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Sample records for alters immune endocrine

  1. Depression has a Strong Relationship to Alterations in the Immune, Endocrine and Neural System

    OpenAIRE

    Hestad, Knut A.; Aukrust, Pål; Tønseth, Sverre; Reitan, Solveig Klæbo

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate a connection between depressive symptoms and changes in status of the immune system in depressed patients. This raises the possibility of causative connections. Theories on mechanisms for interactions between immune and affective systems – directly and via endocrine system – are evolving. Such hypothesized causative connections are supported by several findings. First, in depressed patients changes in the status of the immune system in vivo and ex vivo are se...

  2. Altered time structure of neuro-endocrine-immune system function in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carughi Stefano

    2010-06-01

    TcS1 was decreased in cancer patients. The melatonin/cortisol mean nocturnal level ratio was decreased in cancer patients. Conclusion The altered secretion and loss of circadian rhythmicity of many studied factors observed in the subjects suffering from neoplastic disease may be expression of gradual alteration of the integrated function of the neuro-immune-endocrine system

  3. Human disturbance alters endocrine and immune responses in the Galapagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; DeNardo, Dale F; Greives, Timothy J; Strand, Christine R; Demas, Gregory E

    2010-11-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a relevant and widespread facilitator of environmental change and there is clear evidence that it impacts natural populations. While population-level responses to major anthropogenic changes have been well studied, individual physiological responses to mild disturbance can be equally critical to the long-term survival of a species, yet they remain largely unexamined. The current study investigated the impact of seemingly low-level anthropogenic disturbance (ecotourism) on stress responsiveness and specific fitness-related immune measures in different breeding stages of the marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Specifically, we found stress-induced elevations in plasma corticosterone among tourist-exposed populations relative to undisturbed populations. We also found changes in multiple immunological responses associated with stress-related effects of human disturbance, including bacterial killing ability, cutaneous wound healing, and hemolytic complement activity, and the responses varied according to reproductive state. By identifying health-related consequences of human disturbance, this study provides critical insight into the conservation of a well-known species that has a very distinct ecology. The study also broadens the foundation of knowledge needed to understand the global significance of various levels of human disturbance. PMID:20708010

  4. Endocrine Factors Modulating Immune Responses in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Anne; Costa, Serban-Dan; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    How the semi-allogeneic fetus is tolerated by the maternal immune system remains a fascinating phenomenon. Despite extensive research activity in this field, the mechanisms underlying fetal tolerance are still not well understood. However, there are growing evidences that immune–immune interactions as well as immune–endocrine interactions build up a complex network of immune regulation that ensures fetal survival within the maternal uterus. In the present review, we aim to summarize emerging ...

  5. Endocrine factors modulating immune responses in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Anne; Costa, Serban-Dan; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    How the semi-allogeneic fetus is tolerated by the maternal immune system remains a fascinating phenomenon. Despite extensive research activity in this field, the mechanisms underlying fetal tolerance are still not well understood. However, there are growing evidences that immune-immune interactions as well as immune-endocrine interactions build up a complex network of immune regulation that ensures fetal survival within the maternal uterus. In the present review, we aim to summarize emerging research data from our and other laboratories on immune modulating properties of pregnancy hormones with a special focus on progesterone, estradiol, and human chorionic gonadotropin. These pregnancy hormones are critically involved in the successful establishment, maintenance, and termination of pregnancy. They suppress detrimental maternal alloresponses while promoting tolerance pathways. This includes the reduction of the antigen-presenting capacity of dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and macrophages as well as the blockage of natural killer cells, T and B cells. Pregnancy hormones also support the proliferation of pregnancy supporting uterine killer cells, retain tolerogenic DCs, and efficiently induce regulatory T (Treg) cells. Furthermore, they are involved in the recruitment of mast cells and Treg cells into the fetal-maternal interface contributing to a local accumulation of pregnancy-protective cells. These findings highlight the importance of endocrine factors for the tolerance induction during pregnancy and encourage further research in the field. PMID:24847324

  6. Endocrine factors modulating immune responses in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSchumacher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available How the semi-allogeneic fetus is tolerated by the maternal immune system remains a fascinating phenomenon. Despite extensive research activity in this field the mechanisms underlying fetal tolerance are still not well understood. However, there are growing evidences that immune-immune interactions as well as immune-endocrine interactions build up a complex network of immune regulation that ensures fetal survival within the maternal uterus. In the present review, we aim to summarize emerging research data from our and other laboratories on immune modulating properties of pregnancy hormones with a special focus on progesterone, estradiol and human Chorionic Gonadotropin. These pregnancy hormones are critically involved in the successful establishment, maintenance and termination of pregnancy. They suppress detrimental maternal alloresponses while promoting tolerance pathways. This includes the reduction of the antigen-presenting capacity of dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages as well as the blockage of natural killer cells, T and B cells. Pregnancy hormones also support the proliferation of pregnancy supporting uterine killer cells, retain tolerogenic dendritic cells and efficiently induce regulatory T cells. Furthermore, they are involved in the recruitment of mast cells and regulatory T cells into the fetal-maternal interface contributing to a local accumulation of pregnancy-protective cells. These findings highlight the importance of endocrine factors for the tolerance induction during pregnancy and encourage further research in the field.

  7. Alterations in polyadenylation and its implications for endocrine disease

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    LennartFriis-Hansen

    2013-05-01

    This review gives a detailed description of alterations in polyadenylation in endocrine disease, an overview of the current literature on polyadenylation and summarizes the clinical implications of the current state of research in this field.

  8. Chromosome 3p alterations in pancreatic endocrine neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Eliana; Barbi, Stefano; Malpeli, Giorgio; Bersani, Samantha; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Capelli, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET) are rare neoplasms classified as functioning (F-PET) or non-functioning (NF-PET) according to the presence of a clinical syndrome due to hormonal hypersecretion. PETs show variable degrees of clinical aggressiveness and loss of chromosome 3p has been suggested to be associated with an advanced stage of disease. We assessed chromosome 3p copy number in 113 primary PETs and 32 metastases by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using tissue microarrays. The series included 56 well-differentiated endocrine tumors (WDET), 62 well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas (WDEC), and 6 poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas (PDEC). Chromosome 3p alterations were found in 23/113 (20%) primary tumors, with losses being predominant over gains (14% vs. 6%). Loss of 3p was found in 5/55 (9%) WDET, 11/52 (21%) WDEC, and never in PDEC. Gains of 3p were detected in 4/55 (7%) WDET, no WDEC, but notably in 3/6 (50%) PDEC (OR 23.6; P = 0.003). Metastases were more frequently monosomic for 3p compared to primary tumors (OR 3.6; P = 0.005). Monosomy was significantly associated with larger tumor size, more advanced tumor stage, and metastasis. No association was found with survival. Chromosome 3p copy number alterations are frequent events in advanced stage PET, with gains prevailing in PDEC while losses are more frequent in WDEC, supporting the view that a specific pattern of alterations are involved in these diverse disease subtypes. PMID:20981439

  9. Intravenous morphine after gynecological surgery : pain relief, endocrine and immune respone

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson-Mjöberg, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Background: We need more efficient methods to alleviate postoperative pain and reduce endocrine / immune stress response. Subjects and methods: Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) with iv morphine was evaluated with respect to pain relief and endocrine / immune response to surgical trauma in 130 patients undergoing gynecological surgery. Anesthetic regimens included general anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, epidural morphine and combinations of these methods. Results: Lar...

  10. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. PMID:27326465

  11. An overview of estrogen-associated endocrine disruption in fishes: evidence of effects on reproductive and immune physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Simply and perhaps intuitively defined, endocrine disruption is the abnormal modulation of normal hormonal physiology by exogenous chemicals. In fish, endocrine disruption of the reproductive system has been observed worldwide in numerous species and is known to affect both males and females. Observations of biologically relevant endocrine disruption most commonly occurs near waste water treatment plant outfalls, pulp and paper mills, and areas of high organic loading sometimes associated with agricultural practices. Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) have received an overwhelmingly disproportionate amount of scientific attention compared to other EDCs in recent years. In male fishes, exposure to EEDCs can lead to the induction of testicular oocytes (intersex), measurable plasma vitellogenin protein, altered sex steroid profiles, abnormal spawning behavior, skewed population sex ratios, and lessened reproductive success. Interestingly, contemporary research purports that EDCs modulate aspects of non-reproductive physiology including immune function. Here we present an overview of endocrine disruption in fishes associated with estrogenic compounds, implications of this phenomenon, and examples of EDC related research findings by our group in the Potomac River Watershed, USA.

  12. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...... cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other and...... contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might...

  13. Inflammation and Immune System Alterations in Frailty

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Xu; Li, Huifen; Leng, Sean X.

    2011-01-01

    Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome characterized by multi-system dysregulation. Substantial evidence suggests heightened inflammatory state and significant immune system alterations in frailty. A heightened inflammatory state is marked by increases in levels of inflammatory molecules (IL-6 and CRP) and counts of white blood cell and its subpopulations, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of frailty, directly or through its detrimental influence to other physiologic sy...

  14. The immune system of geriatric mice is modulated by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (diethylstilbestrol, α-zearalanol, and genistein): Effects on interferon-γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immune system is a potential target for estrogenic endocrine disrupters. To date, there is limited information on whether estrogenic endocrine disruptors modulate the immune system of aged individuals. To address this issue, groups of 74-week-old mice were given nine oral doses of selected estrogenic endocrine disrupters: diethylstilbestrol (DES, 3 μg/100 g bw), α-zearalanol (0.5 mg/100 g bw), or genistein (0.15 mg/100 g bw) in corn oil, or corn oil alone, over 2.5 weeks. Both developmental (thymus) and mature (spleen) lymphoid organs were affected, although specific effects varied with the chemical. DES significantly decreased thymocyte numbers. However, relative percentages of thymocyte subsets were not altered. While splenic cellularity and percentages of T and B cells were unchanged, splenocytes from DES-exposed mice had significantly decreased ability to proliferate in response to Concanavalin-A (Con-A). Con-A-activated splenocytes from mice treated with genistein or α-zearalanol had decreased levels of interferon-γ (IFNγ) protein in their culture supernatants compared to similar cultures from oil-treated mice. RT-PCR analysis of Con-A-activated splenocytes revealed that the expression of IFNγ gene is altered by DES or genistein treatment. Together, these results suggest that estrogenic endocrine disruptors modulate the immune system of aged mice

  15. Evidence of endocrine alteration in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus from the NW Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) were collected from different sampling sites (NW Mediterranean) in spring and autumn, with the aim of assessing potential alterations of the endocrine system. Alkylphenols were measured in fish bile as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis (ovarian 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and P450 aromatase) and metabolism of steroids were assessed together with histological alterations of the gonads. During the spring sampling, delayed gamete maturation, intersexuality, fibrosis, and depressed ovarian P450 aromatase activity were observed in organisms from the most polluted sites. During the autumn sampling, those effects were less evident, indicating that fish might be more susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the reproductive period. Nonetheless, enhanced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol was observed. Overall, this work provides first evidences of significant alterations in the endocrine system of red mullet from highly impacted areas in the NW Mediterranean. - Red mullet may be more susceptible to endocrine disruptors during the reproductive period

  16. Evidence of endocrine alteration in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus from the NW Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Skilton, Rebeca [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Lavado, Ramon [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Thibaut, Remi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Minier, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, Universite du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, F-76058 Le Havre (France); Porte, Cinta [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es

    2006-05-15

    Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) were collected from different sampling sites (NW Mediterranean) in spring and autumn, with the aim of assessing potential alterations of the endocrine system. Alkylphenols were measured in fish bile as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis (ovarian 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and P450 aromatase) and metabolism of steroids were assessed together with histological alterations of the gonads. During the spring sampling, delayed gamete maturation, intersexuality, fibrosis, and depressed ovarian P450 aromatase activity were observed in organisms from the most polluted sites. During the autumn sampling, those effects were less evident, indicating that fish might be more susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the reproductive period. Nonetheless, enhanced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol was observed. Overall, this work provides first evidences of significant alterations in the endocrine system of red mullet from highly impacted areas in the NW Mediterranean. - Red mullet may be more susceptible to endocrine disruptors during the reproductive period.

  17. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System

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    Anne-Constance Franz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived, which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health.

  18. Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals programs for reproductive tract alterations and obesity later in life1234

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, Retha R.

    2011-01-01

    Many chemicals in the environment, especially those with estrogenic activity, are able to disrupt the programming of endocrine signaling pathways established during development; these chemicals are referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Altered programming can result in numerous adverse consequences in estrogen-target tissues, some of which may not be apparent until later in life. For example, a wide variety of structural, functional, and cellular effects have been identified in repro...

  19. Immune and endocrine responses of adult spring Chinook salmon during freshwater migration and sexual maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, A.G.; Schrock, R.M.; Slater, C.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C. B.

    1996-01-01

    The immuneendocrine responses in spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined during their freshwater migration and final maturation. In 1990, migrating fish had high plasma cortisol titres (means 200 ng ml−1) and generated relatively few antibody-producing cells (APC) from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) (100 –200 per culture). After three weeks acclimation in constant environmental conditions, plasma cortisol was reduced and APC increased. There were no changes in number or affinity of glucocorticoid receptors. Concentrations of several sex steroids correlated with APC in females, but there were no such correlations in males. In 1993, fish in a hatchery had significantly greater cortisol concentrations in primary circulation than in secondary circulation, but sex steroid concentrations did not differ between circulations. Mean lysozyme activity in the primary and secondary circulation did not differ in June. In August, activity in the primary circulation was significantly less than that of the secondary, perhaps the result of acute stress associated with sampling. While some sex steroids correlated with lysozyme activity, the fact that in both years all endocrine and immune variables that correlated with each other also correlated with the date of sample, raises the question as to whether or not these are cause-and-effect relations.

  20. COMMENTS ON THE HOLISTIC ACTION OF ACUPUNCTURE IN VIEW OF ITS INFLUENCE ON NERVE-ENDOCRINE-IMMUNE NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁凤霞

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, the author makes some comments on the holistic action of acupuncture from the regulative effect on the nerve-endocrine-immune network, and the close relationship between the nerve-endocrine-immune network and the meridian-collateral system of TCM. The wholism concept of TCM refers to the organism being an integrated entirety, and the regulatory effect of acupuncture on functional activities of the organism relies on the integral connection of the acupoint-meridian-collateral-zangfu-organ system. When stimulated with acupuncture, the human body will brings its potential force into full play in preventing and treating diseases.

  1. Differential metamorphosis alters the endocrine response in anuran larvae exposed to T3 and atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide chemical contamination is one of the suspected contributors of the amphibian population decline. The herbicide atrazine is one of the major surface water contaminants in the U.S. A previous study has shown that atrazine at concentrations as low as 100 parts per billion (ppb) increased the time to metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. However, questions remain as to the applicability of a study of a non-native species to a native organism. The possible effects of atrazine on developing Bufo americanus were explored. Atrazine at potentially (albeit high) environmental concentrations was found not to delay the metamorphosis of developing B. americanus tadpoles as observed in X. laevis. Several studies have indicated that atrazine affects thyroid hormones. Since thyroid hormones are critical in amphibian metamorphosis, B. americanus and X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). X. laevis were found to be more responsive to the effects of exogenous T3 compared to B. americanus, indicating that X. laevis may be more sensitive to endocrine active chemicals than B. americanus. In X. laevis, nuclear heterogeneity has been associated with metamorphosis. Flow cytometric analysis of the nuclei of normal metamorphing B. americanus indicates a decrease in the amount of thyroid mediated chromatin alterations relative to the nuclei of metamorphing X. laevis. Indications are that the differential response to endocrine disruption is due to the differential role of chromatin associated gene expression during metamorphosis of B. americanus versus X. laevis. A second native species, Hyla versicolor, was observed to have the X. laevis nuclear pattern with respect to metamorphosis. As such, sensitivity to endocrine disruption is hypothesized not to be limited to laboratory non-native species

  2. Innate immune responses of Drosophila melanogaster are altered by spaceflight.

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    Oana Marcu

    Full Text Available Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The goals of this study were to elucidate fundamental immune processes in Drosophila affected by spaceflight and to measure host-pathogen responses post-flight. Five containers, each containing ten female and five male fruit flies, were housed and bred on the space shuttle (average orbit altitude of 330.35 km for 12 days and 18.5 hours. A new generation of flies was reared in microgravity. In larvae, the immune system was examined by analyzing plasmatocyte number and activity in culture. In adults, the induced immune responses were analyzed by bacterial clearance and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR of selected genes following infection with E. coli. The RNA levels of relevant immune pathway genes were determined in both larvae and adults by microarray analysis. The ability of larval plasmatocytes to phagocytose E. coli in culture was attenuated following spaceflight, and in parallel, the expression of genes involved in cell maturation was downregulated. In addition, the level of constitutive expression of pattern recognition receptors and opsonins that specifically recognize bacteria, and of lysozymes, antimicrobial peptide (AMP pathway and immune stress genes, hallmarks of humoral immunity, were also reduced in larvae. In adults, the efficiency of bacterial clearance measured in vivo following a systemic infection with E. coli post-flight, remained robust. We show that spaceflight altered both cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila and that the disruption occurs at multiple interacting pathways.

  3. Current Insights and Future Perspectives on Neuro-Endocrine-Immune Circuity Challenging Pregnancy Maintenance and Fetal Health

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    Arck PC

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal stress perception has long been suspected as a possible cause of infertility, implantation failure, late pregnancy complications, and impaired fetal development, notions that exist since ancient times and across all cultures. In view of the enormous complexity of the regulatory nervous, endocrine, and immune mechanisms involved in pregnancy maintenance, it is evident that pregnancy failure is not a single entity condition, but most likely the result of complex dysregulation. This dysregulation can be initiated or aggravated by stress. Here, we review the effects of stress on the equilibrium of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and summarise relevant general principles of neuro-immune and endocrine-immune cross talk in the context of pregnancy and fetal tolerance. While there are still more questions than answers, the neuroendocrine- immune circuitry of the stress response during pregnancy is becoming increasingly defined, e. g. due to the development of particularly instructive rodent models and prospectively designed human cohort trials. Our goal is to prompt clinicians to become far more attentive to the effect of psychological stress on pregnancy complications. Together with basic science research elucidating hierarchical, temporal, and spatial interactions of key parameters during central and peripheral responses to psychological stress, a list of candidate molecular targets for clinically useful therapeutic intervention can then be created.

  4. Altered Allogeneic Immune Responses in Middle-Aged Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YiminSun; HanhanLi; AlanN.Langnas

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that leukocyte composition, T cell phenotypes and immune function change in aged mice and humans. However, limited and conflicting results on the age-related immune changes in middle-aged mice were reported. Identification of the characteristics of allogeneic immune responses in aging mice may offer important information for transplantation immunology. The major age-related changes in the immune cell phenotypes and function of 12 months old mice include: 1) the significantly decreased CD4+ cell population in the peripheral blood, the major peripheral CD4+ cells is CD45RBlowCD62Llow memory phenotype; 2) the in vitro responses to alloantigens and Con A of splenocytes markedly reduced; 3) the in vivo secondary humoral immune responses to alloantigens significantly declined; 4) the age-related alteration in the thymus mainly occurred in CD4/CD8 double positive (DP) stage; and 5) increased CD80+ and MHC class II+ cell population in spleens. Thus, the major age-related immune changes in 12 months old mice occurred in CD4+ T cells in the periphery and DP stage in the thymus, which may subsequently lead to the decreased allogeneic immune responses and the different sensitivity to immunosuppressive drugs and treatments. Further studies on the characteristics of allogeneic immunity in aging individuals may help to determine the appropriated treatment for transplant aging individuals. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(6):440-446.

  5. Altered Allogeneic Immune Responses in Middle-Aged Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin Sun; Hanhan Li; Alan N. Langnas; Yong Zhao

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that leukocyte composition, T cell phenotypes and immune function change in aged mice and humans. However, limited and conflicting results on the age-related immune changes in middle-aged mice were reported. Identification of the characteristics of allogeneic immune responses in aging mice may offer important information for transplantation immunology. The major age-related changes in the immune cell phenotypes and function of 12 months old mice include: 1) the significantly decreased CD4+ cell population in the peripheral blood, the major peripheral CD4+ cells is CD45RBlowCD62Llow memory phenotype; 2) the in vitro responses to alloantigens and Con A of splenocytes markedly reduced; 3) the in vivo secondary humoral immune responses to alloantigens significantly declined; 4) the age-related alteration in the thymus mainly occurred in CD4/CD8 double positive (DP) stage; and 5) increased CD80+ and MHC class Ⅱ+ cell population in spleens. Thus, the major age-related immune changes in 12 months old mice occurred in CD4+ T cells in the periphery and DP stage in the thymus, which may subsequently lead to the decreased allogeneic immune responses and the different sensitivity to immunosuppressive drugs and treatments. Further studies on the characteristics of allogeneic immunity in aging individuals may help to determine the appropriated treatment for transplant aging individuals. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004; 1(6) :440-446.

  6. MONITORING TRAINING LOADS, STRESS, IMMUNE-ENDOCRINE RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE IN TENNIS PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A.; Lodo, L.; Nosaka, K.; Coutts, A.J.; Aoki, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5) and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance. PMID:24744485

  7. Alterations of Cellular Immune Reactions in Crew Members Overwintering in the Antarctic Research Station Concordia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Feuerecker, Matthias; Moreels, Marjan; Crucian, Brian; Kaufmann, Ines; Salam, Alex Paddy; Rybka, Alex; Ulrike, Thieme; Quintens, Roel; Sams, Clarence F.; Schelling, Gustav; Thiel, Manfred; Baatout, Sarah; Chouker, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concordia Station is located inside Antarctica about 1000km from the coast at an altitude of 3200m (Dome C). Hence, individuals living in this harsh environment are exposed to two major conditions: 1.) hypobaric hypoxia and 2.) confinement and extreme isolation. Both hypoxia and confinement can affect human immunity and health, and are likely to be present during exploration class space missions. This study focused on immune alterations measured by a new global immunity test assay, similar to the phased out delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. Methods: After informed written consent 14 healthy male subjects were included to the CHOICE-study (Consequences-of-longterm-Confinement-and-Hypobaric-HypOxia-on-Immunity-in-the Antarctic-Concordia-Environment). Data collection occurred during two winter-over periods lasting each one year. During the first campaign 6 healthy male were enrolled followed by a second campaign with 8 healthy males. Blood was drawn monthly and incubated for 48h with various bacterial, viral and fungal antigens followed by an analysis of plasma cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL2, IFN-gamma, IL10). As a control, blood was incubated without stimulation ("resting condition"). Goals: The scope of this study was to assess the consequences of hypoxia and confinement on cellular immunity as assessed by a new in vitro DTH-like test. Results: Initial results indicate that under resting conditions the in vitro DTH-like test showed low cytokine levels which remained almost unchanged during the entire observation period. However, cytokine responses to viral, bacterial and fungal antigens were remarkably reduced at the first month after arrival at Concordia when compared to levels measured in Europe prior to departure for Antarctica. With incrementing months of confinement this depressed DTH-like response tended to reverse, and in fact to show an "overshooting" immune reaction after stimulation. Conclusion: The reduced in vitro DTH-like test

  8. Altered immunity in crowded locust reduced fungal (Metarhizium anisopliae pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress of living conditions, similar to infections, alters animal immunity. High population density is empirically considered to induce prophylactic immunity to reduce the infection risk, which was challenged by a model of low connectivity between infectious and susceptible individuals in crowded animals. The migratory locust, which exhibits polyphenism through gregarious and solitary phases in response to population density and displays different resistance to fungal biopesticide (Metarhizium anisopliae, was used to observe the prophylactic immunity of crowded animals. We applied an RNA-sequencing assay to investigate differential expression in fat body samples of gregarious and solitary locusts before and after infection. Solitary locusts devoted at least twice the number of genes for combating M. anisopliae infection than gregarious locusts. The transcription of immune molecules such as pattern recognition proteins, protease inhibitors, and anti-oxidation proteins, was increased in prophylactic immunity of gregarious locusts. The differentially expressed transcripts reducing gregarious locust susceptibility to M. anisopliae were confirmed at the transcriptional and translational level. Further investigation revealed that locust GNBP3 was susceptible to proteolysis while GNBP1, induced by M. anisopliae infection, resisted proteolysis. Silencing of gnbp3 by RNAi significantly shortened the life span of gregarious locusts but not solitary locusts. By contrast, gnbp1 silencing did not affect the life span of both gregarious and solitary locusts after M. anisopliae infection. Thus, the GNBP3-dependent immune responses were involved in the phenotypic resistance of gregarious locusts to fungal infection, but were redundant in solitary locusts. Our results indicated that gregarious locusts prophylactically activated upstream modulators of immune cascades rather than downstream effectors, preferring to quarantine rather than eliminate pathogens to

  9. The endocrine system controlling sexual reproduction in animals: Part of the evolutionary ancient but well conserved immune system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Huybrechts, Roger

    2016-01-15

    Drastic changes in hormone titers, in particular of steroid hormones, are intuitively interpreted as necessary and beneficial for optimal functioning of animals. Peaks in progesterone- and estradiol titers that accompany the estrus cycle in female vertebrates as well as in ecdysteroids at each molt and during metamorphosis of holometabolous insects are prominent examples. A recent analysis of insect metamorphosis yielded the view that, in general, a sharp rise in sex steroid hormone titer signals that somewhere in the body some tissue(s) is undergoing programmed cell death/apoptosis. Increased steroid production is part of this process. Typical examples are ovarian follicle cells in female vertebrates and invertebrates and the prothoracic gland cells, the main production site of ecdysteroids in larval insects. A duality emerges: programmed cell death-apoptosis is deleterious at the cellular level, but it may yield beneficial effects at the organismal level. Reconciling both opposites requires reevaluating the probable evolutionary origin and role of peptidic brain hormones that direct steroid hormone synthesis. Do e.g. Luteinizing Hormone in vertebrates and Prothoracicotropic Hormone (PTTH: acting through the Torso receptor) in insects still retain an ancient role as toxins in the early immune system? Does the functional link of some neuropeptides with Ca(2+)-induced apoptosis make sense in endocrine archeology? The endocrine system as a remnant of the ancient immune system is undoubtedly counterintuitive. Yet, we will argue that such paradigm enables the logical framing of many aspects, the endocrine one inclusive of both male and female reproductive physiology. PMID:26707056

  10. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Disease Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Schug, Thaddeus T.; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are tho...

  11. Short-term exposure of arsenite disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic (As) pollution in aquatic environment may adversely impact fish health by disrupting their thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, we explored the effect of short-term exposure of arsenite (AsIII) on thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish. We measured As concentrations, As speciation, and thyroid hormone thyroxine levels in whole zebrafish, oxidative stress (H2O2) and damage (MDA) in the liver, and gene transcription in hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis in the brain and liver tissues of zebrafish after exposing to different AsIII concentrations for 48 h. Result indicated that exposure to AsIII increased inorganic As in zebrafish to 0.46–0.72 mg kg−1, induced oxidative stress with H2O2 being increased by 1.4–2.5 times and caused oxidative damage with MDA being augmented by 1.6 times. AsIII exposure increased thyroxine levels by 1.3–1.4 times and modulated gene transcription in HPT axis. Our study showed AsIII caused oxidative damage, affected thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in HPT axis in zebrafish. - Highlights: • 48 h-LC50 value of arsenite (AsIII) was 42 mg L−1 for zebrafish. • AsIII exposure elevated oxidative stress and caused oxidative damage in zebrafish. • AsIII exposure increased the content of thyroid hormone thyroxine. • AsIII exposure altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish. - Short-term exposure of arsenite caused oxidative stress, disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in Zebrafish

  12. Endocrine Alterations Are the Main Determinants of Cardiac Remodelling in Restrictive Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Carlomagno; Valentina Mercurio; Antonio Ruvolo; Ignazio Senatore; Irina Halinskaya; Valeria Fazio; Flora Affuso; Serafino Fazio

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Anorexia nervosa is a condition of reduced hemodynamic load, characterized by varying degrees of cardiac remodelling, only in part related to reduced body mass; the mechanism for such variability, as well as its clinical significance, remains unknown. Aim of the study was to assess the possible influence of a great number of clinical, biochemical, and endocrine factors on cardiovascular parameters in restrictive anorexia nervosa. Method. Twenty-five female patients hospitalized for...

  13. Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediz Yeşilkaya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors are of special interest because they mimic, block, or in some way alter the activity of endogenous chemicals that are synthesized by the endocrine system. Besides many other organs, they especially affect the urinary system and the thyroid glands. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are typically identified as compounds that can interact with oestrogen or androgen receptors and thus act as agonists or antagonists of endogenous hormones. During the last decade, numerous studies have been published, reporting an increase in reproductive organ anomalies, as well as in testicular cancer, and a decline in the relative number of male births, and in semen quality. In this review, the effects of endocrine distruptors on the reproductive health are discussed in the light of the recent literature. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 76-82

  14. Neuro-Endocrine Networks Controlling Immune System in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Procaccini, Claudio; Pucino, Valentina; Rosa, Veronica; Marone, Gianni; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems have long been considered as compartments that perform separate and different functions. However, recent clinical, epidemiological, and experimental data have suggested that the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), might involve factors, hormones, and neural mediators that link the immune and nervous system. These molecules are members of the same superfamily, which allow the mutual and bi-directional neural–immune ...

  15. Metabolic and immune impairments induced by the endocrine disruptors benzo[a]pyrene and triclosan in Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, Christophe; Willison, John; Veyrenc, Sylvie; Airieau, Antinéa; Méresse, Patrick; Fortier, Marlène; Fournier, Michel; Brousseau, Pauline; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Despite numerous studies suggesting that amphibians are highly sensitive to cumulative anthropogenic stresses, the role played by endocrine disruptors (EDs) in the decline of amphibian populations remains unclear. EDs have been extensively studied in adult amphibians for their capacity to disturb reproduction by interfering with the sexual hormone axis. Here, we studied the in vivo responses of Xenopus tropicalis males exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of each ED, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and triclosan (TCS) alone (10 μg L(-1)) or a mixture of the two (10 μg L(-1) each) over a 24 h exposure period by following the modulation of the transcription of key genes involved in metabolic, sexual and immunity processes and the cellular changes in liver, spleen and testis. BaP, TCS and the mixture of the two all induced a marked metabolic disorder in the liver highlighted by insulin resistance-like and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-like phenotypes together with hepatotoxicity due to the impairment of lipid metabolism. For TCS and the mixture, these metabolic disorders were concomitant with modulation of innate immunity. These results confirmed that in addition to the reproductive effects induced by EDs in amphibians, metabolic disorders and immune system disruption should also be considered. PMID:27153234

  16. Alteration of cellular lipids and lipid metabolism markers in RTL-W1 cells exposed to model endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimastrogiovanni, Giorgio; Córdoba, Marlon; Navarro, Isabel; Jáuregui, Olga; Porte, Cinta

    2015-08-01

    This work investigates the suitability of the rainbow trout liver cell line (RTL-W1) as an in-vitro model to study the ability of model endocrine disrupters, namely TBT, TPT, 4-NP, BPA and DEHP, to act as metabolic disrupters by altering cellular lipids and markers of lipid metabolism. Among the tested compounds, BPA and DEHP significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), while all the compounds -apart from TPT-, altered membrane lipids - phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and plasmalogen PCs - indicating a strong interaction of the toxicants with cell membranes and cell signaling. RTL-W1 expressed a number of genes involved in lipid metabolism that were modulated by exposure to BPA, TBT and TPT (up-regulation of FATP1 and FAS) and 4-NP and DEHP (down-regulation of FAS and LPL). Multiple and complex modes of action of these chemicals were observed in RTL-W1 cells, both in terms of expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and alteration of cellular lipids. Although further characterization is needed, this might be a useful model for the detection of chemicals leading to steatosis or other diseases associated with lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:26143618

  17. Depresión y neuroplasticidad: Interacción de los sistemas nervioso, endocrino e inmune Depression and neuroplasticity: Interaction of nervous, endocrine and immune systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cassano

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La depresión clínica es una enfermedad física y psíquica que presenta bases neuropatológicas, sin embargo aún no se tiene un conocimiento exacto del origen o causas de esta enfermedad. Se conoce que existe un componente genético, aunque el componente ambiental en el desarrollo de la depresión es innegable. El estrés juega un rol esencial en el desencadenamiento de la depresión. La interacción y respuesta del sistema endocrino, inmune y nervioso se encuentran afectadas en este desorden. La observación de los efectos de los antidepresivos sobre la neurotransmisión monoaminérgica ha llevado hace muchos años a la hipótesis de las monoaminas de la depresión. Sin embargo, esta hipótesis ya no puede explicar muchos de los efectos de las drogas antidepresivas. La nueva hipótesis para explicar los efectos de los antidepresivos es la de neuroplasticidad neuronal. Esta hipótesis propone que los cambios que esas drogas producen sobre diversos sistemas, entre ellos el sistema nervioso, el inmune y el endocrino, son capaces de inducir cambios neuroadaptativos en el cerebro. La neuroplasticidad ha sido definida como la habilidad del cerebro para reorganizarse a sí mismo y formar nuevas conexiones neuronales a lo largo de la vida. Se propone que el mecanismo por el cual los antidepresivos logran sus efectos es mediante la neuroplasticidad.Clinical depression is a physical and psychic disease that has neuropathological basis, although the clear understanding of its ethiopathology is still missing. There is evidence of a genetic component in depression, however, the participation of environment is crucial. Stress plays an essential role in the onset of depression. The interaction and the response of the endocrine system with the immune and nervous system are altered in depression. The observation of the effect of antidepressants on monoaminergic transmitters leads to the hypothesis of monoamines. However this hypothesis cannot explain many of

  18. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (Pthyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (Pdisruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept. PMID:24167152

  19. Neuro-endocrine basis for altered plasma glucose homeostasis in the Fragile X mouse

    OpenAIRE

    El Idrissi Abdeslem; Yan Xin; Sidime Francoise; L’Amoreaux William

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The fragile X mouse model shows an increase in seizure susceptibility, indicating an involvement of the GABAergic system via an alteration in cellular excitability. In the brain, we have previously described a reduction in GABAA receptor expression as a likely basis for this susceptibility. In the brains of fragile X mice, this reduction in receptor expression culminates with a concomitant increase in the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme responsi...

  20. Does Exercise Alter Immune Function and Respiratory Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines whether physical activity influences immune function as a consequence risk of infection from the common cold and other upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and whether the immune system responds differently to moderate versus intense physical exertion. Research indicates that people who participate in regular moderate…

  1. Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Khandelwal, Bidita; Sherpa, Namgyal T.

    2015-01-01

    Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are ...

  2. Human disturbance alters endocrine and immune responses in the Galapagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    French, Susannah S; DeNardo, Dale F.; Greives, Timothy J.; Strand, Christine R.; Demas, Gregory E

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a relevant and widespread facilitator of environmental change and there is clear evidence that it impacts natural populations. While population-level responses to major anthropogenic changes have been well studied, individual physiological responses to mild disturbance can be equally critical to the long-term survival of a species, yet they remain largely unexamined. The current study investigated the impact of seemingly low-level anthropogenic disturbance (ecotou...

  3. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response. PMID:26481692

  4. Evidence Report: Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence F.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. It is known that human immune function is altered in- and post-flight, but it is unclear at present if such alterations lead to increased susceptibility to disease. Reactivation of latent viruses has been documented in crewmembers, although this reactivation has not been directly correlated with immune changes or with observed diseases. As described in this report, further research is required to better characterize the relationships between altered immune response and susceptibility to disease during and after spaceflight. This is particularly important for future deep-space exploration missions.

  5. Convergence of neuro-endocrine-immune pathways in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Maria M; O’Mahony, Siobhain M.; O’Malley, Dervla

    2014-01-01

    Disordered signalling between the brain and the gut are generally accepted to underlie the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. This common gastrointestinal disorder is characterised by alterations in bowel habit such as diarrhoea and/or constipation, bloating and abdominal pain, and symptom exacerbation has been linked w...

  6. Immune response and insulin signalling alter mosquito feeding behaviour to enhance malaria transmission potential

    OpenAIRE

    Cator, Lauren J.; Pietri, Jose E.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Ohm, Johanna R.; Lewis, Edwin E.; Read, Andrew F; Shirley Luckhart; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites alter mosquito feeding behaviour in a way that enhances parasite transmission. This is widely considered a prime example of manipulation of host behaviour to increase onward transmission, but transient immune challenge in the absence of parasites can induce the same behavioural phenotype. Here, we show that alterations in feeding behaviour depend on the timing and dose of immune challenge relative to blood ingestion and that these changes are functionally linked to changes i...

  7. Cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells alter their gene expression when challenged with endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potential to interfere with the hormonal system and may negatively influence human health. Microarray analysis was used in this study to investigate differential gene expression in human peripheral blood cells (PBMCs) after in vitro exposure to EDCs. PBMCs, isolated from blood samples of four male and four female healthy individuals, were exposed in vitro for 18 h to either a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB126, 1 μM), a non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB153, 10 μM), a brominated flame retardant (BDE47, 10 μM), a perfluorinated alkyl acid (PFOA, 10 μM) or bisphenol (BPA, 10 μM). ANOVA analysis revealed a significant change in the expression of 862 genes as a result of EDC exposure. The gender of the donors did not affect gene expression. Hierarchical cluster analysis created three groups and clustered: (1) PCB126-exposed samples, (2) PCB153 and BDE47, (3) PFOA and BPA. The number of differentially expressed genes varied per compound and ranged from 60 to 192 when using fold change and multiplicity corrected p-value as filtering criteria. Exposure to PCB126 induced the AhR signaling pathway. BDE47 and PCB153 are known to disrupt thyroid metabolism and exposure influenced the expression of the nuclear receptors PPARγ and ESR2, respectively. BPA and PFOA did not induce significant changes in the expression of known nuclear receptors. Overall, each compound produced a unique gene expression signature affecting pathways and GO processes linked to metabolism and inflammation. Twenty-nine genes were significantly altered in expression under all experimental conditions. Six of these genes (HSD11B2, MMP11, ADIPOQ, CEL, DUSP9 and TUB) could be associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, microarray analysis identified that PBMCs altered their gene expression response in vitro when challenged with EDCs. Our screening approach has identified a number of gene candidates that warrant

  8. High-altitude hypoxia induces disorders of the brain-endocrine-immune network through activation of corticotropin-releasing factor and its type-1 receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-qun CHEN; Fan-ping KONG; Yang ZHAO; Ji-zeng DU

    2012-01-01

    High-altitude hypoxia can induce physiological dysfunction and mountain sickness,but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood.Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF type-1 receptors (CRFR1) are members of the CRF family and the essential controllers of the physiological activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and modulators of endocrine and behavioral activity in response to various stressors.We have previously found that high-altitude hypoxia induces disorders of the brain-endocrine-immune network through activation of CRF and CRFR1 in the brain and periphery that include activation of the HPA axis in a time-and dose-dependent manner,impaired or improved learning and memory,and anxiety-like behavioral change.Meanwhile,hypoxia induces dysfunctions of the hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine and immune systems,including suppression of growth and development,as well as inhibition of reproductive,metabolic and immune functions.In contrast,the small mammals that live on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine meadow display low responsiveness to extreme high-altitudehypoxia challenge,suggesting well-acclimatized genes and a physiological strategy that developed during evolution through interact-ions between the genes and environment.All the findings provide evidence for understanding the neuroendocrine mechanisms of hypoxia-induced physiological dysfunction.This review extends these findings.

  9. Immune Alterations in Rats Exposed to Airborne Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of lunar dust on human physiology. This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and systemic immune parameters.

  10. Sequential Infection with Common Pathogens Promotes Human-like Immune Gene Expression and Altered Vaccine Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Tiffany A; Bi, Kevin; Kambal, Amal; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Beura, Lalit K; Bürger, Matheus C; Pulendran, Bali; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David; Haining, W Nicholas; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-05-11

    Immune responses differ between laboratory mice and humans. Chronic infection with viruses and parasites are common in humans, but are absent in laboratory mice, and thus represent potential contributors to inter-species differences in immunity. To test this, we sequentially infected laboratory mice with herpesviruses, influenza, and an intestinal helminth and compared their blood immune signatures to mock-infected mice before and after vaccination against yellow fever virus (YFV-17D). Sequential infection altered pre- and post-vaccination gene expression, cytokines, and antibodies in blood. Sequential pathogen exposure induced gene signatures that recapitulated those seen in blood from pet store-raised versus laboratory mice, and adult versus cord blood in humans. Therefore, basal and vaccine-induced murine immune responses are altered by infection with agents common outside of barrier facilities. This raises the possibility that we can improve mouse models of vaccination and immunity by selective microbial exposure of laboratory animals to mimic that of humans. PMID:27107939

  11. Tumor-altered dendritic cell function: implications for anti-tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Michael Hargadon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, and the array of immunoregulatory functions exhibited by these cells is dictated by their differentiation, maturation, and activation status. Although a major role for these cells in the induction of immunity to pathogens has long been appreciated, data accumulated over the last several years has demonstrated that DC are also critical regulators of anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite the potential for stimulation of robust anti-tumor immunity by DC, tumor-altered DC function has been observed in many cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals and is often associated with tumor immune escape. Such dysfunction has significant implications for both the induction of natural anti-tumor immune responses as well as the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies that target endogenous DC in situ or that employ exogenous DC as part of anti-cancer immunization maneuvers. In this review, the major types of tumor-altered DC function will be described, with emphasis on recent insights into the mechanistic bases for the inhibition of DC differentiation from hematopoietic precursors, the altered programming of DC precursors to differentiate into myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages, the suppression of DC maturation and activation, and the induction of immunoregulatory DC by tumors, tumor-derived factors, and tumor-associated cells within the milieu of the tumor microenvironment. The impact of these tumor-altered cells on the quality of the overall anti-tumor immune response will also be discussed. Finally, this review will also highlight questions concerning tumor-altered DC function that remain unanswered, and it will address factors that have limited advances in the study of this phenomenon in order to focus future research efforts in the field on identifying strategies for interfering with tumor-associated DC dysfunction and improving DC-mediated anti

  12. Protein supplementation does not alter intramuscular anabolic signaling or endocrine response after resistance exercise in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Boone, Carleigh H; Beyer, Kyle S; Baker, Kayla M; Wells, Adam J; Church, David D; Mangine, Gerald T; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Moon, Jordan R; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-11-01

    The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway appears to be the primary regulator of muscle protein synthesis. A variety of stimuli including resistance exercise, amino acids, and hormonal signals activate mTORC1 signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a protein supplement on mTORC1 signaling following a resistance exercise protocol designed to promote elevations in circulating hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that the protein supplement would augment the intramuscular anabolic signaling response. Ten resistance-trained men (age, 24.7 ± 3.4 years; weight, 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; height, 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) received either a placebo or a supplement containing 20 g protein, 6 g carbohydrates, and 1 g fat after high-volume, short-rest lower-body resistance exercise. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, immediately, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours after exercise. Fine-needle muscle biopsies were completed at baseline, 1 hour, and 5 hours after exercise. Myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactate concentrations were significantly elevated after resistance exercise (P exercise also elicited a significant insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol response (P testosterone, growth hormone, or cortisol. Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis revealed significant elevations in RPS6 phosphorylation after resistance exercise (P = .001); however, no differences were observed between trials for signaling proteins including Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, and RPS6. The endocrine response and phosphorylation status of signaling proteins within the mTORC1 pathway did not appear to be altered by ingestion of supplement after resistance exercise in resistance-trained men. PMID:26428621

  13. Occupational exposure alters innate and adaptive immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlander, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The farming environment is contaminated with high levels of organic dust. Especially pig barn facilities are highly polluted with airborne inhalable organic dust containing high amounts of molecular patterns from bacteria and fungi known to activate cells of the innate immunity through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Some hours of exposure in pig barn environment leads to an intensive upper and lower airway inflammation with systemic influences in previously unexposed ...

  14. Humoral Immune System Alterations in Silica Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Aminian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Crystalline silica may act as an immune adjuvant to increase inflammation and antibody production. The high­est exposures to silica are known to occur in the dusty trades industries such as stone- cutting. We undertook this popula­tion based study to examine the association between occupational silica exposure and humoral immune system."nMethods: In this historical cohort study, 47 workers from 10 stone-cutting factories in Rey City, south of Tehran, Iran  that had more than 10 years exposure  to silica were included in case group and 45 individual without any exposure to silica were selected for control group. We measured serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, and IgA of participants with ELISA method and compared the results between exposed workers and control groups."nResults: The mean concentrations of two immunoglobulines (IgG, IgA and IgM in case group in comparison with control group were higher and lower respectively but both were in normal range. IgA concentration between two groups was statisti­cally significant (P< 0.05."nConclusion: Crystalline silica exposure may promote the humoral immune system in some individuals. Additional research is recommended in other population, using study design that minimize potential selection bias and maximize the quality of expo­sure assessment.

  15. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl2 (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4+FoxP3+CD25+ (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8+CD223+ T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term detrimental

  16. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can

  17. Alterations in immune responses in prenatally irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunologic responses were studied in beagle dogs following prenatal (35 days gestation) irradiation to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the developing immune system. Each dog received 1.5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation or sham irradiation. Prenatally irradiated dogs exhibited a significant reduction in primary humoral antibody responses to inoculated sheep red blood cells, a T-dependent antigen, and a concurrent decrease in T-helper lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood at 3 to 4 months of age. Similarly, irradiated fetuses have been shown to have defects in epitheliostromal development of the thymus. It is suggested that the postnatal immunologic deficits may relate to the prenatal thymic injury

  18. Lipid body accumulation alters calcium signaling dynamics in immune cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greineisen, William E.; Speck, Mark; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Sung, Carl; Phan, Nolwenn; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Stokes, Alexander J.; Turner, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Summary There is well-established variability in the numbers of lipid bodies (LB) in macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Similarly to the steatosis observed in adipocytes and hepatocytes during hyperinsulinemia and nutrient overload, immune cell LB hyper-accumulate in response to bacterial and parasitic infection and inflammatory presentations. Recently we described that hyperinsulinemia, both in vitro and in vivo, drives steatosis and phenotypic changes in primary and transformed mast cells and basophils. LB reach high numbers in these steatotic cytosols, and here we propose that they could dramatically impact the transcytoplasmic signaling pathways. We compared calcium release and influx responses at the population and single cell level in normal and steatotic model mast cells. At the population level, all aspects of FcεRI-dependent calcium mobilization, as well as activation of calcium-dependent downstream signalling targets such as NFATC1 phosphorylation are suppressed. At the single cell level, we demonstrate that LB are both sources and sinks of calcium following FcεRI cross-linking. Unbiased analysis of the impact of the presence of LB on the rate of trans-cytoplasmic calcium signals suggest that LB enrichment accelerates calcium propagation, which may reflect a Bernoulli effect. LB abundance thus impacts this fundamental signalling pathway and its downstream targets. PMID:25016314

  19. Immune interactions in endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Herington, Jennifer L.; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Lucas, John A.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine (ectopic) sites. In women who develop this disease, alterations in specific biological processes involving both the endocrine and immune systems have been observed, which may explain the survival and growth of displaced endometrial tissue in affected women. In the past decade, a considerable amount of research has implicated a role for alterations in progester...

  20. Selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially alter the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenas, M C; Cabas, I; García-Alcázar, A; Meseguer, J; Mulero, V; García-Ayala, A

    2016-05-01

    17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen (Tmx), a selective estrogen-receptor modulator used in hormone replacement therapy, and G1, a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) selective agonist, differentially increased the hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) gene expression and altered the immune response in adult gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) males. However, no information exists on the effects of these compounds on the immune response of juveniles. This study aims, for the first time, to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of EE2, Tmx or G1 on the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles and the capacity of the immune system of the specimens to recover its functionality after ceasing exposures (recovery period). The specimens were immunized with hemocyanin in the presence of aluminium adjuvant 1 (group A) or 120 (group B) days after the treatments ceased (dpt). The results indicate that EE2 and Tmx, but not G1, differentially promoted a transient alteration in hepatic vtg gene expression. Although all three compounds did not affect the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, they inhibited the induction of interleukin-1β (il1b) gene expression after priming. Interestingly, although Tmx increased the percentage of IgM-positive cells in both head kidney and spleen during the recovery period, the antibody response of vaccinated fish varied depending on the compound used and when the immunization was administered. Taken together, our results suggest that these compounds differentially alter the capacity of fish to respond to infection during ontogeny and, more interestingly, that the adaptive immune response remained altered to an extent that depends on the compound. PMID:27012396

  1. Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Kunz, Hawley; Sams, Clarence F.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the effect of space travel on the human immune system has proven to be extremely challenging. Limited opportunities for in-flight studies, varying mission durations, technical and logistical obstacles, small subject numbers, and a broad range of potential assays have contributed to this problem. Additionally, the inherent complexity of the immune system, with its vast array of cell populations, sub-populations, diverse regulatory molecules, and broad interactions with other physiological systems, makes determining precise variables to measure very difficult. There is also the challenge of determining the clinical significance of any observed immune alterations. Will such a change lead to disease, or is it a transient subclinical observation related to short-term stress? The effect of this problem may be observed by scanning publications associated with immunity and spaceflight, which began to appear during the 1970s. Although individually they are each valid studies, the comprehensive literature to date suffers from widely varying sampling methods and assay techniques, low subject counts, and sometimes a disparate focus on narrow aspects of immunity. The most clinically relevant data are derived from in-flight human studies, which have demonstrated altered cell-mediated immunity and reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Much more data are available from post-flight testing of humans, with clear evidence of altered cytokine production patterns, altered leukocyte distribution, continued latent viral reactivation, and evidence of dramatically altered virus-specific immunity. It is unknown if post-flight assessments relate to the in-flight condition or are a response to landing stress and readaptation. In-flight culture of cells has clearly demonstrated that immune cells are gravity-sensitive and display altered functional characteristics. It is unknown if these data are related to in vivo immune cell function or are an artifact of microgravity culture

  2. Altered immune response in mallard ducklings exposed to lead through maternal transfer in the wild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead (Pb) poisoning has caused significant mortality in waterfowl populations worldwide. In spite of having been banned since 2003, prevalence of Pb shot ingestion in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from the Ebro delta was still 15.5% in 2011–12. We collected mallard eggs from this area to study the effects of maternally transferred Pb on eggshell properties and on immune response and oxidative balance of ducklings. Eggshell Pb levels were positively correlated with Pb levels in the blood of ducklings. Ducklings with blood Pb levels above 180 ng mL−1 showed reduced body mass and died during the first week post hatching. Blood Pb levels positively correlated with humoral immune response, endogenous antioxidants and oxidative stress biomarkers, and negatively correlated with cellular immune response. Pb shot ingestion in birds can result in maternal transfer to the offspring that can affect their developing immune system and reduce their survival in early life stages. - Highlights: • Pb was transferred from mallard hens to eggs and ducklings. • Maternal Pb transfer was enough to inhibit blood ALAD activity in ducklings. • Cellular immune response was negatively affected by blood Pb levels. • Humoral immune response was exacerbated by Pb exposure. • Pb induced oxidative stress and increased levels of antioxidants in blood. - Maternal transfer of Pb alters immune responses and oxidative balance of ducklings and compromises the survival of individuals

  3. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... hormones and their precursors across the foeto-maternal interface. The endocrine system is the earliest system developing in foetal life, and it is functional from early intrauterine existence through old age. Regulation of the foetal endocrine system relies, to some extent, on precursors secreted...

