bacteria. This hypothesis is further supported by a double-blind clinical trial showing that back pain patients with Modic type 1 changes may respond to antibiotic treatment. Because significant side effects are associated with antibiotic treatment, there is a need for a noninvasive method to detect whether specific discs in back pain patients are infected with P acnes bacteria. P. acnes bacteria were obtained from human patients. NMR detection of a propionic acid (PA) in the bacteria extracts was conducted on 500 MHz high-resolution spectrometer, whereas in vivo NMR spectroscopy of an isolated bovine disk tissue infected with P. acnes was conducted on 7 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. NMR spectra of P. acnes metabolites revealed a distinct NMR signal with identical chemical shits (1.05 and 2.18 ppm) as PA (a primary P. acne metabolite). The 1.05 ppm signal does not overlap with other bacteria metabolites, and its intensity increases linearly with P. acnes concentration. Bovine disks injected with P. acnes bacteria revealed a very distinct NMR signal at 1.05 ppm, which linearly increased with P. acnes concentration. The 1.05 ppm NMR signal from PA can be used as a marker of P. acnes infection of discs. This signal does not overlap with other disc metabolites and linearly depends on P. acnes concentration. Consequently, NMR spectroscopy may provide a noninvasive method to detect disc infection in the clinical setting. N/A.

  7. Use of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid as electron donating compound in a potentiometric aflatoxin M1-immunosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rameil, Steffen; Schubert, Peter; Grundmann, Peter; Dietrich, Richard; Maertlbauer, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    We developed a potentiometric aflatoxin M 1 -immunosensor which utilizes 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (p-HPPA) as electron donating compound for horseradish peroxidase (HRP; EC 1.11.1.7). The assay system consists of a polypyrrole-surface-working electrode coated with a polyclonal anti-M 1 antibody (pAb-AFM 1 ), a Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a HRP-aflatoxin B 1 conjugate (HRP-AFB 1 conjugate). To optimize the potentiometric measuring system p-HPPA as well as related compounds serving as electron donating compounds were compared. Also the influence of different buffer systems, varying pH and substrate concentrations on signal intensity was investigated. Our results suggest that reaction conditions that favor the formation of Pummerer's type ketones lead to an increase in signal intensity rather than formation of fluorescent dye. Comparison with commercial ready-to-use HRP electron donating compounds such as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), o-phenylenediamine (OPD) or 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) showed that only 34%, 77% and 49% of the signal intensity of p-HPPA were reached, respectively. The optimized assay had a detection limit of 40 pg mL -1 and allowed detection of 500 pg mL -1 (FDA action limit) aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ) in pasteurized milk and UHT-milk containing 0.3-3.8% fat within 10 min without any sample treatment. The working range was between 250 and 2000 pg mL -1 AFM 1 .

  8. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control, molasses (M, propionic acid (P, and molasses+propionic acid (PM, in laboratory silos (250 mL and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN, and high lactic acid (LA content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM, however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM (p<0.05 and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage.

  9. Characterization of the marine propionate-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfofaba fastidiosa sp. nov. and reclassification of Desulfomusa hansenii as Desulfofaba hansenii comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Ramsing, Niels Birger; Finster, Kai

    2004-03-01

    A rod-shaped, slightly curved sulfate reducer, designated strain P2(T), was isolated from the sulfate-methane transition zone of a marine sediment. Cells were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. The strain reduced sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite to sulfide and used propionate, lactate and 1-propanol as electron donors. Strain P2(T) also grew by fermentation of lactate. Propionate was oxidized incompletely to acetate and CO(2). The DNA G+C content was 48.8 mol%. Sequence analysis of the small-subunit rDNA and the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene revealed that strain P2(T) was related to the genera Desulfonema, Desulfococcus, Desulfosarcina, 'Desulfobotulus', Desulfofaba, Desulfomusa and Desulfofrigus. These genera include incomplete as well as complete oxidizers of substrates. Strain P2(T) shared important morphological and physiological traits with Desulfofaba gelida and Desulfomusa hansenii, including the ability to oxidize propionate incompletely to acetate. The 16S rRNA gene similarities of P2(T) to Desulfofaba gelida and Desulfomusa hansenii were respectively 92.9 and 91.5 %. Combining phenotypic and genotypic traits, we propose strain P2(T) to be a member of the genus Desulfofaba. The name Desulfofaba fastidiosa sp. nov. (type strain P2(T)=DSM 15249(T)=ATCC BAA-815(T)) is proposed, reflecting the limited number of substrates consumed by the strain. In addition, the reclassification of Desulfomusa hansenii as a member of the genus Desulfofaba, Desulfofaba hansenii comb. nov., is proposed. A common line of descent and a number of shared phenotypic traits support this reclassification.

  10. Effects of concentrate type and chromium propionate on insulin sensitivity, productive and reproductive parameters of lactating dairy cows consuming excessive energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Pardelli, U; Rodrigues, R O; Corrá, F N; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-03-01

    This experiment compared insulin sensitivity parameters, milk production and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows consuming excessive energy, and receiving in a 2×2 factorial arrangement design: (1) concentrate based on ground corn (CRN; n=13) or citrus pulp (PLP; n=13), and (2) supplemented (n=14) or not (n=12) with 2.5 g/day of chromium (Cr)-propionate. During the experiment (day 0 to 182), 26 multiparous, non-pregnant, lactating Gir×Holstein cows (initial days in milk=80±2) were offered corn silage for ad libitum consumption, and individually received concentrate formulated to allow diets to provide 160% of their daily requirements of net energy for lactation. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded weekly. Milk production was recorded daily and milk samples collected weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly before the morning concentrate feeding. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW) were performed on days -3, 60, 120 and 180. Follicle aspiration for in vitro embryo production was performed via transvaginal ovum pick-up on days -1, 82 and 162. No treatment differences were detected (P⩾0.25) for BW and BCS change during the experiment. Within weekly blood samples, concentrations of serum insulin and glucose, as well as insulin : glucose ratio were similar among treatments (P⩾0.19), whereas CRN had less (Pinsulin : glucose ratio. Serum insulin concentrations were less (P=0.04) in CRN supplemented with Cr-propionate compared with non-supplemented CRN (8.2 v. 13.5 µIU/ml, respectively; SEM=1.7), whereas Cr-propionate supplementation did not impact (P=0.70) serum insulin within PLP cows. Milk production, milk fat and solid concentrations were similar (P⩾0.48) between treatments. However, CRN had greater (Pdairy cows consuming excessive energy did not improve insulin sensitivity, milk production and reproductive outcomes, whereas Cr-propionate supplementation only enhanced insulin sensitivity in cows receiving a

  11. Sulfate addition as an effective method to improve methane fermentation performance and propionate degradation in thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge with AnMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Yu-You; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Xiaochang; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sulfate on propionate degradation and higher organic loading rate (OLR) achievement in a thermophilic AnMBR for 373days using coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge (WAS) as the co-substrate. Without the addition of sulfate, the anaerobic system failed at an OLR of 14.6g-COD/L/d, with propionate accumulating to above 2.23g-COD/L, and recovery by an alkalinity supplement was not successful. After sulfate was added into substrates at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 200:1 to 350:1, biogas production increased proportionally with OLR increasing from 4.06 to 15.2g-COD/L/d. Propionic acid was maintained at less than 100mg-COD/L due to the effective conversion of propionic acid to methane after the sulfate supplement was added. The long-term stable performance of the AnMBR indicated that adding sulfate was beneficial for the degradation of propionate and achieving a higher OLR under the thermophilic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An unusual insertion/deletion in the gene encoding the β-subunit of propionyl-CoA carboxylase is a frequent mutation in Caucasian propionic acidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, T.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Propionic acidemia is an inherited disorder of organic acid metabolism that is caused by deficiency of propionly-CoA carboxylase. Affected patients fall into two complementation groups, pccA and pccBC (subgroups B, C, and BC), resulting from deficiency of the nonidentical α and β subunits of PCC, respectively. The authors have detected an unusual insertion/deletion in the DNA of patients from the pccBC and pccC subgroups that replaces 14 nucleotides in the coding sequence of the β subunit with 12 nucleotides unrelated to this region of the gene. Among 14 unrelated Caucasian patients in the pccBc complementation group, this unique mutation was found in 8 of 28 mutant alleles examined. Mutant allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization to amplified genomic DNAs revealed that the inserted 12 nucleotides do not originate in an ∼1000-bp region around the mutation. In the course of the investigation, they identified another mutation in the same exon: a 3-bp in-frame deletion that eliminates one of two isoleucine codons immediately preceding the Msp I site. Two unrelated patients were compound heterozygotes for this single-codon deletion and for the insertion/deletion described above. They conclude that either there is a propensity for the PCC β-subunit gene to undergo mutations of this sort at this position or, more likely, the mutations in all of the involved Caucasian patients have a common origin in preceding generations

  13. Long-term stability of thermophilic co-digestion submerged anaerobic membrane reactor encountering high organic loading rate, persistent propionate and detectable hydrogen in biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Niu, Qigui; Shofie, Mohammad; Li, Yu You

    2013-12-01

    The performance of thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of coffee grounds and sludge using membrane reactor was investigated for 148 days, out of a total research duration of 263 days. The OLR was increased from 2.2 to 33.7 kg-COD/m(3)d and HRT was shortened from 70 to 7 days. A significant irreversible drop in pH confirmed the overload of reactor. Under a moderately high OLR of 23.6 kg-COD/m(3)d, and with HRT and influent total solids of 10 days and 150 g/L, respectively, the COD removal efficiency was 44.5%. Hydrogen in biogas was around 100-200 ppm, which resulted in the persistent propionate of 1.0-3.2g/L. The VFA consumed approximately 60% of the total alkalinity. NH4HCO3 was supplemented to maintain alkalinity. The stability of system relied on pH management under steady state. The 16SrDNA results showed that hydrogen-utilizing methanogens dominates the archaeal community. The propionate-oxidizing bacteria in bacterial community was insufficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CO-PROCESSED EXCIPIENT-PREGELATINIZED CASSAVA STARCH PROPIONATE AS A MATRIX IN THE GASTRORETENTIVE DOSAGE FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaedi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The gastroretentive dosage form is designed to prolong the gastric residence time of the drug delivery system whichalso results in the development of an appropriate excipient. The purpose of this study is to develop and characterize coprocessedexcipient made from carrageenan (kappa-iota = 1:1 and pregelatinized cassava starch propionate (PCSP inratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. PCSP was prepared with propionic anhydride in an aqueous medium. The product was mixedwith carrageenan (kappa-iota = 1:1, as well as characterized physicochemical and functional properties. The coprocessedexcipient was then used as a mucoadhesive granule and floating tablet. The USP Basket was selected toperform the dissolution test of the granules in HCl buffer (pH 1.2 and distilled water for 8 hours each. Mucoadhesiveproperties were evaluated using bioadhesive through a vitro test and wash-off test. As for the floating tablet, the USPPaddle was selected to perform the dissolution test of the tablets in 0.1 N HCl for 10 hours. The floating lag time andfloating time were tested in 0.1 N HCl for 24 hours. The result of these studies indicated that co-processed excipientcarrageenan-PCSP can retard dosage form in gastric and drug controlled release, thus making it a suitable material forthe gastroretentive dosage form.

  15. Changes in Blood Values of Glucose, Insulin and Inorganic Phosphorus in Healthy and Ketotic Dairy Cows after Intravenous Infusion of Propionate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Djoković

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of blood glucose utilization by peripheral tissue on the basis of changes in blood concentrations of glucose, insulin and inorganic phosphorus in healthy (n = 10 and ketotic cows (n = 10 after intravenous infusion of propionate solution. Blood samples were taken in both groups of examined cows at the following time intervals: just before (time 0 and 8, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 480 min after the intravenous infusion of 1.84 mol l-1 solution of propionate in the amount of 1 ml kg-1 of body weight. Glucose and insulin blood serum values in both groups of cows increased significantly within 120 min of the experiment (p p p p < 0.05 in blood value of inorganic phosphorus in ketotic cows in comparison with healthy ones. This is linked with the active entry of glucose into glucolytic pathway of peripheral tissues. It can thus be concluded that there is a higher degree of blood glucose utilization by peripheral tissues in ketotic cows.

  16. Study of benzoate, propionate, and sorbate salts as mould spoilage inhibitors on intermediate moisture bakery products of low pH (4.5-5.5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynot, M E; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marín, S

    2005-05-25

    A hurdle technology approach has been applied to control common mold species causing spoilage of intermediate moisture bakery products (Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium corylophilum), growing on a fermented bakery product analogue (FBPA). The factors studied included a combination of different levels of weak acid preservatives (potassium sorbate, calcium propionate, and sodium benzoate; 0-0.3%), pH (4.5-5.5), and water activity (a(w); 0.80-0.90). Potassium sorbate was found to be the most effective in preventing fungal spoilage of this kind of products at the maximum concentration tested (0.3%) regardless of a(w). The same concentration of calcium propionate and sodium benzoate was effective only at low a(w) levels. On the other hand, potassium sorbate activity was slightly reduced at pH 5.5, the 0.3% being only effective at 0.80 a(w). These findings indicate that potassium sorbate may be a suitable preserving agent to inhibit deterioration of a FBPA of slightly acidic pH (near 4.5) by xerophilic fungi. Further studies have to be done in order to adjust the minimal inhibitory concentration necessary to obtain a product with the required shelf life.

  17. Synthesis of 1-[{sup 11}c]methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate ([{sup 11}c]pmp) for in vivo measurements of acetylcholinesterase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Scott E. E-mail: snyderse@umich.edu; Tluczek, Louis; Jewett, Douglas M.; Nguyen, Thinh B.; Kuhl, David E.; Kilbourn, Michael R

    1998-11-01

    Synthesis of 1-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate ([{sup 11}C]PMP), an in vivo substrate for acetylcholinesterase, is reported. An improved preparation of 4-piperidinyl propionate (PHP), the immediate precursor for radiolabeling, was accomplished in three steps from 4-hydroxypiperidine by (a) protection of the amine as the benzyl carbamate, (b) acylation with propionyl chloride, and (c) deprotection of the carbamate by catalytic hydrogenation. The final product was obtained in an overall 82% yield. Reaction of the free base form of PHP with [{sup 11}C]methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate at room temperature in N,N-dimethylformamide, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification, provided [{sup 11}C]PMP in 57% radiochemical yield, >99% radiochemical purity, and >1500 Ci/mmol at the end of synthesis. The total synthesis time from end-of-bombardment was 35 min. [{sup 11}C]PMP can thus be reliably prepared for routine clinical studies of acetylcholinesterase in human brain using positron emission tomography.

  18. Excitatory amino acid receptor ligands: resolution, absolute stereochemistry, and enantiopharmacology of 2-amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Ebert, B; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1998-01-01

    (RS)-2-Amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid (Bu-HIBO, 6) has previously been shown to be an agonist at (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors and an inhibitor of CaCl2-dependent [3H]-(S)-glutamic acid binding (J. Med. Chem. 1992, 35, 3512......-3519). To elucidate the pharmacological significance of this latter binding affinity, which is also shown by quisqualic acid (3) but not by AMPA, we have now resolved Bu-HIBO via diastereomeric salt formation using the diprotected Bu-HIBO derivative 11 and the enantiomers of 1-phenylethylamine (PEA). The absolute...... equipotent as inhibitors of CaCl2-dependent [3H]-(S)-glutamic acid binding, neither enantiomer showed significant affinity for the synaptosomal (S)-glutamic acid uptake system(s). AMPA receptor affinity (IC50 = 0.48 microM) and agonism (EC50 = 17 microM) were shown to reside exclusively in the S...

  19. Complete Oxidation of Propionate, Valerate, Succinate, and Other Organic Compounds by Newly Isolated Types of Marine, Anaerobic, Mesophilic, Gram-Negative, Sulfur-Reducing Eubacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Kai; Bak, Friedhelm

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures with either propionate, succinate, lactate, or valerate and elemental sulfur and inocula from shallow marine or deep-sea sediments were dominated by rod-shaped motile bacteria after three transfers. By application of deep-agar dilutions, five eubacterial strains were obtained in pure culture and designated Kyprop, Gyprop, Kysw2, Gylac, and Kyval. All strains were gram negative and grew by complete oxidation of the electron donors and concomitant stoichiometric reduction of elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. The isolates used acetate, propionate, succinate, lactate, pyruvate, oxaloacetate, maleate, glutamate, alanine, aspartate, and yeast extract. All isolates, except strain Gylac, used citrate as an electron donor but valerate was oxidized only by strain Kyval. Fumarate and malate were degraded by all strains without an additional electron donor or acceptor. Kyprop, Gyprop, and Gylac utilized elemental sulfur as the sole inorganic electron acceptor, while Kysw2 and Kyval also utilized nitrate, dimethyl sulfoxide, or Fe(III)-citrate as an electron acceptor. Images PMID:16348934

  20. Valence-delocalization of the mixed-valence oxo-centered trinuclear iron propionates [FeIII2FeIIO(C2H5CO2)6(py)3[npy; n = 0, 1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Tadahiro; Katada, Motomi; Kawata, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Susumu; Sano, Hirotoshi; Konno, Michiko

    1994-01-01

    Mixed-valence trinuclear iron propionates [Fe III 2 Fe II O(C 2 H 5 CO 2 ) 6 (py) 3 [npy, where n = 0, 1.5, were synthesized and the structure of the pyridine-solvated complex was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Moessbauer spectra of the solvated propionate complex showed a temperature-dependent mixed-valence state related to phase transitions, reaching an almost delocalized valence state at room temperature. On the other hand, the non-solvated propionate showed a remarkable change of the spectral shape related to a phase transition, remaining in a localized valence state at higher temperatures up to room temperature. (orig.)

  1. Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria for the (1-pentanol + propionic acid) binary mixture at (53.3 and 91.3) kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsen-Nia, M.; Memarzadeh, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibrium measurements have been reported for the binary mixture of (1-pentanol + propionic acid) at (53.3 and 91.3) kPa. Liquid phase activity coefficients were calculated from the equilibrium data. The thermodynamic consistency of the experimental results was checked using the area test and direct test methods. According to these criteria, the measured (vapour + liquid) equilibrium results were found to be consistent thermodynamically. The obtained results showed a maximum boiling temperature azeotrope at both pressures studied. The measured equilibrium results were satisfactorily correlated by the models of Wilson, UNIQUAC, and NRTL activity coefficients. The results obtained indicate that the performance of the NRTL model is superior to the Wilson and UNIQUAC models for correlating the measured isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data.

  2. Development of Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship Models for Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System of 2-Aryl Propionic Acid NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wen Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed the quantative structure-property relationships (QSPRs models to correlate the molecular structures of surfactant, cosurfactant, oil, and drug with the solubility of poorly water-soluble 2-aryl propionic acid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (2-APA-NSAIDs in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs. The compositions were encoded with electronic, geometrical, topological, and quantum chemical descriptors. To obtain reliable predictions, we used multiple linear regression (MLR and artificial neural network (ANN methods for model development. The obtained equations were validated using a test set of 42 formulations and showed a great predictive power, and linear models were found to be better than nonlinear ones. The obtained QSPR models would greatly facilitate fast screening for the optimal formulations of SEDDS at the early stage of drug development and minimize experimental effort.

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate versus montelukast in childhood asthma: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maspero, Jorge; Guerra, Frances; Cuevas, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma control remains suboptimal in adults and children worldwide. Inhaled salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination (SFC) and oral montelukast (MON) are 2 treatments available for childhood asthma. OBJECTIVE: This study, the PEdiatric Asthma Control Evaluation (PEACE......), investigated the efficacy and tolerability of SFC compared with MON for the control of persistent asthma in children. METHODS: Children with asthma (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)] 55%-80% predicted; reversibility >or=12%) aged 6 to 14 years who were receiving only short-acting beta(2)-agonists...... in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF). Efficacy assessments included lung function, asthma symptoms, rescue medication use, and asthma control. Tolerability was assessed by recording the number and type of adverse events (AEs) and the number of asthma exacerbations. RESULTS: Of 607 patients screened, 548...

  4. Cost-effectiveness of fluticasone propionate administered via metered-dose inhaler plus babyhaler spacer in the treatment of asthma in preschool-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Price, M J; Maden, Christian Nicolai

    2001-01-01

    a metered-dose inhaler and a Babyhaler (Glaxo Wellcome; Middlesex, UK) spacer device. MEASUREMENTS: Effectiveness in terms of asthma exacerbations, control of cough and wheeze symptoms, symptom-free days, overall direct costs of asthma management in Danish kroner at 1999 prices, and mean and incremental......STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) in children aged 12 to 47 months with asthma symptoms. DESIGN: A retrospective economic analysis conducted from the perspective of the Danish health-care system, based on clinical data from a 12-week study...... cost-effectiveness ratios. RESULTS: FP, 200 microg/d, was significantly more effective than placebo treatment in terms of the proportion of exacerbation-free patients (73.7% vs 59.8%; p = 0.025) and patients experiencing a > or = 25% improvement in cough symptoms (57.9% vs 39.0%; p = 0.018). The costs...

  5. The EFFECT trial: evaluating exacerbations, biomarkers, and safety outcomes with two dose levels of fluticasone propionate/formoterol in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papi A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Papi,1 Paul W Jones,2 Prashant S Dalvi,3 Kirsten McAulay,4 Tammy McIver,5 Sanjeeva Dissanayake3 1Department of Internal and CardioRespiratory Medicine, Research Centre on Asthma and COPD, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; 2Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George’s, University of London, London, UK; 3Medical Science – Respiratory, 4Medical Operations, 5Data Management and Statistics, Mundipharma Research Ltd, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist combination therapy is recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients at high risk of exacerbations. The EFFECT (Efficacy of Fluticasone propionate/FormotErol in COPD Treatment trial is a Phase III, 52-week, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two doses of fluticasone propionate/formoterol compared to formoterol monotherapy in COPD patients with FEV1 ≤50% predicted and a history of exacerbations. The primary endpoint is the annualized rate of moderate and severe exacerbations. Secondary endpoints include pre-dose FEV1, EXACT-PRO (EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool – Patient-Reported Outcome-defined exacerbations, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD, COPD Assessment Test, and EXACT-Respiratory Symptoms total score. Lung-specific biomarkers (surfactant protein D and CC chemokine ligand-18 will be measured in a subset of patients to explore their relationship to other clinical indices in COPD and their predictive utility. Pneumonia will be diagnosed per criteria defined by the British Thoracic Society community acquired pneumonia guideline, primarily by radiological confirmation and, additionally, using clinical criteria when a chest radiograph cannot be obtained. Serial measurements of serum potassium, vital signs and electrocardiograms, 24-hour Holter monitoring, and 24-hour urinary cortisol measurement will be performed in a subset of patients in addition to

  6. L-rhamnose as a source of colonic propionate inhibits insulin secretion but does not influence measures of appetite or food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, Julia; Frost, Gary S; Swann, Jonathan R; Costabile, Adele; Robertson, M Denise

    2016-03-01

    Activation of free fatty acid receptor (FFAR)2 and FFAR3 via colonic short-chain fatty acids, particularly propionate, are postulated to explain observed inverse associations between dietary fiber intake and body weight. Propionate is reported as the predominant colonic fermentation product from l-rhamnose, a natural monosaccharide that resists digestion and absorption reaching the colon intact, while effects of long-chain inulin on appetite have not been extensively investigated. In this single-blind randomized crossover study, healthy unrestrained eaters (n = 13) ingested 25.5 g/d l-rhamnose, 22.4 g/d inulin or no supplement (control) alongside a standardized breakfast and lunch, following a 6-d run-in to investigate if appetite was inhibited. Postprandial qualitative appetite, breath hydrogen, and plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids were assessed for 420 min, then an ad libitum meal was provided. Significant treatment x time effects were found for postprandial insulin (P = 0.009) and non-esterified fatty acids (P = 0.046) with a significantly lower insulin response for l-rhamnose (P = 0.023) than control. No differences between treatments were found for quantitative and qualitative appetite measures, although significant treatment x time effects for meal desire (P = 0.008) and desire to eat sweet (P = 0.036) were found. Breath hydrogen was significantly higher with inulin (P = 0.001) and l-rhamnose (P = 0.009) than control, indicating colonic fermentation. These findings suggest l-rhamnose may inhibit postprandial insulin secretion, however neither l-rhamnose or inulin influenced appetite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  8. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  9. Growth performance and development of internal organ, and gastrointestinal tract of calf supplementation with calcium propionate at various stages of growth period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Chen, Wanbao; Zhang, Yawei; Jiang, Yuming; Meng, Qingxiang; Zhou, Zhenming

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of calcium propionate (CaP) supplementation on performance, the development of the internal organ, and gastrointestinal tract of calves at various stages of growth period, 54 male Jersey calves (age = 7 ± 1 d, body weight(BW) = 23.1 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly allocated to three treatment groups. While control calves were fed basis dietary with no additives (0CaP), other treatment calves were fed basis dietary supplementation with CaP at 50 (5CaP) or 100 (10CaP) g kg−1 dry matter. The experiment lasted 160 d and was divided into three feeding stages: Stage 1 (d 0 to 30), Stage 2 (d 31 to 90), and Stage 3 (d 91 to160). Six calves from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered on days 30, 90, and 160 when at the conclusion of each experimental feeding stage. The BW of calves increased with 10CaP after feeding 90 d, whereas it increased with 5CaP and 10CaP at feeding 120d and 160d compared to 0CaP. The 10CaP group improved average daily gain (ADG) of calves at stage 2, and d120-160 of stage 3 compared with the 0CaP group. The ADG of 5CaP was greater than the 0CaP group only at 120–160 d of stage 3 compared with the 0CaP group. The results of feed efficiency were in agreed with ADG as no dry matter intake difference at all stages of growth period. The 10CaP treatment exhibited the greatest spleen weight among the treatment at the end of the experiment; the liver weight of the 5CaP and 10CaP calves at feeding 90 d and of the 10CaP calves at feeding 160 d and were greater than those of the 0CaP animals. The CaP at the tested doses increased the rumen weight after feeding 90d of Jersey calves, and also improved the development of intestine. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with calcium propionate at the tested doses caused a beneficial effect in the growth performance and gastrointestinal tract traits of Jersey calves, thus to add 10% CaP before feeding 90 days was better and 5% CaP supplementation was expected at the period for

  10. Intake, digestion, and digestive characteristics of Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected and uninfected fescue by heifers offered hay diets supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract or laidlomycin propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphry, J B; Coffey, K P; Moyert, J L; Brazle, F K; Lomas, L W

    2002-01-01

    Tarentaise heifers fitted with a rumen cannula (539 +/- 7.5 and 487 +/- 15.7 kg avg initial BW in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were used in two Latin square metabolism experiments having 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangements to determine the effects of supplementation with Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (AO) or laidlomycin propionate (LP) on intake, digestion, and digestive characteristics of Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected (IF) or uninfected (FF) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) hay diets consumed ad libitum. Heifers were housed in individual stanchions in a metabolism facility with ambient temperatures controlled to range between 26.7 and 32.2 degrees C daily. Total feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 21-d dietary adaptation period. In situ DM and NDF disappearance and ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. In Exp. 1, DMI was 24% greater (P or = 0.42). In Exp. 2, DMI was 18.9% greater (P < 0.01) by heifers offered FF than by those offered IF (6.6 vs 5.5 kg/d). Heifers fed LP (50 mg/d) consumed 10.6% less (P < 0.05) DM than those not fed LP (5.7 vs 6/5 kg/d). Digestibility of NDF tended to be greater (P = 0.08) and digestibility of ADF was greater (P < 0.05) from FF than from IF. Conversely, apparent N absorption (%) was greater (P < 0.05) from IF than from FF. Heifers fed LP had lower (P < 0.05) ADF digestibility than those not fed LP. In situ degradable DM and NDF fractions were greater (P < 0.01) from IF than from FF. Diets supplemented with LP had higher (P < 0.01) indigestible DM and NDF fractions than those without LP. Propionic acid and total VFA concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) from heifers offered FF than from those offered IF and from heifers fed LP than from those not fed LP. Therefore, it appears the major effect of N. coenophialum was a reduction in forage intake and total-tract fiber digestibility in certain situations. Response to the feed additives was similar whether heifers were offered IF or

  11. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Physical-chemical properties of the surface of B2O3-P2O5-MeOx/SiO2 catalysts and its effect on the parameters of the process of aldol condensation of propionic acid with formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yivasyiv, V.V.; Pyikh, Z.G.; Zhiznevs'kij, V.M.; Nebesnij, R.V.

    2011-01-01

    Effect of catalyst B 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -MeO x /SiO 2 composition on its physical-chemical properties has been investigated. Relations between physical-chemical and catalytic properties of catalysts in the gas-phase reaction of propionic acid with formaldehyde to methacrylic acid have been found. Effect of the specific surface area and the specific surface acidity on the propionic acid conversion has been determined. Effect of the acidic active site's strength on the selectivity of reaction products has been determined. It has been pointed that methacrylic acid is formed on the moderate strength acidic active sites, whereas the by-product (diethyl ketone) - on the strong acidic active sites of the catalyst.

