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Sample records for alters l-a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic

  1. Propionate alters ion transport by rabbit distal colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, P.J.; Weiser, M.M.; Duffey, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    The primary anions of the colon are short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by intestinal microorganisms from endogenous secretions and dietary fiber. The effects of the SCFA propionate on ion transport by the epithelium of rabbit distal colon were studied on tissues stripped of underlying musculature and mounted in Ussing chambers. When tissues were bathed with NaCl Ringer's solutions at 37/sup 0/C (5% CO/sub 2/-21mM HCO/sub 3/, pH 7.4) replacement of 33mM Cl/sup -/ in both tissue baths by propionate reduced short-circuit current (Isc) from 86 to 35 ..mu..A/cm/sup 2/ and increased transepithelial conductance (G/sub t/) from 3.6 to 5.6mS/cm/sup 2/. Unidirectional /sup 14/C-propionate flux measurements revealed that this ion was secreted at a rate of 0.5..mu..Eq/cm/sup 2/hr. Intracellular measurements with potential and pH sensitive microelectrodes showed that propionate reduced intracellular pH (PH/sub i/) from 6.84 to 6.68 (P < 0.02), depolarized the apical membrane potential (phi/sub a/) by 4mV (P < 0.02) and decreased the membrane fractional resistance (f/sub R/) from .78 to .71 (P < 0.001). Addition of 0.1mM amiloride to the mucosal bath reversed Isc to -18..mu..A/cm/sup 2/, decreased G/sub t/ to 5.3mS/cm/sup 2/, hyperpolarized phi/sub a/ by 5mV (P < 0.05) and increased f/sub R/ to 0.85 (P < 0.001). Amiloride had no effect on pH/sub i/. These results show that propionate can be secreted by rabbit distal colon and that exposure to this SCFA causes cell acidification and electrophysiological changes consistent with H/sup +/ secretion.

  2. Propionate Increases Hepatic Pyruvate Cycling and Anaplerosis and Alters Mitochondrial Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Rachel J; Borders, Candace B; Cline, Gary W;

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, pyruvate kinase (PK) plays a key role in regulating the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; however, in vivo regulation of PK flux by gluconeogenic hormones and substrates is poorly understood. To this end, we developed a novel NMR-liquid chromatography....../tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly assess pyruvate cycling relative to mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism (VPyr-Cyc/VMito) in vivo using [3-(13)C]lactate as a tracer. Using this approach, VPyr-Cyc/VMito was only 6% in overnight fasted rats. In contrast, when propionate was infused simultaneously...... glucagon suppressed VPyr-Cyc/VMito These data show that under fasting conditions, when hepatic gluconeogenesis is stimulated, pyruvate recycling is relatively low in liver compared with VMito flux and that liver metabolism, in particular pyruvate cycling, is sensitive to propionate making it an unsuitable...

  3. The enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid alters brain and plasma phospholipid molecular species: further development of a rodent model of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raymond H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastrointestinal symptoms and altered blood phospholipid profiles have been reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Most of the phospholipid analyses have been conducted on the fatty acid composition of isolated phospholipid classes following hydrolysis. A paucity of information exists on how the intact phospholipid molecular species are altered in ASD. We applied ESI/MS to determine how brain and blood intact phospholipid species were altered during the induction of ASD-like behaviors in rats following intraventricular infusions with the enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid. Animals were infused daily for 8 days, locomotor activity assessed, and animals killed during the induced behaviors. Propionic acid infusions increased locomotor activity. Lipid analysis revealed treatment altered 21 brain and 30 blood phospholipid molecular species. Notable alterations were observed in the composition of brain SM, diacyl mono and polyunsaturated PC, PI, PS, PE, and plasmalogen PC and PE molecular species. These alterations suggest that the propionic acid rat model is a useful tool to study aberrations in lipid metabolism known to affect membrane fluidity, peroxisomal function, gap junction coupling capacity, signaling, and neuroinflammation, all of which may be associated with the pathogenesis of ASD.

  4. Pre- and neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide or the enteric metabolite, propionic acid, alters development and behavior in adolescent rats in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kelly A; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin; Macfabe, Derrick F

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome and/or immune system function may have a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study examined the effects of prenatal and early life administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial mimetic, and the short chain fatty acid, propionic acid (PPA), a metabolic fermentation product of enteric bacteria, on developmental milestones, locomotor activity, and anxiety-like behavior in adolescent male and female offspring. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were subcutaneously injected once a day with PPA (500 mg/kg) on gestation days G12-16, LPS (50 µg/kg) on G15-16, or vehicle control on G12-16 or G15-16. Male and female offspring were injected with PPA (500 mg/kg) or vehicle twice a day, every second day from postnatal days (P) 10-18. Physical milestones and reflexes were monitored in early life with prenatal PPA and LPS inducing delays in eye opening. Locomotor activity and anxiety were assessed in adolescence (P40-42) in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open-field. Prenatal and postnatal treatments altered behavior in a sex-specific manner. Prenatal PPA decreased time spent in the centre of the open-field in males and females while prenatal and postnatal PPA increased anxiety behavior on the EPM in female rats. Prenatal LPS did not significantly influence those behaviors. Evidence for the double hit hypothesis was seen as females receiving a double hit of PPA (prenatal and postnatal) displayed increased repetitive behavior in the open-field. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that by-products of enteric bacteria metabolism such as PPA may contribute to ASD, altering development and behavior in adolescent rats similar to that observed in ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  5. Pre- and neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide or the enteric metabolite, propionic acid, alters development and behavior in adolescent rats in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Foley

    Full Text Available Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome and/or immune system function may have a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The current study examined the effects of prenatal and early life administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a bacterial mimetic, and the short chain fatty acid, propionic acid (PPA, a metabolic fermentation product of enteric bacteria, on developmental milestones, locomotor activity, and anxiety-like behavior in adolescent male and female offspring. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were subcutaneously injected once a day with PPA (500 mg/kg on gestation days G12-16, LPS (50 µg/kg on G15-16, or vehicle control on G12-16 or G15-16. Male and female offspring were injected with PPA (500 mg/kg or vehicle twice a day, every second day from postnatal days (P 10-18. Physical milestones and reflexes were monitored in early life with prenatal PPA and LPS inducing delays in eye opening. Locomotor activity and anxiety were assessed in adolescence (P40-42 in the elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field. Prenatal and postnatal treatments altered behavior in a sex-specific manner. Prenatal PPA decreased time spent in the centre of the open-field in males and females while prenatal and postnatal PPA increased anxiety behavior on the EPM in female rats. Prenatal LPS did not significantly influence those behaviors. Evidence for the double hit hypothesis was seen as females receiving a double hit of PPA (prenatal and postnatal displayed increased repetitive behavior in the open-field. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that by-products of enteric bacteria metabolism such as PPA may contribute to ASD, altering development and behavior in adolescent rats similar to that observed in ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 as food additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 which are authorised as food additives in the EU and have been previously evaluated by the SCF and JECFA. JECFA allocated an ADI “not limited”. The SCF concluded that potassium propionate could be added to the list of preservatives and established an ADI ”not specified”. Propionates are naturally occurring substances in the normal diet. The Panel considered that forestomach hyperplasia reported in long-term studies in rodents is not a relevant endpoint for humans because humans lack this organ. Based on the reported presence of reversible diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the oesophagus the LOAEL for a 90-day study in dogs was considered by the Panel to be 1 % propionic acid in the diet and the NOAEL to be 0.3 % propionic acid in the diet. The Panel considered that there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The Panel concluded that the present database did not allow allocation of an ADI for propionic acid - propionates. The overall mean and 95th percentile exposures to propionic acid - propionates resulting from their use as food additives (major contributor to exposure ranged from 0.7-21.1 and 3.6-40.8 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. The Panel noted that the concentration provoking site of contact effect in the 90-day study in dogs (1 % propionic acid in the diet is a factor of three higher than the concentration of propionic acid - propionates in food at the highest permitted level and concluded that for food as consumed, there would not be a safety concern from the maximum concentrations of propionic acid and its salts at their currently authorised uses and use levels as food additives.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: propionic acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Propionic acidemia affects about 1 in 100,000 people in the United States. The condition appears to be more common in several populations worldwide, including the Inuit population of Greenland, some Amish communities, and Saudi Arabians. Related Information What information ...

  8. Clinical Spectrum of Propionic Acidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the clinical features, physical findings, diagnosis, and laboratory parameters of the patients with propionic acidaemia (PA. Methods. The records of diagnosed cases of propionic acidaemia were reviewed, retrospectively. Results. Twenty-six patients with PA had 133 admissions. The majority (85% of the patients exhibited clinical manifestations in the 1st week of life. Regarding clinical features, lethargy, fever, poor feeding, vomiting, dehydration, muscular hypotonia, respiratory symptoms, encephalopathy, disturbance of tone and reflexes, and malnutrition were observed in 51–92% admissions. Metabolic crises, respiratory diseases, hyperammonaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypocalcaemia were observed in 30–96% admissions. Pancytopenia, ketonuria, hypoproteinemia, hypoglycaemia, and mildly disturbed liver enzymes were found in 12–41% admissions. Generalised brain oedema was detected in 17% and cerebral atrophy in 25% admissions. Gender-wise odd ratio analysis showed value of 1.9 for lethargy, 1.99 for respiratory diseases, 0.55 for anaemia, and 1.82 for hypocalcaemia. Conclusion. Propionic acidaemia usually presents with wide spectrum of clinical features and disturbances of laboratory parameters in early neonatal age. It is associated with significant complications which deteriorate the patients’ quality of life. Perhaps with early diagnosis of the disease and in time intervention, these may be preventable.

  9. Thermal decomposition of lutetium propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of lutetium(III) propionate monohydrate (Lu(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Dehydration takes place around 90 °C. It is followed by the decomposition of the anhydrous ...... of the oxycarbonate to the rare-earth oxide proceeds in a different way, which is here reminiscent of the thermal decomposition path of Lu(C3H5O2)·2CO(NH2)2·2H2O...

  10. Autism in patients with propionic acidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witters, P.; Debbold, E.; Crivelly, K.; Kerckhove, K. Vande; Corthouts, K.; Debbold, B.; Andersson, H.; Vannieuwenborg, L.; Geuens, S.; Baumgartner, M.; Kozicz, L.T.; Settles, L.; Morava, E.

    2016-01-01

    Certain inborn errors of metabolism have been suggested to increase the risk of autistic behavior. In an animal model, propionic acid ingestion triggered abnormal behavior resembling autism. So far only a few cases were reported with propionic acidemia and autistic features. From a series of twelve

  11. Propionic acidemia associated with visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Taghreed; Al-Hashmi, Nadia; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; Megdad, Eman; Abebe, Dejene; Al-Saif, Amr; Doubi, Alaa; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Abouzied, Mohei Eldin; Al-Owain, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Propionic acidemia, an autosomal recessive disorder, is a common form of organic aciduria resulting from the deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. It is characterized by frequent and potentially lethal episodes of metabolic acidosis often accompanied by hyperammonemia. A wide range of brain abnormalities have been reported in propionic acidemia. We report recurrent visual hallucinations in 2 children with propionic acidemia. Four visual hallucination events were observed in the 2 patients. Three episodes were preceded by an intercurrent illness, and 2 were associated with mild metabolic decompensation. The 2 events in one patient were associated with a seizure disorder with abnormal electroencephalogram. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal basal ganglia and faint temporo-occipital swelling bilaterally. This is probably the first report of visual hallucinations in propionic acidemia and should alert the treating clinicians to look for visual hallucinations in patients with organic acidurias, especially in an unusually anxious child.

  12. Association Mechanism Between Propionic Acid and Trioctylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振宇; 秦炜; 戴猷元

    2002-01-01

    Tertiary amines dissolved in diluents are attractive extractants for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. Quantitative Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of organic solutions containing various concentrations of trioctylamine (TOA), n-octanol, and propionic acid was carried out, and liquid-liquid equilibrium was investigated using TOA in n-octanol as the solvent. The fraction of ion-pair association between TOA and propionic acid in the organic phase was quantitatively determined by FTIR. The apparent reactive extraction equilibrium constant, K11, was calculated using the quantitative FTIR spectrum and the equilibrium data. The results show that the fraction of ion-pair association depends on diluent concentration, complex dissolution for propionic acid, and association between TOA and propionic acid. The K11 based on quantitative FTIR has the same loading trend as that from the equilibrium data.

  13. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of sodium propionate, calcium propionate and potassium propionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Sifa

    2008-06-01

    The effects of different treatments with food preservatives, sodium propionate (SP), calcium propionate (CP) and potassium propionate (PP), on the cytology and DNA content of Allium cepa were investigated. Five concentrations of these additives - 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000ppm - were applied for 24, 48, and 72h. All concentrations of these chemicals showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root-tips of A. cepa and caused a decrease in mitotic index values. Additionally, all treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases when compared with the control groups. These compounds increased chromosome abnormalities in test material. Among these abnormalities were C-mitosis, anaphase bridges, micronuclei, binucleated cells, stickiness, laggards, and chromosome breaks. The nuclear DNA contents decreased when compared with control groups.

  14. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  15. Fragrance material review on phenethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fragrance material review on 2-phenoxyethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenoxyethyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenoxyethyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenoxyethyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fragrance material review on anisyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 582.3081 - Propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propionic acid. 582.3081 Section 582.3081 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium propionate. 582.3221 Section 582.3221 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  20. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  1. Performance of feedlot steers fed diets containing laidlomycin propionate or monensin plus tylosin, and effects of laidlomycin propionate concentration on intake patterns and ruminal fermentation in beef steers during adaptation to a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, M L; Malcolm, K J; Duff, G C

    1992-10-01

    Two hundred eighty-eight beef steers (British x Continental x Brahman) were fed a 90% concentrate diet containing either no ionophore (control), laidlomycin propionate at either 6 or 12 mg/kg of dietary DM, or monensin plus tylosin (31 and 12 mg/kg of DM, respectively). Neither of the two levels of laidlomycin propionate nor monensin plus tylosin affected (P greater than .10) ADG or feed:gain ratio. Monensin plus tylosin reduced (P less than .01) daily DMI for the 161-d trial period compared with the other three treatments. Laidlomycin propionate at 6 mg/kg increased (P less than .05) DMI relative to the control, laidlomycin propionate at 12 mg/kg, and monensin plus tylosin diets during the 2nd wk of the trial and from d 57 to 84. Treatments did not affect carcass measurements. In a second experiment, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed diets containing no ionophore or laidlomycin propionate at either 6 or 12 mg/kg of DM. Samples were obtained for two consecutive days while the dietary concentrate level was 75%, after which the diet was switched abruptly to 90% concentrate, and samples were collected on several days during a 21-d period. The rate at which steers consumed their daily allotment of feed was not altered markedly by laidlomycin propionate. Likewise, laidlomycin propionate did not affect total ruminal VFA concentrations or proportions. Ruminal concentrations of D-lactate were reduced (P less than .10) by 6 but not by 12 mg/kg of laidlomycin propionate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the

  3. Microparticulate based topical delivery system of clobetasol propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badıllı, Ulya; Sen, Tangül; Tarımcı, Nilüfer

    2011-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Clobetasol propionate which is a superpotent topical corticosteroid is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. Conventional dosage forms like creams and ointments are commonly prefered for the therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new topical delivery system in order to provide the prolonged release of clobetasol propionate and to reduce systemic absorption and side effects of the drug. Clobetasol propionate loaded-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Particle size analysis, morphological characterization, DSC and XRD analyses and in vitro drug release studies were performed on the microparticle formulations. Emulgel formulations were prepared as an alternative for topical delivery of clobetasol propionate. In vitro drug release studies were carried out from the emulgel formulations containing pure drug and drug-loaded microspheres. In addition, the same studies were performed to determine the drug release from the commercial cream product of clobetasol propionate. The release of clobetasol propionate from the emulgel formulations was significantly higher than the commercial product. In addition, the encapsulation of clobetasol propionate in the PLGA microspheres significantly delayed the drug release from the emulgel formulation. As a result, the decrease in the side effects of clobetasol propionate by the formulation containing PLGA microspheres is expected.

  4. Heme electron transfer in peroxidases: the propionate e-pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guallar, Victor

    2008-10-23

    Computational modeling offers a new insight about the electron transfer pathway in heme peroxidases. Available crystal structures have revealed an intriguing arrangement of the heme propionate side chains in heme-heme and heme-substrate complexes. By means of mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics calculations, we study the involvement of these propionate groups into the substrate oxidation in ascorbate peroxidase and into the heme to heme electron transfer in bacterial cytochrome c peroxidase. By selectively turning on/off different quantum regions, we obtain the electron transfer pathway which directly involves the porphyrin ring and the heme propionates. Furthermore, in ascorbate peroxidase the presence of the substrate appears to be crucial for the activation of the electron transfer channel. The results might represent a general motif for electron transfer from/to the heme group and change our view for the propionate side chains as simple electrostatic binding anchors. We name the new mechanism "the propionate e-pathway".

  5. Enhancement of Esterification of Propionic Acid with Isopropyl Alcohol by Pervaporation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Rathod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing cost of raw materials and energy, there is an increasing inclination of chemical process industries toward new processes that result in lesser waste generation, greater efficiency, and substantial yield of the desired products. Esterification is a chemical reaction in which two reactants carboxylic acid and alcohol react to form an ester and water. This reaction is a reversible reaction and the equilibrium conversion can be altered by varying the process parameters. Pervaporation reactor can enhance the conversion by shifting the equilibrium of reversible esterification reactions. Polyvinyl alcohol-polyether sulfone composite hydrophilic membrane was used for pervaporation-assisted esterification of propionic acid with isopropyl alcohol. The experiments were carried out in the presence of sulphuric acid as a catalyst at 50°C to 80°C with various reactants ratios. The esterification was carried out for catalyst loadings of 0.089 kmol/m3 to 0.447 kmol/m3. The molar ratios of isopropyl to propionic acid used for the experiment were 1 to 1.5. Maximum conversion was obtained for the ratio of 1.4. Also effect of other parameters such as process temperature and catalyst concentration was discussed. It was found that the use of pervaporation reactor increased the conversion of the propionic acid considerably.

  6. Propionate uptake by rumen microorganisms: the effect of ruminal infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Nozière, P; Gachon, S.; DOREAU, M.

    2003-01-01

    International audience; We assessed the ability of rumen microbes to significantly incorporate propionate when they are subjected in vivo to no infusion, long-term infusion of minerals, and short- and long-term infusion of high amounts of propionate. Four ruminally cannulated sheep fed 1000 g hay (8 meals per d) were used in a $4 \\times 4$ Latin square design. The treatments consisted of no infusion (C), ruminal infusion of propionate (86 g$\\cdot$d$^{-1}$) for 1 (P1) and 7 d (P7), and of mine...

  7. Chronic kidney disease in an adult with propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, H J; Bagnasco, S; Hamosh, A; Sperati, C J

    2014-01-01

    We report an adult male with classic propionic acidemia (PA) who developed chronic kidney disease in the third decade of his life. This diagnosis was recognized by an increasing serum creatinine and confirmed by reduced glomerular filtration on a (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) scan. Histopathology of the kidney showed moderate glomerulo- and tubulointerstitial fibrosis with very segmental mesangial IgA deposits. This is the second reported case of kidney disease in an individual with propionic acidemia possibly indicating that chronic kidney disease may be a late-stage complication of propionic acidemia. Additionally, this is the first description of the histopathology of kidney disease in an individual with propionic acidemia. As more cases emerge, the clinical course and spectrum of renal pathology in this disorder will be better defined.

  8. Microparticulate Based Topical Delivery System of Clobetasol Propionate

    OpenAIRE

    Badıllı, Ulya; Şen, Tangül; Tarımcı, Nilüfer

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Clobetasol propionate which is a superpotent topical corticosteroid is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. Conventional dosage forms like creams and ointments are commonly prefered for the therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new topical delivery system in order to provide the prolonged release of clobetasol propionate and to reduce systemic absorption and side effe...

  9. PROPIONIC ACIDURIA IN A 5-MONTH-OLD CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Fominykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Propionic aciduria is a rare hereditary metabolic disease with autosomal-recessive inheritance mode associated with organic acid metabolic disorder. Early diagnostics is difficult as clinical symptoms caused by metabolic defects are often observed at hypoxicischemic central nervous system lesion, brain malformations and intrauterine infections. Laboratory examination reveals increased concentration of organic acids in blood and urine. The article presents observation of propionic aciduria in a 5-month-old child.

  10. Photoelectron spectroscopy of a series of acetate and propionate esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A.; Guthmuller, Julien; MacDonald, Michael A.; Zuin, Lucia; Delwiche, Jacques; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Lesniewski, Tadeusz; Mason, Nigel J.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2017-10-01

    The electronic state and photoionization spectroscopy of a series of acetate esters: methyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate and pentyl acetate as well as two propionates: methyl propionate and ethyl propionate, have been determined using vacuum-ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. These experimental investigations are complemented by ab initio calculations. The measured first adiabatic and vertical ionization energies were determined as: 10.21 and 10.45 eV for methyl acetate, 9.99 and 10.22 eV for isopropyl acetate, 10.07 and 10.26 eV for butyl acetate, 10.01 and 10.22 eV for pentyl acetate, 10.16 and 10.36 eV for methyl propionate and 9.99 and 10.18 eV for ethyl propionate. For the four smaller esters vibrational transitions were calculated and compared with those identified in the photoelectron spectrum, revealing the most distinctive ones to be a Csbnd O stretch combined with a Cdbnd O stretch. The ionization energies of methyl and ethyl esters as well as for a series of formates and acetates were compared showing a clear dependence of the value of the ionization energy on the size of the molecule with very little influence of its conformation.

  11. Secondary mitochondrial dysfunction in propionic aciduria: a pathogenic role for endogenous mitochondrial toxins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, M.A.; Sauer, S.W.; Okun, J.G.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Drose, S.; Brandt, U.; Hoffmann, G.F.; Laak, H.J. ter; Kolker, S.; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction during acute metabolic crises is considered an important pathomechanism in inherited disorders of propionate metabolism, i.e. propionic and methylmalonic acidurias. Biochemically, these disorders are characterized by accumulation of propionyl-CoA and metabolites of alternat

  12. [On the nonexistence of propionic acid in various kinds of breeds (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lück, E; Oeser, H; Remmert, K H; Sabel, J

    1975-05-30

    Analyses of 45 samples of sour dough and various kinds of bread have shown that no appreciable amounts of propionic acid are formed during sour dough fermentation. Bread has no natural propionic acid content.

  13. 78 FR 70953 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Fluticasone Propionate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence... Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Fluticasone Propionate; Salmeterol Xinafoate'', published in... for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Fluticasone Propionate; Salmeterol...

  14. ARTICLES: Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data of Carbon Dioxide+Methyl Propionate and Carbon Dioxide+Propyl Propionate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Xie, Chuan-xin; Li, Hong-ling; Tian, Yi-ling

    2010-06-01

    High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary systems of methyl propionate+carbon dioxide and propyl propionate+carbon dioxide were measured at pressure from 1.00 MPa to 12.00 MPa and temperature in the range from 313 K to 373 K. Experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the two-parameter van der Waals mixing rule. At the same time, the Henry's coefficient, partial molar enthalpy change and partial molar entropy change of CO2 during dissolution at different temperature were also calculated.

  15. Living-donor liver transplantation for propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Mureo; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Karaki, Chiaki; Kakiuchi, Toshihiko; Shigeta, Takanobu; Fukuda, Akinari; Kosaki, Rika; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Ishige, Mika; Nagao, Masayoshi; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yorifuji, Tohru; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-05-01

    Propionic acidemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids because of a genetic defect in PCC. Despite the improvements in medical treatment with protein restriction, sufficient caloric intake, supplementation of l-carnitine, and metronidazole, patients with the severe form of propionic acidemia have life-threatening metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, and cardiomyopathy, which results in serious neurologic sequelae and sometimes death. This study retrospectively reviewed three children with neonatal-onset propionic acidemia who received LDLT. Between November 2005 and December 2010, 148 children underwent LDLT, with an overall patient survival of 90.5%, in our center. Three patients were indicated for transplantation because of propionic acidemia. All recipients achieved a resolution of metabolic derangement and better quality of life with protein restriction and medication, although urine methylcitrate and serum propionylcarnitine levels did not decrease markedly. LT can reduce the magnitude of progressive cardiac/neurologic disability as a result of poor metabolic control. Further evaluation is therefore required to determine the long-term suitability of this treatment modality. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many uncertainties remain in the diagnosis and treatment of preschool children with asthma symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the subgroups of preschool children (aged 12-47 months) with recurrent asthma symptoms most likely to respond to inhaled fluticasone propionate (200...... the management of preschool children with recurrent asthma symptoms....

  17. Budesonide and fluticasone propionate differentially affect the airway epithelial barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I H; Jonker, M.R.; de Vries, M; van Oosterhout, A J M; Telenga, E; Ten Hacken, N H T; Postma, D S; van den Berge, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD patients have a higher risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than with placebo, and a lower risk with budesonide (BUD). We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the mucosal barrier in response to viral infection and/or cigarette smoke. METHODS:

  18. Budesonide and fluticasone propionate differentially affect the airway epithelial barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I. H.; Jonker, M.R.; Vries, de Maaike; van Oosterhout, A. J. M.; Telenga, E.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Postma, D. S.; van den Berge, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: COPD patients have a higher risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than with placebo, and a lower risk with budesonide (BUD). We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the mucosal barrier in response to viral infection and/or cigarette smoke. Methods:

  19. The treatment of balanitis xerotica obliterans with testosterone propionate ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasieczny, T A

    1977-01-01

    Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and kraurosis penis are thought to be synonymous. Clinically and histopathologically they probably represent the same disease process as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) but also involve the urethral mucosa. The treatment of choice is considered to be 2 1/2% testosterone propionate ointment which gives better results than strong corticosteroid applications, yet without their side effects.

  20. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review... pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213,...

  1. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and QSAR studies of propionic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of Schiff bases (1–17 and esters (18–24 of propionic acid was synthesized in appreciable yield and characterized by physicochemical as well as spectral means. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and fungal strains Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by tube dilution method. Results of antimicrobial screening indicated that besides having good antibacterial activity, the synthesized compounds also displayed appreciable antifungal activity and compound 10 emerged as the most active antifungal agent (pMICca and pMICan = 1.93. The results of QSAR studies demonstrated that antibacterial, antifungal and overall antimicrobial activities of synthesized propionic acid derivatives were governed by the topological parameters, Kier’s alpha first order shape index (κα1 and valence first order molecular connectivity index (1χv.

  2. Regulation and evolution of malonate and propionate catabolism in proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, I A; Ravcheev, D A; Gelfand, M S

    2012-06-01

    Bacteria catabolize malonate via two pathways, encoded by the mdc and mat genes. In various bacteria, transcription of these genes is controlled by the GntR family transcription factors (TFs) MatR/MdcY and/or the LysR family transcription factor MdcR. Propionate is metabolized via the methylcitrate pathway, comprising enzymes encoded by the prp and acn genes. PrpR, the Fis family sigma 54-dependent transcription factor, is known to be a transcriptional activator of the prp genes. Here, we report a detailed comparative genomic analysis of malonate and propionate metabolism and its regulation in proteobacteria. We characterize genomic loci and gene regulation and identify binding motifs for four new TFs and also new regulon members, in particular, tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporters. We describe restructuring of the genomic loci and regulatory interactions during the evolution of proteobacteria.

  3. Formation of propionate and butyrate by the human colonic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2017-01-01

    The human gut microbiota ferments dietary non-digestible carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). These microbial products are utilized by the host and propionate and butyrate in particular exert a range of health-promoting functions. Here an overview of the metabolic pathways utilized by gut microbes to produce these two SCFA from dietary carbohydrates and from amino acids resulting from protein breakdown is provided. This overview emphasizes the important role played by cross-feeding of intermediary metabolites (in particular lactate, succinate and 1,2-propanediol) between different gut bacteria. The ecophysiology, including growth requirements and responses to environmental factors, of major propionate and butyrate producing bacteria are discussed in relation to dietary modulation of these metabolites. A detailed understanding of SCFA metabolism by the gut microbiota is necessary to underpin effective strategies to optimize SCFA supply to the host.

  4. Propionate metabolism in the rat heart by 13C n.m.r. spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, A D; Malloy, C R; Roby, R E; Rajagopal, A; Jeffrey, F M

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution 13C n.m.r. spectroscopy has been used to examine propionate metabolism in the perfused rat heart. A number of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates are observable by 13C n.m.r. in hearts perfused with mixtures of pyruvate and propionate. When the enriched 13C-labelled nucleus originates with pyruvate, the resonances of the intermediates appear as multiplets due to formation of multiply-enriched 13C-labelled isotopomers, whereas when the 13C-labelled nucleus originates with propionate, these same intermediates appear as singlets in the 13C spectrum since entry of propionate into the TCA cycle occurs via succinyl-CoA. An analysis of the isotopomer populations in hearts perfused with [3-13C]pyruvate plus unlabelled propionate indicates that about 27% of the total pyruvate pool available to the heart is derived directly from unlabelled propionate. This was substantiated by perfusing a heart for 2 h with [3-13C]propionate as the only available exogenous substrate. Under these conditions, all of the propionate consumed by the heart, as measured by conventional chemical analysis, ultimately entered the oxidative pathway as [2-13C] or [3-13C]pyruvate. This is consistent with entry of propionate into the TCA cycle intermediate pools as succinyl-CoA and concomitant disposal of malate to pyruvate via the malic enzyme. 13C resonances arising from enriched methylmalonate and propionylcarnitine are also detected in hearts perfused with [3-13C] or [1-13C]propionate which suggests that 13C n.m.r. may be useful as a non-invasive probe in vivo of metabolic abnormalities involving the propionate pathway, such as methylmalonic aciduria or propionic acidaemia. PMID:3178775

  5. L-carnitine enhances excretion of propionyl coenzyme A as propionylcarnitine in propionic acidemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, C R; Millington, D S; Maltby, D A; Bohan, T P; Hoppel, C L

    1984-01-01

    Treatment with L-carnitine greatly enhanced the formation and excretion of short-chain acylcarnitines in three patients with propionic acidemia and in three normal controls. The use of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and linked scanning at constant magnetic (B) to electric (E) field ratio identified the acylcarnitine as propionylcarnitine in patients with propionic acidemia. The normal children excreted mostly acetylcarnitine. Propionic acidemia and other organic acidurias are charact...

  6. Gas chromatographic determination of propionates as paranitrobenzyl ester in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuki, K; Sakai, K

    1982-07-01

    A procedure was developed to determine propionates used as mold inhibitors and preservatives in bakery products. Propionates were extracted from the sample with water alkalinized by potassium carbonate. Water was evaporated, and the residue was reacted with paranitrobenzyl bromide in dimethyl-formamide-water (90 + 10) at room temperature to convert propionates to paranitrobenzyl ester, which was determined with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. Bakery products, such as bread, sponge cake, cookies, and biscuits, were analyzed by this procedure. Recoveries from samples fortified with propionates ranged from 94 to 101%, with a standard deviation of 3.32. The concentrations determined were 50 to 2500 micrograms/g sample.

  7. Propionylcarnitine excretion is not affected by metronidazole administration to patients with disorders of propionate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S P; Iles, R A; Saudubray, J M; Chalmers, R A

    1996-01-01

    Propionylcarnitine (PC) excretion has been measured during a clinical trial of metronidazole therapy in two patients with propionic acidaemia and two patients with methylmalonic aciduria. All patients were in good metabolic control and were receiving L-carnitine. While total propionate excretion was reduced by up to 40% in all four patients during metronidazole therapy, the excretion of propionylcarnitine remained largely unchanged. PC comprised up to 80% of total propionate excretion in patients with propionic acidaemia. These results suggest an extra-hepatic source and/or differing compartmentation for PC formation from those for the production of other metabolites of propionyl-CoA.

  8. Microwave Spectra of Fluorinated Propionic Acids and Their Hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenchain, Daniel A.; Grubbs, G. S. Grubbs, Ii; Novick, Stewart E.; Cooke, Stephen A.; Serrato, Agapito Serrato, Iii; Lin, Wei

    2013-06-01

    The microwave spectra of three fluorinated propionic acids, namely pentafluoropropionic acid, 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropionic acid, and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropionic acid have been observed and assigned. The spectra of pentafluoropropionic acid and its monohydrate were reported in this meeting last year. The conformational analysis of 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropionic acid and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropionic acid will be compared to that of pentafluoropropionic acid. The structures of the three monohydrates will be discussed in terms of hydrogen bonding.

  9. Alterações morfológicas induzidas por butirato, propionato e lactato sobre a mucosa ruminal e epiderme de bezerros: II. Aspectos ultra-estruturais Lactate, propionate, and butyrate induced morphological alterations on calf ruminal mucosa and epidermis: II. Ultra-structurals aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Costa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV sobre a integridade do epitélio no rúmen, no plano nasolabial, na epicera e no perioplum traseiro e dianteiro de bezerros e validou-se a feitura de biópsias tegumentares como indicadores de alterações morfológicas da mucosa ruminal. Dezessete bezerros, com sonda no rúmen, receberam infusões intra-ruminais de AGV ou salina, durante 37 dias. Aos 89 dias de vida, após o abate, foram colhidas amostras dos tecidos. Os AGV aumentaram a área de epitélio total e a área de células metabolicamente ativas no epitélio ruminal, embora o butirato não tenha induzido ao desenvolvimento papilar. A área de epitélio não queratinizado no plano nasolabial foi reduzida pela infusão de AGV. Butirato e lactato foram mais indutores de alterações patológicas no epitélio ruminal. Não foram observadas lesões histológicas nos epitélios do plano nasolabial, da epicera e do perioplum, mostrando que essas são conseqüências do efeito direto dos AGV sobre o epitélio ruminal. Os efeitos indireto e direto dos AGV sobre a morfologia dos tecidos epiteliais queratinizados não foram iguais. Biópsias tegumentares podem ter utilidade como indicadores de alterações morfológicas da mucosa ruminal.The effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA on rumen wall, epidermis of nasolabial surface, perioplum, and epicera of calves was evaluated. The experiment also aimed to validate the procedure of tegument biopsies as indicators of ruminal mucosa alterations. Seventeen neonatal calves with foley catheters received intraruminal infusions of VFA or saline, during 37 days. At 89-day-old, the animals were slaughtered and tissue samples were collected from rumen, nasolabial surface, epicera, and perioplum from face and hindquarters. VFA infusion increased total epithelium area and metabolically active ruminal cell area; although butirate did not induce the papilar development. The effect of nasolabial surface VFA

  10. Bacterial populations and processes involved in acetate and propionate consumption in anoxic brackish sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; De Graaf, W.; Köster, M.; Meyer-Reil, L.A.; Cappenberg, T.E.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial populations and pathways involved in acetate and propionate consumption were studied in anoxic brackish sediment from the Grosser Jasmunder Bodden, German Baltic Sea. Uptake of acetate and propionate from the porewater was studied using stable carbon isotope-labeled compounds. Labeled acet

  11. Research Intensity Synthesis of Propionic Acid and Vitamin B12 Propionibacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Tatyana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conducted the selection and breeding of strains of Propionibacterium shermanii ability to synthesize vitamin B12 and propionic acid. Dedicated 9 propionibacteria strains synthesize vitamin B12 (180-1200 mcgr/ml and propionic acid (0,63- 2,53 g/l.

  12. Microbial Community Shifts during Biogas Production from Biowaste and/or Propionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoran Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Propionate is the most delicate intermediate during anaerobic digestion as its degradation is thermodynamically unfavorable. To determine its maximum possible degradation rates during anaerobic digestion, a reactor was fed Monday to Friday with an organic loading rate (OLR of 12/14 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 plus propionate up to a final OLR of 18 kg COD·m−3·d−1. No feed was supplied on weekends as it was the case in full-scale. To maintain permanently high propionate oxidizing activity (POA, a basic OLR of 3 kg CODpropionate·m−3·d−1 all week + 11 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 from Monday to Friday was supplied. Finally a reactor was operated with an OLR of 12 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 from Monday to Friday and 5 kg CODpropionate·m−3·d−1 from Friday night to Monday morning to maintain a constant gas production for permanent operation of a gas engine. The propionate degradation rates (PDRs were determined for biowaste + propionate feeding. Decreasing PDRs during starvation were analyzed. The POA was higher after propionate supply than after biowaste feeding and decreased faster during starvation of a propionate-fed rather than a biowaste-fed inoculum. Shifts of the propionate-oxidizing and methanogenic community were determined.

  13. Monitoring and control of the biogas process based on propionate concentration using online VFA measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Steyer, J.P.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Simple logic control algorithms were tested for automatic control of a lab-scale CSTR manure digester. Using an online VFA monitoring system, propionate concentration in the reactor was used as parameter for control of the biogas process. The propionate concentration was kept below a threshold...

  14. Recent Advancements and Biological Activities of Aryl Propionic Acid Derivatives: (A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita Dhall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aryl propionic acid derivatives belong to an important class of NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs. Ibuprofen, chemically called 2-(4-isobutyl phenyl propionic acid, is a well known NSAID. Aryl propionic acid derivatives possesses a wide range of biological activities including anti-bacterial, anti-convulsant, anti-cancer, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Apart from very potent compounds in the field of analgesics and antipyrectics as Ibuprofen, Oxaprozin, Ketoprofen, Fenoprofen; aryl propionic acid derivatives plays important role to treat other ailments also. Through this review, an attempt has been made to emphasize on recent work done and recent advancements in arena of aryl propionic acid derivatives in view of medicinal chemistry.

  15. Mechanism and controlling strategy of the production and accumulation of propionic acid for anaerobic wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任南琪; 李建政; 赵丹; 陈晓蕾

    2002-01-01

    The production and accumulation of propionic acid affect significantly anaerobic wastewater treatment system, but the reasons are not approached until now. Based on the results of continuous-flow tests and the analysis of biochemistry and ecology, two mechanisms of producing propionic acid have been put forward. It is demonstrated that the reasons of propionic acid production and accumulation are not caused by higher hydrogen partial pressure. The combination of specific pH value and ORP is the ecological factor affecting propionic acid production, and the equilibrium regulation of NADH/NAD+ ratio in cells is the physiological factor. Meanwhile, it is put forward that using the two-phase anaerobic treatment process and the ethanol type fermentation in anaerobic reactor to avoid propionic acid accumulation are efficient methods.

  16. Decreased activity of a propionate degrading community in a UASB reactor fed with synthetic medium without molybdenum, tungsten and selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, P.; Fermoso, F.G.; Lens, P.N.L.; Plugge, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The composition and dynamics of the propionate degrading community in a propionate-fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor with sludge originating from an alcohol distillery wastewater treating UASB reactor was studied. The rather stable propionate degrading microbial community comprised rela

  17. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Binod Raj; AlAbbad, Mohammed; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-11-01

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976-1300 K and pressures of 825-1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored by detecting C2H4 near 10.532 μm using CO2 gas laser absorption. In addition, G3//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and master equation calculations were performed to assess the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that C2H4 elimination occurs via a six-centered retro-ene transition state. Our measured rate data are close to the high-pressure limit and showed no discernable temperature fall off.

  18. Chiral Building Blocks: Enantioselective Syntheses of Benzyloxymethyl Phenyl Propionic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustum S. Boyce

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of (2S-2-benzyloxymethyl-3-(2-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl- propionic acid, (2S-2-benzyloxymethyl-3-(2-fluoro-4-methylphenylpropionic acid and (2S-2-benzyl-oxymethyl-3-(2,4-dimethylphenylpropionic acid has been achieved by TiCl4 mediated alkylation of the corresponding (4R-4-benzyl-3-[3-(2-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl-, 2-fluoro-4-methylphenyl-, 2,4- dimethylphenyl-propionyl]-2-oxazolidinones, followed by hydrolysis of the chiral auxiliary. The stereochemistry of the alkylation reaction was confirmed by an X-ray crystal structure of (4R-4-benzyl-3-[(2S-2-benzyloxymethyl-3-(2- fluoro-4-methylphenylpropionyl]-2-oxazolidinone.

  19. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod Raj

    2016-10-09

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored by detecting CH near 10.532 μm using CO gas laser absorption. In addition, G3//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and master equation calculations were performed to assess the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that CH elimination occurs via a six-centered retro-ene transition state. Our measured rate data are close to the high-pressure limit and showed no discernable temperature fall off.

  20. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) propionate and butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of yttrium(III) propionate monohydrate (Y(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) and yttrium(III) butyrate dihydrate (Y(C3H7CO2)3·2H2O) were studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage microscopy. These two...... of CO2 and a symmetrical ketone consisting of 3-pentanone and 4-heptanone respectively. Final conversion to Y2O3 takes pace with release of CO2. Elemental carbon that is left as a by-product is finally slowly burned by the residual oxygen present in the Ar atmosphere. Fusion is observed at ≈110°C...

  1. N-carbamylglutamate for neonatal hyperammonaemia in propionic acidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Reed, C A B; Vijay, S; Walter, J H; Morris, A A M

    2008-12-01

    Hyperammonaemia is common in neonates with branched-chain organic acidaemias, primarily due to the inhibition of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) synthetase; NAG is an activator for carbamylphosphate synthetase I, the first enzyme of the urea cycle. N-Carbamylglutamate, a NAG analogue, has been reported to correct hyperammonaemia in neonates with organic acidaemias. It is, however, uncertain how the ammonia concentrations in these neonates would have progressed without the drug. We report a neonate with propionic acidaemia, whose plasma ammonia concentration responded dramatically to N-carbamylglutamate, having previously been over 950 μmol/L for 33 h. Our patient presented with poor feeding, hypoglycaemia, acidosis and hyperammonaemia (1044 μmol/L at 65 h of age). The patient was treated with intravenous glucose (12 mg/kg per min), insulin, sodium benzoate, sodium phenylbutyrate, carnitine and continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH). In spite of these measures, the plasma ammonia concentration remained above 950 μmol/L. After 30 h of CVVH, N-carbamylglutamate (250 mg/kg) was given through a nasogastric tube. Over the following 4 h, the plasma ammonia fell from 1410 μmol/L to 267 μmol/L. Despite stopping CVVH, the ammonia level dropped to 137 μmol/L over the next 2 h and it continued to fall while the intravenous drug doses were reduced. The patient was readmitted, aged 4 weeks, with hyperammonaemia (347 μmol/L) and again this responded to N-carbamylglutamate. In contrast, we report a previous patient with propionic acidaemia who showed no response to a lower dose of N-carbamylglutamate (25 mg/kg).

  2. Effect of mesenteric vein infusion of propionate on splanchnic metabolism in primiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, E A; Rulquin, H; Huntington, G B

    1994-11-01

    Our objective was to assess the effects of increased propionate supply on gut and liver function in lactating cows. Four multicatheterized, primiparous cows (30.4 +/- .5 kg/d of milk) were fed for ad libitum intake a diet of 50% alfalfa hay and 50% concentrate (20.6 +/- 1.9 kg/d of DM, 226 +/- 21 MJ/d of metabolizable energy, and 611 +/- 56 g/d of N). Each cow received intramesenteric infusions of NaCl (control) or Na-propionate (150 mmol/h of a 2.5 M solution) in a reversal design. After 72 h of infusion, blood flow (by indicator dilution) and net flux (venoarterial differences multiplied by blood flow) were measured across portal-drained viscera and the liver. Energy supply from feed consumed and from infusion was similar between treatments. Energy that was excreted as milk decreased with propionate infusion. Propionate infusion increased arterial concentration of propionate; decreased absorption of acetate, butyrate, and valerate; and decreased hepatic removal of L-lactate, butyrate, valerate, NEFA, and oxygen. Propionate infusion decreased splanchnic release of glucose and increased splanchnic release of acetate and alanine. Net flux of urea, BHBA, insulin, or glucagon was unaffected by treatments. Our data show a link between a greater proportion of energy supplied as propionate and decreased energy excreted as milk. This response was associated with decreased net removal of glucogenic and ketogenic substrates by the liver and increased supply of acetate for use by peripheral tissues.

  3. Inhibition of oxidative metabolism by propionic acid and its reversal by carnitine in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, E P; Fennessey, P V; Miller, L V

    1986-01-01

    The present study was designed to study the interaction of propionic acid and carnitine on oxidative metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes. Propionic acid (10 mM) inhibited hepatocyte oxidation of [1-14C]-pyruvate (10 mM) by 60%. This inhibition was not the result of substrate competition, as butyric acid had minimal effects on pyruvate oxidation. Carnitine had a small inhibitory effect on pyruvate oxidation in the hepatocyte system (210 +/- 19 and 184 +/- 18 nmol of pyruvate/60 min per mg of protein in the absence and presence of 10 mM-carnitine respectively; means +/- S.E.M., n = 10). However, in the presence of propionic acid (10 mM), carnitine (10 mM) increased the rate of pyruvate oxidation by 19%. Under conditions where carnitine partially reversed the inhibitory effect of propionic acid on pyruvate oxidation, formation of propionylcarnitine was documented by using fast-atom-bombardment mass spectroscopy. Propionic acid also inhibited oxidation of [1-14C]palmitic acid (0.8 mM) by hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. The degree of inhibition caused by propionic acid was decreased in the presence of 10 mM-carnitine (41% inhibition in the absence of carnitine, 22% inhibition in the presence of carnitine). Propionic acid did not inhibit [1-14C]palmitic acid oxidation by hepatocytes isolated from 48 h-starved rats. These results demonstrate that propionic acid interferes with oxidative metabolism in intact hepatocytes. Carnitine partially reverses the inhibition of pyruvate and palmitic acid oxidation by propionic acid, and this reversal is associated with increased propionylcarnitine formation. The present study provides a metabolic basis for the efficacy of carnitine in patients with abnormal organic acid accumulation, and the observation that such patients appear to have increased carnitine requirements ('carnitine insufficiency'). PMID:3790065

  4. Influence of intrajugular administration of insulin, glucagon and propionate on voluntary feed intake of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, L E; Wangsness, P J

    1981-08-01

    The effect of intrajugular injections of insulin, glucagon and propionate, administered singly and in combination, as possible peripheral feedbacks in the control of feed intake in wethers was studied. A complete mixed diet (25% chopped hay: 75% cracked corn) was fed ad libitum. The treatments were saline, 6 mU insulin/kg body weight (BW), 9 ng glucagon/kg BW and 1.3 mg propionate/kg BW. In Exp. 1, five wethers were given the treatments at the beginning of each spontaneous meal over a 24-hr period, and total daily feed intakes were measured. The average number of injections per sheep for a 24-hr period was eight. In Exp. 2, the effects of the treatments on plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon, propionate and glucose at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after injection were measured in six other wethers. In Exp. 1, insulin (P less than .01), glucagon (P less than .01), insulin plus propionate (P less than .05) and glucagon plus propionate (P less than .05) decreased 24-hr feed intake by 18.5, 15.8, 11.0 and 11.8%, respectively, compared to the saline control. In Exp. 2, plasma insulin concentrations were increased (P less than .05) at 15 min after administration of insulin and insulin plus propionate, to 2.0 and 2.1 times the preinjection levels, respectively. Glucagon concentrations in plasma were increased (P less than .01) at 15 min after the injection of glucagon, to 2.0 times the pretreatment values. Insulin and glucagon concentrations in plasma were increased only slightly (P less than .10) after administration of glucagon plus propionate. No treatments affected glucose or propionate concentrations in the plasma. Increases in plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon and propionate may interact directly or initiate other mechanisms involved in the short-term control of feed intake by sheep on a concentrate diet.

  5. N-carbamylglutamate protects patients with decompensated propionic aciduria from hyperammonaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, B; Dittrich, S; Parbel, S; Vlaho, S; Matsika, O; Bohles, H

    2005-01-01

    In patients with propionic aciduria, the accumulating metabolite propionyl-CoA causes a disturbance of the urea cycle via the inhibition of N-acetylglutamate synthesis. Lack of this allosteric activator results in an inhibition of carbamoylphosphate synthase (CPS). This finally leads to hyperammonaemia. In two patients with decompensated propionic aciduria the CPS activator carbamylglutamate was tested for its ability to antagonize the propionyl-CoA associated hyperammonaemia. Oral carbamyl glutamate administration resulted in a significant increase in ammonia detoxification and could avoid further dialysis therapy. Safe, fast and easy to administer, carbamyl glutamate improves the acute therapy of decompensated propionic aciduria by increasing ammonia detoxification and avoiding hyperammonaemia.

  6. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  7. Regulation and optimization of the biogas process: Propionate as a key parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The use of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as process indicators in biogas reactors treating manure together with industrial waste was studied. At a full-scale biogas plant, an online VFA sensor was installed in order to study VFA dynamics during stable and unstable operation. During stable operation......, a process breakdown caused by organic overloading with meat and bone meal and lipids was indicated by changes in propionate concentration 12-18 days before a decrease in methane production was observed. Furthermore, a more efficient and stable utilization of the substrate was observed when propionate.......6 to 2.9 mM. A process disturbance caused by overloading with industrial waste was reflected by a significant increase in all VFA concentrations. During the recovery of the process, the return of propionate back to the steady-state level was 2-3 days slower than any other VFA and propionate could best...

  8. Pharmacological investigation of an Ayurvedic formulation on testosterone propionate-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Hardik

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study concludes that Herbo-mineral formulation has promising effect on testosterone propionate-induced BPH in male wistar rats. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(2.000: 131-136

  9. High cell density propionic acid fermentation with an acid tolerant strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongqiang; Jin, Ying; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-03-01

    Propionic acid is an important chemical with wide applications and its production via fermentation is of great interest. However, economic production of bio-based propionic acid requires high product titer, yield, and productivity in the fermentation. A highly efficient and stable high cell density (HCD) fermentation process with cell recycle by centrifugation was developed for propionic acid production from glucose using an acid-tolerant strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici, which had a higher specific growth rate, productivity, and acid tolerance compared to the wild type ATCC 4875. The sequential batch HCD fermentation at pH 6.5 produced propionic acid at a high titer of ∼40 g/L and productivity of 2.98 g/L h, with a yield of ∼0.44 g/g. The product yield increased to 0.53-0.62 g/g at a lower pH of 5.0-5.5, which, however, decreased the productivity to 1.28 g/L h. A higher final propionic acid titer of >55 g/L with a productivity of 2.23 g/L h was obtained in fed-batch HCD fermentation at pH 6.5. A 3-stage simulated fed-batch process in serum bottles produced 49.2 g/L propionic acid with a yield of 0.53 g/g and productivity of 0.66 g/L h. These productivities, yields and propionic acid titers were among the highest ever obtained in free-cell propionic acid fermentation.

  10. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  11. Kinetics of wet oxidation of propionic and 3-hydroxypropionic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shende, R.V.; Levec, J. [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Lab. for Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering]|[Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Oxidation of aqueous solutions of 3-hydroxypropionic (3-HPA) and propionic acids (PA) was studied in a titanium high-pressure reactor at 280--310 C using oxygen partial pressures between 10 and 45 bar. Oxidation of both acids was found to obey first-order kinetic with respect to their concentrations as well as to their lumped TOC concentrations. Oxidation rate revealed a half order dependence with respect to oxygen for oxidation of both acids. In the case of 3-HPA oxidation, the activation energy was found to be 135 kJ/mol, and it was 140 kJ/mol when lumped concentration TOC was used. The activation energy for PA oxidation is 150 kJ/mol, and it is slightly higher, 158 kJ/mol, for TOC reduction. Almost complete conversion of 3-HPA was achieved at 300 C after 1 h, whereas 95% conversion of PA acid was obtained at 310 C after 3 h. During oxidation of 3-HPA, 3-oxopropionic and acetic acids were identified as intermediate products. Oxidation of PA yielded acetic and formic acids as intermediates; at oxygen partial pressures above 25 bar and 310 C, the formation of acetic acid was appreciably reduced. In both cases, however, direct oxidation to carbon dioxide and water was found to be the main reaction route.

  12. Effect of propionic acid on Campylobacter jejuni attached to chicken skin during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fandos, Elena; Maya, Naiara; Pérez-Arnedo, Iratxe

    2015-09-01

    The ability of propionic acid to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken legs was evaluated. Chicken legs were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. After dipping legs in either water (control), 1% or 2% propionic acid solution (vol/vol), they were stored at 4ºC for 8 days. Changes in C. jejuni, psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts were evaluated. Washing in 2% propionic acid significantly reduced C. jejuni counts compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.62 log units after treatment. Treatment of chicken legs with 1 or 2% propionic acid significantly reduced numbers of psychrotrophs 1.01 and 1.08 log units and Pseudomonas counts 0.75 and 0.96 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. The reduction in psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas increased throughout storage. The highest reductions obtained for psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts in treated legs were reached at the end of storage, day 8, being 3.3 and 2.93 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. Propionic acid treatment was effective in reducing psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts on chicken legs throughout storage. It is concluded that propionic acid is effective for reducing C. jejuni populations in chicken.

  13. Propionic acid production by cofermentation of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans in sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chonggang; Brandt, Markus J; Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael G

    2010-05-01

    Cooperative metabolism of lactobacilli in silage fermentation converts lactate to propionate. This study aimed to determine whether propionate production by Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans can be applied for bread preservation. Propionate formation was observed in cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans in modified MRS broth as well as sourdough with low, medium and high ash contents. 48 mM of propionate was formed in sourdough with medium ash content, but only 9 and 28 mM propionate were formed in sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour or whole wheat flour, respectively. Acetate levels were comparable in all three sourdoughs and ranged from 160 to 175 mM. Sourdough fermented with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans was used in breadmaking and its effect on fungal spoilage was compared to traditional sourdough or propionate addition to straight doughs. Bread slices were inoculated with Aspergillus clavatus, Cladosporium spp., Mortierella spp. or Penicillium roquefortii. The use of 20% experimental sourdough inhibited growth of three of the four moulds for more than 12 days. The use of 10% experimental sourdough deferred growth of two moulds by one day. Bread from traditional sourdough with added acetate had less effect in inhibiting mould growth. In conclusion, cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans represents a process to increase antifungal capacities of bread.

  14. Responses of Blood Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon, and Fatty Acids to Intraruminal Infusion of Propionate in Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Oh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood hormones and metabolites in Hanwoo (Korean cattle steers. Four Hanwoo steers (average body wt. 270 kg, 13 month of age equipped with rumen cannula were infused into rumens with 0.0 M (Water, C, 0.5 M (37 g/L, T1, 1.0 M (74 g/L, T2 and 1.5 M (111 g/L, T3 of propionate for 1 hour per day and allotted by 4×4 Latin square design. On the 5th day of infusion, samples of rumen and blood were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 300 min after intraruminal infusion of propionate. The concentrations of serum glucose and plasma glucagon were not affected (p>0.05 by intraruminal infusion of propionate. The serum insulin concentration at 60 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05 higher in T3 than in C, while the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA at 60 and 180 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05 lower in the propionate treatments than in C. Hence, intraruminal infusion of propionate stimulates the secretion of insulin, and decreases serum NEFA concentration rather than the change of serum glucose concentration.

  15. Interaction of propionate and carnitine metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brass, E.P.; Beyerinck, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    Propionate (P) and its metabolic products P-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA can disrupt normal hepatic metabolism. Carnitine (Cn) has been shown to partially restore cellular function in the presence of P. This effect of Cn may result from removal of propionyl groups as propionylcarnitine (P-Cn). The present study examined the kinetics of P-Cn formation in rat hepatocytes, and the consequence of P-Cn formation on P and Cn metabolism. /sup 14/C-P was converted to CO/sub 2/, glucose and P-Cn in the hepatocyte system. Increasing concentrations of Cn up to 10.0 mM increased P-Cn formation from P without affecting CO/sub 2/ or glucose formation. Thus, 10.0 mM Cn increased total P metabolism by 40%. Metabolism of P was associated with a decrease in Cn concentration and an increase in short chain acylcarnitines (SCCn). In the absence of added Cn, 60 min incubation with P decreased Cn from 6.8 to 2.5 ..mu..M with a corresponding increase in SCCn. This effect of P to deplete free Cn was not seen to the same degree with butyrate in place of P. Similar increases in the formation of SCCn in the presence of P at the expense of free Cn were seen when the incubation Cn concentration was increased to 50 ..mu..M or 150 ..mu..M. HPLC methodologies to study specific acylcarnitines demonstrated the accumulation of large amounts of P-Cn in the incubations containing P, accounting for the depletion of free Cn.

  16. Precipitation of fluticasone propionate microparticles using supercritical antisolvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vatanara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The ability of supercritical fluids (SCFs, such as carbon dioxide, to dissolve and expand or extract organic solvents and as result lower their solvation power, makes it possible the use of SCFs for the precipitation of solids from organic solutions. The process could be the injection of a solution of the substrate in an organic solvent into a vessel which is swept by a supercritical fluid. The aim of this study was to ascertain the feasibility of supercritical processing to prepare different particulate forms of fluticasone propionate (FP, and to evaluate the influence of different liquid solvents and precipitation temperatures on the morphology, size and crystal habit of particles. Method: The solution of FP in organic solvents, was precipitated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 at two pressure and temperature levels. Effects of process parameters on the physicochemical characteristics of harvested microparticles were evaluated. Results: Particle formation was observed only at the lower selected pressure, whilst at the higher pressure, no precipitation of particles was occurred due to dissolution of FP in supercritical antisolvent. The micrographs of the produced particles showed different morphologies for FP obtained from different conditions. The results of thermal analysis of the resulted particles showed that changes in the processing conditions didn't influence thermal behavior of the precipitated particles. Evaluation of the effect of temperature on the size distribution of particles showed that increase in the temperature from 40 oC to 50 oC, resulted in reduction of the mean particle size from about 30 µm to about 12 μm. ‍Conclusion: From the results of this study it may be concluded that, processing of FP by supercritical antisolvent could be an approach for production of diverse forms of the drug and drastic changes in the physical characteristics of microparticles could be achieved by changing the

  17. Analysis of fluticasone propionate in induced sputum by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, John B; Taylor, Robert L; Kita, Hirohito; Singh, Ravinder J

    2011-01-01

    Although evaluation of induced sputum has shown promise as a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic subjects, most studies, to date, do not adequately address the potential effect that inhaled corticosteroids may have on sputum eosinophilia. This study was designed to prospectively evaluate analysis of fluticasone propionate (FP) in whole sputum by mass spectrometry as a tool to determine recent administration of inhaled FP. Induced sputum of nonsmoking asthmatic subjects was prospectively analyzed 16-24 hours after witnessed administration of orally inhaled FP. FP was extracted from whole sputum via an acetonitrile protein precipitation followed by methylene chloride liquid extraction of the supernatant (AB 4000; AB Sciex). A portion of the reconstituted sample was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quad tandem mass spectrometer. Results were compared with those from nonsmoking asthmatic subjects not receiving inhaled FP. Twenty-two asthmatic subjects on FP and 9 asthmatic subjects without FP underwent sputum induction 16-24 hours following witnessed administration of FP. Sufficient sputum for analysis was obtained from 30 of 31 subjects. FP was detected in 22 of 22 asthmatic subjects receiving FP (range, 29-133,000 pg/mL) and was undetectable in 8 of 8 subjects not receiving FP. The sensitivity and specificity of tandem mass spectrometry's ability to detect FP in sputum was 100% and 100%, respectively. Analysis of FP in induced sputum is a reliable method to verify recent administration of inhaled FP. Induced asthmatic sputum from one induction may be used to concomitantly assess sputum eosinophilia as well as recent administration of FP.