  4. Estrogenic compounds -endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Munteanu Constantin; Hoteteu Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin, and some pesticides) are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones, inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inf...

  5. High physical activity in young children suggests positive effects by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, E; Ludvigsson, J; Huus, K; Faresjö, M

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity in children is associated with several positive health outcomes such as decreased cardiovascular risk factors, improved lung function, enhanced motor skill development, healthier body composition, and also improved defense against inflammatory diseases. We examined how high physical activity vs a sedentary lifestyle in young children influences the immune response with focus on autoimmunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected from 55 5-year-old children with either high physical activity (n = 14), average physical activity (n = 27), or low physical activity (n = 14), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort, were stimulated with antigens (tetanus toxoid and beta-lactoglobulin) and autoantigens (GAD65 , insulin, HSP60, and IA-2). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), C-peptide and proinsulin were analyzed. Children with high physical activity showed decreased immune activity toward the autoantigens GAD65 (IL-5, P < 0.05), HSP60 and IA-2 (IL-10, P < 0.05) and also low spontaneous pro-inflammatory immune activity (IL-6, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CCL2 (P < 0.05)) compared with children with an average or low physical activity. High physical activity in young children seems to have positive effects on the immune system by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity. PMID:25892449

  6. Endocrine disruptors induce transgenerational alterations of the male reproductive parameters and mirna expression profiles in mouse primordial germ cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, Lukáš; Brieno-Enríquez, M.A.; García-López, J.; Cárdenas, D.B.; Guibert, S.; Hourcade, J.de D.; Pěknicová, Jana; Weber, M.; del Mazo, J.

    Praha: Biotechnologický ústav AVČR, v.v.i, 2014 - (Pěknicová, J.), s. 1-82 [XXth Symposium of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction with international participation. Třešť (CZ), 22.05.2014-24.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR P503/12/1834; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ1.05/1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * miRNA expression * primordial germ cells * vinclozolin * DNA methylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Alterations of Thyroid Morphology and Function After Long-Term Exposure to Low Doses of Endocrine Disruptor Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

    OpenAIRE

    Yaglov V.V.; Yaglova N.V.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate changes in thyroid morphology and function after different long-term exposure to low doses of endocrine disruptor dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) under the maximum permissible levels in food products. Materials and Methods. The experiment was performed on adult male Wistar rats (n=62). Drinking water was substituted for water solution of o,p-DDT 20 and 80 μg/L. Mean daily consumption of DDT was 1.89±0.86 and 7.77±0.17 µg/kg body weight, r...

  8. Maternal immune activation by LPS selectively alters specific gene expression profiles of interneuron migration and oxidative stress in the fetus without triggering a fetal immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Oskvig, Devon B.; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Johnson, Kory R.; Phillips, Terry M.; Herkenham, Miles

    2012-01-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and autism. Infections during pregnancy activate the mother’s immune system and alter the fetal environment, with consequential effects on CNS function and behavior in the offspring, but the cellular and molecular links between infection-induced altered fetal development and risk for neuropsychiatric disorders are unknown. We investigated the immunological, molecular, and behavioral effects of MIA in the of...

  9. Prenatal Immune Activation Induces Maturation-Dependent Alterations in the Prefrontal GABAergic Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Richetto, J; Calabrese, F; M.A. RIVA; Meyer, U.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal dysfunctions in the cortical GABAergic system have been widely documented in neuropsychiatric disorders with prenatal infectious etiologies, including schizophrenia. At least some of these abnormalities may stem from transcriptional impairments in the GABAergic transcriptome. However, the extent to which prenatal exposure to immune challenge can induce long-term alterations in GABAergic gene transcription remains largely elusive. Here, we use an established mouse model of prenatal im...

  10. Prenatal immune challenge alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Reul, J M; Stec, I; Wiegers, G J; Labeur, M S; Linthorst, A C; Arzt, E; Holsboer, F

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether non-abortive maternal infections would compromise fetal brain development and alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning when adult. To study putative teratogenic effects of a T cell-mediated immune response versus an endotoxic challenge, 10-d-pregnant rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5 x 10(8) human red blood cells (HRBC) or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (Escherichia coli LPS: 30 micrograms/kg). The adult male progeny (3 ...

  11. Review: 2-mercaptoethanol alteration of in vitro immune functions of species other than murine

    OpenAIRE

    Click, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Descriptions that organosulfurs could alter biologically relevant cellular functions began some 40 years ago when cell mediated and humoral murine in vitro immune responses were reported to be dramatically enhanced by any of four xenobiotic, sulfhydryl compounds—2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), dithiothreitol, glutathione, and L-cysteine; the most effective of the four was 2-ME. These findings triggered a plethora of reports defining 2-ME benefits for a multitude of immunological processes, primaril...

  12. Will Global Climate Change Alter Fundamental Human Immune Reactivity: Implications for Child Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Swaminathan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The human immune system is an interface across which many climate change sensitive exposures can affect health outcomes. Gaining an understanding of the range of potential effects that climate change could have on immune function will be of considerable importance, particularly for child health, but has, as yet, received minimal research attention. We postulate several mechanisms whereby climate change sensitive exposures and conditions will subtly impair aspects of the human immune response, thereby altering the distribution of vulnerability within populations—particularly for children—to infection and disease. Key climate change-sensitive pathways include under-nutrition, psychological stress and exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation, with effects on susceptibility to infection, allergy and autoimmune diseases. Other climate change sensitive exposures may also be important and interact, either additively or synergistically, to alter health risks. Conducting directed research in this area is imperative as the potential public health implications of climate change-induced weakening of the immune system at both individual and population levels are profound. This is particularly relevant for the already vulnerable children of the developing world, who will bear a disproportionate burden of future adverse environmental and geopolitical consequences of climate change.

  13. The role of altered cutaneous immune responses in the induction and persistence of rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Anatte; Kowalczyk, Michał J; Żaba, Ryszard; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that predominantly affects the skin of the face and the eyes. Several factors are associated with the onset and persistence of the condition, including an altered immune response in the skin and elevated levels of Demodex mites. Alterations in the immune response include elevated levels of LL-37 in rosacea skin, increased expression of TLR-2 and increased amounts of vitamin D3 in epidermal tissue. The combined effect of these changes may make the skin more sensitive to external and internal stimuli. External stimuli that may trigger or sustain rosacea inflammation include exposure to ultraviolet light, while internal factors may include the presence of elevated numbers of Demodex mites. These mites may directly stimulate an immune response or release bacteria within the pilosebaceous unit that act as a trigger for inflammation. This review will highlight the changes that occur in the immune response of the skin and describe how Demodex mites and associated bacteria may activate this response and lead to the characteristics of rosacea. PMID:26747056

  14. The Immune System and Developmental Programming of Brain and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bilbo, Staci D; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The brain, endocrine, and immune systems are inextricably linked. Immune molecules have a powerful impact on neuroendocrine function, including hormone-behavior interactions, during health as well as sickness. Similarly, alterations in hormones, such as during stress, can powerfully impact immune function or reactivity. These functional shifts are evolved, adaptive responses that organize changes in behavior and mobilize immune resources, but can also lead to pathology or exacerbate disease i...

  15. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection alters intestinal immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiangwu; Xiao, Zhiming; Liu, Fen; Chen, Shuai; Tang, Wuliang; Zhang, Decai; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in humans and piglets. However, research regarding alterations of intestinal immunity following ETEC infection remains limited and the results controversial. The present study investigated the effects of ETEC on the expression levels of pro‑inflammatory cytokines and innate immune regulators from plasma cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells, and the activation of toll‑like receptor 4-nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, in a mouse model infected with a porcine isolated ETEC strain. ETEC infection significantly reduced the expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines in the mouse jejunum (P<0.05). Additionally, ETEC infection significantly affected the expression of immune regulators of plasma cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells in the mouse intestine (P<0.05). ETEC influenced the intestinal immunity via the NF‑κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, ETEC colonization affects intestinal immunity as observed in a mouse model. This study provides a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of ETEC infection in animals and humans. PMID:27221777

  16. Estrogenic compounds -endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin, and some pesticides are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones, inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inflammation, Sertoli-cell-only pattern, hypospadias, altered pituitary and thyroid gland functions are also observed, the available data are insufficient to deduce worldwide conclusions.

  17. Review: 2-mercaptoethanol alteration of in vitro immune functions of species other than murine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, Robert E

    2014-01-15

    Descriptions that organosulfurs could alter biologically relevant cellular functions began some 40years ago when cell mediated and humoral murine in vitro immune responses were reported to be dramatically enhanced by any of four xenobiotic, sulfhydryl compounds-2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), dithiothreitol, glutathione, and l-cysteine; the most effective of the four was 2-ME. These findings triggered a plethora of reports defining 2-ME benefits for a multitude of immunological processes, primarily with murine models. This led to investigations on 2-ME alterations of (a) immune functions in other species, (b) activities of other cell-types, and (c) in situ diseases. In addition, the early findings may have been instrumental in the identification of the previously undefined anticarcinogenic chemicals in specific foods as organosulfurs. Outside the plant organosulfurs, there are no comprehensive reviews of these areas to help define mechanisms by which organosulfurs function as well as identify potential alternative uses. Therefore, the present review will focus on 2-ME alterations of in vitro immune functions in species other than murine; namely, fish, amphibian, reptile, avian, whales, dolphins, rat, hamster, rabbit, guinea pig, feline, canine, porcine, ovine, bovine, and human. Processes, some unique to a given species, were in general, enhanced and in some cases dependent upon the presence of 2-ME. The largest benefits occurred in media that were serum free, followed by those in autologous serum and then fetal bovine serum supplemented medium. Concentrations of 2-ME were generally in the low μM range, with exceptions of those for salamander (20mM), turtles (70mM) and dolphins (7mM). The few studies designed to assess mechanisms found that changes induced by 2-ME were generally accompanied by alterations of reduced/oxidized glutathione cellular concentrations. The major benefit for most studies, however, was to increase the sensitivity of the culture environment, which

  18. Endocrine and ovarian responses in water buffalo cows immunized against inhibin and subjected to the Ovsynch protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdalla Bahareldin-Ali; QIN Guang-sheng; GUO Ri-hong; Anastasia Tsigkou; TAN Zheng-zhun; HUANG Jian; LI Hui; SHI Zhen-dan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of stimulating ovarian fol icle development in order to improve fertility in water buffalo cows by immunization against inhibin. The experiment was carried out in early summer (May) and included 24 multi-parity crossbred Murrah-Swamp buffaloes that were divided into immunized (n=11) and control (n=13) groups. Each immunized cow was administered with a 2-mL immunogen of mineral oil adjuvant containing 2 mg of recombinant inhibinα-subunit fusion protein. The controls were treated with the adjuvant only. Al animals received Ovsynch protocol treatment, starting on the day of the antigen administration, and they were artiifcial y inseminated upon behavioral estrus. As a result, al of the immunized buffaloes generated antibodies against inhibin during the experimental period and had higher plasma concentrations of fol icle-stimulating hormone (FSH), activin, and estradiol (E2) related to estrous expression. A higher proportion of immunized animals expressed estrus behavior than did the controls (72%vs. 30%, P0.05). These results demonstrate that immunization against inhibin, coupled with the treatment with the Ovsynch protocol, can constitute a new technique to increase fertility in water buffalo cows.

  19. Endocrine and ovarian responses in water buffalo cows immunized against inhibin and subjected to the Ovsynch protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdalla Bahareldin-Ali[1; QIN Guang-sheng[2; GUO Ri-hong[1; Anastasia Tsigkou[3; TAN Zheng-zhun[2; HUANG Jian[2; LI Hui[2; LI Hui[4; SHI Zhen-dan[4

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of stimulating ovarian follicle development in order to improve fertility in water buffalo cows by immunization against inhibin. The experiment was carried out in early summer (May) and included 24 multi-parity crossbred Murrah-Swamp buffaloes that were divided into immunized (n=11) and control (n=13) groups. Each immunized cow was administered with a 2-mL immunogen of mineral oil adjuvant containing 2 mg of recombinant inhibin a-subunit fusion protein. The controls were treated with the adjuvant only. All animals received Ovsynch protocol treatment, starting on the day of the antigen administration, and they were artificially inseminated upon behavioral estrus. As a result, all of the immunized buffaloes generated antibodies against inhibin during the experimental period and had higher plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), activin, and estradiol (E2) related to estrous expression. A higher proportion of immunized animals expressed estrus behavior than did the controls (72% vs. 30%, P〈0.05). On aver- age, inhibin-immunized buffaloes had significantly more large follicles (〉9 mm in diameter) than the controls (mean_+SEM; 1.2+0.1 vs. 0.84+0.1, respectively; P〈0.05)and a slightly higher mean total number of follicles (〉2 mm; 11.4+0.7 vs. 9.0+1.1, respectively; P=0.09) and small (2-4 ram) follicles (8.81+0.6 vs. 6.84+1.0, respectively; P=0.12). A higher percentage of cows ovulated in the immunized group than in the control group (91% (10/11) vs. 54% (7/13), respectively; P〈0.05). Moreover, inhibin-immunized cows had slightly larger corpus luteum (CL) than the controls 9 days after ovulation and significantly higher (P〈0.01) post-ovulation peak plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations. Immunization against inhibin also mar- ginally increased the conception rate 42 days after insemination (45.8% vs

  20. Neuro-functional and neuro-endocrine alterations in a cohort of patients attending with post traumatic stress disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most important emergent pathologies in mental health and is usually associated with current post modern's life styles and with specific traumatic event such as belic conflicts or incident involving criminal behaviors affecting civilians. It is well known that 8% of victims of a traumatic event will develop PTSD. Furthermore, the chronicity and social impairment associated to this clinical entity requires an enormous effort from mental health's professionals and huge costs to the systems involved in the rehabilitation of these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate a sample of 7 patients affected from PTSD in order to understand their clinical characteristics, neuro-functional features and possible neuro-endocrine abnormatilies. Method: 7 patient affected with PTSD were clinically evaluated and submitted to a specific-validated post traumatic scale (Davidson scale) and also to a depression inventory (Beck depression inventory). Then, blood samples were taken in order to assess. Neuro- endocrine levels of cortisol in plasma and T3, T4 and TSH levels. Finally, the subjects were studied by means of SPECT, delineating specific Region of Interest (ROI) involved in the neurobiological basis of PTSD. Results: we report on, for the entire sample, high scores on both scales used (Davidson scale: 91.85; Beck inventory: 25.28). These results confirm the previously reported high comorbidity between this two clinical entities. We describe average normal values for plasmatic cortisol levels and thyroid hormones levels T3, T4, TSH (17.35 ug/dl, 1.34 ng/ml, 6.98 ug/dl and 2.95 uUI/ml respectively). It is important to remark the presence of Hypercortisolemia in 3 of the patients studied. Neuro-functional features were characterized by a cortical fronto-parietal hyper-perfusion and hypo-perfusion on limbic areas. This results were consistently replicated in the entire sample. We hypothesized a blood-brain barrier dysfunction

  1. Age-related alterations in innate immune receptor expression and ability of macrophages to respond to pathogen challenge in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Shuang; Domon, Hisanori; Hosur, Kavita B.; WANG Min; Hajishengallis, George

    2009-01-01

    The impact of ageing in innate immunity is poorly understood. Studies in the mouse model have described altered innate immune functions in aged macrophages, although these were not generally linked to altered expression of receptors or regulatory molecules. Moreover, the influence of ageing in the expression of these molecules has not been systematically examined. We investigated age-dependent expression differences in selected Toll-like and other pattern-recognition receptors, receptors invo...

  2. Alterations of Thyroid Morphology and Function After Long-Term Exposure to Low Doses of Endocrine Disruptor Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaglov V.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to evaluate changes in thyroid morphology and function after different long-term exposure to low doses of endocrine disruptor dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT under the maximum permissible levels in food products. Materials and Methods. The experiment was performed on adult male Wistar rats (n=62. Drinking water was substituted for water solution of o,p-DDT 20 and 80 μg/L. Mean daily consumption of DDT was 1.89±0.86 and 7.77±0.17 µg/kg body weight, respectively. Rat serum thyroid hormone content and histology of the thyroid glands were studied after 6 and 10 weeks of exposure to DDT. Results. 6-week exposure to DDT caused inhibition of thyroid function followed by reactive increase of thyroid stimulating hormone secretion and triiodothyronine production. These symptoms were similar to those of the early stage of iodine deficiency. Restoration of rat thyroid status after 10 weeks of exposure was achieved due to diffuse microfollicular transformation of thyroid parenchyma. Conclusion. Exposure to low doses of DDT inhibits thyroid function. Reactive increase of thyroid hormone production after exposure to DDT and in iodine deficiency is similar, but early changes in thyroid histology are different. Long-term exposure to DDT is supposed to aggravate iodine deficiency and to be a risk factor of thyroid tumors.

  3. Mechanisms of alteration of the immune system by ionizing radiations: a basis for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Perez, M.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carosella, E. [CEA, Service de Recherches en Hemato -Immunologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Alterations of the immune system appear in relationship with exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) in different situations, e.g., accidents, radiation therapy of cancer, prenatal irradiation, some human diseases with hypersensitivity to IR and aging. Thus, the comprehension of the mechanisms of the alterations of the immune system by IR is necessary to elaborate strategies of protection and to pave the way for future possible therapies. At least 9 mechanisms of alterations can be identified: 1- Apoptosis. Apoptosis is a key mechanism of the natural regulation of the immune system and plays also a key role in the response to IR: lymphocytes die rapidly by apoptosis after exposure. Different pathways of induction of apoptosis have been identified, and include p53 dependent and mitochondria mediated pathways, as well as CD95 and ROS initiation; 2- TCR mutations. The T cell antigen receptor is responsible to discriminate between self and non self. Mutations of the TCR may result from exposure to IR; 3- Modification of the Th1-Th2 balance. T helper cells may express 2 distinct secretion patterns: Th1 cytokines promote cell-mediated immunity while Th2 cytokines favor humoral immunity. Although the effects of IR on the Th1/Th2 balance remains controversial, an imbalance towards a Th2 profile is likely and patients with cancer and systemic auto-immune disease often present a switch from Th1 to Th2; 4- Bystander effects and genetic instability. Stimulatory effect or genomic instability have been observed in haematopoietic cells exposed to IR and related to a bystander mechanism. 5- Shift toward an inflammatory profile. Ionizing radiation may induce a persistent inflammatory profile as a result of dis-regulation of cytokine production; such a status of persistent inflammation has been observed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. 6- Modification of antigen presentation. Antigen presentation by dendritic cells is an essential function preceding

  4. Mechanisms of alteration of the immune system by ionizing radiations: a basis for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Alterations of the immune system appear in relationship with exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) in different situations, e.g., accidents, radiation therapy of cancer, prenatal irradiation, some human diseases with hypersensitivity to IR and aging. Thus, the comprehension of the mechanisms of the alterations of the immune system by IR is necessary to elaborate strategies of protection and to pave the way for future possible therapies. At least 9 mechanisms of alterations can be identified: 1- Apoptosis. Apoptosis is a key mechanism of the natural regulation of the immune system and plays also a key role in the response to IR: lymphocytes die rapidly by apoptosis after exposure. Different pathways of induction of apoptosis have been identified, and include p53 dependent and mitochondria mediated pathways, as well as CD95 and ROS initiation; 2- TCR mutations. The T cell antigen receptor is responsible to discriminate between self and non self. Mutations of the TCR may result from exposure to IR; 3- Modification of the Th1-Th2 balance. T helper cells may express 2 distinct secretion patterns: Th1 cytokines promote cell-mediated immunity while Th2 cytokines favor humoral immunity. Although the effects of IR on the Th1/Th2 balance remains controversial, an imbalance towards a Th2 profile is likely and patients with cancer and systemic auto-immune disease often present a switch from Th1 to Th2; 4- Bystander effects and genetic instability. Stimulatory effect or genomic instability have been observed in haematopoietic cells exposed to IR and related to a bystander mechanism. 5- Shift toward an inflammatory profile. Ionizing radiation may induce a persistent inflammatory profile as a result of dis-regulation of cytokine production; such a status of persistent inflammation has been observed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. 6- Modification of antigen presentation. Antigen presentation by dendritic cells is an essential function preceding

  5. Endocrine function of the thymus and certain indexes of the immune system in cancer patients following neutron and gamma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with head and neck and locomotor system tumors received neutron therapy in the total doses of 4-8 and 12-14 Gy which was followed by a pronounced dose-dependent decrease in the serum thymus factor and total blood-lymphocyte levels. The latter changes were predominantly due to a decrease in the non-T-non-B cell concentration. Following the treatment, a rise in the level of circulating immune complexes and those of IgA and IgG was observed. Changes in the immune system proved less apparent in patients with locomotor system cancer who has been given 20 Gy of gamma-therapy

  6. PATHOGENESIS OF IMMUNE ALTERATIONS AND CORRECTIVE ROLE OF AMLODIPINE IN EXPERIMENTAL CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Osikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess some mechanisms of changes in immune state, and to evaluate a role of amlodipine, a known calcium channel blocker, as a potential corrective drug in experimental chronic renal failure (CRF. An animal CRF model was produced in rats by a two-stage operative resection of 5/6 of the renal tissue. Amlodipine is used per os at a daily dose of 0.25 mg/kg for 7 days. Flow cytofluorimetric approach was used to discern peripheral blood lymphocytes: CD3+ (mainly, T lymphocytes, CD45RA+ (mainly, B cells, as well as the following cell markers: Annexin 5-FITC+/7-AAD- (early apoptosis, Annexin 5-FITC+/7-AAD+ (late apoptosis and, in part, necrotic cells. Moreover, we have measured serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, phosphate, total calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH, IL-1β, IL-4, interferon-γ, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase activities. Evaluation of Th1- and Th2-dependent immune response was carried out, respectively, by detection of delayed-type hypersensitivity, and scoring the antibody-forming cells in rat spleen induced by immunization with allogeneic erythrocytes. Primary, secondary and final products of lipid peroxidation were evaluated in lipid extracts from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Changes of immune state in CRF included depression of Th1 and Th2 dependent immune response, reduced number of lymphocytes bearing T and В cell markers, increased IL-1β concentrations in blood, along with decreased amounts of IFNγ and IL-4. Probable pathogenesis of the altered immune state may be associated with increased number of peripheral lymphocytes being at early and late stages of apoptosis/necrosis, elevated blood levels of IL-1β, total calcium, parathyroid hormone, reduced concentrations of IFNγ, and increased contents of primary, secondary and final peroxidation products in peripheral blood lymphocytes, being accompanied by inhibition of the SOD and catalase activity in blood plasma

  7. Gestational Diabetes Alters Offspring DNA Methylation Profiles in Human and Rat: Identification of Key Pathways Involved in Endocrine System Disorders, Insulin Signaling, Diabetes Signaling, and ILK Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Sophie; Guillemin, Claire; Ergaz, Zivanit; Dimov, Sergiy; Suderman, Matthew; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ornoy, Asher; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-06-01

    Gestational diabetes is associated with risk for metabolic disease later in life. Using a cross-species approach in rat and humans, we examined the hypothesis that gestational diabetes during pregnancy triggers changes in the methylome of the offspring that might be mediating these risks. We show in a gestation diabetes rat model, the Cohen diabetic rat, that gestational diabetes triggers wide alterations in DNA methylation in the placenta in both candidate diabetes genes and genome-wide promoters, thus providing evidence for a causal relationship between diabetes during pregnancy and DNA methylation alterations. There is a significant overlap between differentially methylated genes in the placenta and the liver of the rat offspring. Several genes differentially methylated in rat placenta exposed to maternal diabetes are also differentially methylated in the human placenta of offspring exposed to gestational diabetes in utero. DNA methylation changes inversely correlate with changes in expression. The changes in DNA methylation affect known functional gene pathways involved in endocrine function, metabolism, and insulin responses. These data provide support to the hypothesis that early-life exposures and their effects on metabolic disease are mediated by DNA methylation changes. This has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:25514087

  8. Microgravity-induced alterations in signal transduction in cells of the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Katrin; Thiel, Cora; Timm, Johanna; Schmidt, Peter M.; Huber, Kathrin; Tauber, Svantje; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Seibt, Dieter; Kroll, Hartmut; Grote, Karl-Heinrich; Zipp, Frauke; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Cogoli, Augusto; Hilliger, Andre; Engelmann, Frank; Ullrich, Oliver

    2010-11-01

    Since decades it is known that the activity of cells of the immune system is severely dysregulated in microgravity, however, the underlying molecular aspects have not been elucidated yet. The identification of gravity-sensitive molecular mechanisms in cells of the immune system is an important and indispensable prerequisite for the development of counteractive measures to prevent or treat disturbed immune cell function of astronauts during long-term space missions. Moreover, their sensitivity to altered gravity renders immune cells an ideal model system to understand if and how gravity on Earth is required for normal mammalian cell function and signal transduction. We investigated the effect of simulated weightlessness (2D clinostat) and of real microgravity (parabolic flights) on key signal pathways in a human monocytic and a T lymphocyte cell line. We found that cellular responses to microgravity strongly depend on the cell-type and the conditions in which the cells are subjected to microgravity. In Jurkat T cells, enhanced phosphorylation of the MAP kinases ERK-1/2, MEK and p38 and inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kB were the predominant responses to simulated weightlessness, in either stimulated or non-stimulated cells. In contrast, non-stimulated monocytic U937 cells responded to simulated weightlessness with enhanced overall tyrosine-phosphorylation and activation of c-jun, whereas PMA-stimulated U937 cells responded the opposite way with reduced tyrosine-phosphorylation and reduced activation of c-jun, compared with PMA-stimulated 1 g controls. P53 protein was phosphorylated rapidly in microgravity. The identification of gravi-sensitive mechanisms in cells of the immune system will not only enable us to understand and prevent the negative effects of long time exposure to microgravity on Astronauts, but could also lead to novel therapeutic targets in general.

  9. Prenatal immune activation alters hippocampal place cell firing characteristics in adult animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Amy R; Bilkey, David K

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA) is a risk factor for several developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Adults with these disorders display alterations in memory function that may result from changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus. In the present study we use an animal model to investigate the effect that a transient prenatal maternal immune activation episode has on the spatially-modulated firing activity of hippocampal neurons in adult animals. MIA was induced in pregnant rat dams with a single injection of the synthetic cytokine inducer polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day 15. Control dams were given a saline equivalent. Firing activity and local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the CA1 region of the adult male offspring of these dams as they moved freely in an open arena. Most neurons displayed characteristic spatially-modulated 'place cell' firing activity and while there was no between-group difference in mean firing rate between groups, place cells had smaller place fields in MIA-exposed animals when compared to control-group cells. Cells recorded in MIA-group animals also displayed an altered firing-phase synchrony relationship to simultaneously recorded LFPs. When the floor of the arena was rotated, the place fields of MIA-group cells were more likely to shift in the same direction as the floor rotation, suggesting that local cues may have been more salient for these animals. In contrast, place fields in control group cells were more likely to shift firing position to novel spatial locations suggesting an altered response to contextual cues. These findings show that a single MIA intervention is sufficient to change several important characteristics of hippocampal place cell activity in adult offspring. These changes could contribute to the memory dysfunction that is associated with MIA, by altering the encoding of spatial context and by

  10. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...

  11. 2013 Immune Risk Standing Review Panel Evidence Review for: The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Immune Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on February 3-4, 2014. The SRP reviewed the new Evidence Report for the Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (from here on referred to as the 2013 Immune Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plan for this Risk that is in the current version of the Human Research Program’s (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP).

  12. Early endocrine alterations reflect prolonged stress and relate to one year functional outcome in patients with severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, Djordje; Klose, Marianne; Nordenbo, Annette;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe brain injury poses a risk of developing acute and chronic hypopituitarism. Pituitary hormone alterations developed in the early recovery phase after brain injury may have implications for long-term functional recovery. The objective was to assess the pattern and prevalence of......-Extended. RESULTS: Three months after the injury, elevated stress hormones (i.e. 30 min. stimulated cortisol, prolactin and/or insulin-like growth factor 1) and/or suppressed gonadal- or thyroid hormones were recorded in 68% and 32% of the patients, respectively. At one year, lower functioning level (Functional...

  13. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System Print A A ... called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  14. Endocrine modulation, inhibition of ovarian development and hepatic alterations in rainbow trout exposed to polluted river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under laboratory conditions, female rainbow trout were exposed to graded concentrations of water from the River Lambro, a polluted tributary of the River Po, and to the effluent of a large wastewater treatment plant which flows into the River Lambro. In field exposures, trout were held in cages in the River Po upstream and downstream from the confluence of the River Lambro. After 10-day (laboratory) and 30-day (laboratory and field) exposures, trout were examined for several chemical, biochemical and histological endpoints. The results indicated that exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals, including estrogen receptor agonists, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor agonists, and probably antiandrogens, had occurred. Exposure altered the plasma levels of 17β-estradiol and testosterone, and some treatments also enhanced the activity of hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase. Gonadal histology showed varying levels of degenerative processes characterised by oocyte atresia, haemorrhages, melano-macrophage centres (MMCs), and oogonia proliferation. Liver histology showed less severe effects. - This study examined the progression of hormonal and gonadal alterations in female trout exposed to river water from an area known to affect resident fish species.

  15. Endocrine modulation, inhibition of ovarian development and hepatic alterations in rainbow trout exposed to polluted river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigano, Luigi, E-mail: vigano@irsa.cnr.i [Water Research Institute, National Council of Research, Brugherio, Milan (Italy); Benfenati, Emilio [Mario Negri Institute, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Milan (Italy); Bottero, Sergio; Cevasco, Alessandra; Monteverde, Martino; Mandich, Alberta [Department of Environmental, Experimental and Applied Biology, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Under laboratory conditions, female rainbow trout were exposed to graded concentrations of water from the River Lambro, a polluted tributary of the River Po, and to the effluent of a large wastewater treatment plant which flows into the River Lambro. In field exposures, trout were held in cages in the River Po upstream and downstream from the confluence of the River Lambro. After 10-day (laboratory) and 30-day (laboratory and field) exposures, trout were examined for several chemical, biochemical and histological endpoints. The results indicated that exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals, including estrogen receptor agonists, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor agonists, and probably antiandrogens, had occurred. Exposure altered the plasma levels of 17{beta}-estradiol and testosterone, and some treatments also enhanced the activity of hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase. Gonadal histology showed varying levels of degenerative processes characterised by oocyte atresia, haemorrhages, melano-macrophage centres (MMCs), and oogonia proliferation. Liver histology showed less severe effects. - This study examined the progression of hormonal and gonadal alterations in female trout exposed to river water from an area known to affect resident fish species.

  16. 颈上交感神经节与内分泌和免疫相关研究进展%Study Development in Superior Cervical Sympathetic Ganglion and the Endocrine and Immune Sys-tems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉(综述); 何宗宝(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Superior sympathetic ganglion(SCG) is an important part of the sympathetic nervous system, as the largest ganglion of the neck,it is closely adjacent to and associated with the cervical spine.Cervical spine disorders can stimulate SCG and affect the endocrine and immune function ,which is a cause of cervical vertebra disease.At present many studies have confirmed that SCG can widely contact with the endocrine and immune system through the nerve fibers and neural active substance,and participate in the neuro-endocrine-immune regulation.However the current research on SCG and immune system and endocrine system is lack of overall connection from the macroscopic angle, which has restricted the exploration of the mechanism and needs further studies.%颈上交感神经节( SCG)是交感神经系统的重要组成部分,作为颈部最大的神经节,与颈椎毗邻关系密切。颈椎紊乱可刺激SCG并影响内分泌及免疫功能,是引起颈源性疾病的原因之一。目前众多研究证实SCG可通过神经纤维及神经活性物质与内分泌和免疫系统广泛联系,并参与神经-内分泌-免疫调控。但目前对SCG与免疫和内分泌系统研究缺乏从宏观角度整体的联系,制约了对发病机制的探索,有待更加深入的研究。

  17. The effect of altered gravity on immune cells (Ground studies: TRIPLE LUX-A BIOLAB experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Astrid; Huber, Kathrin; Kuebler, Ulrich; Briganti, Luca; Baerwalde, Sven; Zander, Vanja; Ullrich, Oliver; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    The experiment TRIPLE LUX A, whose performance on Biolab is foreseen for 2010, aims to increase the information about the functioning of immune cells during space flight. Thus, we investigate the impact of altered gravity -microgravity and hypergravity conditions -on the immune response of mammalian macrophages. Previous studies had already demonstrated that phagocytosis in macrophages, an essential step in the innate immune response, is decreased on a fast rotating clinostat. Now, the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) within the oxidative burst reaction, was measured by means of a luminol assay (luminescence + photo-multiplier technique) comparable to the set up which will be used in the TRIPLE LUX flight hardware. The kinetics of the ROS production was investigated a) under 1 g conditions, b) on a clinostat (with one rotation axis) under varied rotational speed c) in short-term real micro-gravity on a parabolic flight and d) in hypergravity (1.8 g) on the Short Arm Human Centrifuge (SAHC) at DLR Cologne. By means of a photomultiplier clinostat online kinetic luminescent measurements during clinorotation were possible. Permanent fast clinorotation (60 rpm) leads to a dramatic reduction of the oxidative burst signal by up to 60% compared to the signal at 1 g. Slower rotation (30 rpm to 2 rpm) reduces the signal strength even more by up to 90% of the original strength. 60 rpm clinorotation as well as short-term real microgravity (22 s) during parabolic flight likewise decreases the signal of the oxidative burst to a comparable amount, thus the term "simulated weightlessness" is valid for the chosen experimental condi-tion. In contrast, hypergravity leads to a significant signal increase. The results demonstrate a clear effect of altered gravity on the immune response of the macrophages. In the upcoming ISS experiment the established test system (oxidative burst of macrophages) will be tested in continues microgravity within the Biolab hardware, designed by

  18. Effects of Environmental Chemicals and Drugs on Reproductive Endocrine System

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Birol; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    Commonly found in ecosystems, endocrine disruptors are a large group of natural or synthetic compounds and xenobiotics that are toxic to the endocrine system of a living organism. The pesticides, herbicides, and hormonally active substances that are widely used in agriculture and industrial compounds are among the endocrine disruptors. Endocrine disrupters interfere with the immune system, thyroid functions, reproductive systems, and intrauterine life of a living organism. Endocrine disruptor...

  19. Development and recovery of histopathological alterations in the gonads of zebrafish (Danio rerio) after single and combined exposure to endocrine disruptors (17α-ethinylestradiol and fadrozole).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzio, Ana; Monteiro, Sandra M; Rocha, Eduardo; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António A; Coimbra, Ana M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure of wildlife to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is not necessarily continuous. Due to seasonal changes and variable industrial and agricultural activities it often occurs intermittently. Thus, it is possible that aquatic organisms may be more affected by periodic peak exposure than by chronic exposure. Therefore, an experimental scenario including an exposure from 2h to 90 days post-fertilization (dpf) and a subsequent recovery period until 150 dpf was chosen to assess the potential reversibility of the effects of sex steroids on sexual and gonad development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The aim of this study was to investigate the persistence of the endocrine effects of an estrogen (EE2-17α-ethinylestradiol, 4ng/L), an inhibitor of estrogen synthesis (Fad-fadrozole, 50μg/L) or their binary mixture (Mix-EE2+ Fad, 4ng/L+50μg/L). Afterwards, a semi-quantitative histological assessment was used to investigate histopathological changes on gonad differentiation and development. The data showed that fadrozole, alone or in combination with EE2, permanently disrupts the sexual development, inducing masculinization and causing severe pathological alterations in testis, such as intersex associated to the enlargement of sperm ducts, interstitial changes, asynchronous development and detachment of basal membrane. After exposures to both EDCs and their mixture, the gonad histopathology revealed interstitial proteinaceous fluid deposits and, in ovaries, there were atretic oocytes, and presumably degenerative mineralization. On the other hand, the gonadal changes induced by EE2 alone seem to be partially reversible when the exposure regime changed to a recovery period. In addition, EE2 enhanced zebrafish growth in both genders, with male fish presenting signs of early obesity such as the presence of adipocytes in testis. Moreover, sex ratio was slightly skewed toward females, at 90 and 105 dpf, in zebrafish exposed to EE2. The data further indicate that long

  20. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshi Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs by time (week interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and −4 wks before parturition were different in cows with lameness as compared with those of the CON group. The disease was also associated with lowered overall milk production and DMI as well as milk fat and fat-to-protein ratio. In conclusion, cows affected postpartum by lameness had alterations in several serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that give insights into the etiopathogenesis of the disease and might serve to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future.

  1. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during -8, -4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at -8 and -4 wks before parturition were different in cows with lameness as compared with those of the CON group. The disease was also associated with lowered overall milk production and DMI as well as milk fat and fat-to-protein ratio. In conclusion, cows affected postpartum by lameness had alterations in several serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that give insights into the etiopathogenesis of the disease and might serve to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. PMID:26479383

  2. Persistent immune alterations and comorbidities in splenectomized patients with Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sønder, Søren Ulrik; Limgala, Renuka Pudi; Ivanova, Margarita M; Ioanou, Chidima; Plassmeyer, Matthew; Marti, Gerald E; Alpan, Oral; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem

    2016-07-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding acid-β-glucosidase, resulting in functional disruptions in degradation of glycosphingolipids and lysosomal accumulation of the substrates. The most frequent clinical presentations of GD are thrombocytopenia, splenomegaly and bone pain. Prior to advent of enzyme replacement therapy, splenectomy was performed for complications of hypersplenism such as severe thrombocytopenia and transfusion dependency. Though there is evidence about worsening bone disease after splenectomy, there is no systematic study to assess its effects on the immune system in GD patients. In order to investigate the long-term immunological effects of splenectomy, we used flow cytometry to compare the immunophenotypes of GD patients who had undergone splenectomy (SGD) to those with intact spleen. The results show that SGD patients have significantly fewer CD27(+)/IgM(+) B-cells but more CD4(+)/CD45RO(+) and CD8(+)/CD45RO(+) T-cells. The most surprising finding was an almost complete absence of circulating dendritic cells in SGD patients. In addition, splenectomized subjects had comorbidities, the most common being monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Taken together, these results highlight the persistence of multiple immune alterations and comorbidities coexisting in higher frequency in the SGD group and they are not affected by GD specific therapy. PMID:27282561

  3. Stress response and humoral immune system alterations related to chronic hypergravity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguinou, Nathan; Bojados, Mickaël; Jamon, Marc; Derradji, Hanane; Baatout, Sarah; Tschirhart, Eric; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Legrand-Frossi, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Spaceflights are known to induce stress and immune dysregulation. Centrifugation, as hindlimb unloading, is a good ground based-model to simulate altered gravity which occurs during space missions. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of a long-term exposure to different levels of hypergravity on the stress response and the humoral immunity in a mouse model. For this purpose, adult C57Bl/6J male mice were subjected for 21 days either to control conditions or to 2G or 3G acceleration gravity forces. Corticosterone level and anxiety behavior revealed a stress response which was associated with a decrease of body weight, after 21-day of centrifugation at 3G but not at 2G. Spleen lymphocyte lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness was diminished by 40% in the 2G group only, whereas a decrease was noted when cells were stimulated with concanavalin A for both 2G and 3G groups (about 25% and 20%, respectively) compared to controls. Pro-inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1 and IP-10) and Th1 cytokines (IFNγ and IL2) were slightly decreased in the 2G group and strongly decreased in the 3G mouse group. Regarding Th2 cytokines (IL4, IL5) no further significant modification was observed, whereas the immunosuppressive cytokine IL10 was slightly increased in the 3G mice. Finally, serum IgG concentration was twice higher whereas IgA concentration was slightly increased (about 30%) and IgM were unchanged in 2G mice compared to controls. No difference was observed in the 3G group with these isotypes. Consequently, functional immune dysregulations and stress responses were dependent of the gravity level. PMID:21724335

  4. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eToth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as C. parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response towards this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi’s virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses.In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host pathogen interactions.

  5. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Overlapping physiological responses and endocrine biomarkers that are indicative of stress responsiveness and immune function in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C

    2014-12-01

    Acknowledgment that modern livestock production systems impose stress on animals has been accepted by the scientific community and producers. As the economic burden has increased for livestock producers, expectations for animal performance have increased, thus placing more strain on the entire production system. Whether or not periodic exposure to stress within the production system jeopardizes the well-being of animals continues to be an area of debate largely because of the inability to accurately quantify the magnitude and severity of the stress response on other biological systems. Adding to the confusion is the fact that activation of the stress axis can be both beneficial and detrimental to the body depending on the duration of the stress response and the frequency at which an animal is exposed to stressful stimuli. Few would argue that continuous long-term stress inhibits livestock productivity and overall well-being. Less clear is whether or not occasional exposure to acute stress jeopardizes the productivity and well-being of livestock. To fully appreciate the complexity associated with activation of the stress axis and the overall biological impact on the body, one must delve deep into the scientific literature and examine the science in an unbiased manner. It is imperative to appreciate and understand that activation of the stress axis is an essential survival mechanism necessary to maintain homeostasis during biologically challenging times. Acute activation of the stress axis leads to repartitioning of energy to organs and tissues essential for coping with stress, redirection of blood flow from the peripheral to large muscle groups, decreased digestive function, and priming of the immune system to prepare for subsequent infections. Conversely, chronic activation of the stress axis disrupts digestive function, causes catabolism of muscle and adipose tissue, and suppresses overall immune function, thus making an animal more susceptible to disease. But

  6. Immune alterations in male and female mice after 2-deoxy-D-glucose administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreau, D.; Morton, D. S.; Foster, M.; Swiggett, J. P.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1997-01-01

    Administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) induces acute cellular glucoprivation. In the current study, we examined differences in immune parameters after 2-DG administration in both sexes. Male and female BDF1 mice were injected three times, 48 h apart, either with a saline solution (control group) or with 2-DG in saline (500 mg/kg). Two hours after the last injection, blood and spleens were collected. Plasma levels of interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma levels were measured. Additionally, the levels of the specific leukocyte antigens CD3, CD4, CD8, T cell receptor (TCR) alpha/beta, I-Ad, and H-2Ld/H-2Db were evaluated by flow cytometry on both blood and spleen cells. The blastogenic response of leukocytes from both tissues to mitogens was assessed. Levels of glucose, corticosterone, testosterone, progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone were also determined. Increases in the percentage of cells bearing TCR alpha/beta and I-Ad in the blood and H-2Ld/H-2Db in the spleen were observed in the 2-DG-treated group for both sexes. In contrast, higher corticosterone and IL-1beta plasma concentrations, as well as higher percentages of splenocytes bearing TCR alpha/beta and I-Ad, and lower mitogen-induced proliferation of mature T splenocytes (79%) were observed in female but not in male mice injected with 2-DG compared with those injected with saline (p female mice are more sensitive than male mice to immune alterations induced by 2-DG administration.

  7. First evidence for a Vibrio strain pathogenic to Mytilus edulis altering hemocyte immune capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Yosra; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Morga, Benjamin; Godfrin, Yoann; Rioult, Damien; Le Foll, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial isolates were obtained from mortality events affecting Mytilus edulis and reported by professionals in 2010-2013 or from mussel microflora. Experimental infections allowed the selection of two isolates affiliated to Vibrio splendidus/Vibrio hemicentroti type strains: a virulent 10/068 1T1 (76.6% and 90% mortalities in 24 h and 96 h) and an innocuous 12/056 M24T1 (0% and 23.3% in 24 h and 96 h). These two strains were GFP-tagged and validated for their growth characteristics and virulence as genuine models for exposure. Then, host cellular immune responses to the microbial invaders were assessed. In the presence of the virulent strain, hemocyte motility was instantaneously enhanced but markedly slowed down after 2 h exposure. By contrast, hemocyte velocity increased in the presence of the innocuous 12/056 M24T1. At the same time interval, 10/068 1T1 invaded hemocytes and was more rapidly internalized than the innocuous strain. Extracellular products (ECPs) prepared from 10/068 1T1 cultures significantly inhibited phagocytic activity while 12/056 M24T1 ECPs had no effect. Furthermore, the pathogenic strain and its ECPs inhibited oxidative burst unlike 12/056 M24T1 strain/ECPs which enhanced ROS production. Taken together, our results suggest that the mussel pathogen 10/068 1T1 may escape immune response by altering hemocytes functions. PMID:26719026

  8. Autoimmune disease-associated variants of extracellular endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 induce altered innate immune responses by human immune cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aldhamen, Yasser A; Pepelyayeva, Yuliya; Rastall, David P. W.; Seregin, Sergey S.; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Koumantou, Despoina; Charles F Aylsworth; Quiroga, Dionisia; Godbehere, Sarah; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Stratikos, Efstratios; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    ERAP1 gene polymorphisms have been linked to several autoimmune diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that ERAP1 regulates key aspects of the innate immune response. Moreover, previous studies show ERAP1 to be ER-localized and secreted during inflammation. Herein, we investigate the possible roles that ERAP1 polymorphic variants may have in modulating innate immune responses of human PBMCs using two ex...

  9. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ... Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ...

  10. Starvation alters the liver transcriptome of the innate immune response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secombes Christopher J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune response is an energy demanding process, which has effects in many physiological pathways in the body including protein and lipid metabolism. During an inflammatory response the liver is required to produce high levels of acute phase response proteins that attempt to neutralise an invading pathogen. Although this has been extensively studied in both mammals and fish, little is known about how high and low energy reserves modulate the response to an infection in fish which are ectothermic vertebrates. Food withdrawal in fish causes a decrease in metabolic rate so as to preserve protein and lipid energy reserves, which occurs naturally during the life cycle of many salmonids. Here we investigated how the feeding or fasting of Atlantic salmon affected the transcriptional response in the liver to an acute bacterial infection. Results Total liver RNA was extracted from four different groups of salmon. Two groups were fed or starved for 28 days. One of each of the fed or starved groups was then exposed to an acute bacterial infection. Twenty four hours later (day 29 the livers were isolated from all fish for RNA extraction. The transcriptional changes were examined by micro array analysis using a 17 K Atlantic salmon cDNA microarray. The expression profiling results showed major changes in gene transcription in each of the groups. Enrichment for particular biological pathways was examined by analysis of gene ontology. Those fish that were starved decreased immune gene transcription and reduced production of plasma protein genes, and upon infection there was a further decrease in genes encoding plasma proteins but a large increase in acute phase response proteins. The latter was greater in magnitude than in the fish that had been fed prior to infection. The expression of several genes that were found altered during microarray analysis was confirmed by real time PCR. Conclusions We demonstrate that both starvation and

  11. Autoimmune disease-associated variants of extracellular endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 induce altered innate immune responses by human immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhamen, Yasser A; Pepelyayeva, Yuliya; Rastall, David P W; Seregin, Sergey S; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Koumantou, Despoina; Aylsworth, Charles F; Quiroga, Dionisia; Godbehere, Sarah; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Stratikos, Efstratios; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) gene polymorphisms have been linked to several autoimmune diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. Recently, we demonstrated that ERAP1 regulates key aspects of the innate immune response. Previous studies show ERAP1 to be endoplasmic reticulum-localized and secreted during inflammation. Herein, we investigate the possible roles that ERAP1 polymorphic variants may have in modulating the innate immune responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) using two experimental methods: extracellular exposure of hPBMCs to ERAP1 variants and adenovirus (Ad)-based ERAP1 expression. We found that exposure of hPBMCs to ERAP1 variant proteins as well as ERAP1 overexpression by Ad5 vectors increased inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and enhanced immune cell activation. Investigating the molecular mechanisms behind these responses revealed that ERAP1 is able to activate innate immunity via multiple pathways, including the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor, pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome. Importantly, these responses varied if autoimmune disease-associated variants of ERAP1 were examined in the assay systems. Unexpectedly, blocking ERAP1 cellular internalization augmented IL-1β production. To our knowledge, this is the first report identifying ERAP1 as being involved in modulating innate responses of human immune cells, a finding that may explain why ERAP1 has been genetically associated with several autoimmune diseases. PMID:25591727

  12. Alteration of transcriptional networks in the entorhinal cortex after maternal immune activation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Sharon L; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Cairns, Murray J

    2016-08-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabinoid exposure (ACE) have both been identified as major environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined the effects of these two risk factors alone, and in combination, on gene expression during late adolescence. Pregnant rats were exposed to the viral infection mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day (GD) 15. Adolescent offspring received daily injections of the cannabinoid HU210 for 14days starting on postnatal day (PND) 35. Gene expression was examined in the left entorhinal cortex (EC) using mRNA microarrays. We found prenatal treatment with poly I:C alone, or HU210 alone, produced relatively minor changes in gene expression. However, following combined treatments, offspring displayed significant changes in transcription. This dramatic and persistent alteration of transcriptional networks enriched with genes involved in neurotransmission, cellular signalling and schizophrenia, was associated with a corresponding perturbation in the expression of small non-coding microRNA (miRNA). These results suggest that a combination of environmental exposures during development leads to significant genomic remodeling that disrupts maturation of the EC and its associated circuitry with important implications as the potential antecedents of memory and learning deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26923065

  13. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Roig; Olivier Thomas; Aghleb Bartegi; Wissem Mnif; Aicha Bouaziz; Aziza Ibn Hadj Hassine

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several yea...