  13. Molecular pharmacology of the AMPA agonist, (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid [(S)-APPA] and the AMPA antagonist, (R)-APPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, B; Madsen, U; Lund, Trine Meldgaard

    1994-01-01

    )-APPA, whereas (R)-APPA is a non-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (non-NMDA) receptor antagonist showing preferential AMPA blocking effects. In agreement with classical theories for competitive interaction between agonists and antagonists, the efficacy of depolarizations produced by (S)-APPA in the rat cortical wedge......The heterocyclic analogue of (S)-glutamic acid, (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid [(S)-AMPA] is a potent and selective AMPA receptor agonist, whereas the enantiomeric compound, (R)-AMPA, is virtually inactive. We have previously characterized (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5......-phenyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid [(RS)-APPA] as a partial AMPA receptor agonist showing about 60% of the efficacy of (RS)-AMPA. This partial agonism produced by (RS)-APPA is, however, only apparent, since resolution of (RS)-APPA has now been shown to provide the full AMPA receptor agonist, (S...

  14. Chiral separation of aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides in a permethyl-β-cyclodextrin based column. Influence of temperature and mobile phase composition on enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubomirsky, Ester; Padró, Juan M; Di Loreto, Héctor; Castells, Cecilia B

    2017-08-01

    We used a permethyl-β-cyclodextrin chiral stationary phase under reversed-phase conditions for the chiral separation of four aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides (fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, quizalofop-p-ethyl and tefuryl, and haloxyfop-p-methyl) with mixtures of methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, n-propanol, tert-butanol, or acetonitrile and water as mobile phases and investigated the influence of mobile phase composition and column temperature (from 0 to 50°C) on the separation. The retention factors (k) and selectivity factors (α) of all the herbicides investigated decreased with increasing temperature. The lnα versus 1/T and lnk versus 1/T plots for the enantiomers of the chiral pesticides were linear within the range of 0-50°C with all alcohol/water mixtures constituting the mobile phase, but the lnk versus 1/T plots were nonlinear for all the enantiomers chromatographed in acetonitrile/water mixtures. The thermodynamic parameters based on linear van't Hoff plots were calculated. The influence of temperature and mobile phase composition on the enantioseparation of the solutes has rarely been considered simultaneously. The temperature and the solvents used in the mobile phase, however, were found to have a profound effect on the enantioseparation of these herbicides. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. [Fixed-dose combination fluticasone propionate/formoterol for the treatment of asthma: a review of its pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintano Jiménez, J A; Ginel Mendoza, L; Entrenas Costa, L M; Polo García, J

    2016-02-01

    The fixed-dose combination fluticasone propionate/formoterol (FPF) is a novel combination of a widely known and used inhaled glucocorticoid (IGC) and a long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist (LABA), available for the first time in a single device. This fixed-dose combination of FPF has a demonstrated efficacy and safety profile in clinical trials compared with its individual components and other fixed-dose combinations of IGC/LABA and is indicated for the treatment of persistent asthma in adults and adolescents. FPF is available in a wide range of doses that can adequately cover the therapeutic steps recommended by treatment guidelines, constituting a fixed-dose combination of GCI/LABA that is effective, rapid, well tolerated and with a reasonable acquisition cost. Various assessment agencies of the Spanish Autonomous Communities consider this combination to be an appropriate alternative therapy for asthma in the primary care setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of insulin-like growth factor-1 using electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes-poly(pyrrole propionic acid) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafín, V; Agüí, L; Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-02-15

    An amperometric immunosensor for the determination of the hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is reported for the first time in this work. As electrochemical transducer, a multiwalled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode on which poly(pyrrole propionic acid) was electropolymerized was prepared. This approach provided a high content of surface confined carboxyl groups suitable for direct covalent binding of anti-IGF1 monoclonal antibody. A sandwich-type immunoassay using a polyclonal antibody labeled with peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide as the enzyme substrate and catechol as redox mediator was employed to monitor the affinity reaction. All the variables involved in the preparation of the modified electrode were optimized and the electrodes were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Moreover, the different experimental variables affecting the amperometric response of the immunosensor were also optimized. The calibration graph for IGF1 showed a range of linearity extending from 0.5 to 1000 pg/mL, with a detection limit, 0.25 pg/mL, more than 100 times lower than the lowest values reported for the ELISA immunoassays available for IGF1 (30 pg/mL, approximately). Excellent reproducibility for the measurements carried out with different immunosensors and selectivity against other hormones were also evidenced. A commercial human serum spiked with IGF1 at different levels between 0.01 and 10.0 ng/mL was analyzed with good results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of the enthalpy of vaporization and prediction of surface tension for ionic liquid 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium propionate [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Yang, Hong-Xu; Liu, Ru-Jing; Li, Chi; Xia, Li-Xin; Yang, Jia-Zhen

    2014-11-13

    With the use of isothermogravimetrical analysis, the enthalpies of vaporization, Δ(g)lH(o)m(T(av)), at the average temperature, T(av) = 445.65 K, for the ionic liquids (ILs) 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium propionate [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6) were determined. Using Verevkin's method, the difference of heat capacities between the vapor phase and the liquid phase, Δ(g)lC(p)(o)m, for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), were calculated based on the statistical thermodynamics. Therefore, with the use of Δ(g)lC(p)(o)m, the values of Δ(g)lH(o)m(T(av)) were transformed into Δ(g)lH(o)m(298), 126.8, 130.3, and 136.5 for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6), respectively. In terms of the new scale of polarity for ILs, the order of the polarity of [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) was predicted, that is, the polarity decreases with increasing methylene. A new model of the relationship between the surface tension and the enthalpy of vaporization for aprotic ILs was put forward and used to predict the surface tension for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and others. The predicted surface tension for the ILs is in good agreement with the experimental one.

  18. Preconcentration and extraction of copper(II on activated carbon using ethyl-2-quinolyl-β (p-carboxyphenyl hydrazonedioxo propionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrorang Ghaedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon modified method was used for the preconcentration and determination of copper content in real samples such as tap water, wastewater and a synthetic water sample by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The copper(II was adsorbed quantitatively on activated carbon due to its complexation with ethyl-2-quinolyl-β(p-carboxyphenyl hydrazonedioxo propionate (EQCPDP. The adsorbed copper(II ion on solid phase was eluted quantitatively by using nitric acid. The important parameters such as pH, amount of carrier, flow rate, amount of activated carbon and type and concentration of eluting agent for obtaining maximum recovery were optimized. The method at optimum conditions gives linear concentration range of 0.05-1.0 μg mL-1 of copper(II with correlation coefficient of 0.9994 and the detection limit of 0.99 ng mL-1. The preconcentration leads to enrichment factor of 175 and break through volume of 1750 mL. The method has good tolerance limit of interfering ions and selectivity and it has been successfully applied for determination of copper content in real sample such as blood, wastewater and river sample.

  19. Radioiodination of protein using 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl 3-(nido-carboranyl) propionate (TCP) as a potential bi-functional linker: Synthesis and biodistribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Rushan; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Li Bing; Liao Jiali; Jin Jiannan

    2009-01-01

    2,3,5,6-Tetrafluorophenyl 3-(nido-carboranyl) propionate (TCP), as a new potential bi-functional linker for radiohalogenation of proteins or peptides, was synthesized. With this bi-functional linker, the first attempt to conjugate bovine serum albumin (BSA) with 125 I was made and the biodistribution of the conjugated BSA ( 125 I-TCP-BSA) was investigated in NIH strain mice. By the use of TCP as the linker, BSA was conjugated with 125 I in a labeling yield of 58-75% and with radiochemical purity of 99.8% after purification by Sephadex TM G-50. Even after being kept at room temperature for 72 h, the radiochemical purity of 125 I-TCP-BSA was still more than 98%, much higher than that of the directly 125 I-labeled BSA ( 125 I-BSA). Meanwhile, biodistribution experiments in mice indicated that the uptake of 125 I with 125 I-TCP-BSA into thyroid was obviously less than that with 125 I-BSA post-injection. All the results implied that the 125 I-conjugated BSA ( 125 I-TCP-BSA) was considerably stable in vivo as well as in vitro, and TCP was regarded as a promising bi-functional linker for radiohalogenation of proteins

  20. Use of a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column and propionic acid as an eluent in ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Hironaga, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We developed an ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography (IEAC) method employing a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin (PS-WCX) column with propionic acid as the eluent for the simultaneous determination of multivalent aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples. The PS-WCX column well resolved mono-, di-, and trivalent carboxylic acids in the acidic eluent. Propionic acid as the eluent gave a higher signal-to-noise ratio, and enabled sensitive conductimetric detection of analyte acids. We found the optimal separation condition to be the combination of a PS-WCX column and 20-mM propionic acid. Practical applicability of the developed method was confirmed by using a short precolumn with a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form connected before the separation column; this was to remove cations from food samples by converting them to hydrogen ions. Consequently, common carboxylic acids and ethanol in beer, wine, and soy sauce were successfully separated by the developed method.

  1. The glutamate receptor GluR5 agonist (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid and the 8-methyl analogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius; Naur, Peter; Kristensen, Anders Skov

    2009-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization of a highly potent and selective glutamate GluR5 agonist is reported. (S)-2-Amino-3-((RS)-3-hydroxy-8-methyl-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (5) is the 8-methyl analogue of (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H......-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid ((S)-4-AHCP, 4). Compound 5 displays an improved selectivity profile compared to 4. A versatile stereoselective synthetic route for this class of compounds is presented along with the characterization of the binding affinity of 5 to ionotropic glutamate receptors (i......GluRs). Functional characterization of 5 at cloned iGluRs using a calcium imaging assay and voltage-clamp recordings show a different activation of GluR5 compared to (S)-glutamic acid (Glu), kainic acid (KA, 1), and (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid ((S)-ATPA, 3) as previously...

  2. Altered metabolism in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locasale Jason W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer cells have different metabolic requirements from their normal counterparts. Understanding the consequences of this differential metabolism requires a detailed understanding of glucose metabolism and its relation to energy production in cancer cells. A recent study in BMC Systems Biology by Vasquez et al. developed a mathematical model to assess some features of this altered metabolism. Here, we take a broader look at the regulation of energy metabolism in cancer cells, considering their anabolic as well as catabolic needs. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/4/58/

  3. A Systematic Analysis of the Sensitivity of Plasma Pharmacokinetics to Detect Differences in the Pulmonary Performance of Inhaled Fluticasone Propionate Products Using a Model-Based Simulation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Benjamin; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2015-07-01

    The role of plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) for assessing bioequivalence at the target site, the lung, for orally inhaled drugs remains unclear. A validated semi-mechanistic model, considering the presence of mucociliary clearance in central lung regions, was expanded for quantifying the sensitivity of PK studies in detecting differences in the pulmonary performance (total lung deposition, central-to-peripheral lung deposition ratio, and pulmonary dissolution characteristics) between test (T) and reference (R) inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) products. PK bioequivalence trials for inhaled FP were simulated based on this PK model for a varying number of subjects and T products. The statistical power to conclude bioequivalence when T and R products are identical was demonstrated to be 90% for approximately 50 subjects. Furthermore, the simulations demonstrated that PK metrics (area under the concentration time curve (AUC) and C max) are capable of detecting differences between T and R formulations of inhaled FP products when the products differ by more than 20%, 30%, and 25% for total lung deposition, central-to-peripheral lung deposition ratio, and pulmonary dissolution characteristics, respectively. These results were derived using a rather conservative risk assessment approach with an error rate of <10%. The simulations thus indicated that PK studies might be a viable alternative to clinical studies comparing pulmonary efficacy biomarkers for slowly dissolving inhaled drugs. PK trials for pulmonary efficacy equivalence testing should be complemented by in vitro studies to avoid false positive bioequivalence assessments that are theoretically possible for some specific scenarios. Moreover, a user-friendly web application for simulating such PK equivalence trials with inhaled FP is provided.

  4. Rapid measurement of 13C-enrichment of acetic, propionic and butyric acids in plasma with solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, N.M.; Delepee, R.; Maume, D.; Le Bizec, B.; Nguyen, P.G.; Champ, M.M.; Martin, L.J.; Dumon, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    An analytical procedure based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) has been developed to quantify [1- 13 C]-labelled short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)--mainly acetic, propionic and butyric acids--in a small volume (120 μl) of deproteinised plasma (corresponding to 200 μl of raw plasma) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Simultaneous SCFA extraction was optimal after 5 min using a 75 μm Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane-coated fiber. The base peak of the three analytes has been characterised by middle-resolution mass spectrometry (R>6000). All these data allowed the specificity reinforcement of the measure. The validation of the method also considered the linearity and the repeatability of the [ 13 C]SCFA measurements by SPME-GC-MS. Results were linear in a range from 5 to 100 mol% of [ 13 C]SCFA enrichment and the method provided a good intra-day (R.S.D. 13 C]butyric acid) by cecal infusion before blood sampling in portal vein. Results of [1- 13 C]butyric acid enrichment showed an excellent correlation (r 2 =0.9832; n=30) with data obtained on the same samples using a previously published procedure based on diethyl extraction and derivatisation before GC-MS analyses. SPME coupled to GC-MS appears to be a powerful analytical tool for the direct isotopic measurements of low deproteinised plasma volume avoiding consequently preliminary treatment such as extraction or derivatisation. The presented method could be of great interest for real time [ 13 C]SCFA plasma determination of in metabolic in vivo studies in small animal models

  5. The Effect of Reactive Ionic Liquid or Plasticizer Incorporation on the Physicochemical and Transport Properties of Cellulose Acetate Propionate-Based Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Rynkowska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervaporation is a membrane-separation technique which uses polymeric and/or ceramic membranes. In the case of pervaporation processes applied to dehydration, the membrane should transport water molecules preferentially. Reactive ionic liquid (RIL (3-(1,3-diethoxy-1,3-dioxopropan-2-yl-1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium was used to prepare novel dense cellulose acetate propionate (CAP based membranes, applying the phase-inversion method. The designed polymer-ionic liquid system contained ionic liquid partially linked to the polymeric structure via the transesterification reaction. The various physicochemical, mechanical, equilibrium and transport properties of CAP-RIL membranes were determined and compared with the properties of CAP membranes modified with plasticizers, i.e., tributyl citrate (TBC and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA testified that CAP-RIL membranes as well as CAP membranes modified with TBC and ATBC are thermally stable up to at least 120 °C. Tensile tests of the membranes revealed improved mechanical properties reflected by reduced brittleness and increased elongation at break achieved for CAP-RIL membranes in contrast to pristine CAP membranes. RIL plasticizes the CAP matrix, and CAP-RIL membranes possess preferable mechanical properties in comparison to membranes with other plasticizers investigated. The incorporation of RIL into CAP membranes tuned the surface properties of the membranes, enhancing their hydrophilic character. Moreover, the addition of RIL into CAP resulted in an excellent improvement of the separation factor, in comparison to pristine CAP membranes, in pervaporation dehydration of propan-2-ol. The separation factor β increased from ca. 10 for pristine CAP membrane to ca. 380 for CAP-16.7-RIL membranes contacting an azeotropic composition of water-propan-2-ol mixture (i.e., 12 wt % water.

  6. Gold nanoparticle/nickel oxide/poly(pyrrole-N-propionic acid hybrid multilayer film: Electrochemical study and its application in biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karazehir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the fabrication of Indium Tin Oxide /gold nanoparticles/nickel oxide/poly(Pyrrole-N-propionic acid (ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA multilayered film, and its modification with Tyrosinase (Ty. The ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA electrode was fabricated by sequential electrochemical assembly onto ITO substrate which electrochemical deposition provides a facile, inexpensive technique for synthesis of multilayered film within the adherent morphology with controllable film thickness. Cyclic voltammetry (CV, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR, scanning electron microcopy (SEM, and atomic force microcopy (AFM were used to characterize the film assembly processes. The properties of a semiconductor/electrolyte interface were investigated based on the Mott–Schottky (M-S approach for the modified electrodes, with the flat band potential (EFB according to the potential intercept and the carrier density (ND according to the linear slopes. The ND and EFB of ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA were obtained as 2.48·1021 cm–3 and 0.26 V, respectively. Tyrosinase was immobilized using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The bioelectrode was characterized by FTIR-ATR, SEM, AFM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. A Randles equivalent circuit was introduced for modeling the performance of impedimetric biosensing for the detection of the dopamine (DP and the interface of bioelectrode/electrolyte. The EIS of the ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA-Ty exhibited significant changes in the charge transfer resistance (RCT value toward the detection of dopamine over a linear range of 80 µM to 0.2 mM with a limit of detection (LOD of 5.46 µM.

  7. Efficacious and safe management of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis using clobetasol propionate shampoo 0·05% combined with ketoconazole shampoo 2%: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P; Nikkels, A F; Reich, K; Ponce Olivera, R M; Lee, J H; Kerrouche, N; Sidou, F; Faergemann, J

    2011-07-01

    Topical antifungals and corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for seborrhoeic dermatitis. The short-contact clobetasol propionate 0·05% shampoo (CP) is an efficacious and safe once-daily treatment for scalp psoriasis. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CP alone and combined with ketoconazole shampoo 2% (KC) in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis. This randomized and investigator-blinded study consisted of three phases, each lasting 4 weeks. During the treatment phase, subjects were randomized to receive KC twice weekly (K2), CP twice weekly (C2), CP twice weekly alternating with KC twice weekly (C2 + K2) or CP four times weekly alternating with KC twice weekly (C4+K2). All subjects received KC once weekly during the maintenance phase and were untreated during the follow-up phase. At the end of the treatment phase, all three CP-containing regimens were significantly more efficacious than K2 in decreasing the overall disease severity (P < 0·05). Both combination regimens were also significantly more efficacious than K2 in decreasing each individual sign of the disease (P < 0·05). While the C2 and C4 + K2 groups experienced slight worsening during the maintenance phase, the efficacy of C2 + K2 was sustained and remained the highest among all groups. All regimens were well tolerated without inducing any skin atrophy. Similarly low incidences of telangiectasia, burning and adverse events were observed among the four groups. The combination therapy of twice-weekly CP alternating with twice-weekly KC provided significantly greater efficacy than KC alone and a sustained effect in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  8. Selected biomarkers as predictive tools in testing efficacy of melatonin and coenzyme Q on propionic acid - induced neurotoxicity in rodent model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Mashael; Al-Ayadhi, Laila; El-Ansary, Afaf

    2014-02-25

    Exposures to environmental toxins are now thought to contribute to the development of autism spectrum disorder. Propionic acid (PA) found as a metabolic product of gut bacteria has been reported to mimic/mediate the neurotoxic effects of autism. Results from animal studies may guide investigations on human populations toward identifying environmental contaminants that produce or drugs that protect from neurotoxicity. Forty-eight young male Western Albino rats were used in the present study. They were grouped into six equal groups 8 rats each. The first group received a neurotoxic dose of buffered PA (250 mg/Kg body weight/day for 3 consecutive days). The second group received only phosphate buffered saline (control group). The third and fourth groups were intoxicated with PA as described above followed by treatment with either coenzyme Q (4.5 mg/kg body weight) or melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight) for one week (therapeutically treated groups). The fifth and sixth groups were administered both compounds for one week prior to PA (protected groups). Heat shock protein70 (Hsp70), Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA), serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin and interferon γ-inducible protein 16 together with Comet DNA assay were measured in brain tissues of the six studied groups. The obtained data showed that PA caused multiple signs of brain toxicity revealed in depletion of GABA, serotonin, and dopamine, are which important neurotransmitters that reflect brain function, interferon γ-inducible protein 16 and oxytocin. A high significant increase in tail length, tail DNA% damage and tail moment was reported indicating the genotoxic effect of PA. Administration of melatonin or coenzyme Q showed both protective and therapeutic effects on PA-treated rats demonstrated in a remarkable amelioration of most of the measured parameters. In conclusion, melatonin and coenzyme Q have potential protective and restorative effects against PA-induced brain injury, confirmed by improvement in

  9. Use of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid as electron donating compound in a potentiometric aflatoxin M{sub 1}-immunosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rameil, Steffen, E-mail: s.rameil@r-biopharm.de [R-Biopharm AG, An der neuen Bergstrasse 17, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Schubert, Peter, E-mail: p.schubert@r-biopharm.de [R-Biopharm AG, An der neuen Bergstrasse 17, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Grundmann, Peter, E-mail: peter.grundmann@jennewein-biotech.de [R-Biopharm AG, An der neuen Bergstrasse 17, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Dietrich, Richard, E-mail: R.Dietrich@mh.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Munich, Schoenleutner Str 8, 85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Maertlbauer, Erwin, E-mail: E.Maertlbauer@mh.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Munich, Schoenleutner Str 8, 85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2010-02-19

    We developed a potentiometric aflatoxin M{sub 1}-immunosensor which utilizes 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (p-HPPA) as electron donating compound for horseradish peroxidase (HRP; EC 1.11.1.7). The assay system consists of a polypyrrole-surface-working electrode coated with a polyclonal anti-M{sub 1} antibody (pAb-AFM{sub 1}), a Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a HRP-aflatoxin B{sub 1} conjugate (HRP-AFB{sub 1} conjugate). To optimize the potentiometric measuring system p-HPPA as well as related compounds serving as electron donating compounds were compared. Also the influence of different buffer systems, varying pH and substrate concentrations on signal intensity was investigated. Our results suggest that reaction conditions that favor the formation of Pummerer's type ketones lead to an increase in signal intensity rather than formation of fluorescent dye. Comparison with commercial ready-to-use HRP electron donating compounds such as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), o-phenylenediamine (OPD) or 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) showed that only 34%, 77% and 49% of the signal intensity of p-HPPA were reached, respectively. The optimized assay had a detection limit of 40 pg mL{sup -1} and allowed detection of 500 pg mL{sup -1} (FDA action limit) aflatoxin M{sub 1} (AFM{sub 1}) in pasteurized milk and UHT-milk containing 0.3-3.8% fat within 10 min without any sample treatment. The working range was between 250 and 2000 pg mL{sup -1} AFM{sub 1}.

  10. Early continuous white noise exposure alters l-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 and gamma-aminobutyric acid type a receptor subunit beta3 protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Zhang, Jiping; Cai, Rui; Sun, Xinde

    2010-02-15

    Auditory experience during the postnatal critical period is essential for the normal maturation of auditory function. Previous studies have shown that rearing infant rat pups under conditions of continuous moderate-level noise delayed the emergence of adult-like topographic representational order and the refinement of response selectivity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) beyond normal developmental benchmarks and indefinitely blocked the closure of a brief, critical-period window. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of these physiological changes after noise rearing, we studied expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta3 in the auditory cortex after noise rearing. Our results show that continuous moderate-level noise rearing during the early stages of development decreases the expression levels of GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3. Furthermore, noise rearing also induced a significant decrease in the level of GABA(A) receptors relative to AMPA receptors. However, in adult rats, noise rearing did not have significant effects on GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3 expression or the ratio between the two units. These changes could have a role in the cellular mechanisms involved in the delayed maturation of auditory receptive field structure and topographic organization of A1 after noise rearing. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  12. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J.

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  13. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: propionic acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cerdá C, Scholl-Bürgi S, Skovby F, Wijburg F, MacDonald A, Martinelli D, Sass JO, Valayannopoulos V, Chakrapani ... Cerdá C, Scholl-Bürgi S, Skovby F, Wijburg F, MacDonald A, Martinelli D, Sass JO, Valayannopoulos V, Chakrapani ...

  15. A blinded comparison of fluticasone propionate with budesonide via powder devices in adult patients with moderate-to-severe asthma: a clinical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ringdal

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Vitro and in vivo data have demonstrated that there are detectable differences between inhaled corticosteroids commonly used to treat asthma. However, controversy still remains as to whether these differences translate into clinical benefits. This 12-week, international, randomized, doubleblind, parallel-group study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate (FP 800 μg daily, administered as a powder via the Diskhaler®, and budesonide (BUD 1600 μg daily, administered using the Turbuhaler®, in adult patients with moderate-tosevere asthma. A total of 518 patients participated in the study, 256 of whom received FP and 262 BUD. Assessment of mean morning peak expiratory flow (PEF over the 12-week treatment period revealed a statistically significant difference in efficacy between FP 800 μg daily and BUD 1600 μg daily in favour of FP (p = 0.003, with an overall improvement of 20.9 l/min with FP compared with 12.4 l/min on BUD. Statistically significant differences in favour of FP were seen over the 12 weeks for mean evening PEF (p = 0.04, diurnal PEF variation (p = 0.03 and percentage predicted PEF (p = 0.003, as well as forced expiratory volume (p = 0.008, forced vital capacity (p = 0.02 and PEF (p = 0.005 measured at clinic visits. The median percentage of symptom-free nights increased over the 12-week study period in both treatment groups, with similar changes seen for the median percentage of days with symptom score < 2, rescue medication use and exacerbations of asthma. The incidence of adverse events was found to be comparable in the two treatment groups. The geometric mean ratios of serum cortisol levels were found to be 1.03 for FP, indicating no mean hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression from baseline, and 0.93 for BUD (p = 0.0002 compared with FP. In summary, FP 800 μg daily showed a greater efficacy/safety ratio in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma than BUD 1600 μg daily.