  18. MR spectroscopy-based brain metabolite profiling in propionic acidaemia: metabolic changes in the basal ganglia during acute decompensation and effect of liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKiernan Patrick J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propionic acidaemia (PA results from deficiency of Propionyl CoA carboxylase, the commonest form presenting in the neonatal period. Despite best current management, PA is associated with severe neurological sequelae, in particular movement disorders resulting from basal ganglia infarction, although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The role of liver transplantation remains controversial but may confer some neuro-protection. The present study utilises quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS to investigate brain metabolite alterations in propionic acidaemia during metabolic stability and acute encephalopathic episodes. Methods Quantitative MRS was used to evaluate brain metabolites in eight children with neonatal onset propionic acidaemia, with six elective studies acquired during metabolic stability and five studies during acute encephalopathic episodes. MRS studies were acquired concurrently with clinically indicated MR imaging studies at 1.5 Tesla. LCModel software was used to provide metabolite quantification. Comparison was made with a dataset of MRS metabolite concentrations from a cohort of children with normal appearing MR imaging. Results MRI findings confirm the vulnerability of basal ganglia to infarction during acute encephalopathy. We identified statistically significant decreases in basal ganglia glutamate+glutamine and N-Acetylaspartate, and increase in lactate, during encephalopathic episodes. In white matter lactate was significantly elevated but other metabolites not significantly altered. Metabolite data from two children who had received liver transplantation were not significantly different from the comparator group. Conclusions The metabolite alterations seen in propionic acidaemia in the basal ganglia during acute encephalopathy reflect loss of viable neurons, and a switch to anaerobic respiration. The decrease in glutamine + glutamate supports the hypothesis that they are consumed to

  19. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by propionic acid-based ingredients in cured deli-style Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathleen A; McDonnell, Lindsey M; Von Tayson, Roxanne; Wanless, Brandon; Badvela, Mani

    2013-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes growth can be controlled on ready-to-eat meats through the incorporation of antimicrobial ingredients into the formulation or by postlethality kill steps. However, alternate approaches are needed to provide options that reduce sodium content but maintain protection against pathogen growth in meats after slicing. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibition of L. monocytogenes by propionic acid-based ingredients in high-moisture, cured turkey stored at 4 or 7°C. Six formulations of sliced, cured (120 ppm of NaNO2 ), deli-style turkey were tested, including control without antimicrobials, 3.2% lactate-diacetate blend (LD), 0.4% of a liquid propionate-benzoate-containing ingredient, or 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% of a liquid propionate-containing ingredient. Products were inoculated with 5 log CFU L. monocytogenes per 100-g package (3 log CFU/ml rinsate), vacuum-sealed, and stored at 4 or 7°C for up to 12 weeks; and populations were enumerated by plating on modified Oxford agar. As expected, the control without antimicrobials supported rapid growth, with >2 log average per ml rinsate increase within 4 weeks of storage at 4°C, whereas growth was observed at 6 weeks for the LD treatment. For both replicate trials, all treatments that contained liquid propionate or propionate-benzoate limited L. monocytogenes growth to an increase of 1-log increase) was observed in individual samples for all propionate-containing treatments at weeks 10, 11, and 12. As expected, L. monocytogenes grew more rapidly when products were stored at 7°C, but trends in relative inhibition were similar to those observed at 4°C. These results verify that propionate-based ingredients inhibit growth of L. monocytogenes on sliced, high-moisture, cured turkey and can be considered as an alternative to reduce sodium-based salts while maintaining food safety.

  20. Regulation and optimization of the biogas process: Propionate as a key parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bangsoe; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiaer [Bioprocess Science and Technology, BioCentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    The use of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as process indicators in biogas reactors treating manure together with industrial waste was studied. At a full-scale biogas plant, an online VFA sensor was installed in order to study VFA dynamics during stable and unstable operation. During stable operation acetate increased significantly during the feeding periods from a level of 2-4 to 12-17 mM, but the concentration generally dropped to about the same level as before feeding. The fluctuations in the propionate were more moderate than for acetate but the average level rose during 1 week of operation from 0.6 to 2.9 mM. A process disturbance caused by overloading with industrial waste was reflected by a significant increase in all VFA concentrations. During the recovery of the process, the return of propionate back to the steady-state level was 2-3 days slower than any other VFA and propionate could best describe the normalizing of the process. In a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor experiment, with manure as main substrate, the prospective of using either propionate concentration or methane production as single process indicators was studied. Propionate was found to be the best indicator. Thus, a process breakdown caused by organic overloading with meat and bone meal and lipids was indicated by changes in propionate concentration 12-18 days before a decrease in methane production was observed. Furthermore, a more efficient and stable utilization of the substrate was observed when propionate was used as process indicator. (author)

  1. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ananda Rao; Katuri, Krishna P; Gorron, Eduardo; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2016-07-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57-96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0-2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  2. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-03-03

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57–96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0–2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  3. Response of Syntrophic Propionate Degradation to pH Decrease and Microbial Community Shifts in an UASB Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liguo; Ban, Qiaoying; Li, Jianzheng; Jha, Ajay Kumar

    2016-08-28

    The effect of pH on propionate degradation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor containing propionate as a sole carbon source was studied. Under influent propionate of 2,000 mg/l and 35ºC, propionate removal at pH 7.5-6.8 was above 93.6%. Propionate conversion was significantly inhibited with stepwise pH decrease from pH 6.8 to 6.5, 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, and then to 4.0. After long-term operation, the propionate removal at pH 6.5-4.5 maintained an efficiency of 88.5%-70.1%, whereas propionate was hardly decomposed at pH 4.0. Microbial composition analysis showed that propionate-oxidizing bacteria from the genera Pelotomaculum and Smithella likely existed in this system. They were significantly reduced at pH ≤5.5. The methanogens in this UASB reactor belonged to four genera: Methanobacterium, Methanospirillum, Methanofollis, and Methanosaeta. Most detectable hydrogenotrophic methanogens were able to grow at low pH conditions (pH 6.0-4.0), but the acetotrophic methanogens were reduced as pH decreased. These results indicated that propionate-oxidizing bacteria and acetotrophic methanogens were more sensitive to low pH (5.5-4.0) than hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

  4. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Hoy, Michael J; Li, Chi-Hua; Louisse, Timo; Yao, Victoria; Mori, Akihiro; Holdorf, Amy D; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Ralser, Markus; Walhout, Albertha JM

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with metabolic plasticity and thus a selective advantage on different diets in the wild. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17670.001 PMID:27383050

  5. Evaluating the potential impact of proton carriers on syntrophic propionate oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste-Poinapen, Natacha M. S.; Turner, Mark S.; Rabaey, Korneel; Virdis, Bernardino; Batstone, Damien J.

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic propionic acid degradation relies on interspecies electron transfer (IET) between propionate oxidisers and electron acceptor microorganisms, via either molecular hydrogen, formate or direct transfers. We evaluated the possibility of stimulating direct IET, hence enhancing propionate oxidation, by increasing availability of proton carriers to decrease solution resistance and reduce pH gradients. Phosphate was used as a proton carrying anion, and chloride as control ion together with potassium as counter ion. Propionic acid consumption in anaerobic granules was assessed in a square factorial design with ratios (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 0:1) of total phosphate (TP) to Cl-, at 1X, 10X, and 30X native conductivity (1.5 mS.cm-1). Maximum specific uptake rate, half saturation, and time delay were estimated using model-based analysis. Community profiles were analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The strongest performance was at balanced (1:1) ratios at 10X conductivity where presumptive propionate oxidisers namely Syntrophobacter and Candidatus Cloacamonas were more abundant. There was a shift from Methanobacteriales at high phosphate, to Methanosaeta at low TP:Cl ratios and low conductivity. A lack of response to TP, and low percentage of presumptive electroactive organisms suggested that DIET was not favoured under the current experimental conditions.

  6. Modulation of antioxidant defense and immune response in zebra fish (Danio rerio) using dietary sodium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kavandi, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    The present study explores the effect of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response and expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Six hundred healthy zebra fish (0.42 ± 0.06 g) supplied, randomly stocked in 12 aquariums and fed on basal diets supplemented with different levels of sodium propionate [0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, mucosal immune parameters (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz), antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT) as well as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression were measured. The results revealed feeding on sodium propionate significantly up-regulated inflammatory response genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz) in a dose-dependent manner (P fish fed the basal diet and deceased with elevation of sodium propionate levels in the diet. These results showed beneficial effects of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response as well as the antioxidant defense of zebra fish.

  7. Effects of a novel propionate-rich sourdough bread on appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, J; Frost, G S; Robertson, M D

    2012-07-01

    There is evidence linking oral propionate to a reduction in food intake, which could confer functional food properties in the fight against obesity. However, propionate is typically volatile with a pungent smell and taste and so incorporating into foods naturally, at levels acceptable to the consumer is a novel approach. Twenty healthy, young, normal weight unrestrained eaters underwent an acute feeding study using a palatable sourdough and an identical control bread of a similar palatability, in a randomized cross-over balanced design for the assessment of appetite and energy intake. No difference in energy intake of an ad libitum test meal, 180 min after the bread-based breakfast or in energy and macronutrient intake over the entire 24 h period was found between breads. Visual analogue scale ratings for appetite were not influenced by bread type, except the desire to eat something sweet. Elevated plasma insulin concentrations were observed following the propionate-rich sourdough breakfast (P=0.033 no effects of treatment on postprandial glycaemia were found. These findings suggest propionate-rich sourdough bread does not influence appetite and food intake unlike larger doses of the food preservative N-propionate.

  8. Enzyme IIANtr Regulates Salmonella Invasion Via 1,2-Propanediol And Propionate Catabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Woongjae; Kim, Dajeong; Yoon, Hyunjin; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-01-01

    Many Proteobacteria possess a nitrogen-metabolic phosphotransferase system (PTSNtr) consisting of EINtr, NPr, and EIIANtr (encoded by ptsP, ptsO, and ptsN, respectively). The PTSNtr plays diverse regulatory roles, but the substrate phosphorylated by EIIANtr and its primary functions have not yet been identified. To comprehensively understand the roles of PTSNtr in Salmonella Typhimurium, we compared the whole transcriptomes of wild-type and a ΔptsN mutant. Genome-wide RNA sequencing revealed that 3.5% of the annotated genes were up- or down-regulated by three-fold or more in the absence of EIIANtr. The ΔptsN mutant significantly down-regulated the expression of genes involved in vitamin B12 synthesis, 1,2-propanediol utilization, and propionate catabolism. Moreover, the invasiveness of the ΔptsN mutant increased about 5-fold when 1,2-propanediol or propionate was added, which was attributable to the increased stability of HilD, the transcriptional regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity island-1. Interestingly, an abundance of 1,2-propanediol or propionate promoted the production of EIIANtr, suggesting the possibility of a positive feedback loop between EIIANtr and two catabolic pathways. These results demonstrate that EIIANtr is a key factor for the utilization of 1,2-propanediol and propionate as carbon and energy sources, and thereby modulates the invasiveness of Salmonella via 1,2-propanediol or propionate catabolism. PMID:28333132

  9. Propionic Acid Production from Corn Stover Hydrolysate by Propionibacterium acidipropionici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Xiaoqing [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salvachua Rodriguez, Davinia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bratis, Adam D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dorgan, John R. [Colorado School of Mines

    2017-08-17

    The production of value-added chemicals alongside biofuels from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is critical for developing economically viable biorefineries. Here, the production of propionic acid (PA), a potential building block for C3-based chemicals, from corn stover hydrolysate is investigated using the native PA-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acidipropionici. A wide range of culture conditions and process parameters were examined and experimentally optimized to maximize titer, rate, and yield of PA. The effect of gas sparging during fermentation was first examined, and N2 was found to exhibit improved performance over CO2. Subsequently, the effects of different hydrolysate concentrations, nitrogen sources, and neutralization agents were investigated. One of the best combinations found during batch experiments used yeast extract (YE) as the primary nitrogen source and NH4OH for pH control. This combination enabled PA titers of 30.8 g/L with a productivity of 0.40 g/L h from 76.8 g/L biomass sugars, while successfully minimizing lactic acid production. Due to the economic significance of downstream separations, increasing titers using fed-batch fermentation was examined by changing both feeding media and strategy. Continuous feeding of hydrolysate was found to be superior to pulsed feeding and combined with high YE concentrations increased PA titers to 62.7 g/L and improved the simultaneous utilization of different biomass sugars. Additionally, applying high YE supplementation maintains the lactic acid concentration below 4 g/L for the duration of the fermentation. Finally, with the aim of increasing productivity, high cell density fed-batch fermentations were conducted. PA titers increased to 64.7 g/L with a productivity of 2.35 g/L h for the batch stage and 0.77 g/L h for the overall process. These results highlight the importance of media and fermentation strategy to improve PA production. Overall, this work demonstrates the feasibility of producing PA

  10. Structure and function of enzymes involved in the anaerobic degradation of L-threonine to propionate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhirendra K Simanshu; Sagar Chittori; H S Savithri; M R N Murthy

    2007-09-01

    In Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, L-threonine is cleaved non-oxidatively to propionate via 2-ketobutyrate by biodegradative threonine deaminase, 2-ketobutyrate formate-lyase (or pyruvate formate-lyase), phosphotransacetylase and propionate kinase. In the anaerobic condition, L-threonine is converted to the energy-rich keto acid and this is subsequently catabolised to produce ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation, providing a source of energy to the cells. Most of the enzymes involved in the degradation of L-threonine to propionate are encoded by the anaerobically regulated tdc operon. In the recent past, extensive structural and biochemical studies have been carried out on these enzymes by various groups. Besides detailed structural and functional insights, these studies have also shown the similarities and differences between the other related enzymes present in the metabolic network. In this paper, we review the structural and biochemical studies carried out on these enzymes.

  11. Expansion of the Phenotypic Spectrum of Propionic Acidemia with Isolated Elevated Propionylcarnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gerarda; Atwal, Paldeep S; Donti, Taraka R; Ugarte, Kiki; Merchant, Nadia; Craigen, William J; Sutton, V Reid; Elsea, Sarah H

    2017-01-01

    We report three patients with elevations of propionylcarnitine (C3), one without elevations of 2-methylcitrate and 3-hydroxypropionate in urine organic acid analysis, and the other two showing only mild elevations, all of whom were subsequently confirmed to have propionic acidemia by molecular analysis of PCCA and PCCB genes. To date, they have had a mild clinical course. These cases illustrate the importance of considering high C3 as the only biochemical abnormality in a diagnosis of propionic acidemia. Since mild C3 elevations may be overlooked and considered non-diagnostic in isolation, we advise considering a diagnosis of propionic acidemia even in the absence of significant elevations 2-methylcitrate or 3-hydroxypropionate in urine organic acid analysis.

  12. L-carnitine enhances excretion of propionyl coenzyme A as propionylcarnitine in propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, C R; Millington, D S; Maltby, D A; Bohan, T P; Hoppel, C L

    1984-06-01

    Treatment with L-carnitine greatly enhanced the formation and excretion of short-chain acylcarnitines in three patients with propionic acidemia and in three normal controls. The use of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and linked scanning at constant magnetic (B) to electric (E) field ratio identified the acylcarnitine as propionylcarnitine in patients with propionic acidemia. The normal children excreted mostly acetylcarnitine. Propionic acidemia and other organic acidurias are characterized by the intramitochondrial accumulation of short-chain acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) compounds. The substrate specificity of the carnitine acetyltransferase enzyme and its steady state nature appears to facilitate elimination of propionyl groups while restoring the acyl-CoA:free CoA ratio in the mitochondrion. We suggest that L-carnitine may be a useful therapeutic approach for elimination of toxic acyl CoA compounds in several of these disorders.

  13. N-carbamylglutamate augments ureagenesis and reduces ammonia and glutamine levels in patients with propionic acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mew, Nicholas Ah; McCarter, Robert; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Itzhak; Yudkoff, Marc; Tuchman, Mendel

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether N-carbamylglutamate reduces plasma levels of ammonia and glutamine and increases ureagenesis rate in patients with propionic acidemia Patients and Methods Identical four-hour studies were performed before and immediately after a 3-day trial of oral N-carbamylglutamate in 7 patients with propionic acidemia. An oral bolus of [13C]-sodium acetate was administered at the start of each study, and sequential blood samples were obtained to measure [13C]-urea, ammonia, urea and amino acids. Results With longitudinal mixed effects linear regression, peak [13C]urea increased following treatment with N-carbamylglutamate (from 2.2 μM to 3.8 μM; p carbamylglutamate augments ureagenesis and decreases plasma ammonia and glutamine in patients with propionic acidemia. The drug may serve as an important therapeutic adjunct in the treatment of acute hyperammonemia in this disorder. PMID:20566609

  14. Effect of hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] on propionate and carnitine metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, E P; Allen, R H; Ruff, L J; Stabler, S P

    1990-01-01

    The administration in vivo of the cobalamin analogue hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] inhibits hepatic L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity. The current studies characterize in vivo and in vitro the hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam]-treated rat as a model of disordered propionate and methylmalonic acid metabolism. Treatment of rats with hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] (2 micrograms/h by osmotic minipump) increased urinary methylmalonic acid excretion from 0.55 mumol/day to 390 mumol/day after 2 weeks. Hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] treatment was associated with increased urinary propionylcarnitine excretion and increased short-chain acylcarnitine concentrations in plasma and liver. Hepatocytes isolated from cobalamin-analogue-treated rats metabolized propionate (1.0 mM) to CO2 and glucose at rates which were only 18% and 1% respectively of those observed in hepatocytes from control (saline-treated) rats. In contrast, rates of pyruvate and palmitate oxidation were higher than control in hepatocytes from the hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam]-treated rats. In hepatocytes from hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam]-treated rats, propionylcarnitine was the dominant product generated from propionate when carnitine (10 mM) was present. The addition of carnitine thus resulted in a 4-fold increase in total propionate utilization under these conditions. Hepatocytes from hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam]-treated rats were more sensitive than control hepatocytes to inhibition of palmitate oxidation by propionate. This inhibition of palmitate oxidation was partially reversed by addition of carnitine. Thus hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] treatment in vivo rapidly causes a severe defect in propionate metabolism. The consequences of this metabolic defect in vivo and in vitro are those predicted on the basis of propionyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA accumulation. The cobalamin-analogue-treated rat provides a useful model for studying metabolism under conditions of a metabolic defect causing acyl-CoA accretion. PMID:2327967

  15. Infrared Spectra and Chemical Abundance of Methyl Propionate in Icy Astrochemical Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaraman, B; Das, A; Gopakumar, G; Majumdar, L; Chakrabarti, S K; Subramanian, K P; Sekhar, B N Raja; Hada, M

    2014-01-01

    We carried out an experiment in order to obtain the InfraRed (IR) spectra of methyl propionate (CH3CH2COOCH3) in astrochemical conditions and present the IR spectra for future identification of this molecule in the InterStellar Medium (ISM). The experimental IR spectrum is compared with the theoretical spectrum and an attempt was made to assign the observed peak positions to their corresponding molecular vibrations in condensed phase. Moreover, our calculations suggest that methyl propionate must be synthesized efficiently within the complex chemical network of the ISM and therefore be present in cold dust grains, awaiting identification.

  16. Efficacy and safety of ciclesonide once daily and fluticasone propionate twice daily in children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Engelstätter, Renate; Weber, Hans-Jochen

    2009-01-01

    the efficacy and safety of ciclesonide with fluticasone propionate in children with mainly moderate and severe persistent asthma. METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-four patients (aged 6-11years) were randomized to ciclesonide (80 or 160mug once daily) or fluticasone propionate (88mug twice daily), following a 2...... excretion, in children with moderate and severe asthma.......BACKGROUND: Ciclesonide is a new inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). Information about its clinical efficacy and safety in relation to other ICS in children is needed for clinical positioning. OBJECTIVE: This 12-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm, parallel-group study compared...

  17. Propionate absorbed from the colon acts as gluconeogenic substrate in a strict carnivore, the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbrugghe, A; Hesta, M; Daminet, S

    2012-01-01

    In six normal-weight and six obese cats, the metabolic effect of propionate absorbed from the colon was assessed. Two colonic infusions were tested in a crossover design with intervals of 4 weeks. The test solution contained 4 mmol sodium propionate per kg ideal body weight in a 0.2% NaCl solution...

  18. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. AIM: First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical pr

  19. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. AIM: First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical pr

  20. The formation of propionate and acetate as terminal processes in the energy metabolism of the adult liver fluke Fasciola hepatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, F. van; Meer, P. van der; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1979-01-01

    1. 1. The formation of propionate from succinate occurs in the mitochondria of the adult common liver fluke essentially by a reversal of the pathway operating in mammalian mitochondria in the conversion of propionate into succinate. 2. 2. The conversion of succinate into its CoA ester is linked by

  1. Acidity and complex formation studies of 3-(adenine-9-yl)-propionic and 3-(thymine-1-yl)-propionic acids in ethanol-water media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammud, Hassan H.; El Shazly, Shawky; Sonji, Ghassan; Sonji, Nada; Bouhadir, Kamal H.

    2015-05-01

    The ligands 3-(adenine-9-yl)propionic acid (AA) and 3-(thymine-1-yl)propionic acid (TA) were prepared by N9-alkylation of adenine and N1-alkylation of thymine with ethylacrylate in presence of a base catalyst, followed by acid hydrolysis of the formed ethyl esters to give the corresponding propionic acid derivatives. The products were characterized by spectral methods (FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR), which confirm their structures. The dissociation constants of ligands, were potentiometrically determined in 0.3 M KCl at 20-50 °C temperature range. The work was extended to study complexation behavior of AA and TA with various biologically important divalent metal ions (Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Mn2+ and Pb2+) in 50% v/v water-ethanol medium at four different temperatures, keeping ionic strength constant (0.3 M KCl). The order of the stability constants of the formed complexes decreases in the sequence Cu2+ > Pb2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+ > Co2+ > Mn2+ > Cd2+ for both ligands. The effect of temperature was also studied and the corresponding thermodynamic functions (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) were derived and discussed. The formation of metal complexes has been found to be spontaneous, and the stability constants were dependant markedly on the basicity of the ligands.

  2. AB041. Effectiveness and cost impact evaluation of fluticasone propionate/formoterol compared to fluticasone propionate/salmeterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Simon Wan Yau; Small, Iain; Wolfe, Stephanie; Hamil, John; Gruffydd-Jones, Kevin; Daly, Cathal; Soriano, Joan B.; Gardner, Liz; Skinner, Derek; Price, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment of asthmatics with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and long-acting beta agonist (LABA) is recommended for maintenance treatment according to Step 3 in the GINA guidelines. Fixed-dose combination (FDC) inhalers simplify the dosing regimen and may improve adherence over their separate components. However, the effectiveness and cost impact of FDC devices containing fluticasone propionate/formoterol (FP/FOR) compared to fluticasone/salmeterol (FP/SAL) in asthma patients who initiate or switch to FDC ICS/LABA inhalers have not been studied in real-life patients in the United Kingdom. To determine whether FP/FOR is non-inferior to FP/SAL in patients who initiate or switch to a FDC ICS/LABA therapy with respect to decreasing the occurrence of asthma exacerbations and overall cost impact. Methods This study used a matched, historical cohort design to compare the two FDC ICS/LABA treatments using the Optimal Patient Care Database. Based on a 1-year exploratory analysis of baseline variables such as comorbidities, current treatment, demographics and clinical measurements, cohorts were matched to ensure similar patients were compared over a 1-year outcome. Two cohorts of patients were studied: one of patients initiated on combination therapy (either FP/FOR or FP/SAL) and one of patients either switched from FP/SAL to FP/FOR or who remained on FP/SAL. The primary outcome studied non-inferiority in terms of percentage of patients who were free from severe asthma exacerbations (defined by ATS/ERS position statements) for patients prescribed FP/FORversusFP/SAL in the outcome year. Secondary outcomes included the rate of asthma exacerbations, clinical exacerbations, asthma control, treatment stability, and lower respiratory tract hospitalisations. Cost impact outcomes included a comparison of resource costs, drug costs and combined drug and resource costs. Results The study included 2,472 patients (618 patients in FP/FOR and 1,854 patients in FP/SAL cohorts

  3. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calverley, PM; Anderson, JA; Celli, B

    2007-01-01

    Background Long-acting beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids are used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but their effect on survival is unknown. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial comparing salmeterol at a dose of 50 µg plus fluticasone propionate at a ...

  4. Bioactivation of morphine-3-propionate, a prodrug of morphine, in tissues from different species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, L.; Jørgensen, A.; Steffansen, B.

    1997-01-01

    rabbit had higher enzymatic activity than those from rat, which again showed higher activity than those from pig. Comparison of the Michaelis-Menten parameters, K(m) and V(max), obtained using pig and rat serum respectively, suggested that morphine-3-propionate has a lower affinity for enzymes present...

  5. Biocatalytic acylation of sugar alcohols by 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croitoru, R.; Fitigau, F.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of aromatic esters of four different sugar alcohols (xylitol, arabitol, mannitol, and sorbitol) with 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was performed in organic solvent medium, using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (Novozyme 435), and molecular sieves for control of the wate

  6. Propionic acidemia: clinical course and outcome in 55 pediatric and adolescent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünert Sarah C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propionic acidemia is an inherited disorder caused by deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. Although it is one of the most frequent organic acidurias, information on the outcome of affected individuals is still limited. Study design/methods Clinical and outcome data of 55 patients with propionic acidemia from 16 European metabolic centers were evaluated retrospectively. 35 patients were diagnosed by selective metabolic screening while 20 patients were identified by newborn screening. Endocrine parameters and bone age were evaluated. In addition, IQ testing was performed and the patients’ and their families’ quality of life was assessed. Results The vast majority of patients (>85% presented with metabolic decompensation in the neonatal period. Asymptomatic individuals were the exception. About three quarters of the study population was mentally retarded, median IQ was 55. Apart from neurologic symptoms, complications comprised hematologic abnormalities, cardiac diseases, feeding problems and impaired growth. Most patients considered their quality of life high. However, according to the parents’ point of view psychic problems were four times more common in propionic acidemia patients than in healthy controls. Conclusion Our data show that the outcome of propionic acidemia is still unfavourable, in spite of improved clinical management. Many patients develop long-term complications affecting different organ systems. Impairment of neurocognitive development is of special concern. Nevertheless, self-assessment of quality of life of the patients and their parents yielded rather positive results.

  7. Comparison of Once- with Twice-Daily Dosing of Fluticasone Propionate in Mild and Moderate Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group studies were performed to compare the efficacy and safety of once- and twice-daily dosing of fluticasone propionate (FP in the treatment of mild to moderate asthma, considered to require the equivalent of either 200 or 500 µg of FP daily.

  8. Detection, phylogeny and population dynamics of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The research described this thesis concerns the diversity and phylogeny of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria and their ecology in granular sludge, from which they were obtained. 16S rRNA was used as a molecular marker to study both the phylogeny and the ecology of these bacteria. Sequence ana

  9. The role of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination therapy in preventing exacerbations of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Yawn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Barbara P Yawn1, Ibrahim Raphiou2, Judith S Hurley3, Anand A Dalal21Olmsted Medical Center, University of Minnesota, Rochester, Minnesota, USA; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA; 3Hurley Consulting, Placitas, New Mexico, USAAbstract: Exacerbations contribute significantly to the morbidity of COPD, leading to an accelerated decline in lung function, reduced functional status, reduced health status and quality of life, poorer prognosis and increased mortality. Prevention of exacerbations is thus an important goal of COPD management. In patients with COPD, treatment with a combination of the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone propionate (250 μg and the long-acting β2-agonist salmeterol (50 μg in a single inhaler (250/50 μg is an effective therapy option that has been shown to reduce the frequency of exacerbations, to improve lung function, dyspnea and health status, and to be relatively cost-effective as a COPD maintenance therapy. Importantly, results of various studies suggest that fluticasone propionate and salmeterol have synergistic effects when administered together that improve their efficacy in controlling symptoms and reducing exacerbations. The present non-systematic review summarizes the role of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination therapy in the prevention of exacerbations of COPD and its related effects on lung function, survival, health status, and healthcare costs.Keywords: Advair, COPD, disease exacerbation, fluticasone propionate, salmeterol, combination drug therapy

  10. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, Sa'ad H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J.; Venema, Koen

    2010-01-01

    Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser extent

  11. Detection, phylogeny and population dynamics of syntrophic propionate - oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The research described this thesis concerns the diversity and phylogeny of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria and their ecology in granular sludge, from which they were obtained. 16S rRNA was used as a molecular marker to study both the phylogeny and the ecology of these bacteria.

  12. A Practical Synthesis of (S)-(+)-2-(6(-methoxyl-2-naphthyl) propionic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A simplified procedure for enantioselective synthesis of (S)-(+)-2-(6(-methoxyl-2- naphthyl) propionic acid ((S)-(+)-naproxen), starting from (6-methoxy-(-naphthyl) -1-propanone, with D-mannitol as auxiliary catalyzed by SmCl3 in one-pot is described. The yield is 87.5 %(ee value 99 %).

  13. Fragrance material review on 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1,1-Dimethyl-2-phenylethyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (submitted for publication) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of... urea sulfate and opens a public comment period on the proposed decisions. Registration review is EPA's.... Urea sulfate is used as a desiccant on ] cotton. No food crop uses remain and all tolerances for...

  15. Conversion regular patterns of acetic acid,propionic acid and butyric acid in UASB reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Min; REN Nan-qi; CHEN Ying; ZHU Wen-fang; DING Jie

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of continuous tests and batch tests, conversion regular patterns of acetate, propionate and butyrate in activated sludge at different heights of the UASB reactor were conducted. Results indicated that the conversion capacity of the microbial is decided by the substrate characteristic when sole VFA is used as the only substrate. But when mixed substrates are used,the conversion regulations would have changed accordingly. Relationships of different substrates vary according to their locations. In the whole reactor, propionate's conversion is restrained by acetate and butyrate of high concentration. On the top and at the bottom of the reactor, conversion of acetate, but butyrate, is restrained by propionate. And in the midst, acetate's conversion is accelerated by propionate while that of butyrate is restrained. It is proved, based on the analysis of specific conversion rate, that the space distribution of the microbe is the main factor that affects substrates' conversion. The ethanol-type fermentation of the acidogenic-phase is the optimal acid-type fermentation for the two-phase anaerobic process.

  16. Electrocatalytic oxidation of n-propanol to produce propionic acid using an electrocatalytic membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Li, Jianxin; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Bowen; He, Benqiao; Yan, Feng; Yang, Yang; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2013-05-18

    An electrocatalytic membrane reactor assembled using a nano-MnO2 loading microporous Ti membrane as an anode and a tubular stainless steel as a cathode was used to oxidize n-propanol to produce propionic acid. The high efficiency and selectivity obtained is related to the synergistic effect between the reaction and separation in the reactor.

  17. Phosphorus limitation strategy to increase propionic acid flux towards 3-hydroxyvaleric acid monomers in Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grousseau, Estelle; Blanchet, Elise; Déléris, Stéphane; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Paul, Etienne; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis

    2014-02-01

    Properties of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (P(3HB-co-3HV)) depend on their 3HV content. 3HV can be produced by Cupriavidus necator from propionic acid. Few studies explored carbon distribution and dynamics of 3HV and 3HB monomers production, and none of them have been done with phosphorus as limiting nutrient. In this study, fed-batch cultures of C. necator with propionic acid, as sole carbon source or mixed with butyric acid, were performed. Phosphorus deficiency allowed sustaining 3HV production rate and decreasing 3HB production rate, leading to an instant production of up to 100% of 3HV. When a residual growth is sustained by a phosphorus feeding, the maximum 3HV percentage produced from propionic acid is limited to 33% (Mole.Mole(-1)). The association of a second carbon source like butyric acid lead to higher conversion of propionic acid into 3HV. This study showed the importance of the limiting nutrient and of the culture strategy to get the appropriate product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection, phylogeny and population dynamics of syntrophic propionate - oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The research described this thesis concerns the diversity and phylogeny of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria and their ecology in granular sludge, from which they were obtained. 16S rRNA was used as a molecular marker to study both the phylogeny and the ecology of these bacteria. S

  19. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, S.H.; Peppelenbosch, M.P.; Roelofsen, H.; Vonk, R.J.; Venema, K.

    2010-01-01

    Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced. However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser

  20. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, S.H.; Peppelenbosch, M.P.; Roelofsen, H.; Vonk, R.J.; Venema, K.

    2010-01-01

    Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced. However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser exten

  1. 77 FR 31722 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Estradiol; Estradiol Benzoate and Testosterone Propionate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... COMPONENT E-C 522.1940 (progesterone and estradiol benzoate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). COMPONENT E-S (progesterone and estradiol benzoate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). 118-123 COMPONENT 200 (estradiol benzoate... and testosterone propionate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). 200-221 COMPONENT TE-IS...

  2. In vitro effects of fluticasone propionate on IL-13 production by mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corticosteroid administration produces multiple immunomodulatory effects, including down-regulation of cytokine production by CD4 T lymphocytes. Fluticasone propionate (FP (Glaxo Smith&Kline, Greenford, UK, a highly lipophilic topical corticosteroid, has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of asthma and of both seasonal and perennial rhinitis.

  3. Propionic acid affects immune status and metabolism in adipose tissue from overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, S.; Roelofsen, H.; Rezaee, F.; Weening, D.; Hoek, A.; Vonk, R.; Venema, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue is a primary site of obesity-induced inflammation, which is emerging as an important contributor to obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Dietary fibre consumption appears to be protective. Short-chain fatty acids, e.g. propionic acid, are the principal products

  4. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, Sa'ad H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J.; Venema, Koen

    2010-01-01

    Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser extent

  5. The methylcitric acid pathway in Ralstonia eutropha: new genes identified involved in propionate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brämer, C O; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    From Ralstonia eutropha HF39 null-allele mutants were created by Tn5 mutagenesis and by homologous recombination which were impaired in growth on propionic acid and levulinic acid. From the molecular, physiological and enzymic analysis of these mutants it was concluded that in this bacterium propionic acid is metabolized via the methylcitric acid pathway. The genes encoding enzymes of this pathway are organized in a cluster in the order prpR, prpB, prpC, acnM, ORF5 and prpD, with prpR transcribed divergently from the other genes. (i) prpC encodes a 2-methylcitric acid synthase (42720 Da) as shown by the measurement of the respective enzyme activity, complementation of a prpC mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and high sequence similarity. (ii) For the translational product of acnM the function of a 2-methyl-cis-aconitic acid hydratase (94726 Da) is proposed. This protein and also the ORF5 translational product are essential for growth on propionic acid, as revealed by the propionic-acid-negative phenotype of Tn5-insertion mutants, and are required for the conversion of 2-methylcitric acid into 2-methylisocitric acid as shown by the accumulation of the latter, which could be purified as its calcium salt from the supernatants of these mutants. In contrast, inactivation of prpD did not block the ability of the cell to use propionic acid as carbon and energy source, as shown by the propionic acid phenotype of a null-allele mutant. It is therefore unlikely that prpD from R. eutropha encodes a 2-methyl-cis-aconitic acid dehydratase as proposed recently for the homologous prpD gene from S. enterica. (iii) The translational product of prpB encodes 2-methylisocitric acid lyase (32314 Da) as revealed by measurement of the respective enzyme activity and by demonstrating accumulation of methylisocitric acid in the supernatant of a prpB null-allele mutant. (iv) The expression of prpC and probably also of the other enzymes is regulated and is induced during

  6. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  7. Fluticasone propionate-salmeterol versus inhaled corticosteroids plus montelukast: outcomes study in pediatric patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford RH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard H Stanford,1 Manan Shah,2 Anna O D'Souza21GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC, 2Xcenda, Palm Harbor, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study (GSK ADA111194 was to compare asthma-related health care utilization and costs associated with fluticasone propionate (an inhaled corticosteroid [ICS] and salmeterol (a long-acting beta-agonist in a single inhalation device (fluticasone propionate-salmeterol versus the combination of ICS + montelukast in the treatment of pediatric patients with asthma.Methods: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study using a large health insurance claims database spanning January 1, 2000 to January 31, 2008. The target population was patients aged 4–11 years with at least one pharmacy claim for fluticasone propionate-salmeterol, any ICS, or montelukast during the study period. The date of first claim for the medication of interest was deemed the index date. Patients were required to be continuously eligible to receive health care services one year prior to and 30 days after the index date, and have at least one claim with an ICD-9-CM code for asthma (493.xx in the one-year pre-index period. Patients with prescriptions for fluticasone propionate-salmeterol, ICS + montelukast, or long-acting beta-agonists during the pre-index period were excluded. Patients were matched on a 1:1 basis according to three variables, ie, pre-index use of oral corticosteroids, ICS, and presence of pre-index respiratory-related hospitalizations/emergency department visits. The risk of asthma-related hospitalization, combined hospitalization/emergency department visit, and monthly asthma-related costs were assessed using multivariate methods.Results: Of the 3001 patients identified, 2231 patients were on fluticasone propionate-salmeterol and 770 were on ICS + montelukast. After matching, there were 747 pairs of fluticasone propionate-salmeterol and ICS + montelukast patients, which were well matched for

  8. Contribution of the heme propionate groups to the electron transfer and electrostatic properties of myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Anthony R; Sishta, Bhavini P; Mauk, A Grant

    2006-12-01

    The role of the heme propionate groups in determining the electron transfer and electrostatic properties of myoglobin have been studied by thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies of horse heart myoglobin in which the heme propionate groups are esterified. Spectroelectrochemical analysis has established that the E(m,7) of dimethylester heme-substituted Mb (DME-Mb) (E(m,7)=100.2(2)mV vs. NHE (Normal Hydrogen Electrode) (25 degrees C) is increased approximately 40mV relative to that of the native protein with DeltaH degrees =-12.9(2) kcal/mol and DeltaS degrees =-51.0(8) cal/mol/deg (pH 7.0, mu=0.1M (phosphate)). The second order rate constant for reduction of DME-metMb by Fe(EDTA)(2-) is increased >400-fold relative to that for reduction of native metMb to a value of 1.34(2)x10(3)M(-1)s(-1) with DeltaS(double dagger)=-13(1) cal/mol/deg and DeltaH(double dagger)=9.2(3) (pH 7.0, micro=0.1M (phosphate)). Analysis of the pH dependences of the reduction potential and rate constant for reduction by Fe(EDTA)(2-) demonstrates that heme propionate esterification introduces significant changes into the electrostatic interactions in myoglobin. These changes are also manifested by differences in the pH dependences of the (1)H NMR spectra of native and DME-metMb that reveal shifts in pK(a) values for specific His residues as the result of heme propionate esterification. In sum, the current results establish that heme propionate esterification not only affects the electron transfer properties of myoglobin but also influences the titration behavior of specific His residues.

  9. Postharvest Propionic Acid and Hot Water Treatment for the Control of Black Spot ntrol of Black Spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr. is one of the main postharvest diseases of Chinese Ya pears and causes serious economic loss during storage. The fungi-toxicity of postharvest propionic acid and hot water treatment at different concentrations and temperatures was investigated in vitro and directly on Ya pears. The in vitro results showed that A. alternata was susceptible to propionic acid solutions at all tested temperatures. The toxicity of propionic acid increased linearly and the LC 99 decreased from 13.43 to 4.31 g/L with an increase in temperature from 20 to 45C. The results in Ya pears showed that propionic acid and hot water treatment dramatically controlled black spot disease and 99% inhibition was achieved upon treatment with 9 g/L propionic acid solution for 30 min at 45C. Furthermore, the treatment inhibited the respiration of fruits and did not cause any adverse effects on other quality parameters; however, slight surface injury was noted at 9 g/L. The safety of propionic acid treatment was further confirmed by residue analysis. The results of this study suggest that postharvest propionic acid and hot water treatment is an alternative method for the control of black spot disease in Ya pears.

  10. SINGLE-ION CONDUCTIVITY IN POLY(LITHIUM PROPIONATE METHYL SILOXANE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shibi; MA Yanguang; GUO Defan; LI Yongjun; JIANG Yingyan; HUANG Xuejie; CHEN Liquan

    1993-01-01

    Poly(lithium propionate methyl siloxane)as a single-ion carrier source was synthesized.The crosslinked film showed lower lithium ionic conductivity at room temperature (about 10-10S/cm).However,the lithium ionic conductivity was obviously increased by blending with high polar polymers such as polyethylene oxide,poly (methylsiloxane-co-ethylene oxide) and poly (methylsiloxane-g-ethylene oxide).In the blend system a high conductivity of 10-7-10-5Scm-1 at room temperature was obtained and the single-ion conductivity was deeply influenced by the content of the poly(lithium propionate methyl siloxane).The dc ionic conductivity of the flexible crosslinked films is more stable over time.

  11. N-carbamylglutamate in emergency management of hyperammonemia in neonatal acute onset propionic and methylmalonic aciduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Luca; Gozzini, Elena; Fiorini, Patrizio; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo; Donati, Maria Alice

    2010-01-01

    In propionic aciduria and methylmalonic aciduria, hyperammonemia as a symptom of metabolic decompensation is one of the major clinical problems. Hyperammonemia is a true neonatal emergency with high mortality and neurological complications in most survivors. It requires a rapid and vigorous treatment in order to normalize the ammonia concentration as fast as possible. We report on two full-term neonates, one with propionic aciduria and the other with methylmalonic aciduria, whose plasma ammonia concentrations responded dramatically to oral N-carbamylglutamate. N-carbamylglutamate, added to the classic treatment, quickly normalized plasma ammonia levels in both patients and avoided the need of hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. A particularly sudden fall of ammonia was obtained in one patient through beginning N-carbamylglutamate treatment precociously.

  12. 2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)propionic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tommy N; Janin, Yves L; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify new subtype-selective (S)-glutamate (Glu) receptor ligands we have synthesized (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)propionic acid [(RS)-TDPA]. Resolution of (RS)-TDPA by chiral chromatography was performed using a Crownpac CR(+) column affording (R)- and (S......)-TDPA of high enantiomeric purity (enantiomeric excess=99.9%). An X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the early eluting enantiomer has R-configuration. Both enantiomers showed high affinity as well as high agonist activity at (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA...... a remarkably low AMPA receptor stereoselectivity, (S)-TDPA showing the highest affinity and (R)-TDPA the most potent agonist activity. In addition, (S)-TDPA was shown to interact with synaptosomal Glu uptake sites displacing [(3)H](R)-aspartic acid (IC(50 ) approximately 390 microM). An enantiospecific...

  13. Synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria thin films by low-temperature thermal decomposition of Ce-propionate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roura, P., E-mail: pere.roura@udg.es [GRMT, Dept. of Physics, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Edif. PII, E17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Farjas, J. [GRMT, Dept. of Physics, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Edif. PII, E17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Ricart, S.; Aklalouch, M.; Guzman, R. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Arbiol, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Puig, T.; Calleja, A.; Pena-Rodriguez, O.; Garriga, M.; Obradors, X. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of Ce-propionate (thickness below 20 nm) have been deposited by spin coating and pyrolysed into ceria at temperatures below 200 Degree-Sign C. After 1 h of thermal treatment, no signature of the vibrational modes of Ce-propionate is detected by infrared spectroscopy, indicating that decomposition has been completed. The resulting ceria films are nanocrystalline as revealed by X-ray diffraction (average grain size of 2-2.5 nm) and confirmed by microscopy. They are transparent in the visible region and show the characteristic band gap absorption below 400 nm. A direct band gap energy of 3.50 {+-} 0.05 eV has been deduced irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature (160, 180 and 200 Degree-Sign C).

  14. iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis reveals the pathways for methanation of propionate facilitated by magnetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Yuhang; Wan, Jingjing; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    by around 44% in batch experiments, and both direct interspecies electron transfer and interspecies H2 transfer were thermodynamically feasible with the addition of magnetite. The methanation of propionate facilitated by magnetite was also demonstrated in a long-term operated continuous reactor. The methane...... enriched with the addition of magnetite. iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis, which was used in mixed culture for the first time, showed that magnetite induced the changes of protein expression levels involved in various pathways during the methanation of propionate. The up-regulation of proteins...... electron transfer considering its up-regulation with the addition of magnetite and origination from Thauera. Most of the up-regulated proteins in methane metabolism were originated from Methanosaeta, while most of the enzymes with down-regulated proteins were originated from Methanosarcina. However, the up-regulated...

  15. Propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces NKG2D ligand expression on human-activated T lymphocytes and cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars; Hansen, Karen Aagaard; Jensen, Helle

    2009-01-01

    We found that propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces expression of the NKG2D ligands MICA/B on activated T lymphocytes and different cancer cells, without affecting MICA/B expression on resting peripheral blood cells. Growth supernatant from propionibacteria or propionate alone could...... activity. Other short-chain fatty acids such as lactate, acetate, and butyrate could also induce MICA/B expression. We observed a striking difference in the molecular signaling pathways that regulate MICA/B. A functional glycolytic pathway was essential for MICA/B expression after exposure to propionate...... that propionate, produced either by bacteria or during cellular metabolism, has significant immunoregulatory function and may be cancer prophylactic....

  16. Determination of solvation and binding site profile within electropolymerised poly(pyrrole-N-propionic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glidle, A.; Swann, M.J.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2000-01-01

    Specular neutron reflectivity measurements were performed on electropolymerised films of poly(pyrrole-N-propionic acid) to determine the degree to which the solvents are capable of supporting biological macromolecules can penetrate the polymer film. The permeation profile of Ni2+ ions which chela...... to the polymer's carboxylic acid moieties for subsequent modified protein binding was also determined. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Propionic and Methylmalonic Acidemia: Antisense Therapeutics for Intronic Variations Causing Aberrantly Spliced Messenger RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón, A. ; Aguado, C. ; Desviat, L. R. ; Sánchez-Alcudia, R. ; Ugarte, M. ; Pérez, B. 

    2007-01-01

    We describe the use of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs) to restore normal splicing caused by intronic molecular defects identified in methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia (PA). The three new point mutations described in deep intronic regions increase the splicing scores of pseudoexons or generate consensus binding motifs for splicing factors, such as SRp40, which favor the intronic inclusions in MUT (r.1957ins76), PCCA (r.1284ins84), or PCCB (r.654ins72) messenger R...

  18. Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Meng S; Chen Z; Yang L; Zhang W; Liu D; Guo J; Guan Y; Li J

    2013-01-01

    Shu Meng,1 Zaixing Chen,2 Liqun Yang,1 Wei Zhang,1 Danhua Liu,1 Jing Guo,1 Yanmin Guan,1 Jianxin Li11Liaoning Research Institute of Family Planning, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP) ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modifica...

  19. Propionate Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in Mice by Restoring Blood–Milk Barrier Disruption and Suppressing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary glands, is a major disease affecting dairy animal worldwide. Propionate is one of the main short-chain fatty acid that can exert multiple effects on the inflammatory process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of sodium propionate against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced mastitis model in mice. The data mainly confirm that inflammation and blood–milk barrier breakdown contribute to progression of the disease in this model. In mice with LPS, sodium propionate attenuates the LPS-induced histopathological changes, inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β production, myeloperoxidase activity in mammary tissues. Given their importance in the blood–milk barrier, tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-3 are further investigated. Our results show that sodium propionate strikingly increases the expressions of occludin and claudin-3 and reduces the blood–milk barrier permeability in this model. Furthermore, in LPS-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs, LPS increased the expressions of phosphorylated (p-p65, p-IκB proteins, which is attenuated by sodium propionate. Finally, we examine the possibility that propionate acts as a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, the results show that both sodium propionate and trichostatin A increase the level of histone H3 acetylation and inhibit the increased production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated mMECs. These data suggest that sodium propionate protects against LPS-induced mastitis mainly by restoring blood–milk barrier disruption and suppressing inflammation via NF-κB signaling pathway and HDAC inhibition.

  20. Production of propionic acid from whey permeate by sequential fermentation, ultrafiltration, and cell recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomban, A; Roger, L; Boyaval, P

    1993-11-05

    This article deals with the production by fermentation of a mycostatic and aromatic food additive based on propionic acid. Membrane bioreactors have been used from laboratory scale up to pilot and industrial production plants. Due to the high cell densities achieved by the sequential recycling mode of operation, a mixed acids solution was rapidly produced from whey permeate. The sterile fermented broth obtained was subsequently concentrated at different levels by evaporation and spray drying according to the projected use. Concentrated Propionibacterium cells (200 g x L(-1) DW) were obtained from the process by periodic bleeds and could be used to good effect as cheese starters, silage preservatives, or probiotics. Propionic acid concentrations from 30 to 40 g x L(-1) were easily achieved with no residual lactose. The highest volumetric productivity was 1.6 g x L(-1) x h(-1) for total acid and 1.2 g x L(-1) x h(-1) for propionic acid with a specific productivity of 0.035 h(-1).

  1. THE EFFECT OF METHANOGENIC INHIBITOR FEED ON PROPIONIC ACID AND LAMB MEAT CHEMICAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Suryanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA on propionic acids and lamb meat chemical quality. The treatment given was R1: feed without medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, while R2 dan R3 were the feed contained 1.0% and 1.5% of MCFA, respectively. The twelve heads of lambs yearling weight of 16-17 kg were used as materials. Biological trial was done for three months and then was slaughtered. Before being slaughtered, the animal was taken rumen fluid to be analyzed for propionic acid. The carcass was sampled to be analyzed for chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids content. This study showed that methanogenic inhibitor feed with 1.0-1.5% MCFA could be used as sheep feed, and the results: the propionic acid content in rumen increased 29.59 – 36.11%. The cholesterol content decreased 7.14-10.06%. For the meat fatty acids composition, unsaturated fatty acids increased 9.05 – 17.96%. while saturated fatty acid decreased 6.59 – 11.88%.

  2. THE EFFICACY OF CLOBETASOL PROPIONATE WITH VARYING DILUTIONS OF EMOLLIENT DETERMINED BY HISTAMINE WHEAL SUPPRESSION TEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathi, M; Rai, Reena; Srinivas, C R

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ability of steroids to reduce the histamine wheal was used to assess the efficacy of topical clobetasol propionate with varying dilutions of emollients. Aim: To determine the wheal-suppressing ability of topical clobetasol with varying dilutions of emollient. Materials and Methods: It was a double-blinded randomized study. Twenty-five volunteers were included in the study. Five syringes of 5 ml were taken and the syringes were loaded with either clobetasol propionate 0.05%, emollient, or clobetasol propionate with emollient in dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The syringes were coded 1 to 5. Five squares of 3 × 3 cm were marked on the flexor aspect of the forearm of the volunteers. After randomization, half fingertip unit of the cream was applied within each square uniformly. Three hours later histamine prick test was performed by the standard method. The wheal was measured after 15 min and the results were recorded. After decoding, results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance. Result: The decrease in wheal suppression of steroid with emollient (1:1) was same as topical steroid and the wheal suppression decreased with increasing dilutions of steroid. Conclusion: We conclude that steroids and emollients can be mixed in equal proportion (1:1) and the effect is same as steroid alone and increasing dilution of steroids with emollients was not effective in suppressing the wheal. PMID:22121270

  3. Microbial production of Propionic and Succinic acid from Sorbitol using Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Juliana C; Valença, Gustavo P; Moran, Paulo J S; Rodrigues, J Augusto R

    2015-01-01

    Three sequential fermentative batches were carried out with cell recycle in four simultaneously operating bioreactors maintained at pH 6.5, 30°C, and 100 rpm. P. acidipropionici ATCC 4875 was able to produce propionic and succinic acid from sorbitol. The concentration of propionic acid decreased slightly from 39.5 ± 5.2 g L(-1) to 34.4 ± 1.9 g L(-1), and that of succinic acid increased significantly from 6.1 ± 2.1 g L(-1) to 14.8 ± 0.9 g L(-1) through the sequential batches. In addition, a small amount of acetic acid was produced that decreased from 3.3 ± 0.4 g L(-1) to 2.0 ± 0.3 g L(-1) through the batches. The major yield for propionic acid was 0.613 g g(-1) in the first batch and succinic acid it was 0.212 g g(-1) in the third batch. The minor yield of acetic acid was 0.029 g g(-1), in the second and third batches.

  4. The efficacy of clobetasol propionate with varying dilutions of emollient determined by histamine wheal suppression test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Barathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability of steroids to reduce the histamine wheal was used to assess the efficacy of topical clobetasol propionate with varying dilutions of emollients. Aim: To determine the wheal-suppressing ability of topical clobetasol with varying dilutions of emollient. Materials and Methods: It was a double-blinded randomized study. Twenty-five volunteers were included in the study. Five syringes of 5 ml were taken and the syringes were loaded with either clobetasol propionate 0.05%, emollient, or clobetasol propionate with emollient in dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The syringes were coded 1 to 5. Five squares of 3 × 3 cm were marked on the flexor aspect of the forearm of the volunteers. After randomization, half fingertip unit of the cream was applied within each square uniformly. Three hours later histamine prick test was performed by the standard method. The wheal was measured after 15 min and the results were recorded. After decoding, results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance. Result: The decrease in wheal suppression of steroid with emollient (1:1 was same as topical steroid and the wheal suppression decreased with increasing dilutions of steroid. Conclusion: We conclude that steroids and emollients can be mixed in equal proportion (1:1 and the effect is same as steroid alone and increasing dilution of steroids with emollients was not effective in suppressing the wheal.

  5. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed.

  6. The performance efficiency of bioaugmentation to prevent anaerobic digestion failure from ammonia and propionate inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Sun, Yongming; Wu, Shubiao; Kong, Xiaoying; Yuan, Zhenhong; Dong, Renjie

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of bioaugmentation with enriched methanogenic propionate degrading microbial consortia on propionate fermentation under ammonia stress from total ammonia nitrogen concentration (TAN) of 3.0gNL(-1). Results demonstrated that bioaugmentation could prevent unstable digestion against further deterioration. After 45days of 1dosage (0.3g dry cell weight L(-1)d(-1), DCW L(-1)d(-1)) of bioaugmentation, the average volumetric methane production (VMP), methane recovery rate and propionic acid (HPr) degradation rate was enhanced by 70mLL(-1)d(-1), 21% and 51%, respectively. In contrast, the non-bioaugmentation reactor almost failed. Routine addition of a double dosage (0.6g DCW L(-1)d(-1)) of bioaugmentation culture was able to effectively recover the failing digester. The results of FISH suggested that the populations of Methanosaetaceae increased significantly, which could be a main contributor for the positive effect on methane production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid-state structure of 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium propionate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The single crystals of 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium propionate suitable for the X-ray analysis were grown using a solution growth technique room temperature. The compound crystallises in the centrosymmetric C2/c space group of the monoclinic system. The conformation of the 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium cation is not strictly planar, but slightly twisted. Both planar arms of the cation are oppositely rotated by 2.1(1)° around the Csbnd N bonds involving the central N atom. The propionate(-) anion is also non-planar, the carboxylate group is turned by 4.3(1)° in relation to the planar carbon chain. The arrangement of oppositely charged components, i.e. 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium cations and propionate(-) anions in the crystal is mainly determined by ionic and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding interactions forming two-dimensional network aligned to (100) plane. The neighbouring 2D layers interact via much weaker Nsbnd H⋯S hydrogen bonds forming three-dimensional hydrogen bonded network. Hirshfeld surface and the analysis of 2D fingerprint plots are illustrating both quantitatively and qualitatively interactions governing the supramolecular assemblies. The compound was also characterised by the FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. The vibrational assignments have been supported by the isotopic frequency shift.

  8. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  9. Halobetasol Propionate Lotion, 0.05% Provides Superior Hydration Compared to Halobetasol Propionate Cream, 0.05% in a Double-Blinded Study of Occlusivity and Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Gary; Zerweck, Charles; Houser, Tim; Andrasfay, Anthony; Gauthier, Bob; Holland, Charles; Piacquadio, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    This study measured skin hydration and occlusivity of two test products [halobetasol propionate lotion, 0.05% (HBP Lotion) and Ultravate® (halobetasol propionate) cream, 0.05% (HBP Cream)] at 2, 4, and 6 hours after application to skin test sites previously challenged by dry shaving, which was performed to compromise the integrity of the stratum corneum barrier. Trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), an indicator of skin barrier function, was measured using cyberDERM, inc. RG-1 evaporimeter. Skin hydration was evaluated using IBS SkiCon-200 conductance meter. Test products were applied bilaterally on dry-shaved sites on the volar forearm sites, according to a randomization scheme, with two test sites untreated to serve as "dry-shaved" controls. TEWL and conductance were measured at 2, 4, and 6 hours post-treatment. HBP Lotion displayed a significant increase in skin hydration at 2, 4, and 6 hours post-treatment compared to the baseline values and dry-shaved controls (each, P less than 0.001). However, HBP Cream produced statistically significant increased skin hydration only after 6 hours (P less than 0.05). HBP Lotion was significantly more effective than HBP Cream in increasing skin hydration at 2 and 4 hours post-treatment (each, P less than 0.001), and had a directional advantage (not statistically significant) at 6 hours. Neither test product had a significant occlusive effect as measured by TEWL at 2, 4, and 6 hours post-application. Both formulations of HBP (Lotion and Cream) contributed to skin moisturization, as measured by skin conductance. HBP Lotion produced a significantly more rapid onset and higher level of moisturization at 2 and 4 hours post-application compared to HBP Cream. The TEWL results indicate that neither HBP Lotion nor HBP Cream provided any significant occlusivity to the skin. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(2):140-144..

  10. Short-term safety assessment of clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, atrophogenicity, and ocular safety in subjects with scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Philippe; Poncet, Michel; Farzaneh, Sidou; Soto, Pascale

    2006-04-01

    Clobetasol propionate is known to be a very effective treatment for psoriasis; however, its use is limited by potent corticosteroid class related side effects such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression and atrophogenicity. The aim of this single-center, parallel group, randomized study was to assess the HPA axis suppression potential, atrophogenicity, and ocular tolerability of clobetasol propionate shampoo in 26 patients with scalp psoriasis. Suitable subjects were treated once daily for 4 weeks with clobetasol propionate shampoo, to be rinsed off after 15 minutes or with a leave-on clobetasol propionate gel. The study demonstrated that clobetasol propionate shampoo did not lead to HPA axis suppression or to skin atrophy. Conversely, the gel led to HPA axis suppression and a decrease in skin thickness. Neither formulation had an impact on ocular safety. Despite the short contact application time, the clobetasol propionate shampoo provides similar efficacy results to the gel.

  11. A comparison of costs and efficacy of intranasal fluticasone propionate and terfenadine tablets for seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, C M; Schulz, R M; Sclar, D A; Kral, K M; Mackowiak, J I

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares cost-efficacy ratios for intranasal fluticasone propionate and terfenadine tablets within a sample of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms due to mountain cedar allergy. Efficacy was assessed using secondary data analysis of patient ratings of symptoms and their overall assessment of response to treatment within a previously conducted clinical trial. Costs include direct costs of the drugs used for therapy. Patients with documented mountain cedar allergy who were 12 years of age or older (N = 232) had been randomized to either receive intranasal fluticasone propionate, terfenadine, or placebo. The cost-efficacy ratios for intranasal fluticasone propionate 200 micrograms once daily were more favorable than the ratios for terfenadine 60 mg twice daily. This relationship remained throughout the sensitivity analysis. Because intranasal fluticasone propionate is only available in a fixed package size, the number of efficacy-adjusted days of terfenadine therapy that could be purchased to reach break-even costs for a 30-day supply of fluticasone was calculated. Cost efficacy-adjusted days ranged from 11 to 18 days. If cost-efficacy adjustments are not conducted, the upper end of the range increases from 18 to 22 days, since 22 days of terfenadine could be purchased for the price of a 30-day supply of intranasal fluticasone propionate. Depending on which of the efficacy measures the reader believes, if patients use terfenadine for longer than 11 to 22 days, fluticasone propionate is the more cost-efficacious choice. Because most allergies are seasonal and allergy seasons typically last longer than 11 to 22 days, it is likely that fluticasone propionate will frequently be the more cost-efficacious choice in the patient population represented in this study.