  14. Long-lasting alterations in the immune system of Chernobyl accident victims: manifestations, nature and possible consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis is formulated, which explains genesis of long-lasting disturbances in the immune system of the persons affected by factors of Chernobyl disaster. Immunological alterations which are displayed at the late time after action of radiation in doses 0.5 Gy or lower are not a result of direct damage of the cells of immune system by irradiation. Their development is more probably a result of appearance of some systemic conditions and factors in affected organism - such as hormonal disbalance and especially autoantibodies of different specificities, including those reactive with thymic epithelial cells. Refs. 60, refs. 5

  15. 2013 Immune Risk Standing Review Panel Research Plan Review for: The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Immune Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a meeting with representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP) Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element and HRP management on February 3-4, 2014 in Houston, TX to review the updated Research Plan for the Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response in the HRP Integrated Research Plan. The SRP is impressed with the work the immune discipline has done since the 2012 SRP review and agrees with the new wording of the Gaps, no longer questions, now statements. The SRP also likes the addition of adding targets for closing the Gaps, but it is not clear how they got to some of the interim stages (interval percentages). A major concern that the SRP has mentioned since the initial 2009 SRP meeting is that there is still not enough emphasis on the interdisciplinary aspect of the immune risk associated with other risks (i.e., nutrition, radiation, etc.). The SRP recommends that a "translational SRP" or advisory group be developed that is composed of members from all of the HRP SRPs. The SRP also thinks that the immune discipline should consider a more systems biology approach. Lastly, the SRP is concerned that the risks observed in research from low Earth orbit (LEO) missions may not accurately reflect all the risks of longer duration flight beyond LEO. Also, there does not seem to be a concern for immune responses that may occur when someone is in space longer than six months, for example, a Mars mission would take three years. The absence of disease in past and current flight scenarios does not mean the risk may not be there in future flight settings.

  16. Strain Specific Induction of Pyometra and Differences in Immune Responsiveness in Mice Exposed to 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol or the Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Bisphenol A

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica A. Kendziorski; Kendig, Eric L.; Gear, Robin L.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Pyometra is an inflammatory disease of the uterus that can be caused by chronic exposure to estrogens. It is unknown whether weakly estrogenic endocrine disruptors can cause pyometra. We investigated whether dietary exposures to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) induced pyometra. Pyometra did not occur in CD1 mice exposed to different dietary doses of BPA ranging from 4.1 to >4000 µg/kg/day or 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE; 1.2 to >150 µg/kg/day). In the C57BL/6 strain, pyometr...

  17. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  18. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  19. Does cancer start in the womb? Altered mammary gland development and predisposition to breast cancer due to in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    SOTO, ANA M.; Brisken, Cathrin; Schaeberle, Cheryl; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We are now witnessing a resurgence of theories of development and carcinogenesis in which the environment is again being accepted as a major player in phenotype determination. Perturbations in the fetal environment predispose an individual to disease that only becomes apparent in adulthood. For example, gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol resulted in clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and breast cancer. In this review the effects of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) on mammary ...

  20. Developmental alterations and endocrine-disruptive responses in farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) exposed to contaminants from the Crocodile River, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Myburgh, Jan; Langberg, Håkon A; Adeogun, Aina O; Braa, Idunn Godal; Moeder, Monika; Schlenk, Daniel; Crago, Jordan Paul; Regoli, Francesco; Botha, Christo

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the developmental (including fertility) and endocrine-disruptive effects in relation to chemical burden in male and female Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus), from a commercial crocodile farm in the Brits district, South Africa, exposed to various anthropogenic aquatic contaminants from the natural environment was investigated. Hepatic transcript levels for vitellogenin (Vtg), zona pellucida (ZP) and ERα (also in gonads) were analyzed using real-time PCR. Plasma estradiol-17β (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were analyzed using enzyme immunoassay. Gonadal aromatase and hepatic testosterone metabolism (6β-hydroxylase (6β-OHase)) were analyzed using biochemical methods. Overall, there is high and abnormal number (%) of infertile and banded eggs during the studied reproductive seasons, showing up to 57 and 34% of infertile eggs in the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons, respectively. In addition, the percentage of banded eggs ranged between 10 and 19% during the period of 2009-2014 seasons. While hepatic ERα, Vtg, ZP mRNA and testosterone 6β-OHase, were equally expressed in female and male crocodiles, gonadal ERα mRNA and aromatase activity were significantly higher in females compared to male crocodiles. On the other hand, plasma T and 11-KT levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female crocodiles. Principal component analysis (PCA) produced significant grouping that revealed correlative relationships between reproductive/endocrine-disruptive variables and liver contaminant burden, that further relates to measured contaminants in the natural environment. The overall results suggest that these captive pre-slaughter farm crocodiles exhibited responses to anthropogenic aquatic contaminants with potentially relevant consequences on key reproductive and endocrine pathways and these responses may be established as relevant species endocrine disruptor biomarkers of exposure and effects in this threatened

  1. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  2. Endocrine Tumor: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a roadmap to this full guide. About the endocrine system The endocrine system is made up of cells that produce hormones. ... of sugar in the blood. Part of the endocrine system is the neuroendocrine system, which is made up ...

  3. 女性内分泌及免疫紊乱在复发性流产中的作用研究%Female Endocrine and Immune Disorder in the role of Recurrent Miscarriage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓英; 高美华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨女性内分泌及免疫紊乱在复发性流产中的作用。方法回顾性分析2009年6月至2012年6月186例复发性流产病例作为观察组,并选同期180例正常产妇作为对照组,研究两组内分泌(卵泡生成激素,黄体生成激素,雌二醇,孕酮,睾酮,催乳激素)及免疫相关检测(抗精子抗体、抗子宫内膜抗体、抗心磷脂抗体、抗磷脂抗体综合症(APS)的检查结果。结果观察组中内分泌检测项目中卵泡生成激素(FSH),黄体生成激素(LH),雌二醇(E2),孕酮(P),睾酮(T),催乳激素(PRL)和免疫项目抗精子抗体(AsAb)、抗子宫内膜抗体(EMAb)、抗心磷脂抗体(AcL),抗磷脂抗体综合症(APS)检测结果显示,复发性流产病例中内分泌激素检查结果异常率89.78%,免疫相关检查异常率43.01%,远高于正常对照组中内分泌激素检查结果异常率7.22%,免疫相关检查异常率1.67%,两组数据对比分析分别具有统计学差异性意义(X2=16.87,P<0.05;X2=21.26,P<0.05)。结论女性内分泌及免疫紊乱是复发性流产的主要原因之一,其导致复发流产的作用不容忽视,对复发性流产患者应注重检测内分泌激素和相关免疫项目,是减少复发流产出现的有效诊疗措施,调整内分泌和免疫功能是促进受孕及保胎的治疗方法。%Objective To investigate the female endocrine and immune disorder in the role of recurrent miscarriage .Methods A retrospective analysis in June 2009 to June 2009 as observation group,186 cases of recurrent abortion and selected during the same period 180 cases of normal women as control group,the two groups of en-docrine,follicle generate hormone,luteinizing hormone generated,estradiol,progesterone,testosterone,the hormone prolactin)and immune related detection(antisperm an-tibody,endometrial antibody resistance

  4. A Bitter Sweet Symphony: Immune Responses to Altered O-glycan Epitopes in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Lenneke A.M.; Van Vliet, Sandra J.

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of aberrant glycans on the tumor cell surface is one of the emerging hallmarks of cancer. Glycosylation is an important post-translation modification of proteins and lipids and is strongly affected by oncogenesis. Tumor-associated glycans have been extensively characterized regarding their composition and tumor-type specific expression patterns. Nevertheless whether and how tumor-associated glycans contribute to the observed immunomodulatory actions by tumors has not been extensively studied. Here, we provide a detailed overview of the current knowledge on how tumor-associated O-glycans affect the anti-tumor immune response, thereby focusing on truncated O-glycans present on epithelial tumors and mucins. These tumor-associated O-glycans and mucins bind a variety of lectin receptors on immune cells to facilitate the subsequently induction of tolerogenic immune responses. We, therefore, postulate that tumor-associated glycans not only support tumor growth, but also actively contribute to immune evasion. PMID:27153100

  5. Fungal tools for the degradation of endocrine disrupting compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kabiersch, Grit

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds are synthetic or natural compounds that mimic the action of hormones and thus disrupt or alter functions of the endocrine system usually through direct interactions with nuclear receptors. The main objective of this work was to develop strategies of how to degrade endocrine disrupting compounds and how to monitor the removal of the endocrine disrupting effect with focus on the estrogenic compound bisphenol A and on the virilizing compound tributyltin. Bisph...

  6. Methamphetamine Administration Targets Multiple Immune Subsets and Induces Phenotypic Alterations Suggestive of Immunosuppression

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Harms; Brenda Morsey; Craig W Boyer; Fox, Howard S.; Nora Sarvetnick

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is a widely abused stimulant and its users are at increased risk for multiple infectious diseases. To determine the impact of meth on the immune system, we utilized a murine model that simulates the process of meth consumption in a typical addict. Our phenotypic analysis of leukocytes from this dose escalation model revealed that meth affected key immune subsets. Meth administration led to a decrease in abundance of natural killer (NK) cells and the remaining NK cells p...

  7. The innate immune response of equine bronchial epithelial cells is altered by training

    OpenAIRE

    Frellstedt, Linda; Gosset, Philippe; Kervoaze, Gwenola; Hans, Aymeric; Desmet, Christophe; Pirottin, Dimitri; Bureau, Fabrice; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    AbstractRespiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier against airborne infections and plays an essential role in the lung innate immune response mainly through toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. The aim of this study was to develop a model for the culture of equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in vitro and to explore EBEC innate immun...

  8. Activation of the Maternal Immune System During Pregnancy Alters Behavioral Development of Rhesus Monkey Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Bauman, Melissa D.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Smith, Stephen E. P.; Bregere, Catherine; Amaral, David G.; Patterson, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Supporting this correlation, experimentally activating the maternal immune system during pregnancy in rodents produces offspring with abnormal brain and behavioral development. We have developed a nonhuman primate model to bridge the gap between clinical populations and rodent models of maternal immune activation (MIA). Methods: A modified form of the ...

  9. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.

  10. 女性内分泌及免疫紊乱在不孕症中的影响分析%Analysis the female endocrine and immune disorders in infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于秋梅; 安成涛

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the immune infertility women and the relationship between endocrine disorder.MethodsUsing chemiluminescence detection method in 32 infertile women and 42 cases of normal control group, the serum levels of LH, FSH, T, E2, INS, PRL level, gonadotropin antibody labeled with colloidal gold immune dot immunogold filtration assay for detection of anti endometrial antibody, anti sperm antibodies, anticardiolipin antibody, anti ovary antibody and anti human chorionic.ResultsAutoantibodies positive group 7 cases E2 level was signifi cantly lower than the negative group, while LH, FSH, T, INS, PRL level was signifi cantly higher than that of negative group 25 cases (P<0.05). Female endocrine disorders of immune antibody positive patients with a higher incidence (P<0.05), with statistical signifi cance.ConclusionFemale endocrine and immune dysfunction is an important cause of infertility, immune antibody can directly lead to infertility, and also lead to infertility caused by female endocrine hormone level change.%目的:探究不孕症妇女自身免疫与内分泌紊乱的关系。方法用化学发光法检测不孕症妇女32例及正常对照组42名体内血清黄体生成素(LH)、卵泡刺激素(FSH)、睾酮(T)、雌二醇(E2)、胰岛素(INS)、泌乳素(PRL)水平,用胶体金标记免疫斑点渗滤法来检验心磷脂抗体、卵巢抗体、子宫内膜抗体、抗绒毛膜促性腺激素抗体和精子抗体。结果自身免疫抗体阳性患者7例的E2水平明显比抗体阴性组低,但25例患者的LH、FSH、T、INS、PRL水平明显高出抗体阴性组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。女性内分泌失调患者免疫抗体阳性出现率提高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论女性患者的内分泌及免疫紊乱是引起不孕的重要病因,免疫抗体可直接引起不孕症,还可通过引起女性内分泌激素水平改变而导致不孕。

  11. 湿热中阻与神经内分泌免疫网络综述%Research Status of Damp-Heat Blocking the Middle Energizer and Neuro-Endocrine-Immune Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁嘉朗; 胡齐鸣

    2016-01-01

    There is close relationship between damp-heat blocking the middle energizer and nero-endocrine-immune (NEI) network.The pathogenesis of damp heat syndrome is the comprehensive manifestation of the effect of NEI network on the body.Syndrome of damp-heat blocking the middle energizer is a typical example of the syndrome of general damp-heat syndrome.By inducing abnormal secretion of various chemical signals,the damp heat eventually leads to disorder of nervous system,endocrine disorder and decline of immunity.The TCM formulas with effects of clearing heat and removing dampness can both positively and negatively regulate the patients with NEI network disorder.The mechanism may be two-ways regulation via three major chemical signals of nerves,endocrine and immunity (with the receptors as the target spots) to promote the steady state of the body.Strengthening the research on the relationship between NEI network and damp-heat pathogenic factors will further help to reveal the essence of TCM syndrome of damp-heat blocking the middle energizer and provide new ideas and approaches for the researches on the essence of the five zang-organs' attacking of pathogens.%湿热中阻与NEI网络关系密切,湿热证的致病作用是NEI网络影响机体的综合表现,湿热中阻证是全身性湿热证的典型代表,湿热中阻通过影响各种化学信号因子分泌异常,最终导致神经系统失调、内分泌紊乱、免疫功能下降中医清热祛湿的方药能对NEI网络失调者具有正反两面调节作用.中医方药治疗湿热中阻可能是通过神经、内分泌、免疫3大系统交流的化学信号因子及其受体作为效应靶点,进行双向调节,促使机体趋共稳态加强NEI网络与湿热致病“因子”关系的研究对揭示中医湿热中阻的本质有进一步帮助,为中医五脏受邪的本质研究提供新的思路和方法.

  12. Iodinated contrast media alter immune responses in pro-inflammatory states.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Hypertonic saline causes a transient elevation of blood osmolality and has been shown to alter cellular inflammatory responses in pro-inflammatory states. Intravascular administration of iodine contrast media also causes a transient elevation of blood osmolarity.

  13. Alterations in T cell-derived colony-stimulating factors associated with GVH-induced immune deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection of parental C57BL/10 spleen cells into unirradiated immune-competent (B10 x B10.BR)F1 hosts has been demonstrated to produce a graft-vs.-host-induced immune deficiency in T cell-mediated functions, including mitogen or alloantigen stimulated proliferation or cytotoxic T cell generation. The production of T cell-derived lymphokines affecting hematopoiesis was also altered during GVH. During the first two weeks of GVH, IL-3 and particularly GM-CSF were produced spontaneously; in subsequent weeks, the spontaneous production dropped to normal or subnormal levels. CSF content in concanavalin A-stimulated splenic supernatants was reduced at weeks 1-2, and declined to less than 5% of normal levels by 3-4 weeks of GVH. This decline in CSF content was correlated with a decrease in immune function as assessed by concanavalin A-stimulated IL-2 production and by generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Concurrent with the recovery of immune function during GVH weeks 8-15, mitogen-stimulated production of CSF returned to normal levels. In addition to the decrease in CSF production identified in acute suppressive GVH, CSF content in concanavalin A-stimulated splenic supernatants was also decreased in chronic stimulatory GVH, generated in the strain combination (B6 x B6bm1)F1----(B6bm1 x B6bm12)F1. This decrease in CSF production correlated with a decrease in self-restricted T helper cell function. Finally, a decrease in both immune function and CSF production capacity was observed in the acute GVH following allogeneic (minor histocompatibility loci) bone marrow transplantation into irradiated hosts

  14. Adaptive immunity alters distinct host feeding pathways during nematode induced inflammation, a novel mechanism in parasite expulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Worthington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal infection is often associated with hypophagia and weight loss; however, the precise mechanisms governing these responses remain poorly defined. Furthermore, the possibility that alterations in feeding during infection may be beneficial to the host requires further study. We used the nematode Trichinella spiralis, which transiently inhabits the small intestine before migrating to skeletal muscle, as a biphasic model of infection to determine the cellular and molecular pathways controlling feeding during enteric and peripheral inflammation. Through the infection of genetically modified mice lacking cholecystokinin, Tumor necrosis factor α receptors and T and B-cells, we observed a biphasic hypophagic response to infection resulting from two separate immune-driven mechanisms. The enteroendocrine I-cell derived hormone cholecystokinin is an essential mediator of initial hypophagia and is induced by CD4+ T-cells during enteritis. In contrast, the second hypophagic response is extra-intestinal and due to the anorectic effects of TNFα during peripheral infection of the muscle. Moreover, via maintaining naive levels of the adipose secreted hormone leptin throughout infection we demonstrate a novel feedback loop in the immunoendocrine axis. Immune driven I-cell hyperplasia and resultant weight loss leads to a reduction in the inflammatory adipokine leptin, which in turn heightens protective immunity during infection. These results characterize specific immune mediated mechanisms which reduce feeding during intestinal or peripheral inflammation. Importantly, the molecular mediators of each phase are entirely separate. The data also introduce the first evidence that I-cell hyperplasia is an adaptively driven immune response that directly impinges on the outcome to infection.

  15. Functional Immune Alterations, Latent Herpesvirus Reactivation, Physiological Stress and Clinical Incidence Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Kunz, Hawley; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Ray; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Quiriarte, Heather; Chouker, Alexander; Pierson, Duane

    2016-01-01

    This study (OpNom 'Functional Immune') will be a comprehensive immunity Flight Definition investigation that will use longitudinal repeated measures to assess various aspects of immunity and viral reactivation during long-duration spaceflight. This proposal builds on the successful sampling architecture of the former Integrated Immune flight study, which for the first time returned ambient, live blood samples from space to allow functional assays. Blood (ambient, live) and saliva samples will be collected before, during, and following spaceflight. Previously uninvestigated live cell assays will be performed to assess cellular function during spaceflight. Specialized preservatives will be utilized to assess comprehensive immunophenotype, gene expression and proteomics. Measures of inflammation, stress, antimicrobial activity, etc. will be assessed in blood, saliva, and/or urine. The reactivation of a panel of herpesviruses will be assessed both during flight, and post-flight until shedding resolves. Array technology will be utilized to allow maximal information to be derived from minimal in-flight samples. This study will be a hybrid of NASA internal scientists and researchers external to NASA. The NASA 'Core' science package and implementation strategy was selected and approved in 2014. Via NRA, the solicitation for external participation, with science directed to comply with the parent study sampling architecture, is in progress

  16. Obesity and adipose tissue endocrine function

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Anuradha Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have profoundly changed the concept of adipose tissue from being an energy depot to an active endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secretes bioactive peptides, termed as ‘adipokines’.They act through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine pathways. In obesity, increased production of most adipokines affects multiple functions such as appetite and energy balance, immunity, insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, blood pressure, lipid metabolism and haemostasis. Increased activity of the tumor n...

  17. Endotoxemia is associated with altered innate and adaptive immune responses in untreated HIV-1 infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Roslev Bukh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation may contribute to the immunopathogenesis in HIV infection. We investigated if microbial translocation and inflammation were associated with innate and adaptive immune responses in adults with HIV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was an observational cohort study. Sera from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals were analyzed for microbial translocation (soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharides [LPS], endotoxin core antibody, and anti-α-galactosyl antibodies and inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-1 receptor antagonist, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II, and IL-10 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from HIV-infected persons and healthy controls (primed with single-stranded HIV-1-derived RNA were stimulated with LPS, and cytokine production was measured. Finally, HIV-infected patients were immunized with Prevnar 7vPnC±CpG 7909 followed by Pneumo Novum PPV-23. Effects of microbial translocation and inflammation on immunization were analyzed in a predictive regression model. We included 96 HIV-infected individuals, 76 on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, 20 HAART-naive, and 50 healthy controls. Microbial translocation and inflammatory markers were higher among HIV-infected persons than controls. Cytokine levels following LPS stimulation were increased in PBMCs from HAART-naive compared to HAART-treated HIV-infected persons. Further, RNA-priming of PBMCs from controls acted synergistically with LPS to augment cytokine responses. Finally, high serum LPS levels predicted poor vaccine responses among HAART-naive, but not among HAART-treated HIV-infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LPS acts synergistically with HIV RNA to stimulate innate immune responses in vitro and increasing serum LPS levels seem to predict poor antibody responses after vaccination among HAART-naive HIV-infected persons. Thus, our

  18. Cell Cycle Control and Adhesion Molecule Expression in Cells of the Immune System are Sensitive to Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, O.; Paulsen, K.; Thiel, C.; Herrmann, K.; Sang, C.; Han, G.; Hemmersbach, R.; von der Wiesche, M.; Kroll, H.; Zhuang, F.; Grote, K. H.; Cogoli, A.; Zipp, F.; Engelmann, F.

    2008-06-01

    Life on earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Thus, it is a fundamental biological question, whether gravity is required for cellular functions and signal transduction in mammalian cells. Since the first Spacelab-Mission 20 years ago, it is known that activation and function of T lymphocytes is severely suppressed in microgravity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not elucidated. Experiments have been performed using ground-based facilities such as fast-rotating clinostat and hyper-g-centrifuges, and real microgravity provided by parabolic flights. We found that 1.) cells of the immune system responded cell type specifically to altered gravity, 2.) microgravity induced a multitude of initial alterations in signal transduction, whereas 3.) hypergravity of 1.8g did not induce any changes of the pathways tested, and that 4.) most of the initially altered pathways in microgravity adapted to "normal" levels within 15min. However, some pathways remained altered and could explain cell cycle arrest of T lymphocytes as observed in several long-term space experiments.

  19. Effects of Antibiotic Use on the Microbiota of the Gut and Associated Alterations of Immunity and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Francino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The excessively widespread use of antibiotics has created many threats. A well-known problem is the increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics, which has clearly become a worldwide challenge to the effective control of infections by many pathogens. But, beyond affecting the pathogenic agents for which it is intended, antibiotic treatment also affects the mutualistic communities of microbes that inhabit the human body. As they inhibit susceptible organisms and select for resistant ones, antibiotics can have strong immediate effects on the composition of these communities, such as the proliferation of resistant opportunists that can cause accute disease. Furthermore, antibiotic-induced microbiota alterations are also likely to have more insidious effects on long-term health. In the case of the gut microbiota, this community interacts with many crucial aspects of human biology, including the regulation of immune and metabolic homeostasis, in the gut and beyond. It follows that antibiotic treatments bear the risk of altering these basic equilibria. Here, we review the growing literature on the effects of antibiotic use on gut microbiota composition and function, and their consequences for immunity, metabolism, and health.

  20. Gliadin-mediated proliferation and innate immune activation in celiac disease are due to alterations in vesicular trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vittoria Barone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Damage to intestinal mucosa in celiac disease (CD is mediated both by inflammation due to adaptive and innate immune responses, with IL-15 as a major mediator of the innate immune response, and by proliferation of crypt enterocytes as an early alteration of CD mucosa causing crypts hyperplasia. We have previously shown that gliadin peptide P31-43 induces proliferation of cell lines and celiac enterocytes by delaying degradation of the active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR due to delayed maturation of endocytic vesicles. IL-15 is increased in the intestine of patients affected by CD and has pleiotropic activity that ultimately results in immunoregulatory cross-talk between cells belonging to the innate and adaptive branches of the immune response. Aims of this study were to investigate the role of P31-43 in the induction of cellular proliferation and innate immune activation. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cell proliferation was evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation both in CaCo-2 cells and in biopsies from active CD cases and controls. We used real-time PCR to evaluate IL-15 mRNA levels and FACS as well as ELISA and Western Blot (WB analysis to measure protein levels and distribution in CaCo-2 cells. Gliadin and P31-43 induce a proliferation of both CaCo-2 cells and CD crypt enterocytes that is dependent on both EGFR and IL-15 activity. In CaCo-2 cells, P31-43 increased IL-15 levels on the cell surface by altering intracellular trafficking. The increased IL-15 protein was bound to IL15 receptor (IL-15R alpha, did not require new protein synthesis and functioned as a growth factor. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have shown that P31-43 induces both increase of the trans-presented IL-15/IL5R alpha complex on cell surfaces by altering the trafficking of the vesicular compartments as well as proliferation of crypt enterocytes with consequent remodelling of CD mucosa due to a cooperation of IL-15 and EGFR.

  1. An altered intestinal mucosal microbiome in HIV-1 infection is associated with mucosal and systemic immune activation and endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, S M; Lee, E J; Kotter, C V; Austin, G L; Dong, Z; Hecht, D K; Gianella, S; Siewe, B; Smith, D M; Landay, A L; Robertson, C E; Frank, D N; Wilson, C C

    2014-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection disrupts the intestinal immune system, leading to microbial translocation and systemic immune activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the intestinal microbiome and its association with mucosal T-cell and dendritic cell (DC) frequency and activation, as well as with levels of systemic T-cell activation, inflammation, and microbial translocation. Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing was performed on colon biopsies and fecal samples from subjects with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection and uninfected control subjects. Colon biopsies of HIV-1-infected subjects had increased abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased abundances of Firmicutes compared with uninfected donors. Furthermore at the genus level, a significant increase in Prevotella and decrease in Bacteroides was observed in HIV-1-infected subjects, indicating a disruption in the Bacteroidetes bacterial community structure. This HIV-1-associated increase in Prevotella abundance was associated with increased numbers of activated colonic T cells and myeloid DCs. Principal coordinates analysis demonstrated an HIV-1-related change in the microbiome that was associated with increased mucosal cellular immune activation, microbial translocation, and blood T-cell activation. These observations suggest that an important relationship exists between altered mucosal bacterial communities and intestinal inflammation during chronic HIV-1 infection. PMID:24399150

  2. Altered Innate and Lymphocytic Immune Responses in Mouse Splenocytes Post-Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, ShenAn; Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.; Actor, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to affect immune responses of astronauts and animals, decreasing lymphocytic responses to mitogenic stimuli, delayed typed hypersensitivity reactions, and T-cell activation. Despite changes in immune suppression, there are no reports of consistent adverse clinical events post flight. To further investigate the spectrum of affected immune responses, murine splenocytes were stimulated immediately post-shuttle flight (14 days on STS-135) with T-cell stimulators or toll-like receptor agonists. Comparisons were made to ground control splenocytes from age-matched mice. Cell phenotypes were assessed, as well as activation markers and associated cytokine production. The CD4+ population decreased with no concurrent decrease in CD8+ cells from shuttle mice post flight compared to ground controls. Regarding antigen presenting cell populations, the number of CD11c+ cells were slightly elevated post flight, compared to ground controls, with increased MHC Class I expression (I-A(sup b)) and no change in Class II expression (H-2K(sup b)). CD86+ populations were also significantly diminished. However, the decreased markers did not correlate with activity. Stimulation of splenocytes post flight showed significant increase in bead uptake, increased Class I expression, increased TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in response to TLR-2 (zymosan) and TLR-4 (LPS) agonists. While most activated (ConA or anti-CD3/anti-CD28) CD4+ cells showed markedly diminished responses (reduced IL-2 production), non-specific T cell responses to superantigen (SEA/SEB) increased post flight as determined by expression of early activation markers. Production of additional cytokines was also dysregulated postflight. Overall, persistent immune changes during space flight could represent unique clinical risks for exploration class missions. The consequences of pathogenic encounter remain an important concern that should be addressed.

  3. Larval Environment Alters Amphibian Immune Defenses Differentially across Life Stages and Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Krynak

    Full Text Available Recent global declines, extirpations and extinctions of wildlife caused by newly emergent diseases highlight the need to improve our knowledge of common environmental factors that affect the strength of immune defense traits. To achieve this goal, we examined the influence of acidification and shading of the larval environment on amphibian skin-associated innate immune defense traits, pre and post-metamorphosis, across two populations of American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana, a species known for its wide-ranging environmental tolerance and introduced global distribution. We assessed treatment effects on 1 skin-associated microbial communities and 2 post-metamorphic antimicrobial peptide (AMP production and 3 AMP bioactivity against the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. While habitat acidification did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis or juvenile mass, we found that a change in average pH from 7 to 6 caused a significant shift in the larval skin microbial community, an effect which disappeared after metamorphosis. Additionally, we found shifts in skin-associated microbial communities across life stages suggesting they are affected by the physiological or ecological changes associated with amphibian metamorphosis. Moreover, we found that post-metamorphic AMP production and bioactivity were significantly affected by the interactions between pH and shade treatments and interactive effects differed across populations. In contrast, there were no significant interactions between treatments on post-metamorphic microbial community structure suggesting that variation in AMPs did not affect microbial community structure within our study. Our findings indicate that commonly encountered variation in the larval environment (i.e. pond pH and degree of shading can have both immediate and long-term effects on the amphibian innate immune defense traits. Our work suggests that the susceptibility of amphibians to emerging diseases could be

  4. The innate immune response of equine bronchial epithelial cells is altered by training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frellstedt, Linda; Gosset, Philippe; Kervoaze, Gwenola; Hans, Aymeric; Desmet, Christophe; Pirottin, Dimitri; Bureau, Fabrice; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier against airborne infections and plays an essential role in the lung innate immune response mainly through toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. The aim of this study was to develop a model for the culture of equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in vitro and to explore EBEC innate immune responses in trained horses. Bronchial epithelial biopsies were taken from 6 adult horses during lower airway endoscopy. EBEC were grown in vitro by an explant method. The innate immune response of EBEC was evaluated in vitro by treatment with TLR ligands. TLR3 is the most strongly expressed TLR at the mRNA level in EBEC and stimulation of EBEC with Poly(I:C), an analog of viral dsRNA, triggers a strong secretion of IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL8. We further evaluated the EBEC innate immune response in horses that underwent a 4-month-training program. While training had no effect on TLR mRNA expression in EBEC as well as in bronchial biopsies, it increased the production of IFN-β after stimulation with a TLR3 ligand and decreased the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 after stimulation with a TLR2 and TLR3 ligand. These findings may be implicated in the increased risk for viral and bacterial infections observed in sport horses. Altogether, we report a successful model for the culture of EBEC that can be applied to the investigation of pathophysiologic conditions in longitudinal studies. PMID:25595212

  5. Starvation alters the liver transcriptome of the innate immune response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Secombes Christopher J; Houlihan Dominic F; Douglas Alex; Martin Samuel AM

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The immune response is an energy demanding process, which has effects in many physiological pathways in the body including protein and lipid metabolism. During an inflammatory response the liver is required to produce high levels of acute phase response proteins that attempt to neutralise an invading pathogen. Although this has been extensively studied in both mammals and fish, little is known about how high and low energy reserves modulate the response to an infection in ...

  6. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    OpenAIRE

    Guanshi Zhang; Dagnachew Hailemariam; Elda Dervishi; Qilan Deng; Goldansaz, Seyed A.; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Lameness is prevalent in dairy cows and early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease can lower animal suffering, improve recovery rate, increase longevity, and minimize cow loss. However, there are no indications of disease until it appears clinically, and presently the only approach to deal with the sick cow is intensive treatment or culling. The results suggest that lameness affected serum concentrations of the several parameters related to innate immunity and carbohyd...

  7. Radiation-induced Alterations in Immune Response to Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an age when medical advances and terrorist threats frequently make news headlines, exposure to radiation is quickly becoming an issue of public, private, and government interest. Radiotherapy is a common treatment modality for cancer and other diseases. However, there are also equally clear hazards, such as the use of radioactive materials in acts of terrorism or war. Concomitant accidental or terrorism-related exposure to sublethal gamma or mixed-field (gamma and neutron) radiation would inevitably increase morbidity among individuals exposed to microbes. Ionizing radiation damages the haematopoietic and gastrointestinal systems. Prompt, sublethal irradiation increases the susceptibility to bacterial infections by decreasing the number of circulating mature white blood cells in the intestine. The data presented herein represent the first results exploring the effects of whole-body irradiation on the ability of the immune system to respond to microbes. We utilized γ-ray radiation as a model for radiation exposure and then challenged the animals 4 days postexposure to investigate the immune response in the most vulnerable phase of the hematopoietic-immune system. We employed Stapylococcus aureus bacterial challenges, a Gram-positive bacterium that is a major cause of septic shock and death

  8. Horses experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona develop altered immune responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witonsky, Sharon G; Ellison, Siobhan; Yang, Jibing; Gogal, Robert M; Lawler, Heather; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sriranganathan, Namalwar; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Lindsay, David S

    2008-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection is 1 of the most common neurologic diseases in horses in the United States. The mechanisms by which most horses resist disease, as well as the possible mechanisms by which the immune system may be suppressed in horses that develop EPM, are not known. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether horses experimentally infected with S. neurona developed suppressed immune responses. Thirteen horses that were negative for S. neurona antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or infected (n = 8) treatment groups. Neurologic exams and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were performed prior to, and following, S. neurona infection. Prior to, and at multiple time points following infection, immune parameters were determined. All 8 S. neurona-infected horses developed clinical signs consistent with EPM, and had S. neurona antibodies in the serum and CSF. Both infected and control horses had increased percentages (P < 0.05) of B cells at 28 days postinfection. Infected horses had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation responses as measured by thymidine incorporation to nonspecific mitogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (I) as soon as 2 days postinfection. PMID:18973416

  9. Endocrine Labomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory endocrinology forms an integral part of 21 st century endocrinology. Perhaps, no other specialty of medicine is as closely associated with laboratory as endocrinology. This review intends to highlight the challenges faced by an endocrinologist before interpreting a hormone assay report. This review by no means is holistic but intends to highlight some of the pitfalls of laboratory endocrinology and arouse further interest in this important but neglected section of endocrinology. Lack of standardization, as well as rigorous implementation is some of the major challenges facing endocrine assays in our country. It is essential to be aware not only of the details of the method of analysis of a hormone, the pre-analytical requisites, but also disease-specific analytical issues to prevent unnecessary concern both for the patient, as well as the treating physician, as well as needless investigations. Problems with interpretation of serum prolactin, thyroglobulin, steroid hormone assays, rennin assay and vitamin-D assay have been highlighted.

  10. Immune dysfunction following infection with chicken anemia agent and infectious bursal disease virus. II. Alterations of in vitro lymphoproliferation and in vivo immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, S S; Rosenberger, J K; Lillehoj, H S

    1992-11-01

    To determine the functional impact of alterations in lymphocyte concentrations and ratios following infection with chicken anemia agent (CAA) alone or in combination with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on the immune system of young chickens, in vitro lymphoproliferation assays and in vivo responses to vaccination with several common viral agents were assessed at various time intervals post-inoculation (PI). Concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulation of splenic lymphocytes (SPL) collected from control birds could not be detected until 10-14 days PI. Infection with CAA was characterized by significantly higher PWM stimulation of SPL at 17 days PI and significantly lower PWM stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) at 14 days PI, compared with uninfected controls. Concanavalin A and PWM stimulation of SPL was significantly increased in birds inoculated with IBDV alone. Lymphocytes harvested from birds inoculated simultaneously with CAA and IBDV had significantly lower responses. Effects on humoral and cell-mediated immunity following CAA and/or IBDV were determined by evaluating vaccination responses to Newcastle disease virus (NDV), fowl pox virus (FPV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) during the acute phase of CAA infection (2 weeks PI). Vaccination of birds 2 weeks following CAA infection at 1 day of age resulted in decreased protection against NDV (85.7%) and ILTV (7.1%) challenge compared with protection rates in control birds (100% and 53.3% respectively). Infectious bursal disease virus infection was associated with decreased protection against NDV (60%) only. Concomitant infection at 1 day of age resulted in a greater reduction in NDV challenge protection (33.3%), slightly decreased FPV protection (87.5%), increased numbers of persistent FPV vaccination lesions and increased protection against ILTV challenge (71.4%). Vaccination of birds 2 weeks following CAA infection at 2 weeks of age

  11. Widespread alterations in the synaptic proteome of the adolescent cerebral cortex following prenatal immune activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györffy, Balázs A; Gulyássy, Péter; Gellén, Barbara; Völgyi, Katalin; Madarasi, Dóra; Kis, Viktor; Ozohanics, Olivér; Papp, Ildikó; Kovács, Péter; Lubec, Gert; Dobolyi, Árpád; Kardos, József; Drahos, László; Juhász, Gábor; Kékesi, Katalin A

    2016-08-01

    An increasing number of studies have revealed associations between pre- and perinatal immune activation and the development of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Accordingly, neuroimmune crosstalk has a considerably large impact on brain development during early ontogenesis. While a plethora of heterogeneous abnormalities have already been described in established maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent and primate animal models, which highly correlate to those found in human diseases, the underlying molecular background remains obscure. In the current study, we describe the long-term effects of MIA on the neocortical pre- and postsynaptic proteome of adolescent rat offspring in detail. Molecular differences were revealed in sub-synaptic fractions, which were first thoroughly characterized using independent methods. The widespread proteomic examination of cortical samples from offspring exposed to maternal lipopolysaccharide administration at embryonic day 13.5 was conducted via combinations of different gel-based proteomic techniques and tandem mass spectrometry. Our experimentally validated proteomic data revealed more pre- than postsynaptic protein level changes in the offspring. The results propose the relevance of altered synaptic vesicle recycling, cytoskeletal structure and energy metabolism in the presynaptic region in addition to alterations in vesicle trafficking, the cytoskeleton and signal transduction in the postsynaptic compartment in MIA offspring. Differing levels of the prominent signaling regulator molecule calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the postsynapse was validated and identified specifically in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, several potential common molecular regulators of these altered proteins, which are already known to be implicated in schizophrenia and ASD, were identified and assessed. In summary, unexpectedly widespread changes in the synaptic molecular machinery in MIA rats were demonstrated which

  12. Soluble metals in residual oil fly ash alter innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses to bacterial infection in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soluble metals of the pollutant, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), have been shown to alter pulmonary bacterial clearance in rats. The goal of this study was to determine the potential effects on both the innate and adaptive lung immune responses after bacterial infection in rats pre-exposed to the soluble metals in ROFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally dosed (i.t.) at day 0 with ROFA (R-Total) (1.0 mg/100 g body weight), the soluble fraction of ROFA (R-Soluble), the soluble sample subject to a chelator (R-Chelex), or phosphate-buffered saline (Saline). On day 3, rats were administered an i.t. dose of 5 x 104 Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, bacterial pulmonary clearance was monitored and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on days 3 (pre-infection), 6, 8, and 10. A concentrated first fraction of lavage fluid was retained for analysis of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin to assess lung injury. BAL cell number, phenotype, and production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) were assessed, and a variety of cytokines were measured in the BAL fluid. Rats pre-treated with R-Soluble showed elevated lung injury/cytotoxicity and increased cellular influx into the lungs. R-Soluble-treatment also altered ROS, RNS, and cytokine levels, and caused a degree of macrophage and T cell inhibition. These effects of R-Soluble result in increased pulmonary bacterial burden after infection. The results suggest that soluble metals in ROFA increase lung injury and inflammation, and alter both innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses

  13. High Dietary Folate in Mice Alters Immune Response and Reduces Survival after Malarial Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Meadows

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global health issue, with nearly 200 million cases in 2013 alone. Parasites obtain folate from the host or synthesize it de novo. Folate consumption has increased in many populations, prompting concerns regarding potential deleterious consequences of higher intake. The impact of high dietary folate on the host's immune function and response to malaria has not been examined. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate would affect response to malarial infection in a murine model of cerebral malaria. Mice were fed control diets (CD, recommended folate level for rodents or folic acid-supplemented diets (FASD, 10x recommended level for 5 weeks before infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Survival, parasitemia, numbers of immune cells and other infection parameters were assessed. FASD mice had reduced survival (p<0.01, Cox proportional hazards and higher parasitemia (p< 0.01, joint model of parasitemia and survival compared with CD mice. FASD mice had lower numbers of splenocytes, total T cells, and lower numbers of specific T and NK cell sub-populations, compared with CD mice (p<0.05, linear mixed effects. Increased brain TNFα immunoreactive protein (p<0.01, t-test and increased liver Abca1 mRNA (p<0.01, t-test, a modulator of TNFα, were observed in FASD mice; these variables correlated positively (rs = 0.63, p = 0.01. Bcl-xl/Bak mRNA was increased in liver of FASD mice (p<0.01, t-test, suggesting reduced apoptotic potential. We conclude that high dietary folate increases parasite replication, disturbs the immune response and reduces resistance to malaria in mice. These findings have relevance for malaria-endemic regions, when considering anti-folate anti-malarials, food fortification or vitamin supplementation programs.

  14. Glycans In The Immune system and The Altered Glycan Theory of Autoimmunity: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maverakis, Emanual; Kim, Kyoungmi; Shimoda, Michiko; Gershwin, M. Eric; Patel, Forum; Wilken, Reason; Raychaudhuri, Siba; Ruhaak, L. Renee; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2015-01-01

    Herein we will review the role of glycans in determining the functionality and specificity of various components of the immune system. Specific topics covered include: the specific glycosylation sites of IgE, IgM, IgD, IgE, IgA, and IgG; how glycans can encode “self” identity by functioning as either danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or self-associated molecular patterns (SAMPs); the role of glycans as markers of protein integrity and age; how the glycocalyx can dictate the migrati...

  15. Pathogenesis of Bone Alterations in Gaucher Disease: The Role of Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Marcos Mucci; Paula Rozenfeld

    2015-01-01

    Gaucher, the most prevalent lysosomal disorder, is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder due to a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. Glucocerebrosidase deficiency leads to the accumulation of glucosylceramide primarily in cells of mononuclear-macrophage lineage. Clinical alterations are visceral, hematological, and skeletal. Bone disorder in Gaucher disease produces defects on bone metabolism and structure and patients suffer from bone pain and crisis. Skeletal problems include osteopenia,...

  16. Altered biomarkers of mucosal immunity and reduced vaginal Lactobacillus concentrations in sexually active female adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Pellett Madan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV and Escherichia coli (E. coli, but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15-18 years. Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females.

  17. Immune system modifications and feto-maternal immune tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Dan; Shi Yichao

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review aimed at understanding pregnancy-induced changes in the maternal immune response and mechanisms for the establishment of feto-maternal tolerance.Data sources Articles cited in this review were obtained from PubMed in English from 2000 to 2014,and the search string included keywords such as feto-maternal tolerance,dendritic cells,macrophage,T regulatory cells,natural killer cells,cytokines and hormone.Study selection Articles regarding altered maternal immune response,including the proliferation and differentiation of the altered cells,and the production of cytokines and regulation of hormones in the feto-maternal interface were retrieved,reviewed and analyzed.Results The changes in immune cells and cytokines in the local uterine microenvironment and peripheral blood are correlated with the establishment of feto-maternal tolerance.The endocrine system regulates the maternal immune system,promoting modifications during pregnancy.In these regulatory networks,every factor is indispensible for others.Conclusions The integration and balance of these immune factors during pregnancy give rise to an environment that enables the fetus to escape rejection by the maternal immune system.This progress is complicated,and needs more comprehensive exploration and explanation.

  18. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    William Waissmann

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs) in products of interest to health surveillance (HS). Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly ...

  19. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R; Jenkins, Jill A; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations. PMID:25733205

  20. Stimulation of the Drosophila immune system alters genome-wide nucleosome occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxue Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, nucleosomes participate in all DNA-templated events by regulating access to the underlying DNA sequence. However, nucleosome dynamics during a genome response have not been well characterized [1,2]. We stimulated Drosophila S2 cells with heat-killed Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, and mapped genome-wide nucleosome occupancy at high temporal resolution by MNase-seq using Illumina HiSeq 2500. We show widespread nucleosome occupancy change in S2 cells during the immune response, with the significant nucleosomal loss occurring at 4 h after stimulation. Data have been deposited to the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database repository with the dataset identifier GSE64507.

  1. Children after Chernobyl: immune cells adaptive changes and stable alterations under low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early changes of immune parameters in children evacuated from 30-km zone were characterized by E-rossette forming cells decrease and E-receptor non-stability in theophylline assay, surface Ig changes. Immunological follow-up of children inhabitants of territories contaminated with radionuclides after Chernobyl accident revealed TCR/CD3, CD4 and MHC CD3+, CD4+, CD57+ subsets, RIL-2, TrT expression and calcium channel activity. PMNC percentage with cortical thymocyte phenotype (CD1+, CD4+8+) was elevated during the first years after the accident and seemed to be of a compensatory origin. Combination of heterogenic activation and suppression subset reactions and changes in fine subset (Th1/Th2) organization were suggested. Adaptive and compensatory reactions were supposed and delayed hypersensitivity reactions increase as well. (author)

  2. Lymphocyte GH-axis hormones in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigent, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    The production and utilization of common ligands and their receptors by cells of the immune and neuroendocrine systems constitutes a biochemical information circuit between and within the immune and neuroendocrine systems. The sharing of ligands and receptors allows the immune system to serve as the sixth sense notifying the nervous system of the presence of foreign entities. Within this framework, it is also clear that immune cell functions can be altered by neuroendocrine hormones and that cells of the immune system have the ability to produce neuroendocrine hormones. This review summarizes a part of this knowledge with particular emphasis on growth hormone (GH). The past two decades have uncovered a lot of detail about the actions of GH, acting through its receptor, at the molecular and cellular level and its influence on the immune system. The production and action of immune cell-derived GH is less well developed although its important role in immunity is also slowly emerging. Here we discuss the production of GH, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their cognate receptors on cells of the immune system and their influence via endocrine/autocrine/paracrine and intracrine pathways on immune function. The intracellular mechanisms of action of immune cell-derived GH are still largely unexplored, and it is anticipated that further work in this particular area will establish an important role for this source of GH in normal physiology and in pathologic situations. PMID:24177252

  3. Interleukin 2 expression by tumor cells alters both the immune response and the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Fenton, B M; Koch, C J; Frelinger, J G; Lord, E M

    1998-04-01

    Microenvironmental conditions within solid tumors can have marked effects on the growth of the tumors and their response to therapies. The disorganized growth of tumors and their attendant vascular systems tends to result in areas of the tumors that are deficient in oxygen (hypoxic). Cells within these hypoxic areas are more resistant to conventional therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy. Here, we examine the hypoxic state of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors and the location of host cells within the different areas of the tumors to determine whether such microenvironmental conditions might also affect their ability to be recognized by the immune system. Hypoxia within tumors was quantified by flow cytometry and visualized by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) against cellular adducts of 2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)acetam ide (EF5), a nitroimidazole compound that binds selectively to hypoxic cells. Thy-1+ cells, quantified using a monoclonal antibody, were found only in the well-oxygenated areas. The location of these Thy-1+ cells was also examined in EMT6 tumors that had been transfected with the gene for interleukin-2 (IL-2) because these tumors contain greatly increased numbers of host cells. Surprisingly, we found that IL-2-transfected tumors had significantly decreased hypoxia compared to parental tumors. Furthermore, using the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342, an in vivo marker of perfused vessels, combined with immunochemical staining of PECAM-1 (CD31) as a marker of tumor vasculature, we found increased vascularization in the IL-2-transfected tumors. Thus, expression of IL-2 at the site of tumor growth may enhance tumor immunity not only by inducing the generation of tumor-reactive CTLs but also by allowing increased infiltration of activated T cells into the tumors. PMID:9537251

  4. Neonatal handling of Amazon parrots alters the stress response and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette; Millam; Klasing; Wakenell

    2000-03-01

    The influence of neonatal handling on behavior and immune function was assessed in Orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). Chicks (n=11) were gently handled daily from 25 days of age until 38 days post-fledging, while control chicks (n=9) were not handled. At 10 days post-fledging ( approximately 66 days of age), chicks were given tests to evaluate tameness (e.g., willingness to perch on an offered finger). They were then restrained for 10 min, either by being held while perching (handled group) or, because they would not perch, by being restrained in a towel (nonhandled group). Serum corticosterone levels were measured and immune status was assessed by: the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to phytohemagglutinin-P (PH-P) injection; the humoral response to a killed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge; and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio (H:L). Handled chicks were tamer by all measures of tameness. DTH was greater in nonhandled chicks (P

  5. Alteration of Immune Function in Women Collegiate Soccer Players and College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. McGuigan; Timothy P. Scheett; Sara E. Burton; Kane, Melissa K.; Miskowski, Jennifer A; Carl Foster; Praveen Putlur

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor the stress-induced alteration in concentrations of salivary immunoglobulin (S-IgA) and cortisol and the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) over the course of a 9-week competitive season in college student-athletes and college students. The subjects consisted of 14 NCAA Division III collegiate female soccer athletes (19.8 ¡À 1.0 years, mean ¡À SD) and 14 female college students (22.5 ¡À 2.6 years). Salivary samples were collected for...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTION AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN LARGE-MOUTH BASS FROM FLORIDA LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous efforts from this laboratory, have documented altered endocrine function and sexual differentiation for alligators and turtles from Lake Apopka in Central Florida. This lake has been exposed to a variety of contaminants which are potentially endocrine-disrupting. Therefo...

