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Sample records for alters foot mobility

  1. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  2. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI) values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems. PMID:21244705

  3. Alteration of serum high-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) levels in children with enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weikun; Shi, Haifan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Jie; Jin, Longteng

    2017-04-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric disease caused by enterovirus infection. It typically presents as a fever along with flat, discolored spots and bumps on the hands, feet, and mouth. Compared with other viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced HFMD is more prone to cause severe complications in children, such as brainstem encephalitis, cardiopulmonary disorders, and even death. More in-depth studies are still necessary to understand the characteristics of EV71-induced HFMD, although some related research has been reported so far. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an inflammatory cytokine that can upregulate other inflammatory factors through its receptors, such as Toll-like receptors and the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts.We prospectively investigated the alteration of serum HMGB1, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels before and after treatment in 82 children with HFMD.We found that the serum HMGB1, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were significantly increased in EV71-induced HFMD, and that these changes were more serious in the severe and critical HMFD groups; however, there was no significant difference in the HMGB1 level between the normal control and mild HMFD groups. Moreover, the serum HMGB1 level was positively correlated with the alteration of serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations.These results suggest that HMGB1 is involved in the inflammatory pathogenesis of EV71-induced HFMD and that the serum level of HMGB1 could be applied as a clinical indicator for the severity of HFMD, and also a sign for the recovery prognosis of HFMD.

  4. Fleet of Foot: Adolescent Foot and Ankle Mobility

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    Legacy, Kelly Bromley

    2018-01-01

    In today's world of advanced technologies, accessible transportation, and fingertip talking, adolescents are spending too many hours each day sedentary. The purpose of this article is to underscore the importance of foot and ankle mobility in an adolescent population that spends very little time on their feet. Physical educators and athletic…

  5. The influence of foot orthoses on foot mobility magnitude and arch height index in adults with flexible flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi-Dolagh, Roghaye; Saeedi, Hassan; Farahmand, Behshid; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mohammad; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Derayatifar, Amir A; Curran, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Flexible flat foot is described as a reduction in the height of the medial longitudinal arch and may occur from abnormal foot pronation. A foot orthosis is thought to modify and control excessive pronation and improve arch height. To compare the immediate effect of three types of orthoses on foot mobility and the arch height index in subjects with flexible flat feet. A quasi-experimental study. The dorsal arch height, midfoot width, foot mobility and arch height index were assessed in 20 participants with flexible flat feet (mean age = 23.2 ± 3 years) for three different foot orthosis conditions: soft, semi-rigid and rigid University of California Biomechanics Laboratory (UCBL). Maximum midfoot width at 90% with arch mobility in the coronal plane was shown in the semi-rigid orthosis condition. The semi-rigid orthosis resulted in the highest mean foot mobility in 90% of weight bearing, and the rigid orthosis (UCBL) had the lowest mean foot mobility. The soft orthosis resulted in foot mobility between that of the rigid and the semi-rigid orthosis. UCBL orthosis showed the highest arch height index, and the semi-rigid orthosis showed the lowest mean arch height index. Due to its rigid structure and long medial-lateral walls, the UCBL orthosis appears to limit foot mobility. Therefore, it is necessary to make an orthosis that facilitates foot mobility in the normal range of the foot arch. Future studies should address the dynamic mobility of the foot with using various types of foot orthoses. Although there are many studies focussed on flat foot and the use of foot orthoses, the mechanism of action is still unclear. This study explored foot mobility and the influence of foot orthoses and showed that a more rigid foot orthosis should be selected based on foot mobility. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  6. Effects of a flat prosthetic foot rocker section on balance and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew; Nickel, Eric; Medvec, Joseph; Brielmaier, Steven; Pike, Alvin; Weber, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effective rocker shape of the physiologic ankle-foot system during standing and fore-aft swaying is much flatter than that used during walking, which indicates a more stable base of support for the standing/swaying activity. Previous work suggests that flat regions within the effective rocker shapes of prosthetic ankle-foot systems could provide enhanced stability for standing balance tasks. An experimental prosthetic foot was altered to provide three different flat region lengths within its effective rocker shape. It was hypothesized that longer flat regions of the effective rocker shape would lead to improved standing balance outcomes and reduced walking performance for unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. However, no significant changes were seen in the balance and mobility outcomes of 12 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users when using the three prosthetic foot conditions. Subjects in the study significantly preferred prosthetic feet with relatively low to moderate flat regions over those with long flat regions. All the subjects without loss of light touch or vibratory sensation selected the prosthetic foot with the shortest flat region. More work is needed to investigate the effects of prosthetic foot properties on balance and mobility of prosthesis users.

  7. Benchmarking Foot Trajectory Estimation Methods for Mobile Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Hannink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile gait analysis systems based on inertial sensing on the shoe are applied in a wide range of applications. Especially for medical applications, they can give new insights into motor impairment in, e.g., neurodegenerative disease and help objectify patient assessment. One key component in these systems is the reconstruction of the foot trajectories from inertial data. In literature, various methods for this task have been proposed. However, performance is evaluated on a variety of datasets due to the lack of large, generally accepted benchmark datasets. This hinders a fair comparison of methods. In this work, we implement three orientation estimation and three double integration schemes for use in a foot trajectory estimation pipeline. All methods are drawn from literature and evaluated against a marker-based motion capture reference. We provide a fair comparison on the same dataset consisting of 735 strides from 16 healthy subjects. As a result, the implemented methods are ranked and we identify the most suitable processing pipeline for foot trajectory estimation in the context of mobile gait analysis.