  12. Effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on the concentrations of ammonia and insulin in peripheral blood of cows receiving an intraruminal infusion of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, J J; Chamberlain, D G

    1995-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that propionate can reduce hepatic capacity to detoxify ammonia, effects of the inclusion of propionate in intraruminal infusions of urea on the concentrations of ammonia, other metabolites and insulin in peripheral blood were investigated in two experiments with non-lactating dairy cows. Both experiments were of a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four animals, four treatments and four experimental periods of 7 d; feed was given in two equal meals each day, all intraruminal infusions were given for 1 h at the time of the morning feed, and propionic acid was partly neutralized with NaOH. In Expt 1, the treatments were a basal diet of pelleted lucerne and chopped hay alone or with the following infusions (g/d): urea 80, propionic acid 350, urea 80 plus propionic acid 350. The inclusion of propionate in the urea infusion markedly increased (P infusion of urea alone. Moreover, the inclusion of urea with the propionate infusion abolished (P infusion of propionate alone. In Expt 2, less severe treatments were imposed, the aim being to reproduce metabolic loads of propionate and ammonia that might be expected from a diet of high-protein grass silage rich in lactic acid. The treatments were a basal diet of grass silage alone or with the following infusions (g/d): NaCl 145, NaCl 145 plus urea 50, propionic acid 200, urea 50 plus propionic acid 200. Effects were less pronounced than in Expt 1 but, in the period immediately after infusion, similar effects were seen. It is concluded that propionate-ammonia interactions may have potentially important effects on milk production especially for diets with high proportions of grass silage containing high levels of protein and lactic acid.

  13. Nutritional and Pharmacological Management during Chemotherapy in a Patient with Propionic Acidaemia and Rhabdomyosarcoma Botryoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, E; Quijada-Fraile, P; Oliveros-Leal, L; García-Silva, Mt; Pérez-Cerdá, C; Baro-Fernández, M; Pérez-Alonso, V; Vivanco, Jl

    2012-01-01

    We present the nutritional and pharmacological management of a 2-year-old girl with a severe form of propionic acidaemia and a genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. This association has not been described before, nor the utilization of chemotherapy in patients with propionic acidaemia.The patient is a girl with neonatal onset of propionic acidaemia, homozygous for the c.2041-2924del3889 mutation in PCCA gene. At 23 months of age she was diagnosed with genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Conservative surgery, brachytherapy and nine cycles of chemotherapy with iphosphamide, vincristine and actinomycin were recommended by oncologists. Due to the possibility that the child could present decompensations, we elaborated three different courses of treatment: when the patient was stable (treatment 1), intermittent bolus feeding through gastrostomy, containing 70 kcal/kg/day and 1.4 g/kg/day of total protein (0.6 g/kg/day of natural protein and 0.8 g/kg/day of amino acid-based formula) was prescribed; on the chemotherapy-days (treatment 2), diet consisted on continuous feeding, with the same energy and amino acid-based formula but half of natural protein intake; in case of decompensation (treatment 3), we increased by 10% the energy intake, and completely stopped natural protein in the diet but maintaining the amino acid-based formula. On chemotherapy- days carnitine was increased from 100 mg/kg/day to 150 mg/kg/day, and N-carbamylglutamate was added.Through the 7 months with chemotherapy the patient did not suffer decompensations, while she maintained good nutritional status.Enteral continuous feeding by gastrostomy, amino acid-based formula, and preventive use of N-carbamylglutamate during chemotherapy-days are the principal measures we propose in these situations.

  14. Multiple dose bioequivalence study with josamycin propionate, a drug with highly variable kinetics, in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoogdalem, E J; Terpstra, I J; Krauwinkel, W J; Volkers-Kamermans, N J; Baven, A L; Verschoor, J S

    1996-05-01

    Josamycin is a macrolide antibiotic with considerable intra- and interindividual variability in kinetics. In the present study bioequivalence of an intact and dispersed josamycin Solutab tablet, containing 1,000 mg of josamycin in the form of josamycin propionate ester, was tested versus a Josacine 1,000 mg reference sachet. The design of this bioequivalence study was adapted to the drug's pharmacokinetic variability, comprising testing in steady-state, testing the reference in replicate, and maintaining a widened bioequivalence margin. The study was performed in a group of 24 male and 12 female healthy subjects, according to a 3-treatment 4-period crossover design. Blood sampling for establishing josamycin propionate and josamycin base serum level profiles were collected during the 12 h dosing interval on day 4. Steady-state serum levels were reached on day 4. With the reference sachet mean peak levels of 1.02 micrograms/ml and 0.36 microgram/ml were observed for parent drug and metabolite, respectively, reached at peak times of 1.5 h and 1.8 h. Comparable profiles were observed with the intact and dispersed Solutab tablets, both tending towards higher serum levels than the sachet. In terms of josamycin propionate levels as well as josamycin base levels, the intact and dispersed Solutab tablet was bioequivalent with the referent sachet within the preset 0.70-1.43 margins. Variability in josamycin kinetics proved to be substantial, maximum differences in peak levels and AUC values being about 10-fold between individuals, and 3-fold within individuals. Retrospectively, the multiple dosing regimen appeared not to result in a clear reduction of intrasubject variability.

  15. Odd-chain fatty acids as a biomarker for dietary fiber intake: a novel pathway for endogenous production from propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Nickel, Daniela; Hornemann, Silke; Petzke, Klaus J; Schulze, Matthias B; Pfeiffer, Andreas Fh; Klaus, Susanne

    2017-06-01

    Background: The risk of type 2 diabetes is inversely correlated with plasma concentrations of odd-chain fatty acids [OCFAs; pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0)], which are considered as biomarkers for dairy fat intake in humans. However, rodent studies suggest that OCFAs are synthesized endogenously from gut-derived propionate. Propionate increases with dietary fiber consumption and has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity.Objective: We hypothesized that OCFAs are produced in humans from dietary fibers by a novel endogenous pathway.Design: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 16 healthy individuals were supplemented with cellulose (30 g/d), inulin (30 g/d), or propionate (6 g/d) for 7 d. In addition, human hepatoma cells were incubated with different propionate concentrations. OCFAs were determined in plasma phospholipids and hepatoma cells by gas chromatography.Results: Cellulose did not affect plasma OCFA levels, whereas inulin and propionate increased pentadecanoic acid by ∼17% (P dietary fiber intake and not only dairy fat. This trial was registered at www.germanctr.de as DRKS00010121. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. The common gut microbe Eubacterium hallii also contributes to intestinal propionate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eEngels

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eubacterium hallii is considered an important microbe in regard to intestinal metabolic balance due to its ability to utilize glucose and the fermentation intermediates acetate and lactate, to form butyrate and hydrogen. Recently, we observed that E. hallii is capable of metabolizing glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA, reuterin with reported antimicrobial properties. The key enzyme for glycerol to 3-HPA conversion is the cobalamin-dependent glycerol/diol dehydratase PduCDE which also utilizes 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD to form propionate. Therefore our primary goal was to investigate glycerol to 3-HPA metabolism and 1,2-PD utilization by E. hallii along with its ability to produce cobalamin. We also investigated the relative abundance of E. hallii in stool of adults using 16S rRNA and pduCDE based gene screening to determine the contribution of E. hallii to intestinal propionate formation. We found that E. hallii utilizes glycerol to produce up to 9 mM 3-HPA but did not further metabolize 3-HPA to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD. Utilization of 1,2-PD in the presence and absence of glucose led to the formation of propanal, propanol and propionate. E. hallii formed cobalamin and was detected in stool of 74% of adults using 16S rRNA gene as marker gene (n = 325. Relative abundance of the E. hallii 16S rRNA gene ranged from 0 to 0.59% with a mean relative abundance of 0.044%. E. hallii PduCDE was detected in 63 to 81% of the metagenomes depending on which subunit was investigated beside other taxons such as Ruminococcus obeum, Ruminococcus gnavus, Flavonifractor prautii, Intestinimonas butyriciproducens, and Veillonella spp. In conclusion, we identified E. hallii as a common gut microbe with the ability to convert glycerol to 3-HPA, a step that requires the production of cobalamin, and to utilize 1,2-PD to form propionate. Our results along with its ability to use a broad range of substrates point at E. hallii as a key species within the intestinal

  17. Temporal Microbial Community Dynamics in Microbial Electrolysis Cells – Influence of Acetate and Propionate Concentration

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2017-07-20

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are widely considered as a next generation wastewater treatment system. However, fundamental insight on the temporal dynamics of microbial communities associated with MEC performance under different organic types with varied loading concentrations is still unknown, nevertheless this knowledge is essential for optimizing this technology for real-scale applications. Here, the temporal dynamics of anodic microbial communities associated with MEC performance was examined at low (0.5 g COD/L) and high (4 g COD/L) concentrations of acetate or propionate, which are important intermediates of fermentation of municipal wastewaters and sludge. The results showed that acetate-fed reactors exhibited higher performance in terms of maximum current density (I: 4.25 ± 0.23 A/m), coulombic efficiency (CE: 95 ± 8%), and substrate degradation rate (98.8 ± 1.2%) than propionate-fed reactors (I: 2.7 ± 0.28 A/m; CE: 68 ± 9.5%; substrate degradation rate: 84 ± 13%) irrespective of the concentrations tested. Despite of the repeated sampling of the anodic biofilm over time, the high-concentration reactors demonstrated lower and stable performance in terms of current density (I: 1.1 ± 0.14 to 4.2 ± 0.21 A/m), coulombic efficiency (CE: 44 ± 4.1 to 103 ± 7.2%) and substrate degradation rate (64.9 ± 6.3 to 99.7 ± 0.5%), while the low-concentration reactors produced higher and dynamic performance (I: 1.1 ± 0.12 to 4.6 ± 0.1 A/m; CE: 52 ± 2.5 to 105 ± 2.7%; substrate degradation rate: 87.2 ± 0.2 to 99.9 ± 0.06%) with the different substrates tested. Correlating reactor\\'s performance with temporal dynamics of microbial communities showed that relatively similar anodic microbial community composition but with varying relative abundances was observed in all the reactors despite differences in the substrate and concentrations tested. Particularly, Geobacter was the predominant bacteria on the anode biofilm of all MECs over time suggesting its

  18. Propionylcarnitine excretion in propionic and methylmalonic acidurias: a cause of carnitine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, S; Rimoldi, M; Garavaglia, B; Uziel, G

    1984-05-16

    Two patients with propionic acidemia (PA) and two patients with methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) had low plasma free carnitine and increased short-chain acylcarnitines. Urinary excretion of free carnitine was decreased, while the excretion of short-chain acylcarnitines, mostly propionylcarnitine , was increased. Carnitine supplementation markedly increased the short-chain acylcarnitine fractions of both plasma and urine. Total carnitine content was decreased in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from two of the patients. It is suggested that in these organic acidurias mitochondrial propionylcarnitine , formed from free carnitine and excess propionylCoA exchanges with free cytosolic carnitine: propionylcarnitine is then lost in the urine, causing secondary carnitine deficiency in the tissues.

  19. Direct identification of propionylcarnitine in propionic acidaemia: biochemical and clinical results of oral carnitine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, M; Ketting, D; Beckeringh, T E; Leupold, D; Wadman, S K

    1986-01-01

    Urinary short-chain acylcarnitine in a patient with propionic acidaemia and low levels of free carnitine was found to consist mainly of propionylcarnitine. The compound was isolated by sequential paper and thin layer chromatography and identified by ammonia desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Treatment of the patient with oral carnitine supplements led to a near-normalization of the plasma free carnitine concentrations and an increase in his muscle tone. The propionylcarnitine excretion rose and there was a simultaneous decrease in the methylcitrate output. Carnitine treatment did not prevent the occurrence of an episode of metabolic decompensation.

  20. Successful pregnancy and delivery in a woman with propionic acidemia from the Amish community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Scott Schwoerer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acidemia (PA is an inborn error of protein metabolism with a variable clinical presentation ranging from neonatal encephalopathy to seemingly asymptomatic individuals who present with cardiomyopathy or sudden death. PA is recognized in the Amish population, often with an early asymptomatic course and eventual cardiac complications. Thus, Amish women with PA may reach reproductive age without clinical sequelae, but are at increased risk for metabolic decompensation during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period. We describe the care of an Amish woman with PA during her first pregnancy and delivery.

  1. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Deniz Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  2. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Fatma Deniz; Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  3. Application of dermal microdialysis for the determination of bioavailability of clobetasol propionate applied to the skin of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Au, W L; Skinner, M F; Benfeldt, E

    2012-01-01

    Dermal microdialysis was used to assess the bioavailability of a topical corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate, following application onto the skin of human subjects. The penetration of clobetasol propionate from a 4% m/v ethanolic solution applied onto 4 sites on one forearm of healthy human...... drug of interest. Furthermore, the study clearly demonstrated the application of dermal microdialysis as a valuable tool to assess the bioavailability/bioequivalence of clobetasol propionate penetration into the skin following topical application....... volunteers was studied. A lipid emulsion, Intralipid®, was used as the perfusate and linear microdialysis probes with a 2-kDa cutoff were inserted intradermally at the designated sites. The results indicated that Intralipid could be used as a suitable perfusate for in vivo microdialysis of this lipophilic...

  4. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05%: a new option to treat patients with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarratt, Michael; Breneman, Debra; Gottlieb, Alice B; Poulin, Yves; Liu, Yin; Foley, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, papulosquamous condition that affects up to 2% of the U.S. population. Approximately 50% of patients with psoriasis have involvement of the scalp. This was a multicentre, randomized, vehicle-controlled, double-masked and parallel-group study. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate shampoo, 0.05% versus its corresponding vehicle in subjects aged 12 years and older with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis over a treatment period of 4 weeks. Recurrence of scalp psoriasis was assessed during a two week follow-up period. A total of 142 subjects were treated. Results after 4 weeks demonstrated that clobetasol propionate shampoo, 0.05% was with a similar safety profile significantly more effective than its vehicle. The novel short contact shampoo formulation of clobetasol propionate is convenient and efficacious and minimizes systemic exposure while being efficient, safe and well-tolerated in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  5. Crystal structure of 3-(2,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugenhagen, Bernhard; Al Jasem, Yosef; AlAzani, Mariam; Thiemann, Thies

    2015-05-01

    In the crystal of the title compound, C11H14O4, the aromatic ring is almost coplanar with the 2-position meth-oxy group with which it subtends a dihedral of 0.54 (2)°, while the 5-position meth-oxy group makes a corresponding dihedral angle of just 5.30 (2)°. The angle between the mean planes of the aromatic ring and the propionic acid group is 78.56 (2)°. The fully extended propionic side chain is in a trans configuration with a C-C-C-C torsion angle of -172.25 (7)°. In the crystal, hydrogen bonding is limited to dimer formation via R 2 (2)(8) rings. The hydrogen-bonded dimers are stacked along the b axis. The average planes of the two benzene rings in a dimer are parallel to each other, but at an offset of 4.31 (2) Å. Within neighbouring dimers along the [101] direction, the average mol-ecular benzene planes are almost perpendicular to each other, with a dihedral angle of 85.33 (2)°.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND CALCIUM PROPIONATE IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.

  7. Concurrent non-ketotic hyperglycinemia and propionic acidemia in an eight year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Kruszka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first reported case of a patient with both non-ketotic hyperglycinemia and propionic acidemia. At 2 years of age, the patient was diagnosed with non-ketotic hyperglycinemia by elevated glycine levels and mutations in the GLDC gene (paternal allele: c.1576_1577insC delT and c.1580delGinsCAA; p.S527Tfs*13, and maternal allele: c.1819G>A; p.G607S. At 8 years of age after having been placed on ketogenic diet, he became lethargic and had severe metabolic acidosis with ketonuria. Urine organic acid analysis and plasma acylcarnitine profile were consistent with propionic acidemia. He was found to have an apparently homozygous mutation in the PCCB gene: c.49C>A; p.Leu17Met. The patient was also treated with natural protein restriction, carnitine, biotin, and thiamine and had subjective and biochemical improvement.

  8. Co-cultivation of Lactobacillus zeae and Veillonella cricetifor the production of propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, David; Sabra, Wael; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-05-24

    : In this work a defined co-culture of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus zeae and the propionate producer Veillonella criceti has been studied in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and in a dialysis membrane reactor. It is the first time that this reactor type is used for a defined co-culture fermentation. This reactor allows high mixing rates and working with high cell densities, making it ideal for co-culture investigations. In CSTR experiments the co-culture showed over a broad concentration range an almost linear correlation in consumption and production rates to the supply with complex nutrients. In CSTR and dialysis cultures a strong growth stimulation of L. zeae by V. criceti was shown. In dialysis cultures very high propionate production rates (0.61 g L-1h-1) with final titers up to 28 g L-1 have been realized. This reactor allows an individual, intracellular investigation of the co-culture partners by omic-technologies to provide a better understanding of microbial communities.

  9. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria using FTIR Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Nalepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid bacteria have been identified at the genus level with the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Bacterial strains of the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Propionibacterium were analyzed since they deliver health benefits and are routinely used in the food processing industry. The correctness of bacterial identification by ANNs and FTIR was evaluated at two stages. At first stage, ANNs were tested based on the spectra of 66 reference bacterial strains. At second stage, the evaluation involved 286 spectra of bacterial strains isolated from food products, deposited in our laboratory collection, and identified by genus-specific PCR. ANNs were developed based on the spectra and their first derivatives. The most satisfactory results were reported for the probabilistic neural network, which was built using a combination of W5W4W3 spectral ranges. This network correctly identified the genus of 95 % of the lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid bacteria strains analyzed.

  10. Breath-synchronized plume-control inhaler for pulmonary delivery of fluticasone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Stephen B; Armer, Thomas A; Newman, Stephen P; Pitcairn, Gary

    2008-05-22

    A novel breath-synchronized, plume-control inhaler (Tempo inhaler) was developed to overcome limitations of a pressurized metered-dose inhaler. This report compared the Tempo inhaler and a commercial inhaler for fine particle distribution and lung deposition of fluticasone propionate. In vitro fine particle distribution was determined using the Andersen Cascade Impactor at inspiration rates of 28.3 and 45L/min. In vivo lung deposition was assessed in a randomized, two-arm, crossover study of (99m)Tc-radiolabeled fluticasone propionate in 12 healthy adult subjects, analyzed by gamma scintigraphy. In vitro: fine particle fractions at 28.3 and 45L/min were 88.6+/-3.6% and 89.2+/-3.0% (Tempo inhaler) versus 40.4+/-4.7% and 43.1+/-4.4% (commercial inhaler). In vivo: lung deposition was 41.5+/-9.8% (Tempo inhaler) versus 13.8+/-7.4% (commercial inhaler) and oropharyngeal deposition was 18.3+/-7.7% (Tempo inhaler) versus 76.8+/-7.1% (commercial inhaler). Variability of lung deposition was reduced from 55% (commercial inhaler) to 24% (Tempo inhaler) of the delivered dose. The Tempo inhaler produced significantly higher fine particle fraction values, reduced oropharyngeal deposition by 75%, and increased whole, central, intermediate, and peripheral lung delivery by more than 200%. Thus, the Tempo inhaler enhances efficient drug delivery to the lungs.

  11. Enhanced propionic acid degradation (EPAD) system: proof of principle and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingxing; Carballa, Marta; Van De Caveye, Pieter; Verstraete, Willy

    2009-07-01

    Full-scale anaerobic single-phase digesters can be confronted with process instabilities, which often result in the accumulation of propionic acid (HPr). As a solution, an enhanced propionic acid degradation (EPAD) system has been conceptually designed and experimentally tested at lab-scale. The system consisted of two components: a liquid/solid separator containing a microfiltration membrane and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor specialized in HPr degradation. Two lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were used, i.e. the CSTR(control) and the CSTR(treatment). Firstly, the CSTRs were stressed by organic overloading to obtain high HPr levels. During the recovery period, besides stop feeding, no actions were taken to decrease the residual HPr concentration in the CSTR(control), while the CSTR(treatment) was connected to EPAD system in order to accelerate its recovery. By the end of the experiment, the CSTR(treatment) completely recovered from HPr accumulation, while no significant decrease of the HPr level in the CSTR(control) was observed. Based on the experimental results, the up-scaling of EPAD system was evaluated and it would only account for about 2% of the volume of the full-scale digester, thus suggesting that the implementation of a mobile EPAD system in full-scale practice should be feasible.

  12. Continuous propionic acid production with Propionibacterium acidipropionici immobilized in a novel xylan hydrogel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Janne; Pahimanolis, Nikolaos; Zoppe, Justin; Kilpeläinen, Petri; Master, Emma; Ilvesniemi, Hannu; Seppälä, Jukka; Eerikäinen, Tero; Ojamo, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    The cell immobilization potential of a novel xylan based disulfide-crosslinked hydrogel matrix reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals was studied with continuous cultivation of Propionibacterium acidipropionici using various dilution rates. The cells were immobilized to hydrogel beads suspended freely in the fermentation broth or else packed into a column connected to a stirred tank reactor. The maximum propionic acid productivity for the combined stirred tank and column was 0.88gL(-1)h(-1) and the maximum productivity for the column was determined to be 1.39gL(-1)h(-1). The maximum propionic acid titer for the combined system was 13.9gL(-1) with a dilution rate of 0.06h(-1). Dry cell density of 99.7gL(-1) was obtained within the column packed with hydrogel beads and productivity of 1.02gL(-1)h(-1) was maintained in the column even with the high circulation rate of 3.37h(-1).

  13. Dynamics of Microbial Community Structure of and Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal by Aerobic Granules Cultivated on Propionate or Acetate▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic granules are dense microbial aggregates with the potential to replace floccular sludge for the treatment of wastewaters. In bubble-column sequencing batch reactors, distinct microbial populations dominated propionate- and acetate-cultivated aerobic granules after 50 days of reactor operation when only carbon removal was detected. Propionate granules were dominated by Zoogloea (40%), Acidovorax, and Thiothrix, whereas acetate granules were mainly dominated by Thiothrix (60%). Thereafter, an exponential increase in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activity was observed in the propionate granules, but a linear and erratic increase was detected in the acetate ones. Besides Accumulibacter and Competibacter, other bacterial populations found in both granules were associated with Chloroflexus and Acidovorax. The EBPR activity in the propionate granules was high and stable, whereas EBPR in the acetate granules was erratic throughout the study and suffered from a deterioration period that could be readily reversed by inducing hydrolysis of polyphosphate in presumably saturated Accumulibacter cells. Using a new ppk1 gene-based dual terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) approach revealed that Accumulibacter diversity was highest in the floccular sludge inoculum but that when granules were formed, propionate readily favored the dominance of Accumulibacter type IIA. In contrast, acetate granules exhibited transient shifts between type I and type II before the granules were dominated by Accumulibacter type IIA. However, ppk1 gene sequences from acetate granules clustered separately from those of propionate granules. Our data indicate that the mere presence of Accumulibacter is not enough to have consistently high EBPR but that the type of Accumulibacter determines the robustness of the phosphate removal process. PMID:21926195

  14. Fundamental Insights into Propionate Oxidation in Microbial Electrolysis Cells Using a Combination of Electrochemical, Molecular biology and Electron Balance Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-11-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater and energy is pushing towards the development of alternative technologies that are sustainable. One of the realistic solutions to address this is utilization of the renewable resources like wastewater. Conventional wastewater treatment processes can be highly energy demanding and can fails to recover the full potential of useful resources such as energy in the wastewater. As a consequence, there is an urgent necessity for sustainable wastewater treatment technologies that could harness such resources present in wastewaters. Advanced treatment process based on microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) have a great potential for the resources recovery through a sustainable wastewater treatment process. METs rely on the abilities of microorganisms that are capable of transferring electrons extracellularly by oxidizing the organic matter in the wastewater and producing electrical current for electricity generation (MFC) or H2 and CH4 production (MEC). Propionate is an important volatile fatty acid (VFA) (24-70%) in some wastewaters and accumulation of this VFA can cause a process failure in a conventional anaerobic digestion (AD) system. To address this issue, MECs were explored as a novel, alternative wastewater treatment technology, with a focus on a better understanding of propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs. Having such knowledge could help in the development of more robust and efficient wastewater treatment systems to recover energy and produce high quality effluents. Several studies were conducted to: 1) determine the paths of electron flow in the anode of propionate fed MECs low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations; 2) examine the effect of different set anode potentials on the electrochemical performance, propionate degradation, electron fluxes, and microbial community structure in MECs fed propionate; and 3) examine the temporal

  15. Salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate versus fluticasone propionate plus montelukast: a randomised controlled trial investigating the effects on airway inflammation in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodcock Ashley

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared treatment strategies in patients with asthma poorly controlled on low dose inhaled corticosteroids, and little is known about the effects of different treatments on airway inflammation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, we compared the effects of salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate (FP (Seretide™; SFC and FP plus montelukast (FP/M on sputum inflammatory markers, airway responsiveness, lung function, and symptoms in adult asthmatics. Methods Sixty-six subjects were randomised to SFC or FP/M for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was changes in neutrophil, eosinophil, macrophage, lymphocyte, and epithelial cell levels in induced sputum. Additional outcomes included the change in other sputum markers of airway inflammation, airway responsiveness, symptom control, and lung function. Results Both treatments had no significant effect on induced sputum inflammatory cells, although there was a trend for a reduction in sputum eosinophils. Both treatments significantly improved airway responsiveness, whereas SFC generally led to greater improvements in symptom control and lung function than FP/M. FP/M led to significantly greater reductions in sputum cysteinyl leukotrienes than SFC (treatment ratio 1.80; 95% CI 1.09, 2.94. Conclusion Both treatments led to similar control of eosinophilic airway inflammation, although PEF and symptom control were better with SFC. Study number SAM40030 (SOLTA

  16. Treating umbilical granuloma with topical clobetasol propionate cream at home is as effective as treating it with topical silver nitrate in the clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Nielsen, Tove; Mølgaard, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: There is a lack of evidence on the best treatment option for umbilical granuloma. The primary aim of this study was to compare three treatments for umbilical granuloma: standard treatment with topical silver nitrate, clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) and ethanol wipes. The secondary aim......%) in the outpatient clinic, 30 infants had topical clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) applied at home, and 34 infants received cleansing with ethanol wipes (82%) at home. RESULTS: Silver nitrate and clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) were significantly superior to ethanol wipes, with shorter healing times...... and higher resolution rates (p = 0.0001). Healing time and resolution rates were identical for silver nitrate and clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%). Mild side effects were occasionally reported, all of which were self-limiting. CONCLUSION: Treating umbilical granuloma with topical clobetasol propionate...

  17. Experimental feed induction of ruminal lactic, propionic, or butyric acidosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettat, A; Nozière, P; Silberberg, M; Morgavi, D P; Berger, C; Martin, C

    2010-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility to induce rumen acidosis with propionate, butyrate, or lactate as the major fermentation end products. Three rumen-cannulated Texel wethers were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design. Each period consisted of 11 d of adaptation where wethers were daily fed at 90% of ad libitum intake a hay and wheat-based concentrate diet (4:1 ratio on a DM basis) in 2 equal portions followed by 3 d of acidosis induction. During the challenge, the morning feeding was replaced by an intraruminal supply of wheat (readily fermentable starch), corn (slowly fermentable starch), or beet pulp (easily digestible fiber), dosed at 1.2% of BW. Ruminal liquid samples were taken daily 1 h before (-1) and 1, 3, 5, and 6 h after intraruminal feed supply to measure pH, VFA, and lactic acid concentration. The differences between treatments accentuated throughout the 3-d challenge, being maximal and significant on d 3. Indeed, 6 h after the third day of the challenge, mean ruminal pH was less for wheat (4.85) than for corn (5.61; P = 0.008) and beet pulp (6.09; P = 0.001), and total VFA tended to be less for wheat (48.7 mM) than for corn and beet pulp (84.7 mM on average; P = 0.08). At the same time, the proportion of acetate was greater for wheat than for corn (75.5 and 62.2%, respectively; P = 0.005) but did not differ from beet pulp challenge (69.0%). The proportion of propionate was greatest for beet pulp compared with corn and wheat (21.0, 17.3, and 12.1%, respectively; P = 0.03), whereas the butyrate proportion was greatest for corn, intermediate for wheat, and least for beet pulp (16.3, 10.8, and 8.3%, respectively; P = 0.05). Lactate concentration was greatest for wheat (45.5 mM) compared with corn and beet pulp (8.3 mM on average; P = 0.01). Under our experimental conditions, ruminal lactic acidosis was successfully induced by wheat, whereas butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis were respectively provoked by corn and beet pulp. We

  18. Effects of carbon dioxide on cell growth and propionic acid production from glycerol and glucose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An; Sun, Jianxin; Wang, Zhongqiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Zhou, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    The effects of CO2 on propionic acid production and cell growth in glycerol or glucose fermentation were investigated in this study. In glycerol fermentation, the volumetric productivity of propionic acid with CO2 supplementation reached 2.94g/L/day, compared to 1.56g/L/day without CO2. The cell growth using glycerol was also significantly enhanced with CO2. In addition, the yield and productivity of succinate, the main intermediate in Wood-Werkman cycle, increased 81% and 280%, respectively; consistent with the increased activities of pyruvate carboxylase and propionyl CoA transferase, two key enzymes in the Wood-Werkman cycle. However, in glucose fermentation CO2 had minimal effect on propionic acid production and cell growth. The carbon flux distributions using glycerol or glucose were also analyzed using a stoichiometric metabolic model. The calculated maintenance coefficient (mATP) increased 100%, which may explain the increase in the productivity of propionic acid in glycerol fermentation with CO2 supplement.

  19. An economical biorefinery process for propionic acid production from glycerol and potato juice using high cell density fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishisha, Tarek; Ståhl, Åke; Lundmark, Stefan; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-05-01

    An economically sustainable process was developed for propionic acid production by fermentation of glycerol using Propionibacterium acidipropionici and potato juice, a by-product of starch processing, as a nitrogen/vitamin source. The fermentation was done as high-cell-density sequential batches with cell recycle. Propionic acid production and glycerol consumption rates were dependent on initial biomass concentration, and reached a maximum of 1.42 and 2.30 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively, from 50 g L(-1) glycerol at initial cell density of 23.7 gCDW L(-1). Halving the concentration of nitrogen/vitamin source resulted in reduction of acetic and succinic acids yields by ~39% each. At glycerol concentrations of 85 and 120 g L(-1), respectively, 43.8 and 50.8 g L(-1) propionic acid were obtained at a rate of 0.88 and 0.29 g L(-1) h(-1) and yield of 84 and 78 mol%. Succinic acid was 13 g% of propionic acid and could represent a potential co-product covering the cost of nitrogen/vitamin source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygagne, Pascal; Poncet, Michel; Sidou, Farzaneh; Soto, Pascale

    2007-05-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD), a common dermatosis associating hyperseborrhea, erythema, itching, and dandruff, has frequent scalp involvement. Malassezia furfur infection seems to play an important role in the condition's etiopathology. Treatment of SD usually consists of corticosteroids or antifungals, such as ketoconazole. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% after different short-contact application times compared with its vehicle and ketoconazole foaming gel 2% in the treatment of SD of the scalp. For 4 weeks, 55 subjects received one of the following treatments twice weekly: clobetasol propionate shampoo for 2.5, 5, or 10 minutes; clobetasol propionate vehicle for 10 minutes; or ketoconazole foaming gel for 5 minutes before rinsing off. Efficacy criteria included total severity score (TSS) and individual scores of signs such as itching and global improvement. Safety included reporting of burning, overall tolerance, and adverse events. Results showed that an application of clobetasol propionate for 5 and 10 minutes provided a similar mean percentage decrease of TSS, and the mean percentage decrease of TSS for all active groups was significantly superior to that of the vehicle (P shampoo is effective and safe in the treatment of SD of the scalp.

  1. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.

  2. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens. PMID:28194286

  3. Safety of adding salmeterol to fluticasone propionate in children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stempel, D.A.; Szefler, S. J.; Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) have been shown to increase the risk of asthmarelated death among adults and the risk of asthma-related hospitalization among children. It is unknown whether the concomitant use of inhaled glucocorticoids with LABAs mitigates those risks. This trial...... prospectively evaluated the safety of the LABA salmeterol, added to fluticasone propionate, in a fixed-dose combination in children. METHODS We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, children 4 to 11 years of age who required daily asthma medications and had a history of asthma exacerbations in the previous year...... children with asthma, salmeterol in a fixed-dose combination with fluticasone was associated with the risk of a serious asthma-related event that was similar to the risk with fluticasone alone. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; VESTRI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01462344.) © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society....

  4. Lower-leg growth rates in children with asthma during treatment with ciclesonide and fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lone, Agertoft; Søren, Pedersen

    2009-01-01

    ) and the ICS fluticasone propionate (FP) on lower-leg growth rate and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis function in children with mild asthma. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-period crossover study, 28 children, aged 6-12 yr, sequentially received daily doses of CIC 320 mug, FP 375 mug (330 mug....... No statistically significant differences were seen in lower-leg growth rates between CIC (0.30 mm/wk) and placebo (0.43 mm/wk) treatments. Lower-leg growth rate during FP treatment (0.08 mm/wk) was significantly reduced compared with both placebo [least squares (LS) mean: -0.35 (95% CI: -0.53, -0.18; p = 0...... no significant effect on lower-leg growth rate in children aged 6-12 yr with mild asthma. In contrast, a similar dose of FP significantly reduced lower-leg growth rate compared with placebo and CIC....

  5. Effects of fluticasone propionate dosage in an experimental model of feline asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Leah A; DeClue, Amy E; Cohen, Rachael L; Reinero, Carol R

    2010-02-01

    Cats with inflammatory bronchial disease are usually treated with glucocorticoid (GC) drugs to reduce airway inflammation. Inhalant GC delivery can preserve airway effects while systemic effects are minimized. An appropriate dosage regimen for inhaled GC in cats has not been investigated. A blinded, randomized, cross-over study design was used to investigate the ability of three different dosages of the inhalant GC fluticasone propionate delivered by metered dose inhaler to ameliorate eosinophilic airway inflammation in cats with experimentally induced allergic airway inflammation. Further, suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) at each dose was assessed. Fluticasone administered at dosages of 44, 110, or 220 microg q 12h reduced airway eosinophilia by 74%, 82%, or 81%, respectively (no difference). None of the dose regimens tested caused HPAA suppression. We conclude that a twice daily dosage of 44 microg fluticasone should be evaluated for the management of cats with naturally occurring inflammatory bronchial disease.

  6. Fourier transformed infrared spectral investigations of molecular interactions in propionic acid-2-propanol binary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, M; Thomas, Ammu Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    FTIR spectra of propionic acid (PA), 2-propanol (PROH) and its binary mixtures with varying molefraction of the PA were recorded in the region 500-3500 cm(-1), to investigate the formation of hydrogen bonded complexes in a mixed system. The observed features in nu(CO), nu(CO) and delta(COH) of PA, nu(CO) of PROH and delta(COH) of PA+PROH have been explained in terms of the hydrogen bonding interactions between PROH and PA and dipole-dipole interaction. The dipole moment derivative for the above mentioned vibrational modes have also been predicted from the integrated absorbance. The intrinsic linewidth for the vibrational modes nu(CO) and delta(COH) of PA has been elucidated using Bondarev and Mardaeva model.

  7. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) a novel candidate biomarker for propionic and methylmalonic acidemias during expanded newborn screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvagia, Sabrina; Haynes, Christopher A.; Grisotto, Laura; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Moretti, Elisa; McGreevy, Kathleen; Buggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Garg, Uttam; Seeterlin, Mary; Chace, Donald; De Jesus, Victor; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Background 3-hydroxypalmitoleoyl-carnitine (C16:1-OH) was recently reported to be elevated in acylcarnitine profile of propionic acidemia (PA) or methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) patients during expanded newborn screening (NBS). High levels of C16:1-OH, combined with other hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitines are related to long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD). Methods The acylcarnitine profile of two LCHADD patients was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A specific retention time was reported for each hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitine. The same method was applied to some neonatal dried blood spots (DBS) from PA and MMA patients presenting abnormal C16:1-OH concentrations. Results The final retention time of the peak corresponding to C16:1-OH in LCHADD patients differed from those in MMA and PA patients. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) has been identified as the novel biomarker specific for PA and MMA patients through high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) experiments. We found that 21 out of 23 neonates (22 MMA, and 1PA) diagnosed through the Tuscany region NBS program had significantly higher levels of C17 compared to levels detected in controls. Twenty-three maternal deficiencies (21 vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 homocystinuria and 1 gastrin deficiency) and 82 false positive for propionylcarnitine (C3) results were also analyzed. Conclusions This paper reports on the characterization of a novel biomarker able to detect propionate disorders during expanded newborn screening (NBS). The use of this new biomarker may improve the analytical performances of NBS programs especially in laboratories where second tier tests are not performed. PMID:26368264

  8. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) a novel candidate biomarker for newborn screening of propionic and methylmalonic acidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvagia, Sabrina; Haynes, Christopher A; Grisotto, Laura; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Moretti, Elisa; McGreevy, Kathleen S; Biggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Garg, Uttam; Seeterlin, Mary; Chace, Donald; De Jesus, Victor R; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2015-10-23

    3-Hydroxypalmitoleoyl-carnitine (C16:1-OH) has recently been reported to be elevated in acylcarnitine profiles of patients with propionic acidemia (PA) or methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) during expanded newborn screening (NBS). High levels of C16:1-OH, combined with other hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitines are related to long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) and trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency. The acylcarnitine profile of two LCHADD patients was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A specific retention time was determined for each hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitine. The same method was applied to some neonatal dried blood spots (DBSs) from PA and MMA patients presenting abnormal C16:1-OH concentrations. The retention time of the peak corresponding to C16:1-OH in LCHADD patients differed from those in MMA and PA patients. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) has been identified as the novel biomarker specific for PA and MMA patients through high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) experiments. We found that 21 out of 23 neonates (22 MMA, and 1PA) diagnosed through the Tuscany region NBS program exhibited significantly higher levels of C17 compared to controls. Twenty-three maternal deficiency (21 vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 homocystinuria and 1 gastrin deficiency) samples and 82 false positive for elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) were also analyzed. We have characterized a novel biomarker able to detect propionate disorders during expanded newborn screening (NBS). The use of this new biomarker may improve the analytical performances of NBS programs especially in laboratories where second tier tests are not performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Shu Meng,1 Zaixing Chen,2 Liqun Yang,1 Wei Zhang,1 Danhua Liu,1 Jing Guo,1 Yanmin Guan,1 Jianxin Li11Liaoning Research Institute of Family Planning, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modification. The effect of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and cremophor EL-35 on the particle size and zeta potential of the prepared vesicles was investigated. The entrapment efficiency and stability, as well as in vitro and in vivo skin permeation, were studied with the various techniques, such as differential scanning calorimetry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and so on. The results indicated that the ethosomes were defined as spherical, unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (0.100 ± 0.015 and nanometric size (156.5 ± 3.5 nm. The entrapment efficiency of TP in ethosomal and liposomal carriers was 92.7% ± 3.7% and 64.7% ± 2.1%, respectively. The stability profile of the prepared TP ethosomal system assessed for 120 days revealed very low aggregation and very low growth in vesicular size. TP ethosomes also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 37.85 ± 2.8 µg/cm2/hour and a decreased lag time of 0.18 hours across mouse skin. The skin permeation efficiency of the TP ethosomes as further assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of rhodamine red-loaded formulations to the deeper layers of the skin (260 µm than that of the liposomal formation (120 µm.Keywords: testosterone propionate, surfactant-modified ethosomes, liposomes, confocal laser scanning microscopy

  10. Comparative cytoprotective effects of carbocysteine and fluticasone propionate in cigarette smoke extract-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Elisabetta; Ferraro, Maria; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Cipollina, Chiara; Gerbino, Stefania; Cigna, Diego; Caputo, Valentina; Balsamo, Rossella; Lanata, Luigi; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) induce oxidative stress, an important feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and oxidative stress contributes to the poor clinical efficacy of corticosteroids in COPD patients. Carbocysteine, an antioxidant and mucolytic agent, is effective in reducing the severity and the rate of exacerbations in COPD patients. The effects of carbocysteine on CSE-induced oxidative stress in bronchial epithelial cells as well as the comparison of these antioxidant effects of carbocysteine with those of fluticasone propionate are unknown. The present study was aimed to assess the effects of carbocysteine (10(-4) M) in cell survival and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (by flow cytometry) as well as total glutathione (GSH), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC-2) expression/activation in CSE-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) and to compare these effects with those of fluticasone propionate (10(-8) M). CSE, carbocysteine or fluticasone propionate did not induce cell necrosis (propidium positive cells) or cell apoptosis (annexin V-positive/propidium-negative cells) in 16-HBE. CSE increased ROS production, nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 in 16-HBE. Fluticasone propionate did not modify intracellular ROS production, GSH and HDCA-2 but reduced Nrf2 and HO-1 in CSE-stimulated 16-HBE. Carbocysteine reduced ROS production and increased GSH, HO-1, Nrf2 and HDAC-2 nuclear expression/activity in CSE-stimulated cells and was more effective than fluticasone propionate in modulating the CSE-mediated effects. In conclusion, the present study provides compelling evidences that the use of carbocysteine may be considered a promising strategy in diseases associated with corticosteroid resistance.

  11. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra B Nankova

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

  12. Redox induced protonation of heme propionates in cytochrome c oxidase: Insights from surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy and QM/MM calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Murat; Woelke, Anna-Lena; Knapp, Ernst Walter; Schlesinger, Ramona; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Weidinger, Inez M

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the coupling between heme reduction and proton translocation in cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is still an open problem. The propionic acids of heme a3 have been proposed to act as a proton loading site (PLS) in the proton pumping pathway, yet this proposal could not be verified by experimental data so far. We have set up an experiment where the redox states of the two hemes in CcO can be controlled via external electrical potential. Surface enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroscopy was applied to simultaneously monitor the redox state of the hemes and the protonation state of the heme propionates. Simulated spectra based on QM/MM calculations were used to assign the resonant enhanced CH2 twisting modes of the propionates to the protonation state of the individual heme a and heme a3 propionates respectively. The comparison between calculated and measured H2OD2O difference spectra allowed a sound band assignment. In the fully reduced enzyme at least three of the four heme propionates were found to be protonated whereas in the presence of a reduced heme a and an oxidized heme a3 only protonation of one heme a3 propionates was observed. Our data supports the postulated scenario where the heme a3 propionates are involved in the proton pathway.

  13. Microbial production of propionic acid with Propionibacterium freudenreichii using an anion exchanger-based in situ product recovery (ISPR) process with direct and indirect contact of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yunshan; Su, Zhiguo

    2012-02-01

    The recovery of an inhibiting product from a bioreactor soon after its formation is an important issue in industrial bioprocess development. In the present study, the potential of the anion exchanger-based in situ product recovery (ISPR) technique for the biocatalytic production of propionic acid was discussed. The focus of the current work was the selection of a suitable configuration of metabolically active cells for application in propionic acid production. Accumulation of propionic acid in fermentation broth caused feedback inhibition of the growth and biotransformation activity of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CICC 10019. Relevant product inhibition kinetics was discussed, and the results showed that keeping the aqueous propionic acid concentration below 10.02 g L⁻¹ was an essential prerequisite for ISPR process. A batch study, in which three ISPR configuration mode designs were compared, was conducted. The comparison indicated that employing an external direct mode had significant advantages over other modes in terms of increased productivity and product yield, with a corresponding decrease in the number of downstream processing steps, as well as in substrate consumption. The fed-batch culture using an external direct mode for the continuous accumulation of propionic acid resulted in a cumulative propionic acid concentration of 62.5 g L⁻¹, with a corresponding product yield of 0.78 g propionic acid/g glucose.

  14. The Nitrification Inhibitor Methyl 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)Propionate Modulates Root Development by Interfering with Auxin Signaling via the NO/ROS Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Wang, Ruling; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Qi; Luo, Qiong; Zhu, Yiyong; Xu, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (MHPP) is a root exudate that functions as a nitrification inhibitor and as a modulator of the root system architecture (RSA) by inhibiting primary root (PR) elongation and promoting lateral root formation. However, the mechanism underlying MHPP-mediated modulation of the RSA remains unclear. Here, we report that MHPP inhibits PR elongation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by elevating the levels of auxin expression and signaling. MHPP induces an increase in auxin levels by up-regulating auxin biosynthesis, altering the expression of auxin carriers, and promoting the degradation of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid family of transcriptional repressors. We found that MHPP-induced nitric oxide (NO) production promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in root tips. Suppressing the accumulation of NO or ROS alleviated the inhibitory effect of MHPP on PR elongation by weakening auxin responses and perception and by affecting meristematic cell division potential. Genetic analysis supported the phenotype described above. Taken together, our results indicate that MHPP modulates RSA remodeling via the NO/ROS-mediated auxin response pathway in Arabidopsis. Our study also revealed that MHPP significantly induced the accumulation of glucosinolates in roots, suggesting the diverse functions of MHPP in modulating plant growth, development, and stress tolerance in plants.

  15. Initiating or changing to a fixed-dose combination of Fluticasone propionate/Formoterol over Fluticasone propionate/Salmeterol: A real-life effectiveness and cost impact evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Yau Ming, Simon; Haughney, John; Small, Iain; Wolfe, Stephanie; Hamill, John; Gruffydd-Jones, Kevin; Daly, Cathal; Soriano, Joan B; Gardener, Elizabeth; Skinner, Derek; Stagno d'Alcontres, Martina; Price, David B

    2017-08-01

    Asthma has a substantial impact on quality of life and health care resources. The identification of a more cost-effective, yet equally efficacious, treatment could positively influence the economic burden of this disease. Fluticasone propionate/Formoterol (FP/FOR) may be as effective as Fluticasone Salmeterol (FP/SAL). We evaluated non-inferiority of asthma control in terms of the proportion of patients free from exacerbations, and conducted a cost impact analysis. This historical, matched cohort database study evaluated two treatment groups in the Optimum Patient Care Research Database in the UK: 1) an FP/FOR cohort of patients initiating treatment with FP/FOR or changing from FP/SAL to FP/FOR and; 2) an FP/SAL cohort comprising patients initiating, or remaining on FP/SAL pMDI combination therapy. The main outcome evaluated non-inferiority of effectiveness (defined as prevention of severe exacerbations, lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean difference between groups in patient proportions with no exacerbations is -3.5% or higher) in patients treated with FP/FOR versus FP/SAL. After matching 1:3, we studied a total of 2472 patients: 618 in the FP/FOR cohort (174 patients initiated on FP/FOR and 444 patients changed to FP/FOR) and 1854 in the FP/SAL cohort (522 patients initiated FP/SAL and 1332 continued FP/SAL). The percentage of patients prescribed FP/FOR met non-inferiority as the adjusted mean difference in proportion of no severe exacerbations (95%CI) was 0.008 (-0.032, 0.047) between the two cohorts. No other significant differences were observed except acute respiratory event rates, which were lower for patients prescribed FP/FOR (rate ratio [RR] 0.82, 95% CI 0.71, 0.94). Changing to, or initiating FP/FOR combination therapy, is associated with a non-inferior proportion of patients who are severe exacerbation-free at a lower average annual cost compared with continuing or initiating treatment with FP/SAL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Modulation of physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of l-serine and l-proline by propionate based food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Navalpreet; Kaur, Jaspreet; Komal; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-10-15

    To have an insight into the effect of preservatives on various ingredients of processed items, it is important to study their thermodynamic, transport and spectroscopic properties in aqueous solutions to elucidate various solute-co-solute interactions. The densities, viscosities and enthalpies of dilution of l-serine and l-proline have been determined in water and in aqueous solutions of sodium propionate and calcium propionate at different temperatures. The derived parameters elucidate the changes in taste quality and hydration number of l-serine and l-proline in the presence of the studied preservatives. Predominance of dehydration effect has been observed from calorimetry and changes in chemical shifts from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy also support the above results.

  17. Short-contact clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% improves quality of life in patients with scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jerry; Thomas, Richard; Wang, Béatrice; Gratton, David; Vender, Ronald; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2009-03-01

    Scalp psoriasis has a considerable impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients, and most patients are dissatisfied with available treatments. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% has been shown to be effective and safe for moderate to severe scalp psoriasis. We evaluated the effect of clobetasol propionate shampoo on QOL and the degree of participant satisfaction with the product. Participants received once-daily treatment for up to 4 weeks. Their QOL and degree of satisfaction were evaluated by questionnaires. The mean (standard deviation) Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score decreased significantly from 7.0 (4.9) at baseline to 3.2 (3.2) at week 4 (Pshampoo improved the QOL of participants and resulted in high satisfaction.

  18. Antifungal Activity of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria against Dairy-Associated Spoilage Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing

    for prolonging shelf-life of food without the addition of specific preservatives. Increased interest in the use of these bacteria for biopreservation has led to identification of a range of potent strains, and in addition, isolation and identification of various antifungal metabolites produced by these cultures......Bacterial cultures of lactic and propionic acid bacteria are widely used in fermented products including dairy products. Spoilage fungi may constitute a quality and safety issue in these products. The antifungal properties of some lactic and propionic acid bacteria make them potential candidates...... defined interaction medium (CDIM) was developed allowing growth of protective Lb. paracasei and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermaniii as well as the spoilage fungi, Penicillium spp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Debaryomyces hansenii isolated from fermented dairy products. Lb. paracasei and P...

  19. Antifungal Activity of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria against Dairy-Associated Spoilage Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing

    Bacterial cultures of lactic and propionic acid bacteria are widely used in fermented products including dairy products. Spoilage fungi may constitute a quality and safety issue in these products. The antifungal properties of some lactic and propionic acid bacteria make them potential candidates...... diacetyl and lactic acid, 6 antifungal hydroxy acids were identified. Of these, 3 have previously been reported from antifungal lactic acid bacteria, whereas the other 3 hydroxy acids have not previously been reported produced by antifungal lactic acid bacteria....... factors thereby facilitating development of new protective cultures. The aim of the current thesis was to determine and study metabolites involved in antifungal activity of protective Lactobacillus paracasei and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. This involved development of a suitable...

  20. Acetate and propionate in landfill leachates: Implications for the recognition of microbiological influences on the composition of waters in sedimentary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, D. A. C.

    1997-03-01

    Routine monitoring of landfill leachates provides information concerning aqueous systems in which anaerobic microbiological processes influence water chemistry. Propionate and acetate are substrate and product, respectively, of metabolism by bacteria that have an obligate syntrophic relationship with sulfate-reducing bacteria. The stoichiometry of the bacteriological metabolic reactions indicates a 1:1 molar proportionality for acetate and propionate. This is observed for landfill leachates, consistent with the known biological control on their organic acid anion contents. Similar data for oil-field waters show the same 1:1 molar proportionality for reservoirs where bacterial sulfate reduction is known to take place, at temperatures up to about 95 °C, in contrast to the 3:2 proportionality (acetic acid:propionic acid) observed in higher temperature systems. These observations suggest that 1:1 molar proportionality for acetate and propionate may be characteristic of natural systems where anaerobic bacterial activity occurs, including bacterial sulfate reduction.

  1. Twice Weekly Fluticasone Propionate Added To Emollient Maintenance Treatment To Reduce Risk Of Relapse In Atopic Dermatitis: Randomised, Double Blind, Parallel Group Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Berth-Jones; Robert J. Damstra; Stefan Golsch; John K. Livden; Oliver Van Hooteghem; Fulvio Allegra; Christine A. Parker

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate, cream and ointment, applied twice weekly in addition to maintenance treatment with emollients, in reducing the risk of relapse...

  2. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L S; Bittar, C M M

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of supplementation of sodium butyrate, sodium monensin or calcium propionate in a starter diet on the performance and selected plasma metabolites (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate) of Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were housed in individual hutches until 10 weeks of life, receiving water free choice, and fed four liters of milk daily. Calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth, and allocated to one of the following treatments, according to the additive in the starter: (i) sodium butyrate (150 g/kg); (ii) sodium monensin (30 mg/kg); and (iii) calcium propionate (150 g/kg). During 10 weeks, calves received starter ad libitum, while coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers.) was offered after weaning, which occurred at the 8th week of age. Weekly, calves were weighted and evaluated for body measurements. Blood samples were taken weekly after the fourth week of age, 2 hours after the morning feeding, for determination of plasma metabolites. No differences were observed among treatments for starter or hay intake, BW and daily gain of the animals. Mean concentrations of selected plasma metabolites were similar in calves fed a starter supplemented with sodium butyrate, sodium monensin and calcium propionate. There was significant reduction in the concentrations of plasma glucose as calves aged. The inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin as additives in starter feeds resulted in equal animal performance, before and after weaning, suggesting that sodium monensin may be replaced by organic acid salts.

  3. Quantifying Effect of Lactic, Acetic, and Propionic Acids on Growth of Molds Isolated from Spoiled Bakery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gauvry, Emilie; Onno, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    The combined effect of undissociated lactic acid (0 to 180 mmol/liter), acetic acid (0 to 60 mmol/liter), and propionic acid (0 to 12 mmol/liter) on growth of the molds Aspergillus niger, Penicillium corylophilum, and Eurotium repens was quantified at pH 3.8 and 25°C on malt extract agar acid medium. The impact of these acids on lag time for growth (λ) was quantified through a gamma model based on the MIC. The impact of these acids on radial growth rate (μ) was analyzed statistically through polynomial regression. Concerning λ, propionic acid exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect (MIC of 8 to 20 mmol/liter depending on the mold species) than did acetic acid (MIC of 23 to 72 mmol/liter). The lactic acid effect was null on E. repens and inhibitory on A. niger and P. corylophilum. These results were validated using independent sets of data for the three acids at pH 3.8 but for only acetic and propionic acids at pH 4.5. Concerning μ, the effect of acetic and propionic acids was slightly inhibitory for A. niger and P. corylophilum but was not significant for E. repens. In contrast, lactic acid promoted radial growth of all three molds. The gamma terms developed here for these acids will be incorporated in a predictive model for temperature, water activity, and acid. More generally, results for μ and λ will be used to identify and evaluate solutions for controlling bakery product spoilage.

  4. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread.

  5. Water availability and calcium propionate affect fungal population and aflatoxins production in broiler finisher feed during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sahib; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Zeb, Alam; Shah, Abdul Sattar; Magan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium propionate, water activity (aw) and incubation time on the total fungal count and aflatoxins B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) production in the broiler finisher feed. The feed was added with calcium propionate (5 g kg(-1)), adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and stored for 28 days at 25°C, analysing for mould growth and aflatoxins production every 7 days. Analysis of variance indicated that all the factors (preservative, aw and storage time) alone and in combination significantly (p aflatoxins production in the feed. Minimum total fungal counts (1.99 × 10(2) CFU g(-1)) were observed in calcium propionate feed at 0.85 aw on day 1 and the highest (4.36 × 10(9) CFUs g(-1)) in control sample at 0.95 aw on day 28 of storage. During the storage period, AFB₁ content in control samples increased from 11.35 to 73.44, from 11.58 to 81.81 and from 11.54 to 102.68 ng g(-1), whereas in preserved feed the content of B₁ increased from 11.47 to 37.83, from 11.54 to 49.07 and from 11.20 to 53.14 ng g(-1) at 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw, respectively. Similar patterns were noted for AFB2, AFG₁ and AFG₂ contents. All the aflatoxins readily increased over storage time; however, the increase was much slower in preserved feed that contained a lower amount of available water. This study reveals that calcium propionate addition to poultry litter along with water activity amelioration is an effective tool for controlling mould incidence and aflatoxin production in poultry feed.

  6. Halobetasol propionate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for skin targeting by topical delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikkad, Mahesh L; Nathani, Ajaz H; Mandlik, Satish K; Shrotriya, Shilpa N; Ranpise, Nisharani S

    2014-06-01

    The clinical use of halobetasol propionate (HP) is related to some adverse effects like irritation, pruritus and stinging. The purpose of this work was to construct HP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (HP-SLN) formulation with skin targeting to minimizing the adverse side effects and providing a controlled release. HP-SLN were prepared by solvent injection method and formula was optimized by the application of 3(2) factorial design. The nanoparticulate dispersion was evaluated for particle size and entrapment efficiency (EE). Optimized batch was characterized for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction study and finally incorporated into polymeric gels of carbopol for convenient application. The nanoparticulate gels were evaluated comparatively with the commercial product with respect to ex-vivo skin permeation and deposition study on human cadaver skins and finally skin irritation study. HP-SLN showed average size between 200 nm and 84-94% EE. DSC studies revealed no drug-excipient incompatibility and amorphous dispersed of HP in SLN. Ex vivo study of HP-SLN loaded gel exhibited prolonged drug release up to 12 h where as in vitro drug deposition and skin irritation studies showed that HP-SLN formulation can avoid the systemic uptake, better accumulative uptake of the drug and nonirritant to the skin compared to marketed formulation. These results indicate that the studied HP-SLN formulation represent a promising carrier for topical delivery of HP, having controlled drug release, and potential of skin targeting with no skin irritation.

  7. Production of Diamino propionic acid ammonia lyase by a new strain of Salmonella typhimurium PU011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar Vasanth V

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeds of the legume plant Lathyrus sativus, which is grown in arid and semi arid tropical regions, contain Diamino Propionic acid (DAP. DAP is a neurotoxin, which, when consumed, causes a disease called Lathyrism. Lathryrism may manifest as Neurolathyrism or Osteolathyrism, in which the nervous system, and bone formation respectively, are affected. DAP ammonia lyase is produced by a few microorganisms such as Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas, and is capable of detoxifying DAP. Results S. typhimurium PU011, a non-virulent bacterial strain isolated in our lab, was found to produce DAP ammonia lyase enzyme when grown in minimal medium containing DAP. There was a direct correlation between biomass yield and enzyme activity, until 16 h post inoculation in minimal medium containing DAP. Following ammonium sulphate precipitation and passing through Sephadex G100, CM-Sephadex and DEAE-Sephacel for crude enzyme extract preparation, about 68-fold enzyme purity was obtained. The purified enzyme gave maximum activity at pH 8.0 and was stable up to 45 degrees C. The Km value for the substrate was found to be 0.685mM, calculated from a Line Weaver Burk plot. Conclusion A new bacterial strain, S.typhimurium PU 011, which is capable of producing DAP ammonia lyase, was isolated.

  8. Sequential dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songqing; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Jiaheng; Li, Yubo; Peng, Bing; Gao, Haixiang; Zhou, Wenfeng

    2012-12-01

    A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method followed by HPLC analysis, termed sequential DLLME, was developed for the preconcentration and determination of aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides (i.e. haloxyfop-R-methyl, cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and fluazifop-P-butyl) in aqueous samples. The method is based on the combination of ultrasound-assisted DLLME with in situ ionic liquid (IL) DLLME into one extraction procedure and achieved better performance than widely used DLLME procedures. Chlorobenzene was used as the extraction solvent during the first extraction. Hydrophilic IL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was used as a dispersive solvent during the first extraction and as an extraction solvent during the second extraction after an in situ chloride exchange by bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide. Several experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized with the design of experiments using MINITAB® 16 software. Under the optimized conditions, the extractions resulted in analyte recoveries of 78-91%. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves ranged from 0.9994 to 0.9997 at concentrations of 10-300, 15-300, and 20-300 μg L(-1). The relative SDs (n = 5) ranged from 2.9 to 5.4%. The LODs for the four herbicides were between 1.50 and 6.12 μg L(-1).

  9. Simultaneous determination of Fluticasone propionate and Azelastine hydrochloride in the presence of pharmaceutical dosage form additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merey, Hanan A.; El-Mosallamy, Sally S.; Hassan, Nagiba Y.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2016-05-01

    Fluticasone propionate (FLU) and Azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) are co-formulated with phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and Benzalkonium chloride (BENZ) (as preservatives) in pharmaceutical dosage form for treatment of seasonal allergies. Different spectrophotometric methods were used for the simultaneous determination of cited drugs in the dosage form. Direct spectrophotometric method was used for determining of AZE, while Derivative of double divisor of ratio spectra (DD-RS), Ratio subtraction coupled with ratio difference method (RS-RD) and Mean centering of the ratio spectra (MCR) are used for the determination of FLU. The linearity of the proposed methods was investigated in the range of 5.00-40.00 and 5.00-80.00 μg/mL for FLU and AZE, respectively. The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures containing different ratios of cited drugs in addition to PEA and their pharmaceutical dosage form. The validity of the proposed methods was assessed using the standard addition technique. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by official or the reported method for FLU or AZE, respectively showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision at p = 0.05.