  7. Plasma Cytokine Concentrations Indicate In-vivo Hormonal Regulation of Immunity is Altered During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crician, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aspects of immune system dysregulation associated with long-duration spaceflight have yet to be fully characterized, and may represent a clinical risk to crewmembers during deep space missions. Plasma cytokine concentration may serve as an indicator of in vivo physiological changes or immune system mobilization. Methods: The plasma concentrations of 22 cytokines were monitored in 28 astronauts during long-duration spaceflight onboard the International Space Station. Blood samples were collected three times before flight, 3-5 times during flight (depending on mission duration), at landing and 30 days post-landing. Analysis was performed by bead array immunoassay. Results: With few exceptions, minimal detectable mean plasma levels (plasma concentration IL-8, IL-1ra, Tpo, CCL4, CXCL5, TNF(alpha), GM-CSF and VEGF was observed associated with spaceflight. Significant post-flight increases were observed for IL-6 and CCL2. No significant alterations were observed during or following spaceflight for adaptive/T-regulatory cytokines (IL-2, IFN(gamma), IL-17, IL4, IL-5, IL-10). Conclusions: This pattern of cytokine dysregulation suggests multiple physiological adaptations persist during flight, including inflammation, leukocyte recruitment, angiogenesis and thrombocyte regulation.

  8. Dietary Consumption of Black Raspberries or Their Anthocyanin Constituents Alters Innate Immune Cell Trafficking in Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Daniel S; Wang, Li-Shu; Zimmerman, Noah P; Ransom, Benjamin W S; Carmella, Steven G; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Oshima, Kiyoko; Huang, Yi-Wen; Hecht, Stephen S; Stoner, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB), their component anthocyanins (AC), and a metabolite of BRB ACs, protocatechuic acid (PCA), inhibit the development of esophageal cancer in rats induced by the carcinogen, N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA). All three components reduce inflammation in the esophagus and in plasma. The present study determined the relation of changes in inflammatory markers to infiltration of innate immune cells into NMBA-treated esophagus. Rats were injected with NMBA (0.35 mg/kg) for 5 weeks while on control diet. Following NMBA treatment, rats were fed diets containing 6.1% BRB powder, an AC-rich fraction of BRBs (3.8 μmol/g), or 500 ppm PCA. At weeks 15, 25, and 35, inflammatory biomarker expression in the plasma and esophagus was quantified, and infiltration of immune cells in the esophagus was examined. At all three time points, BRB, AC, and PCA similarly affected cytokine production in the esophagus and plasma of NMBA-treated rats, relative to the NMBA-only control. These included decreased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL1β and increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10. Moreover, all three diets also increased the expression of IL12, a cytokine that activates both cytolytic natural killer and CD8(+) T cells. In addition, the three diets also decreased infiltration of both macrophages and neutrophils into the esophagus. Overall, our results suggest that another mechanism by which BRBs, ACs, and PCA inhibit NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis is by altering cytokine expression and innate immune cell trafficking into tumor tissues. PMID:26603620

  9. Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008254 Prokaryotic expression and immunogenicity of Fba,a novel fibronectin-binding protein of group A streptococcus.MA Cuiqing(马翠柳),et al.Dept Immunol,Basic Med Coll,Hebei Med Univ,Shijiazhuang 050017.Chin J Infect Dis 2008;26(3):146-150.Objective To express the novel fibronectin-binding protein Fba ofgroupAstreptococcus(GAS)and analyze its immunogenicity,so to evaluate the immune responses to GAS infection.Methods fbagene was amplified by

  10. Opiate antinociception is altered by immunemodification: the effect of interferon, cyclosporine and radiation-induced immune suppression upon acute and long-term morphine activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has recently been demonstrated that various forms of immune modification result in a profound attenuation of the opiate withdrawal syndrome. Herein we investigate the extent to which some of the immune modifiers active in withdrawal attenuation affect other opiate related behaviors, namely antinociception and the development of tolerance to this effect. The observations demonstrate that immune modification by cyclosporine and irradiation exposure result in an alteration of the acute antinociceptive effect of morphine; while none of these treatments modify the development of tolerance to this property of morphine. (Auth.)

  11. In Vitro Exposure of Harbor Seal Immune Cells to Aroclor 1260 Alters Phocine Distemper Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolni, Andrea; Frasca, Salvatore; Levin, Milton; Matassa, Keith; Nielsen, Ole; Waring, Gordon; De Guise, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years, several large-scale marine mammal mortality events have occurred, often in close association with highly polluted regions, leading to suspicions that contaminant-induced immunosuppression contributed to these epizootics. Some of these recent events also identified morbillivirus as a cause of or contributor to death. The role of contaminant exposures regarding morbillivirus mortality is still unclear. The results of this study aimed to address the potential for a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), specifically Aroclor 1260, to alter harbor seal T-lymphocyte proliferation and to assess if exposure resulted in increased likelihood of phocine distemper virus (PDV USA 2006) to infect susceptible seals in an in vitro system. Exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Aroclor 1260 did not significantly alter lymphocyte proliferation (1, 5, 10, and 20 ppm). However, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), lymphocytes exposed to 20 ppm Aroclor 1260 exhibited a significant decrease in PDV replication at day 7 and a significant increase at day 11 compared with unexposed control cells. Similar and significant differences were apparent on exposure to Aroclor 1260 in monocytes and supernatant. The results here indicate that in harbor seals, Aroclor 1260 exposure results in a decrease in virus early during infection and an increase during late infection. The consequences of this contaminant-induced infection pattern in a highly susceptible host could result in a greater potential for systemic infection with greater viral load, which could explain the correlative findings seen in wild populations exposed to a range of persistent contaminants that suffer from morbillivirus epizootics. PMID:26142119

  12. Your Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Endocrine System Print A A A Text Size en español Tu sistema endocrino You might say endocrine (say: EN-doh-krin) glands are a little ...

  13. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of or replacing specific hormones can treat many endocrine disorders in children and adolescents, some of which include: ... System Your Child's Growth Female Reproductive System Activity: Endocrine System Word! Hormones Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? Your Endocrine ...

  14. Necrosis-Driven Systemic Immune Response Alters SAM Metabolism through the FOXO-GNMT Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Obata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sterile inflammation triggered by endogenous factors is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrate that apoptosis-deficient mutants spontaneously develop a necrosis-driven systemic immune response in Drosophila and provide an in vivo model for studying the organismal response to sterile inflammation. Metabolomic analysis of hemolymph from apoptosis-deficient mutants revealed increased sarcosine and reduced S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM levels due to glycine N-methyltransferase (Gnmt upregulation. We showed that Gnmt was elevated in response to Toll activation induced by the local necrosis of wing epidermal cells. Necrosis-driven inflammatory conditions induced dFoxO hyperactivation, leading to an energy-wasting phenotype. Gnmt was cell-autonomously upregulated by dFoxO in the fat body as a possible rheostat for controlling energy loss, which functioned during fasting as well as inflammatory conditions. We propose that the dFoxO-Gnmt axis is essential for the maintenance of organismal SAM metabolism and energy homeostasis.

  15. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca S. M. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.

  16. GATA factors in endocrine neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Färkkilä, Anniina; Soini, Tea; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B

    2016-02-01

    GATA transcription factors are structurally-related zinc finger proteins that recognize the consensus DNA sequence WGATAA (the GATA motif), an essential cis-acting element in the promoters and enhancers of many genes. These transcription factors regulate cell fate specification and differentiation in a wide array of tissues. As demonstrated by genetic analyses of mice and humans, GATA factors play pivotal roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of several endocrine organs including the adrenal cortex, ovary, pancreas, parathyroid, pituitary, and testis. Additionally, GATA factors have been shown to be mutated, overexpressed, or underexpressed in a variety of endocrine tumors (e.g., adrenocortical neoplasms, parathyroid tumors, pituitary adenomas, and sex cord stromal tumors). Emerging evidence suggests that GATA factors play a direct role in the initiation, proliferation, or propagation of certain endocrine tumors via modulation of key developmental signaling pathways implicated in oncogenesis, such as the WNT/β-catenin and TGFβ pathways. Altered expression or function of GATA factors can also affect the metabolism, ploidy, and invasiveness of tumor cells. This article provides an overview of the role of GATA factors in endocrine neoplasms. Relevant animal models are highlighted. PMID:26027919

  17. ALTERATION OF IMMUNE FUNCTION IN WOMEN COLLEGIATE SOCCER PLAYERS AND COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. McGuigan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to monitor the stress-induced alteration in concentrations of salivary immunoglobulin (S-IgA and cortisol and the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI over the course of a 9-week competitive season in college student-athletes and college students. The subjects consisted of 14 NCAA Division III collegiate female soccer athletes (19.8 ¡À 1.0 years, mean ¡À SD and 14 female college students (22.5 ¡À 2.6 years. Salivary samples were collected for 9 weeks during a competitive soccer season. S-IgA and cortisol concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A training and performance questionnaire was given to the subjects every week, to record the subjects' session rating of perceived exertion (RPE for all the training, load, monotony and strain, as well as any injuries or illnesses experienced. The between groups ANOVA procedure for repeated measures showed no changes in salivary concentrations of IgA and cortisol. Chi-square analysis showed that during the 9-week training season injury and illness occurred at a higher rate among the soccer players. There was a significant difference at baseline between soccer and control S-IgA levels (p¡Ü0.05. Decreased levels of S-IgA and increases in the indices of training (load, strain and monotony were associated with an increase in the incidence of illness during the 9-week competitive soccer season.

  18. Pesticides Provoke Endocrine Disruption A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing numbers of environmental chemicals,including pesticides, have the ability to produce endocrine disruption by various mechanisms. such substances may affect hormone secretion from an endocrine gland and may alter the rate of hormone elimination from the body. environmental chemicals may also disrupt regulatory feedback mechanisms that exist between two endocrine organs; or may interact with a hormone receptor either by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of the natural hormone. these chemicals are referred to endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC's). EDC's act to alter the blood hormone levels or the subsequent action of hormones . the use of radioimmunoassay(RIA) constitutes a superior and unrivalled tool for the determination and quantification of hormones.the endocrine system participates in virtually all important functions of an organism, such as sexual differentiation before birth, sexual maturation during puberty, reproduction in adulthood, growth, metabolism, digestion, cardiovascular function and excretion. hormones are also implicated in the etiology of certain cancers of hormone- dependent tissues, such as those of the breast, uterus, and prostate gland. therefore, endocrine disruption can potentially produce widespread effects. scientists should not stick to the past belief which presumes that pesticides have limited effect on some hormones. A paradigm shift in which a wider vision of understanding of the wholesome complex effects of pesticides on the whole body rather than a narrow limited understanding should take place

  19. Immunity factor contributes to altered brain functional networks in individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease: Neuroimaging-genetic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feng; Shi, Yongmei; Yuan, Yonggui; Xie, Chunming; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-08-01

    Clusterin (CLU) is recognized as a secreted protein that is related to the processes of inflammation and immunity in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The effects of the risk variant of the C allele at the rs11136000 locus of the CLU gene are associated with variations in the brain structure and function. However, the relationship of the CLU-C allele to architectural disruptions in resting-state networks in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects (i.e., individuals with elevated risk of AD) remains relatively unknown. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and an imaging genetic approach, this study investigated whether individual brain functional networks, i.e., the default mode network (DMN) and the task-positive network, were modulated by the CLU-C allele (rs11136000) in 50 elderly participants, including 26 aMCI subjects and 24 healthy controls. CLU-by-aMCI interactions were associated with the information-bridging regions between resting-state networks rather than with the DMN itself, especially in cortical midline regions. Interestingly, the complex communications between resting-state networks were enhanced in aMCI subjects with the CLU rs11136000 CC genotype and were modulated by the degree of memory impairment, suggesting a reconstructed balance of the resting-state networks in these individuals with an elevated risk of AD. The neuroimaging-genetic evidence indicates that immunity factors may contribute to alterations in brain functional networks in aMCI. These findings add to the evidence that the CLU gene may represent a potential therapeutic target for slowing disease progression in AD. PMID:26899953

  20. Quantitative Trait Locus and Brain Expression of HLA-DPA1 Offers Evidence of Shared Immune Alterations in Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ling Z; Rollins, Brandi; Sequeira, Adolfo; Byerley, William; DeLisi, Lynn E; Schatzberg, Alan F; Barchas, Jack D; Myers, Richard M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; Bunney, William E; Vawter, Marquis P

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia encompassing the major histocompatibility locus (MHC) were highly significant following genome-wide correction. This broad region implicates many genes including the MHC complex class II. Within this interval we examined the expression of two MHC II genes (HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DRB1) in brain from individual subjects with schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and controls by differential gene expression methods. A third MHC II mRNA, CD74, was studied outside of the MHC II locus, as it interacts within the same immune complex. Exon microarrays were performed in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in BD compared to controls, and both HLA-DPA1 and CD74 were decreased in expression in BD. The expression of HLA-DPA1 and CD74 were both reduced in hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions in SZ and BD compared to controls by specific qPCR assay. We found several novel HLA-DPA1 mRNA variants spanning HLA-DPA1 exons 2-3-4 as suggested by exon microarrays. The intronic rs9277341 SNP was a significant cis expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) that was associated with the total expression of HLA-DPA1 in five brain regions. A biomarker study of MHC II mRNAs was conducted in SZ, BD, MDD, and control lymphoblastic cell lines (LCL) by qPCR assay of 87 subjects. There was significantly decreased expression of HLA-DPA1 and CD74 in BD, and trends for reductions in SZ in LCLs. The discovery of multiple splicing variants in brain for HLA-DPA1 is important as the HLA-DPA1 gene is highly conserved, there are no reported splicing variants, and the functions in brain are unknown. Future work on the function and localization of MHC Class II proteins in brain will help to understand the role of alterations in neuropsychiatric disorders. The HLA-DPA1 eQTL is located within a large linkage disequilibrium block that has an irrefutable association with schizophrenia. Future tests in a

  1. The surfactant protein C mutation A116D alters cellular processing, stress tolerance, surfactant lipid composition, and immune cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarbock Ralf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein C (SP-C is important for the function of pulmonary surfactant. Heterozygous mutations in SFTPC, the gene encoding SP-C, cause sporadic and familial interstitial lung disease (ILD in children and adults. Mutations mapping to the BRICHOS domain located within the SP-C proprotein result in perinuclear aggregation of the proprotein. In this study, we investigated the effects of the mutation A116D in the BRICHOS domain of SP-C on cellular homeostasis. We also evaluated the ability of drugs currently used in ILD therapy to counteract these effects. Methods SP-CA116D was expressed in MLE-12 alveolar epithelial cells. We assessed in vitro the consequences for cellular homeostasis, immune response and effects of azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Results Stable expression of SP-CA116D in MLE-12 alveolar epithelial cells resulted in increased intracellular accumulation of proSP-C processing intermediates. SP-CA116D expression further led to reduced cell viability and increased levels of the chaperones Hsp90, Hsp70, calreticulin and calnexin. Lipid analysis revealed decreased intracellular levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC and increased lyso-PC levels. Treatment with methylprednisolone or hydroxychloroquine partially restored these lipid alterations. Furthermore, SP-CA116D cells secreted soluble factors into the medium that modulated surface expression of CCR2 or CXCR1 receptors on CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils, suggesting a direct paracrine effect of SP-CA116D on neighboring cells in the alveolar space. Conclusions We show that the A116D mutation leads to impaired processing of proSP-C in alveolar epithelial cells, alters cell viability and lipid composition, and also activates cells of the immune system. In addition, we show that some of the effects of the mutation on cellular homeostasis can be antagonized by application of pharmaceuticals commonly applied in ILD therapy

  2. Endocrine regulation of circadian physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Anthony H; Astiz, Mariana; Friedrichs, Maureen; Oster, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks regulate 24-h rhythms of behavior and physiology to align with external time. The endocrine system serves as a major clock output to regulate various biological processes. Recent findings suggest that some of the rhythmic hormones can also provide feedback to the circadian system at various levels, thus contributing to maintaining the robustness of endogenous rhythmicity. This delicate balance of clock-hormone interaction is vulnerable to modern lifestyle factors such as shiftwork or high-calorie diets, altering physiological set points. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the communication between the circadian timing and endocrine systems, with a focus on adrenal glucocorticoids and metabolic peptide hormones. We explore the potential role of hormones as systemic feedback signals to adjust clock function and their relevance for the maintenance of physiological and metabolic circadian homeostasis. PMID:27106109

  3. How to Make a Non-Antigenic Protein (Auto) Antigenic: Molecular Complementarity Alters Antigen Processing and Activates Adaptive-Innate Immunity Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-Bernstein, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed that complementary proteins and peptides form complexes with increased antigenicity and/or autoimmunogenicity. Five case studies are highlighted: 1) diphtheria toxin-antitoxin (antibody), which induces immunity to the normally non-antigenic toxin, and autoimmune neuritis; 2) tryptophan peptide of myelin basic protein and muramyl dipeptide ("adjuvant peptide"), which form a complex that induces experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; 3) an insulin and glucagon complex that is far more antigenic than either component individually; 4) various causes of experimental autoimmune myocarditis such as C protein in combination with its antibody, or coxsackie B virus in combination with the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor; 5) influenza A virus haemagglutinin with the outer membrane protein of the Haemophilus influenzae, which increases antigenicity. Several mechanisms cooperate to alter immunogenicity. Complexation alters antigen processing, protecting the components against proteolysis, altering fragmentation and presenting novel antigens to the immune system. Complementary antigens induce complementary adaptive immune responses (complementary antibodies and/or T cell receptors) that produce circulating immune complexes (CIC). CIC stimulate innate immunity. Concurrently, complementary antigens stimulate multiple Toll-like receptors that synergize to over-produce cytokines, which further stimulate adaptive immunity. Thus innate and adaptive immunity form a positive feedback loop. If components of the complex mimic a host protein, then autoimmunity may result. Enhanced antigenicity for production of improved vaccines and/or therapeutic autoimmunity (e.g., against cancer cells) might be achieved by using information from antibody or TCR recognition sites to complement an antigen; by panning for complements in randomized peptide libraries; or using antisense peptide strategies to design complements. PMID:26179268

  4. Role of macrophages in the altered epithelial function during a type 2 immune response induced by enteric nematode infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Notari

    Full Text Available Parasitic enteric nematodes induce a type 2 immune response characterized by increased production of Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, and recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (M2 to the site of infection. Nematode infection is associated with changes in epithelial permeability and inhibition of sodium-linked glucose absorption, but the role of M2 in these effects is unknown. Clodronate-containing liposomes were administered prior to and during nematode infection to deplete macrophages and prevent the development of M2 in response to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The inhibition of epithelial glucose absorption that is associated with nematode infection involved a macrophage-dependent reduction in SGLT1 activity, with no change in receptor expression, and a macrophage-independent down-regulation of GLUT2 expression. The reduced transport of glucose into the enterocyte is compensated partially by an up-regulation of the constitutive GLUT1 transporter consistent with stress-induced activation of HIF-1α. Thus, nematode infection results in a "lean" epithelial phenotype that features decreased SGLT1 activity, decreased expression of GLUT2 and an emergent dependence on GLUT1 for glucose uptake into the enterocyte. Macrophages do not play a role in enteric nematode infection-induced changes in epithelial barrier function. There is a greater contribution, however, of paracellular absorption of glucose to supply the energy demands of host resistance. These data provide further evidence of the ability of macrophages to alter glucose metabolism of neighboring cells.

  5. Altered immune response of immature dendritic cells following dengue virus infection in the presence of specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Silvia; Flipse, Jacky; Upasani, Vinit C; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) replication is known to prevent maturation of infected dendritic cells (DCs) thereby impeding the development of adequate immunity. During secondary DENV infection, dengue-specific antibodies can suppress DENV replication in immature DCs (immDCs), however how dengue-antibody complexes (DENV-IC) influence the phenotype of DCs remains elusive. Here, we evaluated the maturation state and cytokine profile of immDCs exposed to DENV-ICs. Indeed, DENV infection of immDCs in the absence of antibodies was hallmarked by blunted upregulation of CD83, CD86 and the major histocompatibility complex molecule HLA-DR. In contrast, DENV infection in the presence of neutralizing antibodies triggered full DC maturation and induced a balanced inflammatory cytokine response. Moreover, DENV infection under non-neutralizing conditions prompted upregulation of CD83 and CD86 but not HLA-DR, and triggered production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of DENV-IC was found to be dependent on the engagement of FcγRIIa. Altogether, our data show that the presence of DENV-IC alters the phenotype and cytokine profile of DCs. PMID:27121645

  6. The gastrointestinal endocrine system

    OpenAIRE

    Track, Norman S.

    1980-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endocrinology is the study of the hormonal regulation of digestion. A number of characterized polypeptide hormones have been localized in specific gastroenteropancreatic endocrine cells. The fact that some of these hormones are also found in nerve and brain cells has given rise to the concept of a gut-brain axis. The functional capacities of these endocrine cells are determined by their anatomic location; the luminal exposure of gastroenteric endocrine cells represents an add...

  7. Lipopolysaccharide Increases Immune Activation and Alters T Cell Homeostasis in SHIVB’WHU Chronically Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gao-Hong; Wu, Run-Dong; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Xu; Tian, Ren-Rong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation plays a significant role in the disease progression of HIV. Microbial products, especially bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), contribute to immune activation. Increasing evidence indicates that T lymphocyte homeostasis disruptions are associated with immune activation. However, the mechanism by which LPS affects disruption of immune response is still not fully understood. Chronically SHIVB'WHU-infected Chinese rhesus macaques received 50 μg/kg body weight LPS in this study....

  8. Lipopolysaccharide Increases Immune Activation and Alters T Cell Homeostasis in SHIVB'WHU Chronically Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Hong Zhang; Run-Dong Wu; Hong-Yi Zheng; Xiao-Liang Zhang; Ming-Xu Zhang; Ren-Rong Tian; Guang-Ming Liu; Wei Pang; Yong-Tang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation plays a significant role in the disease progression of HIV. Microbial products, especially bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), contribute to immune activation. Increasing evidence indicates that T lymphocyte homeostasis disruptions are associated with immune activation. However, the mechanism by which LPS affects disruption of immune response is still not fully understood. Chronically SHIVB’WHU-infected Chinese rhesus macaques received 50 μg/kg body weight LPS in this study....

  9. Endocrine disruptors in water for human consumption: chemical and biological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Conio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDcs are substances that, mimicking the effect of natural hormons or antagonising their action, alter function of the endocrine systems and consequently cause adverse health effects. The problem of Endocrine Disrupters in general and, in particular, their presence in water intended for human consumption has aroused interest from researchers and concern among International organisations for the last decade.

  10. Late endocrine effects of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan R; Horne, Vincent E; Howell, Jonathan; Lawson, Sarah A; Rutter, Meilan M; Trotman, Gylynthia E; Corathers, Sarah D

    2016-06-01

    The cure rate for paediatric malignancies is increasing, and most patients who have cancer during childhood survive and enter adulthood. Surveillance for late endocrine effects after childhood cancer is required to ensure early diagnosis and treatment and to optimize physical, cognitive and psychosocial health. The degree of risk of endocrine deficiency is related to the child's sex and their age at the time the tumour is diagnosed, as well as to tumour location and characteristics and the therapies used (surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy). Potential endocrine problems can include growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism (primary or central), adrenocorticotropin deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, precocious puberty, hypogonadism (primary or central), altered fertility and/or sexual function, low BMD, the metabolic syndrome and hypothalamic obesity. Optimal endocrine care for survivors of childhood cancer should be delivered in a multidisciplinary setting, providing continuity from acute cancer treatment to long-term follow-up of late endocrine effects throughout the lifespan. Endocrine therapies are important to improve long-term quality of life for survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:27032982

  11. CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN REPTILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...

  12. From immunotoxicity to carcinogenicity: the effects of carbamate pesticides on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhouib, Ines; Jallouli, Manel; Annabi, Alya; Marzouki, Soumaya; Gharbi, Najoua; Elfazaa, Saloua; Lasram, Mohamed Montassar

    2016-05-01

    The immune system can be the target of many chemicals, with potentially severe adverse effects on the host's health. In the literature, carbamate (CM) pesticides have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of diseases associated with alterations of the immune response, such as hypersensitivity reactions, some autoimmune diseases and cancers. CMs may initiate, facilitate, or exacerbate pathological immune processes, resulting in immunotoxicity by induction of mutations in genes coding for immunoregulatory factors and modifying immune tolerance. In the present study, direct immunotoxicity, endocrine disruption and inhibition of esterases activities have been introduced as the main mechanisms of CMs-induced immune dysregulation. Moreover, the evidence on the relationship between CM pesticide exposure, dysregulation of the immune system and predisposition to different types of cancers, allergies, autoimmune and infectious diseases is criticized. In addition, in this review, we will discuss the relationship between immunotoxicity and cancer, and the advances made toward understanding the basis of cancer immune evasion. PMID:26988364

  13. [Obesity and the immune system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M; Mazure, R A; Culebras, J M

    2004-01-01

    With an increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries, associated chronic diseases rise in a parallel way. Morbidity secondary to overweight and obesity include type 2 diabetes, dislipemia, hypertension, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cholelithiasis, osteoarthritis, heart insufficiency, sleep apnoea, menstrual changes, sterility and psychological alterations. There is also a greater susceptibility to suffer some types of cancer, infections, greater risk of bacteremia and a prolonged time of wound healing after surgical operations. All these factors indicate that obesity exerts negative effects upon the immune system. Immune changes found in obesity and their possible interrelations are described in this article. Changes produced during obesity affect both humoral and cellular immunity. It is known that adipose tissue, together with its role as energy reserve in form of triglycerides, has important endocrine functions, producing several hormones and other signal molecules. Immune response can be deeply affected by obesity, playing leptin an important role. Properties of leptin, alterations of leptin levels in different situations and its changes with different medical and surgical therapies for obesity are described in this article. PMID:15672646

  14. Epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells by Bisphenol-A, a model endocrine disrupter: Potential Implications for Immunoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena eKhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC abound in the environment since many compounds are released from chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and consumer product industries. Many of the EDCs such as Bisphenol A (BPA have estrogenic activity or interfere with endogenous sex hormones. Experimental studies have reported a positive correlation of BPA with reproductive toxicity, altered growth and immune dysregulation. Although the precise relevance of these studies to the environmental levels is unclear, nevertheless, their potential health implications remain a concern. One possible mechanism by which BPA can alter genes is by regulating epigenetics, including microRNA, alteration of methylation and histone acetylation. There is now wealth of information on BPA effects on non-lymphoid cells and by comparison, paucity of data on effects of BPA on the immune system. In this mini review, we will highlight BPA regulation of estrogen receptor-mediated immune cell functions and in different inflammatory conditions. In addition, BPA-mediated epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells is emphasized. We recognize that most of these studies are on non-lymphoid cells, and given that BPA also affects the immune system, it is plausible that BPA could have similar epigenetic regulation in immune cells. It is hoped that this review will stimulate studies in this area to ascertain whether or not BPA epigenetically regulates the cells of the immune system.

  15. Altered activation of innate immunity associates with white matter volume and diffusion in first-episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Mäntylä

    altered activation of innate immunity may contribute to WM damage in psychotic disorders.

  16. 梗阻性黄疸患者免疫功能的变化%Altered immune function in patients with obstructive jaundice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凌云

    2012-01-01

    梗阻性黄疸患者由于机体免疫功能障碍而有较高的并发症、病死率.笔者结合近年文献资料初步综述了梗阻性黄疸患者机体免疫功能各个方面的变化及其相关的临床意义.%Patients with obstructive jaundice are at increased risk for perioperative complications and mortality due to a general immune dysfunction. This paper, based on the recent literature, is intended to provide an overview of the alterations in immune function of the patients with obstructive jaundice and their clinical relevance. KEY WORDS Jaundice, Obstructive; Immune Dysfunction; Review

  17. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors and stress-related alterations of gut motor function.

    OpenAIRE

    Taché, Yvette; Bonaz, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few decades, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways have been shown to be the main coordinators of the endocrine, behavioral, and immune responses to stress. Emerging evidence also links the activation of CRF receptors type 1 and type 2 with stress-related alterations of gut motor function. Here, we review the role of CRF receptors in both the brain and the gut as part of key mechanisms through which various stressors impact propulsive activity of the gastrointe...

  18. The agr Inhibitors Solonamide B and Analogues Alter Immune Responses to Staphylococccus aureus but Do Not Exhibit Adverse Effects on Immune Cell Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldry, Mara; Kitir, Betül; Frøkiær, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    with agr, while immune cell activity and integrity is generally not affected. Furthermore, treatment of S. aureus with selected solonamides was found to only marginally influence the interaction with fibronectin and biofilm formation, thus addressing the concern that application of compounds inducing...... an agr-negative state may have adverse interactions with host factors in favor of host colonization....

  19. Efeito do treinamento físico como modulador positivo nas alterações no eixo neuroimunoendócrino em indivíduos com insuficiência cardíaca crônica: possível atuação do fator de necrose tumoral-alfa Efecto del entrenamiento físico como modulador positivo en las alteraciones en el eje neuroinmunoendócrino en indivíduos con insuficiência cardíaca crônica: posible actuación como factor de necrosis tumoral-alfa Effect of physical training as positive modulator on the alterations in the neuro-immune-endocrine axis in patients with chronic heart failure: possible role of the tumoral necrosis factor-alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Bicudo Pereira Costa Rosa

    2005-08-01

    responsble por la progresión en el deterioro clínico en la ICC. En este cuadro, la principal citoquina envuelta en el cuadro fisiopatológico de la ICC es el factor de necrosis tumoral-alfa (TNF-alfa. Así, el TF puede actuar en el cuadro de ICC de dos maneras, mejorando el desempeño durante el ejercicio físico, bien como atenuando el cuadro de deterioro de elevada concentración de citoquinas pro-inflamatórias en el sistema cardiovascular, pudiendo representar una importante opción inmunomodulatoria, y de esta forma, permitir una mejora significativa en el cuadro clínico del paciente.Chronic physical exercise or physical training (PT has been widely used in the last years with therapeutic and preventive purposes in a series of pathophysiological conditions, including cardiovascular disease. Besides the cardiovascular benefits, PT seems capable to modulate in pathological conditions, at the presence of an abnormal inflammatory response, including over expression of proinflammatory cytokines through a neuro-immune-endocrine interaction. Nowadays chronic heart failure (CHF is reviewed as the consequence of an interplay of hemodynamic, neurohormonal, immunological and endocrine mechanisms. This abnormal inflammatory response, including the over expression of proinflammatory cytokines may be proposed as responsible for the progression and clinical deterioration in CHF. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha is the main proinflammatory cytokines involved in the inflammatory cascade implicated in the pathophysiological of CHF. PT may improve exercise performance by modifying the inflammatory status, as well as by allowing reversing the inflammation-induced harmful effects on the cardiovascular system, and that PT may represent an important immunomodulatory option that may be possible to intervene in the progression of the disease.

  20. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This thes

  1. Vitamin d deficiency in a multiethnic healthy control cohort and altered immune response in vitamin D deficient European-American healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L Ritterhouse

    Full Text Available In recent years, vitamin D has been shown to possess a wide range of immunomodulatory effects. Although there is extensive amount of research on vitamin D, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates the human immune system. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and the relationship between vitamin D and the immune system in healthy individuals.Healthy individuals (n = 774 comprised of European-Americans (EA, n = 470, African-Americans (AA, n = 125, and Native Americans (NA, n = 179 were screened for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels by ELISA. To identify the most noticeable effects of vitamin D on the immune system, 20 EA individuals with severely deficient (24.8 ng/mL vitamin D levels were matched and selected for further analysis. Serum cytokine level measurement, immune cell phenotyping, and phosphoflow cytometry were performed.Vitamin D sufficiency was observed in 37.5% of the study cohort. By multivariate analysis, AA, NA, and females with a high body mass index (BMI, >30 demonstrate higher rates of vitamin D deficiency (p<0.05. Individuals with vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher levels of serum GM-CSF (p = 0.04, decreased circulating activated CD4+ (p = 0.04 and CD8+ T (p = 0.04 cell frequencies than individuals with sufficient vitamin D levels.A large portion of healthy individuals have vitamin D deficiency. These individuals have altered T and B cell responses, indicating that the absence of sufficient vitamin D levels could result in undesirable cellular and molecular alterations ultimately contributing to immune dysregulation.

  2. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the most common cause of endocrine-related female infertility in the United States. An estimated 1 in 10 women of childbearing age has PCOS, and it can occur in females as young as 11 years of age. In ...

  3. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & Pineal Glands Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other ... hormone secretion. « Previous (Characteristics of Hormones) Next (Pituitary & Pineal Glands) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | File Formats ...

  4. Microchimerism in Endocrine Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Rust, Daniel W.; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2009-01-01

    Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated...

  5. Endocrine disrupting chemicals as potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra Z; Szybiak, Aleksandra; Serkies, Krystyna; Rachoń, Dominik

    2016-08-01

    Civilization, industrialization, and urbanization create an environment where humans are continuously exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Some of breast cancers and endometrial cancer, which are the most common female malignant neoplasms, are estrogen-dependent tumors. Prolonged exposure to estrogens or substances with estrogenic properties may be a risk factor for their development. This paper aimed to discuss the potential adverse effect of EDCs on human health, including the role of EDCs in hormone-dependent carcinogenesis. A review of literature regarding the sources of environmental exposure to EDCs and molecular mechanisms of their action was performed. We analyzed the possible mechanisms of how these substances alter the function of the endocrine system, resulting in adverse health effects. Hundreds of substances with endocrine disrupting potential have been identified in our environment. There is accumulating evidence linking exposure to EDCs with the development of mammary and endometrial cancer. By interacting with steroid receptors, EDCs can impact the cellular processes potentially leading to carcinogenesis. There are also data showing the effect of EDCs on immune dysfunction. During lifespan, people are usually exposed to a mixture of various EDCs, which complicates the assessment of individual substances or compounds implicated in cancer development. As the prevalence of hormone-dependent tumors among women continues to increase, their successful prevention is of human benefit. Institutions representing medicine, science, industry, and governments should develop joint strategies to decrease exposure to EDC, and thus to reduce the risk of hormonedependent tumors in women. PMID:27509913

  6. RNA-seq Analysis of δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-treated T Cells Reveals Altered Gene Expression Profiles That Regulate Immune Response and Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoming; Bam, Marpe; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2016-07-22

    Marijuana has drawn significant public attention and concern both for its medicinal and recreational use. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the main bioactive component in marijuana, has also been shown to possess potent anti-inflammatory properties by virtue of its ability to activate cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB-2) expressed on immune cells. In this study, we used RNA-seq to quantify the transcriptomes and transcript variants that are differentially regulated by THC in super antigen-activated lymph node cells and CD4(+) T cells. We found that the expressions of many transcripts were altered by THC in both total lymph node cells and CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, the abundance of many miRNA precursors and long non-coding RNAs was dramatically altered in THC-treated mice. For example, the expression of miR-17/92 cluster and miR-374b/421 cluster was down-regulated by THC. On the other hand miR-146a, which has been shown to induce apoptosis, was up-regulated by THC. Long non-coding RNAs that are expressed from the opposite strand of CD27 and Appbp2 were induced by THC. In addition, THC treatment also caused alternative promoter usage and splicing. The functions of those altered transcripts were mainly related to immune response and cell proliferation. PMID:27268054

  7. Factor interaction analysis for chromosome 8 and DNA methylation alterations highlights innate immune response suppression and cytoskeletal changes in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengauer Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of chromosome 8 and hypomethylation of LINE-1 retrotransposons are common alterations in advanced prostate carcinoma. In a former study including many metastatic cases, they strongly correlated with each other. To elucidate a possible interaction between the two alterations, we investigated their relationship in less advanced prostate cancers. Results In 50 primary tumor tissues, no correlation was observed between chromosome 8 alterations determined by comparative genomic hybridization and LINE-1 hypomethylation measured by Southern blot hybridization. The discrepancy towards the former study, which had been dominated by advanced stage cases, suggests that both alterations converge and interact during prostate cancer progression. Therefore, interaction analysis was performed on microarray-based expression profiles of cancers harboring both alterations, only one, or none. Application of a novel bioinformatic method identified Gene Ontology (GO groups related to innate immunity, cytoskeletal organization and cell adhesion as common targets of both alterations. Many genes targeted by their interaction were involved in type I and II interferon signaling and several were functionally related to hereditary prostate cancer genes. In addition, the interaction appeared to influence a switch in the expression pattern of EPB41L genes encoding 4.1 cytoskeleton proteins. Real-time RT-PCR revealed GADD45A, MX1, EPB41L3/DAL1, and FBLN1 as generally downregulated in prostate cancer, whereas HOXB13 and EPB41L4B were upregulated. TLR3 was downregulated in a subset of the cases and associated with recurrence. Downregulation of EPB41L3, but not of GADD45A, was associated with promoter hypermethylation, which was detected in 79% of carcinoma samples. Conclusion Alterations of chromosome 8 and DNA hypomethylation in prostate cancer probably do not cause each other, but converge during progression. The present analysis implicates their

  8. Coupling to the surface of liposomes alters the immunogenicity of hepatitis C virus-derived peptides and confers sterile immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuharu; Taneichi, Maiko; Uchida, Tetsuya; Akatsuka, Toshitaka

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that antigens chemically coupled to the surface of liposomes consisting of unsaturated fatty acids were cross-presented by antigen presenting cells to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Liposomal form of immunodominant CTL epitope peptides derived from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus exhibited highly efficient antiviral CTL responses in immunized mice. In this study, we coupled 15 highly conserved immunodominant CTL epitope peptides derived from hepatitis C virus (HCV) to the surface of liposomes. We also emulsified the peptides in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, and compared the immune responses of the two methods of presenting the peptides by cytotoxicity induction and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD8(+) T cells of the immunized mice. We noticed significant variations of the immunogenicity of each peptide between the two antigen delivery systems. In addition, the immunogenicity profiles of the peptides were also different from those observed in the mice infected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing HCV proteins as previously reported. Induction of anti-viral immunity by liposomal peptides was tested by the challenge experiments using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing corresponding HCV epitopes. One D(b)-restricted and three HLA-A(*)0201-restricted HCV CTL epitope peptides on the surface of liposomes were found to confer complete protection to immunized mice with establishment of long-term memory. Interestingly, their protective efficacy seemed to correlate with the induction of IFN-γ producing cells rather than the cytotoxicity induction suggesting that the immunized mice were protected through non-cytolytic mechanisms. Thus, these liposomal peptides might be useful as HCV vaccines not only for prevention but also for therapeutic use. PMID:23159619

  9. Immunoendocrine alterations following Marine Corps Martial Arts training are associated with changes in moral cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Clopton, Aaron W; Gigliotti, Nicole; Chan, Marcia A; Benedict, Stephen H; Herda, Trent J; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P

    2016-02-01

    Combined physical and psychological stress events have been associated with exacerbated endocrine responses and increased alterations in immune cell trafficking when compared to exercise stress alone. Military training programs are rigorous in nature and often purposefully delivered in environments combining high levels of both physical and mental stress. The objective of this study was to assess physiological and cognitive changes following U.S. Marine Corps Martial Arts training. Seven active-duty, male Marines were observed during a typical Marine Corps Martial Arts training session. Immune parameters, including immunomodulatory cytokines, and hormone concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained at baseline, immediately post training (IP) and at 15min intervals post-training to 1h (R15, R30, R45, R60). Assessments of cognitive moral functioning (moral judgment and intent) were recorded at intervals during recovery. There were significant fluctuations in immunoendocrine parameters. Peak endocrine measures were observed within the IP-R15 time interval. Distributions of circulating immune cells were significantly altered with neutrophils and all lymphocyte subsets elevated at IP. IFN-γ and IL-17a exhibited small, non-significant, parallel increases over the recovery period. Moral functioning was informed by different social identities during the recovery resulting in changes in moral decision-making. These data demonstrate that the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program induces significant alterations in lymphocyte and leukocyte distributions, but does not shift the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines or induce a systemic inflammatory response. The program does, however, induce alterations in moral decision-making ability associated with the observed endocrine responses, even suggesting a potential interaction between one's social identities and endocrine responses upon moral decision-making. PMID:26577267

  10. Environmental signaling: from environmental estrogens to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, J A

    2016-07-01

    The landmark report (Herbst et al. 1971) linking prenatal treatment with a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), to cancer at puberty in women whose mothers took the drug while pregnant ushered in an era of research on delayed effects of such exposures on functional outcomes in offspring. An animal model developed in our laboratory at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences confirmed that DES was the carcinogen and exposure to DES caused, as well, functional alterations in the reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems of male and female mice treated in utero. DES was also being used in agriculture and we discovered, at the first meeting on Estrogens in the Environment in 1979 (Estrogens in the Environment, 1980), that many environmental contaminants were also estrogenic. Many laboratories sought to discern the basis for estrogenicity in environmental chemicals and to discover other hormonally active xenobiotics. Our laboratory elucidated how DES and other estrogenic compounds worked by altering differentiation through epigenetic gene imprinting, helping explain the transgenerational effects found in mice and humans. At the Wingspread Conference on the Human-Wildlife Connection in 1991 (Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology, 1992), we learned that environmental disruption of the endocrine system occurred in many species and phyla, and the term endocrine disruption was introduced. Further findings of transgenerational effects of environmental agents that mimicked or blocked various reproductive hormones and the ubiquity of environmental signals, such as bisphenol A increased concern for human and ecological health. Scientists began to look at other endocrine system aspects, such as cardiovascular and immune function, and other nuclear receptors, with important observations regarding obesity and metabolism. Laboratories, such as ours, are now using stem cells to try to understand the mechanisms by which various environmental signals

  11. Altered immune response of immature dendritic cells upon dengue virus infection in the presence of specific antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, Silvia; Flipse, Jacky; Upasani, Vinit C; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) replication is known to prevent maturation of infected DCs thereby impeding the development of adequate immunity. During secondary DENV infection, dengue-specific antibodies can suppress DENV replication in immature DCs (immDCs), however how dengue-antibody complexes (DENV-IC) in

  12. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enrichment alters performance and immune response in infectious bursal disease challenged broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroufyan Elham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens. Methods A total of 300 day old male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary n-3 PUFA ascending levels as the treatment groups (T1: 0.5; T2: 8.0; T3: 11.5; T4: 16.5 using combinations of tuna oil and sunflower oil. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On day 28, all birds were challenged with IBD virus. Antibody titer, cytokine production, bursa lesion pre and post-challenge and lymphoid organ weight were recorded. Results On d 42 the highest body weight was observed in the T2 and T3 and the lowest in T4 chickens. Feed conversion ratio of the T2 broilers was significantly better than the other groups. Although productive parameters were not responded to the dietary n-3 PUFA in a dose-dependent manner, spleen weight, IBD and Newcastle disease antibody titers and IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations were constantly elevated by n-3 PUFA enrichment. Conclusions Dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may improve the immune response and IBD resistance, but the optimum performance does not coincide with the optimum immune response. It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, a moderate level of dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may help to put together the efficiency of performance and relative immune response enhancement in broiler chickens.

  13. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V;

    2001-01-01

    With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... of alkylphenols, these are disseminated in the environment with sewage sludge, and domestic animals and humans are likely to be exposed via the food chain. Using the pig as an in vivo model, we studied the effect of intrauterine exposure to tertiary octylphenol (OP) on essential reproductive...... usefulness of in vivo animal or embryo models for the evaluation of possible consequences of human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds is discussed. Furthermore, possible consequences of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds for the embryo transfer industry are addressed....

  14. Bariatric Surgery and the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ... Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ...

  15. 六味地黄苷糖对悬吊应激小鼠生殖内分泌及免疫系统的影响%LW-AFC Improved or Restored the Disturbance of Reproductive Endocrine and Immune Function in Stress-Loaded Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢兴振; 迟晓丽; 周文霞; 马渊; 张永祥

    2011-01-01

    目前尚无有效可靠的抗应激药物.传统的补益中药六味地黄汤(LW)对多种类型应激所致内分泌和免疫平衡失调具有明显调节作用,但目前已上市的LW成药缺乏可靠的质量控制方法,其临床疗效的可靠程度难以估测.本课题组在前期研究中以免疫和内分泌活性评价为导向,从LW中追踪分离并组成了质量可控且安全性好的六味地黄苷糖(LW-AFC).本文观察了悬吊应激雌性小鼠生殖内分泌及免疫系统的变化及LW-AFC的影响.结果表明,悬吊应激小鼠皮质酮升高,动情期缩短、动情间期延长,垂体LH下降,动情间期血清E2升高;脾细胞培养上清IgG含量明显降低;口服LW-AFC能显著降低血清皮质酮,升高垂体LH,且LW-AFC能明显降低动情间期血清E2,并能明显增强脾细胞IgG分泌能力.这提示,悬吊应激可导致雌性小鼠生殖内分泌功能紊乱以及免疫功能下降,口服LW-AFC具有明显调节作用,对应激所致生殖内分泌功能紊乱以及免疫功能下降具有潜在防治作用.%There are no effective and reliable anti-stress drugs. Traditional Chinese Medicine Liu Wei Di Huang Decoction (LW) can interfere with the various types of stress-induced endocrine and immune imbalance. However, traditional LW lacks reliable quality control methods, and the reliability of its clinical efficacy is difficult to estimate. In our previous study we evaluated the immune and endocrine activity of different parts from LW separation, and then formed LW-AFC which has satisfactory quality control, security and activity. In this paper, we observe the impact of LW-AFC on the reproductive endocrine and immune system of suspension-stressed female mouse. The results show that the stress increased the serum cortisone, reduced estrus cycle, prolonged diestrus, decreased the pituitary LH, but increased serum E2 on diestrus cycle, and IgG in spleen cell culture supernatant was significantly reduced after suspension

  16. Management of endocrine orbitopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine orbitopathy is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Basedow's disease and is characterized by a lymphocyte infiltration of the peribulbar space. Infiltrating and activated T cells react with orbital target cells and secrete cytokines, leading to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, interstitial edema, and enlargement of the extra ocular muscels. Interdisciplinary management is recommended for rapid diagnosis and effective therapy of patients with endocrine orbitopathy. Immunosuppressive treatment is often used initially, and by suppressing inflammatory changes, it can result in subjective and objective improvement of thyroid eye disease. (orig.)

  17. What Is Women's Endocrine Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy lifestyle and harness the power to prevent endocrine disorders, the Power of Prevention. Childhood Childhood is a ... frequent at this time. Learning how to prevent endocrine disorders during this age is pivotal. Young Women At ...

  18. Systemic Transcriptional Alterations of Innate and Adaptive Immune Signaling Pathways in Atherosclerosis, Ischemia Stroke, and Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Taura L.; VanGilder, Reynal L.; Seiberg, Ryan; Petrone, Ashely; Chantler, Paul D.; Huang, Chiang-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background Transcriptional profiles are available for a variety of cardiovascular-related diseases. The goal of this study was to compare blood transcriptional profiles of the Toll-like receptor (TLR), T-cell receptor (TCR), and B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathways in asymptomatic atherosclerosis, acute ischemic stroke, and myocardial infarction patients to identify common mechanisms of immune regulation and their association with epigenetic regulation. Methods and results Peripheral bloo...

  19. Natural Functional SNPs in miR-155 Alter Its Expression Level, Blood Cell Counts, and Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; He, Huabin; Liu, An; Liu, Huazhen; Huang, Haibo; Zhao, Changzhi; Jing, Lu; Ni, Juan; Yin, Lilin; Hu, Suqin; Wu, Hui; Li, Xinyun; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B). Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions. Additionally, 4 and 14 blood parameters were significantly different between these two genotypes under normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation conditions, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-155, the inflammatory response to LPS stimulation, and the lethal ratio following Salmonella typhimurium infection were significantly increased in mice harboring the AA genotype. Further, two SNPs, one in the loop region and the other near the 3′ terminal of pre-miR-155, were confirmed to be responsible for the differential expression of miR-155 in mice. Interestingly, two additional SNPs, one in the loop region and the other in the middle of miR-155*, modulated the function of miR-155 in humans. Predictions of secondary RNA structure using RNAfold showed that these SNPs affected the structure of miR-155 in both mice and humans. Our results provide novel evidence of the natural functional SNPs of miR-155 in both mice and humans, which may affect the expression levels of mature miR-155 by modulating its secondary structure. The SNPs of human miR-155 may be considered as causal mutations for some immune-related diseases in the clinic. The two genotypes of mice could be used as natural models for studying the mechanisms of immune diseases caused by abnormal expression of miR-155 in humans. PMID:27532002

  20. Gastrointestinal manifestations of endocrine disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Maser; Arnbjorn Toset; Sanziana Roman

    2006-01-01

    The hormonal interactions among the systems throughout the body are not fully understood; many vague clinical symptoms may in fact be manifestations of underlying endocrine diseases. The aim of the following review is to discuss gastrointestinal manifestations of surgically correctable endocrine diseases, focusing on abnormalities of thyroid function, cancer and finally autoimmune diseases. We also review manifestations of pancreatic endocrine tumors, and multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  1. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    OpenAIRE

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term “endocrine disruptor” is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hy...