  8. Mobility and Balance and Their Correlation with Physiological Factors in Elderly with Different Foot Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Mohd Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines (1 the correlation between mobility and balance performances with physiological factors and (2 the relationship between foot postures with anthropometric characteristics and lower limb characteristics among elderly with neutral, pronated, and supinated foot. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in community-dwelling elderly (age: 69.86 ± 5.62 years. Participants were grouped into neutral (n=16, pronated (n=14, and supinated (n=14 foot based on the foot posture index classification. Anthropometric data (height, weight, and BMI, lower limb strength (5-STS and endurance (30 s chair rise test, mobility (TUG, and balance (FSST were determined. Data were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Body weight was negatively and moderately correlated (rs=-0.552, P<0.05 with mobility in supinated foot; moderate-to-high positive linear rank correlation was found between lower limb strength and mobility (rs=0.551 to 0.804, P<0.05 for pronated and neutral foot. Lower limb endurance was negatively and linearly correlated with mobility in pronated (rs=-0.699 and neutral (rs=-0.573 foot. No correlation was observed in balance performance with physiological factors in any of the foot postures. We can conclude that muscle function may be the most important feature to make movement possible in older persons regardless of the type of foot postures.

  9. Altered dynamic foot kinematics in people with medial knee osteoarthritis during walking: a cross-sectional study.

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    Arnold, John; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2014-12-01

    Footwear and insoles are used to reduce knee load in people with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), despite a limited understanding of foot function in this group. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between adults with and without medial knee OA during barefoot walking. Foot kinematics were measured during walking in 30 adults; 15 with medial knee OA (mean age was 67.0 with a standard deviation (SD) of 8.9 years; height was 1.66 with SD of 0.13 m; body mass was 84.2 with SD of 15.8 kg; BMI was 30.7 with SD of 6.2 kg/m(2); K-L grade 3: 5, grade 4: 10) and 15 aged and gender matched control participants with 12 motion analysis cameras using the IOR multi-segment foot model. Motion of the knee joint, hindfoot, midfoot, forefoot and hallux were compared between groups using clustered linear regression. The knee OA group displayed reduced coronal plane range of motion of the midfoot (mean 3.8° vs. 5.4°, effect size=1.1, p=0.023), indicating reduced midfoot mobility. There was also a reduced sagittal plane range of motion at the hallux in the knee OA group compared to the control group (mean 29.6° vs. 36.3°, effect size=1.2, p=0.008). No statistically significant differences in hindfoot or forefoot motion were observed. People with medial knee OA display altered foot function compared to healthy controls. As foot and knee function are related, it is possible that altered foot function in people with knee OA may influence the effects of footwear and insoles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship of foot and ankle mobility to the frontal plane projection angle in asymptomatic adults.

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    Wyndow, Narelle; De Jong, Amy; Rial, Krystal; Tucker, Kylie; Collins, Natalie; Vicenzino, Bill; Russell, Trevor; Crossley, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) is frequently used as a measure of dynamic knee valgus during functional tasks, such as the single leg squat. Increased dynamic knee valgus is observed in people with knee pathologies including patellofemoral pain and anterior cruciate injury. As the foot is the primary interface with the support surface, foot and ankle mobility may affect the FPPA. This study investigated the relationship between foot and ankle mobility and the FPPA in asymptomatic adults. Thirty healthy people (aged 18-50 years) performed 5 single leg squats. Peak FPPA and FPPA excursion were determined from digital video recordings. Foot mobility was quantified as the difference in dorsal midfoot height or midfoot width, between non-weightbearing and bilateral weightbearing positions. Ankle joint dorsiflexion range was measured as the maximum distance in centimetres between the longest toe and the wall during a knee-to-wall lunge. Linear regressions with generalised estimating equations were used to examine relationships between variables. Higher midfoot width mobility was associated with greater peak FPPA (β 0.90, p Foot and ankle mobility was significantly related to the FPPA during the single leg squat in healthy individuals. Specifically, higher midfoot width mobility, or lower ankle joint dorsiflexion range and midfoot height mobility, were associated with a greater FPPA. These foot mobility factors should be considered in the clinical management of knee-related disorders that are associated with a high FPPA.

  11. Age-related differences in foot mobility in individuals with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jade M; Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill; Menz, Hylton B; Munteanu, Shannon E; Collins, Natalie J

    2018-01-01

    Age-related changes in midfoot mobility have the potential to influence success with foot orthoses intervention in people with patellofemoral pain (PFP). The aim of this study was to determine whether older people with PFP demonstrate less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP. One hundred ninety four participants (113 (58%) women, age 32 ± 7 years, BMI 25 ± 4.9 kg/m 2 ) with PFP (≥ 6 weeks duration) were included, with foot mobility quantified using reliable and valid methods. K-means cluster analysis classified participants into three homogenous groups based on age. After cluster formation, univariate analyses of co-variance (covariates: sex, weight) were used to compare midfoot height mobility, midfoot width mobility, and foot mobility magnitude between age groups (significance level 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed three distinct age groups: 18-29 years ( n  = 70); 30-39 years ( n  = 101); and 40-50 years ( n  = 23). There was a significant main effect for age for midfoot height mobility ( p  mobility magnitude ( p  = 0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed that midfoot height mobility differed across all three groups (moderate to large effect sizes), and that foot mobility magnitude was significantly less in those aged 40-50 years compared to those aged 18-25 years (moderate effect size). There were no significant main effects for age for midfoot width mobility ( p  > 0.05). Individuals with PFP aged 40-50 years have less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP. These findings may have implications for evaluation and treatment of older individuals with PFP.