  10. Generation of a Hypomorphic Model of Propionic Acidemia Amenable to Gene Therapy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Adam J; Hofherr, Sean E; Hillestad, Matthew; Barry, Mary; Weaver, Eric; Venezia, Sarah; Kraus, Jan P; Matern, Dietrich; Barry, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is a recessive genetic disease that results in an inability to metabolize certain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids. Current treatment involves restricting consumption of these substrates or liver transplantation. Deletion of the Pcca gene in mice mimics the most severe forms of the human disease. Pcca− mice die within 36 hours of birth, making it difficult to test intravenous systemic therapies in them. We generated an adult hypomorphic model of PA in Pcca− mice using a transgene bearing an A138T mutant of the human PCCA protein. Pcca−/−(A138T) mice have 2% of wild-type PCC activity, survive to adulthood, and have elevations in propionyl-carnitine, methylcitrate, glycine, alanine, lysine, ammonia, and markers associated with cardiomyopathy similar to those in patients with PA. This adult model allowed gene therapy testing by intravenous injection with adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and adeno-associated virus 2/8 (AAV8) vectors. Ad5-mediated more rapid increases in PCCA protein and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) activity in the liver than AAV8 and both vectors reduced propionylcarnitine and methylcitrate levels. Phenotypic correction was transient with first generation Ad whereas AAV8-mediated long-lasting effects. These data suggest that this PA model may be a useful platform for optimizing systemic intravenous therapies for PA. PMID:23648696

  11. Structure and Rotational Dynamics of Isoamyl Acetate and Methyl Propionate Studied by Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, W.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Sutikdja, L. W.; Jelisavac, D.; Mouhib, H.; Kleiner, I.

    2012-06-01

    The microwave spectra of a number of organic aliphatic esters have been recorded for the first time in the 3-26.5 GHz frequency range, using the molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave (MB-FTMW) spectrometer in Aachen, with an instrumental uncertainty of a few kHz for unblended lines. The combined use of ab initio quantum chemical calculations and spectral analysis allowed us to determine the spectroscopic parameters and potential barriers to internal rotation of the methyl groups for the lowest energy conformers. We will compare here the results from ab initio calculations and from two different hamiltonian methods (the XIAM and BELGI codes) for isoamyl acetate H3C-COO-(CH2)2-CH(CH3)2, an one-top internal rotor molecule with a C1 symmetry and for methyl propionate CH3CH2COOCH3 containing two inequivalent methyl tops (C3v), with different barrier heights. This study is part of a larger project which aims at determining the structures of the lowest energy conformers for a serie of organic esters and ketones which are of interest for flavour or perfume applications.

  12. Acetylated and propionated derivatives of swertiamarin have anti-adipogenic effects

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    Hitesh B Vaidya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether the acetylated and propionated derivatives (LMP-09-1 and -2 of swertiamarin have anti-adipogenic effects. Materials and Methods: 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were grown in Dulbecco′s Modified Eagle′s Medium (DMEM containing 10% calf serum; fully confluent cells were differentiated with insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutylmethylxanthine in the presence and absence of LMP-09-1 and -2 (100 μg/mL for 10 days. Control cells received same amount of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. On day ten, cells were analyzed for triglycerides accumulation and the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and lipolysis. In another set of experiment, effects of LMP-09-1 and 2 were studied for isoproterenol induced lipolysis using fully mature adipocytes. Results: LMP-09-1 and -2 caused a significant (P < 0.001 reduction in intracellular triglycerides accumulation. Both LMP-09-1 and -2 significantly (P < 0.001 decreased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, and increased isoproterenol induced lipolysis in adipocytes. LMP-09-1 induced lipolysis even in the absence of isoproterenol, and also showed a significant up-regulation of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL gene expression. Conclusions: These findings show that swertiamarin derivatives, LMP-09-1 and -2 have a potent anti-adipogenic effect.

  13. Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shu; Chen, Zaixing; Yang, Liqun; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Danhua; Guo, Jing; Guan, Yanmin; Li, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP) ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modification. The effect of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and cremophor EL-35 on the particle size and zeta potential of the prepared vesicles was investigated. The entrapment efficiency and stability, as well as in vitro and in vivo skin permeation, were studied with the various techniques, such as differential scanning calorimetry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and so on. The results indicated that the ethosomes were defined as spherical, unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (0.100 ± 0.015) and nanometric size (156.5 ± 3.5 nm). The entrapment efficiency of TP in ethosomal and liposomal carriers was 92.7% ± 3.7% and 64.7% ± 2.1%, respectively. The stability profile of the prepared TP ethosomal system assessed for 120 days revealed very low aggregation and very low growth in vesicular size. TP ethosomes also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 37.85 ± 2.8 μg/cm2/hour and a decreased lag time of 0.18 hours across mouse skin. The skin permeation efficiency of the TP ethosomes as further assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of rhodamine red-loaded formulations to the deeper layers of the skin (260 μm) than that of the liposomal formation (120 μm). PMID:23990718

  14. Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shu; Chen, Zaixing; Yang, Liqun; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Danhua; Guo, Jing; Guan, Yanmin; Li, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP) ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modification. The effect of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and cremophor EL-35 on the particle size and zeta potential of the prepared vesicles was investigated. The entrapment efficiency and stability, as well as in vitro and in vivo skin permeation, were studied with the various techniques, such as differential scanning calorimetry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and so on. The results indicated that the ethosomes were defined as spherical, unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (0.100 ± 0.015) and nanometric size (156.5 ± 3.5 nm). The entrapment efficiency of TP in ethosomal and liposomal carriers was 92.7% ± 3.7% and 64.7% ± 2.1%, respectively. The stability profile of the prepared TP ethosomal system assessed for 120 days revealed very low aggregation and very low growth in vesicular size. TP ethosomes also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 37.85 ± 2.8 μg/cm(2)/hour and a decreased lag time of 0.18 hours across mouse skin. The skin permeation efficiency of the TP ethosomes as further assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of rhodamine red-loaded formulations to the deeper layers of the skin (260 μm) than that of the liposomal formation (120 μm).

  15. Towards the development of an enzyme replacement therapy for the metabolic disorder propionic acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Darvish-Damavandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acidemia (PA is a life-threatening disease caused by the deficiency of a mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme known as propionyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (PCC. This enzyme is responsible for degrading the metabolic intermediate, propionyl coenzyme-A (PP-CoA, derived from multiple metabolic pathways. Currently, except for drastic surgical and dietary intervention that can only provide partial symptomatic relief, no other form of therapeutic option is available for this genetic disorder. Here, we examine a novel approach in protein delivery by specifically targeting and localizing our protein candidate of interest into the mitochondrial matrix of the cells. In order to test this concept of delivery, we have utilized cell penetrating peptides (CPPs and mitochondria targeting sequences (MTS to form specific fusion PCC protein, capable of translocating and localizing across cell membranes. In vitro delivery of our candidate fusion proteins, evaluated by confocal images and enzymatic activity assay, indicated effectiveness of this strategy. Therefore, it holds immense potential in creating a new paradigm in site-specific protein delivery and enzyme replacement therapeutic for PA.

  16. Development and validation of stability indicating TLC densitometric and spectrophotometric methods for determination of Clobetasol propionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Farouk Bassuoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two simple analytical techniques that manipulate the inherent spectroscopic properties of the drug differently were developed for Clobetasol propionate (CP determination in the presence of its alkaline hydrolytic degradation products. The first method depends on TLC-densitometric determination of the UV–visualized bands after TLC separation of CP in the presence of its alkaline degradation products in its bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Separation was performed on preactivated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates using ethyl acetate:hexane:ammonia (5:5:0.2, by volume as a developing system followed by scanning at 240 nm. Linear correlation was obtained in the range of 0.10–0.50 μg/band. The second method was ratio difference spectrophotometry. It was applied by measuring the difference in peak amplitude of the ratio spectra at 243.40 and 256.40 nm. The selectivity of both methods was checked by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures containing different concentrations of CP and its alkaline degradation products. The methods were validated in compliance with ICH guidelines. The methods determined CP in its bulk powder with average percentage recoveries of 99.60% ± 1.09 and 99.44% ± 1.60 for densitometry and ratio difference, respectively. Both methods were successfully applied for quantification of CP in its commercial cream.

  17. Biosynthesis of poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) in recombinant Escherichia coli grown on glycerol is stimulated by propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Michael M; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Ren, Qun

    2014-11-01

    One of the most promising polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) for medical applications is poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Currently, the major hurdle for expanding P4HB applications is the production and recovery cost. In this study, we investigated the stimulating factors for P4HB biosynthesis with the ultimate goal of reducing production cost. We found that addition of propionic acid to the culture medium stimulates the P4HB accumulation in recombinant Escherichia coli JM109 grown on glycerol. This stimulating effect was significantly weakened by addition of exogenous methionine, whereas it was not influenced by addition of cysteine. These results suggest that propionic acid enhances P4HB synthesis by reducing the intracellular methionine pool. Utilizing these findings for P4HB production in batch cultures on glycerol, the volumetric yield of P4HB could be improved 4 fold from 0.9g/L to 3.7g/L by adding 2g/L propionic acid into the medium.

  18. Estrogen dissociates Tau and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor subunit in postischemic hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia; Arango-Davila, Cesar; Gallego-Gómez, Juan Carlos; Barrera-Ocampo, Alvaro; Pimienta, Hernan; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2006-08-21

    During cerebral ischemia, part of the damage associated with the hyperactivation of glutamate receptors results from the hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein Tau. Previous studies have shown that estradiol treatment reduces neural damage after cerebral ischemia. Here, we show that transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery results in the hyperphosphorylation of Tau and in a significant increase in the association of Tau with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid type glutamate receptor subunits 2/3 in the hippocampus. Estradiol treatment decreased hippocampal injury, inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and decreased the hyperphosphorylation of Tau and the interaction of Tau with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor. These findings suggest that ischemia produces a strong association between Tau and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor, and estradiol can exert at least part of its neuroprotective activity through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta.

  19. Ln[DO3A-N-α-(pyrenebutanamido)propionate] complexes: optimized relaxivity and NIR optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M F; Pereira, G; Martins, A F; Martins, C I O; Prata, M I M; Petoud, S; Toth, E; Ferreira, P M T; Martins, J A; Geraldes, C F G C

    2014-02-28

    We have proposed recently that the DO3A-N-α-(amino)propionate chelator and its amide conjugates are leads to targeted, high relaxivity, safe contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. In this work we illustrate further the expeditious nature and robustness of the synthetic methodologies developed by preparing the DO3A-N-(α-pyrenebutanamido)propionate chelator. Its Gd(3+) chelate retains the optimized water exchange, high stability and inertness of the parent complex. The pyrene moiety imparts concentration-dependent self-assembly properties and aggregation-sensitive fluorescence emission to the Gd(3+) complex. The Gd(3+) complex displays pyrene-centred fluorescence whilst the Yb(3+) and Nd(3+) complexes exhibit sensitized lanthanide-centred near-infrared luminescence. The aggregated form of the complex displays high relaxivity (32 mM(-1) s(-1), 20 MHz, 25 °C) thanks to simultaneous optimization of the rotational correlation time and of the water exchange rate. The relaxivity is however still limited by chelate flexibility. This report demonstrates that the DO3A-N-(α-amino)propionate chelator is a valuable platform for constructing high relaxivity CA using simple design principles and robust chemistries accessible to most chemistry labs.

  20. A Novel Potential Reproductive Effects Of Pterocarpus Marsupium Methanolic Extract On Testosterone Propionate Induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Female Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Aruna Lingappa; Kanjikar, Amarvani P; Londonkar, Ramesh L

    2017-09-12

    Objective To investigate potential reproductive effects of Pterocarpus marsupium methanolic extract on testosterone propionate induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) in female albino rats. Methodology PCOS was induced in female albino rats by daily injecting testosterone propionate for 15 days intraperitoneally. Animals are divided into five groups with six rats per group. Group 1: Control group received olive oil, Group 2: Testosterone propionate+natural recovery, Group 3: Testosterone propionate + a dose of clomiphene citrate (standard), Group 4 and 5: Testosterone propionate + low dose (200mg/kg) and high dose (400mg/kg) b.w respectively for 15 days. Various biochemical and histopathological investigations were assessed. Results Methanol extract of Pterocarpus marsupium was able to exert its protective effect successfully by restoring all the parameters to normal and diminishing the cysts found in ovaries. Conclusion Pterocarpus marsupium found to have potential reproductive effects in testosterone propionate induced PCOS female albino rats and could be used as an alternative therapy in treatment of PCOS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. In vitro evaluation of cashew nut shell liquid as a methane-inhibiting and propionate-enhancing agent for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Suzuki, R; Koike, S; Nagashima, K; Mochizuki, M; Forster, R J; Kobayashi, Y

    2010-11-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) containing antibacterial phenolic compounds was evaluated for its potency as a feed additive for ruminants. In experiment 1, ruminal responses to CNSL supplementation were assessed using a batch culture system. Rumen fluid from cattle was diluted with artificial saliva and incubated for 18h in a batch culture with a mixed diet containing a 30:70 hay:concentrate diet to which raw or heated CNSL was added at a final concentration of 500 μg/mL. In experiment 2, a Rusitec, using rumen fluid from the same cattle, was operated over a period of 7 d during which only raw CNSL was tested at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 200 μg/mL, and variations in fermentation and bacterial population were assessed. In experiment 3, a pure culture study was conducted using selected bacteria to determine their susceptibility to CNSL. In experiment 1, methane production was inhibited by raw CNSL (56.9% inhibition) but not by heated CNSL. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was not affected, whereas increased concentrations of propionate and decreased concentrations of acetate and butyrate were observed using either raw or heated CNSL. These changes were more obvious when raw CNSL was tested. In experiment 2, raw CNSL inhibited methanogenesis and increased propionate production in a dose-dependent manner, showing maximum methane inhibition (70.1%) and propionate enhancement (44.4%) at 200 μg/mL supplementation. Raw CNSL increased total volatile fatty acid concentration and dry matter digestibility. Raw CNSL also appeared to induce a dramatic shift in the population of rumen microbiota, based on decreased protozoa numbers and changes in quantitative PCR assay values for representative bacterial species. In experiment 3, using pure cultures, raw CNSL prevented the growth of hydrogen-, formate-, and butyrate-producing rumen bacteria, but not the growth of bacteria involved in propionate production. Based on these data, raw CNSL, rich in the antibacterial

  2. Pathway engineering of Propionibacterium jensenii for improved production of propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Guan, Ningzi; Zhu, Gexin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-27

    Propionic acid (PA) is an important chemical building block widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. In our previous study, a shuttle vector was developed as a useful tool for engineering Propionibacterium jensenii, and two key enzymes-glycerol dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase-were overexpressed to improve PA titer. Here, we aimed to improve PA production further via the pathway engineering of P. jensenii. First, the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene (ppc) from Klebsiella pneumoniae was overexpressed to access the one-step synthesis of oxaloacetate directly from phosphoenolpyruvate without pyruvate as intermediate. Next, genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) and pyruvate oxidase (poxB) were deleted to block the synthesis of the by-products lactic acid and acetic acid, respectively. Overexpression of ppc and deleting ldh improved PA titer from 26.95 ± 1.21 g·L(-1) to 33.21 ± 1.92 g·L(-1) and 30.50 ± 1.63 g·L(-1), whereas poxB deletion decreased it. The influence of this pathway engineering on gene transcription, enzyme expression, NADH/NAD(+) ratio, and metabolite concentration was also investigated. Finally, PA production in P. jensenii with ppc overexpression as well as ldh deletion was investigated, which resulted in further increases in PA titer to 34.93 ± 2.99 g·L(-1) in a fed-batch culture.

  3. An overview of biotechnological production of propionic acid: From upstream to downstream processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Ahmadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for propionic acid (PA production and its wide applications in several industries, especially the food industry (as a preservative and satiety inducer, have led to studies on the low-cost biosynthesis of this acid. This paper gives an overview of the biotechnological aspects of PA production and introduces Propionibacterium as the most popular organism for PA production. Moreover, all process variables influencing the production yield, different simple and complex carbon sources, the metabolic pathway of production, engineered mutants with increased productivity, and modified tolerance against high concentrations of acid have been described. Furthermore, possible methods of extraction and analysis of this organic acid, several applied bioreactors, and different culture systems and substrates are introduced. It can be concluded that maximum biomass and PA production may be achieved using metabolically engineered microorganisms and analyzing the most significant factors influencing yield. To date, the maximum reported yield for PA production is 0.973 g·g-1, obtained from Propionibacterium acidipropionici in a three-electrode amperometric culture system in medium containing 0.4 mM cobalt sepulchrate. In addition, the best promising substrate for PA bioproduction may be achieved using glycerol as a carbon source in an extractive continuous fermentation. Simultaneous production of PA and vitamin B12 is suggested, and finally, the limitations of and strategies for competitive microbial production with respect to chemical process from an economical point of view are proposed and presented. Finally, some future trends for bioproduction of PA are suggested.

  4. In vitro characterization of jet-milled and in-situ-micronized fluticasone-17-propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Hartwig; Rasenack, Norbert; Villax, Peter; Müller, Bernd W

    2003-06-04

    Particle properties are decisive for therapeutic efficiency of an inhaled pulmonary drug. Jet-milling as the common way for micronization of inhaled powder drugs shows several disadvantages such as a non-homogeneous particle size distribution and unnatural, thermodynamically-activated particle surfaces causing a high agglomeration behavior. For pulmonary use in a dry powder inhaler (DPI) beside a small particle size, a good de-agglomeration activity is required. In this study, fluticasone-17-propionate (FP) is in-situ prepared in a respirable particle size by a controlled crystallization technique. First, the drug is dissolved in acetone and precipitated by a solvent change method in the presence of a cellulose ether (HPMC) as stabilizing hydrocolloid. By rapidly pouring the drug solution into the polymer-rich water phase, the previously molecularly dispersed drug is associated to small particles and stabilized against crystal growth simultaneously by the presence of the hydrophilic polymer. This dispersion was then spray-dried. The mean particle size of the drug was around 2 microm and consequently in the respirable range. The physico-chemical properties of the in-situ-micronized drug were compared to those of an unmilled and a jet-milled quality. Differences in the X-ray patterns and amorphous parts could be detected for the jet-milled but not for the in-situ-micronized drug. In addition, the aerodynamic behavior of the engineered and the jet-milled FP was analyzed using the FlowCaps inhaler as delivery device and compared to the commercial product Flutide Diskus. The fine particle fraction (FPF) (<5 microm) was increased four-fold from approximately 9% for the jet-milled drug to approximately 40% for the in-situ-micronized drug when the pure drug powder was dispersed with the FlowCaps device.

  5. Dry powder inhalers: study of the parameters influencing adhesion and dispersion of fluticasone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, V N P; Hoang Thi, T H; Robins, E; Flament, M P

    2012-06-01

    Interactions between particles are dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the interacting particles but it is also important to consider the manufacturing process. Blending active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with carrier is a critical stage that determines the blend homogeneity and is the first step towards obtaining the final quality of the powder blend. The aim of this work was to study parameters that influence the interactions between API and carrier in adhesive mixtures used in DPI and their effect on API dispersion. The study was done with fluticasone propionate blended with lactose 'Lactohale 200'. The study was based on the influence of the operating conditions (speed, mixing time, resting steps during mixing), the size of the carrier and the storage conditions on the blend properties and on the API dispersion. The quality of the blends was examined by analysing the API content uniformity. Adhesion characteristics were evaluated by submitting mixtures to a sieving action by air depression with the Alpine air-jet sieve. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle fraction (FPF) was obtained using a Twin Stage Impinger; the FPF being defined as the mass percentage of API below 6.4 μm. For good dispersion and therefore good homogeneity of the API in the carrier particles, speed and powder blending time have to be sufficient, but not too long to prevent the appearance of static electricity, which is not favourable to homogeneity and stability. The FPF increases with the decrease in the carrier size. The storage conditions have also to be taken into consideration. Higher humidity favours the adhesion of API on the carrier and decreases the FPF.

  6. [Dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate on gold island films: surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Ding, Li; Zhang, Tian-Jie; Mao, Yan-Li

    2013-05-01

    Dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate (DTSP), an important homobifunctional crosslinker, has been widely used for the covalent immobilization of proteins onto solid supports by amine coupling. In the present study, adsorption of DTSP on vacuum-deposited gold island films was analyzed by means of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS). For the sake of a reliable assignment of the vibrational spectra, IR intensity of the adsorption model of TSP on one gold surface was calculated using density functional theory (DFT) at the Beck' s three-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) level with the LANL2DZ basis set. SEIRAS and multiple-angle-of-incidence polarization infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy indicated that TSP is arranged orderly in a tilted fashion with a dihedral angle of 65 degrees between the plane of succinimidyl ring and the gold surface. The binding kinetics revealed that that the time constant of self-assembly of the TSP layer is 220 sec. Furthermore, the coupling process of amino-nitrilotriacetic acid (ANTA) with surface-bound TSP monolayer was monitored in situ by SEIRAS. Three negative bands observed at 1 807, 1 776, and 1 728 cm(-1) respectively provided direct evidence for the reaction of the succinimidyl ester. The appearance of one intense band at 1 566 cm(-1) gave a clear support for the presence of the cross-link between ANTA and TSP. We hope that the results in current investigation will contribute to the better understanding of properties of DTSP and related reactions at the molecular level.

  7. In Vivo Assessment of Clobetasol Propionate-Loaded Lecithin-Chitosan Nanoparticles for Skin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenyiğit, Taner; Sonvico, Fabio; Rossi, Alessandra; Tekmen, Işıl; Santi, Patrizia; Colombo, Paolo; Nicoli, Sara; Özer, Özgen

    2016-12-26

    The aim of this work was to assess in vivo the anti-inflammatory efficacy and tolerability of clobetasol propionate (CP) loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles incorporated into chitosan gel for topical application (CP 0.005%). As a comparison, a commercial cream (CP 0.05% w/w), and a sodium deoxycholate gel (CP 0.05% w/w) were also evaluated. Lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembling of the components obtained by direct injection of soybean lecithin alcoholic solution containing CP into chitosan aqueous solution. Nanoparticles obtained had a particle size around 250 nm, narrow distribution (polydispersity index below 0.2) and positive surface charge, provided by a superficial layer of the cationic polymer. The nanoparticle suspension was then loaded into a chitosan gel, to obtain a final CP concentration of 0.005%. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test on Wistar rats, the effect of formulations on the barrier property of the stratum corneum were determined using transepidermal water loss measurements (TEWL) and histological analysis was performed to evaluate the possible presence of morphological changes. The results obtained indicate that nanoparticle-in-gel formulation produced significantly higher edema inhibition compared to other formulations tested, although it contained ten times less CP. TEWL measurements also revealed that all formulations have no significant disturbance on the barrier function of skin. Furthermore, histological analysis of rat abdominal skin did not show morphological tissue changes nor cell infiltration signs after application of the formulations. Taken together, the present data show that the use of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles in chitosan gel as a drug carrier significantly improves the risk-benefit ratio as compared with sodium-deoxycholate gel and commercial cream formulations of CP.

  8. In Vivo Assessment of Clobetasol Propionate-Loaded Lecithin-Chitosan Nanoparticles for Skin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Şenyiğit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess in vivo the anti-inflammatory efficacy and tolerability of clobetasol propionate (CP loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles incorporated into chitosan gel for topical application (CP 0.005%. As a comparison, a commercial cream (CP 0.05% w/w, and a sodium deoxycholate gel (CP 0.05% w/w were also evaluated. Lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembling of the components obtained by direct injection of soybean lecithin alcoholic solution containing CP into chitosan aqueous solution. Nanoparticles obtained had a particle size around 250 nm, narrow distribution (polydispersity index below 0.2 and positive surface charge, provided by a superficial layer of the cationic polymer. The nanoparticle suspension was then loaded into a chitosan gel, to obtain a final CP concentration of 0.005%. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test on Wistar rats, the effect of formulations on the barrier property of the stratum corneum were determined using transepidermal water loss measurements (TEWL and histological analysis was performed to evaluate the possible presence of morphological changes. The results obtained indicate that nanoparticle-in-gel formulation produced significantly higher edema inhibition compared to other formulations tested, although it contained ten times less CP. TEWL measurements also revealed that all formulations have no significant disturbance on the barrier function of skin. Furthermore, histological analysis of rat abdominal skin did not show morphological tissue changes nor cell infiltration signs after application of the formulations. Taken together, the present data show that the use of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles in chitosan gel as a drug carrier significantly improves the risk-benefit ratio as compared with sodium-deoxycholate gel and commercial cream formulations of CP.

  9. The relation of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma glycine levels in propionic acidaemia, a 'ketotic hyperglycinaemia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl-Bürgi, S; Korman, S H; Applegarth, D A; Karall, D; Lillquist, Y; Heinz-Erian, P; Davidson, A G F; Haberlandt, E; Sass, J O

    2008-06-01

    The characteristic elevation of plasma glycine concentrations observed in propionic acidaemia (PA) and other 'ketotic hyperglycinaemias' has been attributed to secondary inhibition of the hepatic glycine cleavage system (GCS) by accumulating CoA derivatives of branched-chain amino acid metabolites. In nonketotic hyperglycinaemia (NKH), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma glycine levels and their ratio are increased due to primary deficiency of central nervous system (CNS) as well as hepatic GCS. Whether the GCS in the CNS is also inhibited in PA is unclear, as there are scant data available on CSF glycine levels in this disorder. We studied the relation of CSF and plasma glycine levels in 6 paired samples from 4 PA patients, including one PA patient with bacterial meningitis who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting and multiple CSF analyses (n = 26). In contrast to the CSF glycine levels which were generally elevated in all four PA patients, the CSF/plasma glycine concentration ratios in paired samples were normal (0.016-0.029), with the exception of a single sample (0.132) with extremely high CSF protein concentration (2010 mg/L) during the course of meningitis indicating a disturbed blood-brain barrier. This finding of normal CSF/plasma glycine ratio in PA suggests that the observed elevations of CSF glycine levels are a reflection of the concurrent hyperglycinaemia resulting from secondary inhibition of hepatic GCS, but that brain GCS is not affected, in contrast to the situation in NKH. The neurological sequelae in PA are therefore unlikely to be related to disturbed glycine metabolism.

  10. Choline acetyltransferase and organic cation transporters are responsible for synthesis and propionate-induced release of acetylcholine in colon epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Sandra; Klein, Jochen; Diener, Martin

    2014-06-15

    Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter, but is found in a variety of non-neuronal cells. For example, the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), catalyzing acetylcholine synthesis, is expressed by the colonic epithelium of different species. These cells release acetylcholine across the basolateral membrane after luminal exposure to propionate, a short-chain fatty acid. The functional consequence is the induction of chloride secretion, measurable as increase in short-circuit current (Isc) in Ussing chamber experiments. It is unclear how acetylcholine is produced and released by colonic epithelium. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the identification (on mRNA and protein level) and functional characterization (in Ussing chamber experiments combined with HPLC detection of acetylcholine) of transporters/enzymes in the cholinergic system of rat colonic epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining as well as RT-PCR revealed the expression of high-affinity choline transporter, ChAT, carnitine acetyltransferase (CarAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and organic cation transporters (OCT 1, 2, 3) in colonic epithelium. In contrast to blockade of ChAT with bromoacetylcholine, inhibition of CarAT with mildronate did not inhibit the propionate-induced increase in Isc, suggesting a predominant synthesis of epithelial acetylcholine by ChAT. Although being expressed, blockade of VAChT with vesamicol was ineffective, whereas inhibition of OCTs with omeprazole and corticosterone inhibited propionate-induced Isc and the release of acetylcholine into the basolateral compartment. In summary, OCTs seem to be involved in regulated acetylcholine release by colonic epithelium, which is assumed to be involved in chemosensing of luminal short-chain fatty acids by the intestinal epithelium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 铑催化乙酸乙酯羰基化合成丙酸的研究%Rh Catalyzed Carbonylation of Ethyl Acetate to Propionic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌晨; 黄志军

    2013-01-01

    以乙酸乙酯为原料,在金属铑催化下与一氧化碳进行羰基化反应,生成丙酸.研究了碘化物添加剂和反应条件对丙酸产率的影响.由于避免了乙醇在酸性条件下的酯化和分子间脱水等副反应,丙酸产率显著提高.乙酸乙酯羰基化具有与甲醇羰基化相似的动力学行为.碘化物添加剂的加入能有效提高反应速率和丙酸选择性.通过优化反应条件,丙酸产率大于95%.%Rhodium was used to catalyze the carbonylation of ethyl acetate with carbon monoxide to propionic acid.The effect of iodide additives and reaction conditions on yield of propionic acid was studied.Because of avoiding the esterification and intermolecular dehydration of ethanol the yield of propionic acid was improved significantly.The kinetic behavior of ethyl acetate carbonylation was similar with methanol carbonylation.The reaction rate and propionic acid selectivity were increased obviously with the introduction of iodide additives.The propionic acid yield is greater than 95% under the optimum conditions.

  12. Simultaneous High Performance Liquid Chromatography Assay of Pentoxifylline, Mupirocin, Itraconazole, and Fluticasone Propionate in Humco™ Lavare Wound Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Purvis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article details the elements used in the method verification for the simultaneous high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC assay of Pentoxifylline, Mupirocin, Itraconazole, and Fluticasone Propionate in Humco™ Lavare Wound base. The method was proven to be linear over 50%–150% of the nominal concentration of the standards. The method was proven to be accurate over 50%–150%, with 98%–102% recovery of the actives from spiked placeboes over that range. The method was shown to be specific to the analytes listed and precise, yielding acceptable results for system reproducibility and method repeatability. The method, as written, is considered to have been verified.

  13. 14C-labeled propionate metabolism in vivo and estimates of hepatic gluconeogenesis relative to Krebs cycle flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, B R; Schumann, W C; Chandramouli, V; Magnusson, I; Kumaran, K; Wahren, J

    1993-10-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to estimate in humans, using 14C-labeled propionate, the rate of hepatic gluconeogenesis relative to the rate of Krebs cycle flux; 2) to compare those rates with estimates previously made using [3-14C]lactate and [2-14C]acetate; 3) to determine if the amount of ATP required for that rate of gluconeogenesis could be generated in liver, calculated from that rate of Krebs cycle flux and splanchnic balance measurements, previously made, and 4) to test whether hepatic succinyl-CoA is channeled during its metabolism through the Krebs cycle. [2-14C]propionate, [3-14C]-propionate, and [2,3-14C]succinate were given along with phenyl acetate to normal subjects, fasted 60 h. Distributions of 14C were determined in the carbons of blood glucose and of glutamate from excreted phenylacetylglutamine. Corrections to the distributions for 14CO2 fixation were made from the specific activities of urinary urea and the specific activities in glucose, glutamate, and urea previously found on administering [14C]-bicarbonate. Uncertainties in the corrections and in the contributions of pyruvate and Cori cyclings limit the quantitations. The rate of gluconeogenesis appears to be two or more times the rate of Krebs cycle flux and pyruvate's decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA, metabolized in the cycle, less than one-twenty-fifth the rate of its decarboxylation. Such estimates were previously made using [3-14C]lactate. The findings support the use of phenyl acetate to sample hepatic alpha-ketoglutarate. Ratios of specific activities of glucose to glutamate and glucose to urinary urea and expired CO2 indicate succinate's extensive metabolism when presented in trace amounts to liver. Utilizations of the labeled compounds by liver relative to other tissues were in the order succinate = lactate > propionate > acetate. ATP required for gluconeogenesis and urea formation was approximately 40% of the amount of ATP generated in liver. There was no channeling of succinyl-CoA in

  14. Improved biological phosphorus removal performance driven by the aerobic/extended-idle regime with propionate as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yan; Zeng, Tianjing; Zeng, Guangming

    2012-08-01

    Our previous studies proved that biological phosphorus removal (BPR) could be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process employing two typical substrates of glucose and acetate as the carbon sources. This paper further evaluated the feasibility of another important substrate, propionate, serving as the carbon source for BPR in the AEI process, and compared the BPR performance between the AEI and anaerobic/oxic (A/O) processes. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, respectively, as the AEI and A/O regimes for BPR using propionate as the sole substrate. The results showed that the AEI-reactor removed 2.98 ± 0.04-4.06 ± 0.06 mg of phosphorus per g of total suspended solids during the course of the steady operational trial, and the phosphorus content of the dried sludge was reached 8.0 ± 0.4% after 56-day operation, demonstrating the good performance of phosphorus removal. Then, the efficiencies of BPR and the transformations of the intracellular storages were compared between two SBRs. It was observed that the phosphorus removal efficiency was maintained around 95% in the AEI-reactor, and about 83% in the A/O-reactor, although the latter showed much greater transformations of both polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen. The facts clearly showed that BPR could be enhanced by the AEI regime using propionate as the carbon source. Finally, the mechanisms for the propionate fed AEI-reactor improving BPR were investigated. It was found that the sludge cultured by the AEI regime had more polyphosphate containing cells than that by the A/O regime. Further investigation revealed that the residual nitrate generated in the last aerobic period was readily deteriorated BPR in the A/O-SBR, but a slight deterioration was observed in the AEI-SBR. Moreover, the lower glycogen transformation measured in the AEI-SBR indicated that the biomass cultured by the AEI regime contained less glycogen accumulating organisms activities than that by the A/O regime

  15. Clinical experience with N-carbamylglutamate in a single-centre cohort of patients with propionic and methylmalonic aciduria

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Burlina; Chiara Cazzorla; Elisa Zanonato; Emanuela Viggiano; Ilaria Fasan; Giulia Polo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effect of long-term N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) treatment on the rate and severity of decompensations due to propionic aciduria (PA) and methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is unknown. This paper presents clinical experience from a single-centre cohort of patients with PA and MMA who received continuous long-term treatment with NCG. Methods: The effect of oral NCG treatment (initial dose: 50 mg/kg/day) was investigated in patients with PA or MMA who were experiencing frequent progre...

  16. A Novel Thin Film Resistive Humidity Sensor Based on Soluble Conjugated Polymer: (propionic acid)-co-(propargyl alcohol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel soluble conjugated copolymer (propionic acid)-co-(propargyl alcohol) (PA-co-OHP) has been synthesized for the first time using a new palladium acetylide catalyst Pd(PPh3)2 (CoCC(CH3)2OH)2 (PPB). Thin film resistive humidity sensor based on the copolymer doped with HClO-4 was prepared. The impedance of the sensor changed from 103~107 W in 95%~30%RH, and the response of that is very quick (<6 sec.). Preliminary results show the copolymer is a promising humidity sensitive material.

  17. Citric acid as the last therapeutic approach in an acute life-threatening metabolic decompensation of propionic acidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmeyer, Manuela; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Terpe, Friederike; Beblo, Skadi; Gebhardt, Rolf; Schlensog-Schuster, Franziska; Kiess, Wieland; Siekmeyer, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle represents the key enzymatic steps in cellular energy metabolism. Once the TCA cycle is impaired in case of inherited metabolic disorders, life-threatening episodes of metabolic decompensation and severe organ failure can arise. We present the case of a 6 ½-year-old girl with propionic acidaemia during an episode of acute life-threatening metabolic decompensation and severe lactic acidosis. Citric acid given as an oral formulation showed the potential to sustain the TCA cycle flux. This therapeutic approach may become a treatment option in a situation of acute metabolic crisis, possibly preventing severe disturbance of energy metabolism.

  18. Growth during one year of treatment with fluticasone propionate or sodium cromoglycate in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J F; Russell, G; Hindmarsh, P C; Weller, P; Heaf, D P; Williams, J

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare accurately measured growth over 12 months in asthmatic children treated with either fluticasone propionate (FP) 50 micrograms twice daily (b.i.d.) or sodium cromoglycate (SCG) 20 mg four times daily (q.i.d.). After a 2-week run-in, asthmatic children aged 4-10 years from 15 UK centers were randomized in a 3:4 ratio to open-label FP (n = 52) or SCG (n = 70). After 8 weeks, those whose asthma was not adequately controlled were switched from SCG to FP or withdrawn. Standing height was measured (Holtain stadiometry) at baseline, after 8 weeks and at 6 weeks intervals thereafter for 1 year. Morning peak flows (PEFam) were recorded by patients for 2 weeks during baseline, and 1 week before each visit during treatment. Urinary free cortisol (24 h) was measured at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year. After 8 weeks, 22 patients were withdrawn from SCG group (and were switched to FP), and five patients were withdrawn from the FP group due to poor asthma control. A further 21 and 11 patients were withdrawn from the SCG and FP groups, respectively, during the course of the study. There were no significant differences between patients who received FP and SCG for 1 year (n = 34 and n = 26, respectively) in terms of height velocity adjusted for age and gender (HV), or height velocity standard deviation scores adjusted for gender (HVSDS). Mean HV (mean HVSDS) were 6.0 cm/yr (0.1) and 6.5 cm/yr (0.5) for FP and SCG, respectively. There were no treatment differences in mean 24 h urinary free cortisol levels at 6 and 12 months. Mean % predicted PEFam improved over 1 year in both groups but to a greater degree in the FP group. We concluded that growth was normal in mildly asthmatic children receiving FP (50 micrograms bid) for 1 year. There were fewer withdrawals and lung function improved to a greater extent in FP treated patients than in patients receiving SCG.

  19. Interleukin-32, not reduced by salmeterol/fluticasone propionate in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Yipeng; Wang Wei; Yang Wei; He Bei

    2014-01-01

    Background The interleukin (IL)-32/tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α pathway is supposed to play a key role in the amplification of the immune response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) inflammation.Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) have shown airway anti-inflammatory effects in recent studies,but the mechanism is still uncertain.Methods Patients were treated in a randomized,open-labeled,parallel group clinical trial with either a combination of salmeterol xinafoate/fluticasone propionate (SF; Seretide,GlaxoSmithKline) Diskus (50/500 μg twice daily) or ipratropium bromide/salbutamol (IS; Combivent,Boehringer Ingelheim) MDI (42 μg/240 μg quartic daily) for 12 weeks.At the start and the end of treatment,induced sputum was collected and the concentration of IL-32 and TNF-α,the number of neutrophils and eosinophils were measured.Results Following 12 weeks of treatment,a statistically significant fall from baseline in the concentration of TNF-α in sputum (P=0.004) was seen after treatment with SF but not with IS.However,neither treatment had significant effects on the concentration of IL-32 in sputum.There was a decrease from baseline in the number of sputum neutrophils with SF that approached statistical significance (P=0.028) but not with IS,while the number of sputum eosinophils did not change significantly from baseline in either treatment group.There was a statistically significant decline from baseline in the quality of life as assessed by the St George's respiratory questionnaire in both the SF (P=0.004) and IS (P=0.030) treatment groups,but no evidence of improvement in lung function was observed in either group.Conclusion The sputum TNF-α and neutrophils,but not IL-32 and macrophages,could be reduced by ICS/LABA treatment,suggesting that IL-32 could be involved in the corticosteroid resistance of COPD inflammation.

  20. On the protective effect of omega-3 against propionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rat pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gezeery Amina R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds The investigation of the environmental contribution for developmental neurotoxicity is very important. Many environmental chemical exposures are now thought to contribute to the development of neurological disorders, especially in children. Results from animal studies may guide investigations of human populations toward identifying environmental contaminants and drugs that produce or protect from neurotoxicity and may help in the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Objective To study the protective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on brain intoxication induced by propionic acid (PPA in rats. Methods 24 young male Western Albino rats were enrolled in the present study. They were grouped into three equal groups; oral buffered PPA-treated group given a nuerotoxic dose of 250 mg/Kg body weight/day for 3 days; omega-3 - protected group given a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day omega-3 orally daily for 5 days followed by PPA for 3 days, and a third group as control given only phosphate buffered saline. Tumor necrosis factor-α, caspase-3, interlukin-6, gamma amino-buteric acid (GABA, serotonin, dopamine and phospholipids were then assayed in the rats brain's tissue of different groups. Results The obtained data showed that PPA caused multiple signs of brain toxicity as measured by depletion of gamaaminobyteric acid (GABA, serotonin (5HT and dopamine (DA as three important neurotransmitters that reflect brain function. A high significant increase of interlukin-6 (Il-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as excellent markers of proinflammation and caspase-3 as a proapotic marker were remarkably elevated in the intoxicated group of rats. Moreover, brain phospholipid profile was impaired in PPA-treated young rats recording lower levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidylcholine (PC. Conclusions Omega-3 fatty acids showed a protective effects on PPA - induced changes in rats as

  1. Li-Ion Cells Employing Electrolytes With Methyl Propionate and Ethyl Butyrate Co-Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring Mars and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate at low temperatures to satisfy the requirements of such applications as landers, rovers, and penetrators. A number of terrestrial applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) also require energy storage devices that can operate over a wide temperature range (i.e., -40 to +70 C), while still providing high power capability and long life. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-30 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. These limitations at very low temperatures are due to poor electrolyte conductivity, poor lithium intercalation kinetics over the electrode surface layers, and poor ionic diffusion in the electrode bulk. Two wide-operating-temperature-range electrolytes have been developed based on advances involving lithium hexafluorophosphate-based solutions in carbonate and carbonate + ester solvent blends, which have been further optimized in the context of the technology and targeted applications. The approaches employed include further optimization of electrolytes containing methyl propionate (MP) and ethyl butyrate (EB), which are effective co-solvents, to widen the operating temperature range beyond the baseline systems. Attention was focused on further optimizing ester-based electrolyte formulations that have exhibited the best performance at temperatures ranging from -60 to +60 C, with an emphasis upon improving the rate capability at -20 to -40 C. This was accomplished by increasing electrolyte salt concentration to 1.20M and increasing the ester content to 60 percent by volume to increase the ionic conductivity at low temperatures. Two JPL-developed electrolytes 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MP (20:20:60 v/v %) and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+EB (20:20:60 v/v %) operate effectively over a wide

  2. Resolution, configurational assignment, and enantiopharmacology at glutamate receptors of 2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA) and demethyl-ACPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Stensbøl, T B; Nielsen, B;

    2001-01-01

    We have previously described (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA) as a potent agonist at the (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subtype of (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) receptors. We now report the chromatographic resolution...... of ACPA and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (demethyl-ACPA) using a Sumichiral OA-5000 column. The configuration of the enantiomers of both compounds have been assigned based on X-ray crystallographic analyses, supported by circular dichroism spectra and elution orders on chiral HPLC...... columns. Furthermore, the enantiopharmacology of ACPA and demethyl-ACPA was investigated using radioligand binding and cortical wedge electrophysiological assay systems and cloned metabotropic Glu receptors. (S)-ACPA showed high affinity in AMPA binding (IC(50) = 0.025 microM), low affinity in kainic acid...

  3. In-gel NHS-propionate derivatization for histone post-translational modifications analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Gao, Jun; Peng, Maolin; Wang, Yi; Yu, Yanyan; Yang, Pengyuan; Jin, Hong

    2015-07-30

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone are highly correlated with genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression from chromatin. Mass spectrometry (MS) has developed to be an optimal tool for the identification and quantification of histone PTMs. Derivatization of histones with chemicals such as propionic anhydride, N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (NHS-propionate) has been widely used in histone PTMs analysis in bottom-up MS strategy, which requires high purity for histone samples. However, biological samples are not always prepared with high purity, containing detergents or other interferences in most cases. As an alternative approach, an adaptation of in gel derivatization method, termed In-gel NHS, is utilized for a broader application in histone PTMs analysis and it is shown to be a more time-saving preparation method. The proposed method was optimized for a better derivatization efficiency and displayed high reproducibility, indicating quantification of histone PTMs based on In-gel NHS was achievable. Without any traditional fussy histone purification procedures, we succeeded to quantitatively profile the histone PTMs from Arabidopsis with selective knock down of CLF (clf-29) and the original parental (col) with In-gel NHS method in a rapid way, which indicated the high specificity of CLF on H3K27me3 in Arabidopsis. In-gel NHS quantification results also suggest distinctive histone modification patterns in plants, which is invaluable foundation for future studies on histone modifications in plants.

  4. Set anode potentials affect the electron fluxes and microbial community structure in propionate-fed microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-12-09

    Anode potential has been shown to be a critical factor in the rate of acetate removal in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), but studies with fermentable substrates and set potentials are lacking. Here, we examined the impact of three different set anode potentials (SAPs; −0.25, 0, and 0.25 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode) on the electrochemical performance, electron flux to various sinks, and anodic microbial community structure in two-chambered MECs fed with propionate. Electrical current (49–71%) and CH4 (22.9–41%) were the largest electron sinks regardless of the potentials tested. Among the three SAPs tested, 0 V showed the highest electron flux to electrical current (71 ± 5%) and the lowest flux to CH4 (22.9 ± 1.2%). In contrast, the SAP of −0.25 V had the lowest electron flux to current (49 ± 6%) and the highest flux to CH4 (41.1 ± 2%). The most dominant genera detected on the anode of all three SAPs based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing were Geobacter, Smithella and Syntrophobacter, but their relative abundance varied among the tested SAPs. Microbial community analysis implies that complete degradation of propionate in all the tested SAPs was facilitated by syntrophic interactions between fermenters and Geobacter at the anode and ferementers and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in suspension.

  5. Quantification of halobetasol propionate and its impurities present in topical dosage forms by stability-indicating LC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalwade, Santaji; Reddy, Vangala Ranga; Kulkarni, Dipak; Todamal, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    A novel, sensitive, stability-indicating, gradient, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for quantitative determination of halobetasol propionate and its impurities in topical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Synergi polar reverse phase, 250 × 4.6 mm, 4 µm column. Mobile phase A comprises a mixture of 0.01 M KH2PO4 buffer containing 0.2% 1-octane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.0), acetonitrile and methanol in the ratio 80:15:05 (v/v/v), respectively, and mobile phase B contains a mixture of 0.01 M KH2PO4 buffer containing 0.2% 1-octane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.0), acetonitrile and methanol in the ratio 20:70:10 (v/v/v), respectively. The flow rate is 0.8 mL min(-1). The column compartment temperature is set at 40°C and the detection wavelength is set at 240 nm. The resolutions between Halobetasol propionate and all the impurities are >2.0 for all pairs of compounds. The drug product was subjected to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH)-prescribed hydrolytic, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. The method is validated as per the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, robustness and ruggedness.

  6. Set anode potentials affect the electron fluxes and microbial community structure in propionate-fed microbial electrolysis cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ananda Rao; Katuri, Krishna P.; Logan, Bruce E.; Saikaly, Pascal E.

    2016-01-01

    Anode potential has been shown to be a critical factor in the rate of acetate removal in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), but studies with fermentable substrates and set potentials are lacking. Here, we examined the impact of three different set anode potentials (SAPs; −0.25, 0, and 0.25 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode) on the electrochemical performance, electron flux to various sinks, and anodic microbial community structure in two-chambered MECs fed with propionate. Electrical current (49–71%) and CH4 (22.9–41%) were the largest electron sinks regardless of the potentials tested. Among the three SAPs tested, 0 V showed the highest electron flux to electrical current (71 ± 5%) and the lowest flux to CH4 (22.9 ± 1.2%). In contrast, the SAP of −0.25 V had the lowest electron flux to current (49 ± 6%) and the highest flux to CH4 (41.1 ± 2%). The most dominant genera detected on the anode of all three SAPs based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing were Geobacter, Smithella and Syntrophobacter, but their relative abundance varied among the tested SAPs. Microbial community analysis implies that complete degradation of propionate in all the tested SAPs was facilitated by syntrophic interactions between fermenters and Geobacter at the anode and ferementers and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in suspension. PMID:27934925

  7. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Guenther, Lyn; Tan, Jerry; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Clobetasol propionate (CP) shampoo 0.05% is an efficacious and safe treatment for scalp psoriasis. The aim of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to determine if CP shampoo is suitable for long-term disease control. Participants with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis (global severity score [GSS] of 3 or 4 on a scale of 0 [clear] to 5 [very severe]) first received once daily CP shampoo treatment for up to 4 weeks. Responders were subsequently randomized to receive the CP shampoo or vehicle twice weekly maintenance regimen for up to 6 months. When relapse occurred (defined as GSS > 2), participants resumed once daily CP shampoo treatment; when symptoms diminished (GSS shampoo did not relapse compared with participants treated with vehicle (P shampoo group. After 6 months 31.1% (33/106) of participants in the CP shampoo group were still relapse free versus 8.1% (9/111) of participants in the vehicle group. There was no greater incidence of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in the CP shampoo group compared with the vehicle group. Clobetasol propionate shampoo is efficacious and safe for acute management and long-term maintenance of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  8. Lost in the Mist: Acute Adrenal Crisis Following Intranasal Fluticasone Propionate Overuse

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Loaiza-Bonilla; Tollin Sullivan; Ryan Kendall Harris

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Acute adrenal crisis in relation to nasal steroid overuse has been reported very scantly in English medical literature and remains an underdiagnosed condition. Case presentation. A 55 year-old male presented with altered mental status, retrograde amnesia, fluid refractory hypotension, abdominal pain, fever, and chest pain. Physical examination revealed amnesia, bradypsychia, tachycardia, decreased muscle tone and hyporeflexia. Overuse of nasal steroid was suspected by history. R...

  9. Cost-effectiveness of fluticasone propionate administered via metered-dose inhaler plus babyhaler spacer in the treatment of asthma in preschool-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Price, M J; Maden, Christian Nicolai;

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) in children aged 12 to 47 months with asthma symptoms. DESIGN: A retrospective economic analysis conducted from the perspective of the Danish health-care system, based on clinical data from a 12-week study...

  10. Effects of a propionic-acid based preservative on storage characteristics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay in large-rectangular bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    For many years, various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, most specifically for use on hays that could not be field-dried to moisture concentrations low enough to reduce or eliminate spontaneous heating during storage. These preservatives are often propionic-acid-bas...

  11. Combination of sodium chlorite and calcium propionate reduces enzymatic browning and microbial population of fresh-cut ‘Granny Smith’ apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissue browning and microbial growth are the main concerns associated with fresh-cut apples. In this study, effects of sodium chlorite (SC) and calcium propionate (CP), individually and combined, on quality and microbial population of apple slices were investigated. ‘Granny Smith’ apple slices, dipp...

  12. The source of inoculum plays a defining role in the development of MEC microbial consortia fed with acetic and propionic acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vianey; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Kang, Dae-Wook; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Buitrón, Germán

    2014-07-20

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used as a downstream process to dark fermentation to further capture electron in volatile fatty acids that remain after fermentation, improving this way the viability of the overall process. Acetic and propionic acid are common products of dark fermentation. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of different initial concentrations of a mixture of acetic and propionic acids on MECs microbial ecology and hydrogen production performance. To link microbial structure and function, we characterized the anode respiring biofilm communities using pyrosequencing and quantitative-PCR. The best hydrogen production rates (265mL/d/Lreactor) were obtained in the first block of experiments by MEC fed with 1500mg/L acetic acid and 250mg/L propionic acid. This reactor presents in the anode biofilm an even distribution of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and Arcobacter was the dominant genera. The above fact also correlated to the highest electron load among all the reactors. It was evidenced that although defined acetic and propionic acid concentrations fed affected the structure of the microbial consortia that developed at the anode, the initial inoculum played a major role in the development of MEC microbial consortia.

  13. Continuous Venovenous Hemodialysis Via Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Pump for Treatment of Hyperammonemia Secondary to Propionic Acidemia in Monochorionic Diamniotic Twin Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Joy X; Feldenberg, L Richard; Abraham, Elizabeth; Sadiq, Farouk; Christensen, Katherine M; Braddock, Stephen R

    2016-08-01

    Late-preterm twins with propionic acidemia developed severe hyperammonemic encephalopathy at 5 days of age. Continuous venovenous hemodialysis was performed successfully for both infants via extracorporeal membrane oxygenation pump, and both rapidly improved. They were taken off continuous venovenous hemodialysis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and discharged with dietary therapy. At 3 years of age, neurodevelopment showed globally delayed milestones.

  14. Evaluation of Pergularia daemia and metformin in the treatment of PCOS in testosterone propionate induced albino wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. POORNIMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of metformin and the combined activity of P. daemia and metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS induced rats. Female albino wistar rats (150- 180 g were injected with Testosterone propionate (TP for the development PCOS. The PCOS induced rats were divided into two groups, one were treated with metformin and the other were treated with the combination of metformin and Pergularia daemia extract over a period of 15 days. The vaginal smear and histological studies proved the combined efficacy of metformin and the P. daemia extract by restoring the estrous cycle and re-establishment of the ovarian morphology. The biochemical and hormonal assays also confirms the same. Thus we conclude that the combined activity of metfromin and P. daemia extract is an effective medicine in treating PCOS than metformin alone.

  15. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for metabolic footprinting of co-cultures of lactic and propionic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honore, Anders H.; Thorsen, Michael; Skov, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Co-cultures of specific lactic and propionic acid bacteria have been shown to have an antagonistic effect against yeast and moulds in dairy systems. In studies of these co-cultures by bioassay-guided fractionation and analysis, numerous compounds have been reported to inhibit yeast and moulds...... could be a potent approach to elucidation of the mechanism. The purpose of this review is to discuss the two pre-requisites for such a study-the compound classes expected in the co-cultures, and on the basis of these, the most suitable analytical technique(s). Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography....... The strategy recommended in this study does not include all compound classes, and suggestions for supplementary methods are listed....

  16. Determination of low-ppt levels of acetate, propionate, and formate in semiconductor-grade deionized water via ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanatta, L E

    2010-08-01

    The goals of this research were the development of a method to determine acetate, propionate, and formate at low part-per-trillion (ppt; w/w) levels in deionized water, and the assessment of sources of variability and contamination associated with the method; both objectives were met. A calibration study involving six replicates of each of four standards (blank, 20, 50, and 80 ppt) resulted in straight-line (with ordinary-least-squares fitting) curves for all analytes. At 95% confidence, the half-widths of the prediction intervals were +/- 30, 14, and 14 ppt for the three analytes, respectively. Much of the acetate and formate seen in blanks was found to originate in the deionized water system itself. For formate, peak heights increased with water temperature.

  17. Conformational analysis of 3-(trimethylsilyl)propionic acid by NMR spectroscopy: an unusual expression of the beta-silyl effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, Richard A; Gerken, James B; Roberts, John D

    2007-08-31

    The rotational freedom of the carbon-carbon single bonds of 1,2-disubstituted ethanes affords the possibility of these compounds existing as a rapidly interconverting mixture of conformers in solution. The conformational preferences of one such compound, 3-(trimethylsilyl)propionic acid, and its anion were studied in water, dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, and toluene with 1H NMR spectroscopy. The conformational preferences were determined from the vicinal proton-proton coupling constants between the hydrogen nuclei of the CH(2)CH(2) group with the aid of the Altona equations to derive the equilibrium anti and gauche percentages of rotamers from the averaged NMR-time scale couplings. Conformational analyses of 4,4-dimethylpentanoic acid and its anion as well as 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethanesulfonate anion were also conducted to compare the relative structural influences on the conformational preferences of silicon and carbon.

  18. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of moderate scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Barber, Kirk; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated in this study the efficacy and safety of an alternate regimen using clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo (CP shampoo) for long-term control of scalp psoriasis. Patients with moderate scalp psoriasis (Global Severity Score [GSS] of 3 on a 0-5 scale) first received CP shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Patients with a GSS shampoo or vehicle twice weekly. When relapse (GSS > 2) occurred, patients received the 4-week daily CP shampoo treatment. Patients who had a GSS shampoo, almost 4 months later than with vehicle (30.5 days;p shampoo (40.3%) than with vehicle (11.6%;p shampoo was also safe during the 7-month study period, without leading to more cases of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression or adverse events compared to vehicle. The alternate treatment regimen with CP shampoo is efficacious and safe for long-term management of moderate scalp psoriasis.

  19. Ethyl 3-[7-(N-acetyl-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamido-3-chloro-2H-indazol-2-yl]propionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoman Kouakou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C21H22ClN3O6S, the fused five- and six-membered ring rings are almost perpendicular to the planes through the atoms forming the acetyl and the propionic ester groups, as indicated by the dihedral angles of 80.3 (2 and 88.3 (7°, respectively. The dihedral angle between the indazole system and the 4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl group is 13.76 (6°. The carbonyl O atom is split over two positions in a 0.60 (5:0.40 (5 ratio. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O and C—H...N interactions into a three-dimensional network.

  20. Metabolic effects of propionate, hexanoate and propionylcarnitine in normoxia, ischaemia and reperfusion. Does an anaplerotic substrate protect the ischaemic myocardium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, K E; Vuorinen, K H; Peuhkurinen, K J; Hassinen, I E

    1994-04-01

    It has been suggested that propionyl-L-carnitine administration to ischaemic hearts facilitates the restoration of cardiac function upon reperfusion, but it is still a matter of dispute whether its effect is conveyed via the metabolic effect of the propionyl moiety, the carnitine moiety or other mechanisms involving membrane receptor interactions. The metabolism of propionylcarnitine involves the formation of succinyl-CoA, which causes an increase in the total amount of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. According to the current paradigm, anaplerosis ensures rapid restoration of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity during reperfusion. To evaluate the contribution of anaplerosis to the protective effect of propionylcarnitine during ischaemia and reperfusion, isolated rat hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer containing 5 mM glucose+insulin (12 IU per litre), to which 1 mM propionate, 0.8 mM hexanoate or 1 mM propionylcarnitine were added. Global 20 or 24 min no-flow ischaemia was followed by 10 min reperfusion. The flavoprotein redox state, myoglobin oxygenation, oxygen consumption and mechanical functioning of the heart were recorded and metabolites determined in freeze-trapped tissue. In parallel experiments, the cellular energy state was studied with phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The addition of 1 mM propionylcarnitine failed to cause an anaplerotic effect, but did bring about an oxidation of flavins, probably due to citrate synthase inhibition. Propionate showed similar but stronger effects and a marked anaplerosis, but still failed to improve the recovery of the heart upon reperfusion. The addition of hexanoate caused marked anaplerosis upon reperfusion and flavin reduction. The results failed to demonstrate that propionylcarnitine had any beneficial effect on the ischaemic myocardium.

  1. Oxidative stress parameters in urine from patients with disorders of propionate metabolism: a beneficial effect of L:-carnitine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Graziela S; Biancini, Giovana B; Mescka, Caroline; Wayhs, Carlos Y; Sitta, Angela; Wajner, Moacir; Vargas, Carmen R

    2012-01-01

    Propionic (PA) and methylmalonic (MMA) acidurias are inherited disorders caused by deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, respectively. Affected patients present acute metabolic crises in the neonatal period and long-term neurological deficits. Treatments of these diseases include a protein restricted diet and L: -carnitine supplementation. L: -Carnitine is widely used in the therapy of these diseases to prevent secondary L: -carnitine deficiency and promote detoxification, and several recent in vitro and in vivo studies have reported antioxidant and antiperoxidative effects of this compound. In this study, we evaluated the oxidative stress parameters, isoprostane and di-tyrosine levels, and the antioxidant capacity, in urine from patients with PA and MMA at the diagnosis, and during treatment with L: -carnitine and protein-restricted diet. We verified a significant increase of isoprostanes and di-tyrosine, as well as a significant reduction of the antioxidant capacity in urine from these patients at diagnosis, as compared to controls. Furthermore, treated patients presented a marked reduction of isoprostanes and di-tyrosine levels in relation to untreated patients. In addition, patients with higher levels of protein and lipid oxidative damage, determined by di-tyrosine and isoprostanes levels, also presented lower urinary concentrations of total and free L: -carnitine. In conclusion, the present results indicate that treatment with low protein diet and L: -carnitine significantly reduces urinary biomarkers of protein and lipid oxidative damage in patients with disorders of propionate metabolism and that L: -carnitine supplementation may be specially involved in this protection.