  2. Shifting the circadian rhythm of feeding in mice induces gastrointestinal, metabolic and immune alterations which are influenced by ghrelin and the core clock gene Bmal1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien Laermans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In our 24-hour society, an increasing number of people are required to be awake and active at night. As a result, the circadian rhythm of feeding is seriously compromised. To mimic this, we subjected mice to restricted feeding (RF, a paradigm in which food availability is limited to short and unusual times of day. RF induces a food-anticipatory increase in the levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin. We aimed to investigate whether ghrelin triggers the changes in body weight and gastric emptying that occur during RF. Moreover, the effect of genetic deletion of the core clock gene Bmal1 on these physiological adaptations was studied. METHODS: Wild-type, ghrelin receptor knockout and Bmal1 knockout mice were fed ad libitum or put on RF with a normal or high-fat diet (HFD. Plasma ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Gastric contractility was studied in vitro in muscle strips and in vivo (13C breath test. Cytokine mRNA expression was quantified and infiltration of immune cells was assessed histologically. RESULTS: The food-anticipatory increase in plasma ghrelin levels induced by RF with normal chow was abolished in HFD-fed mice. During RF, body weight restoration was facilitated by ghrelin and Bmal1. RF altered cytokine mRNA expression levels and triggered contractility changes resulting in an accelerated gastric emptying, independent from ghrelin signaling. During RF with a HFD, Bmal1 enhanced neutrophil recruitment to the stomach, increased gastric IL-1α expression and promoted gastric contractility changes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating that ghrelin and Bmal1 regulate the extent of body weight restoration during RF, whereas Bmal1 controls the type of inflammatory infiltrate and contractility changes in the stomach. Disrupting the circadian rhythm of feeding induces a variety of diet-dependent metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal alterations, which may explain the higher prevalence of obesity and

  3. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  4. Levetiracetam differentially alters CD95 expression of neuronal cells and the mitochondrial membrane potential of immune and neuronal cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeeAShapiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological seizure disorder that affects over 100 million people worldwide. Levetiracetam, either alone, as monotherapy, or as adjunctive treatment, is widely used to control certain types of seizures. Despite its increasing popularity as a relatively safe and effective anti-convulsive treatment option, its mechanism(s of action are poorly understood. Studies have suggested neuronal, glial, and immune mechanisms of action. Understanding the precise mechanisms of action of Levetiracetam would be extremely beneficial in helping to understand the processes involved in seizure generation and epilepsy. Moreover, a full understanding of these mechanisms would help to create more efficacious treatments while minimizing side effects. The current study examined the effects of Levetiracetam on the mitochondrial membrane potential of neuronal and non-neuronal cells, in vitro, in order to determine if Levetiracetam influences metabolic processes in these cell types. In addition, this study sought to address possible immune-mediated mechanisms by determining if Levetiracetam alters the expression of immune receptor-ligand pairs. The results show that Levetiracetam induces expression of CD95 and CD178 on NGF-treated C17.2 neuronal cells. The results also show that Levetiracetam increases mitochondrial membrane potential on C17.2 neuronal cells in the presence of nerve growth factor. In contrast, Levetiracetam decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential of splenocytes and this effect was dependent on intact invariant chain, thus implicating immune cell interactions. These results suggest that both neuronal and non-neuronal anti-epileptic activities of Levetiracetam involve control over energy metabolism, more specifically, mΔΨ. Future studies are needed to further investigate this potential mechanism of action.

  5. Carbendazim has the potential to induce oxidative stress, apoptosis, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption during zebrafish larvae development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinhua; Wu, Shenggan; Wang, Yanhua; An, Xuehua; Cai, Leiming; Zhao, Xueping; Wu, Changxing

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence have suggested deleterious effects of carbendazim on reproduction, apoptosis, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption in mice and rats, however, the developmental toxicity of carbendazim to aquatic organisms remains obscure. In the present study, we utilized zebrafish as an environmental monitoring model to characterize the effects of carbendazim on expression of genes related to oxidative stress, apoptosis, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption during larval development. Different trends in gene expression were observed upon exposing the larvae to 4, 20, 100, and 500 μg/L carbendazim for 4 and 8d. The mRNA levels of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase (CAT, GPX, and Mn/SOD) were up-regulated after exposure to different concentrations of carbendazim for 4 or 8d. The up-regulation of p53, Apaf1, Cas8 and the down-regulation of Bcl2, Mdm2, Cas3 in the apoptosis pathway, as well as the increased expression of cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL-C1C, CCL1, IL-1b, IFN, IL-8, and TNFα, suggested carbendazim might trigger apoptosis and immune response during zebrafish larval development. In addition, the alteration of mRNA expression of VTG, ERα, ERβ1, ERβ2, TRα, TRβ, Dio1, and Dio2 indicated the potential of carbendazim to induce endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae. These data suggested that carbendazim could simultaneously induce multiple responses during zebrafish larval development, and bidirectional interactions among oxidative stress, apoptosis pathway, immune and endocrine systems might be present. PMID:26055223

  6. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type 2A disease. Almost everyone with type 2A disease develops medullary thyroid cancer (see Medullary cancer ). About 40 to ... stones in about 25% of people. Type 2B disease Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B can consist of Medullary thyroid cancer Pheochromocytomas Growths around nerves (neuromas) Many ...

  7. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  8. Early life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke alters immune response to asbestos via a shift in inflammatory phenotype resulting in increased disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Traci Ann; Holian, Andrij; Pinkerton, Kent E; Lee, Joong Won; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2016-07-01

    Asbestos in combination with tobacco smoke exposure reportedly leads to more severe physiological consequences than asbestos alone; limited data also show an increased disease risk due to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Environmental influences during gestation and early lung development can result in physiological changes that alter risk for disease development throughout an individual's lifetime. Therefore, maternal lifestyle may impact the ability of offspring to subsequently respond to environmental insults and alter overall disease susceptibility. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development on asbestos-related inflammation and disease in adulthood. ETS exposure in utero appeared to shift inflammation towards a Th2 phenotype, via suppression of Th1 inflammatory cytokine production. This effect was further pronounced in mice exposed to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development. In utero ETS exposure led to increased collagen deposition, a marker of fibrotic disease, when the offspring was later exposed to asbestos, which was further increased with additional ETS exposure during early postnatal development. These data suggest that ETS exposure in utero alters the immune responses and leads to greater disease development after asbestos exposure, which is further exacerbated when exposure to ETS continues during early postnatal development. PMID:27138493

  9. The Bidirectional Relationship between Sleep and Immunity against Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Ibarra-Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is considered an important modulator of the immune response. Thus, a lack of sleep can weaken immunity, increasing organism susceptibility to infection. For instance, shorter sleep durations are associated with a rise in suffering from the common cold. The function of sleep in altering immune responses must be determined to understand how sleep deprivation increases the susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. There are several explanations for greater susceptibility to infections after reduced sleep, such as impaired mitogenic proliferation of lymphocytes, decreased HLA-DR expression, the upregulation of CD14+, and variations in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, which have been observed during partial sleep deprivation. Also, steroid hormones, in addition to regulating sexual behavior, influence sleep. Thus, we hypothesize that sleep and the immune-endocrine system have a bidirectional relationship in governing various physiological processes, including immunity to infections. This review discusses the evidence on the bidirectional effects of the immune response against viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections on sleep patterns and how the lack of sleep affects the immune response against such agents. Because sleep is essential in the maintenance of homeostasis, these situations must be adapted to elicit changes in sleep patterns and other physiological parameters during the immune response to infections to which the organism is continuously exposed.

  10. Fermented milk supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics can effectively alter the intestinal microbiota and immunity of host animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Zhu, H; Lu, C; Kang, Z; Luo, Y; Feng, L; Lu, X

    2012-09-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with 2 probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide, was orally administered to 100 healthy adults at 480 g/d for 2 wk in a randomized controlled trial. The fecal bacterial compositions of these subjects were examined by culture before and after the intervention. The same fermented milk was also orally fed to BALB/c mice, and immune as well as fecal bacteria analyses were conducted using the same culturing methods. After the intervention, increases in fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were observed among the subjects compared with the subjects in the control group. In contrast, after the intervention, fecal enterobacilli were significantly decreased in the test group compared with the control group. The same effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota were observed in mice. Furthermore, the tested mice were found to have significantly increased delayed-type hypersensitivity, plaque-forming cells, and half-hemolysis values after the intervention with the fermented milk. In summary, the synbiotic fermented milk containing probiotics and a prebiotic may contribute to improve intestinal health and may have a positive effect on the humoral and cell-mediated immunity of host animals. PMID:22916885

  11. Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Reifschneider

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries (TBI are common occurrences in childhood, often resulting in long term, life altering consequences. Research into endocrine sequelae following injury has gained attention; however, there are few studies in children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current literature documenting risk for endocrine dysfunction in children suffering from TBI. Primary injury following TBI often results in disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and antidiuretic hormone production and release, with implications for both acute management and survival. Secondary injuries, occurring hours to weeks after TBI, result in both temporary and permanent alterations in pituitary function. At five years after moderate to severe TBI, nearly 30% of children suffer from hypopituitarism. Growth hormone deficiency and disturbances in puberty are the most common; however, any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be affected. In addition, endocrine abnormalities can improve or worsen with time, having a significant impact on children’s quality of life both acutely and chronically. Since primary and secondary injuries from TBI commonly result in transient or permanent hypopituitarism, we conclude that survivors should undergo serial screening for possible endocrine disturbances. High indices of suspicion for life threatening endocrine deficiencies should be maintained during acute care. Additionally, survivors of TBI should undergo endocrine surveillance by 6–12 months after injury, and then yearly, to ensure early detection of deficiencies in hormonal production that can substantially influence growth, puberty and quality of life.

  12. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  13. The effect of local irradiation on the immune response in mice. II. Alterations due to low dose scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of localized irradiation given as single dose on the immune response of tumour-bearing mice was evaluated using the CRT. The tumour system (MBL2 on C57BL/6 females) was regularly lethal, although presence of CTL was demonstrated 15 days after transplantation (50,000 cells in the left hind limb). This T-dependent, antigen-specific cytotoxic activity observed on day 15 in the non-irradiated tumour-bearing group was abolished in the irradiated group (but not in the sham-irradiated group) and their CTL were incapable to mount a secondary response in MLTC-CML. The scattering of the 1,600 rad-single dose was sufficient to provoke this inhibition

  14. Endocrine disrupters. The case of estrogen xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest of the scientific community in chemical substances able to alter the hormone balance –endocrine disrupters- has grown with increasing evidence of the consequences for animal populations of exposure to these substances. As has occurred on previous occasions, observational data on animal populations have been sufficiently suggestive to cause concerns among clinicians that similar effects may be produced in human populations. Although data on the effects on populations of animals are more easily generated than those on individuals, clinical observations on human individuals alongside the few existing epidemiological studies have shown a certain parallelism. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo models have been able to designate many chemical compounds as hormonal mimics, including both natural and human-produced compounds to which there are exposure risks. The present work reviews the conceptual premises of endocrine disruption and the development of the use of this term.

  15. Parvalbumin overexpression alters immune-mediated increases in intracellular calcium, and delays disease onset in a transgenic model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, D. R.; Ho, B. K.; Siklos, L.; Alexianu, M. E.; Mosier, D. R.; Mohamed, A. H.; Otsuka, Y.; Kozovska, M. E.; McAlhany, R. E.; Smith, R. G.; Appel, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    Intracellular calcium is increased in vulnerable spinal motoneurons in immune-mediated as well as transgenic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine whether intracellular calcium levels are influenced by the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, we developed transgenic mice overexpressing parvalbumin in spinal motoneurons. ALS immunoglobulins increased intracellular calcium and spontaneous transmitter release at motoneuron terminals in control animals, but not in parvalbumin overexpressing transgenic mice. Parvalbumin transgenic mice interbred with mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) transgenic mice, an animal model of familial ALS, had significantly reduced motoneuron loss, and had delayed disease onset (17%) and prolonged survival (11%) when compared with mice with only the mSOD1 transgene. These results affirm the importance of the calcium binding protein parvalbumin in altering calcium homeostasis in motoneurons. The increased motoneuron parvalbumin can significantly attenuate the immune-mediated increases in calcium and to a lesser extent compensate for the mSOD1-mediated 'toxic-gain-of-function' in transgenic mice.

  16. Endocrine diseases in ferrets

    OpenAIRE

    Schoemaker, N.J.; van Zeeland, Y.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Endocrine diseases are among the most commonly seen conditions in ferrets. Tumours of the islet cells in the pancreas, referred to as insulinomas, and tumours of the adrenal glands, referred to as hyperadrenocorticism, are more commonly described in this species than in any other species. Insulinomas are predominantly benign, insulin-producing tumours which cause hypoglycaemia and associated clinical signs, such as weakness of the hind limbs, a glazed look in the eyes and/ or coma. Du...

  17. [Endocrine problems during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Klaus; Hintze, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine disorders may have an important influence on fertility, the course of a pregnancy and fetal development. For example, fertility is decreased and the risk of miscarriage is increased in women with autoimmune disorders, such as Addison's disease or autoimmune thyroiditis. Treatment of endocrine diseases in many cases has to be adapted during the course of a pregnancy. In patients with Addison's disease the dosage of hydrocortisone necessarily has to be increased. This is also valid for the time of delivery. Disorders of the thyroid gland are of great importance during pregnancy. If hypothyroidism is diagnosed in early pregnancy, immediate treatment with levothyroxine should be initiated. Iodine supplementation is strongly recommended in all pregnant and breast-feeding women. Treatment of Graves's disease will be performed during the first trimenon with propylthiouracile, afterwards with methimazole (thiamazole). In contrast, thyrotoxicosis due to hCG should not be treated with methimazole. In this paper, we present an overview on the most important endocrine disorders during pregnancy. PMID:27598917

  18. Alterations of T cell receptor Vβ repertoire of CD8 T lymphocytes in immune tolerance induction in two hemophilia A patients with inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hemophilia A patients with inhibitors are treated effectively with immune tolerance induction (ITI therapy. Although anti-idiotypic antibodies may play a certain role in the underlying mechanism, the detailed mechanism by which ITI produces a curative effect remains unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the immunological aspect of ITI. Methods. Longitudinal T-cell receptor (TCR analysis was performed during ITI. TCR variable region α-chain and β-chain repertoires were serially analyzed for peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, CD4 T cells, and CD8 T cells from 2 hemophilia inhibitor patients treated with ITI (Patients 1 and 2. Furthermore, to see whether skewing observed in TCR analysis resulted from clonality alterations, T-cell clonality was investigated using complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3 size spectratyping. Results. In the patient 1, inhibitor titer remained to be 19.6 BU/mL for 596 days after ITI commencement, and ITI was unsuccessful. In the patient 2, inhibitor titer disappeared 434 days after ITI commencement, and ITI was successful. In both cases, skewing of TCR variable region α/β-chain repertoires was observed in CD8 T cell subset, whereas not in CD4 T cell subset. Conclusion. Alteration of TCR repertoires, especially TCR variable region β-chain repertoire of CD8 T cells, was distinct between successful and unsuccessful cases, suggesting that immunological response in the early phase affected the ITI outcomes.

  19. Fetal and neonatal endocrine disruptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Ünüvar, Tolga; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are substances commonly encountered in every setting and condition in the modern world. It is virtually impossible to avoid the contact with these chemical compounds in our daily life. Molecules defined as endocrine disruptors constitute an extremely heterogeneous group and include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants and their by-products. Natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens) also act as endocrine disruptors. Different f...

  20. Fetal and Neonatal Endocrine Disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Ünüvar, Tolga; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are substances commonly encountered in every setting and condition in the modern world. It is virtually impossible to avoid the contact with these chemical compounds in our daily life. Molecules defined as endocrine disruptors constitute an extremely heterogeneous group and include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants and their by-products. Natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens) also act as endocrine disruptors. Different f...

  1. Feeding Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) and Astragalus membranaceus (AM) alters innate immune and physiological responses in yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabd, Hiam; Wang, Han-Ping; Shaheen, Adel; Yao, Hong; Abbass, Amany

    2016-07-01

    The current work assessed the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) in Yellow perch (Perca flavescens). In this regard, fish with an average weight of 31 ± 1.0 g were divided into five groups, and fed daily with an additive-free basal diet (control); 1, 2, and 3% (w/w) Glycyrrhiza glabra, and the fifth diet was incorporated with a combination of 1% G. glabra-AM for a four-week period. Immunological, biochemical and growth parameters were measured; and sub-groups of fish were exposed to 1-week starvation. The results showed that incorporating AM and liquorice in the diet significantly improved Immunological [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), Lipid peroxidase (LPx) and lysozyme activities], biochemical [Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Transaminase (ALT) activities; and glucose and cortisol concentrations] and growth performance parameters [body mass gain (BMG), specific growth rate (SGR), length, condition factor (K) and feed conversion ratio (FCR)]. In addition, markedly up-regulated the expression of related genes [Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Serum amyloid A (SAA), Complement Component C3 (CCC3), Alpha 2 Macroglobulin (A2M), SOD and GPx] in treated fish groups compared to the control. Conclusively, feeding AM and liquorice diets significantly increased (P < 0.05) growth performance, antioxidant and immune response profiles throughout the entire experiment, suggesting their beneficial rule as natural anti-stress agents. PMID:27129627

  2. Modeling altered T-cell development with induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with RAG1-dependent immune deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Patrick M; Pessach, Itai M; Clarke, Erik; Rowe, Jared H; Ott de Bruin, Lisa; Lee, Yu Nee; Dominguez-Brauer, Carmen; Comeau, Anne M; Awong, Geneve; Felgentreff, Kerstin; Zhang, Yuhang H; Bredemeyer, Andrea; Al-Herz, Waleed; Du, Likun; Ververs, Francesca; Kennedy, Marion; Giliani, Silvia; Keller, Gordon; Sleckman, Barry P; Schatz, David G; Bushman, Frederic D; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-11

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases comprise a group of heterogeneous genetic defects that affect immune system development and/or function. Here we use in vitro differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from patients with different recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1) mutations to assess T-cell development and T-cell receptor (TCR) V(D)J recombination. RAG1-mutants from severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) patient cells showed a failure to sustain progression beyond the CD3(--)CD4(-)CD8(-)CD7(+)CD5(+)CD38(-)CD31(-/lo)CD45RA(+) stage of T-cell development to reach the CD3(-/+)CD4(+)CD8(+)CD7(+)CD5(+)CD38(+)CD31(+)CD45RA(-) stage. Despite residual mutant RAG1 recombination activity from an Omenn syndrome (OS) patient, similar impaired T-cell differentiation was observed, due to increased single-strand DNA breaks that likely occur due to heterodimers consisting of both an N-terminal truncated and a catalytically dead RAG1. Furthermore, deep-sequencing analysis of TCR-β (TRB) and TCR-α (TRA) rearrangements of CD3(-)CD4(+)CD8(-) immature single-positive and CD3(+)CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive cells showed severe restriction of repertoire diversity with preferential usage of few Variable, Diversity, and Joining genes, and skewed length distribution of the TRB and TRA complementary determining region 3 sequences from SCID and OS iPSC-derived cells, whereas control iPSCs yielded T-cell progenitors with a broadly diversified repertoire. Finally, no TRA/δ excision circles (TRECs), a marker of TRA/δ locus rearrangements, were detected in SCID and OS-derived T-lineage cells, consistent with a pre-TCR block in T-cell development. This study compares human T-cell development of SCID vs OS patients, and elucidates important differences that help to explain the wide range of immunologic phenotypes that result from different mutations within the same gene of various patients. PMID:27301863

  3. [Hypotension from endocrine origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Douillard, Claire; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie

    2012-11-01

    Hypotension is defined by a low blood pressure either permanently or only in upright posture (orthostatic hypotension). In contrast to hypertension, there is no threshold defining hypotension. The occurrence of symptoms for systolic and diastolic measurements respectively below 90 and 60 mm Hg establishes the diagnosis. Every acute hypotensive event should suggest shock, adrenal failure or an iatrogenic cause. Chronic hypotension from endocrine origin may be linked to adrenal failure from adrenal or central origin, isolated hypoaldosteronism, pseudohypoaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, neuro-endocrine tumors (carcinoïd syndrome) or diabetic dysautonomia. Hypotension related to hypoaldosteronism associates low blood sodium and above all high blood potassium levels. They are generally classified according to their primary (hyperreninism) or secondary (hyporeninism) adrenal origin. Isolated primary hypoaldosteronisms are rare in adults (intensive care unit, selective injury of the glomerulosa area) and in children (aldosterone synthase deficiency). Isolated secondary hypoaldosteronism is related to mellitus diabetes complicated with dysautonomia, kidney failure, age, iatrogenic factors, and HIV infections. In both cases, they can be associated to glucocorticoid insufficiency from primary adrenal origin (adrenal failure of various origins with hyperreninism, among which congenital 21 hydroxylase deficiency with salt loss) or from central origin (hypopituitarism with hypo-reninism). Pseudohypoaldosteronisms are linked to congenital (type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism) or acquired states of resistance to aldosterone. Acquired salt losses from enteric (total colectomy with ileostomy) or renal (interstitial nephropathy, Bartter and Gitelman syndromes…) origin might be responsible for hypotension and are associated with hyperreninism-hyperaldosteronism. Hypotension is a rare manifestation of pheochromocytomas, especially during surgical removal when the patient has not been

  4. [Endocrine disorders and osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuka

    2015-10-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by decreased bone mass that predisposes fractures due to underlying disorders or medication. Disorders of the endocrine system, such as primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency, Cushing's syndrome, and anorexia nervosa frequently cause secondary osteoporosis. In those diseases, hormone excess or deficiency affects functions of osteoblasts, osteocyte, and osteoclasts, leading to aberrant bone remodeling. Bisphosphonates are the first-choice pharmacological agents for fracture prevention in most patients with secondary osteoporosis along with treatment of the underlying disease. PMID:26529938

  5. Neurobehavioral endocrine regulation of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the hypothesis that density-dependent behavioral-endocrine negative feedbacks can regulate and often limit the growth of populations of many species of small mammals. Recent laboratory studies are summarized that show how stress, particularly psychogenic, which results in increased adrenocortical secretion also alters gonadotropin secretion and inhibits reproduction. Chronic stress due to crowding, immobilization, et al. inhibits the release of LH and FSH, particularly by abolishing the pulsatile release of LH, and also causes a rise in prolactin (at least acutely). Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system is accompanied by an inversely proportional inhibition of growth hormone secretion. Decreasing photoperiod enhances the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by androgens and estrogens. Other endocrine responses to increased density or subordinate social rank also are summarized. How these facts fit into the negative feedback scheme is discussed, including the greatly prolonged effects of diminished lactation. The changed quality of the animals associated with changes in density discussed by Lidicker also can be explained by the above responses to density. Data on changes in growth and reproductive function which are consistent with the behavioral-endocrine feedback hypothesis are presented for several populations of small mammals, including some previously unpublished data for Microtus pennsylvanicus

  6. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...... binding domain (LBD) has been associated with EDCs, a significant number of EDCs do not appear to influence the LBDs of these receptors. Therefore, we evaluated the potential biological effects of EDCs in humans with the aim to rationalize the etiology of certain disorders associated with the reproductive...

  7. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Waissmann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  8. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waissmann William

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  9. The immune potency of β-glucan on haematological alterations and some trace elements in rats exposed to gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the immune potency and radioprotective effect of naturaceutical supplement yeast 1, 3 β-D-glucan against hematological alterations and some trace elements in liver tissue of male albino rats exposed to gamma–radiation. Male albino rats (120-150 gm) were divided into four groups. Group 1 was considered control animals, group 2: received orally in water suspension yeast 1,3 β-D- glucan (50mg/kg b. wt )for 15 consecutive days, group 3 were exposed to fractionated dose gamma- radiation (2 Gy x 3 delivered every other day ). Group 4: received orally in water suspension yeast 1,3 β-D- glucan (50 mg/kg b. wt) for 10 consecutive days before irradiation and 5 days during the period of radiation exposure (2 Gy x 3 delivered every other day ). The results indicated that the total white blood cells count (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit value (Hct%), platelets count (PLT) and copper (Cu) concentration in liver homogenate were significantly decreased on the 1st hour ,1st day and 7th day post-exposure to gamma- irradiation, while, a significant increased occurred in mean corpuscular volume (MCV), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentration in liver homogenate. The administration of naturaceutical supplement yeast 1,3 β-D- glucan pre – irradiation ameliorated blood cells and liver trace elements from the impact effects of gamma -irradiation . It could be concluded that yeast 1, 3 β-D- glucan has immune potency and radioprotective effect.

  10. Dietary β-glucan (MacroGard®) enhances survival of first feeding turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae by altering immunity, metabolism and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miest, Joanna J; Arndt, Carmen; Adamek, Mikolaj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting the natural biology of mass spawning fish aquaculture production of fish larvae is often hampered by high and unpredictable mortality rates. The present study aimed to enhance larval performance and immunity via the oral administration of an immunomodulator, β-glucan (MacroGard(®)) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) were incubated with or without yeast β-1,3/1,6-glucan in form of MacroGard(®) at a concentration of 0.5 g/L. Rotifers were fed to first feeding turbot larvae once a day. From day 13 dph onwards all tanks were additionally fed untreated Artemia sp. nauplii (1 nauplius ml/L). Daily mortality was monitored and larvae were sampled at 11 and 24 dph for expression of 30 genes, microbiota analysis, trypsin activity and size measurements. Along with the feeding of β-glucan daily mortality was significantly reduced by ca. 15% and an alteration of the larval microbiota was observed. At 11 dph gene expression of trypsin and chymotrypsin was elevated in the MacroGard(®) fed fish, which resulted in heightened tryptic enzyme activity. No effect on genes encoding antioxidative proteins was observed, whilst the immune response was clearly modulated by β-glucan. At 11 dph complement component c3 was elevated whilst cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, toll like receptor 3 and heat shock protein 70 were not affected. At the later time point (24 dph) an anti-inflammatory effect in form of a down-regulation of hsp 70, tnf-α and il-1β was observed. We conclude that the administration of MacroGard(®) induced an immunomodulatory response and could be used as an effective measure to increase survival in rearing of turbot. PMID:26564474

  11. Agonist anti-GITR monoclonal antibody induces melanoma tumor immunity in mice by altering regulatory T cell stability and intra-tumor accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Cohen

    Full Text Available In vivo GITR ligation has previously been shown to augment T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity, yet the underlying mechanisms of this activity, particularly its in vivo effects on CD4+ foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs, have not been fully elucidated. In order to translate this immunotherapeutic approach to the clinic it is important gain better understanding of its mechanism(s of action. Utilizing the agonist anti-GITR monoclonal antibody DTA-1, we found that in vivo GITR ligation modulates regulatory T cells (Tregs directly during induction of melanoma tumor immunity. As a monotherapy, DTA-1 induced regression of small established B16 melanoma tumors. Although DTA-1 did not alter systemic Treg frequencies nor abrogate the intrinsic suppressive activity of Tregs within the tumor-draining lymph node, intra-tumor Treg accumulation was significantly impaired. This resulted in a greater Teff:Treg ratio and enhanced tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell activity. The decreased intra-tumor Treg accumulation was due both to impaired infiltration, coupled with DTA-1-induced loss of foxp3 expression in intra-tumor Tregs. Histological analysis of B16 tumors grown in Foxp3-GFP mice showed that the majority of GFP+ cells had lost Foxp3 expression. These "unstable" Tregs were absent in IgG-treated tumors and in DTA-1 treated TDLN, demonstrating a tumor-specific effect. Impairment of Treg infiltration was lost if Tregs were GITR(-/-, and the protective effects of DTA-1 were reduced in reconstituted RAG1(-/- mice if either the Treg or Teff subset were GITR-negative and absent if both were negative. Our results demonstrate that DTA-1 modulates both Teffs and Tregs during effective tumor treatment. The data suggest that DTA-1 prevents intra-tumor Treg accumulation by altering their stability, and as a result of the loss of foxp3 expression, may modify their intra-tumor suppressive capacity. These findings provide further support for the continued development of agonist

  12. Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

    1999-07-01

    Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

  13. [Acne vulgaris: endocrine aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2006-06-10

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone). PMID:16821451

  14. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to reproductive changes in boys in the Western world, however, less is known about influence of EDCs in women. The incidence of precocious breast development is increasing in USA and Europe and mammary gland development has been...... examination showed changes in epithelial morphology in male (hypertrophic epithelium) and female (lobuloalveolar morphology) mammary glands in adult rats exposed to phytoestrogens. Anti-androgenic chemicals showed signs of feminisation of adult male mammary glands. No effects of anti-androgens were observed...... in female mammary glands. The histological changes observed in adult female and male mammary glands were not present consistently in the groups of estrogenic or anti-androgenic chemicals and may be due to other modes of action of thechemicals. Female genital malformations were affected by the potent...

  15. The Immune System as a Regulator of Thyroid Hormone Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, John R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for decades that the neuroendocrine system can both directly and indirectly influence the developmental and functional activity of the immune system. In contrast, far less is known about the extent to which the immune system collaborates in the regulation of endocrine activity. This is particularly true for immune-endocrine interactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Although thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) can be produced by many types of extra-pituitary cell...

  16. Endocrine Effects of Circadian Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms, provoked by artificial lighting at night, inconsistent sleep-wake schedules, and transmeridian air travel, is increasingly prevalent in modern society. Desynchrony of biological rhythms from environmental light cycles has dramatic consequences for human health. In particular, disrupting homeostatic oscillations in endocrine tissues and the hormones that these tissues regulate can have cascading effects on physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic disruption of circadian organization of endocrine function may lead to metabolic, reproductive, sleep, and mood disorders. This review discusses circadian control of endocrine systems and the consequences of distorting rhythmicity of these systems. PMID:26208951

  17. Endocrine disrupters. The case of oestrogenic xenobiotics II: synthetic oestrogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been demonstrated that endocrine systems of living beings can be altered by many chemical substances of anthropogenic origin, designated as endocrine disrupters. There are growing concerns about the number of these endocrine disrupters. It has not been possible to define a single chemical structure that allows the classification of a chemical compound as a mimic of female sex hormones, so that chemical structures similar to natural estrogens, based on cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene, share their hormonal effect with stilbenes, bisphenols, alkylphenols, dioxins, furans and parabenes. The recognition of estrogenic activity in different biological models has been used to update the list of xenoestrogens and reveal sources of human exposure that were previously unknown. New previously unsuspected chemical compounds have been added to the list, as well as their precursors, metabolites and degradation products, whose effects are only now beginning to be recognised.

  18. Carcinogenetic mechanisms of endocrine disruptors in female cancers (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pup, Lino; Mantovani, Alberto; Cavaliere, Carla; Facchini, Gaetano; Luce, Amalia; Sperlongano, Pasquale; Caraglia, Michele; Berretta, Massimiliano

    2016-08-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are pollutants that alter the endocrine system and are involved in carcinogenesis. EDs have multiple and complex levels of action. They can affect the synthesis, release and transport of natural hormones. In target tissues, EDs can reduce or increase the effects of natural hormones on their receptors and change signaling cascades. When ED exposure happens at critical periods of life, from embryo to puberty, they can act at doses considered safe for an adult. Furthermore, their epigenetic effects can also influence the cancer risk of future generations. The cancer mechanisms of known EDs are hereby reviewed, There are thousands of newly introduced substances whose potential endocrine-disrupting and cancer effects are completely unknown. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge, these data support the urgent need for health and environmental policies aimed at protecting the public and in particular, the developing fetus and women of reproductive age. PMID:27349723

  19. Alterations of the immune transcriptome in resistant and susceptible hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) in response to Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kailai; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Tanguy, Arnaud; Allam, Bassem

    2016-02-01

    Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) is a fatal protistan parasite that causes severe losses in the hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) fisheries along the northeastern coast of the US. Field and laboratory studies of QPX disease have demonstrated a major role for water temperature and M. mercenaria genetic origin in disease development. Infections are more likely to occur at cold temperatures, with clam stocks originating from southern states being more susceptible than clams from northern origin where disease is enzootic. Even though the influence of temperature on QPX infection have been examined in susceptible and resistant M. mercenaria at physiological and cellular scales, the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with host-pathogen interactions remain largely unknown. This study was carried out to explore the molecular changes in M. mercenaria in response to temperature and QPX infection on the transcriptomic level, and also to compare molecular responses between susceptible and resistant clam stocks. A M. mercenaria oligoarray (15 K Agilent) platform was produced based on our previously generated transcriptomic data and was used to compare gene expression profiles in naive and QPX-infected susceptible (Florida stock) and resistant (Massachusetts) clams maintained at temperatures favoring disease development (13 °C) or clam healing (21 °C). In addition, transcriptomic changes reflecting focal (the site of infection, mantle) and systemic (circulating hemocytes) responses were also assessed using the oligoarray platform. Results revealed significant regulation of multiple biological pathways by temperature and QPX infection, mainly associated with immune recognition, microbial killing, protein synthesis, oxidative protection and metabolism. Alterations were widely systemic with most changes in gene expression revealed in hemocytes, highlighting the role of circulating hemocytes as the first line of defense against pathogenic stress. A large number of

  20. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jeesuk

    2014-01-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disord...

  1. Altered immune responses in rhesus macaques co-infected with SIV and Plasmodium cynomolgi: an animal model for coincident AIDS and relapsing malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Koehler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dual epidemics of the malaria parasite Plasmodium and HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia present a significant risk for co-infection in these overlapping endemic regions. Recent studies of HIV/Plasmodium falciparum co-infection have reported significant interactions of these pathogens, including more rapid CD4+ T cell loss, increased viral load, increased immunosuppression, and increased episodes of clinical malaria. Here, we describe a novel rhesus macaque model for co-infection that supports and expands upon findings in human co-infection studies and can be used to identify interactions between these two pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five rhesus macaques were infected with P. cynomolgi and, following three parasite relapses, with SIV. Compared to macaques infected with SIV alone, co-infected animals had, as a group, decreased survival time and more rapid declines in markers for SIV progression, including peripheral CD4+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios. The naïve CD4+ T cell pool of the co-infected animals was depleted more rapidly than animals infected with SIV alone. The co-infected animals also failed to generate proliferative responses to parasitemia by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as B cells while also having a less robust anti-parasite and altered anti-SIV antibody response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that infection with both SIV and Plasmodium enhances SIV-induced disease progression and impairs the anti-Plasmodium immune response. These data support findings in HIV/Plasmodium co-infection studies. This animal model can be used to further define impacts of lentivirus and Plasmodium co-infection and guide public health and therapeutic interventions.

  2. Answering the endocrine test questions.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, C W

    1999-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that certain chemicals may bind to endogenous hormone receptors and disturb normal endocrine functioning, thereby increasing the risk of reproductive problems and cancer in humans, has led to international efforts to screen chemicals for endocrine activity and potential health effects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended that some 87,000 commercial chemicals for which there currently are inadequate toxicity data be evaluated. In December 1998, th...

  3. Neuroendocrine targets of endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Gore, Andrea C.

    2010-01-01

    The central neuroendocrine systems are responsible for the control of homeostatic processes in the body, including reproduction, growth, metabolism and energy balance, and stress responsiveness. These processes are initiated by signals in the central nervous system, specifically the hypothalamus, and are conveyed first by neural and then by endocrine effectors. The neuroendocrine systems, as the links between the brain and peripheral endocrine systems, play critical roles in the ability of an...

  4. Immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistangari, Gaurav; McCrae, Keith R

    2013-06-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common hematologic disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. ITP presents as a primary or a secondary form. ITP may affect individuals of all ages, with peaks during childhood and in the elderly, in whom the age-specific incidence of ITP is greatest. Bleeding is the most common clinical manifestation of ITP. The pathogenesis of ITP is complex, involving alterations in humoral and cellular immunity. Corticosteroids remain the most common first line therapy for ITP. This article summarizes the classification and diagnosis of primary and secondary ITP, as well as the pathogenesis and options for treatment. PMID:23714309

  5. Altered or Impaired Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in WNIN/GR-Ob Rat: An Obese Rat Model with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Bandaru, Prathibha; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Nappanveettil, Giridharan

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is shown to increase the incidence and severity of infectious diseases and individuals seem to exhibit poor antibody response to vaccination due to several inherent immune defects. With the increasing prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) seen in obese individuals, the present study was aimed to investigate the basal immune response and immune response upon Hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) in an obese rat model WNIN/GR-Ob with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Decreased proporti...

  6. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ​Community Immunity ("Herd" ... population is immunized, protecting most community members. The principle of community immunity applies to control of a ...

  7. Impact of Physical Exercise on Endocrine Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Joseph A M J L

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise may be vital to the maintenance of the endocrine system with aging and its helps to restore loss of activity of the endocrine system with aging. There is evidence that physical exercise induces activity of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and so produces anabolic effects in skeletal muscles. Mechano growth factor (MGF), a locally produced isoform of IGF-1, has been hypothesized to be important for the maintenance of skeletal muscles with aging. Short-term high-resistance exercise results in an increase of MGF mRNA in young but not in elderly subjects. Reported changes in levels of circulating sex steroid hormones in men after different types of (acute and chronic) physical exercise are mixed and not consistent. In addition, physical exercise may increase local effects of sex steroid hormones, and this may be more important than levels of circulating sex steroids for the maintenance and function of skeletal muscles. In elderly women, both increased physical exercise and reduced body fat may decrease levels of circulating sex hormones. Aging is further associated with changes in the dynamic functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but these changes may be attenuated/modified by aerobic training. Chronic exercise does not alter circulating cortisol levels in elderly subjects. PMID:27348867

  8. Analysis of the effects of resistance training on circadan rhythm of endocrine hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Shariat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the number of the studies conducted on the effects of resistance training on circadian rhythm of endocrine hormones is increasing exponentially. The aim of this report is to explore the current and prevailing studies in an attempt to elucidate the findings of resistance training on circadian rhythm of endocrine hormones. Analysis of the available research from 2001 until 2015 demonstrated a wide variety of methodologies and sampled populations. However, all sampled studies made use of a pre-test, post-test experimental design taking place during the day. In addition, the primary hormones assessed were testosterone and cortisol, sampled via saliva. Collectively the sampled studies demonstrated that resistance training is capable of affecting the circadian rhythm of endocrine hormone secretion. However, it must be noted that these alterations were primary following training and the alterations transient in nature, with endocrine responses returning to normal circadian rhythm ranges via natural feedback mechanisms.

  9. Treatment of alternated water-electrolyte balance and endocrine status after removal of craniopharyngioma in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; ZHAO Shang-feng; ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Mao-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Background Water-electrolyte disturbance and endocrine alterations are common complications of adult patients with craniopharygioma in the postoperative period and may affect their recovery and prognosis. Some of these complications even lead to death. Appropriate remedy based upon the status of water-electrolyte balance and the endocrine system is essential to good therapeutic results of adult patients with craniopharyngioma.Methods The alterations in water-electrolyte balance (117 patients) and endocrine status (42) of adult patients with craniopharyngioma after surgery were analyzed retrospectively.Results Most patients with craniopharyngioma experienced postoperative water-electrolyte disturbances and hypotonic dehydration. Moreover, the incidences of hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism were relatively high.Conclusion It is critical to deal with dehydration and endocrine disorders for a sound outcome of craniopharyngioma surgery.

  10. PET and endocrine tumors; TEP et tumeurs endocrines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et d' Hematologie (Belgium)

    2000-08-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of {sup 18}FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  11. Endocrine abnormalities in ring chromosome 11: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Renata; Von Linsingen, Caoê; Mata, Fernanda; Moraes, Aline Barbosa; Arruda, Mariana; Vieira Neto, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ring chromosomes (RCs) are uncommon cytogenetic findings, and RC11 has only been described in 19 cases in the literature. Endocrine abnormalities associated with RC11 were reported for two of these cases. The clinical features of RC11 can result from an alteration in the structure of the genetic material, ring instability, mosaicism, and various extents of genetic material loss. We herein describe a case of RC11 with clinical features of 11q-syndrome and endocrine abnormalities that h...

  12. Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides by Capillary GC with Mass Spectrometric Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Hrouzková; Eva Matisová

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals, among them many pesticides, alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans at very low concentration levels. Therefore, the importance of method development for their analysis in food and the environment is increasing. This also covers contributions in the field of ultra-trace analysis of multicomponent mixtures of organic pollutants in complex matrices. With this fact conventional capillary gas chromatography (CGC) and fast CG...

  13. In Silico Analysis of the Conservation of Human Toxicity and Endocrine Disruption Targets in Aquatic Species

    OpenAIRE

    McRobb, Fiona M.; Sahagún, Virginia; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals, both in the environment and in research settings, commonly interact with aquatic vertebrates. Due to their short life-cycles and the traits that can be generalized to other organisms, fish and amphibians are attractive models for the evaluation of toxicity caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and adverse drug reactions. EDCs, such as pharmaceuticals or plasticizers, alter the normal function of the endocrine system and pose a significant ha...

  14. Cognitive effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in animals.

    OpenAIRE

    Schantz, S L; Widholm, J.J

    2001-01-01

    A large number of chemical pollutants including phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, organochlorine pesticides, bisphenol A, and metals including lead, mercury, and cadmium have the ability to disrupt endocrine function in animals. Some of these same chemicals have been shown to alter cognitive function in animals and humans. Because hormonally mediated events play a central role in central nervous system development and function, ...

  15. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can in...

  16. [Endocrine tumors of the testis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, V; Linke, J

    2003-07-01

    The most characteristic endocrine tumours of the testis are germ cell tumours and sex cord/gonadal stromal tumours. They include the primary carcinoid, the relation of which to teratomas is still unclear. In general, gonadal stromal tumours are rare, however, endocrine activity occurs in at least 10%-20%. Among gonadal stromal tumours, only Leydig cell tumours and Sertoli cell tumours are of practical importance. Endocrine disorders are mostly related to Leydig cell tumours (gynaecomastia, pubertas praecox). Although less frequent than the other gonadal stromal tumours, they can, in principle, occur. The large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour occurs in association with other complex disorders (i.e. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome). Valuable markers are: inhibin, calretinin, cytokeratin, melan-A, CD-99, Ki-67, androgen receptor and p53. As the conventional morphology and immunohistological markers frequently overlap, unclear cases should be referred to specialised centres. PMID:14513279

  17. Scintigraphic imaging of endocrine organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    The nuclear medicine approach to the portrayal of endocrine organs is unique; the scintigraphic images provide not only anatomic and localization information, but in many instances allow a quantitative assessment of organ function. The ability to image endocrine glands is based upon the design of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals with characteristics to take advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and metabolic functions of these tissues. The recent introduction of new radiopharmaceutical and tracers has provided the consulting endocrinologist with imaging procedures that allow localization and functional characterization not available by other single, noninvasive diagnostic modalities. This review will serve as an update of the available techniques to image and quantitate the function of the endocrine glands using the nuclear medicine approach.

  18. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aspect of your health. What is the endocrine system? Your endocrine system includes glands and organs that make and release ... to feel well. How can TBI affect the endocrine system? Two important parts of the endocrine system—the ...

  20. Evasion and Immuno-Endocrine Regulation in Parasite Infection: Two Sides of the Same Coin in Chagas Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrot, Alexandre; Villar, Silvina R.; González, Florencia B.; Pérez, Ana R.

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a serious illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Nearly 30% of chronically infected people develop cardiac, digestive, or mixed alterations, suggesting a broad range of host-parasite interactions that finally impact upon chronic disease outcome. The ability of T. cruzi to persist and cause pathology seems to depend on diverse factors like T. cruzi strains, the infective load and the route of infection, presence of virulence factors, the parasite capacity to avoid protective immune response, the strength and type of host defense mechanisms and the genetic background of the host. The host-parasite interaction is subject to a constant neuro-endocrine regulation that is thought to influence the adaptive immune system, and as the infection proceeds it can lead to a broad range of outcomes, ranging from pathogen elimination to its continued persistence in the host. In this context, T. cruzi evasion strategies and host defense mechanisms can be envisioned as two sides of the same coin, influencing parasite persistence and different outcomes observed in Chagas disease. Understanding how T. cruzi evade host's innate and adaptive immune response will provide important clues to better dissect mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Chagas disease.

  1. Endocrine tumor of the digestive tract - clinical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Endocrine tumors of the digestive tract (ETDT) are neoplasms which stem from the APUD (amine precursors uptake and decarboxylation) cells. There are neuroendocrine pancreatic and gastroenteral carcinoid tumors which stand for 2% of digestive tract tumors, 0,5% of all human malignant neoplasms. All of them have secretion granulations in the cytoplasm. That is why a number of immune histochemic techniques is used in search for biogenic amines and hormones such as gastrin, CCK, GIP, VIP, motilin, glucagon, GRP, PP, GHRH and the others. In the majority of cases neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are described as dysfunctional, which means that specific clinical symptoms are not connected with their hormonal overproduction. Material and methods: We describe a case of fifty seven years old male patient admitted to the Department of General and Transplant Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of the rectal tumor. Per rectum examination revealed hard tumor. The pathologic examination of the biopsy taken from the lesion and CT scanning confirmed the presence of endocrine tumor of the digestive tract. Results: Anterior resection of the rectum was performed, the postoperative course was uneventful. At present patient is subjected to complementary treatment with the use of somatostatin analogue of the prolonged action. Conclusion: The endocrine tumors of the rectum are extremely rare, they occur in this localization in 0,26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. Diagnosis is usually made upon the microscopic examination and the immune histochemic reactions. (author)

  2. Endocrine dysfunction in sepsis: a beneficial or deleterious host response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiţă, Valeriu; Barbu, Alina Elena; Gheorghiu, Monica Livia; Căruntu, Florin Alexandru

    2015-03-01

    Sepsis is a systemic, deleterious inflammatory host response triggered by an infective agent leading to severe sepsis, septic shock and multi-organ failure. The host response to infection involves a complex, organized and coherent interaction between immune, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral systems. Recent data have confirmed that disturbances of the autonomic nervous and neuroendocrine systems could contribute to sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Through this review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the endocrine dysfunction as response to sepsis, specifically addressed to vasopressin, copeptin, cortisol, insulin and leptin. We searched the following readily accessible, clinically relevant databases: PubMed, UpToDate, BioMed Central. The immune system could be regarded as a "diffuse sensory organ" that signals the presence of pathogens to the brain through different pathways, such as the vagus nerve, endothelial activation/dysfunction, cytokines and neurotoxic mediators and the circumventricular organs, especially the neurohypophysis. The hormonal profile changes substantially as a consequence of inflammatory mediators and microorganism products leading to inappropriately low levels of vasopressin, sick euthyroid syndrome, reduced adrenal responsiveness to ACTH, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia as well as hyperleptinemia. In conclusion, clinical diagnosis of this "pan-endocrine illness" is frequently challenging due to the many limiting factors. The most important benefits of endocrine markers in the management of sepsis may be reflected by their potential to be used as biomarkers in different scoring systems to estimate the severity of the disease and the risk of death. PMID:25763364

  3. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzi Ettore

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions is recommended.

  4. Pancreatic tumours: molecular pathways implicated in ductal cancer are involved in ampullary but not in exocrine nonductal or endocrine tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, P S; Orlandini, S.; Zamboni, G; Capelli, P.; Rigaud, G; Falconi, M; Bassi, C.; Lemoine, N. R.; Scarpa, A.

    2001-01-01

    Alterations of K-ras, p53, p16 and DPC4/Smad4 characterize pancreatic ductal cancer (PDC). Reports of inactivation of these latter two genes in pancreatic endocrine tumours (PET) suggest that common molecular pathways are involved in the tumorigenesis of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine epithelia. We characterized 112 primary pancreatic tumours for alterations in p16 and DPC4 and immunohistochemical expression of DPC4. The cases included 34 PDC, 10 intraductal papillary-mucinous tumours (IPM...

  5. Endocrine Disorders in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis is frequently complicated by endocrine disorders. Diabetes can be expected to affect most with CF and pancreatic insufficiency and varies widely in age of onset, but early identification and treatment improve morbidity and mortality. Short stature can be exacerbated by relative delay of puberty and by use of inhaled corticosteroids. Bone disease in CF causes fragility fractures and should be assessed by monitoring bone mineral density and optimizing vitamin D status. Detecting and managing endocrine complications in CF can reduce morbidity and mortality in CF. These complications can be expected to become more common as the CF population ages. PMID:27469183

  6. Transplantation of wild-type white adipose tissue normalizes metabolic, immune and inflammatory alterations in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sennello, Joseph A.; Fayad, Raja; Pini, Maria; Gove, Melissa E.; Fantuzzi, Giamila

    2006-01-01

    Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit several metabolic and immune abnormalities, including thymus atrophy and markedly reduced inflammatory responses. We evaluated whether transplantation of wild type (WT) white adipose tissue (WAT) into ob/ob mice could mimic the effect of recombinant leptin administration in normalizing metabolic, immune and inflammatory abnormalities. Female ob/ob mice received a subcutaneous transplantation of WAT obtained from WT littermates. A separate group of ob/ob mic...