  12. Relationship between flat foot condition and gait pattern alterations in children with Down syndrome.

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    Galli, M; Cimolin, V; Pau, M; Costici, P; Albertini, G

    2014-03-01

    In patients with Down syndrome (DS) one of the most common abnormalities is flat foot which can interfere significantly with normal daily activities, such as gait. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the relationship between the flat foot and the gait alterations in DS children. Twenty-nine patients with DS and 15 non-affected subjects were assessed using 3D Gait Analysis, using an optoelectronic system, force platforms and video recording. The degree of flat foot was assessed using the arch index and kinematic and kinetic parameters were identified and calculated from 3D Gait Analysis for each study participant. Data showed that ankle plantarflexion moment and ankle power during terminal stance were significant to differentiate the patients with and without flat feet: their peak values were significantly lower for the patients with flat foot. In addition, the research for correlation demonstrated that the higher the arch index value, the lower the peak of ankle moment and of the generated ankle power during terminal stance and the minimum of absorbed ankle power. Children with flat foot displayed a less functional gait pattern in terms of ankle kinetics than children without flat foot, suggesting that the presence of flat foot may lead to a weaker efficient walking. Then, the increasing flat foot tended to result in lower push-off ability, leading to a less functional walking. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.

  13. Foot and ankle impairments affect balance and mobility in stroke (FAiMiS): the views and experiences of people with stroke.

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    Gorst, Terry; Lyddon, Alison; Marsden, Jon; Paton, Joanne; Morrison, Stewart C; Cramp, Mary; Freeman, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    To explore the nature and impact of foot and ankle impairments on mobility and balance in community-dwelling, chronic stroke survivors. A qualitative research design using face to face semi-structured, audio recorded interviews. Thirteen community-dwelling stroke survivors, all of whom had self-reported foot and ankle impairments, were interviewed (female n = 6, mean age = 67 years, SD = 12 years, mean time since stroke = 4 years, SD = 6 years, right stroke n = 7, left stroke n = 6). A framework analysis approach was used to analyse and interpret transcribed interviews. Three themes emerged: (1) Impact. The influence of foot and ankle impairments on mobility and balance. (2) Standing out. How participants felt they "stood out" because of their impairments and wanted to be normal. (3) Help. The specific help and advice participants received in managing their problems. Foot and ankle impairments such as pain, altered somatosensory input and weakness significantly contribute to problems with community ambulation, balance and fear of falling in people with chronic stroke. Specific foot and ankle impairments may also negatively contribute to perceptions of physical appearance and self-esteem. Therapeutic management approaches within clinical practice appear to focus mostly on the gross performance of the lower limb with little emphasis on the specific assessment or treatment of the foot or ankle. Foot pain, sensory impairments and muscle weakness in the foot and ankle can impact on community ambulation, balance and fear of falling following stroke. Foot and ankle function post-stroke should be routinely assessed and monitored. Clinicians should be aware of the potentially distressing negative perceptions associated with altered gait patterns, footwear and orthotic use.

  14. Association of limited joint mobility and increased plantar hardness in diabetic foot ulceration in north Asian Indian: a preliminary study.

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    Periyasamy, R; Anand, Sneh; Ammini, A C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association of limited joint mobility and foot sole hardness in north Asian Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Limited joint mobility and hardness of the foot sole were measured for 39 subjects attending the AIIMS Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinic. The total subject divided into three groups: 13 control subjects (nondiabetic), 13 diabetic patients without neuropathy and 13 diabetic neuropathy patients. Neuropathy status was assessed using 10 gm Semen's Weinstein monofilament. Joint mobility parameters, such as ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion and metatarsophalangeal-1 dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, are measured using a goniometer. Foot sole hardness was measured using a durometer or shore meter. We found that diabetic patients with a neuropathic foot had significantly reduced joint mobility and increased foot sole hardness, placing them at risk for subsequent ulceration. Metatarsophalangeal-1 dorsiflexion/plantar flexion of both feet of diabetic patients had significant correlation (at p hardness in both feet of diabetic neuropathy subjects. Also linear regression analysis showed that duration of diabetes was significantly associated with the joint mobility parameters. In this study we conclude that joint mobility had reduced further if neuropathy and increased foot sole hardness coexisted owing to high plantar pressures. Hence, both limited joint mobility and increased foot sole hardness appears to be important determinants of foot sole ulceration in diabetic neuropathic subject.

  15. Electromagnetic Energy Radiated from Mobile Phone Alters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [5,6] Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles, has ... Background: Electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phones did not show significant effect on the blood pressure, heart rate, ..... Case definitions for acute coronary heart disease in epidemiology and clinical research ...