  2. Validation of an HPLC Analytical Method for the Quantitative/Qualitative Determination of Fluticasone Propionate in Inhalation Particles on Several Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Couto, André R; Cardoso, Daniela Espinha; Cabral-Marques, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    Fluticasone propionate is a highly potent corticosteroid used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. It is a very effective drug, but has the inconvenient factor of being insoluble in water. Cyclodextrins were used to improve this limitation because of their ability to form inclusion complexes with guest drug molecules as well as increase the stability and bioavailability of the drugs. A rapid and simple HPLC method was developed to detect and quantify fluticasone propionate in inhalation particles on several matrices. Liquid chromatography with a UV detector at a wavelength of 236 nm, using a C18 column, was employed in this study. Isocratic elution was employed using a mixture of acetonitrile and water (60:40, v/v). The analytical method validation was performed in accordance with ICH guidelines, which included selectivity, range, linearity, accuracy, detection limit, quantitation limit, precision, robustness, and stability of solutions. This method showed to be selective and specific. Acceptable assay precision and accuracy (100 ± 5.0%) were obtained at 50- 150% of the analytical concentration of fluticasone propionate at the target concentration of 0.060 mg/mL, and good linearity (0.9958) was achieved over a range of 0.03 to 0.09 mg/mL for fluticasone propionate. The proposed HPLC method proved to be reliable. The validation and application of this method can be adopted for determining the fluticasone propionate in: assays, impingers and impactors, diffusion cells, dissolutions, and other tests. In addition, this method can be adapted and used in the pharmaceutical industry for routine analysis.

  3. Lost in the mist: acute adrenal crisis following intranasal fluticasone propionate overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza-Bonilla, Arturo; Sullivan, Tollin; Harris, Ryan Kendall

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Acute adrenal crisis in relation to nasal steroid overuse has been reported very scantly in English medical literature and remains an underdiagnosed condition. Case presentation. A 55 year-old male presented with altered mental status, retrograde amnesia, fluid refractory hypotension, abdominal pain, fever, and chest pain. Physical examination revealed amnesia, bradypsychia, tachycardia, decreased muscle tone and hyporeflexia. Overuse of nasal steroid was suspected by history. Random early morning cortisol level was recognition of this disorder can significantly reduce its morbidity and mortality.

  4. Rapid 2nd-tier test for measurement of 3-OH-propionic and methylmalonic acids on dried blood spots: reducing the false-positive rate for propionylcarnitine during expanded newborn screening by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Malvagia, Sabrina; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Innocenti, Marzia; Donati, Maria Alice; Zammarchi, Enrico

    2007-07-01

    The expansion of newborn screening programs has increased the number of newborns diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism in the presymptomatic phase, but it has also increased the number of costly, stress-producing false-positive results. Because propionylcarnitine (C3) is one of the analytes most frequently responsible for false-positive results, we aimed to develop a rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to identify free methylmalonic (MMA) and 3-OH propionic (3OH-PA) acids in blood spots. We studied newborn screening spots from 250 healthy controls; 124 from infants with abnormal C3, of whom only 5 (4%) were truly affected; 124 from infants with altered isolated methylmalonylcarnitine; and 4 from clinically diagnosed patients. Whole blood was eluted from a 3.2-mm dried blood spot by a CH(3)CN/H(2)O 7:3 and 5 mL/L formic. This extract was injected into a LC-MS/MS equipped with pneumatically assisted electrospray without derivatization. Total analysis time was 5 min per sample. The assays were linear up to 3300 nmol/L for both metabolites. Intra- and interassay imprecision data were 3.6%-8% and 3.1%-6%, respectively, for MMA and 5.2%-20% and 3.6%-17% for 3OH-PA. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 1.95 and 4.2 micromol/L, respectively, for MMA and 8 and 10 micromol/L for 3OH-PA. The recoveries were 92.9%-106.1%. No deterioration was noted on the columns after 500 chromatographic runs. If the new method had been used as a 2nd-tier test for the 124 samples, only the 5 true positives would have been recalled for additional samples, and the positive predictive value would have been 100%. This method has the potential to markedly reduce false-positive results and the associated costs and anxiety. It may also be suitable for diagnosing and routinely monitoring blood spots for methylmalonic aciduria and propionic acidemia.

  5. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  6. Step-down therapy in well-controlled asthmatic patients using salmeterol xinafoate/fluticasone propionate combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiuchi K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kazuya Horiuchi, Keita Kasahara, Yusuke Kuroda, Haruna Morohoshi, Yosuke Hagiwara, Gen Ishii Respiratory Disease Center, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken, Japan Purpose: A combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS and a long-acting β agonist (LABA is the standard treatment for asthmatic patients, and step-down treatment is recommended once control has been achieved. However, little data exist that evaluate the long-term outcomes after step-down treatment. Objective: To compare the long-term outcomes of step-down therapy with ICS/LABA or ICS alone for asthmatic patients who have achieved well-controlled asthma by the ICS (250 µg fluticasone/LABA (50 µg salmeterol combination (SFC, two puffs per day. Patients and methods: We randomized 40 well-controlled patients with asthma receiving SFC (250 µg to two groups; one group of patients received step-down therapy with low-dose SFC (100 µg, two puffs daily and another group of patients received step-down therapy with high-dose fluticasone propionate (FP alone (500 µg, daily. The two groups were monitored over 12 months for changes in asthma control test scores, respiratory function (percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second, maximal expiratory flow rate at 50% of the vital capacity [%FEF50], and maximal expiratory flow rate at 25% of the vital capacity [%FEF25], and the concentration of fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Results: There was no significant difference in the dropout rate between the SFC and FP groups. Low-dose SFC maintained the stability of all parameters over 12 months, whereas the FP group exhibited a rapid 5% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second within 2 months after discontinuation of salmeterol; furthermore, after 10 months, there was a gradual decrease in %FEF50 and %FEF25. Conclusion: This study suggests that a balanced step-down protocol, including both ICS and LABA, is essential in providing long-term stability

  7. Compartmentalization of amino acids in surfactant aggregates - Partitioning between water and aqueous micellar sodium dodecanoate and between hexane and dodecylammonium propionate trapped water in hexane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, J. H.; Nome, F.; Nagyvary, J.

    1975-01-01

    The partitioning of amino acids (glycine, alanine, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, isoleucine, threonine, serine, valine, proline, arginine) in aqueous and nonaqueous micellar systems was studied experimentally. Partitioning from neat hexane into dodecylammonium propionate trapped water in hexane was found to be dependent on both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which implies that the interior of dodecylammonium propionate aggregates is negatively charged and is capable of hydrogen bonding in addition to providing a hydrophobic environment. Unitary free energies of transfer of amino acid side chains from hexane to water were determined and solubilities of amino acids in neat hexane substantiated the amino acid hydrophobicity scale. The relevance of the experiments to prebiotic chemistry was examined.

  8. N-carbamylglutamate Markedly Enhances Ureagenesis in N-acetylglutamate Deficiency and Propionic Acidemia as Measured by Isotopic Incorporation and Blood Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Tuchman, Mendel; Caldovic, Ljubica; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Horyn, Oksana; Nissim, Ilana; Nissim, Itzhak; Korson, Mark; Burton, Barbara; Yudkoff, Marc

    2008-01-01

    N-acetylglutamate (NAG) is an endogenous essential cofactor for conversion of ammonia to urea in the liver. Deficiency of NAG causes hyperammonemia and occurs because of inherited deficiency of its producing enzyme, NAG synthase (NAGS), or interference with its function by short fatty acid derivatives. N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) can ameliorate hyperammonemia from NAGS deficiency and propionic and methylmalonic acidemia. We developed a stable isotope 13C tracer method to measure ureagenesis and...

  9. Metabolic Pathway for Propionate Utilization by Phosphorus-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge: 13C Labeling and In Vivo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Paulo C.; Serafim, Luísa S.; Santos, Margarida M.; Reis, Maria A. M.; Santos, Helena

    2003-01-01

    In vivo 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to study propionate metabolism by activated sludge in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. The fate of label supplied in [3-13C]propionate was monitored in living cells subjected to anaerobic/aerobic cycles. During the anaerobic phase, propionate was converted to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) with the following monomer composition: hydroxyvalerate, 74.2%; hydroxymethylvalerate, 16.9%; hydroxymethylbutyrate, 8.6%; and hydroxybutyrate, 0.3%. The isotopic enrichment in the different carbon atoms of hydroxyvalerate (HV) produced during the first anaerobic stage was determined: HV5, 59%; HV4, 5.0%; HV3, 1.1%; HV2, 3.5%; and HV1, 2.8%. A large proportion of the supplied label ended up on carbon C-5 of HV, directly derived from the pool of propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA), which is primarily labeled on C-3; useful information on the nature of operating metabolic pathways was provided by the extent of labeling on C-1, C-2, and C-4. The labeling pattern on C-1 and C-2 was explained by the conversion of propionyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA via succinyl-CoA and the left branch of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which involves scrambling of label between the inner carbons of succinate. This constitutes solid evidence for the operation of succinate dehydrogenase under anaerobic conditions. The labeling in HV4 is explained by backflux from succinate to propionyl-CoA. The involvement of glycogen in the metabolism of propionate was also demonstrated; moreover, it was shown that the acetyl moiety to the synthesis of PHA was derived preferentially from glycogen. According to the proposed metabolic scheme, the decarboxylation of pyruvate is coupled to the production of hydrogen, and the missing reducing equivalents should be derived from a source other than glycogen metabolism. PMID:12514001

  10. The temperature dependence of the retention index for n-alkyl esters of acetic, propionic, cyclohexanecarboxylic, benzoic and phenylacetic acid on DB-1 and DB-5 capillary columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN Z. MIJIN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the retention index was studied for n-alkyl esters of acetic, propionic, cyclohexanecarboxylic, benzoic and phenylacetic acid on DB-1 and DB-5 capillary columns. The study was performed over various temperature ranges depending on the volatility of the ester. Two linear equations of the temperature dependence of the retention data on the column temperature and its reciprocal as variables were studied. Agood linearity of the retention index versus column temperature was found.

  11. Effects of calcium propionate by different numbers of applications in first week postpartum of dairy cows on hypocalcemia, milk production and reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Kovanlıkaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effects of calcium propionate on hypocalcemia, dry matter intake, body condition score, milk production and reproductive disorders in dairy cows. Twenty four multiparous Holstein cows were sorted by parity, body condition score (BCS in close-up period and season of calving and assigned to one of the three treatments. The cows in treatment 1 (T1 received two drenches at calving and 24h after calving. The cows in treatment 2 (T2 received three drenches at calving, 24h after calving and 7 days after calving. The cows in treatment 3 (T3 were the control. Each drench contained 143g of calcium as calcium propionate (0.68kg. Parameters studied were serum calcium, glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations, dry matter intake (DMI, BCS, milk production (MP, incidence of retained placenta (RP and metritis. Milk fever developed in 5 of 8 cows, in 3 of 8 cows and in 3 of 8 cows in T1, T2 and T3, respectively, at calving. There was no cow with milk fever in T1 and T2 at 4h after second drench (about 28h after calving but 3 of 8 cows in T3 had still milk fever at this time. The cows receiving two drenches recovered from milk fever in a shorter term as compared to the cows in T3. There were no differences among treatments for DMI, BCS, MP, RP, serum glucose and NEFA concentrations during the experimental period. There was no difference for metritis between T1 and T3 but incidence of metritis in T2 was significantly lower as compared to T3 (P<0.05. Two drenches of calcium propionate were beneficial in treating milk fever and three drenches of calcium propionate were considered to have had a preventive effect for metritis.

  12. A facile synthesis of novel optically active R,R-2-(4-(2-(4-(5-chloro-3-halo-pyridin-2-yloxy)-phenoxy)-propionyloxy)-phenoxy)-propionic acid esters using cyanuric chloride as potential herbicide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Tajik; Akbar Dadras; Shokufeh Aghabeygi

    2011-01-01

    A facile method for the synthesis of a new series of R,R-2-(4-(2-(4-(5-chloro-3-halopyridin-2-yloxy)-phenoxy)-propionyloxy)-phenoxy)-propionic acid ester derivatives containing a halo-substituted pyridine carrying two R,R chiral centers from (R)-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propionic acid, halopyridines and alcohols using base/cyanuric chloride/catalyst system is reported. Their herbicidal activities against grass weeds and crops selectivity were evaluated.

  13. The voluntary intake of hay and silage by lactating cows in response to ruminal infusion of acetate or propionate, or both, with or without distension of the rumen by a balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanya, J N; Anil, M H; Forbes, J M

    1993-05-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that negative feedback signals from abdominal receptors are integrated in an additive manner in the control of voluntary food intake, cows with rumen fistulas were given intraruminal infusions of sodium acetate or sodium propionate, or both, with or without distension of the rumen by balloon. Intakes were monitored during the 3 h experimental period and for 2 h after and samples of rumen fluid were taken for estimation of short-chain fatty acid concentrations and osmolality. Six cows in mid-lactation were fed on hay and concentrates and given, into the rumen, 5.5 mol sodium acetate, 5.2 mol sodium propionate and 7.5 l of distension. Compared with the control (water infusion), neither acetate, propionate nor distension significantly depressed hay intake when given separately. When given in combination, however, the following significantly depressed intake during the 3 h treatment period: propionate + distension, acetate + distension, acetate + propionate + distension. Seven cows in early lactation were fed on silage and concentrates and given, into the rumen, 9.0 mol sodium acetate, 4.0 mol sodium propionate and 10.0 litres of distension. Again, none of the three given alone depressed silage intake to a significant extent during the 3 h treatment period, whereas the following combinations had a significant effect: propionate + distension, acetate + distension, acetate + propionate + distension. Basal rumen osmolalities were similar for the two types of feed but infusion of the sodium salts caused a very much greater increase with silage than with hay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Soil application of dinitroaniline and arylphenoxy propionic herbicides influences the activities of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amal Chandra; Nayek, Hemanta; Chakravarty, Arunabha

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of two systemic herbicides, viz. pendimethalin (a dinitroaniline) and quizalofop (an arylphenoxy propionic acid) at their recommended field application rates (1.0 kg and 50 g active ingredient per hectare, respectively), either separately or in a combination, on growth and activities of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in relation to their effects on biochemical transformations and availability of organic carbon, total and available phosphorus in a Typic Haplustept soil of West Bengal, India. Application of herbicides, in general, significantly stimulated the growth and activities of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms which increased microbial biomass resulting in higher accumulation of oxidizable organic carbon, total and available phosphorus in soil as compared to untreated control. The combined application of both the herbicides highly stimulated the proliferations of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, while pendimethalin alone significantly accentuated phosphate-solubilizing capacities 36.4% as compared to untreated control and retained highest amount of total phosphorus due to greater microbial activities in soil. The separate application of quizalofop also manifested an induced effect on the proliferations of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and accounted significant amounts of organic carbon and available phosphorus in the soil system. The results of the present study thus indicated that the cited herbicides at their field application rates can be safely used to eradicate weeds in the crop fields.

  15. SBA-15 mesoporous material modified with APTES as the carrier for 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Michał; Łaniecki, Marek

    2012-07-01

    SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) was used as the carrier for anti-inflammatory drug: 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid - ketoprofen. The surface of SBA-15 containing free silanol groups was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane via post-synthetic reaction. Functionalization of the carrier with basic aminopropyl groups resulted in an ionic interaction with acidic ketoprofen. The samples of carriers and carrier-drug complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, TG, N2 adsorption, FTIR, DRUV spectroscopies and an in vitro drug release test. The adsorption of ketoprofen on modified mesoporous matrix was proportional to the amount of introduced aminopropyl groups. The maximum content of deposited drug in modified SBA-15 was close to 20 wt.%. After drug adsorption the reduction of BET surface area, pore volume and pore diameter of non-modified SBA-15 and aminopropyl-modified SBA-15 after drug adsorption were observed while the hexagonal array of siliceous matrix was well preserved. The release profiles of the aminopropyl-modified drug-containing SBA-15 exhibited prolonged release of ketoprofen in applied media. Tests performed in acidic solution (pH 1.2) showed the best pharmaceutical availability.

  16. Formate, acetate, and propionate as substrates for sulfate reduction in sub-arctic sediments of Southwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Jaussi, Marion; Røy, Hans;

    2015-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are key intermediates in the anaerobic mineralization of organic matter in marine sediments. We studied the role of VFAs in the carbon and energy turnover in the sulfate reduction zone of sediments from the sub-arctic Godthåbsfjord (SW Greenland) and the adjacent...... continental shelf in the NE Labrador Sea. VFA porewater concentrations were measured by a new two-dimensional ion chromatography-mass spectrometry method that enabled the direct analysis of VFAs without sample pretreatment. VFA concentrations were low and surprisingly constant (4–6 μmol L−1 for formate...... to −16 kJ (mol formate)−1, −68 to −31 kJ (mol acetate)−1, and −124 to −65 kJ (mol propionate)−1. Thus, ΔGr is apparently not determining the in-situ VFA concentrations directly. However, at the bottom of the sulfate zone of the shelf station, acetoclastic sulfate reduction might operate at its energetic...

  17. Long-term sex-biased correction of circulating propionic acidemia disease markers by adeno-associated virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Adam J; Collard, Renata; Kraus, Jan P; Matern, Dietrich; Barry, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Propionic academia (PA) occurs because of mutations in the PCCA or PCCB genes encoding the two subunits of propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a pivotal enzyme in the breakdown of certain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids. There is no cure for PA, but dietary protein restriction and liver transplantation can attenuate its symptoms. We show here that a single intravenous injection of adeno-associated virus 2/8 (AAV8) or AAVrh10 expressing PCCA into PA hypomorphic mice decreased systemic propionylcarnitine and methyl citrate for up to 1.5 years. However, long-term phenotypic correction was always better in male mice. AAV-mediated PCCA expression was similar in most tissues in males and females at early time points and differed only in the liver. Over 1.5 years, luciferase and PCCA expression remained elevated in cardiac tissue for both sexes. In contrast, transgene expression in the liver and skeletal muscles of female, but not male, mice waned—suggesting that these tissues were major sinks for systemic phenotypic correction. These data indicate that single systemic intravenous therapy by AAV vectors can mediate long-term phenotype correction for PA. However, tissue-specific loss of expression in females reduces efficacy when compared with males. Whether similar sex-biased AAV effects occur in human gene therapy remains to be determined.

  18. The use of sourdough fermented by antifungal LAB to reduce the amount of calcium propionate in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, L A M; Dal Bello, F; Arendt, E K

    2008-07-31

    Addition of sourdough is a common practice in the bakery industry to improve, among other quality parameters, the shelf life of bread. In this study, sourdough fermented by antifungal Lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of common bread spoilage fungi. In both in vitro and sourdough wheat bread system, the antifungal sourdoughs significantly affected the outgrowth of Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum, or Penicillium expansum spores, however on wheat bread outgrowth of Penicillium roqueforti spores was not affected. In an attempt to reduce the amounts of chemical additives in bread, the antifungal sourdoughs were used in combination with calcium propionate (CAP) and possible synergistic effects were evaluated. Presence of 3000 ppm CAP in the bread did not affect the outgrowth of P. roqueforti, whereas outgrowth of the other fungi was retarded. A strong synergistic effect was observed when CAP and antifungal sourdoughs were combined into the bread formulation, and outgrowth of P. roqueforti was affected. The use of reduced CAP amount (1000 ppm) showed significant inhibition only when antifungal sourdough was added. Remarkably, the increase in shelf life achieved was higher than that obtained using 3000 ppm of CAP alone. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly show that the addition of antifungal sourdough has the potential to reduce the levels of chemical additives needed in the bakery industry to ensure the microbiological safety of bread.

  19. Twelve-month safety and efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate in children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Allen, David; Milanowski, Janusz;

    2004-01-01

    : There was no significant difference in mean adjusted growth rates between the 2 groups: 84.0 mm/year in the FP group versus 86.4 mm/year in the SCG group (difference FP-SCG: -2.4 mm/year; 95% confidence interval: -6.6 to 1.8). Growth comparisons were independent of age, gender, previous use of steroid, or whether measured......, exacerbations, and requirements for oral steroid treatment and more symptom-free days and days without use of rescue treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve months of treatment with inhaled FP (100 microg twice daily) in preschool children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheeze has no effect on growth and no other......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the 12-month safety and efficacy of fluticasone propionate (FP) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in children aged 1 to 3 years with mild to moderate recurrent wheeze. METHODS: The study was a randomized, parallel-group, open-label multicenter study of 625 children...

  20. Photochemical reaction of 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid (ketoprofen) with basic amino acids and dipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tadashi; Shinoda, Mio; Osanai, Yohei; Isozaki, Tasuku

    2013-08-22

    Photoreaction of 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid (ketoprofen, KP) with basic amino acids (histidine, lysine, and arginine) and dipeptides (carnosine and anserine) including a histidine moiety in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) has been investigated with transient absorption spectroscopy. With UV irradiation KP(-) gave rise to a carbanion through a decarboxylation reaction, and the carbanion easily abstracted a proton from the surrounding molecule to yield a 3-ethylbenzophenone ketyl biradical (EBPH). The dipeptides as well as the basic amino acids were found to accelerate the proton transfer reaction whereas alanine and glycine had no effect on the reaction, revealing that these amino acids having a protonated side chain act as a proton donor. The formation quantum yield of EBPH was estimated to be fairly large by means of an actinometrical method with benzophenone, and the bimolecular reaction rate constant for the proton transfer between the carbanion and the protonated basic amino acids or the protonated dipeptides was successfully determined. It has become apparent that the bimolecular reaction rate constant for the proton transfer depended on the acid dissociation constant for the side chain of the amino acids for the first time. This reaction mechanism was interpreted by difference of the heat of reaction for each basic amino acid based on the thermodynamical consideration. These results strongly suggest that the side chain of the basic amino acid residue in protein should play an important role for photochemistry of KP in vivo.

  1. Dietary sodium propionate improved performance, mucosal and humoral immune responses in Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zoheiri, Fazel; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the efficiency of graded levels (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%) of sodium propionate (SP) on Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry growth performance, skin mucus immune response as well as humoral immune parameters. Fish were divided into 5 groups repeated in triplicates and each group were fed on experimental diets for 7 weeks. Growth performance parameters, skin mucus total immunoglobulin (Ig) level, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as the non-specific humoral immune response (total Ig, lysozyme, alternative haemolytic complement activity (ACH50) were determined at the end of feeding trial. The results showed that supplementation of diet with 0.25% SP significantly improved growth performance compared control group (P  0.05), except 0.25% SP treatment which was significantly higher than those in other groups (P < 0.05). These results revealed that inclusion of administration of 0.25% and 0.5% SP in early stage of the Caspian white fish culture could improve mucosal and non-specific immune responses as well as performance.

  2. Combined fluticasone propionate and salmeterol reduces RSV infection more effectively than either of them alone in allergen-sensitized mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledford Dennis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection is the major cause of bronchiolitis in infants and is a risk factor for the development of asthma. Allergic asthmatics are more susceptible to RSV infection and viral exacerbation. Methods Since the effectiveness of corticosteroids in treating RSV infection has been controversial, we tested fluticasone propionate (FP and salmeterol (Sal alone versus FP plus Sal (FPS on RSV-induced airway inflammation. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA and infected with RSV. Following infection they were treated with FP, Sal, or FPS intranasally and airway hyperreactivity (AHR, inflammation and RSV titers were examined. Results The group treated with FPS showed significantly lower AHR compared to the group treated with FP or Sal alone. The group treated with FP alone showed slightly decreased (non-significant AHR compared to controls. Treatment with FPS resulted in significant decreases in the percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in lung pathology compared to FP or Sal. FP alone decreased eosinophils but not neutrophils or lymphocytes, while Sal alone decreased eosinophils and neutrophils but not lymphocytes. FPS treatment of mice infected with RSV in the absence of allergen sensitization resulted in a 50% decrease of RSV titer in the lung and a reduction in neutrophils compared to FP or Sal. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that fluticasone in combination with salmeterol is a more effective treatment for decreasing airway hyperreactivity and inflammation than either of them alone in allergen-sensitized, RSV-infected mice.

  3. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

  4. Effect of applying lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of oats-common vetch mixed silage on the Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Gang; Chen, Lei; Li, Junfeng; Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, Masataka; Shao, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of oats-common vetch mixed silage by using a small-scale fermentation system on the Tibetan plateau. (i) An inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum) (L) or (ii) propionic acid (P) or (iii) inoculant + propionic acid (PL) were used as additives. After fermenting for 60 days, silos were opened and the aerobic stability was tested for the following 15 days. The results showed that all silages were well preserved with low pH and NH3 -N, and high lactic acid content and V-scores. L and PL silages showed higher (P lactic acid and crude protein content than the control silage. P silage inhibited lactic acid production. Under aerobic conditions, L silage had similar yeast counts as the control silage (> 10(5) cfu/g fresh matter (FM)); however, it numerically reduced aerobic stability for 6 h. P and PL silages showed fewer yeasts ( 360 h). The result suggested that PL is the best additive as it could not only improved fermentation quality, but also aerobic stability of oats-common vetch mixed silage on the Tibetan plateau.

  5. Effects of injection of acetic acid and propionic acid for total phosphorus removal at high temperature in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, C Y; Kwon, K H; Kim, S W; Min, K S; Lee, T U; Park, D J

    2014-01-01

    In summer, wastewater treatment plant total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency is low in South Korea. The reason is because of high temperatures or significant fluctuation of inflow characteristics caused by frequent rainfall. Hence, this study tried to raise TP removal efficiency by injecting fixed external carbon sources in real sewage. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) compete to occupy microorganisms at high temperature. Propionate is known to restrain GAOs. Thus, acetate and propionate were chosen as the external carbon source in this study to find out the suitable volume and ratio of carbon source which ensured the dominance of PAOs. An external carbon source was supplied in the anaerobic reactor of the biological phosphorus removal process at high temperature (above 25 °C). TP removal efficiency was improved by injecting an external carbon source compared to that without an external carbon source. Also, it remained relatively stable when injecting an external carbon source, despite the variation in temperature. TP removal efficiency was the highest when injecting acetate and propionate in the proportion of 2:1 (total concentration as chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 12 mg/L in influent).

  6. Application of calcium propionate in animal production%丙酸钙及其在动物生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷燕; 李晨博; 曾晔临; 王恬

    2011-01-01

    丙酸钙是一种新型饲料添加剂,近年来在饲料生产、动物生产中的应用越来越广泛.作为一种有机酸盐,丙酸钙不仅作为防腐剂,也常常作为酸化剂在饲料工业中应用,对预防疾病与提高动物生产性能发挥了积极的作用.文中综述了丙酸钙的理化性质与功用,对反刍动物产奶量、消化代谢与代谢疾病预防的影响及其在家禽生产中的应用.%Calcium propionate is a new feed additive which is applied increasingly widely in feed production and animal feeding. As a kind of organic acid salt, calcium propionate is not only used as antiseptic, but also often applied to feed industry, which develops an important role in the disease prevention and improving animal production function. This paper reviews calcium propionate's physicochemical property, function and influence on milk production, digestibility and metabolic disease prevention of ruminant animals.

  7. Purification of Peptide Components including Melittin from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Chon Choi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was conducted to carry out Purification of Melittin and other peptide components from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Methods : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. Results : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. The fractions obtained from gel filtration chromatography was analyzed by using SDS-PAGE and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The melittin obtained from the gel filtration contained residual amount of phospholipase A2 and a protein with molecular weight of 6,000. The contaminating proteins were removed by the second gel filtration chromatography. Conclusion : Gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are useful to separate peptide components including melittin from bee venom.

  8. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin D Couch

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis. However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1 an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2 a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3 a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4 a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5 a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6 decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  9. Comparison of lactate, formate, and propionate as hydrogen donors for the reductive dehalogenation of trichloroethene in a continuous-flow column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mohammad F.; Marshall, Ian P. G.; Behrens, Sebastian; Spormann, Alfred M.; Semprini, Lewis

    2010-04-01

    A continuous-flow column study was conducted to analyze the reductive dehalogenation of trichloroethene (TCE) with aquifer material with high content of iron oxides. The column was bioaugmented with the Point Mugu (PM) culture, which is a mixed microbial enrichment culture capable of completely transforming TCE to ethene (ETH). We determined whether lactate, formate, or propionate fermentation resulted in more effective dehalogenation. Reductive dehalogenation, fermentation, and sulfate, Fe(III), and Mn(IV) reduction were all exhibited within the column. Different steady-states of dehalogenation were achieved based on the concentration of substrates added, with effective transformation to ETH obtained when ample electron donor equivalents were provided. Most of the metabolic reducing equivalents were channeled to sulfate, Fe(III), and Mn(IV) reduction. When similar electron reducing equivalents were added, the most effective dehalogenation was achieved with formate, with 14% of the electron equivalents going towards dehalogenation reactions, compared to 6.5% for lactate and 9.6% for propionate. Effective dehalogenation was maintained over 1000 days of column operation. Over 90% of electron equivalents added could be accounted for by the different electron accepting processes in the column, with 50% associated with soluble and precipitated Fe(II) and Mn(II). Bulk Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction was rather associated with lactate and propionate addition than formate addition. Sulfate reduction was a competing electron acceptor reaction with all three electron donors. DNA was extracted from solid coupon samples obtained during the course of the experiment and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and quantitative PCR. Lactate and propionate addition resulted in a significant increase in Geobacter, Spirochaetes, and Desulfitobacterium phylotypes relative to " Dehalococcoides" when compared to formate addition. Results from the molecular biological analyses support

  10. In vitro metabolism of beclomethasone dipropionate, budesonide, ciclesonide, and fluticasone propionate in human lung precision-cut tissue slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Robyn

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS may be affected by the metabolism of the drug in the target organ. We investigated the in vitro metabolism of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP, budesonide (BUD, ciclesonide (CIC, and fluticasone propionate (FP in human lung precision-cut tissue slices. CIC, a new generation ICS, is hydrolyzed by esterases in the upper and lower airways to its pharmacologically active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC. Methods Lung tissue slices were incubated with BDP, BUD, CIC, and FP (initial target concentration of 25 μM for 2, 6, and 24 h. Cellular viability was assessed using adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and protein synthesis in lung slices. Metabolites and remaining parent compounds in the tissue samples were analyzed by HPLC with UV detection. Results BDP was hydrolyzed to the pharmacologically active metabolite beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (BMP and, predominantly, to inactive beclomethasone (BOH. CIC was hydrolyzed initially to des-CIC with a slower rate compared to BDP. A distinctly smaller amount (approximately 10-fold less of fatty acid esters were formed by BMP (and/or BOH than by BUD or des-CIC. The highest relative amounts of fatty acid esters were detected for BUD. For FP, no metabolites were detected at any time point. The amount of drug-related material in lung tissue (based on initial concentrations at 24 h was highest for CIC, followed by BUD and FP; the smallest amount was detected for BDP. Conclusion The in vitro metabolic pathways of the tested ICS in human lung tissue were differing. While FP was metabolically stable, the majority of BDP was converted to inactive polar metabolites. The formation of fatty acid conjugates was confirmed for BMP (and/or BOH, BUD, and des-CIC.

  11. Improved production of propionic acid in Propionibacterium jensenii via combinational overexpression of glycerol dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Zhuge, Xin; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chen, Rachel R; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Microbial production of propionic acid (PA), an important chemical building block used as a preservative and chemical intermediate, has gained increasing attention for its environmental friendliness over traditional petrochemical processes. In previous studies, we constructed a shuttle vector as a useful tool for engineering Propionibacterium jensenii, a potential candidate for efficient PA synthesis. In this study, we identified the key metabolites for PA synthesis in P. jensenii by examining the influence of metabolic intermediate addition on PA synthesis with glycerol as a carbon source under anaerobic conditions. We also further improved PA production via the overexpression of the identified corresponding enzymes, namely, glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarate hydratase (FUM). Compared to those in wild-type P. jensenii, the activities of these enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.91- ± 0.17- to 8.12- ± 0.37-fold higher. The transcription levels of the corresponding enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.85- ± 0.19- to 8.07- ± 0.63-fold higher than those in the wild type. The coexpression of GDH and MDH increased the PA titer from 26.95 ± 1.21 g/liter in wild-type P. jensenii to 39.43 ± 1.90 g/liter in the engineered strains. This study identified the key metabolic nodes limiting PA overproduction in P. jensenii and further improved PA titers via the coexpression of GDH and MDH, making the engineered P. jensenii strain a potential industrial producer of PA.

  12. Effects of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype and Tissue-Specific Expression on Circulating Biomarkers of Propionic Acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Adam J.; Hillestad, Matthew L.; Matern, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Propionic acidemia (PA) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). This enzyme is composed of six PCCA and six PCCB subunits and mediates a critical step in catabolism of odd chain fatty acids and certain amino acids. Current treatment options for PA are limited to stringent dietary restriction of protein consumption and some patients undergo elective liver transplantation. We previously generated a hypomorphic model of PA, designated Pcca−/−(A138T), with 2% of wild-type enzyme activity that mimics many aspects of the human disease. In this study, we used the differing tissue tropisms of adeno-associated virus (AAV) to probe the ability of liver or muscle-directed gene therapy to treat systemic aspects of this disease that affects many cell types. Systemic therapy with muscle-biased AAV1, liver-biased AAV8, and broadly tropic AAVrh10 mediated significant biochemical corrections in circulating propionylcarnitine (C3) and methyl citrate by all vectors. The innate tissue bias of AAV1 and AAV8 gene expression was made more specific by the use of muscle-specific muscle creatine kinase (specifically MCK6) and hepatocyte-specific transthyretin (TTR) promoters, respectively. Under these targeted conditions, both vectors mediated significant long-term correction of circulating metabolites, demonstrating that correction of muscle and likely other tissue types in addition to liver is necessary to fully correct pathology caused by PA. Liver-specific AAV8-TTR-PCCA mediated better correction than AAV1-MCK-PCCA. These data suggest that targeted gene therapy may be a viable alternative to liver transplantation for PA. They also demonstrate the effects of tissue-specific and broad gene therapy on a cell autonomous systemic genetic disease. PMID:25046265

  13. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of undissociated lactic, acetic, citric and propionic acid for Listeria monocytogenes under conditions relevant to cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemmenhove, Ellen; van Valenberg, Hein J F; Zwietering, Marcel H; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2016-09-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of undissociated lactic acid were determined for six different Listeria monocytogenes strains at 30 °C and in a pH range of 4.2-5.8. Small increments in pH and acid concentrations were used to accurately establish the growth/no growth limits of L. monocytogenes for these acids. The MICs of undissociated lactic acid in the pH range of 5.2-5.8 were generally higher than at pH 4.6 for the different L. monocytogenes strains. The average MIC of undissociated lactic acid was 5.0 (SD 1.5) mM in the pH range 5.2-5.6, which is relevant to Gouda cheese. Significant differences in MICs of undissociated lactic acid were found between strains of L. monocytogenes at a given pH, with a maximum observed level of 9.0 mM. Variations in MICs were mostly due to strain variation. In the pH range 5.2-5.6, the MICs of undissociated lactic acid were not significantly different at 12 °C and 30 °C. The average MICs of undissociated acetic acid, citric acid, and propionic acid were 19.0 (SD 6.5) mM, 3.8 (SD 0.9) mM, and 11.0 (SD 6.3) mM, respectively, for the six L. monocytogenes strains tested in the pH range 5.2-5.6. Variations in MICs of these organic acids for L. monocytogenes were also mostly due to strain variation. The generated data contribute to improved predictions of growth/no growth of L. monocytogenes in cheese and other foods containing these organic acids.

  14. Short-term outcome of propionic aciduria treated at presentation with N-carbamylglutamate: a retrospective review of four patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Sébastien; Lambert, Marie; Karalis, Aspasia; Melancon, Serge; Russell, Laura; Braverman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been reported to decrease ammonia levels in patients with propionic aciduria (PA) and methylmalonic aciduria (MMA), but reports on clinical outcomes remain scant. Here, we report a retrospective series of four patients with neonatal PA treated with NCG at presentation. Patients presented between 2 and 9 days of age and peak plasma ammonia ranged from 524 to 1,572 μM. Patients received bolus (30-200 mg/kg) and sustaining (115-300 mg/kg per day) doses of NCG in addition to a standard treatment regimen that included ammonia scavenger drugs. Ammonia levels decreased significantly in three of the four cases within 2 h after administration of NCG and fell below 100 μM in all within 12-29 h. Two patients received NCG (bolus 200 mg/kg) while ammonia was above 500 μM (740 and 1,572) and their levels fell below 500 μM by 4 and 8 h post-treatment, respectively. Outcomes of these NGC-treated patients were not improved over previously reported PA patients who did not receive NCG: two died during the initial episode and one after his third metabolic decompensation at 46 days. The survivor is now 3 years old and has a well-controlled seizure disorder and a mild developmental delay mostly in language. We conclude that despite a trial of NCG and a rapid fall in plasma ammonia, the short-term outcome of these patients was not improved.

  15. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to propionic acid revisited-Does psychosocial stress interfere with distractive effects in volunteers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacharra, Marlene; Schäper, Michael; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; van Thriel, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Local irritants stimulate the nervous system via chemosensory pathways that trigger cognitive distraction, subjective complaints about impaired health, and physiological defense reflexes (e.g. eye-blinks). At workplaces and in the environment chemical exposures often co-occur with psychosocial stress. This study investigated if stress modulates adverse effects of exposure to the local irritant and malodorant propionic acid (PA). Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (false negative feedback+salient surveillance) or control group. In a cross-over design, both groups were exposed for 4h to PA in concentrations of 0.3 and 0-20ppm (time-weighted average=10ppm). In the experimental group, the stress protocol induced moderate psychosocial stress as indicated by salivary cortisol and subjective responses. Despite concentration-dependent increases in chemosensory perceptions and symptoms, the level of exposure to PA had no impact upon the results of four out of six neurobehavioral tests. In the sustained attention test, there was a significant increase in error rates that corresponded to the exposure levels. However, a concentration-dependent impairment of spatial working memory and an adverse increase in eye-blink frequency were restricted to the control group. Stressed participants had shorter simple reaction times and high eye-blink frequency irrespective of exposure suggesting enhanced alertness. Psychosocial stress increased complaints, ocular irritation and unspecific symptoms at the end of the 0.3ppm exposure to a level that was comparable with that in the control group during exposure to 0-20ppm. Results indicate that the adverse effects of a local irritant and psychosocial stress are non-additive.

  16. Degradation of fructans and production of propionic acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are enhanced by shortage of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eAdamberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by the catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae, two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (DP > 3. Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h, followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of D-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will be studied in

  17. Degradation of Fructans and Production of Propionic Acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are Enhanced by the Shortage of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Signe; Tomson, Katrin; Vija, Heiki; Puurand, Marju; Kabanova, Natalja; Visnapuu, Triinu; Jõgi, Eerik; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory) and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae), two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 3). Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h), followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of d-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW) occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW) of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr, and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will

  18. Retinyl Propionate and Climbazole Combination Demonstrates Clinical Improvement to the Appearance of Hyperpigmentation and Deep Wrinkling with Minimal Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stacy; Adamus, Jean; Chiang, Chung-Yi; Covell, Edwin; O'Leary, Jaime; Lee, Jian-Ming

    2017-07-22

    To evaluate a combination of retinyl propionate and climbazole (RPC) compared to 0.1% retinol for its efficacy, tolerance and aging appearance. Forty-five healthy Caucasian females, ages 40-70, with moderately photodamaged facial skin, were recruited for a 16 week randomized, double-blind, IRB approved facial study. The efficacy of RPC treatment was compared to 0.1% retinol, in the same product base formulation, with twice daily, split-face product application. Changes in overall photodamage, fine lines and wrinkles, pigmentation and irritation were visually evaluated and measured by instrumentation. Subjective appraisal of efficacy was self-assessed from images where subjects were blinded to treatment and time point. Irritancy potential was also evaluated in a 5 day randomized, double-blind, IRB approved patch study. Treatment with RPC resulted in significant (p<0.05) improvement in aging attributes compared to 0.1% retinol treatment, with minimal irritation. More than 50% of subjects showed improvement to deep wrinkles in the crow's feet area after 5 weeks of product application, and continued improvement to deep wrinkles was observed throughout the course of the study. Similarly, improvement was observed for the appearance of lines and wrinkles in the nasolabial fold (NLF) and for mottled hyperpigmentation. The results from subjective self-assessment confirmed in vivo clinical assessments. In a separate patch study, significantly less irritation was observed with the RPC product as compared to the 0.1% retinol control product. RPC delivered significant skin antiaging benefits comparable or greater than 0.1% retinol, with minimal irritation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvement of airflow limitation by fluticasone propionate/salmeterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: what is the specific marker?

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    Keiichiro eAkamatsu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS/inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA combination drugs are widely used for the long-term management of COPD. However, COPD is a heterogeneous condition and treatment with ICS is associated with a higher risk of pneumonia. The identification of a specific marker for predicting the efficacy of ICS/LABA on pulmonary function would be useful in the treatment of COPD.Methods: Fourteen COPD patients receiving tiotropium therapy participated consecutively. The relationship between the baseline exhaled nitric oxide (FENO levels as well as serum markers and changes in pulmonary function by fluticasone propionate (FP/salmeterol (SAL were analyzed.Results: FP/SAL therapy significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, and the third phase slope of the single nitrogen washout curve (ΔN2 as well as the FENO level. The baseline FENO levels and positive specific IgE (atopy+ were significantly associated with airway obstructive changes assessed by FEV1 and ΔN2. A baseline FENO level > 35 ppb yielded 80.0 % sensitivity and 66.7 % specificity for identifying the subjects with significant improvement in FEV1 (greater than 200 mL. An atopy+ yielded 60.0% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for an improvement in FEV1. When combined with FENO > 35 ppb and atopy+, it showed 40% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity for FEV1 improvement. Alternatively, COPD subjects with FENO ≤ 35 ppb and atopy- did not show significant improvement in FEV1. Conclusions: Combining FENO and specific IgE may be a useful marker for predicting the response to ICS/LABA on airflow limitation in COPD.

  20. Simultaneous determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in dried blood spots: Second-tier LC-MS/MS assay for newborn screening of propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sylvia; Baráth, Ákos; Fingerhut, Ralph; Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Kölker, Stefan; Hoffmann, Georg F.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Increased propionylcarnitine levels in newborn screening are indicative for a group of potentially severe disorders including propionic acidemia (PA), methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders (MMACBL). This alteration is relatively non-specific, resulting in the necessity of confirmation and differential diagnosis in subsequent tests. Thus, we aimed to develop a multiplex approach for concurrent determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid from the same dried blood spot (DBS) as in primary screening (second-tier test). We also set out to validate the method using newborn and follow-up samples of patients with confirmed PA or MMACBL. Methods The assay was developed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and clinically validated with retrospective analysis of DBS samples from PA or MMACBL patients. Results Reliable determination of all three analytes in DBSs was achieved following simple and fast (<20 min) sample preparation without laborious derivatization or any additional pipetting steps. The method clearly distinguished the pathological and normal samples and differentiated between PA and MMACBL in all stored newborn specimens. Methylcitric acid was elevated in all PA samples; 3-hydroxypropionic acid was also high in most cases. Methylmalonic acid was increased in all MMACBL specimens; mostly together with methylcitric acid. Conclusions A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry assay allowing simultaneous determination of the biomarkers 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in DBSs has been developed. The assay can use the same specimen as in primary screening (second-tier test) which may reduce the need for repeated blood sampling. The presented preliminary findings suggest that this method can reliably differentiate patients with PA and MMACBL in newborn screening. The validated assay is being evaluated prospectively in a pilot

  1. 脉冲电场对丙酸乙醇酯化反应影响%Effect of pulse electric field on esterification of propionic acid and ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志荣; 曾新安; 于淑娟

    2013-01-01

    通过脉冲电场(PEF)对丙酸乙醇酯化反应的强化,研究了脉冲电场对丙酸乙酯含量、反应速率常数、活化能的影响采用气相色谱分析丙酸乙酯含量,结果表明,脉冲电场促进了酯化反应丙酸乙酯的含量和反应速率常数随着PEF场强的增加而增大;实验条件下的丙酸乙醇酯化反应为二级反应,当PEF场强为0、6.6、13.3、20.0kV/cm时,活化能分别为77.05、72.60、62.85、62.49k J/mol.%The effects of pulse electric field(PEF) on ethyl propionate concention,rate constant and activation energy were studied in this paper. The ethyl propionate concention was analyzed using a gas chromatography system. The results indicate that esterification could be promoted by PEF treatment under appropriate condition. The higher the PEF intensity applied,the higher the ethyl propionate concention and rate constant were. The reaction order was 2. When PEF intensity were 0,6.6,13.3,20.0 kV/cm,it was calculated that the activation energy for the esterification was 77.05,72.60,62.85,62.49 kJ/mol,respectively.

  2. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control, molasses (M, propionic acid (P, and molasses+propionic acid (PM, in laboratory silos (250 mL and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN, and high lactic acid (LA content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM, however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM (p<0.05 and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage.

  3. Sulfate addition as an effective method to improve methane fermentation performance and propionate degradation in thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge with AnMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Yu-You; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Xiaochang; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sulfate on propionate degradation and higher organic loading rate (OLR) achievement in a thermophilic AnMBR for 373days using coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge (WAS) as the co-substrate. Without the addition of sulfate, the anaerobic system failed at an OLR of 14.6g-COD/L/d, with propionate accumulating to above 2.23g-COD/L, and recovery by an alkalinity supplement was not successful. After sulfate was added into substrates at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 200:1 to 350:1, biogas production increased proportionally with OLR increasing from 4.06 to 15.2g-COD/L/d. Propionic acid was maintained at less than 100mg-COD/L due to the effective conversion of propionic acid to methane after the sulfate supplement was added. The long-term stable performance of the AnMBR indicated that adding sulfate was beneficial for the degradation of propionate and achieving a higher OLR under the thermophilic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence of glucocorticoids discharged from a sewage treatment plant in Japan and the effects of clobetasol propionate exposure on the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kei; Sato, Kentaro; Shibano, Takazumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Go; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    The present study evaluated the environmental risks to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) posed by glucocorticoids present in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. To gather information on the seasonal variations in glucocorticoid concentration, the authors sampled the effluent of a Japanese STP every other week for 12 mo. Six of 9 selected glucocorticoids were detected in the effluent, with clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate detected at the highest concentrations and frequencies. The present study's results indicated that effluent glucocorticoid concentration may depend on water temperature, which is closely related to the removal efficiency of the STP or to seasonal variations in the public's use of glucocorticoids. In a separate experiment, to clarify whether glucocorticoids in environmental water increase susceptibility to bacterial infection in fish, the authors examined the responses to bacterial infection (Aeromonas veronii) of common carp exposed to clobetasol propionate. Clobetasol propionate exposure did not affect bacterial infection-associated mortality. In fish infected with A. veronii but not exposed to clobetasol propionate, head kidney weight and number of leukocytes in the head kidney were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas these effects were not observed in infected fish exposed to clobetasol. This suggests that clobetasol propionate alleviated bacterial infection-associated inflammation. Together, these results indicate that susceptibility to bacterial infection in common carp is not affected by exposure to glucocorticoids at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  5. Generation and characterization of a human iPSC line from a patient with propionic acidemia due to defects in the PCCA gene

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    Esmeralda Alonso-Barroso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line was generated from fibroblasts of a patient with propionic acidemia carrying mutations in the PCCA gene: c.1899+4_1899+7delAGTA; p.(Cys616_Val633del and c.1430−−?_1643+?del; p.(Gly477Glufs*9. Reprogramming factors OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC were delivered using a non-integrative method based on the Sendai virus. Once established, iPSCs have shown full pluripotency, differentiation capacity and genetic stability.

  6. Densities and Viscosities of the Ternary Mixtures Water + Butyl Acetate + Methanol and Water + Ethyl Propionate + Methanol at 303.15 K

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran P. Visak; Ferreira, Abel G. M.; Fonseca, Isabel M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The excess molar volumes, VE, and viscosity deviations, Δη, were calculated from the measured density and viscosity values over the whole miscibility composition ranges for the ternary systems water + butyl acetate + methanol and water + ethyl propionate + methanol and their constituent binaries, at 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure. A Redlich−Kister type equation was used to correlate binary VE and Δη data, as well as the ternary data. This equation was used to calculate the above referred p...

  7. Combination of sodium chlorite and calcium propionate reduces enzymatic browning and microbial population of fresh-cut "Granny Smith" apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenqiang; Fan, Xuetong

    2010-03-01

    Tissue browning and microbial growth are the main concerns associated with fresh-cut apples. In this study, effects of sodium chlorite (SC) and calcium propionate (CP), individually and combined, on quality and microbial population of apple slices were investigated. "Granny Smith" apple slices, dipped for 5 min in CP solutions at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (w/v) either alone or in combination with 0.05% (w/v) SC, were stored at 3 and 10 degrees C for up to 14 d. Color, firmness, and microflora population were measured at 1, 7, and 14 d of storage. Results showed that CP alone had no significant effect on the browning of cut apples. Even though SC significantly inhibited tissue browning initially, the apple slices turned brown during storage at 10 degrees C. The combination of CP and SC was able to inhibit apple browning during storage. Samples treated with the combination of SC with CP did not show any detectable yeast and mold growth during the entire storage period at 3 degrees C. At 10 degrees C, yeast and mold count increased on apple slices during storage while CP reduced the increase. However, high concentrations of CP reduced the efficacy of SC in inactivating E. coli inoculated on apples. Overall, our results suggested that combination of SC with 0.5% and 1% CP could be used to inhibit tissue browning and maintain firmness while reducing microbial population. Practical Application: Apple slices, which contain antioxidants and other nutrient components, have emerged as popular snacks in food service establishments, school lunch programs, and for family consumption. However, the further growth of the industry is limited by product quality deterioration caused by tissue browning, short shelf-life due to microbial growth, and possible contamination with human pathogens during processing. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop treatments to reduce microbial population and tissue browning of "Granny Smith" apple slices. Results showed that an antimicrobial

  8. Music and Alterity Processes

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    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  9. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  10. Valence-delocalization of the mixed-valence oxo-centered trinuclear iron propionates [Fe{2/III}FeIIO(C2H5CO2)6(py)3] npy; n=0, 1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Tadahiro; Katada, Motomi; Kawata, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Susumu; Sano, Hirotoshi; Konno, Michiko

    1994-12-01

    Mixed-valence trinuclear iron propionates [Fe{2/III}FeIIO(C2H5CO2)6(py)3]npy, where n=0, 1.5, were synthesized and the structure of the pyridine-solvated complex was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Mössbauer spectra of the solvated propionate complex showed a temperature-dependent mixed-valence state related to phase transitions, reaching an almost delocalized valence state at room temperature. On the other hand, the non-solvated propionate showed a remarkable change of the spectral shape related to a phase transition, remaining in a localized valence state at higher temperatures up to room temperature.

  11. The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew J; Goldsworthy, Susan M; Barnes, Ashley A; Eilert, Michelle M; Tcheang, Lili; Daniels, Dion; Muir, Alison I; Wigglesworth, Mark J; Kinghorn, Ian; Fraser, Neil J; Pike, Nicholas B; Strum, Jay C; Steplewski, Klaudia M; Murdock, Paul R; Holder, Julie C; Marshall, Fiona H; Szekeres, Philip G; Wilson, Shelagh; Ignar, Diane M; Foord, Steve M; Wise, Alan; Dowell, Simon J

    2003-03-28

    GPR41 and GPR43 are related members of a homologous family of orphan G protein-coupled receptors that are tandemly encoded at a single chromosomal locus in both humans and mice. We identified the acetate anion as an agonist of human GPR43 during routine ligand bank screening in yeast. This activity was confirmed after transient transfection of GPR43 into mammalian cells using Ca(2+) mobilization and [(35)S]guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) binding assays and by coexpression with GIRK G protein-regulated potassium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Other short chain carboxylic acid anions such as formate, propionate, butyrate, and pentanoate also had agonist activity. GPR41 is related to GPR43 (52% similarity; 43% identity) and was activated by similar ligands but with differing specificity for carbon chain length, with pentanoate being the most potent agonist. A third family member, GPR42, is most likely a recent gene duplication of GPR41 and may be a pseudogene. GPR41 was expressed primarily in adipose tissue, whereas the highest levels of GPR43 were found in immune cells. The identity of the cognate physiological ligands for these receptors is not clear, although propionate is known to occur in vivo at high concentrations under certain pathophysiological conditions.

  12. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CO-PROCESSED EXCIPIENT-PREGELATINIZED CASSAVA STARCH PROPIONATE AS A MATRIX IN THE GASTRORETENTIVE DOSAGE FORM

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    Junaedi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The gastroretentive dosage form is designed to prolong the gastric residence time of the drug delivery system whichalso results in the development of an appropriate excipient. The purpose of this study is to develop and characterize coprocessedexcipient made from carrageenan (kappa-iota = 1:1 and pregelatinized cassava starch propionate (PCSP inratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. PCSP was prepared with propionic anhydride in an aqueous medium. The product was mixedwith carrageenan (kappa-iota = 1:1, as well as characterized physicochemical and functional properties. The coprocessedexcipient was then used as a mucoadhesive granule and floating tablet. The USP Basket was selected toperform the dissolution test of the granules in HCl buffer (pH 1.2 and distilled water for 8 hours each. Mucoadhesiveproperties were evaluated using bioadhesive through a vitro test and wash-off test. As for the floating tablet, the USPPaddle was selected to perform the dissolution test of the tablets in 0.1 N HCl for 10 hours. The floating lag time andfloating time were tested in 0.1 N HCl for 24 hours. The result of these studies indicated that co-processed excipientcarrageenan-PCSP can retard dosage form in gastric and drug controlled release, thus making it a suitable material forthe gastroretentive dosage form.

  13. N-carbamylglutamate markedly enhances ureagenesis in N-acetylglutamate deficiency and propionic acidemia as measured by isotopic incorporation and blood biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Mendel; Caldovic, Ljubica; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Horyn, Oksana; Nissim, Ilana; Nissim, Itzhak; Korson, Mark; Burton, Barbara; Yudkoff, Marc

    2008-08-01

    N-acetylglutamate (NAG) is an endogenous essential cofactor for conversion of ammonia to urea in the liver. Deficiency of NAG causes hyperammonemia and occurs because of inherited deficiency of its producing enzyme, NAG synthase (NAGS), or interference with its function by short fatty acid derivatives. N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) can ameliorate hyperammonemia from NAGS deficiency and propionic and methylmalonic acidemia. We developed a stable isotope (13)C tracer method to measure ureagenesis and to evaluate the effect of NCG in humans. Seventeen healthy adults were investigated for the incorporation of (13)C label into urea. [(13)C]urea appeared in the blood within minutes, reaching maximum by 100 min, whereas breath (13)CO(2) reached a maximum by 60 min. A patient with NAGS deficiency showed very little urea labeling before treatment with NCG and normal labeling thereafter. Correspondingly, plasma levels of ammonia and glutamine decreased markedly and urea tripled after NCG treatment. Similarly, in a patient with propionic acidemia, NCG treatment resulted in a marked increase in urea labeling and decrease in glutamine, alanine, and glycine. These results provide a reliable method for measuring the effect of NCG on nitrogen metabolism and strongly suggest that NCG could be an effective treatment for inherited and secondary NAGS deficiency.

  14. Improvement of the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) production by dual feeding with levulinic acid and sodium propionate in Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, Nathalie; Yada, Bopha

    2016-01-25

    In the context of increasing volatility of oil prices, replacement of petroleum based plastics by bioplastics is a topic of increasing interest. Poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs) are among the most promising families in this field. Controlling composition of the polymer on the monomeric level remains a pivotal issue. This control is even more difficult to achieve when the polymer is not synthesized by chemists, but produced by nature, in this case, bacteria. In this study mechanism and role of two 3-hydroxyvalerate (3-HV) inducing substrates on the production of PHBV with high, 80%, 3-HV content were evaluated. It was found that levulinic acid contributes to biomass and bio-polymer content enhancement, whereas sodium propionate mainly contributes to 3-HV enhancement. Optimized proportions of feeding substrates at 1 g/L and 2.5 g/L, respectively for levulinic acid and sodium propionate allowed a 100% productivity enhancement, at 3.9 mg/L/hour, for the production of PHBV with 80% 3-HV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term stability of thermophilic co-digestion submerged anaerobic membrane reactor encountering high organic loading rate, persistent propionate and detectable hydrogen in biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Niu, Qigui; Shofie, Mohammad; Li, Yu You

    2013-12-01

    The performance of thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of coffee grounds and sludge using membrane reactor was investigated for 148 days, out of a total research duration of 263 days. The OLR was increased from 2.2 to 33.7 kg-COD/m(3)d and HRT was shortened from 70 to 7 days. A significant irreversible drop in pH confirmed the overload of reactor. Under a moderately high OLR of 23.6 kg-COD/m(3)d, and with HRT and influent total solids of 10 days and 150 g/L, respectively, the COD removal efficiency was 44.5%. Hydrogen in biogas was around 100-200 ppm, which resulted in the persistent propionate of 1.0-3.2g/L. The VFA consumed approximately 60% of the total alkalinity. NH4HCO3 was supplemented to maintain alkalinity. The stability of system relied on pH management under steady state. The 16SrDNA results showed that hydrogen-utilizing methanogens dominates the archaeal community. The propionate-oxidizing bacteria in bacterial community was insufficient.

  16. Improved Wide Operating Temperature Range of LiNiCoAiO2-based Li-ion Cells with Methyl Propionate-based Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Tomcsi, Michael R.; Hwang, C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Nagata, Mikito; Visco, Vince; Tsukamoto, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Demonstration of wide operating temperature range Li-ion electrolytes Methyl propionate-based wide operating temperature range electrolytes were demonstrated to provide dramatic improvement of the low temperature capability of Quallion prototype Li-ion cells (MCMB-LiNiCoAlO2). Some formulations were observed to deliver over 60% of the room temperature capacity using a 5C rate at - 40oC !! Represents over a 4-fold improvement over the baseline electrolyte system. Demonstrated operational capability of a number of systems over a wide temperature range (-40 to +70 C) Demonstrated reasonably good long term cycle life performance at high temperature (i.e., at +40deg and +50 C) A number of formulations containing electrolytes additives (i.e., FEC, VC, LiBOB, and lithium oxalate) have been shown to have enhanced lithium kinetics at low temperature and promising high temperature resilience. Demonstrated good performance in larger capacity (12 Ah) Quallion Li-ion cells with methyl propionate-based electrolytes. Current efforts focused upon performing life studies and the impact upon low temperature capability.