  16. A novel magnetic ionic liquid modified carbon nanotube for the simultaneous determination of aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides and their metabolites in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Mai; Liu, Donghui; Zhao, Lu; Han, Jiajun; Liang, Yiran; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zqzhou@cau.edu.cn

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • A new kind of ionic liquid modified carbon nanotube has been synthesized and applied for simultaneous analysis of AOPPs and their metabolites. • The potential pollutants, such as metabolites of AOPPs, have been analyzed. • The mechanism of absorption has been discussed. • Varieties of experiment factors were optimized and selected. • This method has been successfully applied in the analysis of real water samples. - Abstract: A reliable, sensitive, rapid and environmentally friendly analysis procedure for the simultaneous determination of the analytes with a wide range of polarity in the environmental water was developed by coupling dispersive magnetic solid-phase extraction (d-MSPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–diode array detector (DAD) and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS/MS), in this work. Magnetic ionic liquid modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-IL-MWCNTs) were prepared by spontaneous assembly of magnetic nanoparticles and imidazolium-modified carbon nanotubes, and used as the sorbent of d-MSPE to simultaneously extract aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides (AOPPs) and their polar acid metabolites due to the excellent π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions and anion exchange ability. The factors, including the amount of sorbent, pH of the sample solution, extraction time and the volume of elution solvent were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed d-MSPE coupling to HPLC–DAD system had a satisfactory performance, the limits of detection (LODs, defined as the signal to noise ratio of 3) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, defined as the signal to noise ratio of 10) for analytes in Milli-Q water were in the range of 2.8–14.3 and 9.8–43.2 μg L{sup −1} respectively. Calibration curves were linear (r{sup 2} > 0.998) over the concentration range from 0.02 to 1 mg L{sup −1}. The recoveries of the eight analytes ranged

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate 50/250 mcg combination therapy in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhisa Asai,1 Akihiro Kobayashi,2 Yukio Makihara,3 Malcolm Johnson4 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan; 2Biomedical Data Sciences, 3Medical Affairs Respiratory Department, GlaxoSmithKline, Tokyo, Japan; 4Respiratory Global Franchise, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK Purpose: Using sputum neutrophils as the primary measure, and other inflammation biomarkers, this study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of the combination salmeterol 50 mcg and fluticasone propionate 250 mcg (SFC 250 in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Patients and methods: Patients were treated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial with SFC 250 twice daily (n=26 or placebo (n=26 for 12 weeks. At the start and end of treatment, inflammation biomarkers (sputum and serum, lung function, and health status (COPD Assessment Test [CAT] questionnaire were measured. Results: Although a numerical decrease in differential neutrophil count was observed from baseline, SFC 250 did not significantly reduce sputum neutrophils compared with placebo, nor were there significant changes from baseline in the other biomarkers (sputum or serum, lung function, or CAT, versus placebo. Squamous epithelial cell contamination in some sputum samples rendered them unacceptable for analysis, which reduced the sample size to n=19 (SFC 250 and n=10 (placebo. However, inclusion of contaminated samples did not affect the overall trend of the outcome. Ad hoc bootstrap statistical analysis showed a 27.9% (SFC 250 and 1.3% (placebo decrease in sputum neutrophils. Sputum IL-8 decreased by 43.2% after SFC 250 but increased by 48.3% with placebo. Responder analyses showed 42% of patients had ≥20% decrease in neutrophils from baseline; and 47% of patients had a ≥200 pg/mL change in sputum IL-8 following SFC 250 versus 20% after placebo; both changes are considered clinically

  18. Nebulized fluticasone propionate, a viable alternative to systemic route in the management of childhood moderate asthma attack: A double-blind, double-dummy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirca, Beyza Poplata; Cagan, Hasret; Kiykim, Ayca; Arig, Ulku; Arpa, Medeni; Tulunay, Aysin; Ozen, Ahmet; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Baris, Safa; Barlan, I B

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we compared the clinical and immunological efficacy of nebulized corticosteroid (CS) to systemic route during treatment of moderate asthma attack in children. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, prospective study, 81 children aged 12 months to 16 years experiencing asthma attack randomized into two treatment groups to receive, either; nebulized fluticasone propionate (n = 39, 2000 mcg/day) or oral methylprednisolone (n = 41, 1 mg/kg/day). Pulmonary index scores (PIS) were assessed at admission and at 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th, 48th hours, as well as, on day 7 and peak expiratory flow (PEF) at baseline and at the 7th day. Daily symptom and medication scores were recorded for all subjects. Immunological studies included phytohemagglutinin induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells culture supernatant for cytokine responses and CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) T regulatory cell (T reg) percentage at baseline and day 7. The changes in PIS and PEF were similar in both treatment groups, with a significant improvement in both values at the 7th day, when compared to baseline. In both groups, significant reductions in symptom and medication scores were observed during the treatment period with no significant difference between the groups. At day 7 of intervention, phytohemagglutinin induced IL-4 level was significantly decreased only in the nebulized group compared to baseline (p = 0.01). Evaluation of cytokine responses by means of fold increase (stimulated (S)/unstimulated (US) ratio) revealed a significant reduction in IL-4, IL-5 and IL-17 only in nebulized group (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.02; respectively). The fold increase value of IL-5 was significantly lower at 7th day in nebulized group when compared to systemic one (p = 0.02). At 7th day, although in both treatment groups the percentage of T reg cells was suppressed, it remained significantly higher in the nebule one when compared to systemic route (p = 0.04). In the management of

  19. Comparative cost-effectiveness of a fluticasone-propionate/salmeterol combination versus anticholinergics as initial maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anand A Dalal1, Melissa H Roberts2, Hans V Petersen2, Christopher M Blanchette3, Douglas W Mapel41US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2Division of Clinical and Outcomes Research, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; 3Kannapolis, North Carolina; 4Lovelace Clinic Foundation, Albuquerque, NM, USAPurpose: Relative costs and utilization-related outcomes of a fluticasone propionate 250 µg + salmeterol 50 µg combination (FSC, tiotropium bromide, and ipratropium as initial maintenance therapy in COPD have not been compared in a commercially-insured population.Methods: This retrospective, observational cohort study used health care claims data from January 2004 to June 2009 from a large administrative database for patients aged ≥40 years with COPD. Time-to-first COPD-related health care event beginning 30 days following therapy initiation with FSC (n = 16,684, ipratropium alone or in fixed dose combination with albuterol (n = 14,449, or tiotropium (n = 12,659 was estimated using Cox proportional hazard models that controlled for differences in patient demographic characteristics, health care utilization, and comorbidities at baseline. Mean adjusted costs and numbers of COPD-related health care encounters and prescription medication fills were compared among patients with 12 months of follow-up (FSC, n = 12,595; ipratropium, n = 10,617; tiotropium, n = 9126.Results: With FSC as the reference, risk for a COPD-related hospitalization and/or emergency department visit was significantly higher for ipratropium (hazard ratio [HR] 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50–1.79 and tiotropium (HR 1.29, CI 1.17–1.41. Mean adjusted 12-month COPD-related total health care costs were lower for FSC ($2068, standard deviation [SD] $1190 than for ipratropium ($2841, SD $1858 and tiotropium ($2408, SD $1511, both P < 0.05. Mean number of COPD-related hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient

  20. Volumetric and acoustical properties of aqueous mixtures of N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium propionate at T = (298.15 to 333.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Figueiredo, Eduardo J.P.; Santos, Mário J.S.F.; Santos, Jaime B.; Talavera-Prieto, Nieves M.C.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Ferreira, Abel G.M.; Mattedi, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Density, and speed of sound for aqueous mixtures of [m2HEA]Pr were measured. • Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities were derived. • Excess properties were calculated and correlated using rational functions. • The molar compressibility the aqueous mixtures was calculated from the Wada’s model. • Appreciable interactions between water and [m2HEA] cation were found. - Abstract: The speed of sound in the ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium propionate (m2HEAPr) was measured at atmospheric pressure, and over the range of temperatures T = (293.15 to 343.15) K. The speed of sound and density were also measured for aqueous mixtures of the ionic liquid throughout the entire concentration range at temperatures T = (298.15 to 333.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volume, excess isentropic compressibility, excess speed of sound, apparent molar volume, and isentropic apparent molar compressibility were calculated from the values of the experimental density and speed of sound. The results were analyzed and are discussed from the point of view of structural changes in the aqueous medium. All the above mentioned properties were correlated with selected analytical functions. The Jouyban–Acree model was used to correlate the density of the mixtures studied with the temperature. The model accuracy was evaluated by calculating the absolute average deviation (AAD) for the correlation, which is 0.4%. The speed of sound of the m2HEAPr was predicted with the Wu et al. model with a maximum deviation of 2%. The molar compressibility of m2HEAPr and their aqueous mixtures was calculated from the Wada’s model. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time this model is applied to these systems. The results demonstrate that the molar compressibility calculated from Wada’s model is almost a linear function of mole fraction and can be considered as temperature independent for a fixed mole fraction

  1. Regulatory effect of dietary intake of chromium propionate on the response of monocyte-derived macrophages from Holstein cows in mid lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Qu, Y; Scholte, C M; O'Connor, D; Rounds, W; Moyes, K M

    2017-08-01

    Chromium (Cr) has been reported to enhance immune function and improve insulin sensitivity and performance in beef and dairy cattle. However, its effect on bovine macrophage inflammatory and metabolic response is unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of dietary Cr on the inflammatory and metabolic response of polarized macrophages ex vivo. Twelve primiparous and 16 multiparous healthy Holstein cows in mid lactation (143 ± 37 d in milk) were enrolled in this study. Cows were fed a common total mixed ration once per day that was top-dressed with 200 g of ground corn containing 1 of 2 dietary treatments: control (CTL, no Cr supplementation) or Cr propionate (CrP, 8 mg of Cr/cow per day) for 35 d. At d 1, 17, and 35 of treatment, blood monocytes were isolated and cultured to obtain 3 monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) phenotypes: M0 (non-polarized), M1 (pro-inflammatory; IFN-γ polarized) and M2 (anti-inflammatory; IL-4 polarized). The experiment was set in a randomized complete block design. Neither dry matter intake nor milk yield was affected by treatment. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and the metabolic and inflammatory response of MDM in spent media were not affected by treatment. Neither the whole blood cell population nor the specific proportion of leukocytes was affected by the main effect of treatment. However, we did observe a trend for fewer circulating neutrophils in cows fed CrP than in cows fed CTL for 35 d, which may be partly attributable to a greater influx of neutrophils into peripheral tissues, a reduced pro-inflammatory response during disease, or both; this warrants future study. Expression of IGFI was increased in MDM-M0, and expression of CXCL11 tended to increase in MDM-M2 from cows fed CrP compared with cows fed CTL. Expression of SLC2A3 also tended to increase in MDM-M2 from cows fed CrP compared with cows fed CTL at 17 d. Our results suggest that CrP has minimal effect on the inflammatory and metabolic

  2. Development of [3H]2-Carboxy-4,6-dichloro-1H-indole-3-propionic Acid ([3H]PSB-12150): A Useful Tool for Studying GPR17

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The recently described synthetic GPR17 agonist 2-carboxy-4,6-dichloro-1H-indole-3-propionic acid (1) was prepared in tritium-labeled form by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding propenoic acid derivative 8 with tritium gas. The radioligand [3H]PSB-12150 (9) was obtained with a specific activity of 17 Ci/mmol (629 GBq/mmol). It showed specific and saturable binding to a single binding site in membrane preparations from Chinese hamster ovary cells recombinantly expressing the human GPR17. A competition assay procedure was established, which allows the determination of ligand binding affinities. PMID:24900835

  3. Development of [(3)H]2-Carboxy-4,6-dichloro-1H-indole-3-propionic Acid ([(3)H]PSB-12150): A Useful Tool for Studying GPR17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Meryem; Ritter, Kirsten; Thiemke, Katharina; Gillard, Michel; Kostenis, Evi; Müller, Christa E

    2014-04-10

    The recently described synthetic GPR17 agonist 2-carboxy-4,6-dichloro-1H-indole-3-propionic acid (1) was prepared in tritium-labeled form by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding propenoic acid derivative 8 with tritium gas. The radioligand [(3)H]PSB-12150 (9) was obtained with a specific activity of 17 Ci/mmol (629 GBq/mmol). It showed specific and saturable binding to a single binding site in membrane preparations from Chinese hamster ovary cells recombinantly expressing the human GPR17. A competition assay procedure was established, which allows the determination of ligand binding affinities.

  4. PERUBAHAN PROFIL LIPIDA, KOLESTEROL DIGESTA DAN ASAM PROPIONAT PADA TIKUS DENGAN DIET TEPUNG RUMPUT LAUT [Change in the profiles lipid, digesta cholesterol and propionic acid of rats fed with of seaweed powder-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herpandi1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Community’s consumption pattern with high fat-low fiber has caused the prevalence of degenerative disease, i.e.cardivascular disease. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD is the first cause of death in Indonesia. Seaweed is a fiber rich food and has a hypocholesterolemic effect. Objectives of the research were to investigate the changes of lipid profiles, digesta cholesterol and propionic acid of rats fed with seaweed powder-based diet. Five groups of six male Sprague Dawley hypercolesterolemia rats were feed by 0% cholesterol and 0% seaweed powder (negative control; 1% cholesterol and 10% Eucheuma cottonii, 1% cholesterol and 10% Gelidium sp,1% cholesterol and 10% Sargassum sp, and 1% cholesterol and 0% seaweed powder (positive control for 31 days. The experiment result showed that the seaweed powder did not have a significant effect (P>0,05 on the growth and feed consumption, and serum HDL (Hight Density Lipoprotein but has a significant effect (P<0,05 on reduction of cholesterol total, LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein, triglycerides, and the increase in digested cholesterol. The seaweed powder effected the level of propionate acids, though were significantly different only for the group with 1% cholesterol and 10% Gelidium sp. The addition of E. cottonii produced a better hypocholesterolemic effect than that of Gelidium sp and Sargassum sp.

  5. Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Martin

    1989-01-01

    Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter : d. Gesundheitsreformgesetz (GRG) ; Möglichkeiten, Grenzen u. weitere Vorschläge / Martin Pfaff ; Klaus Deimer. - In: Expertengespräch "Pflege in der Familie". - Augsburg, 1989. - Getr. Zählung

  6. On the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.

    1982-01-01

    The notions ''normal'' and ''pathologically altered pulmonary pattern'' are specified. A grouping of lung pattern alterations based on morphopathogenetic features is provided: blood and lymphatic vascular alterations, changes in the bronchi, lung stroma, and combined alterations. Radiologic appearance of the altered pulmonary pattern is classified in keeping with the basic principles of an X-ray shade examination. The terms, such as ''enriching'', ''strengthening'', ''deformation'', etc., used for describing the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern are defined

  7. Effects of supplemental calcium salts of palm oil and chromium-propionate on insulin sensitivity and productive and reproductive traits of mid- to late-lactating Holstein × Gir dairy cows consuming excessive energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Bertin, R D; Colombo, E A; Miranda, V F B; Lourenço, L A C; Rodrigues, S M B; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2018-01-01

    This experiment compared insulin sensitivity, milk production, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows consuming excessive energy during mid to late lactation and receiving in a 2 × 2 factorial design (1) concentrate based on ground corn (CRN; n = 20) or including 8% (DM basis) of Ca salts of palm oil (CSPO; n = 20), and (2) supplemented (n = 20) or not (n = 20) with 2.5 g/d of Cr-propionate. During the experiment (d 0-203), 40 multiparous, nonpregnant, lactating 3/4 Holstein × 1/4 Gir cows (initial days in milk = 81 ± 2; mean ± SE) were offered corn silage for ad libitum consumption, and individually received concentrate formulated to allow diets to provide 160% of their daily net energy for lactation requirements. From d -15 to 203, milk production was recorded daily, blood samples collected weekly, and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) recorded on d 0 and 203. For dry matter intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 5 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 6 times/group. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW) were performed on d -3, 100, and 200. Follicle aspiration for in vitro embryo production was performed via transvaginal ovum pick-up on d -1, 98, and 198. Mean DMI, net energy for lactation intake, as well as BW and BCS change were similar across treatments. On average, cows gained 40 kg of BW and 0.49 BCS during the experiment. Within weekly blood samples, CRN cows had lower serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and insulin-to-glucose ratio compared with CSPO cows, suggesting increased insulin sensitivity in CRN cows. During the GTT, insulin-sensitivity traits were also greater in CRN versus CSPO cows. Supplemental Cr-propionate resulted in lower serum insulin concentrations and insulin-to-glucose ratio within CRN cows only, indicating that Cr-propionate improved basal insulin sensitivity in CRN but not in CSPO

  8. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data in aqueous solutions of propionic and butyric acids with 1-heptanol at T=(298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Ali Ghanadzadeh; Gilani, Hossein Ghanadzadeh; Saadat, Seyedeh Laleh Seyed; Nasiri-Touli, Elham; Peer, Mahrokh [Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Liquid-liquid phase equilibrium (LLE) data were determined for the (water+propionic or butyric acid+1- heptanol) ternary systems at T=(298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K and p=101.3 kPa. For both systems, a type-1 LLE phase diagram was obtained. The quality of the experimental LLE data was determined through the Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft equations. The experimental tie-lines were fitted using the UNIQUAC and NRTL correlation models. For the studied systems, a comparison was made between the experimental and correlated distribution coefficients and separation factors. The LSER model of Katritzky was applied to obtain the contributions of intermolecular interactions in these systems.

  9. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eGräff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD.

  10. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD.

  11. Systemic dystrophic alterations of skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    A roentgenologic picture of dystrophic alterations of bones following hard, acute and chronic infections diseases, distinct disorders of vitanium balance, diseases of endocrine system, disorder of metabolism and diet, long-term exogenous intoxications including medicinal is given. Distinct dystrophic disorders are characterized both by quantitative and qualitative deviations in physiological change of bones

  12. Digital media and altered states

    OpenAIRE

    Ressel, James

    2014-01-01

    This article is a reflection on whether technology has altered our perception of the spaces surrounding us and those we make, how we express ourselves and how we interact with our experiences. The reflection is based on a brief examination of the history of Northampton Chronicle & Echo as a print newspaper, its digital manifestation and human creative expression in the digital world.

  13. Modelling glass alteration in an altered argillaceous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Jullien, M.

    2007-01-01

    The long term behaviour of materials such as glass, steel and clay has been investigated in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The interactions between vitrified wastes, canister corrosion products (CPs) and clay are studied using a modified version of the reaction-transport code Crunch, especially looking at pH changes and possible cementation at the interface with the clayey materials. These perturbations may indeed affect the lifetime of glass matrix in deep repositories, e.g., high pH enhances the rate of glass alteration. This work focuses on the argillite of Bure. The calculations were performed at 323 K with a glass alteration rate switching from a high initial rate to a residual rate according to the sorption capacity of CPs. The time at which this sorption capacity is saturated is crucial to the system in terms of wastes package lifetime. The results show that the glass alteration imposes a high pH value at the interface with CPs and clay: up to a value of 9.2, compared to 7.3 which is the initial pH value in the argillite. Experimental data show that the rate of glass alteration is much higher in such pH conditions. For a R7T7-type glass, the rate is about five times higher at pH 9 than at pH 7. This pH perturbation migrates through the clayey domain as a result of the migration of mobile elements such as boron and sodium, and despite the existence of strong pH buffers in the argillite. The cementation of porosity at the interface between glass and clay is predicted by the model due to the massive precipitation of iron corrosion products and glass alteration products. At this point of the evolution of the system, the pH starts to decrease and the alteration rate of the glass could be significantly reduced. This porosity clogging effect is difficult to confirm by experiments especially since existing data on short term experiments tend to show a pervasive precipitation of silica in the domain instead of a localized precipitation

  14. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoshuk, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  15. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  16. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Tarzia, Olinda

    2010-01-15

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  17. Polydextrose enrichment of infant formula demonstrates prebiotic characteristics by altering intestinal microbiota, organic acid concentrations, and cytokine expression in suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Fellner, Vivek; Walker, D Carey; Jouni, Zeina E; Odle, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Oligosaccharides, the 3rd-most abundant component in human milk, are virtually absent from infant formulas and from the cow milk on which most are based. In breast-fed infants, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) act as both receptor analogs, interfering with pathogen adhesion, and as prebiotics, stimulating the growth of certain commensal bacteria (e.g. bifidobacteria) and supporting the innate immunity. To further align the functional properties of infant formula with those of human milk, polydextrose (PDX) is proposed as a substitute for HMO. To determine the prebiotic functionality of PDX, 1-d-old pigs were fed a cow milk-based formula supplemented with increasing concentrations of PDX (0, 1.7, 4.3, 8.5, or 17 g/L) for 18 d (n = 13). Additional reference groups included pigs sampled at d 0 and sow-reared pigs sampled at d 18 (n = 12). Ileal Lactobacilli CFU, but not Bifidobacteria, increased linearly with increasing PDX (P = 0.02). The propionic acid concentration in digesta linearly increased with the PDX level (P = 0.045) and lactic acid increased linearly by 5-fold with increasing PDX (P = 0.001). Accordingly, digesta pH decreased linearly (P negative quadratic pattern in response to PDX supplementation, declining at intermediate concentrations and rebounding at higher concentrations of PDX. In summary, PDX enrichment of infant formula resulted in a prebiotic effect by increasing ileal lactobacilli and propionic and lactic acid concentrations and decreasing pH with associated alterations in ileal cytokine expression.

  18. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  19. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  20. A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2013-01-01

    Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations.......Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....

  1. Altered Insula Connectivity under MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ishan C; Nest, Timothy; Roseman, Leor; Erritzoe, David; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-10-01

    Recent work with noninvasive human brain imaging has started to investigate the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on large-scale patterns of brain activity. MDMA, a potent monoamine-releaser with particularly pronounced serotonin- releasing properties, has unique subjective effects that include: marked positive mood, pleasant/unusual bodily sensations and pro-social, empathic feelings. However, the neurobiological basis for these effects is not properly understood, and the present analysis sought to address this knowledge gap. To do this, we administered MDMA-HCl (100 mg p.o.) and, separately, placebo (ascorbic acid) in a randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures design with twenty-five healthy volunteers undergoing fMRI scanning. We then employed a measure of global resting-state functional brain connectivity and follow-up seed-to-voxel analysis to the fMRI data we acquired. Results revealed decreased right insula/salience network functional connectivity under MDMA. Furthermore, these decreases in right insula/salience network connectivity correlated with baseline trait anxiety and acute experiences of altered bodily sensations under MDMA. The present findings highlight insular disintegration (ie, compromised salience network membership) as a neurobiological signature of the MDMA experience, and relate this brain effect to trait anxiety and acutely altered bodily sensations-both of which are known to be associated with insular functioning.

  2. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M Voigt

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  3. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control. PMID:24495932

  4. Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C M; Estill, C T; Amodei, R; McKune, A; Gribbin, K P; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Roselli, C E

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) postpubertal scrotal circumference and sperm concentration. Prenatal T exposure did not alter ejaculate volume, sperm motility and morphology or testis morphology. There was, however, a trend for more T-exposed rams than controls to be classified as unsatisfactory potential breeders during breeding soundness examinations. Postnatal serum T concentrations were not affected by prenatal T exposure, nor was the expression of key testicular genes essential for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Basal serum LH did not differ between treatment groups, nor did pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. T-exposed rams, like control males, exhibited vigorous libido and were sexually attracted to estrous females. In summary, these results suggest that exposure to exogenous T during the first trimester of gestation can negatively impact spermatogenesis and compromise the reproductive fitness of rams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-02-05

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control.

  6. Differential alterations of cortical glutamatergic binding sites in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, D.T.; Dewar, D.; Graham, D.I.; Brooks, D.N.; McCulloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Involvement of cortical glutamatergic mechanisms in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) has been investigated with quantitative ligand-binding autoradiography. The distribution and density of Na(+)-dependent glutamate uptake sites and glutamate receptor subtypes--kainate, quisqualate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate--were measured in adjacent sections of frontal cortex obtained postmortem from six patients with SDAT and six age-matched controls. The number of senile plaques was determined in the same brain region. Binding of D-[3H]aspartate to Na(+)-dependent uptake sites was reduced by approximately 40% throughout SDAT frontal cortex relative to controls, indicating a general loss of glutamatergic presynaptic terminals. [3H]Kainate receptor binding was significantly increased by approximately 70% in deep layers of SDAT frontal cortex compared with controls, whereas this binding was unaltered in superficial laminae. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.914) between kainate binding and senile plaque number in deep cortical layers. Quisqualate receptors, as assessed by 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-[3H]methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid binding, were unaltered in SDAT frontal cortex compared with controls. There was a small reduction (25%) in N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive [3H]glutamate binding only in superficial cortical layers of SDAT brains relative to control subjects. [3H]Glutamate binding in SDAT subjects was unrelated to senile plaque number in superficial cortical layers (r = 0.104). These results indicate that in the presence of cortical glutamatergic terminal loss in SDAT plastic alterations occur in some glutamate receptor subtypes but not in others

  7. Self-alteration in HRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamazaki, Ryuji; Nørskov, Marco

    human communications. As an example of the results, in group work activities in an elementary school, we found that Telenoid's limited capability led children to change their attitudes so that they could work together. Also, in a care facility, the elderly with dementia developed prosocial behaviors......Humanlike androids are being developed with the ambition to be immersed into our daily life and meet us on an equal level in social interaction. The possibilities and limitations of these types of robots can potentially change societies and Human-Robot Interaction might affect the very way in which...... the ways in which our subjectivity can be innerly transformed, decentred, in other words, self-altered. In our trials so far, we have been investigating the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting pilot studies in Japan...

  8. Hematological alterations in protein malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ed W; Oliveira, Dalila C; Silva, Graziela B; Tsujita, Maristela; Beltran, Jackeline O; Hastreiter, Araceli; Fock, Ricardo A; Borelli, Primavera

    2017-11-01

    Protein malnutrition is one of the most serious nutritional problems worldwide, affecting 794 million people and costing up to $3.5 trillion annually in the global economy. Protein malnutrition primarily affects children, the elderly, and hospitalized patients. Different degrees of protein deficiency lead to a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms of protein malnutrition, especially in organs in which the hematopoietic system is characterized by a high rate of protein turnover and, consequently, a high rate of protein renewal and cellular proliferation. Here, the current scientific information about protein malnutrition and its effects on the hematopoietic process is reviewed. The production of hematopoietic cells is described, with special attention given to the hematopoietic microenvironment and the development of stem cells. Advances in the study of hematopoiesis in protein malnutrition are also summarized. Studies of protein malnutrition in vitro, in animal models, and in humans demonstrate several alterations that impair hematopoiesis, such as structural changes in the extracellular matrix, the hematopoietic stem cell niche, the spleen, the thymus, and bone marrow stromal cells; changes in mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells; increased autophagy; G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest of progenitor hematopoietic cells; and functional alterations in leukocytes. Structural and cellular changes of the hematopoietic microenvironment in protein malnutrition contribute to bone marrow atrophy and nonestablishment of hematopoietic stem cells, resulting in impaired homeostasis and an impaired immune response. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. (S)-2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid, a potent and selective agonist at the GluR5 subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Synthesis, modeling, and molecular pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Lotte; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Hansen, Kasper B

    2003-01-01

    )propionic acid (AMPA) but inactive at NMDA receptors. However, 4-AHCP was found to be much weaker than AMPA as an inhibitor of [(3)H]AMPA binding and to have limited effect in a [(3)H]kainic acid binding assay using rat cortical membranes. To shed light on the mechanism(s) underlying this quite enigmatic......, activated cloned AMPA receptor subunits GluR1o, GluR3o, and GluR4o with EC(50) values in the range 4.5-15 microM and the coexpressed kainate-preferring subunits GluR6 + KA2 (EC(50) = 6.4 microM). Compound 6, but not 7, proved to be a very potent agonist (EC(50) = 0.13 microM) at the kainate-preferring GluR5...... subunit, equipotent with (S)-2-amino-3-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisothiazol-4-yl)propionic acid [(S)-Thio-ATPA, 4] and almost 4 times more potent than (S)-2-amino-3-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid [(S)-ATPA, 3]. Compound 6 thus represents a new structural class of GluR5 agonists...

  10. Roles of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Dopaminergic Stimulation-induced Synapse-associated Protein Synthesis and Subsequent α-Amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) Receptor Internalization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hansen; Kim, Susan S.; Zhuo, Min

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the absence of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP regulates local protein synthesis in dendritic spines. Dopamine (DA) is involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity. Activation of DA receptors can regulate higher brain functions in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. Our recent study has shown that FMRP acts as a key messenger for DA modulation in forebrain neurons. Here, we demonstrate that FMRP is critical for DA D1 receptor-mediated synthesis of synapse-associated protein 90/PSD-95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). DA D1 receptor stimulation induced dynamic changes of FMRP phosphorylation. The changes in FMRP phosphorylation temporally correspond with the expression of SAPAP3 after D1 receptor stimulation. Protein phosphatase 2A, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and mammalian target of rapamycin are the key signaling molecules for FMRP linking DA D1 receptors to SAPAP3. Knockdown of SAPAP3 did not affect surface expression of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) GluR1 receptors induced by D1 receptor activation but impaired their subsequent internalization in cultured PFC neurons; the subsequent internalization of GluR1 was also impaired in Fmr1 knock-out PFC neurons, suggesting that FMRP may be involved in subsequent internalization of GluR1 through regulating the abundance of SAPAP3 after DA D1 receptor stimulation. Our study thus provides further insights into FMRP involvement in DA modulation and may help to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying impaired learning and memory in fragile X syndrome. PMID:20457613

  11. Roles of fragile X mental retardation protein in dopaminergic stimulation-induced synapse-associated protein synthesis and subsequent alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hansen; Kim, Susan S; Zhuo, Min

    2010-07-09

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the absence of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP regulates local protein synthesis in dendritic spines. Dopamine (DA) is involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity. Activation of DA receptors can regulate higher brain functions in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. Our recent study has shown that FMRP acts as a key messenger for DA modulation in forebrain neurons. Here, we demonstrate that FMRP is critical for DA D1 receptor-mediated synthesis of synapse-associated protein 90/PSD-95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). DA D1 receptor stimulation induced dynamic changes of FMRP phosphorylation. The changes in FMRP phosphorylation temporally correspond with the expression of SAPAP3 after D1 receptor stimulation. Protein phosphatase 2A, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and mammalian target of rapamycin are the key signaling molecules for FMRP linking DA D1 receptors to SAPAP3. Knockdown of SAPAP3 did not affect surface expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) GluR1 receptors induced by D1 receptor activation but impaired their subsequent internalization in cultured PFC neurons; the subsequent internalization of GluR1 was also impaired in Fmr1 knock-out PFC neurons, suggesting that FMRP may be involved in subsequent internalization of GluR1 through regulating the abundance of SAPAP3 after DA D1 receptor stimulation. Our study thus provides further insights into FMRP involvement in DA modulation and may help to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying impaired learning and memory in fragile X syndrome.

  12. A review of the clinical efficacy and safety of MP-AzeFlu, a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate, in clinical studies conducted during different allergy seasons in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prenner BM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruce M Prenner Allergy Associates Medical Group, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: A novel intranasal formulation of azelastine HCl (AZE, an antihistamine and fluticasone propionate (FP, a corticosteroid in a single spray (MP-AzeFlu [Dymista®] was studied in four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis conducted in the US. Study sites were distributed so that all major US geographic regions and the prevalent pollens within these regions were represented. Spring and summer studies included patients aged 12 years and older with allergy to grass and tree pollens. Fall studies enrolled patients with allergy to weeds, in particular ragweed. In addition, a study was conducted during the winter months in patients with allergy to mountain cedar pollen in TX, USA. Regardless of allergy season or prevalent pollen, MP-AzeFlu improved nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR to a significantly greater degree than AZE or FP, two treatments that currently are recommended as the first-line AR therapy. MP-AzeFlu improved all individual AR symptoms and was significantly better than FP and AZE for nasal congestion relief, which is generally accepted as the most bothersome symptom for AR patients. The onset of action was within 30 minutes. MP-AzeFlu also provided clinically important improvement in the overall Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score and significantly improved ocular symptoms of rhinitis compared to placebo. Favorable characteristics of the MP-AzeFlu formulation as well as superior clinical efficacy make it an ideal intranasal therapy for AR. Keywords: Dymista, seasonal allergic rhinitis, grass pollen, ragweed, Texas mountain cedar, intranasal therapy

  13. [Epigenetic alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Meneses, María Del Pilar; Pérez-Vera, Patricia

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. It is well-known that genetic alterations constitute the basis for the etiology of ALL. However, genetic abnormalities are not enough for the complete development of the disease, and additional alterations such as epigenetic modifications are required. Such alterations, like DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA regulation have been identified in ALL. DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions is one of the most frequent epigenetic modifications observed in ALL. This modification frequently leads to gene silencing in tumor suppressor genes, and in consequence, contributes to leukemogenesis. Alterations in histone remodeling proteins have also been detected in ALL, such as the overexpression of histone deacetylases enzymes, and alteration of acetyltransferases and methyltransferases. ALL also shows alteration in the expression of miRNAs, and in consequence, the modification in the expression of their target genes. All of these epigenetic modifications are key events in the malignant transformation since they lead to the deregulation of oncogenes as BLK, WNT5B and WISP1, and tumor suppressors such as FHIT, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and TP53, which alter fundamental cellular processes and potentially lead to the development of ALL. Both genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to the development and evolution of ALL. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Summability of alterations of convergent series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Keagy

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of splitting, rearrangement, and grouping series alterations on the summability of a convergent series by ℓ−ℓ and cs−cs matrix methods is studied. Conditions are determined that guarantee the existence of alterations that are transformed into divergent series and into series with preassigned sums.