  16. Congenital foot deformation alters the topographic organization in the primate somatosensory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Reed, Jamie L; Miller, Daniel J; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    Limbs may fail to grow properly during fetal development, but the extent to which such growth alters the nervous system has not been extensively explored. Here we describe the organization of the somatosensory system in a 6-year-old monkey (Macaca radiata) born with a deformed left foot in comparison to the results from a normal monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Toes 1, 3, and 5 were missing, but the proximal parts of toes 2 and 4 were present. We used anatomical tracers to characterize the patterns of peripheral input to the spinal cord and brainstem, as well as between thalamus and cortex. We also determined the somatotopic organization of primary somatosensory area 3b of both hemispheres using multiunit electrophysiological recording. Tracers were subcutaneously injected into matching locations of each foot to reveal their representations within the lumbar spinal cord, and the gracile nucleus (GrN) of the brainstem. Tracers injected into the representations of the toes and plantar pads of cortical area 3b labeled neurons in the ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus. Contrary to the orderly arrangement of the foot representation throughout the lemniscal pathway in the normal monkey, the plantar representation of the deformed foot was significantly expanded and intruded into the expected representations of toes in the spinal cord, GrN, VPL, and area 3b. We also observed abnormal representation of the intact foot in the ipsilateral spinal cord and contralateral area 3b. Thus, congenital malformation influences the somatotopic representation of the deformed as well as the intact foot.

  17. The role of joint mobility in evaluating and monitoring the risk of diabetic foot ulcer.

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    Francia, Piergiorgio; Seghieri, Giuseppe; Gulisano, Massimo; De Bellis, Alessandra; Toni, Sonia; Tedeschi, Anna; Anichini, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of how ankle joint mobility (AJM) can be useful in the identification of patients with diabetes at risk of foot ulcer (FU). Plantar and dorsal flexion of foot were evaluated using an inclinometer in 87 patients (54 type 2 and 33 type 1), and 35 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects. Patients with diabetes were followed up for diagnosis of FU over the next 8 years and subsequently, patients were subdivided into: those without a history of FU (18 type 1 and 33 type 2), those who had a history of FU detected before baseline evaluation (14 type 2) and those who had history of first ulceration detected by the 8th year of the evaluation period (7 type 2). Aging and diabetes caused a significant reduction in mobility of each of the movements investigated (pulceration was detected in the same foot presenting lower AJM in 17 of the 22 subjects with diabetes with history of ulcer (77.27%). Diabetes and aging reduce AJM although diabetes seems to reduce plantar flexion to a more specific extent. Reduced AJM is mostly associated with a previous history of FU. The evaluation of AJM is a valid and reliable ulcer risk scale that indicates which foot is at higher ulcer risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of foot segmental mobility and coupling during gait between patients with diabetes mellitus with and without neuropathy and adults without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, K; Matricali, G A; Roosen, P; Nobels, F; Tits, J; Desloovere, K; Bruyninckx, H; Flour, M; Deleu, P-A; Verhoeven, W; Staes, F

    2013-08-01

    Reduction in foot mobility has been identified as a key factor of altered foot biomechanics in individuals with diabetes mellitus. This study aimed at comparing in vivo segmental foot kinematics and coupling in patients with diabetes with and without neuropathy to control adults. Foot mobility of 13 diabetic patients with neuropathy, 13 diabetic patients without neuropathy and 13 non-diabetic persons was measured using an integrated measurement set-up including a plantar pressure platform and 3D motion analysis system. In this age-, sex- and walking speed matched comparative study; differences in range of motion quantified with the Rizzoli multisegment foot model throughout different phases of the gait cycle were analysed using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Coupling was assessed with cross-correlation techniques. Both cohorts with diabetes showed significantly lower motion values as compared to the control group. Transverse and sagittal plane motion was predominantly affected with often lower range of motion values found in the group with neuropathy compared to the diabetes group without neuropathy. Most significant changes were observed during propulsion (both diabetic groups) and swing phase (predominantly diabetic neuropathic group). A trend of lower cross-correlations between segments was observed in the cohorts with diabetes. Our findings suggest an alteration in segmental kinematics and coupling during walking in diabetic patients with and without neuropathy. Future studies should integrate other biomechanical measurements as it is believed to provide additional insight into neural and mechanical deficits associated to the foot in diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations in foot posture and mobility between individuals with patellofemoral pain and those in a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPoil, Thomas G; Warren, Meghan; Vicenzino, Bill; Cornwall, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    We sought to determine whether foot posture and foot mobility were increased in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome compared with individuals in a control group. A nested case-control design was used with two controls matched to each patient by sex and age (±1 year). Participants included 43 individuals with a history of unilateral or bilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome and 86 participants in a control group. Data collected included height, weight, and five different measures of foot height and width in weightbearing and nonweightbearing that have been previously shown to have high levels of reliability. Individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome were found to be four times more likely (odds ratio, 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-11.32) to have a larger-than-normal difference between nonweightbearing and weightbearing arch height compared with those in the control group. The mean values for difference in arch height and foot mobility magnitude were also statistically significant between the patient and control groups. Foot posture, as determined using the arch height ratio, was not significant between groups (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-2.61). Although foot posture may not be different between individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome and controls, foot mobility assessed using difference in arch height and foot mobility magnitude is different between the two groups.