  7. Experimental infection with Sarcocystis neurona alters the immune response: the effect on CD4+, CD8+, B-cell, monocyte and granulocyte populations in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Stephanie Rochelle

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences in CD4+, CD8+ and B-cell populations between EPM affected and normal horses. The overall goal of our project was to further define the immune deficiencies associated with S. neurona infection. We hypothesized that PMA/I stimulated suppression in EPM horses is due to decreased proliferation of monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Our objectives were 1) to determine whether S. neurona infection causes an increase in apoptosis of a particular immune subs...

  8. Endocrine disorders in mitochondrial disease ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Andrew M; Walker, Mark; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Taylor, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine dysfunction in mitochondrial disease is commonplace, but predominantly restricted to disease of the endocrine pancreas resulting in diabetes mellitus. Other endocrine manifestations occur, but are relatively rare by comparison. In mitochondrial disease, neuromuscular symptoms often dominate the clinical phenotype, but it is of paramount importance to appreciate the multi-system nature of the disease, of which endocrine dysfunction may be a part. The numerous phenotypes attributable ...

  9. The disturbance of thymus function and endocrinous control as one of the causes of late postradiation immunodeficiency (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review is devoted to the analysis of 155 reference published mainly in the recent years, which deal with the radiation effects on immune, nervous and endocrinous system. The role of thymus in the late manifestations of postradiation immunodeficiency is discussed. The published data on immune system in the persons who suffered from the Chernobyl accident are considered. 155 refs

  10. Brain death in ICU patients: Clinical significance of endocrine changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have been carried out among patients admitted in intensive care unit (ICU having primary endocrine pathology, endocrine manifestations of systemic diseases or post-endocrine tissue surgery. However, minimal literary evidence is available highlighting the endocrine changes occurring during brain death in critically ill patients. A precise and timely diagnosis of brain death is required to convey the relatives about the prognosis and also to possibly plan for organ retrieval for transplantation purposes. The diagnosis of this condition as of today remains largely a clinical one. Brain death is associated with a multitude of endocrinological alterations which are yet to be completely unraveled and understood. Evaluating these endocrinological modifications lends us an added vista to add to the existing clinical parameters which might help us to confirm the diagnosis of brain death with a higher degree of precision. Moreover, since the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy to benefit in organ retrieval remains yet unproven, newer diagnostic modalities and research studies are definitely called for to strategize the optimal dosage and duration of such therapies.

  11. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  12. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  13. PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Uterine infection: linking infection and innate immunity with infertility in the high-producing dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, J J; Santos, J E P; Block, J; Williams, R S; Sheldon, I M

    2015-05-01

    Uterine contamination with bacteria is ubiquitous in the postpartum dairy cow. Nearly one-half of all postpartum dairy cows develop clinical disease resulting in metritis and endometritis, which cause depressed milk production and infertility. The causative links between uterine infection and infertility include a hostile uterine environment, disrupted endocrine signaling, and perturbations in ovarian function and oocyte development. In this review we consider the various mechanisms linking uterine infection with infertility in the dairy cow, specifically 1) innate immune signaling in the endometrium, 2) alteration in endocrine signaling in response to infectious agents, and 3) impacts of infection on ovarian function, oocyte development, and follicular development. Normal ovarian follicular and oocyte development requires a series of temporally and spatially orchestrated events; however, several of the cellular pathways required for ovarian function are also used during the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. We propose that activation of cellular pathways during this immune response has a negative impact on ovarian physiology, which is manifest as infertility detected after the clearance of the bacteria. This review highlights how new insights into infection and immunity in cattle are linked to infertility. PMID:26020298

  14. Endocrine Regulation of T-cell Development and Peripheral T-cell Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Weerd, Kim

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ During the last century a large number of studies have demonstrated that complex interplay exists between the immune and the neuro-endocrine systems. This interplay, via shared cytokines, hormones and their respective receptors and nervous innervations, results in a highly organized integrated surveillance system capable of preserving homeostasis of the body to a large numbers of disturbances. Within this surveillance system the immune system recognizes external (...

  15. An approach to the identification and regulation of endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewence, Annette; Brescia, Susy; Johnson, Ian; Rumsby, Paul C

    2015-04-01

    Recent decades have seen an increasing interest in chemicals that interact with the endocrine system and have the potential to alter the normal function of this system in humans and wildlife. Chemicals that produce adverse effects caused by interaction with endocrine systems are termed Endocrine Disrupters (EDs). This interest has led regulatory authorities around the world (including the European Union) to consider whether potential endocrine disrupters should be identified and assessed for effects on human health and wildlife and what harmonised criteria could be used for such an assessment. This paper reviews the results of a study whereby toxicity data relating to human health effects of 98 pesticides were assessed for endocrine disruption potential using a number of criteria including the Specific Target Organ Toxicity for repeat exposure (STOT-RE) guidance values used in the European Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation. Of the pesticides assessed, 27% required further information in order to make a more definitive assessment, 14% were considered to be endocrine disrupters, more or less likely to pose a risk, and 59% were considered not to be endocrine disrupters. PMID:25666658

  16. Thymus endocrine function in acute radiation sickness resulted from Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented on the role of inhibition of endocrine function of the thymus in the pathogenesis of acute radiation sickness resulted from the direct and indirect (via the increased glucocorticoid production) effects of ionizing radiation. The complex treatment, including nonspecific active immunotherapy, permitted to normalize the thymic hormone level and certain parameters of the immune system

  17. Alteration in frequency and function of CD4⁺CD25⁺FOXP3⁺ regulatory T cells in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Arandi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP is an autoimmune bleeding disorder characterized by production of auto-antibodies against platelet antigens. It is obvious that regulatory T cells (Tregs have a major role in controlling immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmunity.To investigate the frequency and functions of Tregs, twenty ITP patients and twenty age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and the proportion of Tregs was defined by flow cytometry method. The expression of immune-regulatory markers, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and glucocorticoid induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR were also assessed by quantitative Real-time PCR TaqMan method. For evaluation of Treg function, Tregs were enriched and their ability to inhibit proliferation of T cells was measured and levels of immune-regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β were also measured.Results showed that the frequency of Tregs and the mean fluorescence intensity of FOXP3 protein significantly decreased in ITP patients compared to those in healthy controls. In addition, there was a significant reduction in relative expression of both CTLA-4 and GITR mRNA in ITP patients (P=0.02 and P=0.006, respectively. The suppressive function of Tregs also diminished in ITP patients compared to that in controls. Both IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines were produced in lower amounts in ITP patients than controls.It could be concluded that alteration in Treg frequency and functional characteristics might be responsible for loss of self-tolerance and subsequently destructive immune responses observed in ITP patients.

  18. Altered Immune Response of the Rice Frog Fejervarya limnocharis Living in Agricultural Area with Intensive Herbicide Utilization at Nan Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattapan Jantawongsri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate and paraquat have been intensively used in Nan Province for a long time. Prior observations indicated that herbicide contamination and adverse health effects were found on the rice frog Fejervarya limnocharis living in paddy fields at Nan Province. Contamination of herbicides may influence disease emergence by acting directly or indirectly upon the immune system of amphibian or by causing disruptions in homeostasis, it is thus interesting to investigate potential effects of herbicide contamination in Nan Province on immune responses of the rice frog living in agricultural areas. Frogs were caught from a paddy field with no history of herbicide utilization (reference site and a paddy field with intensive herbicide utilization (contaminated site during 2010-2011. After dissection, frog livers were fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin, processed by paraffin method and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Number of melanomacrophage and melanomacrophage center (MMC were counted under a light microscope and used as markers of non-specific immune response. It was found that there was no significant sex-related difference in these numbers. However, there were significant seasonal differences in these numbers in both reference and contaminated site frogs, suggesting that seasonal difference in herbicide usage tend to affect frog's immune system in agricultural areas. Furthermore, numbers of melanomacrophage and MMC in early wet, late wet and early dry periods were markedly higher in the contaminated site frogs compared to those of the reference site frogs. The observation on amphibian's immune response to environmental contaminants could indicate the impacts of herbicide utilization on other vertebrates, as well as its role in amphibian declines.

  19. Endocrine Regulation of Compensatory Growth in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene T. Won

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is a period of accelerated growth that occurs following the alleviation of growth-stunting conditions during which an organism can make up for lost growth opportunity and potentially catch-up in size with non-stunted cohorts. Fish show a particularly robust capacity for the response and have been the focus of numerous studies that demonstrate their ability to compensate for periods of fasting once food is made available again. Compensatory growth is characterized by an elevated growth rate resulting from enhanced feed intake, mitogen production and feed conversion efficiency. Because little is known about the underlying mechanisms that drive the response, this review describes the sequential endocrine adaptations that lead to CG; namely during the precedent catabolic phase (fasting that taps endogenous energy reserves, and the following hyperanabolic phase (refeeding when accelerated growth occurs. In order to elicit a CG response, endogenous energy reserves must first be moderately depleted, which alters endocrine profiles that enhance appetite and growth potential. During this catabolic phase, elevated ghrelin and growth hormone (GH production increase appetite and protein-sparing lipolysis, while insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are suppressed, primarily due to hepatic GH resistance. During refeeding, temporal hyperphagia provides an influx of energy and metabolic substrates that are then allocated to somatic growth by resumed IGF signaling. Under the right conditions, refeeding results in hyperanabolism and a steepened growth trajectory relative to constantly fed controls. The response wanes as energy reserves are re-accumulated and homeostasis is restored. We ascribe possible roles for select appetite and growth-regulatory hormones in the context of these catabolic and hyperanabolic phases of the CG response in teleosts, with emphasis on GH, IGFs, cortisol, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin and leptin.

  20. Endocrine and metabolic changes in payload specialist (L-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Nobuo

    1993-01-01

    The endocrine system plays an important role in the adaptation to unusual environments by secreting hormones to control metabolism. Since human beings have long evolved on the surface of the Earth under a gravity environment, the weightless environment must be quite unusual for them. The purpose of this experiment is to study the mechanisms of human adaptation to a weightless environment from endocrine and metabolic changes. Our study plan is focused on four major physiological changes which were reported during past space flights or which may be expected to occur under that condition: (1) hormone and metabolic changes associated with fluid shift; (2) bone demineralization and muscle atrophy; (3) altered circadian rhythm; and (4) stress reaction during space flight.

  1. Sympathetic and Catecholaminergic Alterations in Sleep Apnea with Particular Emphasis on Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahed eHakim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is involved in the regulation of major organ functions in the human body, and disruption of sleep potentially can elicit organ dysfunction. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is the most prevalent sleep disorder of breathing in adults and children, and its manifestations reflect the interactions between intermittent hypoxia (IH, intermittent hypercapnia, increased intra-thoracic pressure swings, and sleep fragmentation, as elicited by the episodic changes in upper airway resistance during sleep. The sympathetic nervous system is an important modulator of the cardiovascular, immune, endocrine and metabolic systems, and alterations in autonomic activity may lead to metabolic imbalance and organ dysfunction. Here we review how OSA and its constitutive components can lead to perturbation of the autonomic nervous system in general, and to altered regulation of catecholamines, both of which then playing an important role in some of the mechanisms underlying OSA-induced morbidities.

  2. Radiological imaging of endocrine diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneton, J.N. [ed.] [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France)

    1999-03-01

    Imaging studies are playing an increasingly role in the evaluation of endocrine diseases; accordingly, familiarity with the specific indications for the various modalities, and with the characteristic findings, is essential. This multi-author work, which is intended for both radiologists and endocrinologists, considers the role of all the recent imaging techniques, including ultrasound (particular color Doppler), computed tomography, MRI, and scintigraphy. Following an extensive introduction on the pituitary, subsequent chapters discuss in detail the normal anatomy and pathology of the female and male reproductive systems. Remaining chapters provide state-of-the-art data on the thyroid, parathyroids, pancreatic endocrine tumors, adrenal glands, hormonal tumors (carcinoids and MEN), and imaging of the complications of hormone therapy. (orig.)

  3. Radiological imaging of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging studies are playing an increasingly role in the evaluation of endocrine diseases; accordingly, familiarity with the specific indications for the various modalities, and with the characteristic findings, is essential. This multi-author work, which is intended for both radiologists and endocrinologists, considers the role of all the recent imaging techniques, including ultrasound (particular color Doppler), computed tomography, MRI, and scintigraphy. Following an extensive introduction on the pituitary, subsequent chapters discuss in detail the normal anatomy and pathology of the female and male reproductive systems. Remaining chapters provide state-of-the-art data on the thyroid, parathyroids, pancreatic endocrine tumors, adrenal glands, hormonal tumors (carcinoids and MEN), and imaging of the complications of hormone therapy. (orig.)

  4. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book results from a meeting of the ESO (European School of Oncology) Task Force on endocrine aspects of breast cancer. The contributions stem from some of the most outstanding researchers in Europe and highlight mainly methodological issues and new avenues for future research. The chapters on basic research deal primarily with experimental strategies for studying the relationship between steroid hormones, growth factors, and oncongenes. The clinically oriented chapters treat the methodology of clinical trials. Provocative questions are raised, such as: What are the pitfalls in endocrine trials? What does statistical proof mean? How can we consider a quality of life endpoint in the adjuvant setting? Two special reports deal with the controversial issues of chemoprevention in high-risk normal women and the optimization of the hormonal contribution to the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Topics considered included oncogenic transformations, radiotherapy, steroid hormones, cell proliferation, tamoxifen, and preventive medicine

  5. Endocrine Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low b...

  6. Behcet's Disease and Endocrine System

    OpenAIRE

    Kerem Sezer; Onur Ozhan

    2012-01-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic disease which is characterized by recurrent oral apthous ulcerations, recurrent genital ulcerations, skin eruptions, ocular involvements and other various systemic manifestations as well as systemic vasculitis. Endocrine involvement in BD regarding various systems can be seen. Hypophysis is one of the best and dense vascularized organs of the body, thus it is likely that it can be affected by BD. Not only anterior hypophysis functions, but posterior hypophys...

  7. Neuroimmune endocrine effects of antidepressants

    OpenAIRE

    Antonioli M; Rybka J; Carvalho LA

    2012-01-01

    Marco Antonioli, Joanna Rybka, LA CarvalhoPsychoimmunology Translational Laboratory, Health Science Research Centre, Roehampton University, London, UKAbstract: Antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date the most often used treatment for depression, but the exact mechanism of action underlying its therapeutic effect is still unclear. Many theories have been put forward to account for depression, as well as antidepressant activity, but none of them is exhaustive. Neuroimmune endocrine impairment...

  8. Endocrine manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Philip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease can have extra gastrointestinal tract (GIT presentations, most of which are endocrine. The aim of this study was to present patients diagnosed to have celiac disease from an endocrine department and to study the prevalence of endocrinopathies in celiac disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients from the endocrinology department (LLRM Medical College, Meerut between January 2011 and July 2012 and who were diagnosed to have celiac disease were included in the study. Results: Short stature was the commonest presentation (25%, other presentations included short stature and delayed puberty (20%, delayed puberty (11%, screening for celiac disease in type-1 DM patients (17%, rickets (6%, anemia not responding to oral therapy (6%, type-1 DM with recurrent hypoglycaemia (6%, and osteomalacia (3%. The endocrine manifestations include (after complete evaluation short stature (58%, delayed puberty (31%, elevated alkaline phospahatase (67%, low calcium (22%, X-rays suggestive of osteomalacia or rickets (8%, capopedal spasm (6%, and night blindness (6%. Anti-TPO antibody positivity was found in 53%, hypothyroidism in 28%, subclinical hypothyroidism in 17%, and type-1 DM in 25% of the patients. A total of 14% patients had no GI symptoms. Conclusion: Celiac disease is an endocrine disrupter as well as the great masquerader having varied presentations including short stature, delayed puberty, and rickets. Some patients who have celiac disease may not have any GI symptoms, making the diagnosis all the more difficult. Also, there is significant incidence of celiac disease with hypothyroidism and type-1 DM, making screening for it important in these diseases.

  9. EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T

    2015-12-01

    The Endocrine Society's first Scientific Statement in 2009 provided a wake-up call to the scientific community about how environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect health and disease. Five years later, a substantially larger body of literature has solidified our understanding of plausible mechanisms underlying EDC actions and how exposures in animals and humans-especially during development-may lay the foundations for disease later in life. At this point in history, we have much stronger knowledge about how EDCs alter gene-environment interactions via physiological, cellular, molecular, and epigenetic changes, thereby producing effects in exposed individuals as well as their descendants. Causal links between exposure and manifestation of disease are substantiated by experimental animal models and are consistent with correlative epidemiological data in humans. There are several caveats because differences in how experimental animal work is conducted can lead to difficulties in drawing broad conclusions, and we must continue to be cautious about inferring causality in humans. In this second Scientific Statement, we reviewed the literature on a subset of topics for which the translational evidence is strongest: 1) obesity and diabetes; 2) female reproduction; 3) male reproduction; 4) hormone-sensitive cancers in females; 5) prostate; 6) thyroid; and 7) neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. Our inclusion criteria for studies were those conducted predominantly in the past 5 years deemed to be of high quality based on appropriate negative and positive control groups or populations, adequate sample size and experimental design, and mammalian animal studies with exposure levels in a range that was relevant to humans. We also focused on studies using the developmental origins of health and disease model. No report was excluded based on a positive or negative effect of the EDC exposure. The bulk of the results across the board strengthen the evidence

  10. Myeloid cell sirtuin-1 expression does not alter host immune responses to Gram-negative endotoxemia or Gram-positive bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Crotty Alexander

    Full Text Available The role of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1 in innate immunity, and in particular the influence of SIRT1 on antimicrobial defense against infection, has yet to be reported but is important to define since SIRT1 inhibitors are being investigated as therapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer, Huntington's disease, and autoimmune diseases. Given the therapeutic potential of SIRT1 suppression, we sought to characterize the role of SIRT1 in host defense. Utilizing both pharmacologic methods and a genetic knockout, we demonstrate that SIRT1 expression has little influence on macrophage and neutrophil antimicrobial functions. Myeloid SIRT1 expression does not change mortality in gram-negative toxin-induced shock or gram-positive bacteremia, suggesting that therapeutic suppression of SIRT1 may be done safely without suppression of myeloid cell-specific immune responses to severe bacterial infections.

  11. Alteration of imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 miRNA cluster expression in the entorhinal cortex induced by maternal immune activation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hollins, S L; Zavitsanou, K; Walker, F R; Cairns, M J

    2014-01-01

    A significant feature of the cortical neuropathology of schizophrenia is a disturbance in the biogenesis of short non-coding microRNA (miRNA) that regulate translation and stability of mRNA. While the biological origin of this phenomenon has not been defined, it is plausible that it relates to major environmental risk factors associated with the disorder such as exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabis use. To explore this hypothesis, we administered the viral mimi...

  12. Role of SST, CORT and Ghrelin and its receptors at the endocrine pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen eChanclón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Somatostatin (SST, cortistatin (CORT, and its receptors (sst1-5, and ghrelin and its receptors (GHS-R are two highly interrelated neuropeptide systems with a broad range of overlapping biological actions at central, cardiovascular and immune levels among others. Besides their potent regulatory role on GH release, its endocrine actions are highlighted by SST/CORT and ghrelin influence on insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance. Interestingly, most components of these systems are expressed at the endocrine pancreas and are actively involved in the modulation of pancreatic islet function and, consequently influence glucose homeostasis. In addition, some of them also participate in islet survival and regeneration. Furthermore, under severe metabolic condition as well as in endocrine pathologies, their expression profile is severely deregulated. These finding suggest that SST/CORT and ghrelin systems could play a relevant role in pancreatic function under metabolic and endocrine pathologies. Accordingly, these systems have been therapeutically targeted for the prevention or amelioration of certain metabolic conditions (obesity as well as for tumor growth inhibition and/or hormonal regulation in endocrine pathologies (neuroendocrine tumors. This review focuses on the interrelationship between SST/CORT and ghrelin systems and their role in severe metabolic conditions and some endocrine disorders.

  13. Altered HLA Class I Profile Associated with Type A/D Nucleophosmin Mutation Points to Possible Anti-Nucleophosmin Immune Response in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

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    Kateřina Kuželová

    Full Text Available Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1 mutations are frequently found in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML and the newly generated sequences were suggested to induce immune response contributing to the relatively favorable outcome of patients in this AML subset. We hypothesized that if an efficient immune response against mutated nucleophosmin can be induced in vivo, the individuals expressing HLA alleles suitable for presenting NPM-derived peptides should be less prone to developing AML associated with NPM1 mutation. We thus compared HLA class I frequencies in a cohort of patients with mutated NPM1 (63 patients, NPMc+, a cohort of patients with wild-type NPM1 (94 patients, NPMwt and in normal individuals (large datasets available from Allele Frequency Net Database. Several HLA allelic groups were found to be depleted in NPMc+ patients, but not in NPMwt compared to the normal distribution. The decrease was statistically significant for HLA B(*07, B(*18, and B(*40. Furthermore, statistically significant advantage in the overall survival was found for patients with mutated NPM1 expressing at least one of the depleted allelic groups. The majority of the depleted alleles were predicted to bind potent NPM-derived immunopeptides and, importantly, these peptides were often located in the unmutated part of the protein. Our analysis suggests that individuals expressing specific HLA allelic groups are disposed to develop an efficient anti-AML immune response thanks to aberrant cytoplasmic localization of the mutated NPM protein.

  14. Altered ratio of IFN-γ/IL-10 in patients with drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV- Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome.

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    Keira H Skolimowska

    Full Text Available We have described a clinical relationship between HIV-Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS and anti-tubercular drug resistance. Here we studied the immune response of TB-IRIS patients from whom a drug-resistant (n = 11 or drug-susceptible (n = 25 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain was isolated after presenting with TB-IRIS. ELISpot analysis and multiplex cytokine analysis of the supernatant collected from peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated overnight with the heat-killed H37Rv MTB laboratory strain was used. Although there was no statistical difference in IFN-gamma ELISpot responses between the two groups, the results point towards higher bacterial load in the drug-resistant patients, possibly due to failed therapy. The ratio between secreted IFN-gamma/IL-10 and IL-2/IL-10 was significantly lower in TB-IRIS patients in whom the cause of TB was a drug-resistant strain compared to those with a fully sensitive strain (p = 0.02. Since host immune responses are dependent on the bacterial load, we hypothesise that the impaired cytokine balance is likely to be caused by the poorly controlled bacterial growth in these patients.

  15. Introduction of environmental endocrine disrupters; Kankyo horumon ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, S. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Hosomi, M. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1998-11-05

    This paper describes environmental hormones. Hormones are directly secreted from endocrine gland into blood flow, and play an important role of the differentiation of textures of organisms, reproductive function, metabolism, and adjustment of nervous/immunity system. There are some substances with hormone and anti-hormone reactions within the body of organisms, which are discharged as chemical substances in the natural environment by the artificial production activities. These are extrinsic endocrine disrupters, i.e., environmental hormones. There are 67 kinds of doubtful substances. When the environmental hormones work on the certain reaction stage of hormones, the normal action of hormones is disturbed. Various anomalies of wild animals have been reported in the world, which are suggested to be caused by the environmental hormones. Effects are known on the health of Homo sapiens, such as malignant tumor. In the current stage, test methods are under development, by which the presence of endocrine disruption can be screened. The effects depend on the growing stages of organisms, and it is necessary to consider the effects on various generations. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Alterations in polyadenylation and its implications for endocrine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Anders Aagaard; Plass, Mireya; Krogh, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Polyadenylation is the process in which the pre-mRNA is cleaved at the poly(A) site and a poly(A) tail is added - a process necessary for normal mRNA formation. Genes with multiple poly(A) sites can undergo alternative polyadenylation (APA), producing distinct mRNA isoforms with...... different 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) and in some cases different coding regions. Two thirds of all human genes undergo APA. The efficiency of the polyadenylation process regulates gene expression and APA plays an important part in post-transcriptional regulation, as the 3' UTR contains various cis...

  17. Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C

    2001-01-01

    The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....

  18. Endocrine disruptors and their effects on puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Semra Çetinkaya

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors and their possible impact on human health have become a topic of discussion. Endocrine disrupting chemicals are found in plastics, detergents, pesticides and industrial chemicals. Some of these persist in the environment and others do not. Some are lipophilic, sequestered in adipose tissue and secreted in milk, and others may only be present for short periods of time but at critical periods of development. Endocrine disruptors are defined as an extrogenous substance or mi...

  19. Endocrine FGFs: Evolution, Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pharmacotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hiroya; Konishi, Morichika

    2015-01-01

    The human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family comprises 22 structurally related polypeptides that play crucial roles in neuronal functions, development, and metabolism. FGFs are classified as intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine FGFs based on their action mechanisms. Paracrine and endocrine FGFs are secreted signaling molecules by acting via cell-surface FGF receptors (FGFRs). Paracrine FGFs require heparan sulfate as a cofactor for FGFRs. In contrast, endocrine FGFs, comprising FGF19, FGF2...

  20. Polyethylene Terephthalate May Yield Endocrine Disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Sax, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent reports suggest that endocrine disruptors may leach into the contents of bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET is the main ingredient in most clear plastic containers used for beverages and condiments worldwide and has previously been generally assumed not to be a source of endocrine disruptors. Objective I begin by considering evidence that bottles made from PET may leach various phthalates that have been putatively identified as endocrine disruptors. I al...

  1. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-01

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  2. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.;

    2008-01-01

    . Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated with a greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment...... for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty......-related assessments and to the validation of pubertal male and female rat assays for endocrine screening Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  3. The Viability of Dietary Probiotics (Bactosac® Influencing Growth Parameters, Cellular Alteration in Intestinal Wall and Immune Response of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aminul Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to find out the efficacy of a commercial probiotics supplementation to the diet on the growth performance, histological changes of the jejunal tissue and humoral immune response of broiler chickens. One hundred day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups as group A (Vaccinated probiotics fed group, B (Non-vaccinated probiotics fed group, C (Vaccinated conventional fed group and D (Non-vaccinated conventional fed group. Groups A and B were taken as experimental birds fed with commercially available feed with the addition of probiotics as per schedule whereas groups C and D were taken as control birds fed with commercial ration. At 30 days of age the birds were immunized with 0.5% of sheep RBC to determine the level of antibody production. The result revealed that the live weight gains obtained were significantly (p<0.01 increased more in experimental birds during the periods of 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5 th and 6th week of age compare to control ones at all levels in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated birds. The broiler fed with probiotics gave a strong evidence of increasing the length of jejunal villi compared to conventional fed broiler observed. The antibody production was found significantly (p<0.01 higher in probiotics fed broiler than the control ones. Significant variations were observed in the weight of bursa and spleen due to probiotics supplementation. It was concluded that probiotics supplementation have a significant influence on growth performance, meat yield, morphological changes of intestinal wall and immune response of broiler chickens.

  4. Altered IFN-γ-mediated immunity and transcriptional expression patterns in N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced STAT4 mutants confer susceptibility to acute typhoid-like disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Megan M; Yuki, Kyoko E; Dauphinee, Shauna M; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A; Pyzik, Michal; Paquet, Marilène; Lathrop, Mark; Majewski, Jacek; Vidal, Silvia M; Malo, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a ubiquitous Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that continues to pose a global challenge to human health. The etiology of Salmonella pathogenesis is complex and controlled by pathogen, environmental, and host genetic factors. In fact, patients immunodeficient in genes in the IL-12, IL-23/IFN-γ pathway are predisposed to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella infection. Using a forward genomics approach by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) germline mutagenesis in mice, we identified the Ity14 (Immunity to Typhimurium locus 14) pedigree exhibiting increased susceptibility following in vivo Salmonella challenge. A DNA-binding domain mutation (p.G418_E445) in Stat4 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription Factor 4) was the causative mutation. STAT4 signals downstream of IL-12 to mediate transcriptional regulation of inflammatory immune responses. In mutant Ity14 mice, the increased splenic and hepatic bacterial load resulted from an intrinsic defect in innate cell function, IFN-γ-mediated immunity, and disorganized granuloma formation. We further show that NK and NKT cells play an important role in mediating control of Salmonella in Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) mice. Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) mice had increased expression of genes involved in cell-cell interactions and communication, as well as increased CD11b expression on a subset of splenic myeloid dendritic cells, resulting in compromised recruitment of inflammatory cells to the spleen during Salmonella infection. Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) presented upregulated compensatory mechanisms, although inefficient and ultimately Stat4(Ity14/Ity14) mice develop fatal bacteremia. The following study further elucidates the pathophysiological impact of STAT4 during Salmonella infection. PMID:24285835

  5. Genetics Home Reference: multiple endocrine neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor Encyclopedia: Pheochromocytoma Encyclopedia: Pituitary Tumor Health Topic: Endocrine Diseases Health Topic: Parathyroid Disorders Health Topic: Pheochromocytoma Health Topic: Thyroid Cancer Genetic ...

  6. Multiple sclerosis and fatigue: A review on the contribution of inflammation and immune-mediated neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patejdl, Robert; Penner, Iris K; Noack, Thomas K; Zettl, Uwe K

    2016-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of non-traumatic disability among young and middle-aged adults in the western world. One of its most prevalent and debilitating symptoms is fatigue. Despite the general acceptance of the idea of an immune pathogenesis of MS itself, the role of autoimmunity in the course of MS-fatigue is a matter of debate. Both immune-related processes (acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, immune-mediated neurodegeneration, immune-mediated alterations of endocrine functions related to fatigue) and presumably non-immune-mediated disturbances and factors (sleep disturbances, depression, cognitive alterations, chronic infections, adverse effects of medications) contribute to the clinical picture. Data from in vitro and animal experiments has provided evidence for a role of cytokines as IL-1 and TNF-alpha. This association could not be verified directly in blood samples from humans whereas whole blood stimulation protocols gave some indirect evidence for a role of cytokines in MS-fatigue. MRI being able to detect acute and chronic immune mediated damage to the CNS could depict that global atrophy of gray or white matter does not correlate with fatigue. Rather, distinctive clusters of lesions and atrophy at different locations, mostly bifrontal or in subcortical structures, correlate specifically with fatigue. Regardless of the difficulties in pinpointing the immunogenesis of MS-fatigue, an important role of autoimmunity is strongly supported by an indirect route: A growing amount of data shows that the highly effective immunotherapeutics which have been introduced to MS-treatment over the last years effectively and sustainably stabilize and ameliorate fatigue in parallel to their dampening effects on the neuroinflammatory process. This review summarizes the existing data on the relation between inflammation, patterns of CNS-lesions and the effects of immunotherapeutics

  7. Interactions between the endocrine and immune systems in locusts

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsworthy, Graham J.; Mullen, Lisa M; Opoku-Ware, K.; Chandrakant, S.

    2003-01-01

    The prophenoloxidase cascade in the haemolymph of mature adult Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R & F) is activated in response to injection of laminarin, a -1,3 glucan. Co-injection of adipokinetic hormone-I (Lom-AKH-I) and laminarin prolongs the activation of the enzyme in a dose-dependent manner. However, injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) do not activate prophenoloxidase unless AKH is co-injected, when there is a dose-dependent increase in the level of phenoloxidase that p...

  8. Metabolic, Endocrine, and Immune Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    AlDabal, Laila; BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last three to four decades, it has been observed that the average total hours of sleep have decreased to less than seven hours per person per night. Concomitantly, global figures relating to obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased in an alarming fashion in adults and children, and it has been hypothesized that neuro-hormonal changes accompanying this behavioral sleep deprivation may lead to insulin resistance and, subsequently, to diabetes mellitus. Sleep deprivation has been as...

  9. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  10. Alterations in early cytokine-mediated immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Tanzanian children with mineral element deficiencies: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeurink Prescilla V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiencies in vitamins and mineral elements are important causes of morbidity in developing countries, possibly because they lead to defective immune responses to infection. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of mineral element deficiencies on early innate cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 304 Tanzanian children aged 6-72 months were stimulated with P. falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes obtained from in vitro cultures. Results The results showed a significant increase by 74% in geometric mean of TNF production in malaria-infected individuals with zinc deficiency (11% to 240%; 95% CI. Iron deficiency anaemia was associated with increased TNF production in infected individuals and overall with increased IL-10 production, while magnesium deficiency induced increased production of IL-10 by 46% (13% to 144% in uninfected donors. All donors showed a response towards IL-1β production, drawing special attention for its possible protective role in early innate immune responses to malaria. Conclusions In view of these results, the findings show plasticity in cytokine profiles of mononuclear cells reacting to malaria infection under conditions of different micronutrient deficiencies. These findings lay the foundations for future inclusion of a combination of precisely selected set of micronutrients rather than single nutrients as part of malaria vaccine intervention programmes in endemic countries.

  11. Neural circuitry and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A; Tracey, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuro-immune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex, are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases define the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  12. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine changes in celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Although there is a great deal of information on celiac disease and associated involvement of other nonintestinal sites, data on concomitant changes in the structure and function of the pancreas is limited. The present review critically examines pancreatic endocrine changes that have been well documented in the literature, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic exocrine alterations may also occur, and if severe, marked malnutrition with pancreatic failure and ductal calcification have been observed. Finally, other pancreatic disorders have been recorded with celiac disease.

  13. Metabolic Effects of Obesity and Its Interaction with Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Hoenig, Margarethe

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pet dogs and cats is a significant problem in developed countries, and seems to be increasing in prevalence. Excess body fat has adverse metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, altered adipokine secretion, changes in metabolic rate, abnormal lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation in visceral organs. Obese cats are predisposed to endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hepatic lipidosis. A connection likely also exists between obesity and diabetes mellitus in dogs. No system has been developed to identify obese pets at greatest risk for development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases, and further study in this area is needed. PMID:27297495

  14. Respiratory syncytial virus infection is associated with an altered innate immunity and a heightened pro-inflammatory response in the lungs of preterm lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzich JoAnn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Factors explaining the greater susceptibility of preterm infants to severe lower respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV remain poorly understood. Fetal/newborn lambs are increasingly appreciated as a model to study key elements of RSV infection in newborn infants due to similarities in lung alveolar development, immune response, and susceptibility to RSV. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that preterm lambs had elevated viral antigen and developed more severe lesions compared to full-term lambs at seven days post-infection. Here, we compared the pathogenesis and immunological response to RSV infection in lungs of preterm and full-term lambs. Methods Lambs were delivered preterm by Caesarian section or full-term by natural birth, then inoculated with bovine RSV (bRSV via the intratracheal route. Seven days post-infection, lungs were collected for evaluation of cytokine production, histopathology and cellular infiltration. Results Compared to full-term lambs, lungs of preterm lambs had a heightened pro-inflammatory response after infection, with significantly increased MCP-1, MIP-1α, IFN-γ, TNF-α and PD-L1 mRNA. RSV infection in the preterm lung was characterized by increased epithelial thickening and periodic acid-Schiff staining, indicative of glycogen retention. Nitric oxide levels were decreased in lungs of infected preterm lambs compared to full-term lambs, indicating alternative macrophage activation. Although infection induced significant neutrophil recruitment into the lungs of preterm lambs, neutrophils produced less myeloperoxidase than those of full-term lambs, suggesting decreased functional activation. Conclusions Taken together, our data suggest that increased RSV load and inadequate immune response may contribute to the enhanced disease severity observed in the lungs of preterm lambs.

  15. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal Vyas

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas, the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB. The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt, classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/. Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas

  16. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Meenal; Fisher, Tonja W; He, Ruifeng; Nelson, William; Yin, Guohua; Cicero, Joseph M; Willer, Mark; Kim, Ryan; Kramer, Robin; May, Greg A; Crow, John A; Soderlund, Carol A; Gang, David R; Brown, Judith K

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB). The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt), classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW) (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/). Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas transmission. PMID

  17. Effects of persistent organic pollutants on the thyroid function of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Aegean Sea, is it an endocrine disruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitzler, Joseph; Koutrarkis, Emmanuil; Siebert, Ursula; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Das, Krishna

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the alterations of organochlorinated compounds such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) on the thyroid in wild and cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) at environmental concentrations. These compounds influence the endocrine system of many fish species and are qualified as endocrine disruptors. The thyroid seems to be a target organ. Two alteration endpoints: the thyroid histology and the muscular ...

  18. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Thakker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet and anterior pituitary tumors. Some patients may also develop carcinoid tumors, adrenocortical tumors, facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, and lipomas. MEN1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder, due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, which encodes a 610 amino acid protein, menin. Thus, the finding of MEN1 in a patient has important implications for family members because first-degree relatives have a 50% risk of developing the disease and can often be identified by MEN1 mutational analysis. Patients with MEN1 have a decreased life-expectancy and the outcomes of current treatments, which are generally similar to that for the respective tumors occurring in non-MEN1 patients, are not as successful because of multiple tumors, which may be larger, more aggressive, and resistant to treatment, and the concurrence of metastases. The prognosis for MEN1 patients might be improved by pre-symptomatic tumor detection and undertaking treatment specific for MEN1-tumors. Thus, it is recommended that MEN1 patients and their families should be cared for by multi-disciplinary teams comprising relevant specialists with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with endocrine tumors.

  19. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce;

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption is b...

  20. Endocrine complications following pediatric bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Josephine; Lewis, Victor; Guilcher, Gregory M T; Stephure, David K; Pacaud, Danièle

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for various diseases can lead to endocrine system dysfunction owing to preparative regimens involving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We assessed the prevalence of post-BMT endocrine complications in children treated at the Alberta Children's Hospital (ACH) from 1991 to 2001. Time of onset of endocrine dysfunction, underlying disease processes, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and age at BMT were characterized. Subjects of primary hypothyroidism 1.2%, compensated hypothyroidism 7.0%, hyperthyroidism 2.4%, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism 22.4%, abnormal bone density 2.4%, and secondary diabetes mellitus 1.2%. These findings emphasize the need to screen for endocrine system dysfunction, particularly hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, in children who have undergone BMT. Children need long-term follow-up so that endocrine complications can be diagnosed and treated promptly. PMID:21823531

  1. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS OF BUTYLPARABEN: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing concern in the field of endocrine disruption over the presence of various endocrine disrupting chemicals in Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs. This concern has also been as PPCPs are most widely used and had led to introduction of thousands of new and complex chemicals that enter the environment in large quantities. The effect of the chemicals has not only been restricted to human who are exposed directly to the chemicals or the animals which gets exposed to the chemicals through wide variety of veterinary drugs, but also the aquatic organisms and other form of Wildlife which are non target and indirectly gets exposed to the chemicals through individual human activity. Parabens includes a group of compound of which methylparaben, butylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben are most widely used as preservatives in various PPCPs. Recent concern over the use of parabens has been drawn by the scientific community as these chemicals are reported to exert a weak estrogenic activity, with butylparaben showing the most potent activity among methyl-, ethyl- and propyl esters in in vitro recombinant yeast assay and in in vivo uterotrophic assay. Human exposure to butylparaben which occur mainly through inhalation, ingestion, or eye or skin contact, from intake of foods or drugs or use of cosmetics and personal care products where butylparaben is mainly used as a preservative. Effects of butylparaben are studied in various animal model systems like rodents to determine the possible effects in human which showed various effects which include defects in male reproductive system like increase in weight of epididymis, also change in serum testosterone level and a significant increase in uterine weight in ovariectomized and immature rats. Other effects include irritation to the respiratory tract, allergic skin reactions, atrophy of lymphoid tissue in the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes and multifocal

  2. Immunotherapy with MVA-BN®-HER2 induces HER-2-specific Th1 immunity and alters the intratumoral balance of effector and regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Stefanie J; Rountree, Ryan B; Dalpozzo, Katie; Do, Lisa; Lombardo, John R; Schoonmaker, Peter L; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Steigerwald, Robin; Giffon, Thierry; Laus, Reiner; Delcayre, Alain

    2012-01-01

    MVA-BN®-HER2 is a new candidate immunotherapy designed for the treatment of HER-2-positive breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that a single treatment with MVA-BN®-HER2 exerts potent anti-tumor efficacy in a murine model of experimental pulmonary metastasis. This anti-tumor efficacy occurred despite a strong tumor-mediated immunosuppressive environment characterized by a high frequency of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) in the lungs of tumor-bearing mice. Immunogenicity studies showed that treatment with MVA-BN®-HER2 induced strongly Th1-dominated HER-2-specific antibody and T-cell responses. MVA-BN®-HER2-induced anti-tumor activity was characterized by an increased infiltration of lungs with highly activated, HER-2-specific, CD8+CD11c+ T cells accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of T(reg) cells in the lung, resulting in a significantly increased ratio of effector T cells to T(reg) cells. In contrast, administration of HER2 protein formulated in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) induced a strongly Th2-biased immune response to HER-2. However, this did not lead to significant infiltration of the tumor-bearing lungs by CD8+ T cells or the decrease in the frequency of T(reg) cells nor did it result in anti-tumor efficacy. In vivo depletion of CD8+ cells confirmed that CD8 T cells were required for the anti-tumor activity of MVA-BN®-HER2. Furthermore, depletion of CD4+ or CD25+ cells demonstrated that tumor-induced T(reg) cells promoted tumor growth and that CD4 effector cells also contribute to MVA-BN®-HER2-mediated anti-tumor efficacy. Taken together, our data demonstrate that treatment with MVA-BN®-HER2 controls tumor growth through mechanisms including the induction of Th1-biased HER-2-specific immune responses and the control of tumor-mediated immunosuppression. PMID:21822917

  3. Altered gene expression of the innate immune, neuroendocrine, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) systems is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado, Pedro; Olivera, Anlys; Rusch, Heather L; Roy, Michael; Martin, Christiana; Lejbman, Natasha; Lee, Hwyunhwa; Gill, Jessica M

    2016-03-01

    Whole transcriptome analysis provides an unbiased examination of biological activity, and likely, unique insight into the mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid depression and traumatic brain injury. This study compared gene-expression profiles in military personnel with PTSD (n=28) and matched controls without PTSD (n=27) using HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix), which contain 54,675 probe sets representing more than 38,500 genes. Analysis of expression profiles revealed 203 differentially expressed genes in PTSD, of which 72% were upregulated. Using Partek Genomics Suite 6.6, differentially expressed transcription clusters were filtered based on a selection criterion of ≥1.5 relative fold change at a false discovery rate of ≤5%. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Qiagen) of the differentially expressed genes indicated a dysregulation of genes associated with the innate immune, neuroendocrine, and NF-κB systems. These findings provide novel insights that may lead to new pharmaceutical agents for PTSD treatments and help mitigate mental and physical comorbidity risk. PMID:26751122

  4. Dysregulated immune system networks in war veterans with PTSD is an outcome of altered miRNA expression and DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bam, Marpe; Yang, Xiaoming; Zumbrun, Elizabeth E; Zhong, Yin; Zhou, Juhua; Ginsberg, Jay P; Leyden, Quinne; Zhang, Jiajia; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder patients experience chronic systemic inflammation. However, the molecular pathways involved and mechanisms regulating the expression of genes involved in inflammatory pathways in PTSD are reported inadequately. Through RNA sequencing and miRNA microarray, we identified 326 genes and 190 miRNAs that were significantly different in their expression levels in the PBMCs of PTSD patients. Expression pairing of the differentially expressed genes and miRNAs indicated an inverse relationship in their expression. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated their involvement in the canonical pathways specific to immune system biology. DNA methylation analysis of differentially expressed genes also showed a gradual trend towards differences between control and PTSD patients, again indicating a possible role of this epigenetic mechanism in PTSD inflammation. Overall, combining data from the three techniques provided a holistic view of several pathways in which the differentially expressed genes were impacted through epigenetic mechanisms, in PTSD. Thus, analysis combining data from RNA-Seq, miRNA array and DNA methylation, can provide key evidence about dysregulated pathways and the controlling mechanism in PTSD. Most importantly, the present study provides further evidence that inflammation in PTSD could be epigenetically regulated. PMID:27510991

  5. Thyroid endocrine disruption of acetochlor on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Hu, Jingjin; Li, Shuying; Ma, Youning; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide acetochlor is widely used and detected in the environment and biota, and has been suspected to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system, but underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. In the present study, zebrafish larvae (7 days post-fertilization) were exposed to a series concentration of acetochlor (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300 µg l(-1) ) within a 14-day window until 21 days post-fertilization. Thyroid hormones and mRNA expression profiles of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were analyzed. Exposure to the positive control, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 ), altered the mRNA expression, suggesting that the HPT axis in the critical window of zebrafish responded to chemical exposure and could be used to evaluate the effects of chemicals on the thyroid endocrine system. The mRNA expressions of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (tshβ, slc5a5 and tpo) were upregulated significantly with acetochlor treatment, which might be responsible for the increased thyroxine concentrations. The downregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (dio1 and ugt1ab) and transport (ttr) in zebrafish larvae exposed to acetochlor might further explain the increased thyroxine levels and decreased T3 levels. The mRNA expression of the thyroid hormone receptor (trα) was also upregulated upon acetochlor exposure. Results suggested that acetochlor altered mRNA expression of the HPT axis-related genes and changed the whole body thyroid hormone levels in zebrafish larvae. It demonstrated that acetochlor could cause endocrine disruption of the thyroid system by simulating the biological activity of T3 . Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26397822

  6. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of Aedes aegypti identifies a locus that confers resistance to Brugia malayi and alters the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Punita; Ariani, Cristina V; Ho, Yung Shwen; Akorli, Jewelna; Palmer, William J; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M

    2015-03-01

    Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait. PMID:25815506

  7. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of Aedes aegypti identifies a locus that confers resistance to Brugia malayi and alters the immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Juneja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

  8. Exome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Aedes aegypti Identifies a Locus That Confers Resistance to Brugia malayi and Alters the Immune Response

    KAUST Repository

    Juneja, Punita

    2015-03-27

    Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

  9. Alteration of imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 miRNA cluster expression in the entorhinal cortex induced by maternal immune activation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, S L; Zavitsanou, K; Walker, F R; Cairns, M J

    2014-01-01

    A significant feature of the cortical neuropathology of schizophrenia is a disturbance in the biogenesis of short non-coding microRNA (miRNA) that regulate translation and stability of mRNA. While the biological origin of this phenomenon has not been defined, it is plausible that it relates to major environmental risk factors associated with the disorder such as exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabis use. To explore this hypothesis, we administered the viral mimic poly I:C to pregnant rats and further exposed some of their maturing offsprings to daily injections of the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 for 14 days starting on postnatal day 35. Whole-genome miRNA expression analysis was then performed on the left and right hemispheres of the entorhinal cortex (EC), a region strongly associated with schizophrenia. Animals exposed to either treatment alone or in combination exhibited significant differences in the expression of miRNA in the left hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere was less responsive. Hemisphere-associated differences in miRNA expression were greatest in the combined treatment and highly over-represented in a single imprinted locus on chromosome 6q32. This observation was significant as the syntenic 14q32 locus in humans encodes a large proportion of miRNAs differentially expressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that interaction of early and late environmental insults may affect miRNA expression, in a manner that is relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:25268256

  10. Neurocutaneous spectrum of multiple endocrine neoplasia-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I or Wermer syndrome is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, enteropancreatic endocrine tumor, and a pituitary pathology. A 35-year-old male presented with visual field defects, hyperprolactinemia, and hypogonadism. He also had multiple infraumbilical skin-colored nodules. A syndromal association of Wermer syndrome was derived using the dermal, pituitary, parathyroid, and gastrointestinal hormonal manifestations of the tumor. The radiological and histological findings of lesion which underwent biopsy are discussed. The presence of collagenomas, lipomas, and hypopigmented macules in a patient with neuroendocrine symptoms should raise the suspicion of an underlying multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  11. Report on Criteria for Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik

    This report has been prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls. The main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather...... overall aim of this project is to provide a science based proposal for criteria for endocrine disrupters. The terms of reference for the project specify elements to be included and/or addressed when developing the criteria (Annex 1). Also, several international reports and papers dealing with assessment...

  12. Innate immune memory in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Michalski, Eva-Maria; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The plant innate immune system comprises local and systemic immune responses. Systemic plant immunity develops after foliar infection by microbial pathogens, upon root colonization by certain microbes, or in response to physical injury. The systemic plant immune response to localized foliar infection is associated with elevated levels of pattern-recognition receptors, accumulation of dormant signaling enzymes, and alterations in chromatin state. Together, these systemic responses provide a memory to the initial infection by priming the remote leaves for enhanced defense and immunity to reinfection. The plant innate immune system thus builds immunological memory by utilizing mechanisms and components that are similar to those employed in the trained innate immune response of jawed vertebrates. Therefore, there seems to be conservation, or convergence, in the evolution of innate immune memory in plants and vertebrates. PMID:27264335

  13. Remote postradiation immunodeficiency a disorder of endocrine regulation and thymic function. Role of intersystems interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 265 reports on radiation effects on the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems are reviewed. The role of the thymus, hypothalamus, and pituitary in remote manifestations of immunodeficiency in patients with cancer of the head and neck, treated by radiotherapy, is discussed. The pathogenesis of stubborn postradiation disturbances in immunoendocrine homeostasis after local exposure of the thymus and hypothalamus-pituitary at doses of 1-10 Gy, characterized as a syndrome, is analyzed

  14. Early life programming of pain: focus on neuroimmune to endocrine communication

    OpenAIRE

    Zouikr, I.; Bartholomeusz, M. D.; Hodgson, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain constitutes a challenge for the scientific community and a significant economic and social cost for modern societies. Given the failure of current drugs to effectively treat chronic pain, which are based on suppressing aberrant neuronal excitability, we propose in this review an integrated approach that views pain not solely originating from neuronal activation but also the result of a complex interaction between the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Pain assessment must al...