  15. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  16. Roentgenological findings in muscular alterations of extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvoelgyi, R.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of roentgenological findings in muscular alterations of extremities based on the author's experiences and on the literature is presented. Following a description of the normal roentgen anatomy, the alterations in different diseases of interstitial lipomatosis are demonstrated. By roentgenological examinations differt muscular lesions of the extremities can be differentiated and the clinical follow-up verified. (orig.) [de

  17. An Analysis of the Alteration Specialist Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerkel, Elaine; Rehling, Joseph H.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the textile service occupation. The industry needs properly trained alteration specialists, bushelmen and dressmakers, in the repairing, remodeling, altering or renovating of garments. Their personal…

  18. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered Structures That Favour .... aircraft. Total line kilometers of 36,500 were covered in the survey. Magnetic ... tie lines occur at about 2000 metres interval in the ... visual inspection of the map.

  19. Altered States: Globalization, Sovereignty, and Governance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For all the opportunities that globalization promises, it raises urgent ... Has the achievement of democratic government come too late for most of the ... The message of Altered States is one of both hope and warning: globalization opens great ...

  20. Chromium supplementation alters the performance, metabolism, and immune response of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossbreed steers (n = 180; 507 +/- 13 lb) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACEbrandChromiumPropionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens...

  1. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  2. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  3. Long-term testosterone treatment during pregnancy does not alter insulin or glucose profile in a sheep model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recabarren, Monica; Carrasco, Albert; Sandoval, Daniel; Diaz, Felipe; Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Recabarren, Sergio E

    2017-09-07

    The administration of testosterone to pregnant sheep to resemble fetal programming of the polycystic ovary syndrome could alter other hormones/factors of maternal origin with known effects on fetal growth. Hence, we studied the weekly profile of insulin, progesterone and glucose during a treatment with testosterone propionate given biweekly from weeks 5 to 17 of pregnancy (term at 21 weeks) and checked the outcome of their fetuses at 17 weeks of gestation after C-section. Control dams were only exposed to the vehicle of the hormone. The testosterone administration did not cause any significant change in the maternal weekly profile of insulin, progesterone or glucose concentration, although the plasma levels of testosterone in the treated dams were inversely correlated to the levels of progesterone. Testosterone treatment also induced an inverse correlation between mean maternal insulin levels and fetal insulin levels; however, the fetal zoometric parameters, body weight, or insulin levels did not differ between exposed and not exposed fetuses. Therefore, treatment with testosterone during pregnancy does not cause significant impact on insulin levels in the mother, leading to less effect on the programming of fetal growth.

  4. Modulation of synaptic plasticity by stress hormone associates with plastic alteration of synaptic NMDA receptor in the adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Chung Tse

    Full Text Available Stress exerts a profound impact on learning and memory, in part, through the actions of adrenal corticosterone (CORT on synaptic plasticity, a cellular model of learning and memory. Increasing findings suggest that CORT exerts its impact on synaptic plasticity by altering the functional properties of glutamate receptors, which include changes in the motility and function of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype of glutamate receptor (AMPAR that are responsible for the expression of synaptic plasticity. Here we provide evidence that CORT could also regulate synaptic plasticity by modulating the function of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs, which mediate the induction of synaptic plasticity. We found that stress level CORT applied to adult rat hippocampal slices potentiated evoked NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses within 30 min. Surprisingly, following this fast-onset change, we observed a slow-onset (>1 hour after termination of CORT exposure increase in synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs. To investigate the consequences of the distinct fast- and slow-onset modulation of NMDARs for synaptic plasticity, we examined the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD within relevant time windows. Paralleling the increased NMDAR function, both LTP and LTD were facilitated during CORT treatment. However, 1-2 hours after CORT treatment when synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs is increased, bidirectional plasticity was no longer facilitated. Our findings reveal the remarkable plasticity of NMDARs in the adult hippocampus in response to CORT. CORT-mediated slow-onset increase in GluN2A in hippocampal synapses could be a homeostatic mechanism to normalize synaptic plasticity following fast-onset stress-induced facilitation.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid space alterations in melancholic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Melancholic depression is a biologically homogeneous clinical entity in which structural brain alterations have been described. Interestingly, reports of structural alterations in melancholia include volume increases in Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF spaces. However, there are no previous reports of CSF volume alterations using automated whole-brain voxel-wise approaches, as tissue classification algorithms have been traditionally regarded as less reliable for CSF segmentation. Here we aimed to assess CSF volumetric alterations in melancholic depression and their clinical correlates by means of a novel segmentation algorithm ('new segment', as implemented in the software Statistical Parametric Mapping-SPM8, incorporating specific features that may improve CSF segmentation. A three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI was obtained from seventy patients with melancholic depression and forty healthy control subjects. Although imaging data were pre-processed with the 'new segment' algorithm, in order to obtain a comparison with previous segmentation approaches, tissue segmentation was also performed with the 'unified segmentation' approach. Melancholic patients showed a CSF volume increase in the region of the left Sylvian fissure, and a CSF volume decrease in the subarachnoid spaces surrounding medial and lateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, CSF increases in the left Sylvian fissure were negatively correlated with the reduction percentage of depressive symptoms at discharge. None of these results were replicated with the 'unified segmentation' approach. By contrast, between-group differences in the left Sylvian fissure were replicated with a non-automated quantification of the CSF content of this region. Left Sylvian fissure alterations reported here are in agreement with previous findings from non-automated CSF assessments, and also with other reports of gray and white matter insular alterations in depressive samples using automated approaches

  6. Synthesis, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities of novel 2-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-5-thioxo-1,2,4-triazolin-1-yl] acetic acids, 2-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-5-thioxo-1,2,4-triazolin-1-yl]propionic acids and related derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Deeb, Omar A; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; El-Brollosy, Nasser R; Habib, Elsayed E; Ibrahim, Tarek M; El-Emam, Ali A

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of 3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-1,2,4-triazoline-5-thiones 3a-g with sodium chloroacetate, in ethanolic sodium hydroxide yielded the corresponding N1-acetic acid derivatives 4a-g. The interaction of 3a-g with ethyl 2-bromopropionate in acetone, in the presence of potassium carbonate, yielded the corresponding N1-ethyl propionate derivatives 5a-g, which upon hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide afforded the corresponding propionic acid derivatives 6a-g. Similarly, the reaction of 3-(1-adamantyl)-4-amino-1,2,4-triazoline-5-thione 7 with sodium chloroacetate in ethanolic sodium hydroxide yielded the corresponding N1-acetic acid derivative 8. On the other hand, the reaction of 2-(1-adamantyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-5-thione 9 with sodium chloroacetate yielded the corresponding S-acetic acid derivative 10. Compounds 4a-g, 5b, 5c, 5g, 6a-g, 8 and 10 were tested for in vitro activities against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Several derivatives produced good or moderate activities particularly against Bacillus subtilis. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds were determined using the carrageenin-induced paw oedema method in rats. Compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, 4f, 6f, 6g and 10 produced good dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activities.

  7. Mortar alteration: experimental study and ancient analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, Francois

    1987-01-01

    As the durability of cemented matrices is a matter of great importance in numerous domains, notably for the long term reliability of surface storages of radioactive wastes, the objective of this research thesis is to define mechanisms of evolution of cemented matrices when in contact with diluted aqueous solutions. The author notably studied the influence of the lixiviation mode on the evolution of two mortars having different compositions (pH, CO 2 pressure, system containment, and cement mineralogical nature appear to be the main governing parameters), the alteration (dissolution is the prevailing process in the interaction between cemented matrices and a diluted solution such as rain water), and ancient binders (archaeological binders containing mineral phases such as hydrated calcium silicates or hydro-grossulars). The obtained results lead to the definition of alteration mechanisms in modern cements, and highlight factors governing the durability of these materials when submitted to meteoric alteration [fr

  8. Alter(n – ein vielschichtiger Begriff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maly-Lukas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Diese Veröffentlichung, die aus einer Vortragsreihe an der katholischen Fachhochschule Freiburg entstanden ist, führt die Leserinnen und Leser in die verschiedenen Sichtweisen des Alter(ns in der modernen Gesellschaft ein. Es handelt sich um eine gelungene Zusammenstellung von Beiträgen aus unterschiedlichen Disziplinen, die sich alle aus ihrer Sicht dem Thema Alter(n widmen. Die einzelnen Artikel sind zwischen 8 und 38 Seiten lang und recht schnell und einfach zu lesen. Je nach Hintergrund und Interessen werden die einzelnen Leserinnen und Leser dabei sicher unterschiedliche Beiträge favorisieren. Schade ist nur, dass durch die ungleichen Längen der Beiträge bestimmte thematische Schwerpunkte – ob gewollt oder nicht – gesetzt werden. Dies sollte die Leserinnen und Leser, die offen für unterschiedlichste Sichtweisen des Alter(ns sind, jedoch nicht davon abhalten, dieses Buch zu lesen.

  9. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  11. Bone alterations by stress in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, H.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes our experiences with the bone imaging in athletes. We studied 10 athletes and 10 other patients with spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine and 16 athletes with suspicion of alterations of extremities. An increased uptake of this radiopharmaceutical was detected in six of 10 athletes with spondylolisthesis caused probably by stress fracture. Bone scans were negative in seven of 16 athletes with suspicion of lesion of extremities. In the remaining 9 patients scans were abnormal and showed periosteal injuries, epiphyseal alteration, joint abnormalities, tibial stress fractures and couvert fracture. It was also abnormal in bone injuries not evident in radiography. (orig.) [de

  12. White matter alterations in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, P. B.; Salmon, C. E.; Velasco, T. R.; Sakamoto, A. C.; Leite, J. P.; Santos, A. C.

    2011-03-01

    In This study, we used Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (D), parallel diffusivity (D//) and perpendicular diffusivity (D), to localize the regions where occur axonal lesion and demyelization. TBSS was applied to analyze the FA data. After, the regions with alteration were studied with D, D// and D maps. Patients exhibited widespread degradation of FA. With D, D// and D maps analysis we found alterations in corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, fornix, internal capsule, corona radiate, Sagittal stratum, cingulum, fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exist demyelization and axonal damage in patients with TLE.

  13. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the objective of examining the outer membrane proteins and their involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the response of gram negative bacterial biomembrane alteration was studied using extended ...

  14. Connective tissue alteration in abdominal wall hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Yadete, D H; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of abdominal wall hernia formation is complex. Optimal treatment of hernias depends on a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their formation. The aim of this study was to review the literature on specific collagen alterations in abdom...

  15. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated...

  16. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD. PMID:26734709

  17. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    the pole to the magnetic data aided in mapping of various hydrothermally altered structures that may favour gold mineralisation. The interpretation of the aero data set has enhanced a lot of ... water serves as a concentrating, transporting and depositing agent through faults (structures) to the earth's surface. Hydrothermal ...

  18. SEDAH. Data Server for hydrologic alteration evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Romero, R.; Magdaleno Mas, F.; Ortiz Rodriguez, J.; Fernandez Yuste, J. A.; Martinez Santa-Maria, C.

    2011-01-01

    Several tasks and studies have been developed from 2008 till 2010 all around the country in order to evaluate the hydrologic alteration of water bodies. In most cases this alteraction has been evaluated through IAHRIS (Martinez and Fernandez, 2006). The necessity of creating a new toll that allowed a better performance of the National Flow-Stage Stations Network data was showed up by developing these works. The output data series should match IAHRIS and IHA. SEDAH (Data Server for Evaluating Hydrologic Alteration) Helps to solve some of these problems by supplying an easy way to select flow stations, dates, flow series typology, etc. Moreover, other useful utilities are: a preliminary appraisement of quality data, calssification of altered or reference flow series and exportation of data in different file formats. The web application works with different data bases, daily, monthly and annual series belonging to, wither actual series from flow station data or completed series by statistical procedures. Through SEDAH the user has easy access to all this huge information ready for being applied in hydrologic alteration assessment, environmental fows regime, river restoration projects, etc. Furthermore, this first phase of the application constitute the basis for future powerful functionalities related to the natural flow series obtaining. (Author) 5 refs.

  19. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool for Theobroma cacao improvement and propagation. Depending on culture medium composition, different morphogenetic structures (including somatic embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns and biochemical changes. The effect of SO42- ion deficiency ...

  20. NEW, GOOD DOCTORS FOR AN ALTERED SOCIETY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEW, GOOD DOCTORS FOR AN ALTERED SOCIETY*. ANrHONY BARKER ... the concept of trying to become one is just a psychological throwback? ... called all these things and many things besides, yet this ... sex (women ought to be better at it than men, but often are not) .... foundations to lay for a specialized career.

  1. Global alteration of climate - hopes and fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems concerning gaseous emission affecting the global climate alteration connected with hotbed effect are considered. Economical and social-political ways of solution of the problem of minimization of gaseous wastes are described. Role of nuclear power plants and alternative power plants in the hotbed effect are analyzed. International cooperation in environmental protection policy is discussed

  2. Rare endocrine cancers have novel genetic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A molecular characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes and identified several novel genetic mutations as likely mechanisms driving the disease as well as whole genome doubling as a probable driver of the disease.

  3. 28 CFR 36.402 - Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other types of disabilities (e.g., those who use crutches, those who have impaired vision or hearing, or... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC.... (1) Any alteration to a place of public accommodation or a commercial facility, after January 26...

  4. Altered Cellular Metabolism Drives Trained Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Yahya; Godfrey, Rinesh; Findeisen, Hannes M

    2018-04-04

    Exposing innate immune cells to an initial insult induces a long-term proinflammatory response due to metabolic and epigenetic alterations which encompass an emerging new concept called trained immunity. Recent studies provide novel insights into mechanisms centered on metabolic reprogramming which induce innate immune memory in hematopoietic stem cells and monocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones, and...

  6. Epigenetic alteration of sedimentary rocks at hydrogenic uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wanlie; Shen Kefeng

    2001-01-01

    The author introduces the concept, the recognition criteria, the genesis and classification of the epigenetic alteration of sedimentary rocks in brief, and expounds the mineral-geochemical indications and characteristics of oxidation and reduction alterations in different geochemical zones in detail, and proposes the two models of ore-controlling zonation of epigenetic alteration. The authors finally introduce research methods of epigenetic alteration

  7. The Effects of Peatland Plant Functional Types and Altered Hydrology on Porewater Chemistry in a Northern Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, A.; Kane, E. S.; Lilleskov, E. A.; Kolka, R. K.; Chimner, R. A.; Potvin, L. R.; Romanowicz, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Northern wetlands, peatlands in particular, have been shown to store around 30% of the world's soil carbon and thus play a significant role in the carbon cycle of our planet. Carbon accumulation in peatlands is the result of retarded decomposition due to low oxygen availability in these water-logged environments. Changes in our planet's climate cycles are altering peatland hydrology and vegetation communities, resulting in changes in their ability to sequester carbon through increases in peat carbon oxidation and mineralization. To date, the consequences of altered hydrology and changes in vegetation communities, and their interactive effects on carbon storage, are not well understood. We have initiated a research plan that assesses the varying roles that water table variation and vegetation communities have on extracellular enzyme activity and labile carbon availability in porewater from an ombrotrophic bog. We assessed the effects of plant functional group (ericaceous shrubs, sedges, and bryophytes) and water table position on biogeochemical processes. Specifically, we measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), enzyme activity, organic acids, anions and cations, spectral indexes of aromaticity, and phenolic content in addressing our hypotheses of responses to climate change drivers. Research on these components will evaluate the relative importance of biology, water table, and their interactive affects on the porewater quality of peatlands. We hypothesized that oxygen availability will strongly influence decomposition in these systems but that this response will largely be mediated by changes in plant community and the enzymes associated with root exudates and mycorrhizae. To date, our data confirm vegetation and water table related patterns. Acetate and propionate concentrations in the sedge-dominated communities dropped significantly with depth and drainage, relative to the control and ericaceous treatments, which likely reflects

  8. Urban Diets Linked to Gut Microbiome and Metabolome Alterations in Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma Kisuse

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of traditional diets by food globalization may have adverse impact on the health of human being through the alteration of gut microbial ecosystem. To address this notion, we compared the gut microbiota of urban (n = 17 and rural (n = 28 school-aged children in Thailand in association with their dietary habits. Dietary records indicated that children living in urban Bangkok tended to consume modern high-fat diets, whereas children in rural Buriram tended to consume traditional vegetable-based diets. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from stool samples showed that children in Bangkok have less Clostridiales and more Bacteroidales and Selenomonadales compared to children in Buriram and bacterial diversity is significantly less in Bangkok children than in Buriram children. In addition, fecal butyrate and propionate levels decreased in Bangkok children in association with changes in their gut microbial communities. Stool samples of these Thai children were classified into five metabolotypes (MTs based on their metabolome profiles, each characterized by high concentrations of short and middle chain fatty acids (MT1, n = 17, amino acids (MT2, n = 7, arginine (MT3, n = 6, amino acids, and amines (MT5, n = 8, or an overall low level of metabolites (MT4, n = 4. MT1 and MT4 mainly consisted of samples from Buriram, and MT2 and MT3 mainly consisted of samples from Bangkok, whereas MT5 contained three samples from Bangkok and five from Buriram samples. According to the profiles of microbiota and diets, MT1 and MT2 are characteristic of children in Buriram and Bangkok, respectively. Predicted metagenomics indicated the underrepresentation in MT2 of eight genes involved in pathways of butyrate biosynthesis, notably including paths from glutamate as well as pyruvate. Taken together, this study shows the benefit of high-vegetable Thai traditional diets on gut microbiota and suggests that high-fat and less-vegetable urban dietary habits alter gut

  9. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  10. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life. © 2013.

  11. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  12. Lung scan alterations in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, R; Sanchez, J; Munoz, A; Lanaro, A E; Pico, A M

    1975-04-01

    This report analyzes the patterns in 54 lung scannings of 34 patients with altered pulmonary blood flow due to congenital heart disease. The technique and the results are presented. According to the images obtained, the patients are classified in three groups: Group I--normal distribution with more concentration of particles over the right lung and the bases. Group II--normal scannings found in left to right shunts unless there is pulmonary venous hypertension in which case the apex-base relationship was inverted. Group III--patients with right to left shunts of different types presenting various patterns according to severity, associated anomalies and palliative surgery. The hemodynamics created by cardiac defects and surgical procedures explain these alterations. This method is recommended in view of its advantages and accurate results.

  13. Smoking cessation alters subgingival microbial recolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, S C; Preshaw, P M; Heasman, P A; Kumar, P S

    2009-06-01

    Smoking cessation improves the clinical manifestations of periodontitis; however, its effect on the subgingival biofilm, the primary etiological agent of periodontitis, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate, longitudinally, if smoking cessation altered the composition of the subgingival microbial community, by means of a quantitative, cultivation-independent assay for bacterial profiling. Subgingival plaque was collected at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment from smokers who received root planing and smoking cessation counseling. The plaque was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). Microbial profiles differed significantly between smokers and quitters at 6 and 12 months following smoking cessation. The microbial community in smokers was similar to baseline, while quitters demonstrated significantly divergent profiles. Changes in bacterial levels contributed to this shift. These findings reveal a critical role for smoking cessation in altering the subgingival biofilm and suggest a mechanism for improved periodontal health associated with smoking cessation.

  14. Alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华明; 胡岳华; 杨武国; 敖伟琴; 邱冠周

    2004-01-01

    Diaspore (α-AlOOH) was heated at various temperatures from 300 to 1000 ℃ for 2 h. The alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment was investigated by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of diaspore was discussed according to the Coats-Redfern equation. It is found that after thermal treatment at 500 ℃, diaspore is transformed entirely to corundum (α-Al2O3). Combined with the mass loss ratio obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis data, the activation energies for the thermal treatment of diaspore are calculated as Ea=10.4 kJ/mol below 400 ℃ and Eb=47.5 kJ/mol above 400 ℃, respectively, which is directly related to the structural alteration of diaspore during the thermal treatment. The results indicate that the thermal decomposition of diaspore is conducted primarily by means of an interfacial reaction.

  15. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed.

  16. Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, G.V.; Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Zelenova, O.I.

    1980-01-01

    Notions are explained, and technique for studying epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at uranium deposits is described. Main types of epigenetic transformations and their mineralogic-geochemical characteristics are considered. Rock alterations, accompanying uranium mineralization, can be related to 2 types: oxidation and reduction. The main mineralogic-geochemical property of oxidation transformations is epigenetic limonitization. Stratal limonitization in primary grey-coloured terrigenic rocks and in epigenetically reduced (pyritized) rocks, as well as in rock, subjected to epigenetic gleying, are characterized. Reduction type of epigenetic transformations is subdivided into sulphidic and non-sulphidic (gley) subtypes. Sulphidic transformations in grey-coloured terrigenic rocks with organic substance of carbonic row, in rocks, containing organic substance of oil row, sulphide transformations of sedimentary rocks, as well as gley transformations, are considered

  17. Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: the altered auditory feedback paradigm and the glove effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF in musician's dystonia (MD and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004. Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in synchrony with a metronome on a MIDI-piano with 3 auditory feedback conditions: 1. normal feedback; 2. no feedback; 3. constant delayed feedback. Experiment 2 employs synchronization-continuation paradigm: 12 MD patients and 12 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in two phases: first in synchrony with a metronome, secondly continue the established tempo without the metronome. There are 4 experimental conditions, among them 3 are the same altered auditory feedback as in Experiment 1 and 1 is related to altered tactile sensory input. The coefficient of variation of inter-onset intervals of the key depressions was calculated to evaluate fine motor control. Results: In both experiments, the healthy controls and the patients behaved very similarly. There is no difference in the regularity of playing between the two groups under any condition, and neither did AAF nor did altered tactile feedback have a beneficial effect on patients’ fine motor control. Conclusions: The results of the two experiments suggest that in the context of our experimental designs, AAF and altered tactile feedback play a minor role in motor coordination in patients with musicians' dystonia. We propose that altered auditory and tactile feedback do not serve as effective sensory tricks and may not temporarily reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from MD in this experimental context.

  18. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  19. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J.; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations.\\ud \\ud The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence® Boost and Mirawhite® Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 ...

  20. Silychristin: Skeletal Alterations and Biological Activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Buchta, M.; Holečková, Veronika; Sedlák, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Cvačka, Josef; Bednárová, Lucie; Křenková, Alena; Kuzma, Marek; Škuta, Ctibor; Peikerová, Žaneta; Bartůněk, Petr; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 12 (2016), s. 3086-3092 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27317A; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Silychristin * skeletal alterations * biological activities Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2016

  1. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns ... the proteins synthesis and the rate with which all amino ... thiamine-HCl, 1 mgml-1 nicotinic acid and 2 mgml-1 glycine), 20 gL-1 ... Amino acids and soluble sugar extraction .... 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100, 0.1 % (w/v) dithiothreitol, and 0.2%.

  2. Marijuana exposure and pulmonary alterations in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fligiel, S E; Beals, T F; Tashkin, D P; Paule, M G; Scallet, A C; Ali, S F; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W

    1991-11-01

    As part of a large multidisciplinary study, we examined lungs from 24 periadolescent male rhesus monkeys that were sacrificed seven months after daily marijuana smoke inhalation of 12 months duration. Animals were divided into four exposure groups: A) high-dose (one marijuana cigarette 7 days/week), B) low-dose (one marijuana cigarette 2 days/week and sham smoke 5 days/week), C) placebo (one extracted marijuana cigarette 7 days/week), and D) sham (sham smoke 7 days/week). Lungs, removed intact, were formalin inflated, sectioned and examined. Several pathological alterations, including alveolitis, alveolar cell hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation, were found with higher frequency in all cigarette-smoking groups. Other alterations, such as bronchiolitis, bronchiolar squamous metaplasia and interstitial fibrosis, were found most frequently in the marijuana-smoking groups. Alveolar cell hyperplasia with focal atypia was seen only in the marijuana-smoking animals. These changes represent mostly early alterations of small airways. Additional follow-up studies are needed to determine their long-term prognostic significance.

  3. Genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhao-Shan; Niu, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Wen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although recent advances in therapeutic approaches for treating HCC have improved the prognoses of patients with HCC, this cancer is still associated with a poor survival rate mainly due to late diagnosis. Therefore, a diagnosis must be made sufficiently early to perform curative and effective treatments. There is a need for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of HCC because these mechanisms are critical for making early diagnoses and developing novel therapeutic strategies. Over the past decade, much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatocarcinogenesis. In particular, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have revealed numerous genetic alterations, including recurrently mutated genes and dysregulated signaling pathways in HCC. A better understanding of the genetic alterations in HCC could contribute to identifying potential driver mutations and discovering novel therapeutic targets in the future. In this article, we summarize the current advances in research on the genetic alterations, including genomic instability, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, somatic mutations and deregulated signaling pathways, implicated in the initiation and progression of HCC. We also attempt to elucidate some of the genetic mechanisms that contribute to making early diagnoses of and developing molecularly targeted therapies for HCC. PMID:27895396

  4. Genomic and Epigenomic Alterations in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V S K; Nepal, Saroj; Varambally, Sooryanarayana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple genetic and epigenetic events characterize tumor progression and define the identity of the tumors. Advances in high-throughput technologies, like gene expression profiling, next-generation sequencing, proteomics, and metabolomics, have enabled detailed molecular characterization of various tumors. The integration and analyses of these high-throughput data have unraveled many novel molecular aberrations and network alterations in tumors. These molecular alterations include multiple cancer-driving mutations, gene fusions, amplification, deletion, and post-translational modifications, among others. Many of these genomic events are being used in cancer diagnosis, whereas others are therapeutically targeted with small-molecule inhibitors. Multiple genes/enzymes that play a role in DNA and histone modifications are also altered in various cancers, changing the epigenomic landscape during cancer initiation and progression. Apart from protein-coding genes, studies are uncovering the critical regulatory roles played by noncoding RNAs and noncoding regions of the genome during cancer progression. Many of these genomic and epigenetic events function in tandem to drive tumor development and metastasis. Concurrent advances in genome-modulating technologies, like gene silencing and genome editing, are providing ability to understand in detail the process of cancer initiation, progression, and signaling as well as opening up avenues for therapeutic targeting. In this review, we discuss some of the recent advances in cancer genomic and epigenomic research. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R Showalter

    Full Text Available Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose, or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  6. [Alterations in arterial compliance of dyslipidemic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Fernando Mario; Corral, Pablo; Blanco, Gustavo Hector; Scandurra, Adriana Graciela; Meschino, Gustavo Javier

    2015-01-01

    We studied the alteration on the distensibility of the arterial walls caused by dyslipidemia LDLc dependent, along the decades of life, by means of a study of the radial artery pulse wave. We made an analysis of the radial artery pulse wave records acquired by means a movement displacement sensor, placed on radial palpation area. We recruited 100 dyslipidemic men without other cardiovascular risk factors, between the 3rd and the 6th decade. We identified the reflected wave in the records and we computed the augmentation index in order to quantify its amplitude and position. This index is useful to assess the endothelial dysfunction. Besides, we defined a velocity coefficient as the ratio between the size of the individuals and the delay time between the peak of the systolic wave and the arrival of the reflected wave. Results were compared against those obtained in a group of 161 healthy volunteers. We found that dyslipidemic patients presented augmentation index values similar to controls until the fourth decade, increasing thereafter with significant differences only in the 6th decade. No significant differences were found in the velocity index in any of the ages studied. We conclude that alterations produced by dyslipidemia take decades to manifest, and they begin affecting the mechanism of vasodilation of distal arteries with highest proportion of smooth muscle, without altering the proximal conduit arteries with more elastin content. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered Global Signal Topography in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevieve J; Murray, John D; Glasser, Matthew; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Krystal, John H; Schleifer, Charlie; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a disabling neuropsychiatric disease associated with disruptions across distributed neural systems. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has identified extensive abnormalities in the blood-oxygen level-dependent signal in SCZ patients, including alterations in the average signal over the brain-i.e. the "global" signal (GS). It remains unknown, however, if these "global" alterations occur pervasively or follow a spatially preferential pattern. This study presents the first network-by-network quantification of GS topography in healthy subjects and SCZ patients. We observed a nonuniform GS contribution in healthy comparison subjects, whereby sensory areas exhibited the largest GS component. In SCZ patients, we identified preferential GS representation increases across association regions, while sensory regions showed preferential reductions. GS representation in sensory versus association cortices was strongly anti-correlated in healthy subjects. This anti-correlated relationship was markedly reduced in SCZ. Such shifts in GS topography may underlie profound alterations in neural information flow in SCZ, informing development of pharmacotherapies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Dean, B; Bilkey, D K; Zhang, H

    2016-08-16

    Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group. Western blot showed reduced endothelial NOS protein expression and increased arginase II protein level in the disease group. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assays confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and glutamate/GABA ratio in the schizophrenia cases. Regression analysis indicated positive correlations between arginase activity and the age of disease onset and between l-ornithine level and the duration of illness. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that l-arginine and its main metabolites l-citrulline, l-ornithine and agmatine formed distinct groups, which were altered in the schizophrenia group. The present study provides further evidence of altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia, which enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may lead to the future development of novel preventions and/or therapeutics for the disease.