  20. RELIABILITY OF ANKLE-FOOT MORPHOLOGY, MOBILITY, STRENGTH, AND MOTOR PERFORMANCE MEASURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John J; Koldenhoven, Rachel M; Saliba, Susan A; Hertel, Jay

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of foot posture, morphology, intersegmental mobility, strength and motor control of the ankle-foot complex are commonly used clinically, but measurement properties of many assessments are unclear. To determine test-retest and inter-rater reliability, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change of morphology, joint excursion and play, strength, and motor control of the ankle-foot complex. Reliability study. 24 healthy, recreationally-active young adults without history of ankle-foot injury were assessed by two clinicians on two occasions, three to ten days apart. Measurement properties were assessed for foot morphology (foot posture index, total and truncated length, width, arch height), joint excursion (weight-bearing dorsiflexion, rearfoot and hallux goniometry, forefoot inclinometry, 1 st metatarsal displacement) and joint play, strength (handheld dynamometry), and motor control rating during intrinsic foot muscle (IFM) exercises. Clinician order was randomized using a Latin Square. The clinicians performed independent examinations and did not confer on the findings for the duration of the study. Test-retest and inter-tester reliability and agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,k ) and weighted kappa ( K w ). Test-retest reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .80-1.00, joint excursion: .58-.97, joint play: -.67-.84, strength: .67-.92, IFM motor rating: K W -.01-.71. Inter-rater reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .81-1.00, joint excursion: .32-.97, joint play: -1.06-1.00, strength: .53-.90, and IFM motor rating: K w .02-.56. Measures of ankle-foot posture, morphology, joint excursion, and strength demonstrated fair to excellent test-retest and inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability for rating of perceived difficulty and motor performance was good to excellent for short-foot, toe-spread-out, and hallux exercises and poor to fair for lesser toe extension. Joint play measures had

  1. A feasibility study of UMTS mobile phones for supporting nurses doing home visits to patients with diabetic foot ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Bo; Clemensen, Jane; Ejskjær, Niels

    2006-01-01

    We tested the feasibility of Universal Mobile Telephone System (UMTS) mobile phones for video consultations in the home. Five patients with diabetic foot ulcers were included in the study. Each of them was offered three video consultations instead of visits to the hospital outpatient clinic...

  2. Measuring of foot plantar pressure—possible applications in quantitative analysis of human body mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimiec, E.; Jasiewicz, B.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.; Guzdek, P.; Kołaszczyński, G.

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of human mobility by gait analysis, carried out in natural conditions (outside of the laboratory). Foot plantar pressure is measured using a shoe insole with 8 sensors placed in different anatomical zones of the foot, and placed inside a sports shoe. Polarized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) foil is used as a sensor material. A wireless transmission system is used to transmit voltage values to the computer. Miniaturization was the priority during the design of the system. Due to the linear relationship between force and transducer voltage, energy and power released during walking in arbitrary units can be calculated as an integral of the square of the transducer voltage over time. Gait measurements were carried out over several days on healthy persons during normal walking and slow walking. The performed measurements allowed for the determination of walking speed (number of steps per second), gait rhythm and manner of walking (applying force to inside versus outside part of the sole). It was found that switching from normal to slow walk increases gait energy by 25% while the pressure distribution across the anatomical regions of the foot remains unchanged. The results will be used to develop a programme for the evaluation of patients with orthopedic diseases or even with cardiac failures, for an estimation of the results of health recovery and training efficiency in many sports activities.

  3. Measuring of foot plantar pressure—possible applications in quantitative analysis of human body mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimiec, E; Piekarski, J; Zaraska, K; Guzdek, P; Kołaszczyński, G; Jasiewicz, B

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of human mobility by gait analysis, carried out in natural conditions (outside of the laboratory). Foot plantar pressure is measured using a shoe insole with 8 sensors placed in different anatomical zones of the foot, and placed inside a sports shoe. Polarized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) foil is used as a sensor material. A wireless transmission system is used to transmit voltage values to the computer. Miniaturization was the priority during the design of the system. Due to the linear relationship between force and transducer voltage, energy and power released during walking in arbitrary units can be calculated as an integral of the square of the transducer voltage over time. Gait measurements were carried out over several days on healthy persons during normal walking and slow walking. The performed measurements allowed for the determination of walking speed (number of steps per second), gait rhythm and manner of walking (applying force to inside versus outside part of the sole). It was found that switching from normal to slow walk increases gait energy by 25% while the pressure distribution across the anatomical regions of the foot remains unchanged. The results will be used to develop a programme for the evaluation of patients with orthopedic diseases or even with cardiac failures, for an estimation of the results of health recovery and training efficiency in many sports activities. (paper)