  17. Differential effects of propionate or β-hydroxybutyrate on genes related to energy balance and insulin sensitivity in bovine white adipose tissue explants from a subcutaneous and a visceral depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A; Behrendt, C; Regenhard, P; Sauerwein, H; Mielenz, M

    2012-08-01

    Ruminants rely on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as principal energy source. Herein, we compared the effects of propionate, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and insulin on mRNA abundance of energy balance-related genes by short-term incubation (4 h) in bovine subcutaneous (SC) and retroperitoneal (RP) adipose tissue (AT) explants in vitro. Propionate either significantly (p genes such as adiponectin system in both depots in treated samples versus controls. Propionate increased adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and AdipoR2 mRNA only in SC AT. β-hydroxybutyrate decreased mRNA abundance of adiponectin and AdipoR1 in SC AT as a trend. The mRNA abundance of free fatty acid receptor 2/3 (FFAR2/3) and other genes of interest (GOI) was increased during differentiation in bovine preadipocyte culture. The mRNA abundance of all the GOI remained unchanged after short-term insulin stimulation. In total, propionate, BHB or insulin during short-term treatment exert divergent effects on the mRNA abundance of GOI in both depots in vitro. Our results indicate that the bovine adiponectin system might be more sensitive to propionate than to BHB. We demonstrated the presence of FFAR2/3 mRNA not only in both AT depots but also in differentiating preadipocytes isolated from bovine SC AT. Therefore, we established that SCFA are able to exert insulin-independent effects on bovine adipose tissue, which might be independent from propionate uptake-related events. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. 复方丙酸氯倍他索涂膜剂的质控研究%Quality Control of Compound Clobetasol Propionate Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞露; 陈志科; 吕冠欣

    2013-01-01

    建立复方丙酸氯倍他索涂膜剂的质量控制方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定复方丙酸氯倍他索涂膜剂中丙酸氯倍他索的含量,紫外分光光度法测定水杨酸的含量.结果:水杨酸质量浓度在8~28 μg/ml范围内与吸光度呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 8),低、中、高平均回收率分别为101.10%、99.35%、99.96%,RSD分别为0.26%、0.62%、0.56%(n=9);丙酸氯倍他索质量浓度在20.16~100.79 μg/ml范围内与峰面积积分值呈良好线性关系(r=0.999 9),低、中、高平均回收率分别为99.14%、100.20%、101.10%,RSD分别为0.62%、0.59%、0.79%(n=9).结论:本法简单、快速、准确,可用于复方丙酸氯倍他索涂膜剂的质量控制.%OBJECTIVE: To establish the method for the quality control of Compound clobetasol propionate film. METHODS: HPLC method was adopted to determine the content of clobetasol propionate in Compound clobetasol propionate film, and UV spec-trophotometry was used to determine the content of salicylic acid. RESULTS: The linear range of salicylic acid was 8-28 μg/ml (r= 0.999 8) with an average recoveries of 101.10%, 99.35% and 99.96% at low, medium and high concentrations, RSD of 0.26% , 0.62%, 0.56% (n=9); that of clobetasol propionate was 20.16-100.79 μg/ml (r=0.999 9) with an average recoveries of 99.14%, 100.20% and 101.10% at low, medium and high concentrations, with RSD of 0.62% , 0.59% , 0.79% (n=9). CONCLUSIONS: The method is simple, rapid and accurate, which can be used for quality control of Compound propionate clobetasol film.

  19. Ressourcenorientierte Diagnostik im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Trotz der im Alter zunehmenden körperlichen, kognitiven und sozialen Verlusten bleibt das subjektive Wohlbefinden relativ stabil. Dies weist auf die vielen Ressourcen älterer Menschen hin. Dieser Artikel stellt für die klinische Ressourcendiagnostik relevante Verfahren vor und erläutert die zugrunde liegenden Konzepte. Berücksichtigt werden Aktivitäten und Erlebnisse als Ressourcen, emotionale Ressourcen (positiver Affekt, Lebenszufriedenheit, Selbstwerterleben, Lebensqualität), motivationale...

  20. Cortisol basal em asmáticos em uso de duas diferentes doses de propionato de fluticasona Basal cortisol in asthmatics on two different doses of fluticasone propionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia R. de Andrade

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os valores de cortisol basal em asmáticos persistentes em uso de propionato de fluticasona inalatório na dose de 200 ou 300 mcg/dia. MÉTODOS: O diagnóstico e a classificação da gravidade da asma basearam-se nas recomendações do Global Initiative for Asthma. Pacientes menores de 11 anos receberam fluticasona na dose de 200 mcg/dia, e aqueles com mais de 11 anos receberam 300 mcg/dia. Após 10 semanas de tratamento, a dosagem do cortisol foi realizada para avaliação da função adrenal. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 41 pacientes (65,9% do sexo masculino entre 6 e 18 anos. Não houve diferença significativa entre as médias de cortisol basal nos pacientes que receberam 200 mcg/dia de propionato de fluticasona (n = 13 e naqueles que receberam 300 mcg/dia (n = 28. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados mostram que doses baixas a moderadas de propionato de fluticasona não causam supressão adrenal.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate basal plasma cortisol in persistent asthmatics on inhaled fluticasone propionate 200 mcg/day and 300 mcg/day. METHODS: Asthma diagnosis and classification was based on Global Initiative for Asthma recommendations. Patients aged 11 years old or less received fluticasone propionate 200 mcg/day and those older than 11 years received 300 mcg/day. After 10 weeks of treatment, plasma cortisol levels were monitored to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. RESULTS: Forty-one patients (65.9% males aged 6 to 18 years old were evaluated. No statistical differences were found between plasma cortisol levels in patients who received 200 mcg/day (n = 13 and those who received 300 mcg/day (n = 28. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that low and moderate doses of fluticasone propionate do not cause adrenal suppression.

  1. Molecular pharmacology of the AMPA agonist, (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid [(S)-APPA] and the AMPA antagonist, (R)-APPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, B; Madsen, U; Lund, Trine Meldgaard

    1994-01-01

    The heterocyclic analogue of (S)-glutamic acid, (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid [(S)-AMPA] is a potent and selective AMPA receptor agonist, whereas the enantiomeric compound, (R)-AMPA, is virtually inactive. We have previously characterized (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-...

  2. A randomized, investigator-masked clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo and tar blend 1% shampoo in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Christopher E M; Finlay, Andrew Y; Fleming, Colin J; Barker, Jonathan N W N; Mizzi, Fabienne; Arsonnaud, Stéphanie

    2006-01-01

    The clinical benefit of currently available tar blend shampoos for the treatment of scalp psoriasis is restricted due to their limited efficacy, low cosmetic appeal and potential for carcinogenicity. This 4-week multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, investigator-masked study included 162 subjects and aimed to compare the efficacy, safety and cosmetic acceptability of clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo versus a currently marketed tar blend 1% shampoo in subjects with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis. Clobetasol propionate shampoo was superior to tar blend shampoo with respect to all efficacy variables tested (p<0.001): Total and Global Severity Score; erythema; plaque thickening; desquamation; pruritus; total scalp area involved; and the subject's global assessment of clinical improvement. Both treatments were safe and well-tolerated. Furthermore, more subjects indicated that clobetasol propionate shampoo was more cosmetically acceptable than tar blend shampoo. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo is a good alternative to tar blend shampoo in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  3. Silica-bonded N-propylpiperazine sodium n-propionate as recyclable catalyst for synthesis of 4H-pyran derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khodabakhsh Niknam; Nassim Borazjani; Reza Rashidian; Abbas Jamali

    2013-01-01

    Silica-bonded N-propylpiperazine sodium n-propionate (SBPPSP) was found to act as an efficient solid base for the preparation of a series of 4H-benzo[b]pyran derivatives. SBPPSP was used as a recyclable heterogeneous solid base catalyst for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrano[c]chromenes, 2-amino-4H-pyrans, 1,4-dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles, and 2-amino-4H-benzo[e]-chromenes via the condensation reaction of dimedone, ethyl acetoacetate, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one, andα-naphthol, respectively, with aromatic aldehydes and malononitrile in refluxing aqueous ethanol. The heterogeneous solid base showed similar efficiency when reused in consecutive reac-tions.

  4. 酸掺杂聚苯胺催化合成丙酸丁酯及动力学%Synthesis and Kinetics of Edible Spice N-butyl Propionate by PTSA/PAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘群; 王伟; 丁斌; 关昶; 郝凤岭; 李祥; 王海东

    2016-01-01

    为实现丙酸与正丁醇酯化合成丙酸丁酯的工业化,研究了对甲苯磺酸掺杂聚苯胺催化合成丙酸丁酯的合成工艺影响因素与动力学.结果表明:当n(正丁醇)n(丙酸)=2.51,反应时间为3.0h,催化剂用量为反应物总质量的6%,反应温度≤126℃,丙酸转化率为98.39%.催化剂使用7次后,丙酸转化率为77.25%.酯化反应总级数为二级,表观活化能Ea为85.86kJ/mol,指前因子k0为4.95×108 L/(mol· min).%Esterification reaction of propionic acid with butyl alcohol to N-butyl propionate over PTSA/PANI was investigated to obtain its intrinsic kinetics for industrial scale-up and the better synthesis process. The results showed that,n(butyl alcohol) n(propionic acid)= 2.5 1,PTSA/PANI was 8%of the total mass of propionic acid and butyl alcohol,reaction temperature was lower 126℃,under the condition of reaction of 3.0 h. Conversion rate of propionic acid can reach 98.39%,conversion rate of propionic acid can reach 97.97%after being used 7 times.The synthesis of N-butyl propionate is a second-order reaction on PTSA/PANI,the apparent activation energy of 85.86 kJ/mol,the pre-exponential factor of 4.95×108 L/(mol·min)for PTSA/PANI was obtained.

  5. 添加丙酸和乳酸菌对杂交狼尾草青贮发酵品质的影响%Effect of adding propionic acid and lactic acid bacteria on fermentation quality of hybrid Pennisetum silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁; 张新全; 杨富裕

    2012-01-01

    研究丙酸、乳酸茵和两者组合不同添加水平对杂交狼尾草(Pennisetum americanum×P.purpereurn)青贮发酵品质的影响。试验设对照(无添加)、乳酸菌(LAB)、0.2%丙酸、0.3%丙酸、0.4%丙酸、0.5%丙酸、0.2%丙酸+乳酸菌、0.3%丙酸+乳酸菌、0.4%丙酸+乳酸菌、0.5%丙酸+乳酸菌(占鲜质量比例)处理,青贮45d后开袋分析。结果表明,添加丙酸可以有效改善杂交狼尾草的青贮品质,最佳添加量为0.3%;添加乳酸茵有助于提高杂交狼尾草的有氧稳定性。%The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding propionic acid, lactic acid bacteria and mixture of the two additions on the fermentation quality of hybrid Pennisetum silage. There were treatments as following, the control (no addition), Lactic acid bacteria addition (LAB), Propionic acid addition at 0. 2% (PA0.2), Propionic acid addition at 0. 3% (PA0.3), Propionic acid addition at 0. 4% (PR0. 4), Propionic acid addition at 0.5% (PA0.5), PA0.2 +LAB, PA0.3 +LAB, PA0.4 +LAB and PA0.5 +LAB (FM,%). After 45 days of ensiling, the ensiled forages were sampled and analyzed. The results showed that addition propionic acid could improve the fermentation quality of hybird P. silages, and adding Propionic acid at a rate of 0. 3% is the optimum for fermentation quality of hybrid Pennisetum.

  6. Effects of calcium propionate supplementation on lactation performance and metabolites in early lactation Holstein dairy cows%丙酸钙对泌乳早期奶牛泌乳性能和代谢产物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聪; 黄应祥; 刘强; 郭刚; 张延利

    2009-01-01

    选用32头经产奶牛,根据泌乳期、上个泌乳期305 d产奶量和预产期,采用随机区组设计分为4组,对照组饲喂基础日粮,处理1、2、3组分别在基础日粮基础上添加丙酸钙100、200、300 g/d.结果显示,日粮添加丙酸钙对奶牛的采食量、乳脂率、乳蛋白率、乳糖率和乳干物质率无显著影响,200、300 g/d组产奶量和饲料转化效率显著高于对照组(P0.05).Milk yield and feed efficiency of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 200 g/d and 300 g/d were higher than those of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 100 g/d and fed control diet significantly(P<0.05).Concentrations of glucose and insulin in plasma of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 200 g/d and 300 g/d were higher than those cows fed control diet significantly(P<0.05).Concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in plasma of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 200 g/d and 300 g/d were lower than of cows fed control diet significantly (P<0.05).Concentrations of urine ketones of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 200 g/d and 300 g/d were lower than that of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 100 g/d and fed control diet significantly(P<0.05).These results indicated that the optimal dose of was 200 g/d calcium propionate supplementation.

  7. The EFFECT trial: evaluating exacerbations, biomarkers, and safety outcomes with two dose levels of fluticasone propionate/formoterol in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papi A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Papi,1 Paul W Jones,2 Prashant S Dalvi,3 Kirsten McAulay,4 Tammy McIver,5 Sanjeeva Dissanayake3 1Department of Internal and CardioRespiratory Medicine, Research Centre on Asthma and COPD, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; 2Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George’s, University of London, London, UK; 3Medical Science – Respiratory, 4Medical Operations, 5Data Management and Statistics, Mundipharma Research Ltd, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist combination therapy is recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients at high risk of exacerbations. The EFFECT (Efficacy of Fluticasone propionate/FormotErol in COPD Treatment trial is a Phase III, 52-week, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two doses of fluticasone propionate/formoterol compared to formoterol monotherapy in COPD patients with FEV1 ≤50% predicted and a history of exacerbations. The primary endpoint is the annualized rate of moderate and severe exacerbations. Secondary endpoints include pre-dose FEV1, EXACT-PRO (EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool – Patient-Reported Outcome-defined exacerbations, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD, COPD Assessment Test, and EXACT-Respiratory Symptoms total score. Lung-specific biomarkers (surfactant protein D and CC chemokine ligand-18 will be measured in a subset of patients to explore their relationship to other clinical indices in COPD and their predictive utility. Pneumonia will be diagnosed per criteria defined by the British Thoracic Society community acquired pneumonia guideline, primarily by radiological confirmation and, additionally, using clinical criteria when a chest radiograph cannot be obtained. Serial measurements of serum potassium, vital signs and electrocardiograms, 24-hour Holter monitoring, and 24-hour urinary cortisol measurement will be performed in a subset of patients in addition to

  8. Coated fatty acids alter virulence properties of Salmonella Typhimurium and decrease intestinal colonization of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Vanparys, A; Volf, J; Mahu, M; Van Immerseel, F; Rychlik, I; Dewulf, J; Ducatelle, R; Pasmans, F

    2008-12-10

    Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs are a major source of human foodborne salmonellosis. To reduce the number of infected pigs, acidification of feed or drinking water is a common practice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether some frequently used short- (SCFA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are able to alter virulence gene expression and to decrease Salmonella Typhimurium colonization and shedding in pigs using well established and controlled in vitro and in vivo assays. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 4 SCFA (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) and 2 MCFA (caproic and caprylic acid) were determined using 54 porcine Salmonella Typhimurium field strains. MIC values increased at increasing pH-values and were two to eight times lower for MCFA than for SCFA. Expression of virulence gene fimA was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth supplemented with sub-MIC concentrations of caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). Expression of hilA and invasion in porcine intestinal epithelial cells was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth containing sub-MIC concentrations of butyric acid or propionic acid (10 mM) and caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). When given as feed supplement to pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, coated butyric acid decreased the levels of faecal shedding and intestinal colonization, but had no influence on the colonization of tonsils, spleen and liver. Uncoated fatty acids, however, did not influence fecal shedding, intestinal or tonsillar colonization in pigs. In conclusion, supplementing feed with certain coated fatty acids, such as butyric acid, may help to reduce the Salmonella load in pigs.

  9. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J., E-mail: p.french@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Neurology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3000 CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-07

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes.

  10. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  11. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  12. Dose-ranging study of salmeterol using a novel fluticasone propionate/salmeterol multidose dry powder inhaler in patients with persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S; Yiu, Gloria; Hellriegel, Edward T; Steinfeld, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    New inhalation devices with improved lung delivery may allow the use of lower salmeterol doses for treatment of asthma. To determine the dose of salmeterol administered from a novel fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FS) inhalation-driven, multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI), which provides comparable efficacy and safety to FS dry powder inhaler (DPI). This double-blind, six-period crossover, dose-ranging study randomized 72 patients (ages ≥12 years; with persistent asthma and predose maximum forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] of 40-85% of the predicted normal) to treatment sequences (one dose per treatment), which consisted of FS MDPI 100/6.25, 100/12.5, 100/25, 100/50 μg; fluticasone propionate (Fp) MDPI 100 μg; and open-label FS DPI 100/50 μg. The primary efficacy variable was the baseline-adjusted FEV1 area under the curve over 12 hours after the dose (AUC0-12). Pharmacokinetics and tolerability were also assessed. FEV1 AUC0-12 was significantly higher with all FS MDPI doses and FS DPI versus Fp MDPI (p < 0.0001), and with FS MDPI 100/50 μg versus FS DPI (least squares [LS] mean, 57.88 mL; p = 0.0017). FEV1 AUC0-12 trended toward higher efficacy with FS MDPI 100/25 μg (LS mean, 34.14 mL; p = 0.0624) and was comparable with FS MDPI 100/12.5 μg (LS mean, 3.42 mL; p = 0.8503) versus FS DPI. Salmeterol area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve from time 0 to the time of the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t) for FS MDPI 100/12.5 μg and 100/25 μg was lower versus FS DPI 100/50 μg; AUC0-t for FS MDPI 100/50 μg was higher than FS DPI 100/50 μg. All FS MDPI doses were generally well tolerated. All FS MDPI doses produced greater efficacy versus Fp MDPI. FS MDPI 100/12.5 μg demonstrated similar efficacy to FS DPI 100/50 μg with less salmeterol exposure. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02139644, NCT02175771, and NCT02141854.

  13. Salt Effect on the Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of (Water + Propionic Acid + Cyclohexanol) System at T=(298.2,303.2,and 308.2) K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahram Ghalami-Choobar; Ali Ghanadzadeh and Shahram Kousarimehr

    2011-01-01

    Effects of salt and temperature on the liquid phase equilibrium of the(water + propionic acid + cyclohexanol) system were investigated.The liquid-liquid equilibrium data in the presence of KCl for various salt ionic strength of 0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,and 2.5 mol·dm3 and in absence of the salt at T=(298.2,303.2,and 308.2)K were determined.The experimental results were correlated based on the Othmer-Tobias equation and Pitzer ion-interaction model.Thermodynamic properties such as distribution coefficients and activity coefficients of propionic acid in water + cyclohexanol were determined.In addition,the separation factor,S,of the chosen solvent was obtained for the investigated system.

  14. Effect of propionic and lactic acids on in vitro ruminal bacteria growth Efeito dos ácidos láctico e propiônico sobre o crescimento de bactérias ruminais in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva de Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the levels of lactic and propionic acids on in vitro fermentation of ruminal microorganisms. In experiment 1, the levels, in a total of 12 were the following: addition of 0 (control 1, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM of lactic acid and 0 (control 2, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM of propionic acid, respectively, in incubation flasks, which contained ruminal inoculum, glucose and synthetic culture medium, with two repetitions for each combination. In experiment 2, the combinations, in a total of 4, were the following: presence of 12 and 24 mM of propionic acid and 0 mg of glucose, respectively; presence of 12 and 24 mM of propionic acid and 40 mg of glucose, respectively, to the incubation flasks which contained ruminal inoculum, with or without glucose and in synthetic culture medium with two repetitions each. There was no effect on the specific growth velocity of ruminal microorganisms in the presence of lactic acid or propionic acid. However, when there were greater concentrations of these acids in the media, there was a longer lag phase in the microorganism phase. Acid propionic at the concentration of 24 mM inhibited the production of acid acetic and butyric acid in a media with glucose. Despite of not being used as a source of energy by the ruminal microorganisms, propionic acid affects their metabolism. Lactic and propionic acids inhibit growth of some ruminal microorganisms at elevated concentrations.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de níveis de ácido láctico e do ácido propiônico sobre a fermentação de microrganismos ruminais in vitro. No experimento 1, os níveis, em um total de 12, foram os seguintes: adição de 0 (controle 1, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 mM de ácido láctico e 0 (controle 2, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mM de ácido propiônico, respectivamente, aos tubos de incubação, que continham inóculo ruminal, glicose e meio de cultura sintético, com duas

  15. The glutamate receptor GluR5 agonist (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid and the 8-methyl analogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius; Naur, Peter; Kristensen, Anders Skov;

    2009-01-01

    GluRs). Functional characterization of 5 at cloned iGluRs using a calcium imaging assay and voltage-clamp recordings show a different activation of GluR5 compared to (S)-glutamic acid (Glu), kainic acid (KA, 1), and (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid ((S)-ATPA, 3) as previously...

  16. A randomized triple-blind clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of topical triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%), clobetasol propionate (0.05%), and tacrolimus orabase (0.03%) in the management of oral lichen planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Shivakumar; Santham, Krishnamoorthy; Nelson, Aruldoss; Laliytha, Bijaykumar; Azhalvel, Pandian; Deepak, John Hearty

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is believed to result from an abnormal T-cell mediated immune response. The most useful agent in the treatment is corticosteroids. The present study will be aimed at evaluation of therapeutic efficiency of two corticosteroids triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%) and clobetasol propionate with tacrolimus orabase (0.03%), an immunomodulator in the management of OLP. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of topical triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%), clobetasol propionate (0.05%), and tacrolimus orabase (0.03%) in the management of OLP and also to compare which has less recurrence. Study Design: The study comprises 30 patients, all were diagnosed with OLP clinically and histopathologically. They are randomly divided into three groups: Group A - triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%), Group B - clobetasol propionate (0.05%), and Group C - tacrolimus (0.03%). A formal informed consent was obtained from all of them who participated in the study. Results and Conclusion: Subjects in the Group A (triamcinolone 0.1%) and Group B (clobetasol 0.05%) show a significant reduction in lesion size than that of Group C (tacrolimus 0.03%). Group B (clobetasol 0.05%) shows a better significant reduction in lesion size than that of Group A (triamcinolone 0.1%). The overall treatment response was significant better in the Group B (clobetasol 0.05%). No recurrence was observed in any of the three groups at the end of 3 months. It is concluded that clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment has higher efficacy when compared to triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% ointment and tacrolimus ointment 0.03% in the management of OLP. It was also inferred that triamcinolone 0.1% has better effects than tacrolimus 0.03%. PMID:27829754

  17. Basic fibroblast growth factor increases the number of endogenous neural stem cells and inhibits the expression of amino methyl isoxazole propionic acid receptors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihui Huang; Dawei Zang; Yi Lu; Ping Jiang

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the number of amino methyl isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) re-ceptors and production of endogenous neural stem cells in the SOD1G93AG1H transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, at postnatal day 60 following administration of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). A radioligand binding assay and immunohistochemistry were used to estimate the number of AMPA receptors and endogenous neural stem cells respectively. Results showed that the number of AMPA receptors and endogenous neural stem cells in the brain stem and sensorimotor cortex were significantly increased, while motor function was significantly decreased at postnatal days 90 and 120. After administration of FGF-2 into mice, numbers of endogenous neural stem cells increased, while expression of AMPA receptors decreased, whilst motor functions were recovered. At postnatal day 120, the number of AMPA receptors was negatively correlated with the number of endogenous neural stem cells in model mice and FGF-2-treated mice. Our experimental findings indicate that FGF-2 can inhibit AMPA receptors and increase the number of endogenous neural stem cells, thus repairing neural injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice.

  18. Specific and efficient N-propionylation of histones with propionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester for histone marks characterization by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rijing; Wu, Haiping; Deng, Haibing; Yu, Yanyan; Hu, Min; Zhai, Huili; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhou, Shaolian; Yi, Wei

    2013-02-19

    Histones participate in epigenetic regulation via a variety of dynamic posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on them. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool to investigate histone PTMs. With the bottom-up mass spectrometry approach, chemical derivatization of histones with propionic anhydride or deuterated acetic anhydride followed by trypsin digestion was widely used to block the hydrophilic lysine residues and generate compatible peptides for LC-MS analysis. However, certain severe side reactions (such as acylation on tyrosine or serine) caused by acid anhydrides will lead to a number of analytical issues such as reducing results accuracy and impairing the reproducibility and sensitivity of MS analysis. As an alternative approach, we report a novel derivatization method that utilizes N-hydroxysuccinimide ester to specifically and efficiently derivatize both free and monomethylated amine groups in histones. A competitive inhibiting strategy was implemented in our method to effectively prevent the side reactions. We demonstrated that our method can achieve excellent specificity and efficiency for histones derivatization in a reproducible manner. Using this derivatization method, we succeeded to quantitatively profile the histone PTMs in KMS11 cell line with selective knock out of translocated NSD2 allele (TKO) and the original parental KMS11 cell lines (PAR) (NSD2, a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes the histone H3 K36 methylation), which revealed a significant crosstalk between H3 protein K27 methylation and adjacent K36 methylation.

  19. Pharmacodynamics and safety evaluation of clobetasol propionate liposomes%丙酸氯倍他索脂质体的药效和安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭敏; 胡敢; 王昆

    2009-01-01

    目的:考察丙酸氯倍他索(Clobetasol propionate liposomes,CP)脂质体对豚鼠慢性湿疹模型的疗效,并进行安全性评价.方法:采用小剂量二硝基氯苯(Dinitrochlorobenzene)反复刺激豚鼠右耳建立豚鼠慢性皮炎湿疹模型;外用CP脂质体、CP乳膏、空白脂质体和生理盐水,2次,d,连用14d,以真皮炎症细胞计数和两耳肿胀度差值为指标,反映CP脂质体对湿疹模型的疗效.豚鼠右侧腹分别给予CP脂质体和CP乳膏,1次,d,连续8周,计算并比较各组表皮细胞层数,评价其安全性.结果:脂质体能有效减少真皮内浸润的炎细胞数量和耳朵肿胀度.该制剂连续应用8周,不引起表皮细胞层数减少.结论:CP脂质体较传统CP乳膏疗效更好,安全性更高.

  20. Domoprednate (Stermonid), a topical D-homocorticosteroid, skin atrophy and telangiectasia. A double-blind, randomized comparison with hydrocortisone butyrate, betamethasone valerate, clobetasole propionate and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, J; Holm, P

    1985-01-01

    Five corticosteroid ointments and placebo were compared in 17 volunteers with regard to their influence on normal skin under occlusive conditions. Each volunteer had six simultaneous applications on the forearms and six on the back. The trial was double-blind and lasted 4 weeks. The ointments were placed in randomized order. The treatments were 0.1 and 0.03% domoprednate, 0.1% hydrocortisone butyrate, 0.1% betamethasone valerate, 0.05% clobetasole propionate and placebo. Skin thickness was measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28, transepidermal water loss on days 0, 14 and 28, while blood flow and telangiectasias were evaluated only on day 28 at termination of the trial. The skin thickness became significantly reduced on all corticosteroids, but not on placebo; 0.03% domoprednate, however, tended to have an intermediate position between placebo and the other ointments. The transepidermal water loss did not change. Rating of telangiectasia under stereomicroscope showed a significantly lower score after 0.03% domoprednate and placebo as compared to the other ointments. Assessment of telangiectasia by laser-Doppler flowmetry showed a similar tendency. It is concluded that 0.1% domoprednate is comparable to other topical corticosteroids with respect to atrophogeneity and formation of telangiectasia, but the 0.03% concentration seems to result in fewer side effects.

  1. Maximum removal rate of propionic acid as a sole carbon source in UASB reactors and the importance of the macro- and micro-nutrients stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingxing; Mungoni, Lucy Jubeki; Verstraete, Willy; Carballa, Marta

    2009-07-01

    The maximum propionic acid (HPr) removal rate (R(HPr)) was investigated in two lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactors. Two feeding strategies were applied by modifying the hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the UASB(HRT) and the influent HPr concentration in the UASB(HPr), respectively. The experiment was divided into three main phases: phase 1, influent with only HPr; phase 2, HPr with macro-nutrients supplementation and phase 3, HPr with macro- and micro-nutrients supplementation. During phase 1, the maximum R(HPr) achieved was less than 3 g HPr-CODL(-1)d(-1) in both reactors. However, the subsequent supplementation of macro- and micro-nutrients during phases 2 and 3 allowed to increase the R(HPr) up to 18.1 and 32.8 g HPr-CODL(-1)d(-1), respectively, corresponding with an HRT of 0.5h in the UASB(HRT) and an influent HPr concentration of 10.5 g HPr-CODL(-1) in the UASB(HPr). Therefore, the high operational capacity of these reactor systems, specifically converting HPr with high throughput and high influent HPr level, was demonstrated. Moreover, the presence of macro- and micro-nutrients is clearly essential for stable and high HPr removal in anaerobic digestion.

  2. Investigation into the influence of primary crystallization conditions on the mechanical properties and secondary processing behaviour of fluticasone propionate for carrier based dry powder inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubavat, Harshal A; Shur, Jagdeep; Ruecroft, Graham; Hipkiss, David; Price, Robert

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the influence of primary crystallization conditions on the mechanical properties and secondary processing behaviour of fluticasone propionate (FP) for carrier based dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Young's modulus of FP crystals produced using different anti-solvents was determined using nanoindentation. Physicochemical and surface interfacial properties via the cohesive-adhesive balance (CAB) approach to colloid probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) of air-jet micronised FP crystals were investigated. These data were correlated to in vitro aerosolization performance of binary and combination DPI formulations containing salmeterol xinafoate (SX). Young's modulus of FP crystals produced using different anti-solvents ranged from 0.6-12.4 GPa. Crystals with low Young's modulus required multiple passes in the microniser to reduce the particle size to less than 5 μm, whilst those with the highest Young's modulus required a single pass. CAB of micronized FP samples was similar with respect to lactose, however, their adhesive affinity to SX varied. Samples of FP with greatest adhesion to SX produced greater fine particle delivery of SX in combination DPI formulations. Crystallisation conditions may affect the mechanical properties of FP, and therefore secondary processing of the material and their interfacial properties and product performance in carrier based DPI formulations.

  3. Effect of sole or combined administration of nitrate and 3-nitro-1-propionic acid on fermentation and Salmonella survivability in alfalfa-fed rumen cultures in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Alejandro Castañeda; Trachsel, Julian; Allen, Heather K; Corral-Luna, Agustin; Gutierrez-Bañuelos, Hector; Ochoa-Garcia, Pedro Antonia; Ruiz-Barrera, Oscar; Hume, Michael E; Callaway, Todd R; Harvey, Roger B; Beier, Ross C; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2017-04-01

    Ruminal methanogenesis is a digestive inefficiency resulting in the loss of dietary energy consumed by the host and contributing to environmental methane emission. Nitrate is being investigated as a feed supplement to reduce rumen methane emissions but safety and efficacy concerns persist. To assess potential synergies of co-administering sub-toxic amounts of nitrate and 3-nitro-1-propionate (NPA) on fermentation and Salmonella survivability with an alfalfa-based diet, ruminal microbes were cultured with additions of 8 or 16mM nitrate, 4 or 12mM NPA or their combinations. All treatments decreased methanogenesis compared to untreated controls but volatile fatty acid production and fermentation of hexose were also decreased. Nitrate was converted to nitrite, which accumulated to levels inhibitory to digestion. Salmonella populations were enriched in nitrate only-treated cultures but not in cultures co- or solely treated with NPA. These results reveal a need for dose optimization to safely reduce methane production with forage-based diets.

  4. Use of a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column and propionic acid as an eluent in ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Hironaga, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We developed an ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography (IEAC) method employing a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin (PS-WCX) column with propionic acid as the eluent for the simultaneous determination of multivalent aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples. The PS-WCX column well resolved mono-, di-, and trivalent carboxylic acids in the acidic eluent. Propionic acid as the eluent gave a higher signal-to-noise ratio, and enabled sensitive conductimetric detection of analyte acids. We found the optimal separation condition to be the combination of a PS-WCX column and 20-mM propionic acid. Practical applicability of the developed method was confirmed by using a short precolumn with a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form connected before the separation column; this was to remove cations from food samples by converting them to hydrogen ions. Consequently, common carboxylic acids and ethanol in beer, wine, and soy sauce were successfully separated by the developed method.

  5. 丙酸盐影响利迪链霉菌AS 4.2501生产利迪菌素及其碳流分布%Effects of Propionate on Streptolydigin Production and Carbon Flux Distribution in Streptomyces lydicus AS 4.2501

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良智; 郑卉; 元英进

    2007-01-01

    To achieve higher antibiotic Streptolydigin productivity through metabolic regulation, propionate was fed during the fermentation of Streptomyces lydicus AS 4.2501. The effects of propionate feeding on streptolydigin production and intracellular fluxes were investigated. The highest streptolydigin production yield of 95.10mg·L-1 was obtained when 2mmol·L-1 of sodium propionate was added at 60h of cultivation into shake-flask culture. This yield is 23.06% higher when compared to that of a batch culture without propionate supplementation. It was also found that when propionate was added, much more organic acids were excreted. Metabolic flux analysis was performed and it demonstrated that the carbon fluxes of the pentose phosphate pathway and the anaplerotic reaction were significantly increased after propionate feeding. The carbon flux from pyruvate to acetyl-CoA was determined to be 24.7, which was 12.27% higher than that in the batch culture. This study indicated that the glucose-6-phosphate and pyruvate nodes were potential bottlenecks for increasing streptolydigin productivity. Potential targets and strategies that could be manipulated through genetic and process engineering to increase the production of Streptolydigin were also suggested.

  6. Genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Chul; Kang, Tae Woong; Lee, Jin Oh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studied the alteration of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. We found that alteration of Rb gene, APC were 33 %, 13 % respectively. But alterations of oncogenes such as myc, ras and mdm2 were rarely found. Our results suggests that HBV may act as oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis instead of oncogenes. 6 figs, 2 tabs. (Author).

  7. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  8. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Tsokos, M.D. CONTRACTING...Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) George Tsokos, M.D...a decreased level of disease. Further studies will expand upon these observations better outlining the function of platelets in the injury associated

  9. A Systematic Analysis of the Sensitivity of Plasma Pharmacokinetics to Detect Differences in the Pulmonary Performance of Inhaled Fluticasone Propionate Products Using a Model-Based Simulation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Benjamin; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2015-07-01

    The role of plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) for assessing bioequivalence at the target site, the lung, for orally inhaled drugs remains unclear. A validated semi-mechanistic model, considering the presence of mucociliary clearance in central lung regions, was expanded for quantifying the sensitivity of PK studies in detecting differences in the pulmonary performance (total lung deposition, central-to-peripheral lung deposition ratio, and pulmonary dissolution characteristics) between test (T) and reference (R) inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) products. PK bioequivalence trials for inhaled FP were simulated based on this PK model for a varying number of subjects and T products. The statistical power to conclude bioequivalence when T and R products are identical was demonstrated to be 90% for approximately 50 subjects. Furthermore, the simulations demonstrated that PK metrics (area under the concentration time curve (AUC) and C max) are capable of detecting differences between T and R formulations of inhaled FP products when the products differ by more than 20%, 30%, and 25% for total lung deposition, central-to-peripheral lung deposition ratio, and pulmonary dissolution characteristics, respectively. These results were derived using a rather conservative risk assessment approach with an error rate of <10%. The simulations thus indicated that PK studies might be a viable alternative to clinical studies comparing pulmonary efficacy biomarkers for slowly dissolving inhaled drugs. PK trials for pulmonary efficacy equivalence testing should be complemented by in vitro studies to avoid false positive bioequivalence assessments that are theoretically possible for some specific scenarios. Moreover, a user-friendly web application for simulating such PK equivalence trials with inhaled FP is provided.

  10. Successful reversal of propionic acidaemia associated cardiomyopathy: evidence for low myocardial coenzyme Q10 status and secondary mitochondrial dysfunction as an underlying pathophysiological mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruteau, J; Hargreaves, I; Krywawych, S; Chalasani, A; Land, J M; Davison, J E; Kwok, M K; Christov, G; Karimova, A; Ashworth, M; Anderson, G; Prunty, H; Rahman, S; Grünewald, S

    2014-07-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a rare complication in propionic acidaemia (PA). Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. We present a child of Pakistani consanguineous parents, diagnosed with late-onset PA at 18months of age. He presented a mild phenotype, showed no severe further decompensations, normal growth and psychomotor development on a low protein diet and carnitine supplementation. At 15years, a mildly dilated left ventricle was noticed. At 17years he presented after a 2-3month history of lethargy and weight loss with severe decompensated dilated cardiomyopathy. He was stabilised on inotropic support and continuous haemofiltration; a Berlin Heart biventricular assist device was implanted. He received d,l-hydroxybutyrate 200mg/kg/day, riboflavin and thiamine 200mg/day each and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Myocardial biopsy showed endocardial fibrosis, enlarged mitochondria, with atypical cristae and slightly low respiratory chain (RC) complex IV activity relative to citrate synthase (0.012, reference range 0.014-0.034). Myocardial CoQ10 was markedly decreased (224pmol/mg, reference range 942-2738), with a marginally decreased white blood cell level (34pmol/mg reference range 37-133). The dose of CoQ10 was increased from 1.5 to 25mg/kg/day. Cardiomyopathy slowly improved allowing removal of the external mechanical cardiac support after 67days. We demonstrate for the first time low myocardial CoQ10 in cardiomyopathy in PA, highlighting secondary mitochondrial impairment as a relevant causative mechanism. According to these findings, a high-dose CoQ10 supplementation could be a potential adjuvant therapeutic to be considered in PA-related cardiomyopathy.

  11. Effects of fluticasone propionate on arachidonic acid metabolites in BAL-fluid and methacholine dose-response curves in non-smoking atopic asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Overbeek

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperresponsiveness of the airways to nonspecific stimuli is a characteristic feature of asthma. Airway responsiveness is usually characterized in terms of the position and shape of the dose–response curve to methacholine (MDR. In the study we have investigated the influence of fluticasone propionate (FP, a topically active glucocorticoid, on arachidonic acid (AA metabolites in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL fluid (i.e. TxB2, PGE2, PGD2, 6kPGF1α and LTC4 on the one hand and MDR curves on the other hand. The effect of FP was studied in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in 33 stable nonsmoking asthmatics; 16 patients received FP (500 μg b.i.d. whereas 17 patients were treated with placebo. We found that the forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1 % predicted increased, the log2PC20 methacholine increased and the plateau value (% fall in FEV1 decreased after a 12 week treatment period. No changes in AA-metabolites could be determined after treatment except for PGD2 which decreased nearly significantly (p = 0.058 within the FP treated group, whereas the change of PGD2 differed significantly (p = 0.05 in the FP treated group from placebo. The levels of the other AA metabolites (i.e. TxB2, PGE2, 6kPGF1α and LTC4 remained unchanged after treatment and were not significantly different from the placebo group. Our results support the hypothesis that although FP strongly influences the position, the shape and also the maximum response plateau of the MDR curve, this effect is not mainly achieved by influence on the level of AA metabolites. Other pro-inflammatory factors may be of more importance for the shape of the MDR curve. It is suggested that these pro-inflammatory factors are downregulated by FP.

  12. Topical delivery of clobetasol propionate loaded microemulsion based gel for effective treatment of vitiligo: ex vivo permeation and skin irritation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hetal K; Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Shelat, Pragna K; Shukla, Arunkumar

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate microemulsion as a vehicle for dermal drug delivery and to develop microemulsion based gel (MBC) of clobetasol propionate (CP) for the effective treatment of vitiligo. D-Optimal mixture experimental design was adopted to optimize the amount of oil (X(1)), S(mix) (mixture of surfactant and cosurfactant) (X(2)) and water (X(3)) in the microemulsion. The formulations were assessed for globule size (nm) (Y(1)) and solubility of CP in microemulsion (mg/ml) (Y(2)). The microemulsion containing 3% oil, 45% S(mix) and 50% water was selected as the optimized batch (ME). The globule size and solubility of CP in ME were 18.26 nm and 36.42 mg/ml respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that ME globules were spherical in shape. Carbopol 934P was used to convert microemulsion containing drug into gel form without affecting its structure. Ex-vivo permeation studies showed that cumulative amount of CP permeated (Q(n)) from ME, MBC and market formulation (MFCP) at 8h after application were 53.6±2.18, 28.43±0.67 and 37.73±0.77 μg cm(-2) respectively. MBC showed greater retention of CP in to skin layers than ME and MFCP. Skin irritation studies showed MBC to be significantly less irritating than MFCP. Photomicrographs and scanning electron micrographs of skin sections treated with MBC showed significant changes in the skin structure, which was attributed to the interaction of microemulsion components with skin resulting in permeation enhancement and retention of CP into skin layers. It was concluded that CP loaded gel could be a promising formulation for effective treatment of vitiligo.

  13. Dietary effect of apple cider vinegar and propionic acid on immune related transcriptional responses and growth performance in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmozaffar, Sajjad; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Miandare, Hamed Kolangi

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of various levels of ACV(®) and Propionic acid (PA) on expression of immune related genes and growth performance in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Three hundred and seventy-five shrimps with an average initial weight of 10.2 ± 0.04 g were collected and acclimatized for two weeks. Five experimental diets including control diet, 0.5% PA diet and 1%, 2% and 4% ACV(®) diets were applied to feed the shrimps. They were fed 4 times a day with 2.5% of body weight. After 60 days of culture, shrimps fed with ACV(®) and PA diets showed no significant difference in growth performance. Expression of prophenoloxidase (proPo), lysozyme (Lys), penaeidin-3a (Pen-3a) and Crustin (Cru) genes were determined from hepatopancreas, using the real-time PCR after 15, 30 and 60 days. Expression of Lys and proPo genes was significantly up regulated in shrimps fed with ACV(®) and PA diets compared to the control group after 30 and 60 days of treatment. After 15 days, Pen-3a gene expression was significantly higher in PA group compared to the control group. Also, shrimps fed with 1% and 4% ACV(®) and PA diets showed significantly increased expression of Pen-3a after 30 days. In contrast, expression of Cru was significantly down regulated in response to ACV(®) diets, but, Cru expression in treated shrimps with PA diet was greater than the control group after 30 and 60 days. Overall, the results provided evidence that ACV(®) could be used as a natural immunostimulant for shrimps in order to adjust and enhance expression of the immune related genes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of combined dietary chromium(III) propionate complex and thiamine supplementation on insulin sensitivity, blood biochemical indices, and mineral levels in high-fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Michalak, Sławomir; Wójciak, Rafał W; Bogdański, Paweł

    2012-12-01

    Insulin resistance is the first step in glucose intolerance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, thus effective prevention strategies should also include dietary interventions to enhance insulin sensitivity. Nutrients, such as microelement chromium(III) and thiamine, play regulatory roles in carbohydrate metabolism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the insulin-sensitizing potential of the combined supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex (CrProp) and thiamine in insulin resistance animal model (rats fed a high-fructose diet). The experiment was carried out on 40 nine-week-old male Wistar rats divided into five groups (eight animals each). Animals were fed ad libitum: the control diet (AIN-93 M) and high-fructose diets with and without a combination of two levels of CrProp (0.1 and 1 mg Cr/kg body mass/day) and two levels of thiamine (0.5 and 10 mg/kg body mass/day) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment rats were sacrificed to collect blood and internal organs for analyses of blood biochemical and hematologic indices as well as tissular microelement levels that were measured using appropriate methods. It was found that both supplementary CrProp and thiamine (given alone) have significant insulin-sensitizing and moderate blood-lipid-lowering properties, while the combined supplementation with these agents does not give synergistic effects in insulin-resistant rats. CrProp given separately increased kidney Cu and Cr levels, while thiamine alone increased hepatic Cu contents and decreased renal Zn and Cu contents.

  15. Use of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid as electron donating compound in a potentiometric aflatoxin M{sub 1}-immunosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rameil, Steffen, E-mail: s.rameil@r-biopharm.de [R-Biopharm AG, An der neuen Bergstrasse 17, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Schubert, Peter, E-mail: p.schubert@r-biopharm.de [R-Biopharm AG, An der neuen Bergstrasse 17, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Grundmann, Peter, E-mail: peter.grundmann@jennewein-biotech.de [R-Biopharm AG, An der neuen Bergstrasse 17, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Dietrich, Richard, E-mail: R.Dietrich@mh.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Munich, Schoenleutner Str 8, 85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Maertlbauer, Erwin, E-mail: E.Maertlbauer@mh.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Munich, Schoenleutner Str 8, 85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2010-02-19

    We developed a potentiometric aflatoxin M{sub 1}-immunosensor which utilizes 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (p-HPPA) as electron donating compound for horseradish peroxidase (HRP; EC 1.11.1.7). The assay system consists of a polypyrrole-surface-working electrode coated with a polyclonal anti-M{sub 1} antibody (pAb-AFM{sub 1}), a Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a HRP-aflatoxin B{sub 1} conjugate (HRP-AFB{sub 1} conjugate). To optimize the potentiometric measuring system p-HPPA as well as related compounds serving as electron donating compounds were compared. Also the influence of different buffer systems, varying pH and substrate concentrations on signal intensity was investigated. Our results suggest that reaction conditions that favor the formation of Pummerer's type ketones lead to an increase in signal intensity rather than formation of fluorescent dye. Comparison with commercial ready-to-use HRP electron donating compounds such as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), o-phenylenediamine (OPD) or 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) showed that only 34%, 77% and 49% of the signal intensity of p-HPPA were reached, respectively. The optimized assay had a detection limit of 40 pg mL{sup -1} and allowed detection of 500 pg mL{sup -1} (FDA action limit) aflatoxin M{sub 1} (AFM{sub 1}) in pasteurized milk and UHT-milk containing 0.3-3.8% fat within 10 min without any sample treatment. The working range was between 250 and 2000 pg mL{sup -1} AFM{sub 1}.

  16. [Neurocutaneous syndrome with hair alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Martínez, F

    1997-09-01

    There are multiple neurocutaneous syndromes that may show hair alterations such as the interglabellar peak or 'widow's peak', which is an alteration of the hair implantation, in addition to the genohypotrichosis, hypertrichosis and hair shaft dysplasias. In this chapter we will focus on the latter. Out of the unspecific hair shaft dysplasias the only ones showing neurological alterations are trichorrhexis invaginata, observed in the syndrome of Netherton. Among the specific dysplasias we would like to point out monilethrix, and very especially the moniliform hair syndrome, the trichorrhexis nodosa, the pili torti and trichotiodystrophy. The latter is actually a group of syndromes which associates a series of diverse symptoms that have in common hair brittleness, fertility problems and physical and mental retardation, and they constitute the basic syndrome know as 'BIDS syndrome.

  17. Efficacy of compound clobetasol propionate ointment in the treatment of chronic eczema in 53 cases%复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗慢性湿疹53例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟庆; 张婕

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗慢性湿疹的疗效及安全性。方法:收治慢性湿疹患者107例,随机分为治疗组54例和对照组53例,对照组采用醋酸曲安奈德尿素软膏治疗,治疗组采用复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗,比较两组治疗效果。结果:治疗组痊愈率和有效率明显高于对照组,复发率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗慢性湿疹疗效显著,不良反应少。%Objective:To explore the efficacy and safety of compound clobetasol propionate ointment in the treatment of chronic eczema.Methods:105 patients with chronic eczema were selected.They were randomly divided into the treatment group with 53 cases and the control group with 52 cases.The control group was treated with triamcinolone acetonide acetate urea ointment.The treatment group was treated with compound clobetasol propionate ointment.We compared the therapeutic effect of two groups. Results:In the treatment group,the cure rate and effective rate were significantly higher than the control group,and the recurrence rate was significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The efficacy of compound clobetasol propionate ointment in the treatment of chronic eczema was significant,and adverse reactions were less.

  18. 复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗寻常型银屑病临床疗效观察%Clinical Curative Effect Observation on Compound Clobetasol Propionate Ointment in the Treatment of Psoriasis Vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建国; 顾艳丽; 王欣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy and safety on compound clobetasol propionate ointment in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris.Methods 153 cases of patients with psoriasis vulgaris were randomly divided into treatment group(compound clobetasol propionate ointment)and the control group 1(0.05% clobetasol propionate cream),control group 2(0.025% of al trans retinoic acid cream),and observed the curative effect.Results After comparing the treatment group and the control group 1,control group 2,the effective rate was significantly different(P0.9) no difference. The treatment group was better than the two control group.Conclusion Compound clobetasol propionate ointment is a safe,effective and innovative compound external preparation in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris,curative effect is better than that of the same concentration of preparations and the compliance of the patients is higher.%目的:观察复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗寻常型银屑病的临床疗效和安全性。方法选取寻常型银屑病患者153例随机分成治疗组(复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏)和对照1组(0.05%丙酸氯倍他索霜)、对照2组(0.025%全反式维甲酸霜),并观察各组疗效。结果治疗组与对照1组、对照2组比较,有效率均有显著性差异(P0.9)无差异。治疗组疗效优于两对照组。结论复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏是治疗寻常型银屑病的一种安全、有效的创新复方外用制剂,疗效优于同等浓度的单方制剂且患者的依从性较高。

  19. HPLC同时测定复方丙酸氯倍他索涂膜剂中两组分含量%Simultantous Determination of Two Components in the Compound Clobetasol Propionate Balm by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕冠欣; 庞露; 黄嘉韵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for simultantous determination of clobetasol propionate and salicylie acid in the compound clobetasol propionate balm. Methods A Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column, 0.05 mol/ L potassium dihydrogen phosphate (adjusted pH to 2.6 with 80% phosphoric acid)(A)-methanol(B) was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, the detection wavelength was 240 nm,the temperature of column was room temperature. Results Clobetasol propionate had a good linearity (r=0.9999) in the range of 0.2512~10.048 μg·ml-1 , the average recovery was 97.6%, RSD=0.1% (n=6). Salicylie acid had a good linearity (r=0.9999) in the range of 10.23~122.76 ng-mL (r=0.9999), the average recovery was 96.8%, RSD=0.3% (n=6). Conclusion The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, and can be used for the content determination of the compound clobetasol propionate balm.%建立HPLC同时测定复方丙酸氯倍他索涂膜剂中丙酸氯倍他索和水杨酸的含量的方法.方法 采用HPLC梯度洗脱色谱分离.色谱柱:Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18柱;流动相A:0.05 mol/L磷酸二氢钾(用80%磷酸溶液调节pH 2.6),B:甲醇;流速:1.0 mL/min;检测波长:240 nm;柱温:室温.结果 丙酸氯倍他索、水杨酸的线性范围分别在0.2512~10.048tg/mL(r=0.9999)和10.23~122.76 μg/mL (r=0.9999),平均回收率分别为97.6%,RSD=0.7%(n=6)和96.8%,RSD=0.3%(n=6).结论 该法简单,灵敏,结果准确,可用于复方丙酸氯倍他索涂膜剂的质量控制.

  20. 复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗慢性湿疹疗效观察%Efficacy of Clobetasol Propionate Compound Ointment for the Treatment of Chronic Eczema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪文进; 沈利东; 黄鹂; 杨红; 陈亮

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗慢性湿疹的有效性及安全性。方法将120例慢性湿疹患者随机分为两组:治疗组60例,给予复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏外涂,每日两次,共四周;对照组60例,给予卤米松乳膏外涂,每日2次,共4周,完成4周疗程后对两组患者进行疗效判断和比较,同时观察治疗中的不良反应。结果经复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗的患者有效率75%,对照组有效率48.3%,治疗组疗效明显优于对照组(P<0.01),无不良反应。结论复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗慢性湿疹安全有效。%Objective to discuss the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate compound ointment in patients with chronic eczema. Methods120 patients with chronic eczema were randomly divided into two groups. Group a (treatment group) with 60 patients were treated with clobetasol propionate compound ointment for minoxidil for four weeks twice daily. Group B (control group) with 60 patients were treated with halometasone cream for four weeks twice daily. The efficacy of patients in the two groups were determined and compared after completing four weeks treatment, and the adverse reactions during treatment were observed. Results in the treatment group, the effective rate of the cases treated with clobetasol propionate compound ointment was 75%, while that of the control group was 48.3%, the efficacy of treatment group was significantly better than that of control group with no adverse effects in all groups(P<0.01). Conclusion clobetasol propionate compound ointment is safe and effective in treatment of chronic eczema.

  1. Synthesis and QSAR Study of (4-Oxo-3-aryl-3,4-dihydro-quinazolin-2-ylsulfanyl-propionic Acid arylidene/aryl-ethylidene-hydrazides via Microwave Assisted Solvent Free Reations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Deshmukh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, s-alkylated derivatives of thio-quinazolinone were obtained using Methyl 2-chloro propionate via a solvent-free microwave-assisted method. The alkylated thio quinazolinones were further sequentially condensed with hydrazine hydrate and different aromatic aldehydes to get the hydrazides, which were studied for QSAR. The synthesized compounds were subjected to a prediction of biological activities. A software application (PASS was used for this purpose. . The relationship between structure and different biological activities was studied and the different derivatives were recommended for the screening of some specific activities like anti-tuberculosic, anti-mycobacterial & HDL cholesterol increasing activities.

  2. A blinded comparison of fluticasone propionate with budesonide via powder devices in adult patients with moderate-to-severe asthma: a clinical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ringdal

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Vitro and in vivo data have demonstrated that there are detectable differences between inhaled corticosteroids commonly used to treat asthma. However, controversy still remains as to whether these differences translate into clinical benefits. This 12-week, international, randomized, doubleblind, parallel-group study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate (FP 800 μg daily, administered as a powder via the Diskhaler®, and budesonide (BUD 1600 μg daily, administered using the Turbuhaler®, in adult patients with moderate-tosevere asthma. A total of 518 patients participated in the study, 256 of whom received FP and 262 BUD. Assessment of mean morning peak expiratory flow (PEF over the 12-week treatment period revealed a statistically significant difference in efficacy between FP 800 μg daily and BUD 1600 μg daily in favour of FP (p = 0.003, with an overall improvement of 20.9 l/min with FP compared with 12.4 l/min on BUD. Statistically significant differences in favour of FP were seen over the 12 weeks for mean evening PEF (p = 0.04, diurnal PEF variation (p = 0.03 and percentage predicted PEF (p = 0.003, as well as forced expiratory volume (p = 0.008, forced vital capacity (p = 0.02 and PEF (p = 0.005 measured at clinic visits. The median percentage of symptom-free nights increased over the 12-week study period in both treatment groups, with similar changes seen for the median percentage of days with symptom score < 2, rescue medication use and exacerbations of asthma. The incidence of adverse events was found to be comparable in the two treatment groups. The geometric mean ratios of serum cortisol levels were found to be 1.03 for FP, indicating no mean hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression from baseline, and 0.93 for BUD (p = 0.0002 compared with FP. In summary, FP 800 μg daily showed a greater efficacy/safety ratio in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma than BUD 1600 μg daily.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate 50/250 mcg combination therapy in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhisa Asai,1 Akihiro Kobayashi,2 Yukio Makihara,3 Malcolm Johnson4 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan; 2Biomedical Data Sciences, 3Medical Affairs Respiratory Department, GlaxoSmithKline, Tokyo, Japan; 4Respiratory Global Franchise, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK Purpose: Using sputum neutrophils as the primary measure, and other inflammation biomarkers, this study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of the combination salmeterol 50 mcg and fluticasone propionate 250 mcg (SFC 250 in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Patients and methods: Patients were treated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial with SFC 250 twice daily (n=26 or placebo (n=26 for 12 weeks. At the start and end of treatment, inflammation biomarkers (sputum and serum, lung function, and health status (COPD Assessment Test [CAT] questionnaire were measured. Results: Although a numerical decrease in differential neutrophil count was observed from baseline, SFC 250 did not significantly reduce sputum neutrophils compared with placebo, nor were there significant changes from baseline in the other biomarkers (sputum or serum, lung function, or CAT, versus placebo. Squamous epithelial cell contamination in some sputum samples rendered them unacceptable for analysis, which reduced the sample size to n=19 (SFC 250 and n=10 (placebo. However, inclusion of contaminated samples did not affect the overall trend of the outcome. Ad hoc bootstrap statistical analysis showed a 27.9% (SFC 250 and 1.3% (placebo decrease in sputum neutrophils. Sputum IL-8 decreased by 43.2% after SFC 250 but increased by 48.3% with placebo. Responder analyses showed 42% of patients had ≥20% decrease in neutrophils from baseline; and 47% of patients had a ≥200 pg/mL change in sputum IL-8 following SFC 250 versus 20% after placebo; both changes are considered clinically

  4. 丙酸氯倍他索溶液稳定性研究%Chemical stability of the aqueous clobetasol propionate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良梅; 王柏; 周云飞; 吴满红

    2006-01-01

    目的:考察不同pH条件下丙酸氯倍他索(clobetasol propionate,CBT)的稳定性,并利用人工神经网络对氯倍他索在设定条件下的(伪)一级降解速率常数进行预测.方法:根据化学动力学原理,采用经典恒温法进行试验,并通过高效液相色谱法测定氯倍他索的浓度;建立3层BP人工神经网络,并通过此经过训练的网络进行(伪)一级降解速率常数的预测.结果:丙酸氯倍他索溶液的降解反应属(伪)一级反应,绘制的pH-速度图是典型的V型,在pH为3.23条件下丙酸氯倍他索溶液最稳定,其预测的室温贮存有效期为761 d,pH条件明显影响丙酸氯倍他索溶液稳定性;根据本研究建立的3层BP人工神经网络(即2-15-1网络结构)所得到的一级降解速度常数预测值与常规方法得到的一级降解速度常数估算值之间具有良好的线性相关性.结论:本研究首次通过所建立和训练的人工神经网络,能够对丙酸氯倍他索的一级降解速率常数进行预测,预测结果和实际计算结果基本一致,故说明人工神经网络可以用于药物理化性质(如化学稳定性)的预测.

  5. Sensitive simultaneous determination of ciclesonide, ciclesonide-M1-metabolite and fluticasone propionate in human serum by HPLC-MS/MS with APPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Hermann J; Zech, Karl; Mascher, Daniel G

    2008-06-15

    A new and very sensitive analytical method has been developed and validated to jointly determine the anti-inflammatory drug ciclesonide (CIC), its active principle metabolite M1 (CIC-M1) and fluticasone propionate (FP) in human serum, in the low concentration range from 10 to 1000 pg/mL. This was accomplished by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure photo ionisation (HPLC-MS/MS with APPI) using 0.5 mL of serum. Serum was mixed with the internal standards (IS) D11-CIC and D11-CIC-M1 and extracted with diisopropylether. A gradient with acetonitrile (containing 10 mM of acetic acid and 10% of acetone) was used. HPLC-MS/MS of the acetic acid adducts of the analytes was performed in negative mode. The novel aspect of this method is that instead of the dopant being introduced directly into the source by means of an external HPLC pump, it was added to the mobile phase. This provided significantly better sensitivity than the usual method of in-source addition of the dopant, and with no loss in HPLC performance. Sensitivity for the analytes was about four times greater than with either APCI or ESI. Validation was performed in three batches. The inter-batch precision (CV) of the quality control samples in human serum ranged from 4.08% to 6.78% for CIC, from 2.57% to 7.74% for CIC-M1, and from 2.38% to 9.61% for FP. The inter-batch accuracy (with reference to the mean value) of the quality control samples in human serum ranged from 99.3% to 110.0% for CIC, from 101.8% to 104.7% for CIC-M1, and from 100.4% to 101.8% for FP. Calibration data and LLOQ data are also presented in this paper. The analytes were stable in human serum over three freeze/thaw cycles, or for 4h at room temperature, or for at least 18 months when stored at below -20 degrees C. This method was used for quantifying the analytes after inhalation of low-mug amounts of the drugs by patients.

  6. A novel magnetic ionic liquid modified carbon nanotube for the simultaneous determination of aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides and their metabolites in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Mai; Liu, Donghui; Zhao, Lu; Han, Jiajun; Liang, Yiran; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zqzhou@cau.edu.cn

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • A new kind of ionic liquid modified carbon nanotube has been synthesized and applied for simultaneous analysis of AOPPs and their metabolites. • The potential pollutants, such as metabolites of AOPPs, have been analyzed. • The mechanism of absorption has been discussed. • Varieties of experiment factors were optimized and selected. • This method has been successfully applied in the analysis of real water samples. - Abstract: A reliable, sensitive, rapid and environmentally friendly analysis procedure for the simultaneous determination of the analytes with a wide range of polarity in the environmental water was developed by coupling dispersive magnetic solid-phase extraction (d-MSPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–diode array detector (DAD) and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS/MS), in this work. Magnetic ionic liquid modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-IL-MWCNTs) were prepared by spontaneous assembly of magnetic nanoparticles and imidazolium-modified carbon nanotubes, and used as the sorbent of d-MSPE to simultaneously extract aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides (AOPPs) and their polar acid metabolites due to the excellent π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions and anion exchange ability. The factors, including the amount of sorbent, pH of the sample solution, extraction time and the volume of elution solvent were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed d-MSPE coupling to HPLC–DAD system had a satisfactory performance, the limits of detection (LODs, defined as the signal to noise ratio of 3) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, defined as the signal to noise ratio of 10) for analytes in Milli-Q water were in the range of 2.8–14.3 and 9.8–43.2 μg L{sup −1} respectively. Calibration curves were linear (r{sup 2} > 0.998) over the concentration range from 0.02 to 1 mg L{sup −1}. The recoveries of the eight analytes ranged

  7. Propionic acid preservatives for hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay producers working in humid environments are well-acquainted with the consequences of baling moist hays, which include heating, molding, losses of dry matter and nutritive value, and the possibility of spontaneous combustion. Traditionally, the effect of heat damage within forages has focused on ...