  9. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Megan R; Nonnecke, Eric B; Linderholm, A L; Cajka, Tomas; Sa, Michael R; Lönnerdal, Bo; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Fiehn, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose), or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose) for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  10. Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Giovanni; Merlini, Anna

    2012-09-01

    The renewed interest in chromite ore deposits is directly related to the increase in Cr price ruled by international market trends. Chromite, an accessory mineral in peridotites, is considered to be a petrogenetic indicator because its composition reflects the degree of partial melting that the mantle experienced while producing the chromium spinel-bearing rock (Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993). However, the understanding of chromite alteration and metamorphic modification is still controversial (e.g. Evans and Frost in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:959-972, 1975; Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993; Oze et al. in Am J Sci 304:67-101, 2004). Metamorphic alteration leads to major changes in chromite chemistry and to the growth of secondary phases such as ferritchromite and chlorite. In this study, we investigate the Vourinos complex chromitites (from the mines of Rizo, Aetoraches, Xerolivado and Potamia) with respect to textural and chemical analyses in order to highlight the most important trend of alteration related to chromite transformation. The present study has been partially funded by the Aliakmon project in collaboration between the Public Power Corporation of Greece and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Kozani.

  11. Chemistry, mineralogy and alteration intensity of hydrothermal altered Mt Unzen conduit rocks (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kai-Uwe; Yilmaz, Tim; Gilg, H. Albert; Janots, Emilie; Mayer, Klaus; Nakada, Setsuya; Dingwell, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, C-O-isotope, hot-cathode CL and SEM analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity and type of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the volcanic conduit rocks was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite and kaolinite group minerals indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate and chlorite pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite, R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals in the groundmass. Late chlorite veins crosscut precipitates of R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals. Carbonates in fractures and in pseudomorphs after hornblende comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration

  12. Reactive-brittle dynamics in peridotite alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, O.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between reactive fluids and brittle solids are critical in Earth dynamics. Implications of such processes are wide-ranging: from earthquake physics to geologic carbon sequestration and the cycling of fluids and volatiles through subduction zones. Peridotite alteration is a common feature in many of these processes, which - despite its obvious importance - is relatively poorly understood from a geodynamical perspective. In particular, alteration reactions are thought to be self-limiting in nature, contradicting observations of rocks that have undergone 100% hydration/carbonation. One potential explanation of this observation is the mechanism of "reaction-driven cracking": that volume changes associated with these reactions are large enough to fracture the surrounding rock, leading to a positive feedback where new reactive surfaces are exposed and fluid pathways are created. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative roles of reaction, elastic stresses and surface tension in alteration reactions. In this regard we derive a system of equations describing reactive fluid flow in an elastically deformable porous media, and explore them via a combination of analytic and numerical solutions. Using this model we show that the final stress state of a dry peridotite that has undergone reaction depends strongly on the rates of reaction versus fluid transport: significant fluid flow driven by pressure and/or surface tension gradients implies higher fractions of serpentinization, leaving behind a highly stressed residuum of partially reacted material. Using a model set-up that mimics a cylindrical triaxial apparatus we predict that the resulting stresses would lead to tensile failure and the generation of radially oriented cracks.

  13. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Distinct genetic alterations in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ashktorab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon cancer (CRC development often includes chromosomal instability (CIN leading to amplifications and deletions of large DNA segments. Epidemiological, clinical, and cytogenetic studies showed that there are considerable differences between CRC tumors from African Americans (AAs and Caucasian patients. In this study, we determined genomic copy number aberrations in sporadic CRC tumors from AAs, in order to investigate possible explanations for the observed disparities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied genome-wide array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH using a 105k chip to identify copy number aberrations in samples from 15 AAs. In addition, we did a population comparative analysis with aCGH data in Caucasians as well as with a widely publicized list of colon cancer genes (CAN genes. There was an average of 20 aberrations per patient with more amplifications than deletions. Analysis of DNA copy number of frequently altered chromosomes revealed that deletions occurred primarily in chromosomes 4, 8 and 18. Chromosomal duplications occurred in more than 50% of cases on chromosomes 7, 8, 13, 20 and X. The CIN profile showed some differences when compared to Caucasian alterations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chromosome X amplification in male patients and chromosomes 4, 8 and 18 deletions were prominent aberrations in AAs. Some CAN genes were altered at high frequencies in AAs with EXOC4, EPHB6, GNAS, MLL3 and TBX22 as the most frequently deleted genes and HAPLN1, ADAM29, SMAD2 and SMAD4 as the most frequently amplified genes. The observed CIN may play a distinctive role in CRC in AAs.

  15. SON68 glass alteration enhanced by magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godon, Nicole; Gin, Stephane; Rebiscoul, Diane; Frugier, Pierre [CEA, DEN-Marcoule, F30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports experimental and modeling results of SON68 glass / magnetite interactions while in contact with synthetic groundwater from a clay environment. It is shown that magnetite enhances glass alteration, first by the sorption of Si released from the glass onto magnetite surfaces, then by a second process that could be the precipitation of an iron silicate mineral or the transformation of magnetite into a more reactive phase like hematite or goethite. This study globally suggests a detrimental effect of magnetite on the long-term durability of nuclear glass in geological disposal conditions. (authors)

  16. Clerics urge ban on altering germline cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C

    1983-06-24

    A resolution calling for a ban on genetic engineering of human reproductive cells has been signed by leaders of almost every major church group in the United States. Some of the religious leaders, while not certain that a total moratorium should be placed on altering germline cells, signed the statement in order to stimulate public debate on the issue. Legislation has recently been introduced in Congress to set up a committee to monitor genetic engineering and its human applications, but author Jeremy Rifkin, the impetus behind the church leaders' resolution, argues that such tampering threatens the gene pool and should be banned altogether.

  17. Metabolic alterations during ascosporogenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Sporulation of S. cerevisiae has been shown to alter the profiles of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The enhancement in the levels of total cellular carbohydrates could be correlated with the enhancement in fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and trehalose-phosphate synthetase. The latter activity could account for the 15-fold increase in trehalose levels in sporulating cells. Glucose-6-phosphatase, pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase showed continuous decline during ascosporogenesis. The relative incorporation of radioactivity from possible precursors of gluconeogenesis indicated that acetate-2- 14 C alone could contribute to carbohydrate synthesis. (author)

  18. Phase alteration compensation in reflection digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, O; Amezquita, R; Monroy, F

    2011-01-01

    The phase maps obtained from digital holographic microscopy techniques carry information about the axial lengths of the object under study. Additionally, these phase maps have information of tilt and curvatures with origin in the off-axis geometry and the magnification lenses system, respectively. Only a complete compensation of these extra phases allows a correct interpretation of the phase information. In this article a numerical strategy to compensate for these alterations is designed, using a phase mask located in different planes. This strategy is applied in the measurement of a phase steps plate using a digital holography setup.

  19. Ethic's pedagogy: from responsibility to alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S. Vila Merino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, since the so-called 'linguistic turn' and the rise of the notion of discursive formations, has tended to combine the teleological and the deontological. That means that, if ethics is to be useful in understanding relationships and other social issues, or in building the common good, it ought to take a procedural position. We believe that the teaching of ethics should be based on the notions of responsibility and alterity. These two concepts are helpful in promoting mutual understanding and other-directedness.

  20. Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yesilkanal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2009, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC was thought to be the only biologically significant cytosine modification in mammalian DNA. With the discovery of the TET enzymes, which convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC, however, intense interest has emerged in determining the biological function of 5-hmC. Here, we review the techniques used to study 5-hmC and evidence that alterations to 5-hmC physiology play a functional role in the molecular pathogenesis of human cancers.

  1. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  2. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  3. Altered pharyngeal muscles in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Samanta, Johan E; Beach, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Dysphagia (impaired swallowing) is common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and is related to aspiration pneumonia, the primary cause of death in PD. Therapies that ameliorate the limb motor symptoms of PD are ineffective for dysphagia. This suggests that the pathophysiology of PD dysphagia may differ from that affecting limb muscles, but little is known about potential neuromuscular abnormalities in the swallowing muscles in PD. This study examined the fiber histochemistry of pharyngeal constrictor and cricopharyngeal sphincter muscles in postmortem specimens from 8 subjects with PD and 4 age-matched control subjects. Pharyngeal muscles in subjects with PD exhibited many atrophic fibers, fiber type grouping, and fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain transformation. These alterations indicate that the pharyngeal muscles experienced neural degeneration and regeneration over the course of PD. Notably, subjects with PD with dysphagia had a higher percentage of atrophic myofibers versus with those without dysphagia and controls. The fast-to-slow fiber-type transition is consistent with abnormalities in swallowing, slow movement of food, and increased tone in the cricopharyngeal sphincter in subjects with PD. The alterations in the pharyngeal muscles may play a pathogenic role in the development of dysphagia in subjects with PD.

  4. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripp Gail

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  5. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  6. Parental Virtue and Prenatal Genetic Alteration Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkens, Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Although the philosophical literature on the ethics of human prenatal genetic alteration (PGA) purports to inform us about how to act, it rarely explicitly recognizes the perspective of those who will be making the PGA decision in practice. Here I approach the ethics of PGA from a distinctly virtue-based perspective, taking seriously what it means to be a good parent making this decision for one's child. From this perspective, I generate a sound verdict on the moral standing of human PGA (research): given the current state of the art, good parents have compelling reason not to consent to PGA (research) for their child, especially as part of the first wave(s) of PGA research participants and especially for non-medically oriented purposes. This is because doing otherwise is inconsistent with a plausible and defensible understanding of virtuous parenting and parental virtues, founded on a genuine concern for promoting the overall flourishing of the eventual child. In essence, given the current and foreseeable state of the art, parents who allow prenatal genetic alteration of their children are less-than-virtuous parents to those children, even in cases where they have a right to do so and even if PGA turns out to be beneficial to the eventual child.

  7. Afforestation alters community structure of soil fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jennifer K; Gleeson, Deirdre B; Clipson, Nicholas; Murphy, Daniel V

    2010-07-01

    Relatively little is known about the effect of afforestation on soil fungal communities. This study demonstrated that afforestation altered fungal community structure and that changes were correlated to pools of soil C. Pasture at three locations on the same soil type was afforested with Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus pinaster. The structure of fungal communities under the three land uses was measured after 13y using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Afforestation significantly altered the structure of fungal communities. The effect of location on the structure of fungal communities was limited to pasture soils; although these contained the same plant species, the relative composition of each species varied between locations. Differences in the structure of fungal communities between pasture, E. globulus and P. pinaster were significantly correlated with changes in the amount of total organic C and microbial biomass-C in soil. Afforestation of patches of agricultural land may contribute to conserving soil fungi in agricultural landscapes by supporting fungal communities with different composition to agricultural soils. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. When "altering brain function" becomes "mind control".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuniemi, Andrew; Otto, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. "Under what conditions does 'altering brain function' qualify as 'mind control'?" In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.

  9. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  10. Obesity Promotes Alterations in Iron Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Citelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is a key hormone that induces the degradation of ferroportin (FPN, a protein that exports iron from reticuloendothelial macrophages and enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate if the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD modifies the expression of FPN in macrophages and enterocytes, thus altering the iron bioavailability. In order to directly examine changes associated with iron metabolism in vivo, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or a HFD. Serum leptin levels were evaluated. The hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1, FPN and ferritin genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of iron present in both the liver and spleen was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ferroportin localization within reticuloendothelial macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Obese animals were found to exhibit increased hepcidin gene expression, while iron accumulated in the spleen and liver. They also exhibited changes in the sublocation of splenic cellular FPN and a reduction in the FPN expression in the liver and the spleen, while no changes were observed in enterocytes. Possible explanations for the increased hepcidin expression observed in HFD animals may include: increased leptin levels, the liver iron accumulation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Together, the results indicated that obesity promotes changes in iron bioavailability, since it altered the iron recycling function.

  11. Nucleolar proteins change in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M. A.; Kordyum, E. L.; Gonzalez-Camacho, F.; Medina, F. J.

    Discovery of gravisensitivity of cells no specified to gravity perception focused continuous attention on an elucidation of mechanisms involved in altered gravity effects at the different levels of cellular organization A nucleolus is the nuclear domain in which the major portion of ribosome biogenesis takes place This is a basic process for cell vitality beginning with the transcription of rDNA followed by processing newly synthesized pre-rRNA molecules A wide range of nucleolar proteins plays a highly significant role in all stages of biosynthesis of ribosomes Different steps of ribosome biogenesis should respond to various external factors affecting generally the cell metabolism Nevertheless a nucleolus remains not enough studied under the influence of altered environmental conditions For this reason we studied root apices from 2-day old Lepidium sativum seedlings germinated and grown under slow horizontal clinorotation and stationary conditions in darkness The extraction of cell nuclei followed by sequential fractionation of nuclear proteins according to their solubility in buffers of increasing ionic strength was carried out This procedure gave rise to 5 distinct fractions We analyzed nuclear subproteomes of the most soluble fraction called S2 It is actually a functionally significant fraction consisting of ribonucleoproteins actively engaged in pre-rRNA synthesis and processing 2D-electrophoresis of S2 fraction proteins was carried out The gels were silver stained and stained gels were scanned and analyzed

  12. Adaptive optics without altering visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D E; Hart, N W; Hofer, H J

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive optics combined with visual psychophysics creates the potential to study the relationship between visual function and the retina at the cellular scale. This potential is hampered, however, by visual interference from the wavefront-sensing beacon used during correction. For example, we have previously shown that even a dim, visible beacon can alter stimulus perception (Hofer et al., 2012). Here we describe a simple strategy employing a longer wavelength (980nm) beacon that, in conjunction with appropriate restriction on timing and placement, allowed us to perform psychophysics when dark adapted without altering visual perception. The method was verified by comparing detection and color appearance of foveally presented small spot stimuli with and without the wavefront beacon present in 5 subjects. As an important caution, we found that significant perceptual interference can occur even with a subliminal beacon when additional measures are not taken to limit exposure. Consequently, the lack of perceptual interference should be verified for a given system, and not assumed based on invisibility of the beacon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Natal Host Plants Can Alter Herbivore Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L; Su, Qi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore's natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities. We tested wether the natal host plant of a whitefly population affected interactions between the Middle-east Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci by rearing the offspring of a cabbage-derived MEAM1 population and a poinsettia-derived MED population together on three different host plants: cotton, poinsettia, and cabbage. We found that MED dominated on poinsettia and that MEAM1 dominated on cabbage, results consistent with previous research. MED also dominated when reared with MEAM1 on cotton, however, a result at odds with multiple otherwise-similar studies that reared both species on the same natal plant. Our work provides evidence that natal plants affect competitive interactions on another plant species, and highlights the potential importance of neighboring plant species on herbivore community composition in agricultral systems.

  14. Thermal remediation alters soil properties - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Khan, Eakalak; Wick, Abbey F

    2018-01-15

    Contaminated soils pose a risk to human and ecological health, and thermal remediation is an efficient and reliable way to reduce soil contaminant concentration in a range of situations. A primary benefit of thermal treatment is the speed at which remediation can occur, allowing the return of treated soils to a desired land use as quickly as possible. However, this treatment also alters many soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to function. While extensive research addresses contaminant reduction, the range and magnitude of effects to soil properties have not been explored. Understanding the effects of thermal remediation on soil properties is vital to successful reclamation, as drastic effects may preclude certain post-treatment land uses. This review highlights thermal remediation studies that have quantified alterations to soil properties, and it supplements that information with laboratory heating studies to further elucidate the effects of thermal treatment of soil. Notably, both heating temperature and heating time affect i) soil organic matter; ii) soil texture and mineralogy; iii) soil pH; iv) plant available nutrients and heavy metals; v) soil biological communities; and iv) the ability of the soil to sustain vegetation. Broadly, increasing either temperature or time results in greater contaminant reduction efficiency, but it also causes more severe impacts to soil characteristics. Thus, project managers must balance the need for contaminant reduction with the deterioration of soil function for each specific remediation project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Hepatic alterations in patients with dengue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larreal, Yraima; Valero, Nereida; Estévez, Jesús; Reyes, Ivette; Maldonado, Mery; Espina, Luz Marina; Arias, Julia; Meleán, Eddy; Añez, German; Atencio, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    Clinical features of Dengue are very variable due to multiple alterations induced by the virus in the organism. Increased levels of transaminases similar to those produced by the Hepatitis virus have been reported in patients with Dengue from hiperendemic zones in Asia. The objectives of this study were to determine alterations in the liver tests in patients with Dengue and to relate them to the disease, clinically and serologically. Clinical history, hemathological tests serum transaminases (ALT y AST) and bilirubin assays were performed in 62 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis of Dengue. According to clinical features 38.7% of the patients with classical (CD) and hemorrhagic (DHF) forms of Dengue reffered abdominal pain and 2 patients with DHF had ictericia and hepatomegaly. Laboratory test findings showed leucopenia in 72.5% in both forms of Dengue and of patients with DHF severe thrombocytopenia (< 50.000 platelets x mm3), long PT and PPT in 70.9%, 23.0% and 42.3%, respectively. Transaminase values five fold higher than the normal values (p < 0.005) were observed in 36.8% and 74.4% of patients with CD and DHF respectively; AST was predominant in both groups. Our results suggest liver damage during the course of Dengue. A differential diagnosis has to be done between the hepatic involvement of Dengue cases and others viral diseases with hepatic disfunctions.

  16. 46 CFR 115.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers and other pressure vessels, and steering... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 115.700 Section... AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 115.700 Permission for repairs and alterations. (a...

  17. 28 CFR 36.405 - Alterations: Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Historic preservation. 36... Alterations: Historic preservation. (a) Alterations to buildings or facilities that are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places under the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C...

  18. Alteration of the Regiospecificity of Human Heme Oxygenase-1 by Unseating of the Heme but not Disruption of the Distal Hydrogen Bonding Network†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; Evans, John P.; Ogura, Hiroshi; La Mar, Gerd N.; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Heme oxygenase regiospecifically oxidizes heme at the α-meso position to give biliverdin IXα, CO, and iron. The heme orientation within the active site, which is thought to determine the oxidation regiospecificity, is shown here for the human enzyme (hHO1) to be largely determined by interactions between the heme carboxylic acid groups and residues Arg183 and Lys18 but not Tyr134. Mutation of either Arg183 or Lys18 individually does not significantly alter the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent reaction regiochemistry, but partially shifts the oxidation to the β/δ-meso positions in the reaction supported by ascorbic acid. Mutation of Glu29 to a lysine, which places a positive charge where it can interact with a heme carboxyl if the heme rotates by ~90°, causes a slight loss of regiospecificity, but combined with the R183E and K18E mutations results primarily in β/δ-meso oxidation of the heme under all conditions. NMR analysis of heme binding to the triple K18E/E29K/R183E mutant confirms rotation of the heme in the active site. Kinetic studies demonstrate that mutations of Arg183 greatly impair the rate of the P450 reductase-dependent reaction, in accord with the earlier finding that Arg183 is involved in binding of the reductase to hHO1, but have little effect on the ascorbate reaction. Mutations of Asp140 and Tyr58 that disrupt the active site hydrogen bonding network, impair catalytic rates but do not influence the oxidation regiochemistry. The results indicate both that the oxidation regiochemistry is largely controlled by ionic interactions of the heme propionic acid groups with the protein and that shifts in regiospecificity involve rotation of the heme about an axis perpendicular to the heme plane. PMID:16388581

  19. Decaffeinated green and black tea polyphenols decrease weight gain and alter microbiome populations and function in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Yang, Jieping; Hsu, Mark; Lee, Ru-Po; Grojean, Emma M; Ly, Austin; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-09-30

    Decaffeinated green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) polyphenols inhibit weight gain in mice fed an obesogenic diet. Since the intestinal microflora is an important contributor to obesity, it was the objective of this study to determine whether the intestinal microflora plays a role in the anti-obesogenic effect of GT and BT. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF/HS, 32% energy from fat; 25% energy from sucrose) or the same diet supplemented with 0.25% GTP or BTP or a low-fat/high-sucrose (LF/HS, 10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose) diet for 4 weeks. Bacterial composition was assessed by MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. GTP and BTP diets resulted in a decrease of cecum Firmicutes and increase in Bacteroidetes. The relative proportions of Blautia, Bryantella, Collinsella, Lactobacillus, Marvinbryantia, Turicibacter, Barnesiella, and Parabacteroides were significantly correlated with weight loss induced by tea extracts. BTP increased the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio and intestinal formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) analyzed by gas chromatography. Cecum propionic acid content was significantly correlated with the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio. GTP and BTP induced a significant increase in hepatic 5'adenosylmonophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation by 70 and 289%, respectively (P < 0.05) determined by Western blot. In summary, both BTP and GTP induced weight loss in association with alteration of the microbiota and increased hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. We hypothesize that BTP increased pAMPK through increased intestinal SCFA production, while GTPs increased hepatic AMPK through GTP present in the liver.

  20. Alterations in adipokines in feline hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, M; Abood, S K; Segev, G; Schenck, P A

    2013-01-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (HL) is associated with alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The adipokines, adiponectin, and leptin have lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin are altered in feline HL. Client-owned cats: 55 healthy and 45 with liver disease. Cats with liver disease were categorized as having HL (n = 20), HL and concurrent disease (n = 19), or other liver disease (n = 6), based on clinical signs, laboratory findings, abdominal ultrasound examination as well as liver cytopathology, histopathology, or both. Serum samples were collected and body condition score determined. Mean serum concentrations of adiponectin were higher in overweight cats with HL (4.5 μg/mL), HL and concurrent disease (4.4 μg/mL), or other liver disease (6.1 μg/mL), as compared with healthy cats (1.5 μg/mL; P < .001, P < .001, and P = .04, respectively). Mean serum concentration of leptin was higher in cats with HL (9.8 ng/mL) or HL and concurrent disease (10.7 ng/mL) than healthy cats (4.9 ng/mL, P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Cats with other liver disease had leptin concentration (4.9 ng/mL) similar to healthy cats. Concentrations of adiponectin were correlated with alanine aminotransferase activity (r = 0.40, P = .0069), and concentrations of leptin were correlated with alkaline phosphatase activity (r = 0.42, P = .0051) in cats with liver disease. Adipokine concentrations are altered in feline HL. Increased concentrations of adiponectin are related to liver disease, whereas increased concentrations of leptin are specifically related to HL. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Altered brain connectivity in sagittal craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Joel S; Brooks, Eric D; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vander Wyk, Brent; Jou, Roger J; Steinbacher, Derek M; Constable, R Todd; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Persing, John A

    2014-06-01

    Sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (sNSC) is the most common form of NSC. The condition is associated with a high prevalence (> 50%) of deficits in executive function. The authors employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI to evaluate whether hypothesized structural and functional connectivity differences underlie the observed neurocognitive morbidity of sNSC. Using a 3-T Siemens Trio MRI system, the authors collected DTI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI data in 8 adolescent patients (mean age 12.3 years) with sNSC that had been previously corrected via total vault cranioplasty and 8 control children (mean age 12.3 years) without craniosynostosis. Data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library and BioImageSuite. Analyses of the DTI data revealed white matter alterations approaching statistical significance in all supratentorial lobes. Statistically significant group differences (sNSC right supramarginal gyrus. Analysis of the resting-state seed in relation to whole-brain data revealed significant increases in negative connectivity (anticorrelations) of Brodmann area 8 to the prefrontal cortex (Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] center of mass coordinates [x, y, z]: -6, 53, 6) and anterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 6, 43, 14) in the sNSC group relative to controls. Furthermore, in the sNSC patients versus controls, the Brodmann area 7, 39, and 40 seed had decreased connectivity to left angular gyrus (MNI coordinates -31, -61, 34), posterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 13, -52, 18), precuneus (MNI coordinates 10, -55, 54), left and right parahippocampus (MNI coordinates -13, -52, 2 and MNI coordinates 11, -50, 2, respectively), lingual (MNI coordinates -11, -86, -10), and fusiform gyri (MNI coordinates -30, -79, -18). Intrinsic connectivity analysis also revealed altered connectivity between central nodes in the default mode network in sNSC relative to controls; the left and right posterior cingulate cortices

  2. Are relative depletions altered inside diffuse clouds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The data of Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer (1986) were used to analyze interstellar abundances and depletions of Fe, P, Mg, and Mn toward 37 stars, spanning nearly 1.0 (dex) in mean line-of-sight depletion. It was found that the depletions of these elements are linearly correlated and do not show evidence of differences in the rates of depletion or sputtering from one element to another. For a given level of overall depletion, the sightline-to-sightline rms variance in the depletion for each of these elements was less than 0.16 (dex), which is significantly smaller than is the element-to-element variance. The results suggest that, for most diffuse lines of sight, the relative abundances of these elements are set early in the lifetime of the grains and are not altered significantly thereafter. 53 references

  3. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Mucosal alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The initial effect of anticancer therapy, such as radiation and chemotherapy, is on the rapidly proliferating cells of the oral epithelium. As a consequence, the epithelium may show atrophy and ulceration. The sites of these alterations are related to the rate of epithelial proliferation. Regions of rapid proliferation, such as the oral lining mucosa, show a greater frequency of ulceration than masticatory mucosa or skin. Subsequent changes in the mucosa reflect damage to connective tissue, including fibroblasts and blood vessels. This results in hyalinization of collagen, hypovascularity, and ischemia. Indirect effects of anticancer therapy may include granulocytopenia and reduced salivary secretion, so that the protective mucin coating of the epithelium is compromised. These changes result in tissue with reduced barrier function and impaired ability to heal and to resist entry of pathogens, thus increasing the risk of systemic infections

  4. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  5. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

  6. Method and apparatus for altering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Regan W.; Greenly, John B.

    2002-02-05

    Methods and apparatus for thermally altering the near surface characteristics of a material are described. In particular, a repetitively pulsed ion beam system comprising a high energy pulsed power source and an ion beam generator are described which are capable of producing single species high voltage ion beams (0.25-2.5 MeV) at 1-1000 kW average power and over extended operating cycles (10.sup.8). Irradiating materials with such high energy, repetitively pulsed ion beams can yield surface treatments including localized high temperature anneals to melting, both followed by rapid thermal quenching to ambient temperatures to achieve both novel and heretofore commercially unachievable physical characteristics in a near surface layer of material.

  7. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Simon J; Haendler, Bernard

    2017-05-09

    Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  8. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Baumgart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  9. Alterations in subspecific characters of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouli, C.; Patil, S.H.; Kale, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recombination of beneficial characters associated in the cultivars of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) belonging to the two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata had little success in conventional breeding programme. The cultures of ssp. hypogaea have the desirable characters for the crop improvement viz; various growth habits, profuse branching, large pod, seed dormancy and stress tolerance. Sequential flowering, early maturity, compact fruiting habit and high kernel outturn are the other useful characters present in ssp. fastigiata cultures. Mutation research in a popular variety, Spanish Improved belonging to ssp. fastigiata led to the selection of various mutants. One among the mutants had large pod, a characteristic of hypogaea ssp. Hybridization among the mutants and improved cultivars as well as radiation treatment of selected cultures resulted in the isolation of cultures having not only combinations and alterations of characters in both subspecies, but also modifications. These cultures are classified into major groups and their significance in the groundnut improvement is discussed. (author)

  10. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...... cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other...... and contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might...

  11. Saccadic Alterations in Severe Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pensiero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not sure if persons with dyslexia have ocular motor deficits in addition to their deficits in rapid visual information processing. A 15-year-old boy afflicted by severe dyslexia was submitted to saccadic eye movement recording. Neurological and ophthalmic examinations were normal apart from the presence of an esophoria for near and slightly longer latencies of pattern visual evoked potentials. Subclinical saccadic alterations were present, which could be at the basis of the reading pathology: (1 low velocities (and larger durations of the adducting saccades of the left eye with undershooting and long-lasting postsaccadic onward drift, typical of the internuclear ophthalmoplegia; (2 saccades interrupted in mid-flight and fixation instability, which are present in cases of brainstem premotor disturbances.

  12. Aqueous alteration detection in Tikhonravov crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancarella, F.; Fonti, S.; Alemanno, G.; Orofino, V.; Blanco, A.

    2018-03-01

    The existence of a wet period lasting long enough to allow the development of elementary forms of life on Mars has always been a very interesting issue. Given this perspective, the research for geological markers of such occurrences has been continually pursued. Once a favorable site is detected, effort should be spent to get as much information as possible aimed at a precise assessment of the genesis and evolution of the areas showing the selected markers. In this work, we discuss the recent finding of possible deposits pointing to the past existence of liquid water in Tikhonravov crater located in Arabia Terra. Comparison of CRISM spectra and those of laboratory minerals formed by aqueous alteration has led us to the conclusion that the studied areas within the impact crater host phyllosilicates deposits. In addition, analysis of the CRISM spectra has resulted in the tentative identification of carbonates mixed with phyllosilicates.