  4. Shoes alter the spring-like function of the human foot during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke A; Lichtwark, Glen A; Farris, Dominic J; Cresswell, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The capacity to store and return energy in legs and feet that behave like springs is crucial to human running economy. Recent comparisons of shod and barefoot running have led to suggestions that modern running shoes may actually impede leg and foot-spring function by reducing the contributions from the leg and foot musculature. Here we examined the effect of running shoes on foot longitudinal arch (LA) motion and activation of the intrinsic foot muscles. Participants ran on a force-instrumented treadmill with and without running shoes. We recorded foot kinematics and muscle activation of the intrinsic foot muscles using intramuscular electromyography. In contrast to previous assertions, we observed an increase in both the peak (flexor digitorum brevis +60%) and total stance muscle activation (flexor digitorum brevis +70% and abductor hallucis +53%) of the intrinsic foot muscles when running with shoes. Increased intrinsic muscle activation corresponded with a reduction in LA compression (-25%). We confirm that running shoes do indeed influence the mechanical function of the foot. However, our findings suggest that these mechanical adjustments are likely to have occurred as a result of increased neuromuscular output, rather than impaired control as previously speculated. We propose a theoretical model for foot-shoe interaction to explain these novel findings. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. The effect of different shoes on functional mobility and energy expenditure in post-stroke hemiplegic patients using ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmani, Farzad; Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Aminian, Gholamreza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi-Goghari, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Ankle-foot orthoses could be utilized both with and without shoes. While several studies have shown that ankle-foot orthoses improve gait abilities in hemiplegic patients, it remains unclear whether they should be used with shoes or without. The study purpose was to compare the effect of standard shoes and rocker shoes on functional mobility in post-stroke hemiplegic patients utilizing ankle-foot orthosis. Randomized clinical study. Thirty post-stroke hemiplegic patients participated in this study randomly assigned to two groups. Group I received standard shoes + ankle-foot orthosis and group II were provided with rocker shoes + ankle-foot orthosis. Their functional mobility and energy expenditure parameters including timed up and go, timed up stairs, timed down stairs, preferred walking speed, and oxygen (O2) cost (mL/kg/m) were measured. In group I, no significant changes were seen in outcome measures after wearing standard shoes. While in group II, O2 cost and timed up and go time significantly decreased, and preferred walking speed increased when patients wore rocker shoes. Also, there was a significant difference between rocker shoes and standard shoes in improvement of timed up and go, preferred walking speed, and O2 cost. When patients using ankle-foot orthosis wore rocker shoes, their functional mobility improved and oxygen cost diminished. Also, rocker shoes was significantly more effective than standard shoes in improving functional mobility parameters. This study suggests that in post-stroke hemiplegic patients using ankle-foot orthosis, wearing rocker shoes can lead to much more improved functional mobility and decreased energy expenditure compared to ankle-foot orthosis only. Thus, in stroke patients, the combination of ankle-foot orthosis-rocker shoes is recommended for both rehabilitation programs and ankle-foot orthosis efficacy investigations. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  6. The effects of prosthetic foot type and visual alteration on postural steadiness in below-knee amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Nooranida; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Ali, Sadeeq; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar

    2014-03-05

    Achieving independent upright posture has known to be one of the main goals in rehabilitation following lower limb amputation. The purpose of this study was to compare postural steadiness of below knee amputees with visual alterations while wearing three different prosthetic feet. Ten male below-knee amputees were instructed to stand quietly on the Biodex® balance platform while wearing solid ankle cushion heel (SACH), single axis (SA) and energy storage and release (ESAR) prosthetic foot under different visual input conditions (eyes-opened and eyes-closed). The overall stability index (OSI), anterior- posterior stability index (APSI), and medial-lateral stability index (MLSI) were computed. Perceived balance assessment of each foot was evaluated using Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) score. The findings highlights that SACH showed lowest overall stability index (indicating less body sway) during eyes-opened (OSI: SACH = 1.09, SA = 1.58, ESAR = 1.59) and SA showed lowest overall stability index during eyes-closed (OSI: SACH = 2.52, SA = 2.30, ESAR = 2.76) condition. However, overall stability indexes between foot types did not differ significantly during eyes-opened or eyes-closed (p = 0.651). There was a trend of instability which occurred more in medial-lateral compared to anterior-posterior direction for all foot types, with significant result in ESAR foot(eyes-opened: MLSI = 1.59, APSI = 0.65, p = 0.034; eyes-closed: MLSI = 2.76, APSI = 1.80, p = 0.017, respectively). When comparing between visual conditions, stability score was significantly higher during eyes-closed compared to eyes-opened situations for SACH and ESAR foot (eyes-closed vs opened; SACH OSI: 3.43 vs 1.71, p = 0.018 and MLSI: 3.43 vs 1.71, p = 0.018; ESAR OSI: 3.58 vs 1.86, p = 0.043 and APSI: 1.80 vs 0.65, p = 0.027). The results of this study suggested postural steadiness in below-knee amputees was not affected by

  7. Foot mechanics in young women are altered after walking in high-heeled shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarski, Sławomir; Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja; Zostawa, Paweł; Uścinowicz-Zostawa, Natalia; Klich, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, fashion has caused that many young women are wearing high-heeled shoes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term walking in high-heeled shoes on the foot mechanics during barefoot gait. Forty-three young women (22 ± 2.1 years) divided into two groups participated in this retrospective cohort study. The first group was composed of women who frequently wear high-heeled footwear. The second, infrequent wearers group, consisted of women who preferred flat-heeled shoes. Measurements of gait parameters were recorded for barefoot gait. A motion analysis system and two force plates were used in order to evaluate the lower-limb rocker mechanism, transverse foot arch height and parameters of ground reaction force. Walking in high-heeled shoes modified barefoot foot mechanics, which manifested itself in a shorter duration (by ca. 4%) of the first and second rocker and a significantly longer duration (by 5%) of the third rocker phase as well as a substantial reduction in height of the transverse foot arch (by around 50%) in women habitually walking in high-heeled shoes. A significantly shorter relative duration of the third rocker (44.3% of cycle time) and greater value of the vertical component of ground reaction force (114.7% BW) in the third rocker phase were found in the group of women habitually walking in high-heeled shoes. The mechanism of foot rolling, with flattened foot arch, and significantly higher values of the vertical component of ground reaction force and shorter time might lead to overload in lowerlimb joints in young women.