  8. Art as Alterity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  9. Modelling glass alteration in an altered argillaceous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Jullien, M.

    2007-05-01

    The long term behaviour of materials such as glass, steel and clay has been investigated in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The interactions between vitrified wastes, canister corrosion products (CPs) and clay are studied using a modified version of the reaction-transport code Crunch, especially looking at pH changes and possible cementation at the interface with the clayey materials. These perturbations may indeed affect the lifetime of glass matrix in deep repositories, e.g., high pH enhances the rate of glass alteration. This work focuses on the argillite of Bure. The calculations were performed at 323 K with a glass alteration rate switching from a high initial rate to a residual rate according to the sorption capacity of CPs. The time at which this sorption capacity is saturated is crucial to the system in terms of wastes package lifetime. The results show that the glass alteration imposes a high pH value at the interface with CPs and clay: up to a value of 9.2, compared to 7.3 which is the initial pH value in the argillite. Experimental data show that the rate of glass alteration is much higher in such pH conditions. For a R7T7-type glass, the rate is about five times higher at pH 9 than at pH 7. This pH perturbation migrates through the clayey domain as a result of the migration of mobile elements such as boron and sodium, and despite the existence of strong pH buffers in the argillite. The cementation of porosity at the interface between glass and clay is predicted by the model due to the massive precipitation of iron corrosion products and glass alteration products. At this point of the evolution of the system, the pH starts to decrease and the alteration rate of the glass could be significantly reduced. This porosity clogging effect is difficult to confirm by experiments especially since existing data on short term experiments tend to show a pervasive precipitation of silica in the domain instead of a localized precipitation

  10. PERUBAHAN PROFIL LIPIDA, KOLESTEROL DIGESTA DAN ASAM PROPIONAT PADA TIKUS DENGAN DIET TEPUNG RUMPUT LAUT [Change in the profiles lipid, digesta cholesterol and propionic acid of rats fed with of seaweed powder-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herpandi1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Community’s consumption pattern with high fat-low fiber has caused the prevalence of degenerative disease, i.e.cardivascular disease. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD is the first cause of death in Indonesia. Seaweed is a fiber rich food and has a hypocholesterolemic effect. Objectives of the research were to investigate the changes of lipid profiles, digesta cholesterol and propionic acid of rats fed with seaweed powder-based diet. Five groups of six male Sprague Dawley hypercolesterolemia rats were feed by 0% cholesterol and 0% seaweed powder (negative control; 1% cholesterol and 10% Eucheuma cottonii, 1% cholesterol and 10% Gelidium sp,1% cholesterol and 10% Sargassum sp, and 1% cholesterol and 0% seaweed powder (positive control for 31 days. The experiment result showed that the seaweed powder did not have a significant effect (P>0,05 on the growth and feed consumption, and serum HDL (Hight Density Lipoprotein but has a significant effect (P<0,05 on reduction of cholesterol total, LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein, triglycerides, and the increase in digested cholesterol. The seaweed powder effected the level of propionate acids, though were significantly different only for the group with 1% cholesterol and 10% Gelidium sp. The addition of E. cottonii produced a better hypocholesterolemic effect than that of Gelidium sp and Sargassum sp.

  11. Comparison of clinical efficacy of topical tazarotene 0.1% cream with topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream in chronic plaque psoriasis: A double-blind, randomized, right-left comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Joe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No controlled data is available till date comparing topical tazarotene and clobetasol in Indian psoriatic patients. Objective: The aim was to compare the clinical efficacy of 12 weeks of once-daily tazarotene 0.1% cream with that of once-daily clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream in the treatment of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Methods: About 36 patients with bilaterally symmetrical lesions were enrolled in this double-blind randomized controlled study. A left-right randomized study was conducted. Results: Clobetasol cream was better than tazarotene cream in reducing the erythema throughout the treatment period with statistically significant differences favoring clobetasol at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8 ( P < 0.05. Tazarotene was better in reducing the induration at weeks 2 ( P < 0.05, 4, 10 and 12. Clobetasol cream was better in reducing the scaling throughout the treatment period with statistically significant differences favoring clobetasol over the entire treatment period. Treatment success rate was 100% with clobetasol and 88% with tazarotene at the end of week 12 with clobetasol achieving 100% success rate at the end of week 6. Treatment with tazarotene resulted in uniform reduction of plaque elevation and was not associated with the development of hot spots. Conclusion: Topical tazarotene 0.1% cream is less effective than topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream in the treatment of plaque psoriasis. It has more effect on induration than on erythema and scaling of psoriatic lesions.

  12. In vitro fermentation of swine ileal digesta containing oat bran dietary fiber by rat cecal inocula adapted to the test fiber increases propionate production but fermentation of wheat bran ileal digesta does not produce more butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, D J; Thorsen, P T; Vollendorf, N W; Crenshaw, T D; Marlett, J A

    2000-03-01

    This experiment evaluated three hypotheses: i) production of propionate is increased during fermentation of substrate containing oat bran (OB)(6); ii) production of butyrate is increased during fermentation of substrate containing wheat bran (WB) and iii) results of in vitro fermentations using physiological substrates and inocula agree with in vivo data. Ileal digesta collected from swine fed OB and WB were the substrates. Digesta was fermented for 0-96 h in an anaerobic in vitro system using inocula prepared from ceca of rats fed the same fiber sources. Carbohydrate and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents in the fermentations were measured by gas chromatography. Fermentation of WB digesta did not produce more n-butyrate (P > 0.05) and was significantly slower (P mechanism by which WB may protect colonic mucosa; propionate production is increased during fermentation of beta-glucan in OB; and an in vitro system using physiological sources of inoculum and substrate containing WB and OB yields results that agree with in vivo findings in humans and rats.

  13. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  14. Fantastic alterities and The Sandman

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which the comics medium enhances our understanding of literary models of the Fantastic. It examines the presence and depiction of multiple worlds in Neil Gaiman’s The Sandman, with specific reference to the role of the comics medium and its denial of mimesis when creating such alterities. \\ud \\ud It initially uses literature review to establish a contemporary working model of the Fantastic, taking as its basis the framework devised by Tzvetan Todorov, and inc...

  15. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  16. Oral alterations among chemical dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vanessa COLODEL

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been daily observed a significant increase ofchemical dependent individuals, as well as the lack of depth on thisissue in the dentistry area. Nevertheless many times the dentalclinicians are the first professionals to diagnose possible alterations,which appear due to the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs. Objectives: To make a literature review of oral alterations and to identify them on a specific group of persons, which are addicted to different types of drugs. Material and methods: The clinical history of the selected individuals was added to the answers of a questionnaire,comprising the data of the present research. Results: Besides other minor soft tissue alterations, a high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases were found in the studied population. Conclusion: It was concluded that the role of the dental clinician is very important to the health rehabilitation of drug addicts, individuals with physical and mental disorders that need specific oral care, which sometimes is neglected.

  17. A blend of essential plant oils used as an additive to alter silage fermentation or used as a feed additive for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Williams, P; Schmidt, R J; Hu, W

    2008-12-01

    the proportion of propionic acid. The blend of essential oils evaluated in this study altered in vitro ruminal fermentation and improved animal performance when fed directly to cows, but it did not affect the fermentation or aerobic stability of corn silage.

  18. Altering prolactin concentrations in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C

    2016-07-01

    Prolactin has a multiplicity of actions, but it is of particular importance in gestating and lactating animals. In sows, it is involved in the control of mammary development and also holds essential roles in the lactogenic and galactopoietic processes. Furthermore, low circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with the agalactia syndrome. The crucial role of prolactin makes it important to understand the various factors that can alter its secretion. Regulation of prolactin secretion is largely under the negative control of dopamine, and dopamine agonists consistently decrease prolactin concentrations in sows. On the other hand, injections of dopamine antagonists can enhance circulating prolactin concentrations. Besides pharmacologic agents, many other factors can also alter prolactin concentrations in sows. The use of Chinese-derived breeds, for instance, leads to increased prolactin concentrations in lactating sows compared with standard European white breeds. Numerous husbandry and feeding practices also have a potential impact on prolactin concentrations in sows. Factors, such as provision of nest-building material prepartum, housing at farrowing, high ambient temperature, stress, transient weaning, exogenous thyrotropin-releasing factor, exogenous growth hormone-releasing factor, nursing frequency, prolonged photoperiod, fasting, increased protein and/or energy intake, altered energy sources, feeding high-fiber diets, sorghum ergot or plant extracts, were all studied with respect to their prolactinemic properties. Although some of these practices do indeed affect circulating prolactin concentrations, none leads to changes as drastic as those brought about by dopamine agonists or antagonists. It appears that the numerous factors regulating prolactin concentrations in sows are still not fully elucidated, and that studies to develop novel applicable ways of increasing prolactin concentrations in sows are warranted. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published

  19. Efficacy analysis of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate inhalation powder in the treatment of asthma in children%沙美特罗替卡松粉吸入剂治疗儿童哮喘的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳冬梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨沙美特罗替卡松粉吸入剂治疗儿童哮喘的临床效果。方法:收治哮喘患儿96例,随机分两组,各48例,两组均给予与抗感染治疗,对照组在此基础上给予盐酸丙卡特罗气雾剂,1喷/次,2次/d,观察组给予沙美特罗替卡松粉吸入剂50~100μg,2喷/次,两组均连续治疗6周。结果:观察组治疗后 FEV1、FVC、FEV1/FVC、PEF高于对照组(P<0.05);观察组临床控制总有效率93.75%,高于对照组的72.9%(P<0.05)。结论:沙美特罗替卡松粉吸入剂治疗儿童哮喘治愈率高,效果显著。%Objective:To discuss the clinical effect of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate inhalation powder in the treatment of asthma in children.Methods:96 children with asthma were selected,they were randomly divided into two groups,each of 48 cases, the two groups were given with anti-inflammatory therapy,the control group was given procaterol hydrochloride aerosol,1 spray/time,2 times/d,the observation group received the salmeterol and fluticasone propionate inhalation powder 50~100 μg,2 spray/time,two groups were treated for 6 consecutive weeks.Results:After treatment,FEV1,FEV1/FVC,FVC and PEF in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group(P<0.05),and the total effective rate in the observation group was 93.75 % higher than that in the control group of 72.9%(P<0.05).Conclusion: the clinical effect of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate inhalation powder in the treatment of asthma in children is outstanding.

  20. CURATIVE EFFECT OF COUNPOUND CLOBETASOL PROPIONATE OINTMENT ON NEURODEMATITIS%复方丙酸氯倍他素软膏治疗神经性皮炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕以姒

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic efficacy and safety of compound clobetasol propionate ointment in the treatment of neurodermatitis .Methods A total of 147 patients with neurodermatitis were randomly divided into the treatment group (73 cases) treated with compound clobetasol propionate oint-ment and the contrast group (74 cases) treated with halometasone cream .The course of treatment for both groups was 4 weeks ,2 times a day .The clinical effects in two groups were compared .Results Both the curative rate (78 .08% ) and the obviously effective rate (98 .6% ) in the treatment group were higher than those (62 .16% and 89 .19% ) in the contrast group respectively .There was significant difference between the two groups (P<0 .05) .Conclusion In the treatment of neurodermatitis ,the use of compound clobeta-sol propionate ointment can produce better curative effects than halometasone cream .%目的:观察复方丙酸氯倍他素软膏治疗神经性皮炎的疗效及安全性。方法147例神经性皮炎患者随机分为两组,治疗组73例用复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏外搽,对照组74例用卤米松乳膏外搽,2次/d ,疗程均为4周。结果治疗组痊愈率(78.08%)高于对照组痊愈率(62.16%),治疗组总显效率(98.63%)高于对照侧总显效率(89.19%),差异均有统计学意义( P <0.05)。结论复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗神经性皮炎,疗效优于卤米松乳膏。

  1. Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162249.html Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria Study of Washington farm workers finds alterations persist ... News) -- Pesticide exposure may change the makeup of bacteria in the mouths of farm workers, a new ...

  2. A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2013-01-01

    Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations.......Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....

  3. 3-(10'-Phenothiazinyl)propionic acid is a potent primary enhancer of peroxidase-induced chemiluminescence and its application in sensitive ELISA of methylglyoxal-modified low density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, Ivan Yu; Demiyanova, Alexandra S; Gribas, Anastasia V; Uskova, Natalia A; Efremov, Evgeny E; Vdovenko, Marina M

    2013-10-15

    Using a full factorial design the optimization of experimental conditions of enhanced chemiluminescence reaction (ECR) catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)propionic acid (PPA) as a primary enhancer was performed. The effect of concentrations of PPA, hydrogen peroxide, MORPH, luminol, and Tris on a ratio of peroxidase-catalyzed CL to background was studied. The detection limit value of HRP in ECR with PPA was 0.09 pM. Using PPA the ultra-sensitive chemiluminescent ELISA for determination of methylglyoxal-modified low density lipoprotein was developed. The detection limit value for the developed method was 0.5 ng mL(-1). The obtained results open up very promising perspectives for using PPA to improve the sensitivity of enzyme immunoassay kits.

  4. Preparation and safety evaluation of compound Olobetaso propionate nanoemulsion%复方丙酸氯倍他索纳米乳的制备及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰莹; 欧阳五庆; 宋冠男; 孙江宏; 吴敬超

    2012-01-01

    【目的】制备一种外用的水包油(O/W)型复方丙酸氯倍他索纳米乳,用于治疗宠物由真菌和螨虫混合感染引起的皮肤病。【方法】以丙酸氯倍他索(Clobetasolpropionate,CP)、特比萘酚(Terbinafine)、双甲脒(Amitraz)为主要成分,并从5种常用的油性物质和3种表面活性剂中筛选出适宜的油相和表面活性剂,利用伪三元相图法筛选出纳米乳的最佳配方;通过透射电子显微镜和粒度分析仪观察其粒径大小和分布,通过加速离心试验、光稳定性和温度稳定性试验考察其品质,通过皮肤急性毒性、刺激性和致敏性试验考察其安全性。【结果】复方丙酸氯倍他索纳米乳的适宜配方(质量分数)为23%聚氧乙烯40氢化蓖麻油、15.4%乙酸乙酯、1%特比萘酚、0.05%双甲脒、0.05%丙酸氯倍他索和60.5%蒸馏水。其乳滴平均粒径为13.7rim,分布均匀,品质稳定,无毒无刺激性。【结论】复方丙酸氯倍他索纳米乳是一种品质稳定、使用安全的治疗宠物皮肤病的外用药物。%[Objective] This study prepared a external oil-water (O/W) type of compound Clobetasol propionate (CP) nanoemulsion which consist of Clobetasol propionate,Terbinafine and Amitraz. [Method] Pseudo-ternary phase diagram was used to determine the best formula. Stability test was used to evaluate its stability. Particle size and distribution were measured by particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy,toxicity test was used to evaluate its safety. [Result] Compound Clobetasol propionate (CP) nanoemulsion consists of 23 % RH-40,15.4 % ethyl acetate, 1% Terbinafine, 0.05 % Amitraz, 0.05 % Clo- betasol propionate,60.5% distilled water. It has stable quality,the average particle size is 13.7 nm,emul- sion droplets distribute uniform,non-toxic and non-stimulation. [Conclusion] Compound Clobetasol propio- nate

  5. Efficacy of compound clobetasol propionate combined with tacalcitol on treating psoriasis vulgaris%复方丙酸氯倍他索联合他卡西醇治疗寻常型银屑病的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 牛丽敏; 李淑玲; 王伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏与他卡西醇软膏联合治疗寻常型银屑病的疗效。方法将112例寻常型银屑病患者按照随机数字法分为研究组和对照组。对照组给予复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏,研究组给予复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏及他卡西醇软膏联合治疗,观察两组的临床治疗效果。结果研究组有效率为91.1%,明显高于对照组71.4%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗后两组的上肢、躯干和下肢的靶损害部位评分较治疗前有明显改善,组间数据比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。研究组与对照组不良反应发生率为1.8%、3.5%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏与他卡西醇软膏联合治疗寻常型银屑病效果显著,能有效改善患者临床症状,不良反应少,安全性高,值得临床应用。%Objective To investigate the effect of compound clobetasol propionate ointment combined with tacalcitol ointment on treating psoriasis vulgaris.Methods 1 12 patients with psoriasis vulgaris were divided randomly into experiment group and control group. The patients in the experiment group were embrocated with compound clobetasol propionate ointment combined with tacalcitol ointment,while the control group only with compound clobetasol propionate ointment.The clinical efficacy of both groups was observed and recorded.Results The effective rate of the experiment group (9 1.1%)was much higher than the control group (7 1.4%),and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05 ).Conclusion Compound clobetasol propionate ointment combined with tacalcitol ointment is farely safe and effective in treating psoriasis vulgaris and improving clinical symptoms,with less side effects for clinical application.

  6. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data in aqueous solutions of propionic and butyric acids with 1-heptanol at T=(298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Ali Ghanadzadeh; Gilani, Hossein Ghanadzadeh; Saadat, Seyedeh Laleh Seyed; Nasiri-Touli, Elham; Peer, Mahrokh [Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Liquid-liquid phase equilibrium (LLE) data were determined for the (water+propionic or butyric acid+1- heptanol) ternary systems at T=(298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K and p=101.3 kPa. For both systems, a type-1 LLE phase diagram was obtained. The quality of the experimental LLE data was determined through the Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft equations. The experimental tie-lines were fitted using the UNIQUAC and NRTL correlation models. For the studied systems, a comparison was made between the experimental and correlated distribution coefficients and separation factors. The LSER model of Katritzky was applied to obtain the contributions of intermolecular interactions in these systems.

  7. Effects of FeCl3 on propionic acid ratio in products of acidogenic fermentation of sludge%FeCl3对污泥酸性发酵产物中丙酸比率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀兰; 李亚新

    2011-01-01

    Effects of ferric chloride (FeCl3) concentration on the product distribution of acidogenic fermentation of sludge, expressed by propionic acid ratio, was investigated in sequencing batch reactor with semi-continuous operation mode. The results show that under these conditions: temperature 32℃,HRT 6.6 d, feed VS 20.43 g · L 1, pH 5.5-6.0, ORP of fermentation liquid increases gradually while propionic acid ratio in fermentation products changes a little, although FeCl3 concentration varying from 0 to 232 mg · L-1. When the concentration of FeCl3 is at 464-928 mg · L-1 range, ORP increases significantly and at the same time propionic acid ratio goes up from 25.82% to 49.57%. One feasible startup modes are proposed with aerobic activated sludge for sludge acid-type fermentation using conditions of temperature 32℃, HRT 6.6 d, pH 5.5-6.0, FeCl3 464 mg · L-1. With this start-up mode, acid-type fermentation can run smoothly after 6 day and propionic acid ratio can reach 50%.%采用半连续运行的序批式反应器进行污泥酸性发酵试验,研究了发酵液中FeCl3浓度对污泥发酵产物中丙酸比率的影响.实验表明:在温度32℃、HRT 6.6 d、进泥VS浓度 20.43 g·L-1、pH5.5~6.0的条件下,FeCl3浓度由0增加到232 mg·L-1时,发酵液中ORP逐渐提高,丙酸比率变化不大;FeCl3浓度为464~928 mg·L-1时,发酵液中ORP上升较明显,丙酸比率由25.82%上升到49.57%.提出了一种可行的污泥丙酸型发酵的启动方式:接种好氧活性污泥、温度32℃、HRT 6.6 d、pH5.5~6.0和FeCl3浓度464 mg·L-1,6 d后丙酸比率达50%以上,形成了稳定的丙酸型发酵.

  8. 离子色谱法测定工业废气中的甲酸、乙酸和丙酸%Industrial waste gas by ion chromatography determination of formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红星

    2013-01-01

    建立了用离子色谱法测定工业废气中甲酸、乙酸和丙酸的新方法,常规无机阴离子对本方法的测定没有干扰。本方法分析速度快,所需样品量少,且无需要复杂的前处理,简便、灵敏、可靠。%established by ion chromatography determination of formic acid , acetic acid and propionic acid in industrial waste gas , a new method for the determination of inorganic anions , the conventional method without interference .This method is fast , small quantity of sam-ple, and no need of complicated pretreatment , simple, sensitive, reliable.

  9. Fe3O4 nanoparticles modified with APTES as the carrier for (+-(S-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl propanoic acid (Naproxen and (RS 2-(3-benzoylphenyl-propionic acid (Ketoprofen drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Hosseini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles with (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES were synthesized by post grafting method for loading the anti-inflammatory drug: (+-(S-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl propanoic acid –Naproxen and (RS 2-(3-benzoylphenyl-propionic acid -Ketoprofen. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX, Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, and Dynamic light scattering (DLS diagrams. These nanoparticles have surface with free - NH2 groups can carry out ionic interaction with carboxylic groups and act as a carrier of drugs.

  10. Simultaneous determination of 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, and 3-4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid in human urine by Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongli; Liu, Fan; Wan, Yiqun

    2017-03-27

    A simple and reliable method was established for simultaneous determination of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid, and 3-4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Solid-phase extraction was used to eliminate the interferences in urine. The separation of three analytes was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase formed by a 95:5 v/v mixture of 50 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer at pH 6.8 that contained 5 mmol/L tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and acetonitrile. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid, and 3-4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid were 4.8 × 10(-3) , 8.80 × 10(-3) , and 9.00 × 10(-3) mg/L, respectively, and the recoveries were in the range of 85.0-120.0% with relative standard deviations of 1.5-3.1%. This method was used to analyze urine samples from breast cancer patients, healthy people and postsurgery breast cancer patients. Significant differences of urinary levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid could be found between the breast cancer patients group and other two groups. No effect of age and sex was observed on the urinary levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid. This method might be helpful for cancer biomarkers discovery in urine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif; Lena Karapanagiotou; Kostas Syrigos

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating for patients and their relatives as the incidence rate is approximately the same as mortality rate. Only a small percentage, which ranges from 0.4% to 4% of patients who have been given this diagnosis, will be alive at five years. At the time of diagnosis, 80% of pancreatic cancer patients have unresectable or metastatic disease.Moreover, the therapeutic alternatives offered by chemotherapy or radiotherapy are few, if not zero. For all these reasons, there is an imperative need of analyzing and understanding the primitive lesions that lead to invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Molecular pathology of these lesions is the key of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of this cancer and will probably help us in earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic results. This review focuses on medical research on pancreatic cancer models and the underlying genetic alterations.

  12. Genetic alterations in pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer of the exocrine pancreas represents the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the Western population with an average survival after diagnosis of 3 to 6 months and a five-year survival rate under 5%. Our understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis has improved in the last few years due to the development of novel molecular biological techniques. Pancreatic cancer is a multi-stage process resulting from the accumulation of genetic changes in the somatic DNA of normal cells. In this article we describe major genetic alterations of pancreatic cancer, mutations in the proto-oncogene K-RAS and the tumor suppressors INK4A, TP53 and DPC4/SMAD4. The accumulation of these genetic changes leads to a profound disturbance in cell cycle regulation and continuous growth. The knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms will offer new therapeutic and diagnostic options and hopefully improve the outcome of this aggressive disease.

  13. Epigenetic alterations underlying autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Karami, Jafar; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Malekshahi, Zahra; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in genetic explorations have extended our understanding through discovery of genetic patterns subjected to autoimmune diseases (AID). Genetics, on the contrary, has not answered all the conundrums to describe a comprehensive explanation of causal mechanisms of disease etiopathology with regard to the function of environment, sex, or aging. The other side of the coin, epigenetics which is defined by gene manifestation modification without DNA sequence alteration, reportedly has come in to provide new insights towards disease apprehension through bridging the genetics and environmental factors. New investigations in genetic and environmental contributing factors for autoimmunity provide new explanation whereby the interactions between genetic elements and epigenetic modifications signed by environmental agents may be responsible for autoimmune disease initiation and perpetuation. It is aimed through this article to review recent progress attempting to reveal how epigenetics associates with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  14. Epigenetic Alterations in Muscular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Lanzuolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms, acting via chromatin organization, fix in time and space different transcriptional programs and contribute to the quality, stability, and heritability of cell-specific transcription programs. In the last years, great advances have been made in our understanding of mechanisms by which this occurs in normal subjects. However, only a small part of the complete picture has been revealed. Abnormal gene expression patterns are often implicated in the development of different diseases, and thus epigenetic studies from patients promise to fill an important lack of knowledge, deciphering aberrant molecular mechanisms at the basis of pathogenesis and diseases progression. The identification of epigenetic modifications that could be used as targets for therapeutic interventions could be particularly timely in the light of pharmacologically reversion of pathological perturbations, avoiding changes in DNA sequences. Here I discuss the available information on epigenetic mechanisms that, altered in neuromuscular disorders, could contribute to the progression of the disease.

  15. Window to 'Clovis's' Altered Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole (center) into it with its rock abrasion tool. An analysis of the interior of the hole with the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer found higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine compared to basaltic, or volcanic, rocks at Gusev. This might indicate that Clovis was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004).

  16. Self-alteration in HRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamazaki, Ryuji; Nørskov, Marco

    Humanlike androids are being developed with the ambition to be immersed into our daily life and meet us on an equal level in social interaction. The possibilities and limitations of these types of robots can potentially change societies and Human-Robot Interaction might affect the very way in which...... and Denmark, we examine how Telenoid, a new type of teleoperated android robot designed as a minimalistic human, affect people in the real world. We introduce Telenoid to real-world as the fields of elderly care and child education by focusing on the social aspects of the android robot that might facilitate...... the ways in which our subjectivity can be innerly transformed, decentred, in other words, self-altered. In our trials so far, we have been investigating the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting pilot studies in Japan...

  17. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control. PMID:24495932

  18. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-02-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control.

  19. Altered Colonic Bacterial Fermentation as a Potential Pathophysiological Factor in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; Choi, Chang Hwan; Temas, Daniel; Kim, Ari; Maier, Daniele M; Scott, Karen; Galanko, Joseph A; Ringel, Yehuda

    2015-09-01

    Dysbiosis leading to abnormal intestinal fermentation has been suggested as a possible etiological mechanism in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the location and magnitude of altered intestinal bacterial fermentation in IBS and its clinical subtypes. IBS patients who satisfied the Rome III criteria (114) and 33 healthy controls (HC) were investigated. Intestinal fermentation was assessed using two surrogate measures: intestinal intraluminal pH and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Intraluminal pH and intestinal transit times were measured in the small and large bowel using a wireless motility capsule (SmartPill) in 47 IBS and 10 HC. Fecal SCFAs including acetate, propionate, butyrate, and lactate were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography in all enrolled subjects. Correlations between intestinal pH, fecal SCFAs, intestinal transit time, and IBS symptom scores were analyzed. Colonic intraluminal pH levels were significantly lower in IBS patients compared with HC (total colonic pH, 6.8 for IBS vs. 7.3 for HC, P=0.042). There were no differences in total and segmental pH levels in the small bowel between IBS patients and HC (6.8 vs. 6.8, P=not significant). The intraluminal colonic pH differences were consistent in all IBS subtypes. Total SCFA level was significantly lower in C-IBS patients than in D-IBS and M-IBS patients and HC. The total SCFA level in all IBS subjects was similar with that of HC. Colonic pH levels correlated positively with colon transit time (CTT) and IBS symptoms severity. Total fecal SCFAs levels correlated negatively with CTT and positively with stool frequency. Colonic intraluminal pH is decreased, suggesting higher colonic fermentation, in IBS patients compared with HC. Fecal SCFAs are not a sensitive marker to estimate intraluminal bacterial fermentation.

  20. Pulmonary alterations in cocaine users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Terra Filho

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Brazilian researchers have recently recognized a marked increase in the number of people using abusable drugs and the consequences of this habit. It has become a major public health problem in a potentially productive segment of the general population. In the last few years, several medical articles have given special emphasis to pulmonary complications related to cocaine use. This review is based on this information and experience acquired with groups of cocaine users. OBJECTIVE: To present to physicians the pulmonary aspects of cocaine use and warn about the various effects this drug has on the respiratory system, stressing those related to long-term use. DESIGN: Narrative review. METHOD: Pulmonary complications are described. These may include infections (Staphylococcus aureus, pulmonary tuberculosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/aids, etc., aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess, empyema, septic embolism, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, barotrauma, pulmonary granulomatosis, bronchiolitis obliterans and organizing pneumonia, pneumonitis and interstitial fibrosis, pneumonitis hypersensitivity, lung infiltrates and eosinophilia in individuals with bronchial hyperreactivity, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, vasculitis, pulmonary infarction, pulmonary hypertension and alterations in gas exchange. It is concluded that physicians should give special attention to the various pulmonary and clinical manifestations related to cocaine use, particularly in young patients.

  1. Epigenetic Alterations in Parathyroid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Verdelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid cancers (PCas are rare malignancies representing approximately 0.005% of all cancers. PCas are a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, which is the third most common endocrine disease, mainly related to parathyroid benign tumors. About 90% of PCas are hormonally active hypersecreting parathormone (PTH; consequently patients present with complications of severe hypercalcemia. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult due to clinical features shared with benign parathyroid lesions. Surgery provides the current best chance of cure, though persistent or recurrent disease occurs in about 50% of patients with PCas. Somatic inactivating mutations of CDC73/HRPT2 gene, encoding parafibromin, are the most frequent genetic anomalies occurring in PCas. Recently, the aberrant DNA methylation signature and microRNA expression profile have been identified in PCas, providing evidence that parathyroid malignancies are distinct entities from parathyroid benign lesions, showing an epigenetic signature resembling some embryonic aspects. The present paper reviews data about epigenetic alterations in PCas, up to now limited to DNA methylation, chromatin regulators and microRNA profile.

  2. Epigenetic Alterations in Parathyroid Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelli, Chiara; Corbetta, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Parathyroid cancers (PCas) are rare malignancies representing approximately 0.005% of all cancers. PCas are a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, which is the third most common endocrine disease, mainly related to parathyroid benign tumors. About 90% of PCas are hormonally active hypersecreting parathormone (PTH); consequently patients present with complications of severe hypercalcemia. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult due to clinical features shared with benign parathyroid lesions. Surgery provides the current best chance of cure, though persistent or recurrent disease occurs in about 50% of patients with PCas. Somatic inactivating mutations of CDC73/HRPT2 gene, encoding parafibromin, are the most frequent genetic anomalies occurring in PCas. Recently, the aberrant DNA methylation signature and microRNA expression profile have been identified in PCas, providing evidence that parathyroid malignancies are distinct entities from parathyroid benign lesions, showing an epigenetic signature resembling some embryonic aspects. The present paper reviews data about epigenetic alterations in PCas, up to now limited to DNA methylation, chromatin regulators and microRNA profile. PMID:28157158

  3. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  4. Rural Electric Network Alteration Spurs Cable Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Most aluminum cable enterprises in Yunnan and Zhejiang focus their production capacity on overhead cables needed in rural electric network alteration. During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, China launched the rural electric network alteration & upgrade project. As of the middle of 2011, the budget of the central government for the rural electric network alteration & upgrade project planned by the National Development and Reform Commission has reached up to RMB 64.96 billion.

  5. Altered mental status and endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elizabeth; Abraham, Michael K

    2014-05-01

    Although the altered mental status is a common presentation in the emergency department, altered mental status caused by endocrine emergencies is rare. The altered patient could have an endocrine cause that can quickly improve with appropriate diagnosis and interventions. When dealing with limited information and an obtunded patient, it is important to have a broad differential diagnosis, pick up on the physical examination findings, and evaluate laboratory abnormalities that could suggest an underlying endocrine emergency. This article outlines the findings and provides a description of altered patients with endocrine emergencies to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department.

  6. Avian assemblages on altered grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Fritz L.

    1994-01-01

    Grasslands comprise 17% of the North American landscape but provide primary habitat for only 5% of native bird species. On the Great Plains, grasslands include an eastern component of tall grasses and a western component of short grasses, both of which have been regionally altered by removing native grazers, plowing sod, draining wetlands, and encouraging woody vegetation. As a group, populations of endemic bird species of the grasslands have declined more than others (including neotropical migrants) in the last quarter century. Individually, populations of the Upland Sandpiper and McCown’s Longspur have increased; the wetlands-associated Marbled Godwit and Wilson’s Phalarope appear stable; breeding ranges are shifting for the Ferruginous Hawk, Mississippi Kite, Short-eared Owl, Upland Sandpiper, Horned Lark, Vesper, Savannah, and Henslow’s sparrows, and Western Meadowlark; breeding habitats are disappearing locally for Franklin’s Gull, Dickcissel, Henslow’s and Grasshopper sparrows. Lark Bunting, and Eastern Meadowlark; and populations are declining throughout the breeding ranges for Mountain Plover, and Cassin’s and Clay-colored sparrows. Declines of these latter three species, and also the Franklin’s Gull, presumably are due to ecological phenomena on their respective wintering areas. Unlike forest species that winter in the neotropics, most birds that breed in the North American grasslands also winter on the continent and problems driving declines in grassland species are associated almost entirely with North American processes. Contemporary programs and initiatives hold promise for the conservation of breeding habitats for these birds. Ecological ignorance of wintering habits and habitats clouds the future of the endemic birds of grasslands, especially those currently experiencing widespread declines across breeding locales.

  7. Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben Morgan; And Others

    This document contains the reports of research at a symposium on "Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol." The participants primarily agreed that alcohol induces an altered state of consciousness similar to other drugs, but that this phenomenon has not been explicitly stated due to the current interest in newer and more novel drugs. The…

  8. Determination of Miconazole Nitrate and Clobetasol Propionate in Anti-in-flammation Creams by HPLC%HPLC法测定消炎霜中硝酸咪康唑和丙酸氯倍他索的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    利新发; 李祥; 谭初宝

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立了高效液相色谱法测定消炎霜中硝酸咪康唑和丙酸氯倍他索的含量。方法用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂;以甲醇-乙腈-0.5%醋酸铵溶液(38∶38∶24)为流动相;检测波长为240nm;进样量20μL。结果硝酸咪康唑和丙酸氯倍他索在0.06mg· mL -1~2.0mg· mL -1及1.5μg· mL -1~100.0μg· mL -1范围内呈良好的线性关系;硝酸咪康唑和丙酸氯倍他索精密度RSD分别为0.57%和0.77%;平均回收率( n=9)分别为98.81%和99.82%。结论本方法准确可靠,专属性强。%OBJECTIVE To establish a HPLC method to determine Miconazole nitrate and Clobetasol propio-nate in anti-inflammation creams.METHODS The HPLC system consisted of C 18 with methanol-Acetonitrile-0.5%ammonium acetate ( 38∶38∶24 ) as mobile phase ,detection at 240 nm and the injection volume was 20μL.RESULTS The linear range of Miconazole nitrate and Clobetasol propionate were 0.06 mg · mL-1 ~2.0 mg · mL-1 ( r =0.999) and 1.5μg· mL-1 ~100.0μg· mL-1(r=0.9999),the precision RSD were 0.57% and 0.77%,and the average recoveries ( n=9) were 98.81%and 99.82%.CONCLUSION The method is accurate and specific.

  9. Long-term use of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol fixed-dose combination and incidence of cataracts and glaucoma among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the UK General Practice Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller DP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available David P Miller, Stephanie E Watkins, Tim Sampson, Kourtney J Davis WorldWide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Durham, NC, USA Objectives: Some large population-based studies have reported a dose-related increased risk of cataracts and glaucoma associated with use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We evaluated the association between use of ICS-containing products, specifically fluticasone propionate/salmeterol fixed-dose combination (FSC, and incidence of cataracts and glaucoma among patients with COPD in a large electronic medical record database in the United Kingdom. Methods: We identified a cohort of patients aged 45 years and over with COPD in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD between 2003 and 2006. Cases of incident cataracts or glaucoma were defined based on diagnosis and procedure codes and matched to controls from the risk set to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. The association with FSC or ICS exposure was modeled using conditional logistic regression. Medication exposure was assessed with respect to recency, duration, and number of prescriptions prior to the index date. Average daily dose was defined as none, low (1–250 mcg, medium (251–500 mcg, high (501–1000 mcg, or very high (1001+ mcg using fluticasone propionate (FP equivalents. Results: We identified 2941 incident cataract cases and 327 incident glaucoma cases in the COPD cohort (n = 53,191. FSC or ICS prescriptions were not associated with risk of incident cataracts or glaucoma for any exposure category, after adjusting for confounders. We observed a lack of a dose response in all analyses, where low dose was the reference group. The odds of cataracts associated with FSC dose were medium OR: 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9–1.4; high OR: 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9–1.5; and very high OR: 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9–1.7. The odds of glaucoma associated with FSC dose: medium OR: 1.0 (95% CI: 0.5–2

  10. Functional characterization of Tet-AMPA [tetrazolyl-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl- 4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid] analogues at ionotropic glutamate receptors GluR1-GluR4. The molecular basis for the functional selectivity profile of 2-Bn-Tet-AMPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Christesen, Thomas; Bølcho, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Four 2-substituted Tet-AMPA [Tet = tetrazolyl, AMPA = 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid] analogues were characterized functionally at the homomeric AMPA receptors GluR1i, GluR2Qi, GluR3i, and GluR4i in a Fluo-4/Ca2+ assay. Whereas 2-Et-Tet-AMPA, 2-Pr-Tet-AMPA, and 2-i...

  11. A review of the clinical efficacy and safety of MP-AzeFlu, a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate, in clinical studies conducted during different allergy seasons in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Bruce M

    2016-01-01

    A novel intranasal formulation of azelastine HCl (AZE, an antihistamine) and fluticasone propionate (FP, a corticosteroid) in a single spray (MP-AzeFlu [Dymista®]) was studied in four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis conducted in the US. Study sites were distributed so that all major US geographic regions and the prevalent pollens within these regions were represented. Spring and summer studies included patients aged 12 years and older with allergy to grass and tree pollens. Fall studies enrolled patients with allergy to weeds, in particular ragweed. In addition, a study was conducted during the winter months in patients with allergy to mountain cedar pollen in TX, USA. Regardless of allergy season or prevalent pollen, MP-AzeFlu improved nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) to a significantly greater degree than AZE or FP, two treatments that currently are recommended as the first-line AR therapy. MP-AzeFlu improved all individual AR symptoms and was significantly better than FP and AZE for nasal congestion relief, which is generally accepted as the most bothersome symptom for AR patients. The onset of action was within 30 minutes. MP-AzeFlu also provided clinically important improvement in the overall Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score and significantly improved ocular symptoms of rhinitis compared to placebo. Favorable characteristics of the MP-AzeFlu formulation as well as superior clinical efficacy make it an ideal intranasal therapy for AR. PMID:27468241

  12. Equilibrium and structure of the Al(III)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(3-hydroxy-2-propionate) (EDBHP) complex. A multi-method study by potentiometry, NMR, ESI MS and X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jószai, Róbert; Kerekes, Imola; Satoshi, Igarashi; Sawada, Kiyoshi; Zékány, László; Tóth, Imre

    2006-07-14

    The equilibrium and structure of the complex formed by Al(III) and ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(3-hydroxy-2-propionate) (EDBHP2-) have been studied using pH-potentiometry, 1H and 27Al NMR, ESI MS and single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The EDBHP ligand is a strong Al-binder in aqueous solution for pH between 4 and 8 and for c(Al) = c(EDBHP)> or = 0.1 mmol dm(-3). The dominating complex identified by ESI MS and potentiometry is a neutral dimer, Al2L2(OH)2, with logbeta(22-2) = 14.16 +/- 0.03. In the solid Al2(EDBHP)2(OH)2.2H2O the Al(III) ions are connected through a double hydroxo bridge. Both four-dentate organic ligands are coordinated terminally through two carboxylate groups and two N-donors forming three five-membered chelate rings. The hydroxyl groups of the ligand EDBHP remain protonated and are not coordinated to the aluminium ions. The structure and composition of the dimer are very likely the same in solution and the solid state.

  13. Platinum(II/IV) complexes containing ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2/3-propionate ester ligands induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluđerović, Goran N; Mijatović, Sanja A; Zmejkovski, Bojana B; Bulatović, Mirna Z; Gómez-Ruiz, Santiago; Mojić, Marija K; Steinborn, Dirk; Miljković, Djordje M; Schmidt, Harry; Stošić-Grujičić, Stanislava D; Sabo, Tibor J; Maksimović-Ivanić, Danijela D

    2012-08-01

    Several new R(2)eddp (R = i-Pr, i-Bu; eddp = ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-3-propionate) esters and corresponding platinum(ii) and platinum(iv) complexes of the general formula [PtCl(n)(R(2)edda-type)] (n = 2, 4) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR) and elemental analysis. The crystal structure of platinum(iv) complex [PtCl(4){(c-Pe)(2)eddip}] (3a) was resolved and is given herein. Ligand precursors, platinum(ii), and platinum(iv) complexes were tested against eight tumor cell lines (CT26CL25, HTC116, SW620, PC3, LNCaP, U251, A375, and B16). Selectivity in the action of those compounds between tumor and two normal primary cells (fibroblasts and keratinocytes) are discussed. A structure-activity relationship of these compounds is discussed. Furthermore, cell cycle distribution, induction of necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy, anoikis, caspase activation, ROS, and RNS are presented on the cisplatin-resistant colon carcinoma HCT116 cell line.

  14. Tweaking subtype-selectivity and agonist efficacy at (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in a small series of BnTetAMPA analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shuang-Yan; Larsen, Younes; Navarrete, Cristina V.

    2016-01-01

    A series of analogues of the (S)-2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist BnTetAMPA (5b) were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically in radioligand binding assays at native and cloned AMPA receptors and functionally by two-electrode voltage clamp...... electrophysiology at the four homomeric AMPA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The analogues 6 and 7 exhibit very different pharmacological profiles with binding affinity preference for the subtypes GluA1 and GluA3, respectively. X-ray crystal structures of three ligands (6, 7, and 8) in complex...... with the agonist binding domain (ABD) of GluA2 show that they induce full domain closure despite their low agonist efficacies. Trp767 in GluA2 ABD could be an important determinant for partial agonism of this compound series at AMPA receptors, since agonist efficacy also correlated with the location of the Trp767...

  15. Determination of palladium in the catalyst for synthesis of methyl propionate from ethylene by carbonylation%乙烯羰基合成丙酸甲酯催化剂钯含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 熊国焱; 赖崇伟; 王莉; 计成竹

    2013-01-01

    根据钯离子和碘离子生成红色络合物的原理建立了测定乙烯羰基合成丙酸甲酯催化剂中钯含量的分光光度法。该方法准确、简单、快速,样品回收率为95%~103%,线性范围为0μg/mL~10.20μg/mL,相对标准偏差为0.34%。%A spectrophotometric method for determination of the palladium in the catalyst for synthesis of methyl propionate from ethylene by carbonylation was established based on the fact that Pd+and I-might form a red complex. The method was accurate, simple and fast. The sample recovery was 95%-103%;the linear range was 0μg/mL-10.20μg/mL; and the relative standard deviation was 0.34%.

  16. The effect of WIN 55,212-2 suggests a cannabinoid-sensitive component in the early toxicity induced by organic acids accumulating in glutaric acidemia type I and in related disorders of propionate metabolism in rat brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-González, A L; Paz-Loyola, A L; Serratos, I N; Seminotti, B; Ribeiro, C A J; Leipnitz, G; Souza, D O; Wajner, M; Santamaría, A

    2015-12-01

    Several physiological processes in the CNS are regulated by the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Cannabinoid receptors (CBr) and CBr agonists have been involved in the modulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) activation. Glutaric (GA), 3-hydroxyglutaric (3-OHGA), methylmalonic (MMA) and propionic (PA) acids are endogenous metabolites produced and accumulated in the brain of children affected by severe organic acidemias (OAs) with neurodegeneration. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity have been involved in the toxic pattern exerted by these organic acids. Studying the early pattern of toxicity exerted by these metabolites is crucial to explain the extent of damage that they can produce in the brain. Herein, we investigated the effects of the synthetic CBr agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) on early markers of GA-, 3-OHGA-, MMA- and PA-induced toxicity in brain synaptosomes from adult (90-day-old) and adolescent (30-day-old) rats. As pre-treatment, WIN exerted protective effects on the GA- and MMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and prevented the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation induced by all metabolites. Our findings support a protective and modulatory role of cannabinoids in the early toxic events elicited by toxic metabolites involved in OAs.

  17. Mixing Study of Poly( lactic acid ) /Cellulose Acetate Propionate Composites%聚乳酸/乙酸丙酸纤维素复合材料共混研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明明; 程增会; 金立维

    2012-01-01

    采用双螺杆挤出工艺制备聚乳酸( PLA)/乙酸丙酸纤维素(CAP)简单共混复合材料.通过力学性能、吸水性、扫描电子显微镜、动态热机械分析和热重分析等手段,研究了CAP用量对复合材料拉伸强度、微观形态及松弛行为的影响.结果表明,随着CAP用量的增加,其拉伸强度出现峰值,加入CAP使复合材料具有较好的力学性能,同时没有影响PLA的链段运动.%The binary mixing composites of poly ( 1 actic acid) ( PLA ) / cellulose acetate propionate ( CAP ) were prepared by twin-screw extrusion process. The effects of CAP content on tensile strength, morphology and relaxation behavior of the composites were studied by mechanical property test, water absorption, SEM, DMA and TG analysis. The research showed that with increase of CAP content, a peak occured during the curve of tensile strength. The composites had better mechanical properties with adding CAP. Meanwhile, the CAP molecules did not affect the relaxation activity of PLA chains.

  18. (S)-2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid, a potent and selective agonist at the GluR5 subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Synthesis, modeling, and molecular pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Lotte; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Hansen, Kasper B

    2003-01-01

    We have previously described (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (4-AHCP) as a highly effective agonist at non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (non-NMDA) glutamate (Glu) receptors in vivo, which is more potent than (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl......, activated cloned AMPA receptor subunits GluR1o, GluR3o, and GluR4o with EC(50) values in the range 4.5-15 microM and the coexpressed kainate-preferring subunits GluR6 + KA2 (EC(50) = 6.4 microM). Compound 6, but not 7, proved to be a very potent agonist (EC(50) = 0.13 microM) at the kainate-preferring GluR5...... subunit, equipotent with (S)-2-amino-3-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisothiazol-4-yl)propionic acid [(S)-Thio-ATPA, 4] and almost 4 times more potent than (S)-2-amino-3-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid [(S)-ATPA, 3]. Compound 6 thus represents a new structural class of GluR5 agonists...

  19. Radiolytic Alteration of Biosignatures on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, R. C.

    2016-05-01

    When exposed to ionizing radiation, a complex distribution of redox states and reactive intermediates form in both perchlorate and nitrate salts. These reactive species then act to alter the forms of organic biosignatures preserved on Mars.

  20. Natal Host Plants Can Alter Herbivore Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Huipeng; Evan L. Preisser; Su, Qi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore’s natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and h...

  1. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  2. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  3. 固体酸La2O3-Ga2O3/硅胶的研制及其催化合成丙酸异丁酯%Preparation of Solid Acid La2O3-Ga2O3/Silica Gel for Catalytic Synthesis of Isobutyl Propionate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一可; 李空军; 何建英; 陈丹云

    2012-01-01

    采用自制固体酸La2O3-Ga2O3/硅胶为催化剂催化丙酸与异丁醇进行酯化反应合成了丙酸异丁酯,并采用IR分析对催化剂进行了表征.催化剂的制备条件为La2O3∶Ga2O3∶硅胶=5∶ 20∶75(质量比),500℃焙烧2h.考察了催化剂用量、醇酸物质的量比、反应时间、带水剂种类和催化剂的重复使用性等因素对酯化率的影响.结果表明,适宜的反应条件为0.20 mol丙酸,催化剂用量1.00g、醇酸物质的量比1.8,反应时间90 min,酯化率可达98.2%.%Isobutyl propionate was synthesized from propionic acid and isobutyl alcohol with La2O3 - Ga2O3/silica gel as catalysts. It was characterized by IR techniques. Various reaction effects such as catalyst dosage,molar ratio of isobutyl alcohol to propionic acid,reaction time,the kinds of deaquation reagent and reusability of the catalyst on esterification rate were investiga-ted. The results showed that conditions prepared of the catalyst were; La2O3: Ga2O3 silica gel =5: 20: 75(mass ratio),calci-nating at 500℃ for 2.0 h. The optimized conditions of synthesizing isobutyl propionate were:propionic acid 0. 20 mol.mole ratio of alcohol to acid 1. 8 .catalyst dosage 1. 00g,reaction time 90min,esterification rate could reach 98.2%.

  4. 低成本绿色循环工艺发酵生产丙酸联产维生素B12%Green and inexpensive circulation process for propionic acid and vitamin B12 production by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 张力; 冯小海; 吴波; 徐虹

    2011-01-01

    对提取维生素B12后的费氏丙酸杆菌废菌体进行水解处理,考察以菌体水解液作为N源用于丙酸发酵的可行性.利用正交设计得到了提取维生素B12后的废菌体水解优化条件.基于此,构建利用植物纤维床反应器固定化生产丙酸联产维生素B12的低成本绿色循环工艺.结果表明:在4.5L的发酵体系中,单批次总糖质量浓度为200 g/L,发酵进行了5批次共1192h,丙酸生成总量为2 328.75 g,单批次丙酸质量浓度103.50 g/L,丙酸生产效率达0.43 g/(L·h),干菌质量浓度达到19.52 g/L.将菌体注入微好氧发酵罐中发酵获得112.8 mg/L维生素B12.%Waste propionibacterium cells recovered from vitamin B12 extraction were used as nitrogen source for propionic acid fermentation. The optimizing conditions of bacteria hydrolysis were determined by the orthogonal design. Based on the above results, an immobilized fermentation unit with plant fibrous-bed bioreactor( PFB) combined with membrane separation was constructed and applied in the joint production of propionic acid and vitamin B12. By using hydrolyzed waste cells as alternative nitrogen source, propionic acid and vitamin B12 were produced with the green and inexpensive circulation process. The results showed that propionic acid yield reached a total of 2 328. 75 g with a working volume of 4. 5 L after five batches (1 192 h) in PFB immobilized coupling fermentation (single-batch glucose concentration was 200 g/L), single-batch propionic acid concentration was reached 103. 50 g/L with productivity of 0.43 g/(L·h). With the separation combined with fermentation, cell concentration gradually increased and cell dry weight reached 19. 52 g/L The whole cells were washed into the micro-aerobic bio-reactor to synthesis 112. 8 mg/L vitamin B12.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid space alterations in melancholic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Melancholic depression is a biologically homogeneous clinical entity in which structural brain alterations have been described. Interestingly, reports of structural alterations in melancholia include volume increases in Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF spaces. However, there are no previous reports of CSF volume alterations using automated whole-brain voxel-wise approaches, as tissue classification algorithms have been traditionally regarded as less reliable for CSF segmentation. Here we aimed to assess CSF volumetric alterations in melancholic depression and their clinical correlates by means of a novel segmentation algorithm ('new segment', as implemented in the software Statistical Parametric Mapping-SPM8, incorporating specific features that may improve CSF segmentation. A three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI was obtained from seventy patients with melancholic depression and forty healthy control subjects. Although imaging data were pre-processed with the 'new segment' algorithm, in order to obtain a comparison with previous segmentation approaches, tissue segmentation was also performed with the 'unified segmentation' approach. Melancholic patients showed a CSF volume increase in the region of the left Sylvian fissure, and a CSF volume decrease in the subarachnoid spaces surrounding medial and lateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, CSF increases in the left Sylvian fissure were negatively correlated with the reduction percentage of depressive symptoms at discharge. None of these results were replicated with the 'unified segmentation' approach. By contrast, between-group differences in the left Sylvian fissure were replicated with a non-automated quantification of the CSF content of this region. Left Sylvian fissure alterations reported here are in agreement with previous findings from non-automated CSF assessments, and also with other reports of gray and white matter insular alterations in depressive samples using automated approaches

  6. Boldine Prevents Renal Alterations in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Hernández-Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy alters both structure and function of the kidney. These alterations are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, matrix proteins, and proinflammatory molecules. Inflammation decreases gap junctional communication and increases hemichannel activity leading to increased membrane permeability and altering tissue homeostasis. Since current treatments for diabetic nephropathy do not prevent renal damage, we postulated an alternative treatment with boldine, an alkaloid obtained from boldo with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated or not treated with boldine (50 mg/Kg/day for ten weeks. In addition, mesangial cells were cultured under control conditions or in high glucose concentration plus proinflammatory cytokines, with or without boldine (100 µmol/L. Boldine treatment in diabetic animals prevented the increase in glycemia, blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Boldine also reduced alterations in matrix proteins and markers of renal damage. In mesangial cells, boldine prevented the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in gap junctional communication, and the increase in cell permeability due to connexin hemichannel activity induced by high glucose and proinflammatory cytokines but did not block gap junction channels. Thus boldine prevented both renal and cellular alterations and could be useful for preventing tissue damage in diabetic subjects.

  7. The pancreas is altered by in utero androgen exposure: implications for clinical conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mick Rae

    Full Text Available Using an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, (pregnant ewes injected with testosterone propionate (TP (100 mg twice weekly from day (d62 to d102 of d147 gestation (maternal injection - MI-TP, we previously reported female offspring with normal glucose tolerance but hyperinsulinemia. We therefore examined insulin signalling and pancreatic morphology in these offspring using quantitative (Q RT-PCR and western blotting. In addition the fetal pancreatic responses to MI-TP, and androgenic and estrogenic contributions to such responses (direct fetal injection (FI of TP (20 mg or diethylstilbestrol (DES (20 mg at d62 and d82 gestation were assessed at d90 gestation. Fetal plasma was assayed for insulin, testosterone and estradiol, pancreatic tissue was cultured, and expression of key β-cell developmental genes was assessed by QRT-PCR. In female d62MI-TP offspring insulin signalling was unaltered but there was a pancreatic phenotype with increased numbers of β-cells (P<0.05. The fetal pancreas expressed androgen receptors in islets and genes involved in β-cell development and function (PDX1, IGF1R, INSR and INS were up-regulated in female fetuses after d62MI-TP treatment (P<0.05-0.01. In addition the d62MI-TP pancreas showed increased insulin secretion under euglycaemic conditions (P<0.05 in vitro. The same effects were not seen in the male fetal pancreas or when MI-TP was started at d30, before the male programming window. As d62MI-TP increased both fetal plasma testosterone (P<0.05 and estradiol concentrations (P<0.05 we assessed the relative contribution of androgens and estrogens. FI-TP (commencing d62 (not FI-DES treatment caused elevated basal insulin secretion in vitro and the genes altered by d62MI-TP treatment were similarly altered by FI-TP but not FI-DES. In conclusion, androgen over-exposure alters fetal pancreatic development and β-cell numbers in offspring. These data suggest that that there may be a primary pancreatic

  8. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated large-conductance K+ channel activity alters synaptic AMPA receptor phenotype in mouse cerebellar stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Savtchouk, Iaroslav; Acharjee, Shoana; Liu, Siqiong June

    2011-07-01

    Many fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons, including cerebellar stellate cells, fire brief action potentials and express α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) that are permeable to Ca(2+) and do not contain the GluR2 subunit. In a recent study, we found that increasing action potential duration promotes GluR2 gene transcription in stellate cells. We have now tested the prediction that activation of potassium channels that control the duration of action potentials can suppress the expression of GluR2-containing AMPARs at stellate cell synapses. We find that large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels mediate a large proportion of the depolarization-evoked noninactivating potassium current in stellate cells. Pharmacological blockade of BK channels prolonged the action potential duration in postsynaptic stellate cells and altered synaptic AMPAR subtype from GluR2-lacking to GluR2-containing Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPARs. An L-type channel blocker abolished an increase in Ca(2+) entry that was associated with spike broadening and also prevented the BK channel blocker-induced switch in AMPAR phenotype. Thus blocking BK potassium channels prolongs the action potential duration and increases the expression of GluR2-containing receptors at the synapse by enhancing Ca(2+) entry in cerebellar stellate cells.

  9. Effects of Feeding Increasing Proportions of Corn Grain on Concentration of Lipopolysaccharide in the Rumen Fluid and the Subsequent Alterations in Immune Responses in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Huo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding increasing proportions of corn grain on concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the rumen fluid and the subsequent alterations in immune responses as reflected by plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA and haptoglobin (Hp in goats. Nine goats were assigned to three diets (0%, 25%, and 50% corn grain in a 3 ×3 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that as the proportion of dietary corn increased, the ruminal pH decreased (p< 0.001, and the concentrations of propionate (p<0.001, butyrate (p<0.001, lactic acid (p = 0.013 and total volatile fatty acid (p = 0.031 elevated and the ruminal LPS level increased (p<0.001. As the proportion of dietary corn increased, the concentration of SAA increased (p = 0.013. LPS was detectable in the blood of individual goats fed 25% and 50% corn. A real-time PCR analysis showed that the copy number of phylum Bacteroidetes (p<0.001 was reduced (4.61×109copies/mL to 1.48×109copies/mL by the increasing dietary corn, and a correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the number of Bacteroidetes and rumen LPS levels. Collectively, these results indicated that feeding goats high proportions (50% of corn grain decreased the ruminal pH, increased LPS in the rumen fluid and tended to stimulate an inflammatory response.

  10. Meta-analysis of the effects of laidlomycin propionate, fed alone or in combination with chlortetracycline, compared with monensin sodium, fed alone or in combination with tylosin, on growth performance, health, and carcass outcomes in finishing steers in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernicchiaro, N; Corbin, M; Quinn, M; Prouty, F; Branine, M; Renter, D G

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research was to use data from multiple studies to comprehensively quantify the effects of feeding 1) laidlomycin propionate (LP), alone and/or in combination with chlortetracycline, compared with 2) monensin sodium (MS), alone and/or in combination with tylosin, at commercially approved dosages, on ADG, DMI, feed efficiency (FE), mortality, and carcass characteristics (HCW and liver abscesses). A secondary objective was to explore potential sources of heterogeneity among the comparative effectiveness studies. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature and industry reports was used to identify studies that included direct comparisons of these treatments in finishing steers in North America. Random-effects meta-analysis models of performance, carcass, and health-related outcomes were fitted with extracted data, consisting of a total of 17 data sets comprising a total of 135 pens and 13,603 steers. Results showed that pens of steers fed LP had increased ADG (live and carcass adjusted), DMI, and HCW compared with those fed monensin ( 0.05) were identified for FE or for health-related outcomes (overall and cause-specific mortality). There was a substantial amount of heterogeneity in outcomes among studies, and when pen size and type of production setting were included in mixed-effects meta-regression models, they accounted for only a small proportion of the between-study heterogeneity found in the meta-analysis models. Therefore, caution should be exercised when interpreting summary estimates in the presence of substantial heterogeneity. However, these results provide comprehensive information on the comparative effects of different ionophores across multiple studies and multiple years, states, and production settings. These unique results can enable quantitative and informed decisions by potential end users of these feed additives that are widely used in the U.S. beef industry for reducing the costs of beef production through enhanced cattle

  11. Linking supply to demand: the neuronal monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor GluR2/3 subunit are associated in a common trafficking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Karin; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Parent, Annabelle; Repond, Cendrine; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Di Luca, Monica; Pellerin, Luc

    2009-05-01

    MCT2 is the major neuronal monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) that allows the supply of alternative energy substrates such as lactate to neurons. Recent evidence obtained by electron microscopy has demonstrated that MCT2, like alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors, is localized in dendritic spines of glutamatergic synapses. Using immunofluorescence, we show in this study that MCT2 colocalizes extensively with GluR2/3 subunits of AMPA receptors in neurons from various mouse brain regions as well as in cultured neurons. It also colocalizes with GluR2/3-interacting proteins, such as C-kinase-interacting protein 1, glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 and clathrin adaptor protein. Coimmunoprecipitation of MCT2 with GluR2/3 and C-kinase-interacting protein 1 suggests their close interaction within spines. Parallel changes in the localization of both MCT2 and GluR2/3 subunits at and beneath the plasma membrane upon various stimulation paradigms were unraveled using an original immunocytochemical and transfection approach combined with three-dimensional image reconstruction. Cell culture incubation with AMPA or insulin triggered a marked intracellular accumulation of both MCT2 and GluR2/3, whereas both tumor necrosis factor alpha and glycine (with glutamate) increased their cell surface immunolabeling. Similar results were obtained using Western blots performed on membrane or cytoplasm-enriched cell fractions. Finally, an enhanced lactate flux into neurons was demonstrated after MCT2 translocation on the cell surface. These observations provide unequivocal evidence that MCT2 is linked to AMPA receptor GluR2/3 subunits and undergoes a similar translocation process in neurons upon activation. MCT2 emerges as a novel component of the synaptic machinery putatively linking neuroenergetics to synaptic transmission.