  13. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A.; Rice, G.

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow

  15. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  16. Peripheral myelin protein 22 alters membrane architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Marinko, Justin T.; Hampton, Cheri M.; Ke, Zunlong; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Law, Cheryl L.; Li, Jun; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Sanders, Charles R.; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. PMP22 genetic alterations cause the most common forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD), which is characterized by severe dysmyelination in the peripheral nerves. However, the functions of PMP22 in Schwann cell membranes remain unclear. We demonstrate that reconstitution of purified PMP22 into lipid vesicles results in the formation of compressed and cylindrically wrapped protein-lipid vesicles that share common organizational traits with compact myelin of peripheral nerves in vivo. The formation of these myelin-like assemblies depends on the lipid-to-PMP22 ratio, as well as on the PMP22 extracellular loops. Formation of the myelin-like assemblies is disrupted by a CMTD-causing mutation. This study provides both a biochemical assay for PMP22 function and evidence that PMP22 directly contributes to membrane organization in compact myelin. PMID:28695207

  17. Chlorite alteration in aqueous solutions and uranium removal by altered chlorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Ahn, Hyangsig [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Ho Young, E-mail: hyjo@korea.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji-Hun; Koh, Yong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Chlorite alteration and the U removal capacity of altered chlorite were investigated. • Initial pH affected more chlorite dissolution than ionic strength. • Chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 3–8 was inversely proportional to the U removal capacity. • Chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 10 was proportional to the U removal capacity. • The formation of Fe-containing secondary minerals affected the U removal capacity. - Abstract: Chlorite alteration and the U removal capacity of altered chlorite were investigated. Batch kinetic dissolution tests using clinochlore CCa-2 were conducted for 60 days in aqueous solutions of various pHs and ionic strengths. Batch sorption tests using these altered chlorite samples were conducted for 48 h with natural groundwater containing 3.06 × 10{sup −6} M U. Chlorite dissolution was influenced more by pH{sub o} than by the ionic strength of the solution. TEM analysis revealed Fe(oxy)hydroxide aggregates in the solid residue from the batch dissolution test with 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} solution at pH{sub o} = 10. The U removal capacity of the reacted chlorite samples at pH{sub o} = 6–10 was higher than that of the reacted chlorite samples at pH{sub o} = 3. The degree of dissolution of chlorite samples reacted at pH{sub o} = 3–8 was inversely proportional to the U removal capacity, but that of chlorite samples reacted at pH{sub o} = 10 was proportional to the U removal capacity. The positive correlation between the U removal capacity and degree of chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 10 might be due to the formation of Fe-containing secondary minerals and changes in the reactive sites.

  18. Microbiome, inflammation, epigenetic alterations, and mental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Reza; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Zhou, Jin-Rong

    2017-09-01

    Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis. Much of this interplay may be moderated by epigenetic changes. Similar to genetic mutations, epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA interference can influence gene expression and therefore may cause behavioral and neuronal changes observed in mental disorders. Environmental factors such as diet, gut microbiota, and infections have significant role in these epigenetic modifications. Studies show that bioactive nutrients and gut microbiota can alter either DNA methylation and histone signatures through a variety of mechanisms. Indeed, microbes within the human gut may play a significant role in the regulation of various elements of "gut-brain axis," via their influence on inflammatory cytokines and production of antimicrobial peptides that affect the epigenome through their involvement in generating short chain fatty acids, vitamin synthesis, and nutrient absorption. In addition, they may participate in-gut production of many common neurotransmitters. In this review we will consider the potential interactions of diet, gastrointestinal microbiome, inflammation, and epigenetic alterations in psychiatric disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Wound trauma alters ionizing radiation dose assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiang Juliann G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wounding following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury, RCI increases mortality. Wounding-induced increases in radiation mortality are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. Among these factors, cytokines along with other biomarkers have been adopted for biodosimetric evaluation and assessment of radiation dose and injury. Therefore, wounding could complicate biodosimetric assessments. Results In this report, such confounding effects were addressed. Mice were given 60Co γ-photon radiation followed by skin wounding. Wound trauma exacerbated radiation-induced mortality, body-weight loss, and wound healing. Analyses of DNA damage in bone-marrow cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, changes in hematology and cytokine profiles, and fundamental clinical signs were evaluated. Early biomarkers (1 d after RCI vs. irradiation alone included significant decreases in survivin expression in bone marrow cells, enhanced increases in γ-H2AX formation in Lin+ bone marrow cells, enhanced increases in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF concentrations in blood, and concomitant decreases in γ-H2AX formation in PBMCs and decreases in numbers of splenocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Intermediate biomarkers (7 – 10 d after RCI included continuously decreased γ-H2AX formation in PBMC and enhanced increases in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF concentrations in blood. The clinical signs evaluated after RCI were increased water consumption, decreased body weight, and decreased wound healing rate and survival rate. Late clinical signs (30 d after RCI included poor survival and wound healing. Conclusion Results suggest that confounding factors such as wounding alters ionizing radiation dose assessment and agents inhibiting these responses may prove therapeutic for radiation combined

  20. Chemical alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari; Nakanishi, Kiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Cementitious material is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material for the radioactive waste disposal, and is expected to provide both physical and chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cementitious material and the ability to provide a high pH condition are very important parameters when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive wastes. For the long term, in the geological disposal environment, cement hydrates will be altered by, for example, dissolution, chemical reaction with ions in the groundwater, and hydrothermal reaction. Once the composition or crystallinity of the constituent minerals of a cement hydrate is changed by these processes, the pH of the repository buffered by cementitious material and its sorption ability might be affected. However, the mechanism of cement alteration is not yet fully understood. In this study, leaching experiments of some candidate cements for radioactive waste disposal were carried out. Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Blast Furnace Slag blended cement (OPC/BFS) and Highly containing Flyash and Silicafume Cement (HFSC) samples were contacted with distilled water at liquid:solid ratios of 10:1, 100:1 and 1000:1 at room temperature for 200 days. In the case of OPC, Ca(OH) 2 dissolved at high liquid:solid ratios. The specific surface area of all cement samples increased by leaching process. This might be caused by further hydration and change of composition of constituent minerals. A model is presented which predicts the leaching of cement hydrates and the mineral composition in the hydrated cement solid phase, including the incongruent dissolution of CSH gel phases and congruent dissolution of Ca(OH) 2 , Ettringite and Hydrotalcite. Experimental results of dissolution of Ca-O-H and Ca-Si-O-H phases were well predicted by this model. (author)

  1. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Long, W.

    1984-01-01

    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  2. Aqueous alteration of Japanese simulated waste glass P0798: Effects of alteration-phase formation on alteration rate and cesium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Y.; Shinkai, A.; Idemistu, K.; Arima, T.; Yoshikawa, H.; Yui, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous alteration tests were performed with a Japanese simulated waste glass P0798 in alkaline solutions as a function of pH or species/concentration of alkaline metals in the solution in order to evaluate the alteration conditions determining whether smectite (2:1 clay mineral) or analcime (zeolite) forms as the major alteration-phase. XRD analysis of the alteration-phases showed that smectite forms at any pH between 9.5 and 12, and analcime forms at pH above 11, though the formation also depends on species and concentrations of alkaline metals in the solution. These results cannot agree with the thermodynamically predicted phase stability, e.g., smectite is more stable than the thermodynamic prediction shows. On the basis of the results of alteration conditions, the alteration tests were performed under smectite forming conditions, where only smectite forms or no crystalline phases form, in order to evaluate the alteration rate and the mechanism of cesium release/retention. The results showed that the glass alteration proceeds slowly in proportion to square root of time under smectite forming conditions, which indicates that the alteration rate can be controlled by a diffusion process. It was suggested that the alteration rate under smectite forming conditions is independent of the pH, alkaline metal species/concentration in the solution and whether smectite actually forms or not. The results also indicated that most of cesium dissolved from the glass can be retained in the alteration-phases by reversible sorption onto smectite or irreversible incorporation into analcime, pollucite or solid solutions of them

  3. Investigation of alteration zones in Garandake and Kurokawa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinbara, K [Geological Survey of Japan, Kawasaki; Sudo, S

    1977-01-01

    The eastern part of the Garan area contains both the Myoban and Tsukahara hot springs. The springs are associated with the Sanin Formation, and an alteration zone is present which strikes easterly. Throughout the altered area, a clear zonation of the alteration is present. The zonation runs: silicified - alunitized - kaolin/argillized - montmorillonite/zeolite. In the Kurokawa area, a total of 0.96 km/sup 2/ of altered zones were observed near Suzumejigoku and throughout Yoshikawa and Tawara. The most heavily altered areas were at Kurokawa hot springs and Yoshikawa, where alunite and kaolinite are abundant. The time of alteration is believed to be prior to the deposition of the Hisazumi pumice. Around the Kurokawa hot springs, where the water temperature is 98/sup 0/C, the alteration extends as far as the pumice.

  4. Network analysis of genomic alteration profiles reveals co-altered functional modules and driver genes for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunyan; Wang, Hongwei; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yujing; Zhao, Wenyuan; Qi, Lishuang; Zhang, Yuannv; Wang, Chenguang; Guo, Zheng

    2013-03-01

    The heterogeneity of genetic alterations in human cancer genomes presents a major challenge to advancing our understanding of cancer mechanisms and identifying cancer driver genes. To tackle this heterogeneity problem, many approaches have been proposed to investigate genetic alterations and predict driver genes at the individual pathway level. However, most of these approaches ignore the correlation of alteration events between pathways and miss many genes with rare alterations collectively contributing to carcinogenesis. Here, we devise a network-based approach to capture the cooperative functional modules hidden in genome-wide somatic mutation and copy number alteration profiles of glioblastoma (GBM) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), where a module is a set of altered genes with dense interactions in the protein interaction network. We identify 7 pairs of significantly co-altered modules that involve the main pathways known to be altered in GBM (TP53, RB and RTK signaling pathways) and highlight the striking co-occurring alterations among these GBM pathways. By taking into account the non-random correlation of gene alterations, the property of co-alteration could distinguish oncogenic modules that contain driver genes involved in the progression of GBM. The collaboration among cancer pathways suggests that the redundant models and aggravating models could shed new light on the potential mechanisms during carcinogenesis and provide new indications for the design of cancer therapeutic strategies.

  5. Smectite alteration by anaerobic iron corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, D.; Kaufhold, S.; Hassel, A.W.; Dohrmann, R.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The interaction of smectites with corroding steel/iron represents a crucial topic in the estimation of the long term confinement properties of clay barriers for the encasement of steel/iron containers. Especially in case of engineered clay barriers a possible deterioration of favourable smectite properties as response to corrosion could reduce the barrier capacity. The extent of this reduction is unknown, yet. The essential properties of bentonite clays in this context are on the one hand the relatively high swelling pressure together with low hydraulic conductivity, which results from the well known expandability of smectite interlayers in aqueous environments. On the other hand smectites are cation exchangers being able to long term encase radioactive cations in a way that negative charges of silicate layers are compensated by easily exchangeable hydrated cations. Both properties are directly related to the crystal and chemical composition of smectites. The nature of the corrosion of steel canisters in clay barriers will - after a first short aerobic phase - predominantly be anaerobic resulting in the formation of Fe(II) and two equivalents of hydroxide ions. In a set of exposition experiments anaerobic corroding iron in bentonite gels was studied in order to determine alteration of the smectite fraction. During the exposition a green coloration of the bentonite neighbouring to corroding iron was observed. Upon contact to oxygen in a humid state the bentonite turned reddish indicating the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). This observation is in accordance with reported results indicating the formation of an iron rich smectite. Chemical analysis of the 'green bentonite' reveals an increase of iron fraction e.g. from 3.4% mass to 9.3% mass . The adsorbed iron is predominantly Fe(II) which was proven by chromato-metric titration. The estimated ratio between silicon to increased iron content is Si: Fe ≅ 2

  6. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF/AZ performance. The selection and

  7. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF

  8. Genetic alterations and epigenetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Stella Hoyos Giraldo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Hepatocarcinogenesis as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with background of chronic liver disease usually in association with cirrhosis, marked hepatic fibrosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV and/or hepatitis virus (HCV infection, chronic inflammation, Aflatoxin B1(AFB1 exposure, chronic alcoholism, metabolic disorder of the liver and necroinflamatory liver disease. Hepatocarcinogenesis involve two mechanisms, genetic alterations (with changes in the cell's DNA sequence and epigenetic changes (without changes in the cell's DNA sequence, but changes in the pattern of gene expression that can persist through one or more generations (somatic sense. Hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oncogenes and decreased expression of tumor suppressor genes (TSG; include those involved in cell cycle control, apoptosis, DNA repair, immortalization and angiogenesis. AFB1 is metabolized in the liver into a potent carcinogen, aflatoxin 8, 9-epoxide, which is detoxified by epoxide hydrolase (EPHX and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1.

    A failure of detoxification processes can allow to mutagenic metabolite to bind to DNA and inducing P53 mutation. Genetic polymorphism of EPHX and GSTM1 can make individuals more susceptible to AFB1. Epigenetic inactivation of GSTP1 by promoter hypermethylation plays a role in the development of HCC because, it leads that electrophilic metabolite increase DNA damage and mutations. HBV DNA integration into the host chromosomal DNA of hepatocytes has been detected in HBV-related HCC.

    DNA tumor viruses cause cancer mainly by interfering with cell cycle controls, and activating the cell's replication machinery by blocking the action of key TSG. HBx protein is a

  9. Diabetes induces metabolic alterations in dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Ganzerla, Emily; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nicolau, José

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes can interfere in tissue nutrition and can impair dental pulp metabolism. This disease causes oxidative stress in cells and tissues. However, little is known about the antioxidant system in the dental pulp of diabetics. Thus, it would be of importance to study this system in this tissue in order to verify possible alterations indicative of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of antioxidant system of the dental pulp of healthy (n = 8) and diabetic rats (n = 8). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, a pool of the dental pulp of the 4 incisors of each rat (healthy and diabetic) was used for the determination of total protein and sialic acid concentrations and catalase and peroxidase activities. Data were compared by a Student t test (p pulps from both groups presented similar total protein concentrations and peroxidase activity. Dental pulps of diabetic rats exhibited significantly lower free, conjugated, and total sialic acid concentrations than those of control tissues. Catalase activity in diabetic dental pulps was significantly enhanced in comparison with that of control pulps. The result of the present study is indicative of oxidative stress in the dental pulp caused by diabetes. The increase of catalase activity and the reduction of sialic acid could be resultant of reactive oxygen species production.

  10. Altered intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeidman, Peter; Wu, Shihao; Razi, Adeel; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liuqing; Zou, Jilin; Wang, Gaohua; Wang, Huiling; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity among distributed brain regions. However, it is unclear how causal influences among large-scale brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia. In this study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to assess the hypothesis that there is aberrant directed (effective) connectivity within and between three key large-scale brain networks (the dorsal attention network, the salience network and the default mode network) in schizophrenia during a working memory task. Functional MRI data during an n-back task from 40 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling of between-subject effects in DCM with Parametric Empirical Bayes, we found that intrinsic (within-region) and extrinsic (between-region) effective connectivity involving prefrontal regions were abnormal in schizophrenia. Specifically, in patients (i) inhibitory self-connections in prefrontal regions of the dorsal attention network were decreased across task conditions; (ii) extrinsic connectivity between regions of the default mode network was increased; specifically, from posterior cingulate cortex to the medial prefrontal cortex; (iii) between-network extrinsic connections involving the prefrontal cortex were altered; (iv) connections within networks and between networks were correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and impaired cognition beyond working memory. In short, this study revealed the predominance of reduced synaptic efficacy of prefrontal efferents and afferents in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  11. Upper gastrointestinal alterations in kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homse Netto, João Pedro; Pinheiro, João Pedro Sant'Anna; Ferrari, Mariana Lopes; Soares, Mirella Tizziani; Silveira, Rogério Augusto Gomes; Maioli, Mariana Espiga; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2018-05-14

    The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, despite the lack of a good correlation between endoscopic findings and symptoms. Many services thus perform upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy on kidney transplant candidates. This study aims to describe the alterations seen on the upper endoscopies of 96 kidney-transplant candidates seen from 2014 to 2015. Ninety-six CKD patients underwent upper endoscopic examination as part of the preparation to receive kidney grafts. The data collected from the patients' medical records were charted on Microsoft Office Excel 2016 and presented descriptively. Mean values, medians, interquartile ranges and 95% confidence intervals of the clinic and epidemiological variables were calculated. Possible associations between endoscopic findings and infection by H. pylori were studied. Males accounted for 54.17% of the 96 patients included in the study. Median age and time on dialysis were 50 years and 50 months, respectively. The most frequent upper endoscopy finding was enanthematous pangastritis (57.30%), followed by erosive esophagitis (30.20%). Gastric intestinal metaplasia and peptic ulcer were found in 8.33% and 7.30% of the patients, respectively. H. pylori tests were positive in 49 patients, and H. pylori infection was correlated only with non-erosive esophagitis (P = 0.046). Abnormal upper endoscopy findings were detected in all studied patients. This study suggested that upper endoscopy is a valid procedure for kidney transplant candidates. However, prospective studies are needed to shed more light on this matter.

  12. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Helminth parasites alter protection against Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  14. Cerebral blood volume alterations during fractional pneumoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, K.; Greitz, T.

    1976-01-01

    Simultaneous and continuous measurements of the cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood pressure were carried out in six patients during fractional pneumoencephalography in order to examine intracranial volumetric interactions. Three patients (Group A) showed normal encephalographic findings, and in three patients (Group B) communicating hydrocephalus with convexity block was found encephalographically. In all patients the injection of air was followed by an immediate increase of CSF pressure and blood pressure and a concomitant decrease of CBV. The initial CSF pressure was invariably re-established within 3 to 3.5 min. During this time interval the CBV of the patients of Group B decreased significantly and 30 percent more than that of Group A. Furthermore, after restoration of the original CSF pressure, CBV returned to its initial level in all patients of Group A, whereas it remained unchanged or showed a further decrease in the patients of Group B. Removal of an amount of CSF corresponding to half of the amount of injected air was followed by a significant reactive hyperemic response in two normal patients. The intracranial volumetric alterations during fractional pneumoencephalography are discussed in detail with respect to the underlying physiologic mechanisms and are suggested as a model for acute and low pressure hydrocephalus

  15. Genetic alterations during radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Seiji

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews radiation-induced genetic alterations and its carcinogenesis, focusing on the previous in vitro assay outcome. A colony formation assay using Syrian hamster fetal cells and focus formation assay using mouse C3H10T1/2 cells are currently available to find malignant transformation of cells. Such in vitro assays has proposed the hypothesis that radiation-induced carcinogenesis arises from at least two-stage processes; i.e., that an early step induced by irradiation plays an important role in promoting the potential to cause the subsequent mutation. A type of genetic instability induced by radiation results in a persistently elevated frequency of spontaneous mutations, so-called the phenomenon of delayed reproductive death. One possible mechanism by which genetic instability arises has been shown to be due to the development of abnormality in the gene group involved in the maintenance mechanism of genome stability. Another possibility has also been shown to stem from the loss of telomere (the extremities of a chromosome). The importance of search for radiation-induced genetic instability is emphasized in view of the elucidation of carcinogenesis. (N.K.)

  16. Triclosan alterations of estuarine phytoplankton community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, James L; Thompson, Laura; Hylton, Sarah

    2017-06-15

    Antimicrobial additives in pharmaceutical and personal care products are a major environmental concern due to their potential ecological impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Triclosan (TCS) has been used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and preservative in various media. The sublethal and lethal effects of TCS on estuarine phytoplankton community composition were investigated using bioassays of natural phytoplankton communities to measure phytoplankton responses to different concentrations of TCS ranging from 1 to 200μgl -1 . The EC 50 (the concentration of an inhibitor where the growth is reduced by half) for phytoplankton groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, cryptophytes) examined in this ranged from 10.7 to 113.8μg TCS l -1 . Exposures resulted in major shifts in phytoplankton community composition at concentrations as low as 1.0μg TCS l -1 . This study demonstrates estuarine ecosystem sensitivity to TCS exposure and highlights potential alterations in phytoplankton community composition at what are typically environmental concentrations of TCS in urbanized estuaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Can bread processing conditions alter glycaemic response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Soong, Yean Yean; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-15

    Bread is a staple food that is traditionally made from wheat flour. This study aimed to compare the starch digestibility of western baked bread and oriental steamed bread. Four types of bread were prepared: western baked bread (WBB) and oriental steamed bread (OSB), modified baked bread (MBB) made with the OSB recipe and WBB processing, and modified steamed bread (MSB) made with the WBB recipe and OSB processing. MBB showed the highest starch digestibility in vitro, followed by WBB, OSB and MSB. A similar trend was observed for glycaemic response in vivo. MBB, WBB, OSB and MSB had a glycaemic index of 75±4, 71±5, 68±5 and 65±4, respectively. Processing differences had a more pronounced effect on starch digestibility in bread, and steamed bread was healthier in terms of glycaemic response. The manipulation of processing conditions could be an innovative route to alter the glycaemic response of carbohydrate-rich foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  19. Histochemical alterations in one lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kingsley; Gribbin, Elizabeth; Emanuel, Steven; Orndorff, Rebecca; Walker, Jean; Weese, James; Fallahnejad, Manucher

    2007-01-01

    One lung ventilation is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Although there have been several reports showing that one-lung ventilation can cause pathophysiological alterations such as pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and intrapulmonary shunting, there have been virtually no reports on the effects of one-lung ventilation on lung histology. Yorkshire pigs (11-17 kg) were anesthetized, a tracheotomy performed and a tracheal tube inserted. The chest was opened and one lung ventilation (OLV), was induced by clamping of the right main bronchus. OLV was continued for 60 min before the clamp was removed and two lung ventilation (TLV) started. TLV was continued for 30 to 60 min. Blood and lung biopsies were taken immediately before OLV, 30 min and 60 min of OLV and after restoration of TLV. Histological analyses revealed that the non-ventilated lung was totally collapsed during OLV. On reventilation, there was clear evidence of vascular congestion and alveolar wall thickening at 30 min after TLV. At 60 min of TLV, there was still vascular congestion. Serum nitrite levels (as an index of nitric oxide production) showed steady decline over the course of the experimental period, reaching a significantly low level on reventilation (compared with baseline levels before OLV). Lung MPO activity (marker of neutrophil sequestration) and serum TNFalpha levels were not raised during the entire experimental period. These results suggest that there was lung vascular injury after OLV, which was associated with reduced levels of nitric oxide production and not associated with an inflammatory response.

  20. Altered Immune Regulation in Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zóka, András; Műzes, Györgyi; Somogyi, Anikó; Varga, Tímea; Szémán, Barbara; Al-Aissa, Zahra; Hadarits, Orsolya; Firneisz, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Research in genetics and immunology was going on separate strands for a long time. Type 1 diabetes mellitus might not be characterized with a single pathogenetic factor. It develops when a susceptible individual is exposed to potential triggers in a given sequence and timeframe that eventually disarranges the fine-tuned immune mechanisms that keep autoimmunity under control in health. Genomewide association studies have helped to understand the congenital susceptibility, and hand-in-hand with the immunological research novel paths of immune dysregulation were described in central tolerance, apoptotic pathways, or peripheral tolerance mediated by regulatory T-cells. Epigenetic factors are contributing to the immune dysregulation. The interplay between genetic susceptibility and potential triggers is likely to play a role at a very early age and gradually results in the loss of balanced autotolerance and subsequently in the development of the clinical disease. Genetic susceptibility, the impaired elimination of apoptotic β-cell remnants, altered immune regulatory functions, and environmental factors such as viral infections determine the outcome. Autoreactivity might exist under physiologic conditions and when the integrity of the complex regulatory process is damaged the disease might develop. We summarized the immune regulatory mechanisms that might have a crucial role in disease pathology and development. PMID:24285974

  1. Altered Immune Regulation in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Zóka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in genetics and immunology was going on separate strands for a long time. Type 1 diabetes mellitus might not be characterized with a single pathogenetic factor. It develops when a susceptible individual is exposed to potential triggers in a given sequence and timeframe that eventually disarranges the fine-tuned immune mechanisms that keep autoimmunity under control in health. Genomewide association studies have helped to understand the congenital susceptibility, and hand-in-hand with the immunological research novel paths of immune dysregulation were described in central tolerance, apoptotic pathways, or peripheral tolerance mediated by regulatory T-cells. Epigenetic factors are contributing to the immune dysregulation. The interplay between genetic susceptibility and potential triggers is likely to play a role at a very early age and gradually results in the loss of balanced autotolerance and subsequently in the development of the clinical disease. Genetic susceptibility, the impaired elimination of apoptotic β-cell remnants, altered immune regulatory functions, and environmental factors such as viral infections determine the outcome. Autoreactivity might exist under physiologic conditions and when the integrity of the complex regulatory process is damaged the disease might develop. We summarized the immune regulatory mechanisms that might have a crucial role in disease pathology and development.

  2. Alterated integrin expression in lichen planopilaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erriquez Roberta

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lichen planopilaris (LPP is an inflammatory disease characterized by a lymphomononuclear infiltrate surrounding the isthmus and infundibulum of the hair follicle of the scalp, that evolves into atrophic/scarring alopecia. In the active phase of the disease hairs are easily plucked with anagen-like hair-roots. In this study we focused on the expression of integrins and basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions. Methods Scalp biopsies were taken in 10 patients with LPP and in 5 normal controls. Using monoclonal antibodies against α3β1 and α6β4 integrins we showed the expression of these integrins and of the basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions and in healthy scalp skin. Results In the LPP involved areas, α3β1 was distributed in a pericellular pattern, the α6 subunit was present with a basolateral distribution while the β4 subunit showed discontinuous expression at the basal pole and occasionally, basolateral staining of the hair follicle. Conclusion: An altered distribution of the integrins in active LPP lesions can explain the phenomenon of easy pulling-out of the hair with a "gelatinous" root-sheath.

  3. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic

  4. Deforestation alters rainfall: a myth or reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, M. F.; Mustafa, M. R.; Hashim, A. M.; Yusof, K. W.

    2016-06-01

    To cope with the issue of food safety and human shelter, natural landscape has gone through a number of alterations. In the coming future, the expansion of urban land and agricultural farms will likely disrupt the natural environment. Researchers have claimed that land use change may become the most serious issue of the current century. Thus, it is necessary to understand the consequences of land use change on the climatic variables, e.g., rainfall. This study investigated the impact of deforestation on local rainfall. An integrated methodology was adopted to achieve the objectives. Above ground biomass was considered as the indicator of forest areas. Time series data of a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor were obtained for the year of 2000, 2005, and 2010. Rainfall data were collected from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Malaysia. The MODIS time series data were classified and four major classes were developed based on the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) ranges. The results of the classification showed that water, and urban and agricultural lands have increased in their area by 2, 3, and 6%, respectively. On the other hand, the area of forest has decreased 10% collectively from 2000 to 2010. The results of NDVI and rainfall data were analysed by using a linear regression analysis. The results showed a significant relationship at a 90% confidence interval between rainfall and deforestation (t = 1.92, p = 0.06). The results of this study may provide information about the consequences of land use on the climate on the local scale.

  5. Altered levels of acetylcholinesterase in Alzheimer plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Salud García-Ayllón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have been conducted in an extensive effort to identify alterations in blood cholinesterase levels as a consequence of disease, including the analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in plasma. Conventional assays using selective cholinesterase inhibitors have not been particularly successful as excess amounts of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE pose a major problem. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have estimated the levels of AChE activity in human plasma by first immunoprecipitating BuChE and measuring AChE activity in the immunodepleted plasma. Human plasma AChE activity levels were approximately 20 nmol/min/mL, about 160 times lower than BuChE. The majority of AChE species are the light G(1+G(2 forms and not G(4 tetramers. The levels and pattern of the molecular forms are similar to that observed in individuals with silent BuChE. We have also compared plasma AChE with the enzyme pattern obtained from human liver, red blood cells, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and brain, by sedimentation analysis, Western blotting and lectin-binding analysis. Finally, a selective increase of AChE activity was detected in plasma from Alzheimer's disease (AD patients compared to age and gender-matched controls. This increase correlates with an increase in the G(1+G(2 forms, the subset of AChE species which are increased in Alzheimer's brain. Western blot analysis demonstrated that a 78 kDa immunoreactive AChE protein band was also increased in Alzheimer's plasma, attributed in part to AChE-T subunits common in brain and CSF. CONCLUSION: Plasma AChE might have potential as an indicator of disease progress and prognosis in AD and warrants further investigation.