  8. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Kevin A; Lynn, Scott K; Mikelson, Lisa R; Noffal, Guillermo J; Judelson, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of foot strike patterns and converted foot strike patterns on lower limb kinematics and kinetics at the hip, knee, and ankle during a shod condition. Subjects were videotaped with a high speed camera while running a 5km at self-selected pace on a treadmill to determine natural foot strike pattern on day one. Preferred forefoot group (PFFG, n = 10) and preferred rear foot group (PRFG, n = 11) subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m). On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern -forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS]) x 2 (Group - PFFG, PRFG) mixed model ANOVAs (p plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF) (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW), dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg(-1), FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg(-1)), and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°). There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg(-1), FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg(-1)), peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg(-1), FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg(-1)), knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°), and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32°) as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that

  9. Can an electro-tactile vestibular substitution system improve balance in patients with unilateral vestibular loss under altered somatosensory conditions from the foot and ankle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillerme, N; Hlavackova, P; Franco, C; Diot, B; Demongeot, J; Payan, Y

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effectiveness of an electro Electro-tactile Vestibular Substitution System (EVSS) in patients with unilateral vestibular loss under normal and altered somatosensory conditions from the foot and ankle. Four unilateral vestibular-defective patients voluntarily participated in the experiment. They were asked to stand upright as still as possible with their eyes closed in two Normal and Altered foot and ankle sensory conditions. In the Normal condition, the postural task was executed on a firm support surface constituted by the force platform. In the Altered condition, a 2-cm thick foam support surface was placed under the participants' feet. These two foot and ankle sensory conditions were executed under two No EVSS and EVSS experimental conditions. The No EVSS condition served as a control condition. In the EVSS condition, participants executed the postural task using a biofeedback system whose underlying principle consisted of supplying them with additional information about their head orientation/motion with respect to gravitational vertical through electro-tactile stimulation of their tongue. Centre of foot pressure displacements (CoP) were recorded using the force platform. Results showed that, relative to the No EVSS condition, the EVSS condition decreased CoP displacements in both the Normal and the Altered foot and ankle sensory conditions. Interestingly, the stabilizing effect was more pronounced in the Altered than in the Normal foot and ankle sensory condition. These preliminary results suggest that patients with unilateral vestibular loss were able to take advantage to a head position-based electro-tactile tongue biofeedback to mitigate the postural perturbation induced by alteration of somatosensory input from the foot and the ankle.

  10. The efficacy of foot orthoses on alteration to center of pressure displacement in subjects with flat and normal feet: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutorabi, Atefe; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Hutchins, Stephen William; Curran, Sarah; Maleki, Maryam

    2014-04-29

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of this review was to evaluate and compare the effect of foot orthoses on center of pressure (CoP) displacement in healthy patients and those with flat foot. Method: The search strategy was based on the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) method. A search was performed in PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and ISI web of knowledge databases by using selected keywords. Seventeen articles were selected for final evaluation. The procedure was followed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method. Result: The results of the literature review demonstrated that there is lack of evidence to show that FOs improve CoP displacement in subjects with flat foot. Conclusion: There is no consistent evidence to prove the efficacy of FOs on altering CoP displacement in healthy subjects but in those with flat foot, FOs decreased CoP excursion. Implications for Rehabilitation Foot orthoses (FOs) have become an integral part of the treatment of injuries of the foot, ankle, and lower extremity. Assessment of FOs effect on the COP displacement can help to provide a better understanding of the body's compensatory mechanisms and their therapeutic effects. There is no consistent evidence to prove the efficacy of FOs on CoP displacement in healthy subjects but in flat foot subjects foot orthoses decreased CoP excursion has been demonstrated.

  11. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Valenzuela, Scott K. Lynn, Lisa R. Mikelson, Guillermo J. Noffal, Daniel A. Judelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m. On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern –forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS] x 2 (Group – PFFG, PRFG mixed model ANOVAs (p < 0.05 were run on speed, active peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF, peak early stance and mid stance sagittal ankle moments, sagittal plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW, dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg-1, and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°. There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg-1, peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°, and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32° as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait.

  12. Effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits in rheumatoid arthritis with pain and foot deformities

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo, Carolina Mendes; Almeida da Rocha, Bruna; Tanaka, Clarice

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits of rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA) with pain and foot deformities. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with RA pain and foot deformity were allocated into two groups: G1: individual exercise program and G2: group exercise program. The variables analyzed were Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) for balance, Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) and Fu...