  15. Insights into endocrine-immunological disturbances in autoimmunity and their impact on treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Straub, Rainer H.

    2009-01-01

    The neuroendocrine immune (NEI) system is regarded as a fundamental network for the maintenance of health status (homeostasis), and it plays an important role in several systemic diseases, including autoimmune disorders. Among the major players of NEI pathways are steroid hormones of the adrenal (cortisol) and gonadal glands (sex hormones), neurohormones such as melatonin, and more recently the vitamin D endocrine system. Estrogens, melatonin and chronic stress (inducing decreased adrenal glu...

  16. Immune-Modulating Therapy for Rheumatologic Disease: Implications for Patients with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Scott J; Quan, Amy Q; Germain-Lee, Emily L; Hellmann, David B; Mathioudakis, Nestoras N

    2016-10-01

    Immune modulators used to treat rheumatologic disease have diverse endocrine effects in patients with diabetes. Providers should be aware of these effects given that diabetes and rheumatologic disease overlap in prevalence and cardiovascular morbidity. In patients with type 1 diabetes, clinical trials have demonstrated that immune modulators used early in the disease can improve pancreatic function, though their efficacy in adults with longstanding autoimmune diabetes is unknown. In patients with type 2 diabetes, hydroxychloroquine is an effective antihyperglycemic and may be preferred for rheumatologic use in patients with difficult glycemic control. In patients without diabetes, hydroxychloroquine and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors have been found to decrease diabetes incidence in observational studies. Additionally, dapsone and sulfasalazine alter erythrocyte survival resulting in inaccurate HbA1c values. These multifaceted effects of immune modulators create a need for coordinated care between providers treating patients with diabetes to individualize medication selection and prevent hypoglycemic events. More research is needed to determine the long-term outcomes of immune modulators in patients with diabetes. PMID:27525682

  17. Prenatal immune challenge in rats: altered responses to dopaminergic and glutamatergic agents, prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and reduced route-based learning as a function of maternal body weight gain after prenatal exposure to poly IC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, Charles V; Graham, Devon L; Braun, Amanda A; Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Richtand, Neil M; Williams, Michael T

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal maternal immune activation has been used to test the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Most of the data are in mouse models; far less is available for rats. We previously showed that maternal weight change in response to the immune activator polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly IC) in rats differentially affects offspring. Therefore, we treated gravid Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats i.p. on embryonic day 14 with 8 mg/kg of Poly IC or Saline. The Poly IC group was divided into those that lost or gained the least weight, Poly IC (L), versus those that gained the most weight, Poly IC (H), following treatment. The study design controlled for litter size, litter sampling, sex distribution, and test experience. We found no effects of Poly IC on elevated zero maze, open-field activity, object burying, light-dark test, straight channel swimming, Morris water maze spatial acquisition, reversal, or shift navigation or spatial working or reference memory, or conditioned contextual or cued fear or latent inhibition. The Poly IC (H) group showed a significant decrease in the rate of route-based learning when visible cues were unavailable in the Cincinnati water maze and reduced prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in females, but not males. The Poly IC (L) group exhibited altered responses to acute pharmacological challenges: exaggerated hyperactivity in response to (+)-amphetamine and an attenuated hyperactivity in response to MK-801. This model did not exhibit the cognitive, or latent inhibition deficits reported in Poly IC-treated rats but showed changes in response to drugs acting on neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (dopaminergic hyperfunction and glutamatergic hypofunction). PMID:22473973

  18. Endocrine effects on heart function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gamberini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the factors associated with thalassemic heart disease, endocrine disturbance is also a contributing factor. We present a retrospective, cross sectional study, which aims to establish the prevalence of cardiac complications in thalassaemia major (TM patients with endocrine complications and to evaluate the influence of endocrine disease on cardiac complications. Endocrinological and cardiological parameters were considered on 957 TM patients who are enrolled in the Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassemia (MIOT network in 68 sites in Italy. Patients with pubertal hypogonadism (163 males and 175 females, hypothyroidism (192, diabetes mellitus (87 and hypoparathyroidism (61, were compared according to cardiac complications: global heart T2*, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, arrythmias, pulmonary hypertension and myocardial fibrosis. Control groups were made up according to the age range of patients with the corresponding endocrinopathy. The prevalence of cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias and heart failure was significantly increased in patients with endocrinopathies. Cardiac complications tended to increase according to the number of endocrinologies affecting the patient. 与地中海贫血心脏疾病相关的因素中,内分泌失调也是一个促进因素。 我们进行了回顾和断面研究,旨在患有内分泌并发症的重型地中海贫血患者中建立心脏并发症的患病率,以及评估内分泌疾病对心脏并发症的影响。 曾考虑到意大利地中海贫血心肌铁过载(MIOT)网络的68个站点上注册的957名重型地中海贫血患者的内分泌和心脏病学参数。 根据以下心脏并发症对青春期性腺机能减退的患者(男性163名、女性175名)、甲状腺机能减退患者(192名)、糖尿病患者(87名)和甲状旁腺机能减退患者(61名)进行了比较: 心脏 T2*、心功能障碍、心脏衰竭、心率不齐、肺动脉高

  19. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: AN ENDOCRINE STRESS MIMICKING DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pacak, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that can uniquely mimic numerous stress-associated disorders, with variations in clinical manifestations resulting from different patterns of catecholamine secretion and actions of released catecholamines on physiological systems.

  20. Research on the Changes of Endocrine Hormones in Mammary Cancer and Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chengqi

    2002-01-01

    Objective Based on a comparison of endocrine hormones between patients of mammary cancer and those of hyperplasia of mammary glands, a preliminary analysis of the interaction between endocrine hormones and the immune system was oonducted. Methods The experiment involved 50 cases of mammary cancer and hyperplasia of mammary glands each.Blood samples were taken from pre - menopausal and menopausal patients; six kinds of hypophyseal hommones(PRL, GH, TSH,ACTH, FSH and LH) and three kinds of sex hormones ( E2,P and T) were subjected to RIA tests.Results Wilcoxon matchpaired assay and normal approximation of the experiment indicated that the FSH level before pre - menopause and the ACTH level during menopause in patients with mammary canoer were higher that those of patients suffering hyperplasia of mamary glands. Conclusion Statistics show the the normal rhythm between endocrine hormones and the immune system is disrupted in mammary cancer patients, the feedback mechanism of the hypothalamo- hypophyseal- adrenal system is maladjusted,resulting in inhibition of the immune function. Female hormones induce the gene mutation and the sensitivity of the cells is increased, resulting in a significant acceleration of the hyperplasia of cancer cells.

  1. [Endocrine factors influencing melanoma progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Judit

    2009-03-01

    According to recent findings that beside cancers traditionally considered as hormone-dependent, several other tumor types show different behavior in the two sexes, indicating the possible role of endocrine factors in the course of these diseases. The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of human malignant melanoma is suggested by the higher survival rate in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women or men of any ages. However, investigations on the sex hormone receptor status of human cutaneous melanomas and experiments attempting to support the epidemiological results yielded conflicting results. In our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptors at protein level, while quantitative PCR demonstrated that their mRNA expression level was orders of magnitude lower compared to the positive control cell lines. Sex hormones did not influence the in vitro features of the human melanoma cells considerably. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor was present both at mRNA and protein level, although dexamethasone was effective in vitro only at high doses. Our previous experiments showed that intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells resulted in a significantly higher number of liver colonies in male than in female SCID mice. We now show that this difference evolves during the first day. After injection into the tail vein we did not observe gender-dependent difference in the efficiency of pulmonary colonization. Examining the pattern of metastasis formation after intracardiac injection, we have found differences between the two sexes in the incidence or number of colonies only in the case of the liver but not in other organs. We concluded that the observed phenomenon is specific to the liver; therefore we investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol produced mainly in the liver, with an estrogen receptor-independent antitumor activity. 2ME2 effectively inhibited melanoma cell

  2. The heart as an endocrine organ

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Tsuneo; Adolfo J. De Bold

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the heart as an endocrine organ arises from the observation that the atrial cardiomyocytes in the mammalian heart display a phenotype that is partly that of endocrine cells. Investigations carried out between 1971 and 1983 characterised, by virtue of its natriuretic properties, a polypeptide referred to atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Another polypeptide isolated from brain in 1988, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), was subsequently characterised as a second hormone produced by...

  3. Development and Regeneration in the Endocrine Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of two compartments that deliver digestive enzymes and endocrine hormones to control the blood sugar level. The endocrine pancreas consists of functional units organized into cell clusters called islets of Langerhans where insulin-producing cells are found in the core and surrounded by glucagon-, somatostatin-, pancreatic polypeptide-, and ghrelin-producing cells. Diabetes is a devastating disease provoked by the depletion or malfunction of insulin-producing beta-cell...

  4. Endocrine Disruptors and Childhood Social Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Miodovnik, Amir; Engel, Stephanie M.; Zhu, Chenbo; Ye, Xiaoyun; Soorya, Latha V.; Silva, Manori J.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has the potential to impact early brain development. Neurodevelopmental toxicity in utero may manifest as psychosocial deficits later in childhood. This study investigates prenatal exposure to two ubiquitous endocrine disruptors, the phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA), and social behavior in a sample of adolescent inner-city children. Third trimester urines of women enrolled in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study between 1998 and...

  5. Ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, T H; Brown, R; Brugger, K E; Campbell, P. M.; Holt, M; Länge, R; McCahon, P; Tattersfield, L J; Egmond , R. van

    2000-01-01

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals proposes a tiered approach for the ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors, integrating exposure and hazard (effects) characterization. Exposure assessment for endocrine disruptors should direct specific tests for wildlife species, placing hazard data into a risk assessment context. Supplementing the suite of mammalian screens now under Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) validation, high pri...

  6. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS OF BUTYLPARABEN: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pallabi Goswami; J.C Kalita

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing concern in the field of endocrine disruption over the presence of various endocrine disrupting chemicals in Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs). This concern has also been as PPCPs are most widely used and had led to introduction of thousands of new and complex chemicals that enter the environment in large quantities. The effect of the chemicals has not only been restricted to human who are exposed directly to the chemicals or the a...

  7. HISTORY OF THE ENDOCRINE SURGERY (II)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tarcoveanu; A. Vasilescu; Oana Epure

    2005-01-01

    The history of the endocrine surgery is recent, with the discovery of glands and hormones at the beginning of the twentieth century. Most of the major endocrine glands were described anatomically around 1900. The hormones were identified during the first decades of the twentieth century. In 1922 a Romanian doctor, Paulescu, discovered a hypoglycemiant hormone, the insulin. Other hormones like aldosterone and cortisol were discovered after a few years. The diffuse gastrointestinal glandular sy...

  8. FEATURES ENDOCRINE PATHOLOGY AMONG STUDENTS OF TOMSK

    OpenAIRE

    P. R. Goldayeva; O. A. Pavlenko

    2015-01-01

    Socio-hygienic assessment of the health of students inTomskfor the period from 2007 to 2009 helped identify negative trends in the incidence of endocrine disorders that require improved technology organization providing medical and preventive care. The results of the analysis of the effect of risk factors on the development of the endocrine pathology among students possible to determine the need for and develop a system of sanitary measures, the implementation of which helps reduce the risk o...

  9. Endocrine disruptors and thyroid hormone physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jugan, Mary-Line; Levi, Yves; Blondeau, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Endocrine disruptors are man-made chemicals that can disrupt the synthesis, circulating levels, and peripheral action of hormones. The disruption of sex hormones was subject of intensive research, but thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling are now also recognized as important targets of endocrine disruptors. The neurological development of mammals is largely dependent on normal thyroid hormone homeostasis, and it is likely to be particularly sensitive to disruption of the...

  10. Circadian Clocks, Stress, and Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbell, Rebecca; Matveeva, Olga; Oster, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, molecular circadian clocks are present in most cells of the body, and this circadian network plays an important role in synchronizing physiological processes and behaviors to the appropriate time of day. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal endocrine axis regulates the response to acute and chronic stress, acting through its final effectors – glucocorticoids – released from the adrenal cortex. Glucocorticoid secretion, characterized by its circadian rhythm, has an important role in synchronizing peripheral clocks and rhythms downstream of the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Finally, glucocorticoids are powerfully anti-inflammatory, and recent work has implicated the circadian clock in various aspects and cells of the immune system, suggesting a tight interplay of stress and circadian systems in the regulation of immunity. This mini-review summarizes our current understanding of the role of the circadian clock network in both the HPA axis and the immune system, and discusses their interactions. PMID:27199894

  11. Endocrine consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhoea; a nutritionally acquired growth-hormone resistance leading to low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1); relative hypercortisolaemia; decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin, and incretins; and increases in ghrelin, peptide YY, and adiponectin. These changes in turn have harmful effects on bone and might affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression, and the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Low bone-mineral density (BMD) is particularly concerning, because it is associated with changes in bone microarchitecture, strength, and clinical fractures. Recovery leads to improvements in many--but not all--hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual can persist. Oestrogen-replacement therapy, primarily via the transdermal route, increases BMD in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral oestrogen--combined with recombinant human IGF-1 in one study and bisphosphonates in another--increased BMD, but not to the normal range. More studies are necessary to investigate the optimum therapeutic approach in patients with, or recovering from, anorexia nervosa. PMID:24731664

  12. Molasses as a possible cause of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome" in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masgoret, M S; Botha, C J; Myburgh, J G; Naudé, T W; Prozesky, L; Naidoo, V; Van Wyk, J H; Pool, E J; Swan, G E

    2009-06-01

    During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome". The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1), which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches of molasses had no

  13. Molasses as a possible cause of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome'' in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Masgoret

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome''. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1, which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches

  14. Effects of AP‑1 and NF‑κB inhibitors on colonic endocrine cells in rats with TNBS‑induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    Interactions between intestinal neuroendocrine peptides/amines and the immune system appear to have an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The present study investigated the effects of activator protein (AP)‑1 and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB inhibitors on inflammation‑induced alterations in enteroendocrine cells. A total of 48 male Wistar rats were divided into the following four groups (n=12 rats/group): Control, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)‑induced colitis only (TNBS group), TNBS‑induced colitis with 3‑[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM‑G) treatment (DTCM‑G group), and TNBS‑induced colitis with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) treatment (DHMEQ group). A total of 3 days following administration of TNBS, the rats were treated as follows: The control and TNBS groups received 0.5 ml vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose; CMC), respectively; the DTCM‑G group received DTCM‑G (20 mg/kg body weight) in 0.5% CMC; and the DHMEQ group received DHMEQ (15 mg/kg body weight) in 0.5% CMC. All injections were performed intraperitoneally twice daily for 5 days. The rats were sacrificed, and tissue samples obtained from the colon were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Inflammation was evaluated using a scoring system. In addition, the sections were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and somatostatin, and immunostaining was quantified using image‑analysis software. The density of cells expressing CgA, PYY and PP was significantly lower in the TNBS group compared with in the control group, whereas the density of cells expressing serotonin, oxyntomodulin and somatostatin was significantly higher in the TNBS group compared with in the control group. None of the endocrine cell types differed significantly between the control group and either the DTCM‑G or DHMEQ groups. All of the colonic

  15. Immune system as a target organ for toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bick, P H

    1982-01-01

    Recently, interest has centered on the immune system as a target organ for toxic effects. This seems a reasonable choice, since it can be argued that alterations induced in this system as a result of a toxic insult could lead to impaired immunity. Such an alteration may be manifest in altered disease susceptibility. Documenting toxic effects upon the immune system is a difficult task due to the multifaceted network of specialized cells that carry out immune functions. Because of this complexi...

  16. Hyperglycaemia Alters Thymic Epithelial Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Alexandrovna Abramova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is considered to be a consequence of unchecked auto-immune processes. Alterations in immune system responses are thought to be the cause of the disease, but the possibility that altered metabolite levels (glucose can establish the disease by specifically acting on and altering thymus stroma functions has not been investigated. Therefore, the direct effect of hyperglycaemia (HG on central tolerance mechanisms as a causative agent needs to be investigated.

  17. Immune System Toxicity and Immunotoxicity Hazard Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to chemicals may alter immune system health, increasing the risk of infections, allergy and autoimmune diseases. The chapter provides a concise overview of the immune system, host factors that affect immune system heal, and the effects that xenobiotic exposure may have ...

  18. Clinical case: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Lipatenkova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1, Wermer syndrome – group o а heterogeneous inherited deseases, caused by hyperlasia or neoplasia of several endocrine glands. The phenotype of MEN1 is broad, and over 20 different combinations of endocrine and non-endocrine metabolic manifestations have been described. This case demonstrates multiple formations of endocrine organs, starting non-classical with macroprolactonoma resistant to dopamine agonists therapy, other endocrine disorders developed gradually eventually: hyperparathyreoidism and hypoglycemia caused by pancreas lesions, produced proinsulin in high levels.

  19. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2015-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. PMID:27207564

  20. Effects of heat stress on endocrine functions & behaviour in the pre-pubertal rat

    OpenAIRE

    Mete, Fatih; Kilic, Ertugrul; Somay, Adnan; Yilmaz, Bayram

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Heat stress related hyperthermia may cause damage to various organ systems. There are very few studies on the effects of hyperthermia on the endocrine system. We therefore, investigated effects of exogenously induced hyperthermia on adrenal, testicular and thyroid functions and behavioural alterations in pre-pubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Three groups of 30-day old rats (n=7 per group) were used. Body temperature was increased to 39°C (Group I) and 41°C (...

  1. Early-Onset Endocrine Disruptor–Induced Prostatitis in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Cowin, Prue A.; Foster, Paul; Pedersen, John; Hedwards, Shelley; McPherson, Stephen J.; Risbridger, Gail P.

    2008-01-01

    Background Androgens are critical for specifying prostate development, with the fetal prostate sensitive to altered hormone levels and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that exhibit estrogenic or antiandrogenic properties. Prostatic inflammation (prostatitis) affects 9% of men of all ages, and > 90% of cases are of unknown etiology. Objectives In this study we aimed to evaluate effects of in utero exposure to the antiandrogenic EDC vinclozolin, during the period of male reproductive tract...

  2. Host Resistance and Immune Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Thilinie; Shaw, Albert C

    2016-08-01

    Human immune system aging results in impaired responses to pathogens or vaccines. In the innate immune system, which mediates the earliest pro-inflammatory responses to immunologic challenge, processes ranging from Toll-like Receptor function to Neutrophil Extracellular Trap formation are generally diminished in older adults. Dysregulated, enhanced basal inflammation with age reflecting activation by endogenous damage-associated ligands contributes to impaired innate immune responses. In the adaptive immune system, T and B cell subsets and function alter with age. The control of cytomegalovirus infection, particularly in the T lineage, plays a dominant role in the differentiation and diversity of the T cell compartment. PMID:27394014

  3. Endocrine and other physiologic modulators of perinatal cardiomyocyte endowment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, S S; Louey, S

    2016-01-01

    Immature contractile cardiomyocytes proliferate to rapidly increase cell number, establishing cardiomyocyte endowment in the perinatal period. Developmental changes in cellular maturation, size and attrition further contribute to cardiac anatomy. These physiological processes occur concomitant with a changing hormonal environment as the fetus prepares itself for the transition to extrauterine life. There are complex interactions between endocrine, hemodynamic and nutritional regulators of cardiac development. Birth has been long assumed to be the trigger for major differences between the fetal and postnatal cardiomyocyte growth patterns, but investigations in normally growing sheep and rodents suggest this may not be entirely true; in sheep, these differences are initiated before birth, while in rodents they occur after birth. The aim of this review is to draw together our understanding of the temporal regulation of these signals and cardiomyocyte responses relative to birth. Further, we consider how these dynamics are altered in stressed and suboptimal intrauterine environments. PMID:26432905

  4. The effect of Ramadan fasting on endocrine system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Boroumand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the religion of Islam, fasting is obligatory for healthy adults during Ramadan. Millions of Muslims around the world practice fasting in this holy month which may cause different metabolic and hormonal changes due to the restrictions in regular caloric intake. This article was aimed to review some possible effects of Ramadan fasting on the endocrine system which has a great impact on physiological and cellular processes through a wide variety of hormones. Despite various studies regarding the impact of Islamic fasting on a number of hormonal values, yet there is not any obvious consensus on its impact on human health. In conclusion, this article recommended normal people to continue fasting during this holy month because despite the modifications that occur in the secretion pattern of some hormones, it causes no major alteration in the health of normal subjects; it is also effective for maintenance of remission in some diseases.

  5. A review of endocrine changes in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hansen-Nord, M;

    1999-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a syndrome of unknown etiology. It is associated with multiple endocrine abnormalities. Hypothalamic monoamines (especially serotonin), neuropeptides (especially neuropeptide Y and cholecystokinin) and leptin are involved in the regulation of human appetite, and in several ways...... they are changed in anorexia nervosa. However, it remains to be clarified whether the altered appetite regulation is secondary or etiologic. Increased secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin seems to be secondary to starvation, however, there is evidence that it may maintain...... and intensify anorexia, excessive physical activity and amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea, which is a diagnostic criterion in anorexia nervosa, is not solely related to the low body weight and exercise. Growth hormone resistance with low production of insulin-like growth factor I and high growth hormone...

  6. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, David M; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Gaudriault, Pierre; Lesné, Laurianne; Serrano, Tania; Main, Katharina M; Jégou, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have endocrine disruptive properties capable of altering animal and human reproductive function from fetal life to adulthood in both sexes. Medical and public awareness about these health concerns should be increased, particularly among pregnant women. PMID:27150289

  7. Many Putative Endocrine Disruptors Inhibit Prostaglandin Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... of endocrine disruption. Results: We found that many known EDCs inhibit the PG pathway in a mouse Sertoli cell line and in human primary mast cells. The EDCs also reduced PG synthesis in ex vivo rat testis and it was correlated with a reduced testosterone production. The inhibition of PG synthesis occurs...... suggest a hitherto unknown mode of action by EDCs through inhibition of the PG pathway and suggest new avenues to investigate effects of EDCs on reproductive and immunological disorders that have become increasingly common in recent decades....

  8. ENDOCRINE DISORDERS AND THEIR EFFECTS IN ORTHODONTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar KHARE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available the periodontal tissue to orthodontic forces, which leads to modeling and remodeling of the surrounding alveolar bone. The endocrine system is responsible for hormonal secretion, being closely related to the central nervous sys‑ tem, as it diversifies its functions through the hypothala‑ mus and pituitary glands. It controls physiological processes and maintains homeostasis. The neuroendocrine system is responsible for adaptation to environmental changes. Also, the nervous system may provide a correct organic response, of primary type, with the release of neu‑ rotransmitters or, if the stimulus prevails, the endocrine system secretes hormones. This is especially important in dentistry because many of the patients attending dental clinics face stressful situations. Awareness is therefore nec‑ essary on the risks and difficulties that may arise during the dental and orthodontic management of patients with endocrine disorders and most common oral manifesta‑ tions.

  9. Effects of persistent organic pollutants on the thyroid function of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Aegean sea, is it an endocrine disruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitzler, J.G; Koutrakis, E.T.; Siebert, U; Thomé, J.-P.; Das, K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the alterations of organochlorinated compounds such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) on the thyroid in wild and cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) at environmental concentrations. These compounds influence the endocrine system of many fish species and are qualified as endocrine disruptors. The thyroid seems to be a target organ. Two alteration endpoints: the thyroid histology and the muscular ...

  10. Endocrine disruptors and estrogenic effects on male reproductive axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh C. Sikka; Run Wang

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin,and some pesticides) are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones,inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inflammation, Sertoli-cell-only pattern, hypospadias, altered pituitary and thyroid gland functions are also observed, the available data are insufficient to deduce worldwide conclusions.The development of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is beyond doubt the most important recent breakthrough in the treatment of male infertility, but it does not necessarily treat the cause and may inadvertently pass on adverse genetic consequences. Many well-controlled clinical studies and basic scientific discoveries in the physiology,biochemistry, and molecular and cellular biology of the male reproductive system have helped in the identification of greater numbers of men with male factor problems. Newer tools for the detection of Y-chromosome deletions have further strengthened the hypothesis that the decline in male reproductive health and fertility may be related to the presence of certain toxic chemicals in the environment. Thus the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male factor infertility remain a real challenge. Clinicians should always attempt to identify the etiology of a possible testicular toxicity, assess the degree of risk to the patient being evaluated for infertility, and initiate a plan to control and prevent exposure to others once an association between occupation/toxicant and infertility has been established.

  11. Long-term effects of environmental endocrine disruptors on reproductive physiology and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B Adewale

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that, over the course of development, hormones shape the vertebrate brain such that sex specific physiology and behaviors emerge. Much of this occurs in discrete developmental windows that span gestation through the prenatal period, although it is now becoming clear that at least some of this process continues through puberty. Perturbation of this developmental progression can permanently alter the capacity for reproductive success. Wildlife studies have revealed that exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs, either naturally occurring or man made, can profoundly alter reproductive physiology and ultimately impact entire populations. Laboratory studies in rodents and other species have elucidated some of the mechanisms by which this occurs and strongly indicate that humans are also vulnerable to disruption. Use of hormonally active compounds in human medicine has also unfortunately revealed that the developing fetus can be exposed to and affected by endocrine disruptors, and that it might take decades for adverse effects to manifest. Research within the field of environmental endocrine disruption has also contributed to the general understanding of how early life experiences can alter reproductive physiology and behavior through non-genomic, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation. These types of effects have the potential to impact future generations if the germ line is affected. This review provides an overview of how exposure to EDCs, particularly those that interfere with estrogen action, impacts reproductive physiology and behaviors in vertebrates.

  12. Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Prestige Oil: Effects on DNA and Endocrine Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez-Cadahía

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960, about 400 tankers spilled more than 377765 tons of oil, with the Prestige accident (Galician coast, NW Spain, November 2002 the most recent. Taking into account the consistent large number of individuals exposed to oil that exists all over the world, it seems surprising the absence in the literature of studies focused on the chronic effects of this exposure on human health. In this work we evaluated the level of DNA damage by means of comet assay, and the potential endocrine alterations (prolactin and cortisol caused by Prestige oil exposure in a population of 180 individuals, classified in 3 groups according to the tasks performed, and 60 controls. Heavy metals in blood were determined as exposure biomarkers, obtaining significant increases of aluminum, nickel and lead in the exposed groups as compared to controls. Higher levels of genetic damage and endocrine alterations were also observed in the exposed population. DNA damage levels were influenced by age, sex, and the use of protective clothes, and prolactin concentrations by the last two factors. Surprisingly, the use of mask did not seem to protect individuals from genetic or endocrine alterations. Moreover, polymorphisms in genes encoding for the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of oil components were analyzed as susceptibility biomarkers. CYP1A1-3’UTR and EPHX1 codons 113 and 139 variant alleles were related to higher damage levels, while lower DNA damage was observed in GSTM1 and GSTT1 null individuals.

  13. Endocrine sequelae of irradiation in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis explores some of the endocrine sequelae following irradiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy in childhood which to date have not been clearly defined. Greater understanding of these sequelae will aid the management of survivors of childhood malignancy, who by virtue of improved management of the primary disease are increasing in number and complexity. The majority of this thesis involves children who have received cranial irradiation for a brain tumour distant from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but endocrine sequelae in children who have undergone total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for haematological malignancies have also been studied. (author)

  14. Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Becher, Georg;

    2013-01-01

    The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a r...

  15. Integrated Neural and Endocrine Control of Gastrointestinal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, John B

    2016-01-01

    The activity of the digestive system is dynamically regulated by external factors, including body nutritional and activity states, emotions and the contents of the digestive tube. The gut must adjust its activity to assimilate a hugely variable mixture that is ingested, particularly in an omnivore such as human for which a wide range of food choices exist. It must also guard against toxins and pathogens. These nutritive and non-nutritive components of the gut contents interact with the largest and most vulnerable surface in the body, the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. This requires a gut sensory system that can detect many classes of nutrients, non-nutrient components of food, physicochemical conditions, toxins, pathogens and symbionts (Furness et al., Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:729-740, 2013). The gut sensors are in turn coupled to effector systems that can respond to the sensory information. The responses are exerted through enteroendocrine cells (EEC), the enteric nervous system (ENS), the central nervous system (CNS) and the gut immune and tissue defence systems. It is apparent that the control of the digestive organs is an integrated function of these effectors. The peripheral components of the EEC, ENS and CNS triumvirate are extensive. EEC cells have traditionally been classified into about 12 types (disputed in this review), releasing about 20 hormones, together making the gut endocrine system the largest endocrine organ in the body. Likewise, in human the ENS contains about 500 million neurons, far more than the number of neurons in the remainder of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Together gut hormones, the ENS and the CNS control or influence functions including satiety, mixing and propulsive activity, release of digestive enzymes, induction of nutrient transporters, fluid transport, local blood flow, gastric acid secretion, evacuation and immune responses. Gut content receptors, including taste, free fatty acid, peptide and

  16. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Contents The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive sys...

  17. Echinoderm immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L Courtney; Ghosh, Julie; Buckley, Katherine M; Clow, Lori A; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Haug, Tor; Henson, John H; Li, Chun; Lun, Cheng Man; Majeske, Audrey J; Matranga, Valeria; Nair, Sham V; Rast, Jonathan P; Raftos, David A; Roth, Mattias; Sacchi, Sandro; Schrankel, Catherine S; Stensvåg, Klara

    2010-01-01

    A survey for immune genes in the genome for the purple sea urchin has shown that the immune system is complex and sophisticated. By inference, immune responses of all echinoderms maybe similar. The immune system is mediated by several types of coelomocytes that are also useful as sensors of environmental stresses. There are a number of large gene families in the purple sea urchin genome that function in immunity and of which at least one appears to employ novel approaches for sequence diversification. Echinoderms have a simpler complement system, a large set of lectin genes and a number of antimicrobial peptides. Profiling the immune genes expressed by coelomocytes and the proteins in the coelomic fluid provide detailed information about immune functions in the sea urchin. The importance of echinoderms in maintaining marine ecosystem stability and the disastrous effects of their removal due to disease will require future collaborations between ecologists and immunologists working towards understanding and preserving marine habitats. PMID:21528703

  18. Nuclear medicine imaging in the evaluation of endocrine hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Punit Sharma; Rakesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine hypertension forms a small (< 5%) but curable subset of patients with hypertension. Common endocrine causes of hypertension include pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. Nuclear medicine imaging plays an important role in evaluation of patients with endocrine hypertension. It has established role in patients of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, Cushing's syndrome, aldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. We present a brief overview of ro...

  19. Endocrine disrupters in the Llobregat river basin; Disruptores endocrinos en la cuenca del rio Llobregat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, J.; Ventura, F.; Marti, I.; Cancho, B. [AGBAR Societat General d' Aigues de Barcelona S. A. (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Endocrine disrupters are chemicals capable of modulating the endocrine system. These chemicals may have a natural or an anthropogenic origin. The latter are the most important to international organisms due to their potential hazardous effects on human health and wildlife. An important group of substances such as pesticides, surfactants, alkylphenols, phthalates and bisphenol A are considered as endocrine disrupters: adverse effects like cancer, infertility and alterations of sexual organs are related with their presence. Phthalates and alkylphenols (ethoxylated nonylphenols and their acidic metabolites) are the main endocrine disrupters identified in the Llobregat river water using different analytical techniques. No pesticides have been identified in significative concentrations due to the low agricultural activity in this area. The contamination levels, at the {mu} g/l values, are in agreement with those cited by other authors in the literature. Llobregat raw water is treated in the Sant Joan Despi plant with a complex treatment able to reduce and/or eliminate these compounds. Only phthalates and ethoxylated nonylphenols are identified in treated water (at sub-{mu}g/l levels). Brominated ethoxylated nonylphenols are formed in the water treatment plant due to the high bromide level in Llobregat raw water. (Author) 23 refs.

  20. Autoimmune thyroid disease and other non-endocrine autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana; Ičin Tijana; Novaković-Paro Jovanka; Bajkin Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Introduction, Autoimmune diseases are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. They constitute heterogeneous group of disorders, in which multiple alterations in the immune system result in a spectrum of syndromes that either target specific organs or affect the body systematically. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible shift of one autoimmune disease to another or the fact that more than one autoimmune disease may coexist in a...

  1. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  2. Study of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Juvancz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC cause more and more seriousenvironmental pollutions. The EDCs show only ng-μg/l concentration level in theenvironment, therefore their determinations require multistep sample preparationprocesses and highly sophisticated instrumentation. This paper discuss the EDC effects,and show examples for determination of such compounds.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) accounts for 1-2% of total pancreatic tumors and 0.4-1.5% of autopsy cases, reflecting the recently increasing trend. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (2004), PET is classified by the type of hormone produced by the tumor and its biological behavior. Together with the classical clinical images and hormone markers, 11C-5-HTP-Positron emission tomography, OctreoScan ([111In-DTPA0] octreotide) scintigram, selective arterial calcium injection (SACI)-test and intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) are used for diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, if supposed to be curative and tolerable. In case of a well-differentiated endocrine tumor, with no indication of resection or interventional radiology (IVR), somatostatin analog is another therapy showing stable disease status for a long period. Systemic chemotherapy, including 5-fluorouracil (FU)+streptozotocin, and streptozotocin+doxorubicin, are used in cases of well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma, and cisplatin+etoposide are applied for poorly-differentiated endocrine carcinoma (or small cell carcinoma). Recent studies focus on molecular target therapy including small molecules and monoclonal antibody, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. (author)

  4. Thin needle aspiration biopsy of endocrine organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, L G

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the fine needle aspiration technique in reference to the endocrine organs. The principles of technique and interpretation are presented. The application of aspiration biopsies to the breast, the prostate, the pancreas and the thyroid are briefly discussed. PMID:485094

  5. Paraneoplastic endocrine-metabolic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The paraneoplastic syndromes (PS are characterized by the presence of biochemical alterations, signs and symptoms expressive of cancer distance action into the patient’s organism. Sometimes these syndromes can precede the evidence of malignancy even of some years or can correspond to cancer relapse. PS, even being characterized by general symptoms (fever, anorexia, cachexia, may occur with neurological, rheumathological, osteoarticular, vascular, haematological, nephrological and endocrinological/metabolic symptoms; the latter ones are discussed in this article. AIM OF THE STUDY Here we will focus on the most common PS: paraneoplastic hypercalcemia, inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH and paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Our work can be useful in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of paraneoplastic syndromes.

  6. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kiesling, R.L.; Ferrey, M.L.; Jahns, N.D.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17??-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. ?? 2010.

  7. Feeling manipulated: cytomegalovirus immune manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparer Tim E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract No one likes to feel like they have been manipulated, but in the case of cytomegalovirus (CMV immune manipulation, we do not really have much choice. Whether you call it CMV immune modulation, manipulation, or evasion, the bottom line is that CMV alters the immune response in such a way to allow the establishment of latency with lifelong shedding. With millions of years of coevolution within their hosts, CMVs, like other herpesviruses, encode numerous proteins that can broadly influence the magnitude and quality of both innate and adaptive immune responses. These viral proteins include both homologues of host proteins, such as MHC class I or chemokine homologues, and proteins with little similarity to any other known proteins, such as the chemokine binding protein. Although a strong immune response is launched against CMV, these virally encoded proteins can interfere with the host's ability to efficiently recognize and clear virus, while others induce or alter specific immune responses to benefit viral replication or spread within the host. Modulation of host immunity allows survival of both the virus and the host. One way of describing it would be a kind of "mutually assured survival" (as opposed to MAD, Mutually Assured Destruction. Evaluation of this relationship provides important insights into the life cycle of CMV as well as a greater understanding of the complexity of the immune response to pathogens in general.

  8. Echinoderm immunity

    OpenAIRE

    JE García-Arrarás; F Ramírez-Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals that, after the chordates, represent the second largest group of deuterostomes. Their diverse species composition and singular ecological niches provide at the same time challenges and rewards when studying the broad range of responses that make up their immune mechanisms. Two types of responses comprise the immune system of echinoderms: a cellular response and a humoral one. Cell-based immunity is carried by the celomocytes, a morphologically hetero...

  9. DNA Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed.

  10. Immune Thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kistanguri, Gaurav; McCrae, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common hematologic disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. ITP presents as a primary form characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 × 109/L) in the absence of other causes or disorders that may be associated with thrombocytopenia, or a secondary form in which immune thrombocytopenia develops in association with another disorder that is usually immune or infectious. ITP may affect individuals of all ages, with peaks during ...

  11. The Environment-Immune Route to Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific environmental factors including chemicals, drugs, microbes and both physical and psychological factors can affect the immune system producing dysfunction and, ultimately, an increased risk ofchronic disease. Several different types of immune alterations can result from e...

  12. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  13. Endocrine and cytokine responses to standardized physical stress in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, Christoph; Gold, Stefan M; Hartmann, Sten; Mladek, Mila; Reer, Rüdiger; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Wiedemann, Klaus; Schulz, Karl-Heinz

    2003-12-01

    Since the earliest descriptions psychological and physical stress has been considered a controversial but potentially important factor in the onset and course of multiple sclerosis (MS). During recent years it has become clear that MS patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training. As acute exercise has profound effects on immune and endocrine parameters we studied endocrine and immune response to standardized physical stress in MS within a study of aerobic training. Fifteen MS patients completed an eight-week aerobic training program, 13 patients were part of a wait-control group. Twenty healthy controls were recruited as well. A step-by-step bicycle ergometry was performed to determine individual exertion levels. For the endurance test patients exercised at 60% VO2 max for 30 min. Blood samples were drawn before, directly after and 30 min after completion of the exercise. Heart rate and lactate increased in all groups (pendorphin; all p<.0001) in healthy individuals and in MS patients but without a differential effect. Whole-blood stimulated production of IFN-gamma (IFNgamma) was induced similarly in all groups (p<.01). TNF-alpha (TNFalpha) and IL-10 were less inducible in MS patients (trend). From these data we could not demonstrate a proinflammatory immune deviation in response to physical stress in MS. The observed trend of hyporesponsive TNFalpha and IL-10 responses in MS warrants further investigation. PMID:14583239

  14. New-tools to assess the toxicological hazard of endocrine disruptor organoclorine contaminants in Mediterranean cetaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Cristina Fossi; Marsili, L.; Casini, S. [Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Siena (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The Mediterranean top predators, and particularly cetacean odontocetes, accumulate high concentrations of organochlorine contaminants (OCs), incurring high toxicological risk. Some organochlorine compounds, now with worldwide distribution, are known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Four types of organochlorine endocrine disruptors are commonly found in Mediterranean cetaceans: (1) environmental estrogens, (2) environmental androgens, (3) anti-estrogens and (4) anti-androgens. Endocrine disruptors act by mimicking sex steroid hormones, both estrogens and androgens, by binding to hormone receptors or influencing cell pathways (environmental estrogens and androgens), or by blocking and altering hormone receptor binding (anti-estrogens, antiandrogens). Environmental estrogens are the most common and most widely studied EDCs. The relative estrogenic power of these chemicals, identified by in vitro and in vivo screening methods is rather weak (10{sup -3} or less) compared with the reference power of 17-estradiol or DES. However, the high levels of organochlorine compounds detected in marine mammals, particularly in pinnipeds and odontocetes, and consequently, the high levels of organochlorines with ED capacity, cannot be ignored. Here the hypothesis that some Mediterranean cetaceans (Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus and Balaenoptera physalus) are ''potentially at risk'' due to organochlorines with endocrine disrupting capacity is investigated using new non-lethal tools. As ''diagnostic'' tool we use benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase (CYP1A1) activity in skin biopsies (non-lethal biomarker) as a potential indicator of exposure to organochlorines, with special reference to the compounds with endocrine disrupting capacity. As ''prognostic'' tool we propose the immunofluorescence technique in fibroblast cell cultures, for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the target

  15. Manifestations of Immune Privilege in the Human Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary F Clark

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Like other mucosal surfaces (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the human female reproductive tract acts as an initial barrier to foreign antigens. In this role, the epithelial surface and subepithelial immune cells must balance protection against pathogenic insults against harmful inflammatory reactions and acceptance of particular foreign antigens. Two common examples of these acceptable foreign antigens are the fetal allograft and human semen/sperm. Both are purposely deposited into the female genital tract and appropriate immunologic response to these non-self antigens is essential to the survival of the species. In light of the weight of this task, it is not surprising that multiple, redundant and overlapping mechanisms are involved. For instance, cells at the immunologic interface between self (female reproductive tract epithelium and non-self (placental trophoblast cells or human sperm express glycosylation patterns that mimic those on many metastatic cancer cells and successful pathogens. The cytokine/chemokine milieu at this interface is altered through endocrine and immunologic mechanisms to favor tolerance of non-self. The foreign cells themselves also play an integral role in their own immunologic acceptance, since sperm and placental trophoblast cells are unusual and unique in their antigen presenting molecule expression patterns. Here, we will discuss these and other mechanisms that allow the human female reproductive tract to perform this delicate and indispensible balancing act.

  16. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  17. 环境内分泌干扰物与kisspeptin系统%Environmental endocrine disruptors and kisspeptin system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹(综述); 陈瑞敏(审校)

    2014-01-01

    环境内分泌干扰物( environmental endocrine disruptors,EED)对性发育的影响越来越受到关注。 Kisspeptin系统是EED干扰下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴新靶点。 EED的雌激素特性使其能够对kisspeptin系统产生影响,从而导致一系列改变,如青春启动时间改变、生育障碍及代谢紊乱。目前主要对三种干扰kisspeptin信号传导途径的EED进行了研究,包括双酚A、多氯联苯和植物雌激素染料异黄酮。%Environmental endocrine disruptors have garnered considerable attention in recent years be-cause of their endocrine disruption on sex development disorders. Kisspeptin system might be a novel target for endocrine disruption at the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis. Environmental endocrine disruptors′estrogenic properties make them capable of interacting with the kisspeptin system,and then confer lifelong consequences in-cluding altered pubertal timing, infertility, and metabolic disorders. To date, three compounds have been well studied for their capacity to interfere with kisspeptin signaling pathways:BPA,PCB mixtures,and the phytoestro-gen GEN.

  18. Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine-disrupting compounds and developmental timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D.A.; Janssen, S.J.; Edwards, T.M.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health. DESIGN: Publications related to the contribution of EDCs to disorders of the ovary (aneuploidy, polycystic ovary syndrome, and altered cyclicity), uterus (endometriosis, uterine fibroids, fetal growth restriction......, and pregnancy loss), breast (breast cancer, reduced duration of lactation), and pubertal timing were identified, reviewed, and summarized at a workshop. CONCLUSION(S): The data reviewed illustrate that EDCs contribute to numerous human female reproductive disorders and emphasize the sensitivity of early life...

  19. Chromosomal instability in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Cytogenetic evaluation with DEB test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, P; Cometa, G; Del Vecchio, E; Baserga, M; Faccioli, P; Bosoni, D; Paolucci, G; Barbara, L

    1995-02-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant condition with high penetrance and variable expressivity, in which tumors or hyperplasia occur in two or more endocrine organs. Some authors have investigated chromosomal instability in MEN 1 and MEN 2; the results are controversial. Chromosome analyses were performed on lymphocytes from seven patients with MEN 1, four healthy first-degree relatives (three of whom were children), six phenotypically normal volunteers, and three patients with Fanconi's anemia. To evaluate chromosomal instability we analyzed phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocyte cultures with and without diepoxibutane. We observed an increase in the frequency of spontaneous chromosomal alterations in four patients. After the DEB test we found an increase in chromatid breakages, gaps, and exchange figures. These findings support the inclusion of the MEN 1 syndrome among the disorders with "chromosomal instability." PMID:7889502

  20. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in polycystic ovary syndrome: an evidence-based minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E. Georgescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a plurifactorial endocrine disorder, affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age to result inhyperandrogenia, anovulation and infertility, metabolic syndrome and enhanced cardiovascular risk. Animal experiments unraveled that preandearly postnatal exposure of female offspring to testosterone or bisphenol A (BPA, one synthetic, organic plasticizers component may inducea PCOS-like developmental pattern in adulthood. In contrast to other endocrine-disruption chemicals, information on BPA exposure inbiological indicators and wildlife is scarce. On the other hand, the ability of BPA to alter ovarian steroidogenesis has been demonstrated in severalcell culture models. In line with that, preliminary clinical studies demonstrated elevated serum and urinary BPA levels in PCOS patients.Nonetheless, a causative role of BPA in PCOS is still under debate and further studies on the topic are warranted.

  1. Neuro - functional and endocrine findings in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied the neuro-functional findings demonstrated by SPECT in a group of 7 patients diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and their correlation with endocrinological and clinical variables. Brain perfusion was assessed using SPECT Tc99m - ECD. The Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) for post traumatic stress disorder and the abbreviated version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to corroborate clinical impressions. Endocrine measures included: T3, total T4, TSH and cortisol levels. Neuro-functional findings included abnormal radiopharmaceutical uptake in regions involved in the recovery of verbal memories and executive functions (frontal and pre-frontal cortex), and limbic system. No endocrine alterations affecting thyroid or cortisol levels were found. The broad distribution of neuro-functional abnormalities causes us to hypothesize a diffuse etiologic mechanism, possibly involving a dysfunction in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier due to an underlying inflammatory process

  2. Medical Treatment of Endocrine Gastroenteropancreatic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Tomassetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic (GEP tumors are rather rare neoplasms with an incidence of 1-2 cases per 100,000 people [1, 2, 3, 4]. They originate from any of the various cell types belonging to the neuroendocrine system. A general characteristic of GEP endocrine tumors is that the vast majority produce and secrete a multitude of peptide hormones and amines. Several syndromes can be associated with GEP endocrine tumors, caused by hyperproduction of a specific hormone, and usually liver metastases are pre sent in patients because of the malignancy of the tumors [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. The syndromes include: carcinoid syndrome [10], Zollinger- Ellison syndrome [6], the so-called "insulinoma syndrome" [5], "glucagonoma syndrome" [7], Verner-Morrison syndrome, which is brought about by high circulating levels of vasointestinal peptide (VIP [8], and finally the "somatostatinoma syndrome" [9].

  3. Removal of Endocrine Disruptors from Contaminated Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maléterová, Ywetta; Křesinová, Zdena; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Spáčilová, Lucie; Šolcová, Olga

    Bratislava : AXIMA Graphics Design and Printing Services, 2012 - (Markoš, J.), s. 67 ISBN 978-80-89475-04-9. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /39./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 21.05.2012-25.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804; GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : photocatalysis * endocrine disruptors * water cleaning Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  4. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa; Fernandes, Rúben

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of n...

  5. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  6. Lifelong endocrine fluctuations and related cognitive disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Ritchie, Karen

    2005-01-01

    International audience The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between endocrine fluctuation and cognitive functioning. A plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies has demonstrated the neuroprotective role of estrogens and their impact on the neurotransmitter systems implicated in cognition. Recent hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) trials in non-demented post-menopausal women suggest a temporary positive effect (notably on verbal memory), and four recent meta-analyses converg...

  7. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1999-01-01

    A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells is...... described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins....

  8. Electromagnetic Fields and Human Endocrine System

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Karasek; Marta Woldanska-Okonska

    2004-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) are commonly present in daily life all over the world. Moreover, EMF are used in the physiotherapy of many diseases because of their beneficial effects. There is widespread public concern that EMF may have potential consequences for human health. Although experimental animal studies indicate that EMF may influence secretion of some hormones, the data on the effects of EMF on human endocrine system are scarce. Most of the results concent...

  9. The Effects of Nanomaterials as Endocrine Disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Bergamaschi; Luca Fontana; Veruscka Leso; Ivo Iavicoli

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, nanoparticles have been increasingly used in several industrial, consumer and medical applications because of their unique physico-chemical properties. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that these properties are also closely associated with detrimental health effects. There is a serious lack of information on the potential nanoparticle hazard to human health, particularly on their possible toxic effects on the endocrine system. This topic is of primary i...