  6. Alterations of the Gut Microbiome in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulong Yan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human gut microbiota is believed to be directly or indirectly involved in cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. However, the identification and functional status of the hypertension-related gut microbe(s have not yet been surveyed in a comprehensive manner.Methods: Here we characterized the gut microbiome in hypertension status by comparing fecal samples of 60 patients with primary hypertension and 60 gender-, age-, and body weight-matched healthy controls based on whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing.Results: Hypertension implicated a remarkable gut dysbiosis with significant reduction in within-sample diversity and shift in microbial composition. Metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS revealed 53,953 microbial genes that differ in distribution between the patients and healthy controls (false discovery rate, 0.05 and can be grouped into 68 clusters representing bacterial species. Opportunistic pathogenic taxa, such as, Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp., and Parabacteroides merdae were frequently distributed in hypertensive gut microbiome, whereas the short-chain fatty acid producer, such as, Roseburia spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, were higher in controls. The number of hypertension-associated species also showed stronger correlation to the severity of disease. Functionally, the hypertensive gut microbiome exhibited higher membrane transport, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and steroid degradation, while in controls the metabolism of amino acid, cofactors and vitamins was found to be higher. We further provided the microbial markers for disease discrimination and achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC of 0.78, demonstrating the potential of gut microbiota in prediction of hypertension.Conclusion: These findings represent specific alterations in microbial diversity, genes, species and functions of the hypertensive gut microbiome. Further studies on the causality relationship between

  7. Shadows Alter Facial Expressions of Noh Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers’ recognition of the emotional expressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Conclusions/Significance Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa’s smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art “yugen (profound grace and subtlety)”, which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness. PMID:23940748

  8. Mitochondrial DNA alteration in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacedonia, Donato; Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Cotugno, Grazia; Palladino, Grazia P; Patricelli, Giulia; Sabato, Roberto; Foschino Barbaro, Maria P

    2015-04-07

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSAS) is a disease associated with the increase of cardiovascular risk and it is characterized by repeated episodes of Intermittent Hypoxia (IH) which inducing oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Mitochondria are cell organelles involved in the respiratory that have their own DNA (MtDNA). The aim of this study was to investigate if the increase of oxidative stress in OSAS patients can induce also MtDNA alterations. 46 OSAS patients (age 59.27 ± 11.38; BMI 30.84 ± 3.64; AHI 36.63 ± 24.18) were compared with 36 control subjects (age 54.42 ± 6.63; BMI 29.06 ± 4.7; AHI 3.8 ± 1.10). In blood cells Content of MtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) was measured in OSAS patients by Real Time PCR. The ratio between MtDNA/nDNA was then calculated. Presence of oxidative stress was evaluated by levels of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (ROMs), measured by diacron reactive oxygen metabolite test (d-ROM test). MtDNA/nDNA was higher in patients with OSAS than in the control group (150.94 ± 49.14 vs 128.96 ± 45.8; p = 0.04), the levels of ROMs were also higher in OSAS subjects (329.71 ± 70.17 vs 226 ± 36.76; p = 0.04) and they were positively correlated with MtDNA/nDNA (R = 0.5, p DNA damage induced by the increase of oxidative stress. Intermittent hypoxia seems to be the main mechanism which leads to this process.

  9. Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A. Stuart; Reed, Sasha; Cleveland, Cory

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptual models predict that changes in plant litter chemistry during decomposition are primarily regulated by both initial litter chemistry and the stage-or extent-of mass loss. Far less is known about how variations in decomposer community structure (e.g., resulting from different ecosystem management types) could influence litter chemistry during decomposition. Given the recent agricultural intensification occurring globally and the importance of litter chemistry in regulating soil organic matter storage, our objectives were to determine the potential effects of agricultural management on plant litter chemistry and decomposition rates, and to investigate possible links between ecosystem management, litter chemistry and decomposition, and decomposer community composition and activity. We measured decomposition rates, changes in litter chemistry, extracellular enzyme activity, microarthropod communities, and bacterial versus fungal relative abundance in replicated conventional-till, no-till, and old field agricultural sites for both corn and grass litter. After one growing season, litter decomposition under conventional-till was 20% greater than in old field communities. However, decomposition rates in no-till were not significantly different from those in old field or conventional-till sites. After decomposition, grass residue in both conventional- and no-till systems was enriched in total polysaccharides relative to initial litter, while grass litter decomposed in old fields was enriched in nitrogen-bearing compounds and lipids. These differences corresponded with differences in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate that agricultural intensification can increase litter decomposition rates, alter decomposer communities, and influence litter chemistry in ways that could have important and long-term effects on soil organic matter dynamics. We suggest that future

  10. Altered thalamic functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou; Liang, Peipeng; Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong; Jia, Xiuqin [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shi, Fu-Dong [Department of Neurology and Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We demonstrated decreased connectivity between thalamus and cortical regions in MS. •Increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity was also observed in MS. •The increased functional connectivity is attenuated by increasing disease duration. -- Abstract: Objective: To compare thalamic functional connectivity (FC) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC), and correlate these connectivity measures with other MRI and clinical variables. Methods: We employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in thalamic connectivity by comparing thirty-five patients with MS and 35 age- and sex-matched HC. Thalamic FC was investigated by correlating low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in thalamic voxels with voxels in all other brain regions. Additionally thalamic volume fraction (TF), T2 lesion volume (T2LV), EDSS and disease duration were recorded and correlated with the FC changes. Results: MS patients were found to have a significantly lower TF than HC in bilateral thalami. Compared to HC, the MS group showed significantly decreased FC between thalamus and several brain regions including right middle frontal and parahippocampal gyri, and the left inferior parietal lobule. Increased intra- and inter-thalamic FC was observed in the MS group compared to HC. These FC alterations were not correlated with T2LV, thalamic volume or lesions. In the MS group, however, there was a negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity (r = −0.59, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated decreased FC between thalamus and several cortical regions, while increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity in MS patients. These complex functional changes reflect impairments and/or adaptations that are independent of T2LV, thalamic volume or presence of thalamic lesions. The negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity could indicate an adaptive role of thalamus that is

  11. Metabolic alterations in experimental models of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Puiu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Major depressive disorder is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and is associated with a severe impact on the personal functioning, thus with incurring significant direct and indirect costs. The presence of depression in patients with medical comorbidities increases the risks of myocardial infarction and decreases diabetes control, and adherence to treatment. The mechanism through which these effects are produced is still uncertain. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the metabolic alterations in female Wistar rats with induced depression, with and without administration of Agomelatine. The methods included two experiments. All data were analyzed by comparison with group I (control, and with each other. In the first experiment we induced depression by: exposure to chronic mild stress-group II; olfactory bulbectomy-group III; and exposure to chronic mild stress and hyperlipidic/ hyper caloric dietgroup IV. The second experiment was similar with the first but the rats received Agomelatine (0.16mg/ animal: group V (depression induced through exposure to chronic mild stress, VI (depression induced through olfactory bulbectomy and VII (depression induced through exposure to chronic mild stressing hyperlipidic/ hypercaloric diet. Weight, cholesterol, triglycerides and glycaemia were measured at day 0 and 28, and leptin value was measured at day 28. The results in the 1st experiment revealed significant differences (p<0.01 for weight and cholesterol in Group IV, for triglycerides in groups III and IV (p<0.001, and for glycaemia in group II. The 2nd experiment revealed significant differences (p<0.001 in group VII for weight and triglycerides, and in groups V and VI for triglycerides (p<0.01. In conclusion, significant correlations were found between high level of triglycerides and depression induced by chronic stress and olfactory bulbectomy. Agomelatine groups had a lower increase of triglycerides levels.

  12. Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  13. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  14. Borosilicate nuclear waste glass alteration kinetics theoretical basis for the kinetic law of nuclear glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegou, Ch.; Gin, St.; Advocat, Th.; Vernaz, E.

    1997-01-01

    Work carried out since the early 1980's to predict the long-term behavior of nuclear containment glasses has revealed the inadequacy of existing models, notably in accounting for the fundamental mechanisms involved in some complex systems (e.g. glass-water-clay), inciting us to examine and discuss the theoretical basis for the hypotheses generally assumed in our models. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for the Aagaard-Helgeson law and its application to nuclear glasses. The contribution of other types of kinetic laws is also considered to describe the alteration kinetics of nuclear glasses. (authors)

  15. Oral Probiotics Alter Healthy Feline Respiratory Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vientós-Plotts, Aida I; Ericsson, Aaron C; Rindt, Hansjorg; Reinero, Carol R

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics have been advocated as a novel therapeutic approach to respiratory disease, but knowledge of how oral administration of probiotics influences the respiratory microbiota is needed. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of bacterial DNA our objective was to determine whether oral probiotics changed the composition of the upper and lower airway, rectal, and blood microbiota. We hypothesized that oral probiotics would modulate the respiratory microbiota in healthy cats, demonstrated by the detection and/or increased relative abundance of the probiotic bacterial species and altered composition of the microbial population in the respiratory tract. Six healthy young research cats had oropharyngeal (OP), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), rectal, and blood samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks after receiving oral probiotics. 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries were sequenced, and coverage, richness, and relative abundance of representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were determined. Hierarchical and principal component analyses (PCA) demonstrated relatedness of samples. Mean microbial richness significantly increased only in the upper and lower airways. The number of probiotic OTUs (out of 5 total) that significantly increased in relative abundance vs. baseline was 5 in OP, 3 in BAL and 2 in feces. Using hierarchical clustering, BALF and blood samples grouped together after probiotic administration, and PERMANOVA supported that these two sites underwent significant changes in microbial composition. PERMANOVA revealed that OP and rectal samples had microbial population compositions that did not significantly change. These findings were visualized via PCA, which revealed distinct microbiomes in each site; samples clustered more tightly at baseline and had more variation after probiotic administration. This is the first study describing the effect of oral probiotics on the respiratory microbiota via detection of probiotic species in the airways. Finding

  16. Oral Probiotics Alter Healthy Feline Respiratory Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida I. Vientós-Plotts

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been advocated as a novel therapeutic approach to respiratory disease, but knowledge of how oral administration of probiotics influences the respiratory microbiota is needed. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of bacterial DNA our objective was to determine whether oral probiotics changed the composition of the upper and lower airway, rectal, and blood microbiota. We hypothesized that oral probiotics would modulate the respiratory microbiota in healthy cats, demonstrated by the detection and/or increased relative abundance of the probiotic bacterial species and altered composition of the microbial population in the respiratory tract. Six healthy young research cats had oropharyngeal (OP, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, rectal, and blood samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks after receiving oral probiotics. 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries were sequenced, and coverage, richness, and relative abundance of representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs were determined. Hierarchical and principal component analyses (PCA demonstrated relatedness of samples. Mean microbial richness significantly increased only in the upper and lower airways. The number of probiotic OTUs (out of 5 total that significantly increased in relative abundance vs. baseline was 5 in OP, 3 in BAL and 2 in feces. Using hierarchical clustering, BALF and blood samples grouped together after probiotic administration, and PERMANOVA supported that these two sites underwent significant changes in microbial composition. PERMANOVA revealed that OP and rectal samples had microbial population compositions that did not significantly change. These findings were visualized via PCA, which revealed distinct microbiomes in each site; samples clustered more tightly at baseline and had more variation after probiotic administration. This is the first study describing the effect of oral probiotics on the respiratory microbiota via detection of probiotic species in the

  17. Physiological alterations in UV-irradiated cells: liquid holding recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical and physiological alterations that occur in ultraviolet irradiated cells, during liquid holding have been studied. Incubation in buffer acts not to interfer directly with the mechanic repairs but by promoting metabolic alterations that would block some irreversible and lethal physiological responses. (L.M.J.) [pt

  18. 46 CFR 176.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair or replacement, other than replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 176.700 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 176.700 Permission for...

  19. Alterity: Learning Polyvalent Selves, Resisting Disabling Notions of the Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wayland

    2011-01-01

    This article queries how one type of human difference--alterity, the experience of multiple distinct consciousnesses, or "alters," by one person--is pathologized in American culture. This experience is inscribed as a mental illness, labeled now as dissociative identity disorder (DID) and formerly known as multiple personality disorder (MPD). In…

  20. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... have been found in numerous studies. It is unclear whether such alterations are related to specific mood states. As a biphasic disorder, mood state-related alterations in gene expression have the potential to point to markers of disease activity, and trait-related alterations might indicate...... vulnerability pathways. This review therefore evaluated the evidence for whether gene expression in bipolar disorder is state or trait related. Methods:  A systematic review, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline for reporting systematic reviews, based...

  1. Hydrothermal alteration in Dumoga Barat, Bolaang Mongondow area North Sulawesi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Harjanto' Sutanto; Sutarto; Achmad Subandrio; I Made Suasta; Juanito Salamat; Giri Hartono; Putu Suputra; I Gde Basten; Muhammad Fauzi; Rosdiana

    2016-01-01

    Bolaang Mongondow is located in central north Sulawesi arm, which is composed of Neogen magmatic arc and potentially contain economic minerals. This condition is behind the research purpose to study the mineral resources potencies. Research aim is to study alteration caused by hydrothermal process and its relation with gold (Au) deposit based on field study and laboratory analysis. Methodologies used for the research are literature study, geological survey, rocks sampling, laboratory analysis, and data processing. Research area is a multiply diorite intrusion complex. Andesite, volcaniclastic rocks, and dacite, the older rocks, were intruded by this complex. Later, dacitic tuff, volcanic sandstone, and alluvium deposited above them. There are three measured and mapped major faults heading NE-SW crossed by E-W fault and NW-SE fault lately crossed all the older faults. Early stage hydrothermal alteration related to the existence of young quartz diorite, showing alteration stage from the potassic center to distal prophylatic. Final stage hydrothermal alteration consist of argilic, advanced argilic, and silica-clay mineral±magnetite±chlorite alteration overlapping the earlier alteration. Mineralization of Cu-Au±Ag in central part of research area or Tayap-Kinomaligan area is mostly associated with potassic altered young quartz diorite and crossed by parallel and stock worked quartz-magnetite-chalcopyrite±bornite vein. (author)

  2. Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ken A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-04-01

    While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide-a potent antiherbivore defense. We conducted a common garden experiment with 185 clonal families of T. repens that included cyanogenic and acyanogenic genotypes. We quantified resistance to herbivores, and selection on six floral traits and phenology via male and female fitness. Cyanogenesis reduced herbivory but did not alter the expression of reproductive traits through allocation trade-offs. However, the presence of cyanogenic defenses altered natural selection on petal morphology and the number of flowers within inflorescences via female fitness. Herbivory influenced selection on flowers and phenology via female fitness independently of cyanogenesis. Our results demonstrate that both herbivory and antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits. We discuss the significance of these results for understanding how antiherbivore defenses interact with herbivores and pollinators to shape floral evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Rare earth impact on glass structure and alteration kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molieres, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work is related to the question of the geological deep repository of high-level waste glass. These wastes include fission products and minor actinides, elements which can be simulated by rare earths. As new glass compositions could enable increased rare earth concentrations, it is crucial to know and understand rare earth impact on glass structure on the one hand, and on glass alteration kinetics or their incorporation into an altered layer. This work studied simplified borosilicate glasses in order to limit synergetic effects between rare earths and other elements. Various complementary techniques were used to characterize pristine and altered glasses (solid-high resolution NMR, Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence, SIMS, SAXS). Firstly, the structural role of a rare earth is discussed and is compared to a calcium cation. The local environment of rare earths is also probed. Secondly, rare earth (nature and concentration) impact on several alteration regimes was studied (initial rate, rate drop). Then, after alteration, rare earth elements being retained within the altered layer, the structural impact of rare earth elements (and their local environment) in this alteration layer was also investigated. (author) [fr

  4. ARID1B alterations identify aggressive tumors in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Jung-Sun; Zheng, Siyuan; Huse, Jason T; Bae, Joon Seol; Lee, Ji Won; Yoo, Keon Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kyung, Sungkyu; Park, Woong-Yang; Sung, Ki W

    2017-07-11

    Targeted panel sequencing was performed to determine molecular targets and biomarkers in 72 children with neuroblastoma. Frequent genetic alterations were detected in ALK (16.7%), BRCA1 (13.9%), ATM (12.5%), and PTCH1 (11.1%) in an 83-gene panel. Molecular targets for targeted therapy were identified in 16 of 72 patients (22.2%). Two-thirds of ALK mutations were known to increase sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. Sequence alterations in ARID1B were identified in 5 of 72 patients (6.9%). Four of five ARID1B alterations were detected in tumors of high-risk patients. Two of five patients with ARID1B alterations died of disease progression. Relapse-free survival was lower in patients with ARID1B alterations than in those without (p = 0.01). In analysis confined to high-risk patients, 3-year overall survival was lower in patients with an ARID1B alteration (33.3 ± 27.2%) or MYCN amplification (30.0 ± 23.9%) than in those with neither ARID1B alteration nor MYCN amplification (90.5 ± 6.4%, p = 0.05). These results provide possibilities for targeted therapy and a new biomarker identifying a subgroup of neuroblastoma patients with poor prognosis.

  5. Diets of differentially processed wheat alter ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S Z; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Li, Z; Zhang, C Y; Liu, X M; Wan, F C

    2015-11-01

    The influences of differently processed wheat products on rumen fermentation, microbial populations, and serum biochemistry profiles in beef cattle were studied. Four ruminally cannulated Limousin × Luxi beef cattle (400 ± 10 kg) were used in the experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental diets contained (on a DM basis) 60% corn silage as a forage source and 40% concentrate with 4 differently processed wheat products (extruded, pulverized, crushed, and rolled wheat). Concentrations of ruminal NH-N and microbial protein (MCP) in cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat were greater ( Ruminal concentrations of total VFA and acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased ( 0.05). Our findings suggest that the method of wheat processing could have a significant effect on ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle and that crushed and rolled processing is better in terms of ruminal NH-N and MCP content, acetate-to-propionate ratio, and relative abundance of rumen microorganisms.

  6. ORIENTATION FIELD RECONSTRUCTION OF ALTERED FINGERPRINT USING ORTHOGONAL WAVELETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini M.G.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ridge orientation field is an important feature for fingerprint matching and fingerprint reconstruction. Matching of the altered fingerprint against its unaltered mates can be done by extracting the available features in the altered fingerprint and using it along with approximated ridge orientation. This paper presents a method for approximating ridge orientation field of altered fingerprints. In the proposed method, sine and cosine of doubled orientation of the fingerprint is decomposed using orthogonal wavelets and reconstructed back using only the approximation coefficients. No prior information about the singular points is needed for orientation approximation. The method is found suitable for orientation estimation of low quality fingerprint images also.

  7. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes.

  8. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supprian, T.; Kessler, H.; Falkai, P.; Retz, W.; Roesler, M.; Grunwald, I.; Reith, W.

    2003-01-01

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.) [de

  9. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes

  10. Níveis críticos dos ácidos acético, propiônico e butírico para estudos de toxicidade em arroz em solução nutritiva Critical levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids for toxicity studies of rice in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marini Kopp

    2007-03-01

    and 20 mM, propionic acid (0; 3; 6; 9; 12; and 15 mM and butyric acid (0; 2; 4; 6; 8 and 10 mM and two genotypes of high divergence (BRS-7-TAIM and SAIBAN were used. The results indicate that the most appropriate concentration ranges for studies of rice tolerance to organic acids are: 8.4 and 15.8; 4.2 and 9.1 and 3.7 and 7.7 mM for acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively, and the most responsive variable was root length.

  11. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feed News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...

  12. Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile, ... cheaper alternative source for good quality protein for dietary purposes, we evaluated Detarium ... Whole seed residue, DDS seed flour and control diets (soybeans) were ...

  13. Diet, lifestyle, and molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors have been repeatedly implicated in the etiology of colorectal cancer, and much is known about the molecular events involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The relationships between environmental risk factors and the molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis are

  14. Alterations of the ECG after frationated radiotherapy of the mediastine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alheit, C.; Alheit, H.D.; Herrmann, T.

    1986-01-01

    In 72 patients with irradiation of the mediastine the ECGs were examined before, immediately after, and 3-6 months after termination of radiotherapy. In comparison with starting findings 41.7% ECG alterations were found at the end of irradiation and 40.1% in control examinations. Mainly it was the question of alterations in ST-lines, in type of position, in P-waves, and an increase of the heart rate. However, in result of uni- and multivariant variance analyses it could be shown, that extracardiac factors and general reactions of the irradiated organism resulted in ECG alterations too. Considering the correlation of ECG alterations to the heart dose however, a direct influence of the capillary system of the heart has also to be discussed and an adequate after-care of patients with irradiation of the mediastine must be recommended. (author)

  15. Alteration of basaltic glasses from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    Textural, mineralogical and compositional characteristics of basaltic glasses from the Central Indian Ocean show them to be altered to varying extents through their interaction with the seawater, resulting in the formation of palagonite. The major...

  16. Mapping hydrothermal altered mineral deposits using Landsat 7 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the colour composite, band ratio, principal component analysis, least square ... to hydrothermal alteration mapping using multi- ..... ing of the two images is also achieved by PCA; .... remote sensing perspective; 2nd edn, Prentice Hall Series.

  17. Characterizing genomic alterations in cancer by complementary functional associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Botvinnik, Olga B; Abudayyeh, Omar; Birger, Chet; Rosenbluh, Joseph; Shrestha, Yashaswi; Abazeed, Mohamed E; Hammerman, Peter S; DiCara, Daniel; Konieczkowski, David J; Johannessen, Cory M; Liberzon, Arthur; Alizad-Rahvar, Amir Reza; Alexe, Gabriela; Aguirre, Andrew; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Greulich, Heidi; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Tsherniak, Aviad; Shao, Diane D; Zack, Travis I; Noble, Michael; Getz, Gad; Beroukhim, Rameen; Garraway, Levi A; Ardakani, Masoud; Romualdi, Chiara; Sales, Gabriele; Barbie, David A; Boehm, Jesse S; Hahn, William C; Mesirov, Jill P; Tamayo, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Systematic efforts to sequence the cancer genome have identified large numbers of mutations and copy number alterations in human cancers. However, elucidating the functional consequences of these variants, and their interactions to drive or maintain oncogenic states, remains a challenge in cancer research. We developed REVEALER, a computational method that identifies combinations of mutually exclusive genomic alterations correlated with functional phenotypes, such as the activation or gene dependency of oncogenic pathways or sensitivity to a drug treatment. We used REVEALER to uncover complementary genomic alterations associated with the transcriptional activation of β-catenin and NRF2, MEK-inhibitor sensitivity, and KRAS dependency. REVEALER successfully identified both known and new associations, demonstrating the power of combining functional profiles with extensive characterization of genomic alterations in cancer genomes.

  18. The alteration of the BPM, burden neutrality and autonomous greening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The foundation of the purchase tax on passenger cars (BPM) in the Netherlands is gradually altered from catalogue value to CO2 emission per kilometer of the new car. The tariffs have been established in such a way that they meet the precondition of burden neutrality of the BPM alteration. There is some discussion about this and the first part of this publication will address this issue. The issue of burden neutrality is part of a study by DHV Investment Services (DHV). The first main conclusion of the DHV study is that the alteration is not budget neutral. The study entails an applied welfare analysis of the alteration of the BPM foundation. Some comments on the welfare analysis are provided in the second part of this memo. Another issue that is addressed involves the question if and how the autonomous decrease in CO2 emission of newly sold cars can be established in practice. [nl

  19. Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle. ... Heat stress reduces the degree of dominance of the selected follicle and this can be seen as reduced steroidogenic capacity of its theca and ... from 32 Countries:.

  20. Environmental enteric dysfunction is associated with altered bile acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a clinically asymptomatic condition characterized by inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, villous atrophy, and increased gut permeability, is common among children in developing countries. Because of abnormal gut mucosa and altered gut microbiome, EED coul...

  1. Isolation and characterization of altered root growth behavior and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... contrasting root growth behavior and salinity tolerance in rice will help us to identify key genes controlling ..... In order to screen plants showing altered response ... were found to remain green even after 15 days of salinity.

  2. Theoretical cell alteration model in the context of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A model incorporating cell survival and alteration is used to discuss the general nature of cellular response to a toxic agent. Cell division and repair are discussed as regards their influence on dose-response relationships to bone-seeking radionuclides. The application of the model in its present form to specific biologic end points depends on the assumption that such end points are the result of some initial alteration

  3. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  4. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical ...

  5. Chromium supplementation alters the performance and health of feedlot cattle during the receiving period and enhances their metabolic response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossbred steers (n = 180; 230 +/- 6 kg) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromiumPropionate0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly-received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens; ...

  6. Development of gypsum alteration on marble and limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Blackened alteration crusts of gypsum plus particulates that form on sheltered areas on marble and limestone buildings pose a challenge for rehabilitation and cleaning. Fresh marble and limestone samples exposed at monitored exposure sites present conditions of simple geometry and well-documented exposures but have short exposure histories (one to five years). The gypsum alteration crusts that develop on these samples provide insight into the early stages and rate of alteration crust formation. Alteration crusts from buildings give a longer, but less well known exposure history and present much more complex surfaces for gypsum accumulation. Integrated observations and measurements of alteration crusts from exposure samples and from buildings identify four factors that are important in the formation and development of alteration crusts on marble and limestone: (1) pollution levels, (2) exposure to rain or washing, (3) geometry of exposure of the stone surface, and (4) permeability of the stone. The combination of these factors contributes to both the distribution and the physical characteristics of the gypsum crusts which may affect cleaning decisions.

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor structural alterations in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Cátia; Mateus, Ana R; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carneiro, Fátima; Seruca, Raquel; Suriano, Gianpaolo

    2008-01-01

    EGFR overexpression has been described in many human tumours including gastric cancer. In NSCLC patients somatic EGFR mutations, within the kinase domain of the protein, as well as gene amplification were associated with a good clinical response to EGFR inhibitors. In gastric tumours data concerning structural alterations of EGFR remains controversial. Given its possible therapeutic relevance, we aimed to determine the frequency and type of structural alterations of the EGFR gene in a series of primary gastric carcinomas. Direct sequencing of the kinase domain of the EGFR gene was performed in a series of 77 primary gastric carcinomas. FISH analysis was performed in 30 cases. Association studies between EGFR alterations and the clinical pathological features of the tumours were performed. Within the 77 primary gastric carcinomas we found two EGFR somatic mutations and several EGFR polymorphisms in exon 20. Six different intronic sequence variants of EGFR were also found. Four gastric carcinomas showed balanced polysomy or EGFR gene amplification. We verified that gastric carcinoma with alterations of EGFR (somatic mutations or copy number variation) showed a significant increase of tumour size (p = 0.0094) in comparison to wild-type EGFR carcinomas. We demonstrate that EGFR structural alterations are rare in gastric carcinoma, but whenever present, it leads to tumour growth. We considered that searching for EGFR alterations in gastric cancer is likely to be clinically important in order to identify patients susceptible to respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

  8. Antagonist effects of calcium on borosilicate glass alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado-Depierre, S. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Angeli, F., E-mail: frederic.angeli@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frizon, F. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM LP2C, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Gin, S. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Kinetic study of glass alteration is investigated in calcium-enriched solutions. •New insights into silicon–calcium interactions in glass/cement systems are proposed. •Glass alteration is controlled by pH, Ca concentration and reaction progress. •Evidence of antagonist effects according to the importance of these parameters. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted on glass and cement durability in contact with water, but very little work to date has focused directly on interactions between the two materials. These interactions are mostly controlled by silicon–calcium reactivity. However, the physical and chemical processes involved remain insufficiently understood to predict the evolution of coupled glass–cement systems used in several industrial applications. Results are reported from borosilicate glass alteration in calcium-rich solutions. Our data show that four distinct behaviors can be expected according to the relative importance of three key parameters: the pH, the reaction progress (short- or long-term alteration) and the calcium concentration. Glass alteration is thus controlled by specific mechanisms depending on the solution chemistry: calcium complexation at the glass surface, precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (C–S–H) or calcium incorporation in the altered layer. These findings highlight the impact of silicon–calcium interactions on glass durability and open the way for a better understanding of glass–cement mixing in civil engineering applications as well as in nuclear waste storage.

  9. Detection Of Alterations In Audio Files Using Spectrograph Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandha Krishnan G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The corresponding study was carried out to detect changes in audio file using spectrograph. An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. A sound spectrograph is a laboratory instrument that displays a graphical representation of the strengths of the various component frequencies of a sound as time passes. The objectives of the study were to find the changes in spectrograph of audio after altering them to compare altering changes with spectrograph of original files and to check for similarity and difference in mp3 and wav. Five different alterations were carried out on each audio file to analyze the differences between the original and the altered file. For altering the audio file MP3 or WAV by cutcopy the file was opened in Audacity. A different audio was then pasted to the audio file. This new file was analyzed to view the differences. By adjusting the necessary parameters the noise was reduced. The differences between the new file and the original file were analyzed. By adjusting the parameters from the dialog box the necessary changes were made. The edited audio file was opened in the software named spek where after analyzing a graph is obtained of that particular file which is saved for further analysis. The original audio graph received was combined with the edited audio file graph to see the alterations.