  12. Catalytic performance of Fe3O4-CoO/Al2O3 catalyst in ozonation of 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) propionic acid,nitrobenzene and oxalic acid in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoping Tong; Rui Shi; Hua Zhang; Chunan Ma

    2010-01-01

    the precursors,and its catalytic performance was investigated in ozonation of 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4-DP),nitrobenzene and oxalic acid.The experimental results indicated that Fe3O4-CoO/Al2O3 catalyst enabled an interesting improvement of ozonation efficiency during the degradation of each organic pollutant,and the Fe3O4-CoO/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation system followed a radical-type mechanism.The kinetics of ozonation alone and Fe3O4-CoO/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation of three organic pollutants in aqueous solution were discussed under the mere consideration of direct ozone reaction and OH radical reaction to well investigate its performance.In the catalytic ozonation of 2,4-DP,the apparent reaction rate constants (k) were determined to be 1.456×10-2 min-1 for ozonation alone and 4.740×10-2 min-1 for O3/Fe3O4-CoO/Al2O3.And O3/Fe3O4-CoO/Al2O3 had a larger Rct (6.614×10-9) calculated by the relative method than O3 did (1.800×10-9),showing O3/Fe3O4-CoO/Al2O3 generated more hydroxyl radical.Similar results were also obtained in the catalytic ozonation of nitrobenzene and oxalic acid.The above results demonstrated that the catalytic performance of Fe3O4-CoO/Al2O3 in ozonation of studied organic substance was universal to a certain degree.

  13. Topical delivery of clobetasol propionate loaded microemulsion based gel for effective treatment of vitiligo--part II: rheological characterization and in vivo assessment through dermatopharmacokinetic and pilot clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hetal K; Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Shelat, Pragna K; Shukla, Arunkumar

    2014-07-01

    Vitiligo is a non contagious acquired pigmentation disorder with limited treatment possibilities. Clobetasol propionate (CP) is the drug-of-choice for vitiligo which suppresses the immune system by reducing immunoglobulin action and causes the restoration of melanocytes leading to repigmentation of skin. However, despite being effective, its low and variable bioavailability prompt for development of novel carrier that could effectively target CP to site of action without producing undesirable side-effects. Low solubility of CP in subsequent poor in vivo bioavailability was overcome by formulating microemulsion based gel of CP (MBC) which would enhance the percutaneous transport of CP into and across the skin barrier. Comprehensive characterization of MBC was carried out for viscosity, gel strength and rheological behavior. In vitro studies revealed much higher drug release, skin penetration and enhanced skin accumulation as compared to control (Cream of CP). In vitro and in vivo occlusion studies demonstrated similar occlusiveness for MBC and control. MBC exhibited 3.16 times higher stratum corneum CP levels compared to control. Visualization of cutaneous uptake in vivo using laser scanning microscopy confirmed targeting of CP to epidermis and dermis. Dermatopharmacokinetic studies of MBC showed enhanced drug deposition of CP in skin layers. MBC was assessed for in vivo efficacy by single blind randomized pilot clinical study. The efficacy was assessed by vitiligo area scoring index (VASI) method. After completion of trial, repigmentation of vitiligo patches in patients were evaluated and scored. MBC was superior in terms of faster repigmentation and efficacy when compared with control (p valuevitiligo patients.

  14. A randomized, controlled comparative study of the wrinkle reduction benefits of a cosmetic niacinamide/peptide/retinyl propionate product regimen vs. a prescription 0·02% tretinoin product regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, JJJ; Hillebrand, GG; Raleigh, P; Li, J; Marmor, MJ; Bertucci, V; Grimes, PE; Mandy, SH; Perez, MI; Weinkle, SH; Kaczvinsky, JR

    2010-01-01

    Background Tretinoin is considered the benchmark prescription topical therapy for improving fine facial wrinkles, but skin tolerance issues can affect patient compliance. In contrast, cosmetic antiwrinkle products are well tolerated but are generally presumed to be less efficacious than tretinoin. Objectives To compare the efficacy of a cosmetic moisturizer regimen vs. a prescription regimen with 0·02% tretinoin for improving the appearance of facial wrinkles. Methods An 8-week, randomized, parallel-group study was conducted in 196 women with moderate to moderately severe periorbital wrinkles. Following 2 weeks washout, subjects on the cosmetic regimen (n=99) used a sun protection factor (SPF) 30 moisturizing lotion containing 5% niacinamide, peptides and antioxidants, a moisturizing cream containing niacinamide and peptides, and a targeted wrinkle product containing niacinamide, peptides and 0·3% retinyl propionate. Subjects on the prescription regimen (n=97) used 0·02% tretinoin plus moisturizing SPF 30 sunscreen. Subject cohorts (n=25) continued treatment for an additional 16 weeks. Changes in facial wrinkling were assessed by both expert grading and image analysis of digital images of subjects’ faces and by self-assessment questionnaire. Product tolerance was assessed via clinical erythema and dryness grading, subject self-assessment, and determinations of skin barrier integrity (transepidermal water loss) and stratum corneum protein changes. Results The cosmetic regimen significantly improved wrinkle appearance after 8 weeks relative to tretinoin, with comparable benefits after 24 weeks. The cosmetic regimen was significantly better tolerated than tretinoin through 8 weeks by all measures. Conclusions An appropriately designed cosmetic regimen can improve facial wrinkle appearance comparably with the benchmark prescription treatment, with improved tolerability. PMID:20374604

  15. A randomized, controlled comparative study of the wrinkle reduction benefits of a cosmetic niacinamide/peptide/retinyl propionate product regimen vs. a prescription 0.02% tretinoin product regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J J J; Hillebrand, G G; Raleigh, P; Li, J; Marmor, M J; Bertucci, V; Grimes, P E; Mandy, S H; Perez, M I; Weinkle, S H; Kaczvinsky, J R

    2010-03-01

    Tretinoin is considered the benchmark prescription topical therapy for improving fine facial wrinkles, but skin tolerance issues can affect patient compliance. In contrast, cosmetic antiwrinkle products are well tolerated but are generally presumed to be less efficacious than tretinoin. To compare the efficacy of a cosmetic moisturizer regimen vs. a prescription regimen with 0.02% tretinoin for improving the appearance of facial wrinkles. An 8-week, randomized, parallel-group study was conducted in 196 women with moderate to moderately severe periorbital wrinkles. Following 2 weeks washout, subjects on the cosmetic regimen (n = 99) used a sun protection factor (SPF) 30 moisturizing lotion containing 5% niacinamide, peptides and antioxidants, a moisturizing cream containing niacinamide and peptides, and a targeted wrinkle product containing niacinamide, peptides and 0.3% retinyl propionate. Subjects on the prescription regimen (n = 97) used 0.02% tretinoin plus moisturizing SPF 30 sunscreen. Subject cohorts (n = 25) continued treatment for an additional 16 weeks. Changes in facial wrinkling were assessed by both expert grading and image analysis of digital images of subjects' faces and by self-assessment questionnaire. Product tolerance was assessed via clinical erythema and dryness grading, subject self-assessment, and determinations of skin barrier integrity (transepidermal water loss) and stratum corneum protein changes. The cosmetic regimen significantly improved wrinkle appearance after 8 weeks relative to tretinoin, with comparable benefits after 24 weeks. The cosmetic regimen was significantly better tolerated than tretinoin through 8 weeks by all measures. An appropriately designed cosmetic regimen can improve facial wrinkle appearance comparably with the benchmark prescription treatment, with improved tolerability.

  16. CX717 as a positive allosteric modulator of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor: research advances%AMPA受体正向变构调节剂CX717研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺艺超; 肖典; 齐倩倩; 赵国明; 周辛波

    2013-01-01

    α-氨基-3-羟基-5-甲基-4-异噁唑丙酸(AMPA)受体是离子型谷氨酸受体的一种亚型,分布于中枢神经系统的突触后膜,介导大多数快速兴奋性神经传递.CX717是由美国Cortex制药公司研制的苯甲酰胺类AMPA受体正向调节剂,能够降低AMPA受体失活或降敏的速度从而提高突触的活性,与阿尔茨海默病、帕金森病、抑郁症和注意力缺陷多动症等疾病的治疗密切相关.本文主要综述CX717在化学结构、药代动力学、毒理学和药效学方面的研究进展.%α-Amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor,a subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the postsynaptic membrane of the central nervous system (CNS),mediates most of the fast excitatory neurotransmission.CX717 developed by Cortex Pharmaceuticals Company of the USA belongs to the benzamide series of AMPA receptor positive modulators.It can reduce the speed of AMPA receptor inactivation or desensitization,thereby enhancing synaptic activity,and is closely related to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease,Parkinson's disease,depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD).This article reviews the latest research of CX717 regarding its structure,pharmacokinetics,toxicology and pharmacodynamics.

  17. A review of the clinical efficacy and safety of MP-AzeFlu, a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate, in clinical studies conducted during different allergy seasons in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prenner BM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruce M Prenner Allergy Associates Medical Group, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: A novel intranasal formulation of azelastine HCl (AZE, an antihistamine and fluticasone propionate (FP, a corticosteroid in a single spray (MP-AzeFlu [Dymista®] was studied in four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis conducted in the US. Study sites were distributed so that all major US geographic regions and the prevalent pollens within these regions were represented. Spring and summer studies included patients aged 12 years and older with allergy to grass and tree pollens. Fall studies enrolled patients with allergy to weeds, in particular ragweed. In addition, a study was conducted during the winter months in patients with allergy to mountain cedar pollen in TX, USA. Regardless of allergy season or prevalent pollen, MP-AzeFlu improved nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR to a significantly greater degree than AZE or FP, two treatments that currently are recommended as the first-line AR therapy. MP-AzeFlu improved all individual AR symptoms and was significantly better than FP and AZE for nasal congestion relief, which is generally accepted as the most bothersome symptom for AR patients. The onset of action was within 30 minutes. MP-AzeFlu also provided clinically important improvement in the overall Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score and significantly improved ocular symptoms of rhinitis compared to placebo. Favorable characteristics of the MP-AzeFlu formulation as well as superior clinical efficacy make it an ideal intranasal therapy for AR. Keywords: Dymista, seasonal allergic rhinitis, grass pollen, ragweed, Texas mountain cedar, intranasal therapy

  18. Natural reward experience alters AMPA and NMDA receptor distribution and function in the nucleus accumbens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle K Pitchers

    Full Text Available Natural reward and drugs of abuse converge upon the mesolimbic system which mediates motivation and reward behaviors. Drugs induce neural adaptations in this system, including transcriptional, morphological, and synaptic changes, which contribute to the development and expression of drug-related memories and addiction. Previously, it has been reported that sexual experience in male rats, a natural reward behavior, induces similar neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic system and affects natural reward and drug-related behavior. The current study determined whether sexual experience causes long-lasting changes in mating, or ionotropic glutamate receptor trafficking or function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, following 3 different reward abstinence periods: 1 day, 1 week, or 1 month after final mating session. Male Sprague Dawley rats mated during 5 consecutive days (sexual experience or remained sexually naïve to serve as controls. Sexually experienced males displayed facilitation of initiation and performance of mating at each time point. Next, intracellular and membrane surface expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA: NR1 subunit and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA: GluA1, GluA2 subunits receptors in the NAc was determined using a bis(sulfosuccinimidylsuberate (BS(3 protein cross-linking assay followed by Western Blot analysis. NR1 expression was increased at 1 day abstinence both at surface and intracellular, but decreased at surface at 1 week of abstinence. GluA2 was increased intracellularly at 1 week and increased at the surface after 1 month of abstinence. Finally, whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiological recordings determined reduced AMPA/NMDA ratio of synaptic currents in NAc shell neurons following stimulation of cortical afferents in sexually experienced males after all reward abstinence periods. Together, these data show that sexual experience causes long-term alterations in glutamate receptor expression and

  19. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome.

  20. Inflammation and immune system alterations in frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xu; Li, Huifen; Leng, Sean X

    2011-02-01

    Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome characterized by multisystem dysregulation. Substantial evidence suggests heightened inflammatory state and significant immune system alterations in frailty. A heightened inflammatory state is marked by increases in levels of inflammatory molecules (interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein) and counts of white blood cell and its subpopulations, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of frailty, directly or through its detrimental influence on other physiologic systems. Alterations in the innate immune system include decreased proliferation of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and upregulated monocytic expression of specific stress-responsive inflammatory pathway genes. In the adaptive immune system, although little information is available about potential B-cell changes, significant alterations have been identified in the T-cell compartment, including increased counts of CD8+, CD8+CD28-, CCR5+T cells, above and beyond age-related senescent immune remodeling.

  1. Alterations of the Erythrocyte Membrane during Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Serroukh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes have been long considered as “dead” cells with transport of oxygen (O2 as their only function. However, the ability of red blood cells (RBCs to modulate the microcirculation is now recognized as an important additional function. This capacity is regulated by a key element in the rheologic process: the RBC membrane. This membrane is a complex unit with multiple interactions between the extracellular and intracellular compartments: blood stream, endothelium, and other blood cells on the one hand, and the intracytoplasmic compartment with possible rapid adaptation of erythrocyte metabolism on the other. In this paper, we review the alterations in the erythrocyte membrane observed in critically ill patients and the influence of these alterations on the microcirculatory abnormalities observed in such patients. An understanding of the mechanisms of RBC rheologic alterations in sepsis and their effects on blood flow and on oxygen transport may be important to help reduce morbidity and mortality from severe sepsis.

  2. Altered global brain signal in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevieve J.; Murray, John D.; Repovs, Grega; Cole, Michael W.; Savic, Aleksandar; Glasser, Matthew F.; Pittenger, Christopher; Krystal, John H.; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Glahn, David C.; Anticevic, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia display a complex neurobiology, which has long been associated with distributed brain dysfunction. However, no investigation has tested whether schizophrenia shows alterations in global brain signal (GS), a signal derived from functional MRI and often discarded as a meaningless baseline in many studies. To evaluate GS alterations associated with schizophrenia, we studied two large chronic patient samples (n = 90, n = 71), comparing them to healthy subjects (n = 220) and patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n = 73). We identified and replicated increased cortical power and variance in schizophrenia, an effect predictive of symptoms yet obscured by GS removal. Voxel-wise signal variance was also increased in schizophrenia, independent of GS effects. Both findings were absent in bipolar patients, confirming diagnostic specificity. Biologically informed computational modeling of shared and nonshared signal propagation through the brain suggests that these findings may be explained by altered net strength of overall brain connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:24799682

  3. Inhalation fluticasone propionate in treatment of children with cough variant asthma%吸入丙酸氟替卡松治疗儿童咳嗽变异性哮喘研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居慧莉; 郁志伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察并比较不同疗程丙酸氟替卡松吸入治疗儿童咳嗽变异性哮喘的疗效、复发率及安全性。方法101例咳嗽变异性哮喘患儿随机分为A、B、C三组,三组均采用丙酸氟替卡松气雾剂吸入治疗,治疗疗程分别为2月、6月、9月。治疗期间随访评价疗效及治疗依从性。停药后随访6个月评价记录咳嗽变异性哮喘复发情况。治疗前后行骨密度、血皮质醇测定及心电图检查评价其安全性。结果三组患儿咳嗽症状均得到有效控制,疗效差异无统计学意义(H=5.2894,P=0.0710)。 A组停药6个月复发率高于B、C组(χ2=4.8581,P=0.0275;χ2=4.4826,P=0.0342),B、C组停药后复发率差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.0222,P=0.8814)。三组治疗前后骨密度、血皮质醇水平差异无统计学意义,心电图检查无异常,未发生声音嘶哑、口腔念珠菌病等局部不良反应。结论丙酸氟替卡松吸入治疗儿童咳嗽变异性哮喘效果良好,且中长疗程方案(6个月)不仅疗效更好,停药复发率更低。%Objective To observe and compare the clinical efficacy,recurrence rate and safety of differ-ent courses of inhalation fluticasone propionate in treatment of children with cough variant asthma. Methods A total of 101 children with cough variant asthma in our hospital were randomly divided into three treatment groups,all with the same therapy drug -fluticasone propionate and with the treatment time of two months, six months and nine months respectively. Clinical efficacy and treatment compliance were followed up during the treatment. After discontinuation,observation for the relapse of cough was followed up for 6 months. In inhalation therapy before and after,bone mineral density( BMD) and blood cortisol,electrocardiogram were monitored re-spectively to observe its safety. Results Three groups of children with cough were all get effective control,with no significant difference(H=5. 2894,P=0. 0710

  4. 丙酸睾酮对萃取神经修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损的促进作用%Promotion of testosterone propionate on repair of rat peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫爱林; 叶小丰; 陶海鹰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the promotion of testosterone propionate on repair of SD rat peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted nerves. Methods A total of 60 adult formale SD rats were randomly divided into three groups,20 rats in each group. Group A:l. 0 cm sciatic nerve defect of SD rats were bridged by extracted nerves, and at the same time testosterone propionate was injected into the triceps muscle of calf (50 g/L,0.1 ml,BiW). Group B:The nerve defects of SD rats were repaired by extracted nerves,and sodium chloride was injected (0.1 ml,BiW). Group C;the nerve defects were bridged by auto sciatic nerve. The recovery rate of motor nerve conduction velocities (RRMNCV) and the complex muscular action potential (RRCMAP) in each group were measured at the 16th week after operation. The recovery rate of myelinated fiber populations (RRMFP) was tested. The injured side triceps surae wet weight (ITSWW) and uninjured side triceps surae wet weight (UTSWW) in groups A,B and C were compaired. Results At the 16th week, RRMNCV in groups A, B and C were (59. 06 ± 10. 33)% , (45. 80 ± 9.05)% ,and (23.45 ±4. 60)% correspondingly. There were statistical differences among groups A,B and C (P<0.05).RRCMAP in groups A,B and C was (76. 64 ±5. 01)%, (64. 55 ±4. 20)% ,and (20.44 ±3. 82)% correspondingly. There were statistical differences among groups A,B and C (P<0.05). RRMFP in groups A,B and C were (79. 11 ± 2. 55 )% , (63.67 ±4. 97)%,and (29.76 ± 5.68)% correspondingly. There were statistical differences among groups A, B and C (P<0. 05). ITSWW/UTSWW in groups A,B and C was (70.37 ± 9. 54)% , (56. 77 ±6.08)%,and (33.75 ± 7. 89) % correspondingly. There were statistical differences among groups A, B and C (P<0.05 ). The results showed that group A had the best repairing effects,then group B,and group C the worst. Conclusion Chemically extracted nerves by glycerine can be used to repair SD rat sciatic nerve defects,and have a certain effects. Testosterone

  5. Genetic and epigenetic alterations in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpu, Yannick; Hanoun, Naïma; Lulka, Hubert; Sicard, Flavie; Selves, Janick; Buscail, Louis; Torrisani, Jérôme; Cordelier, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. Despite significant progresses in the last decades, the origin of this cancer remains unclear and no efficient therapy exists. PDAC does not arise de novo: three remarkable different types of pancreatic lesions can evolve towards pancreatic cancer. These precursor lesions include: Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) that are microscopic lesions of the pancreas, Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMN) and Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms (MCN) that are both macroscopic lesions. However, the cellular origin of these lesions is still a matter of debate. Classically, neoplasm initiation or progression is driven by several genetic and epigenetic alterations. The aim of this review is to assemble the current information on genetic mutations and epigenetic disorders that affect genes during pancreatic carcinogenesis. We will further discuss the interest of the genetic and epigenetic alterations for the diagnosis and prognosis of PDAC. Large genetic alterations (chromosomal deletion/amplification) and single point mutations are well described for carcinogenesis inducers. Mutations classically occur within key regions of the genome. Consequences are various and include activation of mitogenic pathways or silencing of apoptotic processes. Alterations of K-RAS, P16 and DPC4 genes are frequently observed in PDAC samples and have been described to arise gradually during carcinogenesis. DNA methylation is an epigenetic process involved in imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. Alteration of DNA methylation patterns leads to deregulation of gene expression, in the absence of mutation. Both genetic and epigenetic events influence genes and non-coding RNA expression, with dramatic effects on proliferation, survival and invasion. Besides improvement in our fundamental understanding of PDAC development, highlighting the molecular alterations that occur in pancreatic carcinogenesis could

  6. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  7. Portrét-Alter ego

    OpenAIRE

    BUČKOVÁ, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor work is focused in the topic of alter ego in art, mainly in portrait and self- portrait. This work is diveded in two parts-theory and practical part. In the first part I´m interested in ?alter ego?- where it comes form, history (shamanism), these days ( body modification). In the sekond part I´m interested in person (as a whole unit), psychology and psychoanalysis. In the end of the theory I remember (notice) an author, who works with simile topics. In the practical part I descri...

  8. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah; van de Goot, Frank; Ruijter, Jan; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2017-01-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered

  9. Connective tissue alteration in abdominal wall hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Yadete, D H; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of abdominal wall hernia formation is complex. Optimal treatment of hernias depends on a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their formation. The aim of this study was to review the literature on specific collagen alterations in abdom...

  10. Diabetic rat testes: morphological and functional alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Esposito, R; Pisanti, F A; Vietri, M T; Galdieri, M

    2009-12-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the histological and molecular alterations in the testes of rats injected with streptozotocin at prepuperal (SPI rats) and adult age (SAI rats) to understand whether diabetes affects testicular tissue with different severity depending on the age in which this pathological condition starts. The testes of diabetic animals showed frequent abnormal histology, and seminiferous epithelium cytoarchitecture appeared altered as well as the occludin distribution pattern. The early occurrence of diabetes increased the percentage of animals with high number of damaged tubules. The interstitial compartment of the testes was clearly hypertrophic in several portions of the organs both in SPI and SAI rats. Interestingly, fully developed Leydig cells were present in all the treated animals although abnormally distributed. Besides the above-described damages, we found a similar decrease in plasma testosterone levels both in SPI and SAI rats. Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications, and in our experimental models we found that manganese superoxide dismutase was reduced in diabetic animals. We conclude that in STZ-induced diabetes, the altered spermatogenesis, more severe in SPI animals, is possibly due to the effect of OS on Leydig cell function which could cause the testosterone decrease responsible for the alterations found in the seminiferous epithelium of diabetic animals.

  11. Acting: An Altered State of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiffele, Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Uses notions from the field Psychology of Consciousness, including an explanation of how psychologists define and investigate Altered States of Consciousness (ASCs). Argues that actors routinely enter an ASC. Establishes acting as a way to enter an ASC and discusses why theater artists, educators, and advocates need to be aware of both the dangers…

  12. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  13. Reorientation from Altered States: Please, More Carefully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Claims counselors too often appear to forget to reorient clients from altered states of consciousness used in counseling and that failure to reorient can result in unnecessary discomfort for clients. Provides suggestions for when and how to reorient to avoid unwanted, lingering aftereffects. (Author/ABL)

  14. Altered Images: The Camera, Computer, & Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Mary

    The speech contained in this document originally accompanied a slide presentation on the altered photographic image. The discussion examines the links between photographic tradition and contemporary visual imaging, the current transformation of visual imaging by the computer, and the effects of digital imaging on visual arts. Photography has a…

  15. Gold mobility during Palaeoarchaean submarine alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Axel; Pitcairn, Iain; Wilson, Allan

    2017-03-01

    Seafloor alteration provides large amounts of solutes to the hydrosphere. In order to investigate gold mobility during water-rock interaction prior to 3-billion-years ago, low detection limit analysis of Au concentrations was carried out on rocks from marine alteration zones. Stratiform zones recording low-temperature (≤150 °C) seafloor alteration are a characteristic feature of greenstone belts older than 3.0 Ga. Hydrothermal processes were operating on, and immediately below, the seafloor, giving rise to extensive silicification of sub-seafloor volcanic rocks and silicification of seafloor sediments. In order to investigate gold mobility during silicification, unaltered and variably silicified volcanic rocks and associated cherts from Palaeoarchaean greenstone successions (c. 3.4 Ga) of South Africa were analyzed. Results show mobility of gold during silicification of mafic/ultramafic rocks and transfer to the Archaean ocean. Some gold was incorporated into carbonaceous marine sediments overlying the alteration zones. A combination of pervasive silicification, rarity of black shales, and low gold content in komatiites can explain the low mineralization potential of Palaeoarchaean greenstone belts for orogenic gold deposits.

  16. Multisensory integration: how sound alters sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Jess R; Shapiro, Kimron L

    2015-01-19

    What we hear can rapidly alter what we see. A new study provides evidence for a mechanism in which 10 Hz oscillations in the visual system define the time window for integrating auditory and visual information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  18. Olfactory alterations in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Semeraro Jordy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This cross-sectional study involves 100 multiple sclerosis (MS and 100 non-MS patients, under the age of 60 years old, with nasal obstruction, traumatic brain injury, previous rhinoplasty or neurosurgery, and so forth. Objective To assess olfactory function using the Connecticut test and verify correlations between olfactory alteration, disease duration and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. Methods One hundred MS patients and 100 healthy control patients responded to a questionnaire. Those with olfactory alteration underwent a facial CT to exclude other causes. Results Thirty-two percent of patients showed alterations, compared with 3% in the healthy control group. Patients having EDSS above 4, showed a 5.2-times increased risk of dysfunction. Patients over 38 years of age have a 2.2-times increased risk over younger patients. Conclusions Because MS patients are likely to experience olfactory alterations, this study is a useful tool in follow-up care, although more studies are necessary to evaluate the correlations in MS evolution.

  19. Altered gut microbiota in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Albanese, Davide; De Felice, Claudio; Donati, Claudio; Hayek, Joussef; Jousson, Olivier; Leoncini, Silvia; Pindo, Massimo; Renzi, Daniela; Rizzetto, Lisa; Stefanini, Irene; Calabrò, Antonio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-07-30

    The human gut microbiota directly affects human health, and its alteration can lead to gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammation. Rett syndrome (RTT), a progressive neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene, is commonly associated with gastrointestinal dysfunctions and constipation, suggesting a link between RTT's gastrointestinal abnormalities and the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of RTT subjects integrating clinical, metabolomics and metagenomics data to understand if changes in the gut microbiota of RTT subjects could be associated with gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammatory status. Our findings revealed the occurrence of an intestinal sub-inflammatory status in RTT subjects as measured by the elevated values of faecal calprotectin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. We showed that, overall, RTT subjects harbour bacterial and fungal microbiota altered in terms of relative abundances from those of healthy controls, with a reduced microbial richness and dominated by microbial taxa belonging to Bifidobacterium, several Clostridia (among which Anaerostipes, Clostridium XIVa, Clostridium XIVb) as well as Erysipelotrichaceae, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Eggerthella, Escherichia/Shigella and the fungal genus Candida. We further observed that alterations of the gut microbiota do not depend on the constipation status of RTT subjects and that this dysbiotic microbiota produced altered short chain fatty acids profiles. We demonstrated for the first time that RTT is associated with a dysbiosis of both the bacterial and fungal component of the gut microbiota, suggesting that impairments of MeCP2 functioning favour the establishment of a microbial community adapted to the costive gastrointestinal niche of RTT subjects. The altered production of short chain fatty acids associated with this microbiota might reinforce the constipation status of RTT

  20. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-07-01

    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  1. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  2. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einen, J.; Kruber, C.; Øvreås, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.

    2006-03-01

    Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004). The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group of prosthecate oligotrophic

  3. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Einen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004. The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group

  4. Metabolic flux analysis of propionic acid biosynthesis with two immobilized cell reactors fermentation by Propionibacterium%丙酸杆菌的两种固定化细胞反应器发酵生产丙酸及其代谢通量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 冯小海; 吴波; 李莎; 徐虹

    2011-01-01

    根据构建的费氏丙酸杆菌合成丙酸的生化反应网络,利用代谢通量分析法分析了课题组构建的两种固定化细胞反应器对丙酸发酵的影响.结果表明,固定化细胞发酵可以调节葡萄糖-6-磷酸、磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸和丙酮酸节点处的代谢通量分布,从而最终影响生物量和各种有机酸的合成.与游离发酵相比,两种固定化发酵方式戊糖磷酸途径通最都有显著提高,乙酸和乳酸通量均有减少.与植物纤维床反应器主要靠直接加强丙酸合成途径使丙酸产率提高了242.72%不同,多点式棉纤维床反应器发酵主要是通过琥珀酸合成途径的增强而使丙酸产率提高了56.80%.比较了相关关键酶的比活.酶活变化与代谢通量结果基本一致.%The metabolic network of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 for propionic acid biosynthesis, with glucose as the sole carbon source, was built based on the stoichiometric balance equations to illustrate the carbon flux distribution of intermediates and metabolites. The propionic acid production with two immobilized cell reactors fermentation was studied by using the metabolic flux analysis method. The results showed that the flux distribution of nodes of glucose 6-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate changed after immobilized cells fermentation regulation. Compared with free cells fermentation, the flux of HMP of the two immobilized cells fermentation significantly increased, also with decrease fluxes of acetic acid and lactic acid. The productivity of propionic acid in plant fibrous-bed reactor fermentation increased 242.72% mainly by directly enhancing propionic acid synthesis pathway, while in the multi-point fibrous-bed reactor fermentation it increased 56.80% through the enhancement of succinic acid biosynthetic pathway, and the relevant key enzyme activity and metabolic flux variation had good consistency.

  5. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life.

  6. The effect of chromium as chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and the fatty acid profile of fat from pigs fed no supplemented dietary fat, choice white grease, or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R; Powell, S; Johnston, S L; Matthews, J O; Bidner, T D; Valdez, F R; Southern, L L

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of Cr as chromium propionate (CrProp) on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and the fatty acid profile of fat from pigs fed no supplemented dietary fat, choice white grease (CWG), or tallow. An experiment was conducted with 108 crossbred Yorkshire gilts assigned in a randomized complete block design based on BW (average initial and final BW were 29 +/- 3 and 109 +/- 7 kg, respectively) and allotted within block to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The treatment arrangement consisted of 2 levels of Cr supplementation (0 and 200 microg/kg in the form of CrProp) and 3 dietary fat sources (no added fat, CWG, or tallow). Each treatment was replicated 6 times with 3 pigs per replicate pen. The experiment was conducted over time with 3 replicates in each of 2 trials. A 4-phase grower-finisher feeding program was used. Dietary treatments were 1) a corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diet with no added fat; 2) a C-SBM diet with 4% added tallow; 3) a C-SBM diet with 4% added CWG; 4) diet 1 + 200 microg/kg of Cr as CrProp; and 5) diet 2 + 200 microg/kg of Cr; 6) diet 3 + 200 microg/kg of Cr. Addition of Cr did not affect (P > 0.10) growth performance, but did decrease (P = 0.05) 10th-rib backfat and increase (P = 0.03) percentage of muscle. Gain:feed was increased (P = 0.003) and ADFI was decreased (P = 0.03) by fat addition. Fat addition increased HCW (P = 0.05) and dressing percent (P = 0.03). Average backfat, 9th-rib LM cook loss, and 10th-rib LM drip loss and total loss were decreased (P = 0.02 to 0.04) by tallow. Belly bending on both the teatline and scribe side were increased (P = 0.01 to 0.03) by CWG. Iodine values on belly fat samples were decreased (P = 0.02) by Cr supplementation. In addition, iodine values on belly and loin fat samples were increased (P = 0.001) by CWG. Overall, Cr supplementation decreased backfat and the iodine value of belly fat and increased the percentage of muscle.

  7. Development of continuous dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction performed in home-made device for extraction and preconcentration of aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides from aqueous samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Mohebbi, Ali; Feriduni, Behruz

    2016-05-12

    In this study, a rapid, simple, and efficient sample preparation method based on continuous dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides from aqueous samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. In this method, two parallel glass tubes with different diameters are connected with a teflon stopcock and used as an extraction device. A mixture of disperser and extraction solvents is transferred into one side (narrow tube) of the extraction device and an aqueous phase containing the analytes is filled into the other side (wide tube). Then the stopcock is opened and the mixture of disperser and extraction solvents mixes with the aqueous phase. By this action, the extraction solvent is dispersed continuously as fine droplets into the aqueous sample and the target analytes are extracted into the fine droplets of the extraction solvent. The fine droplets move up through the aqueous phase due to its low density compared to aqueous phase and collect on the surface of the aqueous phase as an organic layer. Finally an aliquot of the organic phase is removed and injected into the separation system for analysis. Several parameters that can affect extraction efficiency including type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, sample pH, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 49 to 74% and 1633 to 2466, respectively. Relative standard deviations were in the ranges of 3-6% (n = 6, C = 30 μg L(-1)) for intra-day and 4-7% (n = 4, C = 30 μg L(-1)) for inter-day precisions. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.20-0.86 μg L(-1). Finally the proposed method was successfully applied to determine the target herbicides in fruit juice and vegetable samples.

  8. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-07-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  9. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies.

  10. Molecular Alterations in Sporadic Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Alvelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is a frequent endocrine disorder characterized by an excessive autonomous production and release of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid glands. This endocrinopathy may result from the development of a benign lesion (adenoma or hyperplasia or from a carcinoma. Most of the PHPT cases occur sporadically; however, approximately 10% of the patients present a familial form of the disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of sporadic PHPT are incompletely understood, even though somatic alterations in MEN1 gene and CCND1 protein overexpression are frequently observed. The MEN1 gene is mutated in about 30% of the parathyroid tumours and the protooncogene CCND1 is implicated in parathyroid neoplasia by rearrangements, leading to an overexpression of CCND1 protein in parathyroid cells. The aim of this work is to briefly update the molecular alterations underlying sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.

  11. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  12. Economic scarcity alters the perception of race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosch, Amy R; Amodio, David M

    2014-06-24

    When the economy declines, racial minorities are hit the hardest. Although existing explanations for this effect focus on institutional causes, recent psychological findings suggest that scarcity may also alter perceptions of race in ways that exacerbate discrimination. We tested the hypothesis that economic resource scarcity causes decision makers to perceive African Americans as "Blacker" and that this visual distortion elicits disparities in the allocation of resources. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that scarcity altered perceptions of race, lowering subjects' psychophysical threshold for seeing a mixed-race face as "Black" as opposed to "White." In studies 3 and 4, scarcity led subjects to visualize African American faces as darker and more "stereotypically Black," compared with a control condition. When presented to naïve subjects, face representations produced under scarcity elicited smaller allocations than control-condition representations. Together, these findings introduce a novel perceptual account for the proliferation of racial disparities under economic scarcity.

  13. Identifying associations between genomic alterations in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Joshy; Gorringe, Kylie L; Smyth, Gordon K; Bowtell, David D L

    2013-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping arrays are a reliable method for identifying somatic copy number alterations in cancer samples. Though this is immensely useful to identify potential driver genes, it is not sufficient to identify genes acting in a concerted manner. In cancer cells, co-amplified genes have been shown to provide synergistic effects, and genomic alterations targeting a pathway have been shown to occur in a mutually exclusive manner. We therefore developed a bioinformatic method for detecting such gene pairs using an integrated analysis of genomic copy number and gene expression data. This approach allowed us to identify a gene pair that is co-amplified and co-expressed in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. This finding provided information about the interaction of specific genetic events that contribute to the development and progression of this disease.

  14. Neurobiological alterations in alcohol addiction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Callado, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    The exact mechanism by which ethanol exerts its effects on the brain is still unknown. However, nowadays it is well known that ethanol interacts with specific neuronal membrane proteins involved in signal transmission, resulting in changes in neural activity. In this review different neurochemical alterations produced by ethanol are described. Primarily, ethanol interacts with two membrane receptors: GABAA and NMDA ion channel receptors. Ethanol enhances the GABA action and antagonizes glutamate action, therefore acting as a CNS depressant. In addition, ethanol affects most other neurochemical and endocrine systems. In regard to the brain reward system, both dopaminergic and opioid system are affected by this drug. Furthermore, the serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotropin-releasing factor and cannabinoid systems seem to play an important role in the neurobiology of alcoholism. At last but not least, ethanol can also modulate cytoplasmic components, including the second messengers. We also review briefly the different actual and putative pharmacological treatments for alcoholism, based on the alterations produced by this drug.

  15. Alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华明; 胡岳华; 杨武国; 敖伟琴; 邱冠周

    2004-01-01

    Diaspore (α-AlOOH) was heated at various temperatures from 300 to 1000 ℃ for 2 h. The alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment was investigated by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of diaspore was discussed according to the Coats-Redfern equation. It is found that after thermal treatment at 500 ℃, diaspore is transformed entirely to corundum (α-Al2O3). Combined with the mass loss ratio obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis data, the activation energies for the thermal treatment of diaspore are calculated as Ea=10.4 kJ/mol below 400 ℃ and Eb=47.5 kJ/mol above 400 ℃, respectively, which is directly related to the structural alteration of diaspore during the thermal treatment. The results indicate that the thermal decomposition of diaspore is conducted primarily by means of an interfacial reaction.

  16. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  17. Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: the altered auditory feedback paradigm and the glove effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF in musician's dystonia (MD and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004. Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in synchrony with a metronome on a MIDI-piano with 3 auditory feedback conditions: 1. normal feedback; 2. no feedback; 3. constant delayed feedback. Experiment 2 employs synchronization-continuation paradigm: 12 MD patients and 12 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in two phases: first in synchrony with a metronome, secondly continue the established tempo without the metronome. There are 4 experimental conditions, among them 3 are the same altered auditory feedback as in Experiment 1 and 1 is related to altered tactile sensory input. The coefficient of variation of inter-onset intervals of the key depressions was calculated to evaluate fine motor control. Results: In both experiments, the healthy controls and the patients behaved very similarly. There is no difference in the regularity of playing between the two groups under any condition, and neither did AAF nor did altered tactile feedback have a beneficial effect on patients’ fine motor control. Conclusions: The results of the two experiments suggest that in the context of our experimental designs, AAF and altered tactile feedback play a minor role in motor coordination in patients with musicians' dystonia. We propose that altered auditory and tactile feedback do not serve as effective sensory tricks and may not temporarily reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from MD in this experimental context.

  18. Ocean acidification alters fish-jellyfish symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pitt, Kylie A; Rutte, Melchior D; Geertsma, Robbert C

    2016-06-29

    Symbiotic relationships are common in nature, and are important for individual fitness and sustaining species populations. Global change is rapidly altering environmental conditions, but, with the exception of coral-microalgae interactions, we know little of how this will affect symbiotic relationships. We here test how the effects of ocean acidification, from rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, may alter symbiotic interactions between juvenile fish and their jellyfish hosts. Fishes treated with elevated seawater CO2 concentrations, as forecast for the end of the century on a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario, were negatively affected in their behaviour. The total time that fish (yellowtail scad) spent close to their jellyfish host in a choice arena where they could see and smell their host was approximately three times shorter under future compared with ambient CO2 conditions. Likewise, the mean number of attempts to associate with jellyfish was almost three times lower in CO2-treated compared with control fish, while only 63% (high CO2) versus 86% (control) of all individuals tested initiated an association at all. By contrast, none of three fish species tested were attracted solely to jellyfish olfactory cues under present-day CO2 conditions, suggesting that the altered fish-jellyfish association is not driven by negative effects of ocean acidification on olfaction. Because shelter is not widely available in the open water column and larvae of many (and often commercially important) pelagic species associate with jellyfish for protection against predators, modification of the fish-jellyfish symbiosis might lead to higher mortality and alter species population dynamics, and potentially have flow-on effects for their fisheries.

  19. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  20. The Effects of Peatland Plant Functional Types and Altered Hydrology on Porewater Chemistry in a Northern Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, A.; Kane, E. S.; Lilleskov, E. A.; Kolka, R. K.; Chimner, R. A.; Potvin, L. R.; Romanowicz, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Northern wetlands, peatlands in particular, have been shown to store around 30% of the world's soil carbon and thus play a significant role in the carbon cycle of our planet. Carbon accumulation in peatlands is the result of retarded decomposition due to low oxygen availability in these water-logged environments. Changes in our planet's climate cycles are altering peatland hydrology and vegetation communities, resulting in changes in their ability to sequester carbon through increases in peat carbon oxidation and mineralization. To date, the consequences of altered hydrology and changes in vegetation communities, and their interactive effects on carbon storage, are not well understood. We have initiated a research plan that assesses the varying roles that water table variation and vegetation communities have on extracellular enzyme activity and labile carbon availability in porewater from an ombrotrophic bog. We assessed the effects of plant functional group (ericaceous shrubs, sedges, and bryophytes) and water table position on biogeochemical processes. Specifically, we measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), enzyme activity, organic acids, anions and cations, spectral indexes of aromaticity, and phenolic content in addressing our hypotheses of responses to climate change drivers. Research on these components will evaluate the relative importance of biology, water table, and their interactive affects on the porewater quality of peatlands. We hypothesized that oxygen availability will strongly influence decomposition in these systems but that this response will largely be mediated by changes in plant community and the enzymes associated with root exudates and mycorrhizae. To date, our data confirm vegetation and water table related patterns. Acetate and propionate concentrations in the sedge-dominated communities dropped significantly with depth and drainage, relative to the control and ericaceous treatments, which likely reflects

  1. [Alterations in arterial compliance of dyslipidemic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Fernando Mario; Corral, Pablo; Blanco, Gustavo Hector; Scandurra, Adriana Graciela; Meschino, Gustavo Javier

    2015-01-01

    We studied the alteration on the distensibility of the arterial walls caused by dyslipidemia LDLc dependent, along the decades of life, by means of a study of the radial artery pulse wave. We made an analysis of the radial artery pulse wave records acquired by means a movement displacement sensor, placed on radial palpation area. We recruited 100 dyslipidemic men without other cardiovascular risk factors, between the 3rd and the 6th decade. We identified the reflected wave in the records and we computed the augmentation index in order to quantify its amplitude and position. This index is useful to assess the endothelial dysfunction. Besides, we defined a velocity coefficient as the ratio between the size of the individuals and the delay time between the peak of the systolic wave and the arrival of the reflected wave. Results were compared against those obtained in a group of 161 healthy volunteers. We found that dyslipidemic patients presented augmentation index values similar to controls until the fourth decade, increasing thereafter with significant differences only in the 6th decade. No significant differences were found in the velocity index in any of the ages studied. We conclude that alterations produced by dyslipidemia take decades to manifest, and they begin affecting the mechanism of vasodilation of distal arteries with highest proportion of smooth muscle, without altering the proximal conduit arteries with more elastin content. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Alteration of biomechanical properties of burned skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, M; Rahmanian-Schwarz, A; Rothenberger, J; Schiefer, J; Janghorban Esfahani, B; Schaller, H E; Jaminet, P

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of burns in the general population is high. Despite new research findings, skin burns and its resulting tissue damage are still not entirely understood. In particular, little is known about the depth-dependent alteration of skin biomechanical properties of these wounds. Thirty-six burn wounds with six different depths were generated on the abdomen of six Göttingen minipigs. The alteration of skin biomechanical properties was evaluated objectively after 15 and 360 min using a Cutometer device. Biopsies for histological evaluation were taken and the depth of burn was correlated with biomechanical properties. Firmness of skin (R0), overall elasticity (R8) and calculated elasticity (Ue) demonstrated a continuous decrease with an increasing depth of burn 15 min after wound generation. Gross elasticity (R2), net elasticity (R5) and amount of elasticity of the whole curve (R7), however, showed an increase of values with increasing depth of injury. A further decrease of elasticity was demonstrated 360 min after wound generation. The alteration of skin biomechanical properties is a function of damaged tissue structures. The presented results demonstrate a depth-dependent decrease of principal elastic parameters with an increasing depth of burn and the results indicate progressive tissue damage over the time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Altering embryonic cardiac dynamics with optical pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, L M; McPheeters, M; Barwick, L; Gu, S; Rollins, A M; Jenkins, M W

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that altering blood flow early in development leads to congenital heart defects. In these studies the perturbations to hemodynamics were very gross manipulations (vessel ligation, conotruncal banding, etc.) that would be inappropriate for probing the delicate mechanisms responsible for mechanically-transduced signaling. Also, these perturbations lacked feedback from a monitoring system to determine the exact degree of alteration and the location of its effect. Here, we employed optical pacing (OP) to alter the heart rate in quail embryos and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the resultant shear forces on the endocardium. OP is a new technique utilizing pulsed 1.851 µm infrared laser light to noninvasively capture the heart rate to the pulse frequency of the laser without the use of exogenous agents. To measure shear stress on the endocardium, we extended our previous OCT algorithms to enable the production of 4-D shear maps. 4-D shear maps allowed observation of the spatial and temporal distribution of shear stress. Employing both OCT and OP, we were able to develop perturbation protocols that increase regurgitant flow and greatly modify the oscillatory shear index (OSI) in a region of the heart tube where future valves will develop. Regurgitant flow has been linked with valve development and precise perturbations may allow one to determine the role of hemodynamics in valvulogenesis.

  4. Altering the SNR by noise manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2000-12-01

    Irradiation of a photodetector by very short pulses is presented as the primary and perhaps the only remote technology for altering the SNR. Such noise manipulation will decrease the SNR value for certain types of common MIR and LWIR photodetectors. The effect is based on the differences between carrier lifetime, detector material heat transfer rate and altering pulse dwell time. When the pulse width is much less than photodetector rise time, most of the photons cannot generate free carriers, but only heat. Since the heat transfer rate in semiconductors is much slower than carrier's lifetime, high temperature will affect the detector much longer than common input signal correlation length or frame period. We describe thermal, radiometric and electronic circuit models developed to simulate the transfer of short pulses of time-dependent radiant and electrical signals through a photodetector during the alteration. The models are developed to provide an analysis tool for evaluating the time-dependent radiometric sensitivity for the remote gain control of IR photodetectors.

  5. Neck muscle fatigue alters upper limb proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Limb proprioception is an awareness by the central nervous system (CNS) of the location of a limb in three-dimensional space and is essential for movement and postural control. The CNS uses the position of the head and neck when interpreting the position of the upper limb, and altered input from neck muscles may affect the sensory inputs to the CNS and consequently may impair the awareness of upper limb joint position. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fatigue of the cervical extensors muscles (CEM) using a submaximal fatigue protocol alters the ability to recreate a previously presented elbow angle with the head in a neutral position. Twelve healthy individuals participated. CEM activity was examined bilaterally using surface electromyography, and kinematics of the elbow joint was measured. The fatigue protocol included an isometric neck extension task at 70 % of maximum until failure. Joint position error increased following fatigue, demonstrating a significant main effect of time (F 2, 18 = 19.41, p ≤ 0.0001) for absolute error. No significant differences were found for variable error (F 2, 18 = 0.27, p = 0.76) or constant error (F 2, 18 = 1.16 of time, p ≤ 0.33). This study confirms that fatigue of the CEM can reduce the accuracy of elbow joint position matching. This suggests that altered afferent input from the neck subsequent to fatigue may impair upper limb proprioception.

  6. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks.

  7. Solubility parameter of poly(vinyl propionate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  8. Chemistry, mineralogy and alteration intensity of hydrothermal altered Mt Unzen conduit rocks (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kai-Uwe; Yilmaz, Tim; Gilg, H. Albert; Janots, Emilie; Mayer, Klaus; Nakada, Setsuya; Dingwell, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, C-O-isotope, hot-cathode CL and SEM analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity and type of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the volcanic conduit rocks was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite and kaolinite group minerals indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate and chlorite pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite, R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals in the groundmass. Late chlorite veins crosscut precipitates of R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals. Carbonates in fractures and in pseudomorphs after hornblende comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration

  9. Nail alterations during pregnancy: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpolat, Seval; Eser, Ayla; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Balci, Hatice; Kosus, Aydin; Kosus, Nermin

    2016-10-01

    During pregnancy, cutaneous and appendageal alterations manifest and may cause concern in the subject. The nails may be affected by pregnancy. This study investigated the frequency and nature of nail changes occurring during pregnancy in 312 healthy, 18-40-year-old pregnant women in gestation weeks 16-40. After a routine obstetric examination at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at the study institution, all subjects submitted to an examination of all fingernails and toenails. Only nail alterations that had developed during pregnancy were recorded. Any nail changes that had occurred before the start of gestation were not considered. Data were presented as percentages. The Shapiro-Wilk and chi-squared tests were used to make categorical comparisons. A P-value of nail pathologies were detected in 116 (37.2%) of the 312 subjects. The most commonly found nail change was leukonychia (24.4%). Ingrown toenail (9.0%) and onychoschizia (9.0%) represented the second most common nail changes. Rapid nail growth and subungual hyperkeratosis were observed in 6.7% and 4.2%, respectively, of subjects. When the alterations were evaluated according to gestational age, the most common nail pathology was leukonychia at both 14-28 weeks (16.3%) and 29-42 weeks (27.4%) of pregnancy. Leukonychia, onychoschizia, onycholysis, and brittle nail pathologies were frequently observed at 29-42 weeks of pregnancy (P = 0.047). A large proportion of nail changes that occur during pregnancy are benign and do not require treatment. However, these changes may cause significant cosmetic stress in women.

  10. Radiation induces acute alterations in neuronal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Wu

    Full Text Available Every year, nearly 200,000 patients undergo radiation for brain tumors. For both patients and caregivers the most distressing adverse effect is impaired cognition. Efforts to protect against this debilitating effect have suffered from inadequate understanding of the cellular mechanisms of radiation damage. In the past it was accepted that radiation-induced normal tissue injury resulted from a progressive reduction in the survival of clonogenic cells. Moreover, because radiation-induced brain dysfunction is believed to evolve over months to years, most studies have focused on late changes in brain parenchyma. However, clinically, acute changes in cognition are also observed. Because neurons are fully differentiated post-mitotic cells, little information exists on the acute effects of radiation on synaptic function. The purpose of our study was to assess the potential acute effects of radiation on neuronal function utilizing ex vivo hippocampal brain slices. The cellular localization and functional status of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors was identified by immunoblotting. Electrophysiological recordings were obtained both for populations of neuronal cells and individual neurons. In the dentate gyrus region of isolated ex vivo slices, radiation led to early decreases in tyrosine phosphorylation and removal of excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs from the cell surface while simultaneously increasing the surface expression of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA(ARs. These alterations in cellular localization corresponded with altered synaptic responses and inhibition of long-term potentiation. The non-competitive NMDAR antagonist memantine blocked these radiation-induced alterations in cellular distribution. These findings demonstrate acute effects of radiation on neuronal cells within isolated brain slices and open new avenues for study.

  11. Genetic alterations in primary glioblastomas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Takao; Favereaux, Alexandre; Huang, Hervé; Shimizu, Tsuneo; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Nakazato, Yoichi; Ohagki, Hiroko

    2006-01-01

    Current knowledge of genetic alterations in glioblastomas is based largely on genetic analyses of tumors from mainly caucasian patients in the United States and Europe. In the present study, screening for several key genetic alterations was performed on 77 primary (de novo) glioblastomas in Japanese patients. SSCP followed by DNA sequencing revealed TP53 mutations in 16 of 73 (22%) glioblastomas and PTEN mutations in 13 of 63 (21%) cases analyzed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed EGFR amplification in 25 of 77 (32%) cases and p16 homozygous deletion in 32 of 77 (42%) cases. Quantitative microsatellite analysis revealed LOH 10q in 41 of 59 (69%) glioblastomas. The frequencies of these genetic alterations were similar to those reported for primary glioblastomas at the population level in Switzerland. As previously observed for glioblastomas in Europe, there was a positive association between EGFR amplification and p16 deletion (p=0.009), whereas there was an inverse association between TP53 mutations and p16 deletion (p=0.049) in glioblastomas in Japan. Multivariate analyses showed that radiotherapy was significantly predictive for longer survival of glioblastoma patients (p=0.002). SSCP followed by DNA sequencing of the kinase domain (exons 18-21) of the EGFR gene revealed mutations in 2 ou of 69 (3%) glioblastomas in Japan and in 4 of 81 (5%) glioblastomas in Switzerland. The allele frequencies of polymorphisms at codon 787 CAG/CAA (Gln/Gln) in glioblastomas in Japan were G/G (82.4%), G/A (10.8%), A/A (6.8%), corresponding to G 0.878 versus A 0.122, significantly different from those in glioblastomas in Switzerland: G/G (27.2%), G/A (28.4%), A/A (44.4%), corresponding to G 0.414 versus A 0.586 (p < 0.0001). These results suggest that primary glioblastomas in Japan show genetic alterations similar to those in Switzerland, suggesting a similar molecular basis in caucasians and Asians, despite different genetic backgrounds, including different status of a

  12. Happiness, Deprivation and the Alter Ego

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Verme

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on satisfaction with income and proposes a utility model built on two value systems, the `Ego' system - described as one own income assessment relatively to one own past and future income - and the `Alter' system - described as one own income assessment relatively to a reference group. We show how the union of these two value systems and the use of relative deprivation measures can lead to a model able to accommodate a wide range of theories on income and happiness. The mode...

  13. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Mari S; Collman, Gwen W; Foster, Paul M D

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated...... with an increased risk for testicular cancer according to several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Girls and, possibly, boys who exhibit premature adrenarche are at a higher risk for developing features of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood...

  14. Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Cervical Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is responsible for 10–15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide1,2. The etiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) in cervical carcinomas is well established3. Previous studies have implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS4–7 as well as several copy number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas8,9. Here, we report whole exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, tran...

  15. Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yesilkanal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2009, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC was thought to be the only biologically significant cytosine modification in mammalian DNA. With the discovery of the TET enzymes, which convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC, however, intense interest has emerged in determining the biological function of 5-hmC. Here, we review the techniques used to study 5-hmC and evidence that alterations to 5-hmC physiology play a functional role in the molecular pathogenesis of human cancers.

  16. Antibacterial Activity and Preservative Effect of Flavonoids from Banana Peels alone and Their Blends with Propionic Acid or Tea Polyphenols%香蕉果皮黄酮及与丙酸、茶多酚复配剂的抑菌防腐作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖建平; 顾采琴; 朱冬雪; 梁风; 刘燕飞; 罗军

    2012-01-01

    从香蕉果皮中提取的黄酮分别与丙酸、茶多酚复配得到不同复配剂,通过测定抑菌圈大小和最小抑菌质量浓度(MIC),研究不同复配剂对食品中常见污染菌和致病菌的抑菌活性,并对具有协同增效作用的复配剂在部分食品上的防腐保鲜效果进行探讨。结果表明:香蕉皮黄酮.丙酸(体积比1:0.25)对白假丝酵母的抑菌圈直径是香蕉果皮黄酮的7.2倍,也优于苯甲酸钠,表现出明显的协同增效作用,其MIC为41.7mg/mL;香蕉皮黄酮一丙酸(体积比1:1)对黄曲霉的抑制也有协同增效作用,其MIC为10.4mg/mL;香蕉皮黄酮一茶多酚(体积比1:1)对枯草芽孢杆菌的抑菌作用均好于茶多酚,也好于苯甲酸钠,表现出较好的协同增效作用,其MIC为7.8mg/mL。以上3种复配剂分别用于菠萝汁饮料、面包和新鲜猪肉的贮藏保鲜均表现出良好的防腐保鲜效果,并优于相同质量浓度的苯甲酸钠和丙酸钙。%The antibacterial activities of flavonoids extracted from banana peels alone and their blends with propionic acid or tea polyphenols against common pollutant and pathogenic bacteria in foods were tested based on inhibition circle size and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Meanwhile, the preservative effect of synergistic blends on selected foods was explored. The results showed that the inhibition circle diameter of the 1:0.25 (V/V, similarly hereinafter) banana peel flavonoids- propionic acid blend against Candida albicans, presenting a 41.7 mg/mL MIC, was 7.2-fold higher than that of banana peel flavonoids alone, and also superior to sodium benzoate, suggesting a marked synergistic effect between banana peel flavonoids and propionic acid. The 1:1 banana peel flavonoids-propionic acid blend also demonstrated a synergistic inhibitory effect on Aspergillusflavus with a 10.4 mg/mL MIC. The 1:1 banana peel flavonoids

  17. Iceland as a Model for Chemical Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.; Schiffman, P.; Murad, E.; Southard, R.

    2001-03-01

    Subglacial volcanic activity on Iceland has led to the formation of a variety of silicate and iron oxide-rich alteration products that may ressemble chemical alteration on Mars. The spectral and chemical properties of Icelandic samples are presented.

  18. [Hepatic alterations in patients with dengue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larreal, Yraima; Valero, Nereida; Estévez, Jesús; Reyes, Ivette; Maldonado, Mery; Espina, Luz Marina; Arias, Julia; Meleán, Eddy; Añez, German; Atencio, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    Clinical features of Dengue are very variable due to multiple alterations induced by the virus in the organism. Increased levels of transaminases similar to those produced by the Hepatitis virus have been reported in patients with Dengue from hiperendemic zones in Asia. The objectives of this study were to determine alterations in the liver tests in patients with Dengue and to relate them to the disease, clinically and serologically. Clinical history, hemathological tests serum transaminases (ALT y AST) and bilirubin assays were performed in 62 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis of Dengue. According to clinical features 38.7% of the patients with classical (CD) and hemorrhagic (DHF) forms of Dengue reffered abdominal pain and 2 patients with DHF had ictericia and hepatomegaly. Laboratory test findings showed leucopenia in 72.5% in both forms of Dengue and of patients with DHF severe thrombocytopenia (< 50.000 platelets x mm3), long PT and PPT in 70.9%, 23.0% and 42.3%, respectively. Transaminase values five fold higher than the normal values (p < 0.005) were observed in 36.8% and 74.4% of patients with CD and DHF respectively; AST was predominant in both groups. Our results suggest liver damage during the course of Dengue. A differential diagnosis has to be done between the hepatic involvement of Dengue cases and others viral diseases with hepatic disfunctions.

  19. Obesity Promotes Alterations in Iron Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Citelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is a key hormone that induces the degradation of ferroportin (FPN, a protein that exports iron from reticuloendothelial macrophages and enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate if the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD modifies the expression of FPN in macrophages and enterocytes, thus altering the iron bioavailability. In order to directly examine changes associated with iron metabolism in vivo, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or a HFD. Serum leptin levels were evaluated. The hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1, FPN and ferritin genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of iron present in both the liver and spleen was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ferroportin localization within reticuloendothelial macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Obese animals were found to exhibit increased hepcidin gene expression, while iron accumulated in the spleen and liver. They also exhibited changes in the sublocation of splenic cellular FPN and a reduction in the FPN expression in the liver and the spleen, while no changes were observed in enterocytes. Possible explanations for the increased hepcidin expression observed in HFD animals may include: increased leptin levels, the liver iron accumulation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Together, the results indicated that obesity promotes changes in iron bioavailability, since it altered the iron recycling function.

  20. When Altering Brain Function Becomes Mind Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sanford Koivuniemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. Under what conditions does ‘altering brain function’ qualify as ‘mind control’? In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.