  10. Photocatalytical Arrangement for the Endocrine Disruptor Decontamination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morozová, Magdalena; Spáčilová, Lucie; Maléterová, Ywetta; Beneš, Ondřej; Dragounová, Pavlína; Šolcová, Olga

    Bratislava: AXIMA Graphics Design & Printing Services, 2014, s. 25 ISBN 978-80-89475-13-1. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /41./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA03010548 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * photocatalytical wastewater treatment * titanium dioxide Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  11. Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T

    2015-12-01

    This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health. PMID:26414233

  12. Esterification of vertebrate like steroids in molluscs: a target of endocrine disruptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Joaquim-Justo, Célia

    2013-11-01

    Alterations of the reproductive organs of gastropod molluscs exposed to pollutants have been reported in natural populations for more than 40 years. In some cases, these impacts have been linked to exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are known to induce adverse impacts on vertebrates, mainly by direct binding to steroid receptors or by altering hormone synthesis. Investigations on the mechanisms of action of endocrine disruptors in molluscs show that EDCs induce modifications of endogenous titres of androgens (e.g., testosterone, androstenedione) and oestrogens (e.g., 17ß-oestradiol). Alterations of the activity of enzymes related to steroid metabolism (i.e., cytochrome P-450 aromatase, acyltransferases) are also often observed. In bivalves and gastropods, fatty acid esterification of steroids might constitute the major regulation of androgen and oestrogen homeostasis. The present review indicates that metabolism of steroid hormones to fatty acid esters might be a target of synthetic EDCs. Alterations of this process would impact the concentrations of free, potentially bioactive, form of steroids. PMID:24004916

  13. Integrative assessment of enantioselectivity in endocrine disruption and immunotoxicity of synthetic pyrethroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing release of chiral chemicals into the environment dictates attention to a better understanding of enantioselectivity in their human and ecotoxicological effects. Although enantioselectivity has been considered in many recent studies, there is little effort for discerning the connection between different processes, and as such, our current knowledge about chiral contaminants is rather scattered and incoherent. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated enantioselectivity of two chiral pesticides, lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) and (Z)-cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF), in immunotoxicity to macrophage cells (RAW264.7), and endocrine disruption activity in human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Analysis of cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and receptor gene expression showed significant differences between the enantiomers of LCT or cis-BF in estrogenic potential and immunocytotoxicity. The selectivity in these effects consistently followed the same direction, with (-)-LCT or 1S-cis-BF displaying a greater activity than its counterpart. The consistency was attributed to interplaying mechanisms in the closely interacting immune and endocrine systems. The underlying interplays suggest that other chiral xenobiotics may also show a directional enantioselectivity in immunotoxicity and endocrine toxicity. Given that many biological processes are inter-related, enantioselectivity may follow specific patterns that can be revealed via integrative assessments as demonstrated in this study. - Chiral contaminants should consider multiple effects and relate directions of enantioselectivity to their interplaying processes.

  14. Echinoderm immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE García-Arrarás

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals that, after the chordates, represent the second largest group of deuterostomes. Their diverse species composition and singular ecological niches provide at the same time challenges and rewards when studying the broad range of responses that make up their immune mechanisms. Two types of responses comprise the immune system of echinoderms: a cellular response and a humoral one. Cell-based immunity is carried by the celomocytes, a morphologically heterogeneous population of free roaming cells that are capable of recognizing and neutralizing pathogens. Celomocytes present diverse morphologies and functions, which include phagocytosis, encapsulation, clotting, cytotoxicity, wound healing among others. Humoral immunity is mediated by a wide variety of secreted compounds that can be found in the celomic fluid and play important roles in defense against infection. Compounds such as lectins, agglutinins, perforins, complement and some cytokines make up some of the humoral responses of echinoderms. Recent advances in the field of molecular biology, genomics and transcriptomics have allowed for the discovery of new immune genes and their products. These discoveries have expanded our knowledge of echinoderm immunity and are setting up the stage for future experiments to better understand the evolution of the immune mechanisms of deuterostomes

  15. Immunity booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae558) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as food

  16. Criteria for endocrine disrupters: report from the Danish centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Annemarie; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Bay, Katrine

    The aim of this session is to give a presentation of the report (both ENV and HH) on criteria carried out by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS) as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. CEHOS is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls and...... the main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather new knowledge on endocrine disrupters (EDs) with focus on information needed for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The aim of the report was to propose scientific criteria for the identification of ED substances of concern for...... available data: 1. Confirmed ED, 2a. Suspected ED and 2b. Indicated ED. The report describes the scientific evidence needed for fulfilling these criteria based on the OECD Conceptual Framework for endocrine testing and assessment. It considers non-test methods, test methods, epidemiology and field studies...

  17. Immunity challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, R John

    2003-06-11

    As people get older, their immune systems falter. The elderly are more susceptible to infections than youngsters are, and hyperactive inflammatory responses appear to contribute to some age-associated illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. Investigating the effect of aging on the immune system was once a scientific stepchild, but card-carrying immunologists are now tackling the problem head-on. Despite the immune system's complexity, researchers have started to make sense of how its components change with age. As the research progresses, scientists hope to bolster elderly people's response to infectious diseases and quiet the inflammation that can make aging a painful experience. PMID:12844525

  18. Efficient immunization strategies to prevent financial contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Hasui, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    Many immunization strategies have been proposed to prevent infectious viruses from spreading through a network. In this work, we study efficient immunization strategies to prevent a default contagion that might occur in a financial network. An essential difference from the previous studies on immunization strategy is that we take into account the possibility of serious side effects. Uniform immunization refers to a situation in which banks are ``vaccinated'' with a common low-risk asset. The riskiness of immunized banks will decrease significantly, but the level of systemic risk may increase due to the de-diversification effect. To overcome this side effect, we propose another immunization strategy, called counteractive immunization, which prevents pairs of banks from failing simultaneously. We find that counteractive immunization can efficiently reduce systemic risk without altering the riskiness of individual banks.

  19. Efficient immunization strategies to prevent financial contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Hasui, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    Many immunization strategies have been proposed to prevent infectious viruses from spreading through a network. In this work, we study efficient immunization strategies to prevent a default contagion that might occur in a financial network. An essential difference from the previous studies on immunization strategy is that we take into account the possibility of serious side effects. Uniform immunization refers to a situation in which banks are "vaccinated" with a common low-risk asset. The riskiness of immunized banks will decrease significantly, but the level of systemic risk may increase due to the de-diversification effect. To overcome this side effect, we propose another immunization strategy, called counteractive immunization, which prevents pairs of banks from failing simultaneously. We find that counteractive immunization can efficiently reduce systemic risk without altering the riskiness of individual banks. PMID:24452277

  20. Interactions between the immune and nervous systems in pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Immune cells and glia interact with neurons to alter pain sensitivity and to mediate the transition from acute to chronic pain. In response to injury, resident immune cells are activated and blood-borne immune cells are recruited to the site of injury. Immune cells not only contribute to immune protection but also initiate the sensitization of peripheral nociceptors. Through the synthesis and release of inflammatory mediators and interactions with neurotransmitters and their receptors, the im...

  1. 合并脓毒症的肝移植患者免疫状态的变化特点%Alterations of immune status in liver transplant patients with sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏如; 汪根树; 汪国营; 张琪; 陈规划

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the alterations of immune status in liver transplant recipients with sepsis so as to provide rationales for the adjustments of immunosuppressive agents.Methods A total of 47 cases complicated with sepsis after abdominal operations from January 2009 to December 2010 were divided into 4 groups according to the type of operations and the stage of sepsis:A.sepsis after transplantation ( TS,n =11 ),B.severe sepsis after transplantation ( TSS,n =10),C.sepsis without transplantation ( NTS,n =15) and D.severe sepsis without transplantation (NTSS,n =11 ).Ten healthy volunteers were selected as the control group.Blood samples were collected from these patients to measure the immunological parameters associated with T lymphocyte.Results The APACH Ⅱ and SOFA score of TSS group and NTSS group were both higher than TS group and NTS group respectively (all P < 0.01 ). In addition,SOFA score in TSS group was significantly higher than that in NTSS group ( 17.0 + 4.5 vs 12.1 ± 2.8,P < 0.01 ).The percentages of T cell in 4 groups were all significantly lower than healthy volunteers ( all P < 0.01 ).The CD4/CD8 ratio was slightly lower in the TSS group than those in the control group and the other three groups ( P =0.095 ).As compared with the control group,the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratios were significant lower in the TSS and NTSS groups (0.039 +0.012,0.047 ± 0.018 vs 0.062 + 0.006) while the level of IL-10 was higher ( (32.6±7.5),(25.9 +4.3) vs (8.2 ± 1.4)ng/L,all P <0.05).And the difference was more significant in the TSS group.As compared with the healther,the percentage of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg was lower in NTS group (2.21% ± 0.96% vs 4.06% ± 0.52%,P < 0.01 ),and significantly higher in NTSS group (8.02% ± 3.57% vs 4.06% ±0.52%,P =0.003).No significant difference existed in the percentage of Treg between the TS and control groups (P =0.398).And it was significantly higher that in the TSS group (5.16% ±0.99% vs 4.06% ±0

  2. Premenopausal endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: who receives chemotherapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, M. M.; Pagani, O; Walley, B; et al, ...; Stahel, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of chemotherapy in addition to combined endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer remains an open question, yet trials designed to answer it have repeatedly failed to adequately accrue. The International Breast Cancer Study Group initiated two concurrent trials in this population: in Premenopausal Endocrine Responsive Chemotherapy (PERCHE), chemotherapy use is determined by randomization and in Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (...

  3. Alopecia With Endocrine Therapies in Patients With Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Saggar, Vishal; Wu, Shenhong; Dickler, Maura N.; Lacouture, Mario E.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the frequency of alopecia to cytotoxic chemotherapies has been well described, the incidence of alopecia during endocrine therapies (i.e., anti-estrogens, aromatase inhibitors) has not been investigated. We performed a systematic analysis of the literature to ascertain the incidence and risk for alopecia while receiving endocrine therapies and found that alopecia is a common yet underreported adverse event of endocrine-based cancer therapies.

  4. P2X receptor channels in endocrine glands

    OpenAIRE

    Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Zemkova, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The endocrine system is the system of ductless glands and single cells that synthetize hormones and release them directly into the bloodstream. Regulation of endocrine system is very complex and ATP and its degradable products ADP and adenosine contribute to its regulation acting as extracellular messengers for purinergic receptors. These include P2X receptors, a family of ligand-gated ion channels which expression and roles in endocrine tissues are reviewed here. There are seven mammalian pu...

  5. Environmental endocrine disruption: an effects assessment and analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Crisp, T M; Clegg, E D; Cooper, R. L.; Wood, W. P.; D. G. Anderson; Baetcke, K. P.; Hoffmann, J L; Morrow, M S; Rodier, D J; Schaeffer, J E; Touart, L W; Zeeman, M G; Patel, Y. M.

    1998-01-01

    This report is an overview of the current state of the science relative to environmental endocrine disruption in humans, laboratory testing, and wildlife species. Background information is presented on the field of endocrinology, the nature of hormones, and potential sites for endocrine disruption, with specific examples of chemicals affecting these sites. An attempt is made to present objectively the issue of endocrine disruption, consider working hypotheses, offer opposing viewpoints, analy...

  6. Adult Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Coskun

    2008-01-01

    Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years) require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored t...

  7. Development of some intestinal endocrine cell populations in water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castaldo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of different endocrine cell types in the gastrointestinal tract of large and small domestic mammals have been extensively studied (Ceccarelli et al. 1995; Agungpriyono et al.2000. Some studies have been also carried out on the ontogeny of gut endocrine cells in mammals (Ono et al. 1994, and only few in ruminant. (Kitamura et al. 1985; Guilloteau et al. 1997. In order to complete a previous study regarding postnatal development of intestinal endocrine cells (Lucini et al. 1999, in this study we report the appearance and distribution of some endocrine cell types in the gut of water buffalo during foetal development.

  8. Nuclear medicine imaging in the evaluation of endocrine hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punit Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine hypertension forms a small (< 5% but curable subset of patients with hypertension. Common endocrine causes of hypertension include pheochromocytoma, Cushing′s syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. Nuclear medicine imaging plays an important role in evaluation of patients with endocrine hypertension. It has established role in patients of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, Cushing′s syndrome, aldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. We present a brief overview of role of nuclear medicine imaging in endocrine hypertension. Development of newer radiotracers might further broaden the role of nuclear medicine in these patients.

  9. The eunuchs of India: An endocrine eye opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are established guidelines for the endocrine and overall treatment of transsexual persons. These guidelines provide information about the optimal endocrine management of male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual persons. India has a large community of eunuchs, also known as hijras, who are men with gender identity disorders. While this community has been studied from a social and medical point of new, no endocrine work has been done in them. This exploratory article tries to discuss the endocrine status, health, and management of the eunuchs.

  10. Endocrine active chemicals and endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes: implications for aquatic resources, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Blazer, Vicki; Keisling, Richard L.; Ferrey, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with St. Cloud State University, Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, and the University of Minnesota, has conducted field monitoring studies and laboratory research to determine the presence of endocrine active chemicals and the incidence of endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes during 1994–2008. Endocrine active chemicals are chemicals that interfere with the natural regulation of endocrine systems, and may mimic or block the function of natural hormones in fish or other organisms. This interference commonly is referred to as endocrine disruption. Indicators of endocrine disruption in fish include vitellogenin (female egg yolk protein normally expressed in female fish) in male fish, oocytes present in male fish testes, reduced reproductive success, and changes in reproductive behavior.

  11. Epigenetics and the Adaptive Immune Response

    OpenAIRE

    Kondilis-Mangum, Hrisavgi D.; Wade, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Cells of the adaptive immune response undergo dynamic epigenetic changes as they develop and respond to immune challenge. Plasticity is a necessary prerequisite for the chromosomal dynamics of lineage specification, development, and the immune effector function of the mature cell types. The alterations in DNA methylation and histone modification that characterize activation may be integral to the generation of immunologic memory, thereby providing an advantage on secondary exposure to pathoge...

  12. Prenatal immune challenge in rats: Altered responses to dopaminergic and glutamatergic agents, prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and reduced route-based learning as a function of maternal body weight gain after prenatal exposure to Poly IC

    OpenAIRE

    Vorhees, Charles V.; Graham, Devon L.; Braun, Amanda A.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Richtand, Neil M; Williams, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal maternal immune activation has been used to test the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Most of the data are in mouse models; far less is available for rats. We previously showed that maternal weight change in response to the immune activator polyinosinic-polycytidylic (Poly IC) in rats differentially affects offspring. Therefore, we treated gravid Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats i.p. on embryonic day 14 with 8 mg/kg of Poly IC or Saline. The Poly IC group was divided into th...

  13. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brown, Brian [Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Merad, Miriam [Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brody, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.brody@mssm.edu [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-04-30

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  14. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care

  15. Bed rest and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  16. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Upadhyay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  17. Immune regulation of ovarian development: programming by neonatal immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LubaSominsky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal immune challenge by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS produces enduring alterations in the development and activity of neuroendocrine, immune and other physiological systems. We have recently reported that neonatal exposure to an immune challenge by administration of LPS results in altered reproductive development in the female Wistar rat. Specifically, LPS-treated animals exhibited diminished ovarian reserve and altered reproductive lifespan. In the current study, we examined the cellular mechanisms that lead to the previously documented impaired ovulation and reduced follicular pool. Rats were administered intraperitoneally either 0.05mg/kg of LPS (Salmonella Enteritidis or an equivalent volume of non-pyrogenic saline on postnatal days (PNDs 3 and 5, and ovaries were obtained on PND 7. Microarray analysis revealed a significant upregulation in transcript expression (2-fold change; p<.05 for a substantial number of genes in the ovaries of LPS-treated animals, implicated in immune cell signalling, inflammatory responses, reproductive system development and disease. Several canonical pathways involved in immune recognition were affected by LPS treatment, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB activation and LPS-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling. Real-time PCR analysis supported the microarray results. Protein expression analysis of several components of the MAPK signalling pathway revealed a significant upregulation in the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in the neonatal ovary of LPS-treated animals. These results indicate that neonatal immune challenge by administration of LPS has a direct effect on the ovary during the sensitive period of follicular formation. Given the pivotal role of inflammatory processes in the regulation of reproductive health, our findings suggest that early life immune activation via TLR signalling may have significant implications for the programming of ovarian development

  18. Diazepam binding inhibitor and the endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostenson, C G; Ahrén, B; Johansson, O; Karlsson, S; Hilliges, M; Efendic, S

    1991-12-01

    Regulation of blood glucose homeostasis is complex. Its major hormonal regulators include insulin, glucagon and somatostatin from the endocrine pancreas. Secretion of these hormones is controlled predominantly by the supply of nutrients in the circulation but also by nerve signals and other peptides. Thus, it is likely that peptides, released from cells of the gut or endocrine pancreas or from peptidergic nerves, affect glucose homeostasis by modulating the secretion of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin. When searching for novel gut peptides with such effects, diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) was isolated from the porcine small intestine. By immunocytochemistry, DBI has been demonstrated to occur not only in the gut but also in endocrine cells of the pancreatic islets, namely in the somatostatin-producing D-cells in pig and man, and in the glucagon-producing A-cells in rat. Porcine DBI (pDBI; 10(-8)-10(-7) M) has been shown to suppress glucose-stimulated release of insulin from both isolated islets and perfused pancreas of the rat. Furthermore, secretion of insulin stimulated by either the sulfonylurea glibenclamide or the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), was inhibited by the peptide. In contrast, arginine-induced release of insulin was unaffected by pDBI. Moreover, pDBI decreased arginine-induced release of glucagon from the perfused rat pancreas, whereas release of somatostatin was unchanged. Notably, rat DBI, structurally identical with rat acyl-CoA-binding protein, has also been demonstrated to inhibit glucose-stimulated release of insulin in the rat, both in vivo and in vitro. Long-term exposure of cultured fetal rat islets to pDBI (10(-8) M) significantly decreased the synthesis of DNA in islet cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1780037

  19. Well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the difference from poorly differentiated, well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are the tumours in whom with aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved. Objective. The aim of the study was to point out the importance of such treatment. Methods. Over a 6-year period eight patients (seven female and one male of average age 51 years (ranging from 23 to 71 years were operated on for well differentiated endocrine carcinoma: six of the head and two of the tail of the pancreas. There were two functional and six nonfunctional tumours. Pain in the upper part of the abdomen in seven, mild loss in weight in two, strong heartburn in two, obstructive jaundice in three, diarrhoea in one, sudden massive bleeding from gastric varicosities due to prehepatic portal hypertension caused by pancreatic head tumour in one, and bruise in one patient were registered preoperatively. US and CT in all, angiography in one, octreoscan in two and PET scan in one patient were performed. Whipple’s procedure was performed in six and distal pancreatectomy in two patients, as well as systemic lymphadenectomy in all and excision of liver secondary tumours in two patients. In the patient with massive gastric bleeding a total gastrectomy was performed first, followed by Whipple’s procedure a month later. Results. R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Lymph nodes metastases were found in six patients. Six patients were given chemotherapy. One patient died 3 years after surgery, seven are still alive, on average 2.5 years. A local recurrence after distal pancreatectomy that occurred 5 years after surgery was successfully reresected and the patient is on peptide-receptor radiotherapy. In other six patients there were no local recurence or distant metastases. Conclusion. With aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved in well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas.

  20. Endocrine and paracrine role of bile acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Keitel, Ralf Kubitz, Dieter Häussinger

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids are not only important for the absorption of dietary lipids and fat soluble vitamins but are signalling molecules with diverse endocrine and paracrine functions. Bile acids regulate bile acid, lipid and glucose metabolism and modulate temperature and energy homeostasis. Furthermore, bile acids can not only promote cell proliferation and liver regeneration but can also induce programmed cell death. Bile acid functions are mediated through different pathways which comprise the activation of nuclear hormone receptors, of intracellular kinases and of the plasma membrane-bound, G-protein coupled bile acid receptor TGR5/Gpbar-1.

  1. History of the endocrine effects of licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, D; Fiore, C; Mattarello, M J; Bielenberg, J; Palermo, M

    2002-09-01

    The history of licorice as an officinal plant dates back thousands of years, and licorice is still appreciated as a medicinal root. Many of its endocrine properties can be derived from observations of Authors of the ancient world, when hormones were not known. Inappropriate use of licorice can produce pseudoaldosteronism, by inactivating 11beta-hydroxysteroiod-dehydrogenase and by binding to mineralocorticoid receptors. Licorice possesses many other therapeutic properties as to potentiate the action of cortisol, to reduce testosterone synthesis, especially in women, to exert an estrogen-like activity and to reduce body fat mass. The chronological development of research on these effects is described. PMID:12373628

  2. Effect of endocrine disruptors on mammalian fertlity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pěknicová, Jana; Nováková, Vendula; Buckiová, Daniela; Boubelík, Michael

    Moskva : Medi Expo, 2008, s. 60-61. ISBN 978-5-94943-043-9. [European Congress of Reproductive Immunology /6./. Moskva (RU), 30.06.2008-03.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06151; GA MŠk(CZ) OE 211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701; CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * mammalian fertility * spermatozoa Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  3. Effect of endocrine disruptors on mammalian fertility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pěknicová, Jana; Nováková, Vendula; Buckiová, Daniela; Boubelík, Michael

    Sofia : Bulgarian Academy of Scientes, 2008, s. 1-75. [Scientific session dedicated to the 70th Anniversary of the Institute of biology and Immunology of Reproduction. Sofia (BG), 23.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EUREKA OE211; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * fertility * spermatozoa Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  4. Biomarker Genes for Detecting Estrogenic Activity of Endocrine Disruptors via Estrogen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Yang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (EDs are compounds used in various industrial products, drugs, and cosmetics. They can be found in the environment and disturb the endocrine and reproductive systems, resulting in adverse effects to humans and wildlife such as birth defects and developmental disorders. Since several EDs have a structure similar to that of endogenous steroid hormones such as estrogens, they intend to have an affinity for steroid hormone receptors and alter hormone-mediated metabolism by binding to these receptors. EDs are therefore a global concern and assays should be developed to efficiently determine whether these compounds are detrimental to biological systems. Diverse experimental methods may help determine the endocrine disrupting potential of EDs and evaluate the adverse effects of a single and/or combination of these reagents. Currently, biomarkers have been employed to objectively measure EDs potency and understand the underlying mechanisms. Further studies are required to develop ideal screening methods and biomarkers to determine EDs potency at environmentally relevant concentrations. In this review, we describe the biomarkers for estrogenicity of EDs identified both in vitro and in vivo, and introduce a biomarker, cabindin-D9k (CaBP-9k, that may be used to assess estrogenic activity of EDs.

  5. In vitro steroid profiling system for the evaluation of endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yosuke; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Masashi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine disruptors (ED) are chemicals that affect various aspects of the endocrine system, often leading to the inhibition of steroidogenesis. Current chemical safety policies that restrict human exposure to such chemicals describe often time-consuming and costly methods for the evaluation of ED effects. We aimed to develop an effective tool for accurate phenotypic chemical toxicology studies. We developed an in vitro ED evaluation system using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) methods for metabolomic analysis of multi-marker profiles. Accounting for sample preparation and GC/MS/MS conditions, we established a screening method that allowed the simultaneous analysis of 17 steroids with good reproducibility and a linear calibration curve. Moreover, we applied the developed system to H295R human adrenocortical cells exposed to forskolin and prochloraz in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines and observed dose-dependent variations in steroid profiles. While the OECD guidelines include only testosterone and 17β-estradiol, our system enabled a comprehensive and highly sensitive analysis of steroid profile alteration due to ED exposure. The application of our ED evaluation screen could be economical and provide novel insights into the hazards of ED exposure to the endocrine system. PMID:26979344

  6. A possible role for the canonical Wnt pathway in endocrine cell development in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnt signalling is involved in many developmental processes such as proliferation, differentiation, cell fate decisions, and morphogenesis. However, little is known about Wnt signalling during pancreas development. Multiple Wnt ligands and Frizzled receptors are expressed in the embryonic mouse pancreas, the surrounding mesenchyme, and have also been detected in the chicken endoderm during development. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of canonical Wnt signalling on endocrine cell development by use of the in ovo electroporation of the chicken endoderm. Overexpression with a constitutive active form of β-catenin in combination with Ngn3 resulted in reduced numbers of glucagon cells. dnLEF-1 or naked-1 did not alter endocrine cell differentiation when co-expressed with Ngn3, but dnLEF-1 appeared to have some potential for inhibiting delamination of Ngn3 cells. In addition, neuronal β-III-tubulin, which had previously been considered a specific marker for neuronal cells, was observed in the pancreas and was upregulated in the electroporated Ngn3 cells and thus may be a new endocrine marker in the chicken

  7. Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides by Capillary GC with Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Hrouzková

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals, among them many pesticides, alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans at very low concentration levels. Therefore, the importance of method development for their analysis in food and the environment is increasing. This also covers contributions in the field of ultra-trace analysis of multicomponent mixtures of organic pollutants in complex matrices. With this fact conventional capillary gas chromatography (CGC and fast CGC with mass spectrometric detection (MS has acquired a real importance in the analysis of endocrine disrupting pesticide (EDP residues. This paper provides an overview of GC methods, including sample preparation steps, for analysis of EDPs in a variety of matrices at ultra-trace concentration levels. Emphasis is put on separation method, mode of MS detection and ionization and obtained limits of detection and quantification. Analysis time is one of the most important aspects that should be considered in the choice of analytical methods for routine analysis. Therefore, the benefits of developed fast GC methods are important.

  8. Oxidative stress and immune disturbance after long-term exposure to bisphenol A in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenhui; Chen, Jingsi; Li, Yijie; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Lihui; Yang, Ming; Wu, Minghong

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, which poses an ecotoxicological risk to the health of aquatic organisms. However, the immunotoxic effects of its long-term exposure on fish have received limited attention. We examined a number of typical immune-related parameters and oxidative stress indices in the liver and blood serum of the red common carp (Cyprinus carpio), following a 30-day exposure to five different concentrations of BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/L). A significant increase in the hepato somatic index was observed in fish upon exposure to 1000µg/L BPA, which correlated strongly with the accumulated BPA concentrations in fish bile. Induced oxidative stress was also apparent in the exposed fish liver, based on the enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation and inhibited activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Serum lysozyme and C-reaction protein levels increased at low concentrations of exposure; however, they were significantly suppressed upon exposure to high concentrations. A significant increase was observed in the levels of immunoglobulin M, complement component 3, and alkaline phosphatase, in both fish liver and serum at low doses of 0.1 and 1μg/L. This suggests that long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA (even as low as 0.1μg/L) could significantly disturb the immune response of fish. Moreover, RXRα expression in the liver was significantly altered upon BPA exposure and the trend underlying this change correlated closely with those of the most immune-related parameters, implying the involvement of the PPARγ/RXRα signaling pathway in regulating the immune response of fish upon long-term BPA exposure. In short, our results demonstrate the susceptibility of fish immune system to long-term BPA exposure. Therefore, the immunotoxicity of EDCs in aquatic organisms should not have been underestimated. PMID:27088622

  9. [Endocrine obesity: bioelectric profiles (biotypes) detected in the body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Petitti, T

    2004-09-01

    136 patients were selected (16 men and 120 women with non-specific menstrual disturbances) with a BMI (Body Mass Index) between 25 and 45 kg/m2, which were diagnosed with "disendocrinia" (GH deficit, hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidsm, hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle disorders). The proposed approach, based on the visualization of the value distribution of the electric measures in different graphics, is able to immediately explain the bioelectric state of the individual's lean-mass. Subjects with hypothyroidism present, along with their overweight, less bio-conducting mass, with an altered fluid intra/extra-cellular distribution. Patients with hyperadrenocorticism show instead an hyperhydratation of the body mass, especially in the extracellular level. Patients with menstrual disorders (amenorrea, polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulatory cycle etc...) present a lean mass reduction (elevated Rs) and an increase of the intra-cellular compartment (elevated-Xc). Patients with hyper-androgenism (and hirsutism) show a characteristic bioelectric "pattern", with low Rs levels and high Xc levels. Subjects with GH deficit (men and women), has a trend of documenting bioelectric measures with lower lean mass and higher fat-mass. Different electric biotypes seem to characterize the body composition in the several endocrine disorders. PMID:15700636

  10. Bisphenol A, an endocrine-disrupting chemical, and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2012-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical, widely used in various industries and the field of dentistry. The consequent increase in BPA exposure among humans has led us to some concerns regarding the potential deleterious effects on reproduction and brain development. The emphasis of this review is on the effects of prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA on brain development in mice. We demonstrated that prenatal exposure to BPA affected fetal murine neocortical development by accelerating neuronal differentiation/migration during the early embryonic stage, which was associated with up- and down-regulation of the genes critical for brain development, including the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. In the adult mice brains, both abnormal neocortical architecture and abnormal corticothalamic projections persisted in the group exposed to the BPA. Functionally, BPA exposure disturbed murine behavior, accompanied with a disrupted neurotransmitter system, including monoamines, in the postnatal development period and in adult mice. We also demonstrated that epigenetic alterations in promoter-associated CpG islands might underlie some of the effects on brain development after exposure to BPA. PMID:22239237

  11. Side Effects of Neem Oil on the Midgut Endocrine Cells of the Green Lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, E L; Santos, D C

    2014-04-01

    We described the ultrastructure of Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás) midgut endocrine cells in larva, pupa, and adult, and evaluated the side effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), on these cells. During the larval period, C. claveri were fed (ad libitum) Diatraea saccharalis (F.) eggs treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, or 2%. Transmission electron microscopy showed that two subtypes of endocrine cells, namely granular and vesicular, occurred in the midgut epithelium during the three stages of the life cycle. Both cell types did not reach the midgut lumen and were positioned basally in the epithelium. The endocrine cells did not show extensive infoldings of the basal plasma membrane, and there were numerous secretory granules in the basal region of the cytoplasm. In the granular endocrine cells, the granules were completely filled with a dense matrix. In the vesicular endocrine cells, the main secretory products consisted of haloed vesicles. Ultrastructural examination indicated that only the granular endocrine cells exhibited signs of morphologic changes of cell injury present in all life cycle stages after the larvae were chronically exposed to neem oil by ingestion. The major cellular damage consisted of dilatation and vesiculation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial swelling. Our data suggest that cytotoxic effects on midgut endocrine cells can contribute to a generalized disruption of the physiological processes in this organ due to a general alteration of endocrine function. PMID:27193522

  12. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis. PMID:27242782

  13. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis. PMID:27242782

  14. Cancer epigenetics: a perspective on the role of DNA methylation in acquired endocrine resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael P. Trimarchi; Mary Mouangsavanh; Tim Hui-Ming Huang

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms,including DNA methylation,are responsible for determining and maintaining cell fate,stably differentiating the various tissues in our bodies.Increasing evidence shows that DNA methylation plays a significant role in cancer,from the silencing of tumor suppressors to the activation of oncogenes and the promotion of metastasis.Recent studies also suggest a role for DNA methylation in drug resistance.This perspective article discusses how DNA methylation may contribute to the development of acquired endocrine resistance,with a focus on breast cancer.In addition,we discuss DNA methylome profiling and how recent developments in this field are shedding new light on the role of epigenetics in endocrine resistance.Hormone ablation is the therapy of choice for hormone-sensitive breast tumors,yet as many as 40% of patients inevitably relapse,and these hormone refractory tumors often have a poor prognosis.Epigenetic studies could provide DNA methylation biomarkers to predict and diagnose acquired resistance in response to treatment.Elucidation of epigenetic mechanisms may also lead to the development of new treatments that specifically target epigenetic abnormalities or vulnerabilities in cancer cells.Expectations must be tempered by the fact that epigenetic mechanisms of endocrine resistance remain poorly understood,and further study is required to better understand how altering epigenetic pathways with therapeutics can promote or inhibit endocrine resistance in different contexts.Going forward,DNA methylome profiling will become increasingly central to epigenetic research,heralding a network-based approach to epigenetics that promises to advance our understanding of the etiology of cancer in ways not previously possible.

  15. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  16. Thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae after exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Zhai

    Full Text Available Phthalates are extensively used as plasticizers in a variety of daily-life products, resulting in widespread distribution in aquatic environments. However, limited information is available on the endocrine disrupting effects of phthalates in aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, the hydrolytic metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP disrupts thyroid endocrine system in fish. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos were exposed to different concentrations of MEHP (1.6, 8, 40, and 200 μg/L from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf to 168 hpf. The whole-body content of thyroid hormone and transcription of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis were examined. Treatment with MEHP significantly decreased whole-body T4 contents and increased whole-body T3 contents, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. The upregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2 and UGT1ab might be responsible for decreased T4 contents. Elevated gene transcription of Dio1 was also observed in this study, which might assist to degrade increased T3 contents. Exposure to MEHP also significantly induced transcription of genes involved in thyroid development (Nkx2.1 and Pax8 and thyroid hormone synthesis (TSHβ, NIS and TG. However, the genes encoding proteins involved in TH transport (transthyretin, TTR was transcriptionally significantly down-regulated after exposure to MEHP. Overall, these results demonstrate that acute exposure to MEHP alters whole-body contents of thyroid hormones in zebrafish embryos/larvae and changes the transcription of genes involved in the HPT axis, thus exerting thyroid endocrine toxicity.

  17. Endocrine disrupters: the new players able to affect the epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Lavinia; Sendra, Ramon; Sibilia, Valeria; Celotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics represents the way by which the environment is able to program the genome; there are three main levels of epigenetic control on genome: DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and microRNA expression. The term Epigenetics has been widened by NIH to include "both heritable changes in gene activity and expression but also stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable." These changes might be produced mostly by the early life environment and might affect health influencing the susceptibility to develop diseases, from cancer to mental disorder, during the entire life span. The most studied environmental influences acting on epigenome are diet, infections, wasting, child care, smoking and environmental pollutants, in particular endocrine disrupters (EDs). These are environmental xenobiotics able to interfere with the normal development of the male and female reproductive systems of wildlife, of experimental animals and possibly of humans, disrupting the normal reproductive functions. Data from literature indicate that EDs can act at different levels of epigenetic control, in some cases transgenerationally, in particular when the exposure to these compounds occurs during the prenatal and earliest period of life. Some of the best characterized EDs will be considered in this review. Among the EDs, vinclozolin (VZ), and methoxychlor (MXC) promote epigenetic transgenerational effects. Polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), the most widespread environmental EDs, affect histone post-translational modifications in a dimorphic way, possibly as the result of an alteration of gene expression of the enzymes involved in histone modification, as the demethylase Jarid1b, an enzyme also involved in regulating the interaction of androgens with their receptor. PMID:26151052

  18. Endocrine-Manifestations of Cirrhosis and Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khalili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The liver is involved in the synthesis and metabolism of many kinds of hormones, various abnormalities hormone levels are found in advanced liver disease. For example the liver is, extremely sensitive to changes in insulin or glucagon levels. The liver is the primary organ of iron storage is frequently involved, diabetes is common in patients with iron overload and may be seen in cirrhosis. Chronic infection with HCV is associated with insulin resistance. Thyroid disease often accompanies chronic hepatitis C infection .Anti thyroid autoantibodies are also found in chronic HCV infection. Nonalcoholic liver disease (NAFLDas a most common cause of chronic liver disease in western world ,as well accompanied by Type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Hypopituitarism and hypothyroidism also have been in NAFLD.The patients with NAFLD and Hypopituitarism may be susceptible to central obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance leading to disease progression. Hepatic cirrhosis as the end stage of chronic liver disease is also associated with hypogonadism and signs of feminization. The peripheral metabolism of steroids is altered in many of hypogonadism, low testosterone level decreased libido, infertility, reduced secondary sex hair and gynecomastia, reduced spermatogenesis and peritubular fibrosis are found in men with cirrhosis .The normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis is affected in liver disease. In cirrhotic patients the estrogen/androgen ratio is usually increased, the level of testosterone and dihydroepiandosteron are reduced while the estradiol level are normal or slightly elevated, these alterations are dependent on the severity of the liver disease.Succsesfull orthotropic liver transplantation  leads to improvement of the sex hormone disturbances. The pathogenesis of gynecomastia is due to the loss of equilibrium between estrogen and androgen caused by a feminizing state but it is due to increased estrogen precursor in

  19. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioiosa, Laura; Palanza, Paola; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2015-01-01

    We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD) 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure) or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure) to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls). Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18) with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d). Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable. PMID:26740806

  20. Endocrinal investigations on Sudanese malnourished children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition showed a high incidence among Sudanese children under five years of age. It affects directly the endocrine system of such children. In this the thyroid gland selected as a very important endocrine organ to be studied in 49 malnourished children under five years. Other 20 well- nourished children were selected to act as a control subjects . Both study and control groups were match for age and sex. The patients were seen and assessed for the disease in different hospital in Khartoum by consultant pediatrician. Thyroid function (thyroxineT4 and Triiodothyronine) was tested with a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. Some other biochemical parameters (hemoglobin Hb % total protein) were also investigated for the two groups (Patients and control) to confirm malnutrition. The means of the investigated parameters of the patients were compared with those of control group. The results showed 20 % of the malnourished children was complained of sever hypothyroidism (T4<25μmol/I) and (T3<0.3μmol/I) considering the normal range (55-142μmol/I) and (0.8-3μmol/I) respectively. The difference was highly significant together. The patients group showed low level in the two parameters, which indicate malnutrition. The the thyroid function in the malnourished children was severely affected by malnutrition, and such a test is strongly recommended to be a routine investigation for malnourished children. ( Author)

  1. Sarcopenia and Age-Related Endocrine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, and an increased risk of fall-related injuries. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, numerous targets exist for drug discovery. In this paper, we summarize the current understanding of the endocrine contribution to sarcopenia and provide an update on hormonal intervention to try to improve endocrine defects. Myostatin inhibition seems to be the most interesting strategy for attenuating sarcopenia other than resistance training with amino acid supplementation. Testosterone supplementation in large amounts and at low frequency improves muscle defects with aging but has several side effects. Although IGF-I is a potent regulator of muscle mass, its therapeutic use has not had a positive effect probably due to local IGF-I resistance. Treatment with ghrelin may ameliorate the muscle atrophy elicited by age-dependent decreases in growth hormone. Ghrelin is an interesting candidate because it is orally active, avoiding the need for injections. A more comprehensive knowledge of vitamin-D-related mechanisms is needed to utilize this nutrient to prevent sarcopenia.

  2. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  3. Somatostatin receptors as markers for endocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reubi, J.C.

    1987-06-19

    Endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively rare neoplasias that secrete large amounts of peptide hormones such as insulin, glucagon, gastrin, or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These substances are usually responsible for the distinct clinical features observed in patients with such tumors. Although most are relatively slow growing tumors, they may lead in early stages to dramatic symptoms such as hypoglycemia, gastric ulcerations, or watery diarrhea. Unfortunately they are often difficult to localize precisely at that stage. Somatostatin, a tetradecapeptide that inhibits peptide hormone release in various sites such as the pituitary, the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract, has been shown recently to have beneficial effects when given chronically in the form of a stable non-degradable octapeptide analogue (SMS 201-995) in such gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. This essay demonstrates with autoradiographic techniques the very high density of somatostatin receptors in one case of human gastrinoma. A hematoxylineosin-stained histologic section reveals a well-defined, 2-mm-long tumor surrounded by normal tissue. After incubation of the section with an iodinated somatostatin analogue (/sup 125/I-(Leu, D-Trp, Tyr)-somatostatin-28), the distribution of somatostatin receptors was visualized on tritium-sensitive films after a one-week exposure of the section in x-ray cassettes.

  4. Somatostatin receptors as markers for endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively rare neoplasias that secrete large amounts of peptide hormones such as insulin, glucagon, gastrin, or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These substances are usually responsible for the distinct clinical features observed in patients with such tumors. Although most are relatively slow growing tumors, they may lead in early stages to dramatic symptoms such as hypoglycemia, gastric ulcerations, or watery diarrhea. Unfortunately they are often difficult to localize precisely at that stage. Somatostatin, a tetradecapeptide that inhibits peptide hormone release in various sites such as the pituitary, the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract, has been shown recently to have beneficial effects when given chronically in the form of a stable non-degradable octapeptide analogue (SMS 201-995) in such gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. This essay demonstrates with autoradiographic techniques the very high density of somatostatin receptors in one case of human gastrinoma. A hematoxylineosin-stained histologic section reveals a well-defined, 2-mm-long tumor surrounded by normal tissue. After incubation of the section with an iodinated somatostatin analogue (125I-[Leu, D-Trp, Tyr]-somatostatin-28), the distribution of somatostatin receptors was visualized on tritium-sensitive films after a one-week exposure of the section in x-ray cassettes

  5. Molecular targets of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) within the zebrafish ovary: Insights into TCDD-induced endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    King Heiden, Tisha C.; Struble, Craig A.; Rise, Matthew L.; Hessner, Martin J; Hutz, Reinhold J.; Carvan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    TCDD is a reproductive toxicant and endocrine disruptor, yet the mechanisms by which it causes these reproductive alterations are not fully understood. In order to provide additional insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie TCDD’s reproductive toxicity, we assessed TCDD-induced transcriptional changes in the ovary as they relate to previously described impacts on serum estradiol concentrations and altered follicular development in zebrafish. In-silico computational approaches were ...

  6. 76 FR 19692 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... endocrine disorders and their families, and our adjudicators who spoke at the conference. \\7\\ 70 FR at 46792... Register on December 14, 2009 (74 FR 66069). The preamble to the NPRM discussed the changes from the... or any other endocrine disorder listing. Unless we are otherwise required to do so (for example,...

  7. Endocrine function in 97 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Arlien-Søborg, P; Duno, M;

    2012-01-01

    . We found that patients with DM1 have an increased risk of abnormal endocrine function, particularly calcium metabolism disorders. However, the endocrine dysfunction appears not to be of clinical significance in all of the cases. Finally, we found correlations between CTG(n) expansion size and plasma......The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine function and its association to number of CTG repeats in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Concentration of various hormones and metabolites in venous blood was used to assess the endocrine function in 97 patients with DM1...... LH, but normal testosterone levels, indicating relative insufficiency. Numbers of CTG repeats correlated directly with plasma PTH, phosphate, LH, and tended to correlate with plasma testosterone for males. This is the largest study of endocrine dysfunction in a cohort of Caucasian patients with DM1...

  8. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Serrano Nicolás

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.

  9. Cellular and subcellular alterations in immune cells induced by chronic, intermittent exposure in vivo to very low doses of ionizing radiation (LDR), and its ameliorating effects on progression of autoimmune disease and mammary tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that low doses of ionizing radiation can enhance immune response and down-regulate tumor incidence. This suggested that low dose ionizing radiation can act as a hormetic agent by modulating antigen-stimulated clonal growth and/or differentiation of immune cells. A mouse model was therefore developed to investigate the enhancing effect of LDR at the cellular and organismic levels. At he cellular level, the author investigated the up-regulating effect of LDR on the proliferative growth of mitogen-stimulated splenocytes and on the modulating influence of LDR on thymocytes undergoing differentiation. At the organismic level, the up-regulating effects of LDR on the resistance to spontaneously occurring mammary tumor and lupus-type autoimmune disease were investigated. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Sominsky

    Full Text Available Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p. exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli. Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of

  11. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Mari S; Collman, Gwen W; Foster, Paul M D;

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated....... Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated with a greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment...... for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty...

  12. [The indices of water-salt metabolism and of the endocrine status in monkeys after flights on the Kosmos biological satellites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol'kov, V I; Dotsenko, M A; Larina, I M; Shakhmatova, E I; Natochin, Iu V

    1996-01-01

    Findings of studying the indices of water-salt metabolism and endocrine status of monkeys after their exposure in the weightless environment onboard the biological satellites of Earth have revealed a change in the blood serum concentrations of electrolytes which is indicative of instability of the system responsible for maintenance of the fluid-mineral homeostasis during readaptation. Results of studying the endocrine status of monkeys infer alteration in calcium metabolism, i.e. decreased levels of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and the transport form of vitamin D3. PMID:8963290

  13. Male pubertal development: are endocrine-disrupting compounds shifting the norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are synthetic or natural compounds that interfere with endogenous endocrine action. The frequent use of chemicals with endocrine active properties in household products and contamination of soil, water, and food sources by persistent chemical pollutants result in ubiquitous exposures. Wildlife observations and animal toxicological studies reveal adverse effects of EDCs on reproductive health.In humans, a growing number of epidemiological studies report an association with altered pubertal timing and progression. While these data are primarily reported in females,this review will focus on the small number of studies performed in males that report an association of polychlorinated biphenyls with earlier sexual maturity rating and confirm subtle effects of lead, dioxins, and endosulfan on delaying pubertal onset and progression in boys. Recent studies have also demonstrated that EDC exposure may affect pubertal testosterone production without having a noticeable effect on sexual maturity rating.A limitation to understand the effects of EDCs in humans is the potential for confounding due to the long temporal lag from early-life exposures to adult outcomes. The complex interplay of multiple environmental exposures over time also complicates the interpretation of human studies. These studies have identified critical windows of vulnerability during development when exposures to EDCs alter critical pathways and affect postnatal reproductive health. Contemporaneous exposures can also disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This paper will review the normal process of puberty in males and summarize human data that suggest potential perturbations in pubertal onset and tempo with early-life exposures to EDCs. PMID:23977686

  14. Endocrine Disruptors and Leydig Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Svechnikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, a large body of information concerning the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs on animals and humans has been accumulated. EDCs are of synthetic or natural origin and certain groups are known to disrupt the action of androgens and to impair the development of the male reproductive tract and external genitalia. The present overview describes the effects of the different classes of EDCs, such as pesticides, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, including newly synthesized resveratrol analogs on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. The potential impact of these compounds on androgen production by Leydig cells during fetal development and in the adult age is discussed. In addition, the possible role of EDCs in connection with the increasing frequency of abnormalities in reproductive development in animals and humans is discussed.

  15. Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP control, the neural mechanisms, renal-endocrine mechanisms, and a variety of other hormones that have a bearing in normal BP control are discussed and the possible role in the pathophysiology is alluded to.

  16. Endocrine disrupter - estradiol - in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorabawila, Nelum [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Gupta, Gian [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States)]. E-mail: gcgupta@umes.edu

    2005-04-11

    Exogenous chemicals that interfere with natural hormonal functions are considered endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Estradiol (17{beta}-estradiol or E2) is the most potent of all xenoestrogens. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) production in male fish occurs at E2 concentrations as low as 1 ng l{sup -1}. E2 reaches aquatic systems mainly through sewage and animal waste disposal. Surface water samples from ponds, rivers (Wicomico, Manokin and Pocomoke), sewage treatment plants (STPs), and coastal bays (Assawoman, Monie, Chincoteague, and Tangier Sound - Chesapeake Bay) on the Eastern Shore of Maryland were analyzed for E2 using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). E2 concentrations in river waters varied between 1.9 and 6.0 ng l{sup -1}. Highest E2 concentrations in river waters were observed immediately downstream of STPs. E2 concentrations in all the coastal bays tested were 2.3-3.2 ng l{sup -1}.

  17. Leptin signaling: A key pathway in immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Procaccini, Claudio; Lourenco, Elaine V.; Matarese, Giuseppe; La Cava, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone whose central role is to regulate endocrine functions and to control energy expenditure. After the discovery that leptin can also have pro-inflammatory effects, several studies have tried to address - at the molecular level - the pathways involved in leptin-induced modulation of the immune functions in normal and pathologic conditions. The signaling events influenced by leptin after its binding to the leptin receptor have been under scrutiny in the past few years, and cons...

  18. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)

  19. Endocrine disruptors and childhood social impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodovnik, Amir; Engel, Stephanie M; Zhu, Chenbo; Ye, Xiaoyun; Soorya, Latha V; Silva, Manori J; Calafat, Antonia M; Wolff, Mary S

    2011-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has the potential to impact early brain development. Neurodevelopmental toxicity in utero may manifest as psychosocial deficits later in childhood. This study investigates prenatal exposure to two ubiquitous endocrine disruptors, the phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA), and social behavior in a sample of adolescent inner-city children. Third trimester urines of women enrolled in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study between 1998 and 2002 (n=404) were analyzed for phthalate metabolites and BPA. Mother-child pairs were asked to return for a follow-up assessment when the child was between the ages of 7 and 9 years. At this visit, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) (n=137), a quantitative scale for measuring the severity of social impairment related to Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in the general population. In adjusted general linear models increasing log-transformed low molecular weight (LMW) phthalate metabolite concentrations were associated with greater social deficits (β=1.53, 95% CI 0.25-2.8). Among the subscales, LMWP were also associated with poorer Social Cognition (β=1.40, 95% CI 0.1-2.7); Social Communication (β=1.86, 95% CI 0.5-3.2); and Social Awareness (β=1.25, 95% CI 0.1-2.4), but not for Autistic Mannerisms or Social Motivation. No significant association with BPA was found (β=1.18, 95% CI -0.75, 3.11). Prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with childhood social impairment in a multiethnic urban population. Even mild degrees of impaired social functioning in otherwise healthy individuals can have very important adverse effects over a child's lifetime. These results extend our previous finding of atypical neonatal and early childhood behaviors in relation to prenatal phthalate exposure. PMID:21182865

  20. Obesity and endocrine dysfunction programmed by maternal smoking in pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cristina Lisboa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic, and maternal smoking has been shown to be associated with the development of childhood obesity. Overall, approximately 40% of children worldwide are exposed to tobacco smoke at home. It is well known that environmental changes within a critical window of development, such as gestation or lactation, can initiate permanent alterations in metabolism that lead to diseases in adulthood, a phenomenon called programming. It is known that programming is based on epigenetic alterations (changes in DNA methylation, histone acetylation or small interfering RNA expression that change the expression pattern of several genes. However, little is known concerning the mechanisms by which smoke exposure in neonatal life programmes the adipose tissue and endocrine function. Here, we review several epidemiological and experimental studies that confirm the association between maternal nicotine or tobacco exposure during gestation or lactation and the development of obesity and endocrine dysfunction. For example, a positive correlation was demonstrated in rodents between increased serum leptin in the neonatal period and exposure of the mothers to nicotine during lactation, and the further development of leptin and insulin resistance, and thyroid and adrenal dysfunction, in adulthood in the same offspring. Thus, a smoke-free environment during the lactation period is essential to improving health outcomes in adulthood and reducing the risk for future diseases. An understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of smoking on programming can provide new insights into therapeutic strategies for obesity.