  10. The genetic alteration of p53 in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Il; Baik, Hee Jong; Kim, Chang Min; Kim, Mi Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    Genetic alterations in the p53 gene have been detected in various human malignancies, and its alterations inactive the function of p53 as a tumor suppressor. Point mutation and gene deletion are the main mechanisms of p53 inactivation. To determine the incidence of genetic alteration of p53 and their clinical implications in Korean patients of esophageal cancer, we investigated p53 alterations in 26 esophageal cancer tissues paired with its normal tissue by Southern blot analysis, PCR-SSCP, and direct sequencing. Allelic loss of chromosome 17p occurred in 12 out of 21 informative cases(57%) by Southern blot analysis, and 16 cases showed mobility shift in PCR-SSCP, so overall incidence of p53 gene alterations was 77%(20/26). The mutations detected was randomly dispersed over exon4-8 and was frequently G-T transversion and C:T transitions. Three identical mutations were clustered at codon 213 suggested the same etiologic agents in this cases. The p53 gene alterations play a significant role in the development of esophageal cancers, however, no relationship between p53 mutation and clinical data was detected so far. 9 refs. (Author).

  11. Antagonist effects of calcium on borosilicate glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Depierre, S.; Angeli, F.; Frizon, F.; Gin, S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Kinetic study of glass alteration is investigated in calcium-enriched solutions. •New insights into silicon–calcium interactions in glass/cement systems are proposed. •Glass alteration is controlled by pH, Ca concentration and reaction progress. •Evidence of antagonist effects according to the importance of these parameters. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted on glass and cement durability in contact with water, but very little work to date has focused directly on interactions between the two materials. These interactions are mostly controlled by silicon–calcium reactivity. However, the physical and chemical processes involved remain insufficiently understood to predict the evolution of coupled glass–cement systems used in several industrial applications. Results are reported from borosilicate glass alteration in calcium-rich solutions. Our data show that four distinct behaviors can be expected according to the relative importance of three key parameters: the pH, the reaction progress (short- or long-term alteration) and the calcium concentration. Glass alteration is thus controlled by specific mechanisms depending on the solution chemistry: calcium complexation at the glass surface, precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (C–S–H) or calcium incorporation in the altered layer. These findings highlight the impact of silicon–calcium interactions on glass durability and open the way for a better understanding of glass–cement mixing in civil engineering applications as well as in nuclear waste storage

  12. Learning Arm/Hand Coordination with an Altered Visual Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Denisia Iftime Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was to test a novel tool for the analysis of motor coordination with an altered visual input. The altered visual input was created using special glasses that presented the view as recorded by a video camera placed at various positions around the subject. The camera was positioned at a frontal (F, lateral (L, or top (T position with respect to the subject. We studied the differences between the arm-end (wrist trajectories while grasping an object between altered vision (F, L, and T conditions and normal vision (N in ten subjects. The outcome measures from the analysis were the trajectory errors, the movement parameters, and the time of execution. We found substantial trajectory errors and an increased execution time at the baseline of the study. We also found that trajectory errors decreased in all conditions after three days of practice with the altered vision in the F condition only for 20 minutes per day, suggesting that recalibration of the visual systems occurred relatively quickly. These results indicate that this recalibration occurs via movement training in an altered condition. The results also suggest that recalibration is more difficult to achieve for altered vision in the F and L conditions compared to the T condition. This study has direct implications on the design of new rehabilitation systems.

  13. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrothermal Alteration of the Mt Unzen Conduit (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T. I.; Mayer, K.; Hess, K. U.; Janots, E.; Gilg, H. A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, and C-O-isotope analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the magma conduit zone was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite and R1 illite-smectite in the groundmass. Carbonates in fractures comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values of d13Cvpdb = -4.59 ± 0.6‰ and d18Ovpdb = -21.73 ± 0.5‰ indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest conduit alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration degree of the pristine dome rocks. Highest CCPI value was determined for sample C14-1-5 and the highest AI value was determined for sample C15-2-6. The degrees of alteration do not indicate highest alteration of the

  15. Hydrothermal alteration of a rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza Island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylagan, Robert F.; Altaner, Stephen P.; Pozzuoli, Antonio

    1996-12-01

    A rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza island, Italy, has been hydrothermally altered producing four distinct alteration zones based on XRD and field textures: (1) non-pervasive argillic zone; (2) propylitic zone; (3) silicic zone; and (4) sericitic zone. The unaltered hyaloclastite is a volcanic breccia with clasts of vesiculated obsidian in a matrix of predominantly pumice lapilli. Incomplete alteration of the hyaloclastite resulted in the non pervasive argillic zone, characterized by smectite and disordered opal-CT. Obsidian clasts, some pumice lapilli, and pyrogenic plagioclase and biotite are unaltered. Smectite has an irregular flakey morphology, although euhedral particles are occasionally observed. The propylitic zone is characterized by mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) with 10 to 85% illite (I), mordenite, opal-C and authigenic K-feldspar (akspar). The matrix of the hyaloclastite is completely altered and obsidian clasts are silicified; however, plagioclase and biotite phenocrysts remain unaltered. Flakey I/S replaces pumice, and mordenite, akspar and silica line and fill pores. I/S particles are composed predominantly of subequant plates and euhedral laths. The silicic zone is characterized by highly illitic I/S with ≥ 90% I, quartz, akspar and occasional albite. In this zone the matrix and clasts are completely altered, and pyrogenic plagioclase shows significant alteration. Illitic I/S has a euhedral lath-like morphology. In the sericitic zone the hyaloclastite altered primarily to illitic I/S with ≥ 66% I, quartz, and minor akspar and pyrite. Clay minerals completely replace pyrogenic feldspars and little evidence remains of the original hyaloclastite texture. Unlike other zones, illitic I/S is fibrous and pure illite samples are composed of euhedral laths and hexagonal plates. The temperatures of hydrothermal alteration likely ranged from 30 to 90 °C for the argillic zone, from 110 to 160 °C for the propylitic zone, from 160 to 270 °C for the

  16. Altered states, altered spaces : architecture, space and landscape in the film and television of Stanley Kubrick and Ken Russell

    OpenAIRE

    Melia, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Altered States, Altered Spaces: Architecture, Landscape and Space in the work of Stanley Kubrick and Ken Russell.\\ud \\ud Stanley Kubrick and Ken Russell, at first, seem like unlikely bedfellows for a critical comparison: the combined Baroque, Mannerist, frequently excessive and romantic nature of Russell’s screen standing in apparent contrast to the structure, order, organisation, Brutalism and spatial complexity of Kubrick’s.\\ud \\ud In an online blogpost1 (2007) Russell biographer Paul Sutto...

  17. An alter-centric perspective on employee innovation: The importance of alters' creative self-efficacy and network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Travis J; Venkataramani, Vijaya; Labianca, Giuseppe Joe

    2017-09-01

    While most social network studies of employee innovation behavior examine the focal employees' ("egos'") network structure, we employ an alter-centric perspective to study the personal characteristics of employees' network contacts-their "alters"-to better understand employee innovation. Specifically, we examine how the creative self-efficacy (CSE) and innovation behavior of employees' social network contacts affects their ability to generate and implement novel ideas. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 144 employees in a U.S.-based product development organization. We find that the average CSE of alters in an employee's problem solving network is positively related to that employee's innovation behavior, with this relationship being mediated by these alters' average innovation behavior. The relationship between the alters' average innovation behavior and the employee's own innovation behavior is strengthened when these alters have less dense social networks. Post hoc results suggest that having network contacts with high levels of CSE also leads to an increase in ego's personal CSE 1 year later in cases where the employee's initial level of CSE was relatively low. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Evaluation of bentonite alteration due to interactions with iron. Sensitivity analyses to identify the important factors for the bentonite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Wilson, James; Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Performance assessment of geological disposal systems for high-level radioactive waste requires a consideration of long-term systems behaviour. It is possible that the alteration of swelling clay present in bentonite buffers might have an impact on buffer functions. In the present study, iron (as a candidate overpack material)-bentonite (I-B) interactions were evaluated as the main buffer alteration scenario. Existing knowledge on alteration of bentonite during I-B interactions was first reviewed, then the evaluation methodology was developed considering modeling techniques previously used overseas. A conceptual model for smectite alteration during I-B interactions was produced. The following reactions and processes were selected: 1) release of Fe 2+ due to overpack corrosion; 2) diffusion of Fe 2+ in compacted bentonite; 3) sorption of Fe 2+ on smectite edge and ion exchange in interlayers; 4) dissolution of primary phases and formation of alteration products. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the most important factors for the alteration of bentonite by I-B interactions. (author)

  19. Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, Gregg A.; Clark, Roger N.; Goetz, Alexander F.H.; Livo, K. Eric; Breit, George N.; Kruse, Fred A.; Sutley, Stephen J.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Lowers, Heather A.; Post, James L.; Stoffregen, Roger E.; Ashley, Roger P.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral maps based on Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used to study late Miocene advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada. Distributions of Fe-bearing minerals, clays, micas, sulfates, and carbonates were mapped using the Tetracorder spectral-shape matching system. The Al content of white micas increases toward altered areas and near intrusive rocks. Alunite composition varies from pure K to intimate mixtures of Na-K endmembers with subpixel occurrences of huangite, the Ca analogue of alunite. Intimately mixed Na-K alunite marks areas of relatively lower alteration temperature, whereas co-occurring Na-alunite and dickite may delineate relict hydrothermal conduits. The presence of dickite, halloysite, and well-ordered kaolinite, but absence of disordered kaolinite, is consistent with acidic conditions during hydrothermal alteration. Partial lichen cover on opal spectrally mimics chalcedony, limiting its detection to lichen-free areas. Pods of buddingtonite are remnants of initial quartz-adularia-smectite alteration. Thus, spectral maps provide a synoptic view of the surface mineralogy, and define a previously unrecognized early steam-heated hydrothermal event.Faulting and episodes of hydrothermal alteration at Cuprite were intimately linked to upper plate movements above the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain detachment and growth, collapse, and resurgence of the nearby Stonewall Mountain volcanic complex between 8 and 5 Ma. Isotopic dating indicates that hydrothermal activity started at least by 7.61 Ma and ended by about 6.2 Ma. Spectral and stable isotope data suggest that Cuprite is a late Miocene low-sulfidation adularia-sericite type hot spring deposit overprinted by late-stage, steam-heated advanced argillic alteration formed along the margin of the Stonewall Mountain caldera.

  20. Motivational valence alters memory formation without altering exploration of a real-life spatial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Kimberly S; Hashemi, Jordan; Gans, Lee K; Lerebours, Laura; Clement, Nathaniel J; Vu, Mai-Anh T; Sapiro, Guillermo; Heller, Nicole E; Adcock, R Alison

    2018-01-01

    Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes. To elicit spontaneous exploration, we used the physical space of an art exhibit with affectively rich content; we expected motivated exploration and memory to reflect multiple factors, including not only motivational valence, but also individual differences. Motivation was manipulated via an introductory statement framing exhibit themes in terms of Promotion- or Prevention-oriented goals. Participants explored the exhibit while being tracked by video. They returned 24 hours later for recall and spatial memory tests, followed by measures of motivation, personality, and relevant attitude variables. Promotion and Prevention condition participants did not differ in terms of group-level exploration time or memory metrics, suggesting similar motivation to explore under both framing contexts. However, exploratory behavior and memory outcomes were significantly more closely related under Promotion than Prevention, indicating that Prevention framing disrupted expected depth-of-encoding effects. Additionally, while trait measures predicted exploration similarly across framing conditions, traits interacted with motivational framing context and facial affect to predict memory outcomes. This novel characterization of

  1. Motivational valence alters memory formation without altering exploration of a real-life spatial environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly S Chiew

    Full Text Available Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes. To elicit spontaneous exploration, we used the physical space of an art exhibit with affectively rich content; we expected motivated exploration and memory to reflect multiple factors, including not only motivational valence, but also individual differences. Motivation was manipulated via an introductory statement framing exhibit themes in terms of Promotion- or Prevention-oriented goals. Participants explored the exhibit while being tracked by video. They returned 24 hours later for recall and spatial memory tests, followed by measures of motivation, personality, and relevant attitude variables. Promotion and Prevention condition participants did not differ in terms of group-level exploration time or memory metrics, suggesting similar motivation to explore under both framing contexts. However, exploratory behavior and memory outcomes were significantly more closely related under Promotion than Prevention, indicating that Prevention framing disrupted expected depth-of-encoding effects. Additionally, while trait measures predicted exploration similarly across framing conditions, traits interacted with motivational framing context and facial affect to predict memory outcomes. This novel

  2. Motivational valence alters memory formation without altering exploration of a real-life spatial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Jordan; Gans, Lee K.; Lerebours, Laura; Clement, Nathaniel J.; Vu, Mai-Anh T.; Sapiro, Guillermo; Heller, Nicole E.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2018-01-01

    Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes. To elicit spontaneous exploration, we used the physical space of an art exhibit with affectively rich content; we expected motivated exploration and memory to reflect multiple factors, including not only motivational valence, but also individual differences. Motivation was manipulated via an introductory statement framing exhibit themes in terms of Promotion- or Prevention-oriented goals. Participants explored the exhibit while being tracked by video. They returned 24 hours later for recall and spatial memory tests, followed by measures of motivation, personality, and relevant attitude variables. Promotion and Prevention condition participants did not differ in terms of group-level exploration time or memory metrics, suggesting similar motivation to explore under both framing contexts. However, exploratory behavior and memory outcomes were significantly more closely related under Promotion than Prevention, indicating that Prevention framing disrupted expected depth-of-encoding effects. Additionally, while trait measures predicted exploration similarly across framing conditions, traits interacted with motivational framing context and facial affect to predict memory outcomes. This novel characterization of

  3. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  4. Ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni caused by artemether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Xiao

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Progress has been made over the last decade with the development and clinical use of artemether as an agent against major human schistosome parasites. The tegument has been identified as a key target of artemether, implying detailed studies on ultrastructural damage induced by this compound. We performed a temporal examination, employing a transmission electron microscope to assess the pattern and extent of ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni harboured in mice treated with a single dose of 400 mg/kg artemether. Eight hours post-treatment, damage to the tegument and subtegumental structures was seen. Tegumental alterations reached a peak 3 days after treatment and were characterized by swelling, fusion of distal cytoplasma, focal lysis of the tegumental matrix and vacuolisation. Tubercles and sensory organelles frequently degenerated or collapsed. Typical features of subtegumental alterations, including muscle fibres, syncytium and parenchyma tissues, were focal or extensive lysis, vacuolisation and degeneration of mitochondria. Severe alterations were also observed in gut epithelial cells and vitelline cells of female worms. Our findings of artemether-induced ultrastructural alterations in adult S. mansoni confirm previous results obtained with juvenile S. mansoni and S. japonicum of different ages.

  5. The genetic alteration of retinoblastoma gene in esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Il; Shim, Yung Mok; Kim, Chang Min

    1994-12-01

    Retinoblastoma(RB) gene is the prototype of tumor suppressor gene and it's alteration have been frequently observed in a large number of human tumors. To investigate the role of RB in esophageal cancer, we studied 36 esophageal cancer tissues with Southern blot analysis to detect gross LOH and PCR-SSCP method to find minute LOH and mutation, if any. In the cases with abnormalities, the nucleotide sequence analysis was performed. Allelic loss of chromosome 13q14 occurred in 20 out of 32 informative cases (62.5%) by Southern analysis. Furthermore, PCR-LOH added three positive cases. Mobility shift by PCR-SSCP was observed in one case at exon 22, which showed 1 bp deletion in codon 771 of RB gene resulting in frame shift mutation. Besides, nine PCR-band alteration in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue were observed in exon 14 and 22, but mutation was not found on sequencing analysis suggesting the epigenetic alteration in tumor tissue. Analysis of the clinical data did not show any difference depending upon RB alteration. However, the total incidence of RB gene may play an important role in the development of esophageal cancer. The main genetic alteration of RB gene was deletion detected by Southern blot and one bp deletion leading to frame shift was also observed. 8 figs, 5 tabs. (Author)

  6. Hydrothermal surface alteration in the Copahue Geothermal Field (Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, Graciela R.; Mas, Luis C.; Bengochea, Leandro

    1996-01-24

    In the area of the Copahue Geothermal Field, there are five active geothermal manifestations, which mainly consist of fumaroles, hot springs and mud pots. Four of these manifestations are located in Argentina: Las Máquinas, Termas de Copahue, Las Maquinitas and El Anfiteatro, and the fifth on the Chilean side: Chancho Co. All of them present a strong acid sulfate country rock alteration, characterized by the assemblage alunite + kaolinite + quartz + cristobalite + pyrite + sulfur + jarosite, as the result of the base leaching by fluids concentrated in H2SO4 by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in a steam heated environment of H2S released by deeper boiling fluids. Another alteration zone in this area, called COP-2, is a fossil geothermal manifestation which shows characteristics of neutral to alkaline alteration represented mainly by the siliceous sinter superimposed over the acid alteration. The mineralogy and zoning of these alteration zones, and their relation with the hidrothermal solutions and the major structures of the area are analized.

  7. Congenital heart malformations induced by hemodynamic altering surgical interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline eMidgett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic heart formation results from a dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Blood flow during early embryonic stages plays a critical role in heart development, as interactions between flow and cardiac tissues generate biomechanical forces that modulate cardiac growth and remodeling. Normal hemodynamic conditions are essential for proper cardiac development, while altered blood flow induced by surgical manipulations in animal models result in heart defects similar to those seen in humans with congenital heart disease. This review compares the altered hemodynamics, changes in tissue properties, and cardiac defects reported after common surgical interventions that alter hemodynamics in the early chick embryo, and shows that interventions produce a wide spectrum of cardiac defects. Vitelline vein ligation and left atrial ligation decrease blood pressure and flow; and outflow tract banding increases blood pressure and flow velocities. These three surgical interventions result in many of the same cardiac defects, which indicate that the altered hemodynamics interfere with common looping, septation and valve formation processes that occur after intervention and that shape the four-chambered heart. While many similar defects develop after the interventions, the varying degrees of hemodynamic load alteration among the three interventions also result in varying incidence and severity of cardiac defects, indicating that the hemodynamic modulation of cardiac developmental processes is strongly dependent on hemodynamic load.

  8. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Lee

    Full Text Available Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc. are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness-subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984-but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the "Dance of Souls", a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress, self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale. Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers and in participants adopting other roles.

  9. Macroinvertebrate community change associated with the severity of streamflow alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Daren M.; Eng, Kenny; Nelson, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural streamflows play a critical role in stream ecosystems, yet quantitative relations between streamflow alteration and stream health have been elusive. One reason for this difficulty is that neither streamflow alteration nor ecological responses are measured relative to their natural expectations. We assessed macroinvertebrate community condition in 25 mountain streams representing a large gradient of streamflow alteration, which we quantified as the departure of observed flows from natural expectations. Observed flows were obtained from US Geological Survey streamgaging stations and discharge records from dams and diversion structures. During low-flow conditions in September, samples of macroinvertebrate communities were collected at each site, in addition to measures of physical habitat, water chemistry and organic matter. In general, streamflows were artificially high during summer and artificially low throughout the rest of the year. Biological condition, as measured by richness of sensitive taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) and taxonomic completeness (O/E), was strongly and negatively related to the severity of depleted flows in winter. Analyses of macroinvertebrate traits suggest that taxa losses may have been caused by thermal modification associated with streamflow alteration. Our study yielded quantitative relations between the severity of streamflow alteration and the degree of biological impairment and suggests that water management that reduces streamflows during winter months is likely to have negative effects on downstream benthic communities in Utah mountain streams. 

  10. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewald, Tonio; Comber, Evelyn M.; Hanson, Sarah A.; Pruitt, Bria

    2016-01-01

    Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc.) are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness—subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984)—but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the “Dance of Souls”, a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress), self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers) and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders) showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test) and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale). Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers) and in participants adopting other roles. PMID:27175897

  11. The genetic alteration of retinoblastoma gene in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Il; Shim, Yung Mok; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Retinoblastoma(RB) gene is the prototype of tumor suppressor gene and it`s alteration have been frequently observed in a large number of human tumors. To investigate the role of RB in esophageal cancer, we studied 36 esophageal cancer tissues with Southern blot analysis to detect gross LOH and PCR-SSCP method to find minute LOH and mutation, if any. In the cases with abnormalities, the nucleotide sequence analysis was performed. Allelic loss of chromosome 13q14 occurred in 20 out of 32 informative cases (62.5%) by Southern analysis. Furthermore, PCR-LOH added three positive cases. Mobility shift by PCR-SSCP was observed in one case at exon 22, which showed 1 bp deletion in codon 771 of RB gene resulting in frame shift mutation. Besides, nine PCR-band alteration in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue were observed in exon 14 and 22, but mutation was not found on sequencing analysis suggesting the epigenetic alteration in tumor tissue. Analysis of the clinical data did not show any difference depending upon RB alteration. However, the total incidence of RB gene may play an important role in the development of esophageal cancer. The main genetic alteration of RB gene was deletion detected by Southern blot and one bp deletion leading to frame shift was also observed. 8 figs, 5 tabs. (Author).

  12. Mechanisms for altered carnitine content in hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, D.K.; O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carnitine levels are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction (banding) and evaluated in hypertrophied hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In an attempt to determine the mechanisms for these alterations, L-[ 14 C]carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by ∼20% in hypertrophied hearts of banded rats at all perfusate carnitine concentrations employed. The reduction in total uptake was due to a 40% reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake with no difference in uptake by diffusion. In contrast, carnitine uptake was not altered in isolated hypertrophied hearts of SHR. However, serum carnitine levels were elevated in SHR, which could result in increased myocardial carnitine uptake in vivo. The data suggest that altered carnitine content in hypertrophied hearts of aortic-banded rats is due to an alteration in the carrier-mediated carnitine transport system in the myocardium. However, altered carnitine content in hypertrophied hearts of SHR is not due to a change in the carnitine transport system per se but may rather be due to a change in serum carnitine levels

  13. Power loss analysis in altered tooth-sum spur gearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidananda H. K.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of power loss or dissipation of heat in case of meshed gears is due to friction existing between gear tooth mesh and is a major concern in low rotational speed gears, whereas in case of high operating speed the power loss taking place due to compression of air-lubricant mixture (churning losses and windage losses due to aerodynamic trial of air lubricant mixture which controls the total efficiency needs to be considered. Therefore, in order to improve mechanical efficiency it is necessary for gear designer during gear tooth optimization to consider these energy losses. In this research paper the power loss analysis for a tooth-sum of 100 altered by ±4% operating between a specified center distance is considered. The results show that negative altered tooth-sum gearing performs better as compared to standard and positive altered tooth-sum gearing.

  14. Rheumatoid cachexia and other nutritional alterations in rheumatologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Torres, Gilberto Fabián; González-Baranda, Lourdes Larisa; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of nutritional alterations in rheumatologic diseases ranges from 4 to 95%, depending on the detection method used. Formerly described as the single term rheumatoid cachexia, nutritional alterations can currently be grouped and subdivided based on the physiopathological mechanisms involved: chronic disease-related inflammatory conditions (cachexia), malnutrition associated to acute malnutrition inflammatory conditions (protein-caloric malnutrition) and starvation-related malnutrition. Clinical manifestations of malnutrition associated to rheumatic diseases vary from the patient with low weight or overweight and obesity; with lean body mass depletion as well as functional repercussions, and impact of quality of life as a common denominator. Additionally, the associated increase in body fat mass increases the risk for cardiovascular morbidity. A multidisciplinary approach towards rheumatic diseases should include aspects oriented towards prevention, early identification, diagnosis and correction of nutritional alterations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Lytological characterization and hydrothermal alteration Infiernillo porphyry, provincia Mendoza, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Rubinstein, N.; Kleiman, L.. E.mail: kleiman@cae.cnea.gov.ar

    2007-01-01

    El Infiernillo porphyry copper and Mo deposit, in southern Mendoza, Argentina is hosted by ignimbrites of the Cochico Group (lower Permian). The alteration zone consists of a small central quartz neck with appreciable hematite surrounded by an intense quartz-injected zone with local pervasive potassic alteration. Outwards, there is a well-developed phyllic halo with intense bleaching which consists of pervasive and vein-type silicification, sericitization and pyritization. In the outer part of the alteration zone, small polymetallic veins with pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena and minor, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and electrum in quartz gangue crop out. New field, petro-mineralogic and geochemical data confirmed that the host rocks are equivalent to the dacitic and rhyodacitic ignimbrites of the Toba Vieja Gorda Member (Yacimiento Los Reyunos Formation, Cochico Group)

  16. Alterations in the developing testis transcriptome following embryonic vinclozolin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Tracy M; Savenkova, Marina I; Settles, Matthew; Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

    2010-11-01

    The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic days 13, 14 and 16. A total of 576 differentially expressed genes were identified and the major cellular functions and pathways associated with these altered transcripts were examined. The sets of regulated genes at the different development periods were found to be transiently altered and distinct. Categorization by major known functions of altered genes was performed. Specific cellular process and pathway analyses suggest the involvement of Wnt and calcium signaling, vascular development and epigenetic mechanisms as potential mediators of the direct F1 generation actions of vinclozolin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Small molecule alteration of RNA sequence in cells and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lirui; Luo, Yiling; Ja, William W; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-10-18

    RNA regulation and maintenance are critical for proper cell function. Small molecules that specifically alter RNA sequence would be exceptionally useful as probes of RNA structure and function or as potential therapeutics. Here, we demonstrate a photochemical approach for altering the trinucleotide expanded repeat causative of myotonic muscular dystrophy type 1 (DM1), r(CUG) exp . The small molecule, 2H-4-Ru, binds to r(CUG) exp and converts guanosine residues to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine upon photochemical irradiation. We demonstrate targeted modification upon irradiation in cell culture and in Drosophila larvae provided a diet containing 2H-4-Ru. Our results highlight a general chemical biology approach for altering RNA sequence in vivo by using small molecules and photochemistry. Furthermore, these studies show that addition of 8-oxo-G lesions into RNA 3' untranslated regions does not affect its steady state levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pore Pressure Distribution and Flank Instability in Hydrothermally Altered Stratovolcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J. L.; Taron, J.; Hurwitz, S.; Reid, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Field and geophysical investigations of stratovolcanoes with long-lived hydrothermal systems commonly reveal that initially permeable regions (such as brecciated layers of pyroclastic material) can become both altered and water-bearing. Hydrothermal alteration in these regions, including clay formation, can turn them into low-permeability barriers to fluid flow, which could increase pore fluid pressures resulting in flank slope instability. We examined elevated pore pressure conditions using numerical models of hydrothermal flow in stratovolcanoes, informed by geophysical data about internal structures and deposits. Idealized radially symmetric meshes were developed based on cross-sectional profiles and alteration/permeability structures of Cascade Range stratovolcanoes. We used the OpenGeoSys model to simulate variably saturated conditions in volcanoes heated only by regional heat fluxes, as well as 650°C intrusions at two km depth below the surface. Meteoric recharge was estimated from precipitation rates in the Cascade Range. Preliminary results indicate zones of elevated pore pressures form: 1) where slopes are underlain by continuous low-permeability altered layers, or 2) when the edifice has an altered core with saturated, less permeable limbs. The first scenario might control shallow collapses on the slopes above the altered layers. The second could promote deeper flank collapses that are initially limited to the summit and upper slopes, but could progress to the core of an edifice. In both scenarios, pore pressures can be further elevated by shallow intrusions, or evolve over longer time scales under forcing from regional heat flux. Geometries without confining low-permeability layers do not show these pressure effects. Our initial scenarios use radially symmetric models, but we are also simulating hydrothermal flow under real 3D geometries with asymmetric subsurface structures (Mount Adams). Simulation results will be used to inform 3D slope

  19. R7T7 glass alteration mechanism in an aqueous closed system: understanding and modelling the long term alteration kinetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chave, T.

    2007-10-01

    The long term alteration rate of the French R7T7 nuclear glass has been investigated since many years because it will define the overall resistance of the radionuclide containment matrix. Recent studies have shown that the final rate remains constant or is slightly decreasing with time. It never reaches zero. Though this residual rate is very low, only 5 nm per year at 50 C, it would be the dominant alteration phenomenon in a geological repository. Two mechanisms are suggested for explaining such behaviour: diffusion in solution of elements from glass through an amorphous altered layer and precipitation of neo-formed phases. The diffusion processes are in agreement with a solid state diffusion mechanism and can lead to secondary phase precipitation due to solution concentration increases. Observed phases are mainly phyllosilicates and zeolites, in specific conditions. Phyllosilicates are expected to maintain the residual kinetic rate whereas alteration resumption could be observed in presence of zeolites at very high pH or temperature (10.5 at 90 C or temperature above 150 C). Both diffusion and neo-formed phase precipitation have been investigated in order to better understand their impact on the residual alteration rate and have then been modelled by a calculation code, coupling chemistry and transport, in order to be able to better anticipate the long term behaviour of the glass R7T7 in an aqueous closed system. (author)

  20. Alterations in mtDNA, gastric carcinogenesis and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Antunes, S; Borges, B N

    2018-05-26

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Due to this, efforts are being made to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasm and the search for molecular markers that may be involved in its genesis. Within this perspective, the mitochondrial DNA is considered as a potential candidate, since it has several well documented changes and is readily accessible. However, numerous alterations have been reported in mtDNA, not facilitating the visualization of which alterations and molecular markers are truly involved with gastric carcinogenesis. This review presents a compilation of the main known changes relating mtDNA to gastric cancer and their clinical significance.