  13. Omni directional mobile robot capable of variable foot printing based on hub type drive module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Joong; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Hwi Su; Song, Jae Bok [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In recent years, an increased amount of research has been carried out on mobile robots to improve the performance of service robots. Mobile robots maximize the mobility of service robots, thus allowing them to work in different areas. However, conventional service robots have their center of mass placed high above the ground, which may cause them to fall when moving at high speed. Furthermore, hub type actuators, which are often used for mobile robots, are large and expensive. In this study, we propose a mobile robot with a hub type actuator unit and a variable footprint mechanism. The proposed variable footprint mechanism greatly improves the stability and mobility of the robot, allowing it to move freely in a narrow space and carry out various tasks. The performance of the proposed robot is verified experimentally.

  14. Omni directional mobile robot capable of variable foot printing based on hub type drive module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Joong; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Hwi Su; Song, Jae Bok

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, an increased amount of research has been carried out on mobile robots to improve the performance of service robots. Mobile robots maximize the mobility of service robots, thus allowing them to work in different areas. However, conventional service robots have their center of mass placed high above the ground, which may cause them to fall when moving at high speed. Furthermore, hub type actuators, which are often used for mobile robots, are large and expensive. In this study, we propose a mobile robot with a hub type actuator unit and a variable footprint mechanism. The proposed variable footprint mechanism greatly improves the stability and mobility of the robot, allowing it to move freely in a narrow space and carry out various tasks. The performance of the proposed robot is verified experimentally

  15. A Mobile Health Service to Manage Diabetic Foot in Homeless Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteoli, Marco; Scaringi, Claudia; Carella, Paola; Fruttaldo, Luca; Angeloni, Ulrico; Laurenza, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Homeless people live in poverty, with limited access to public health services. They are likely to experience chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes mellitus; however, they do not always receive the necessary services to prevent complications. This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a volunteer health service outreach to reduce disparity in diabetic foot care for homeless people. The research was conducted on 21 patients with diabetic ulcers of 930 homeless people visited between 2008 and 2013. Each ulcer was treated with regular medication every week for a mean ± SD of 17.6 ± 12 months. The inclusion criteria were 1) homeless with a previous diagnosis of diabetes or a blood glucose level greater than 126 mg/dL at first check and 2) foot ulcer caused by diabetic vasculopathy or neuropathy. The efficacy of the interventions was assessed against the number of successfully cured diabetic feet based on a reduced initial Wagner classification score for each ulcer. Clinical improvement was observed in 18 patients (86%), whose pathologic condition was completely resolved after 3 years and, therefore, no longer needed medication. One patient died of septic shock and kidney failure, and two patients needed amputation owing to clinical worsening of ulcers (Wagner class 4 at the last visit). Most homeless people who have diabetes and diabetic foot encounter many difficulties managing their disease, and a volunteer health-care unit could be a suitable option to bridge these gaps.

  16. Running quietly reduces ground reaction force and vertical loading rate and alters foot strike technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Xuan; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wernli, Kevin; Stearne, Sarah M; Davey, Paul; Ng, Leo

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine if a quantifiable relationship exists between the peak sound amplitude and peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vertical loading rate during running. It also investigated whether differences in peak sound amplitude, contact time, lower limb kinematics, kinetics and foot strike technique existed when participants were verbally instructed to run quietly compared to their normal running. A total of 26 males completed running trials for two sound conditions: normal running and quiet running. Simple linear regressions revealed no significant relationships between impact sound and peak vGRF in the normal and quiet conditions and vertical loading rate in the normal condition. t-Tests revealed significant within-subject decreases in peak sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate during the quiet compared to the normal running condition. During the normal running condition, 15.4% of participants utilised a non-rearfoot strike technique compared to 76.9% in the quiet condition, which was corroborated by an increased ankle plantarflexion angle at initial contact. This study demonstrated that quieter impact sound is not directly associated with a lower peak vGRF or vertical loading rate. However, given the instructions to run quietly, participants effectively reduced peak impact sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate.

  17. Geckos significantly alter foot orientation to facilitate adhesion during downhill locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Higham, Timothy E

    2014-10-01

    Geckos employ their adhesive system when moving up an incline, but the directionality of the system may limit function on downhill surfaces. Here, we use a generalist gecko to test whether limb modulation occurs on downhill slopes to allow geckos to take advantage of their adhesive system. We examined three-dimensional limb kinematics for geckos moving up and down a 45° slope. Remarkably, the hind limbs were rotated posteriorly on declines, resulting in digit III of the pes facing a more posterior direction (opposite to the direction of travel). No significant changes in limb orientation were found in any other condition. This pes rotation leads to a dramatic shift in foot function that facilitates the use of the adhesive system as a brake/stabilizer during downhill locomotion and, although this rotation is not unique to geckos, it is significant for the deployment of adhesion. Adhesion is not just advantageous for uphill locomotion but can be employed to help deal with the effects of gravity during downhill locomotion, highlighting the incredible multi-functionality of this key innovation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple linear regression approach for the analysis of the relationships between joints mobility and regional pressure-based parameters in the normal-arched foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggi, Paolo; Leardini, Alberto; Giacomozzi, Claudia

    2016-10-03

    Plantar load can be considered as a measure of the foot ability to transmit forces at the foot/ground, or foot/footwear interface during ambulatory activities via the lower limb kinematic chain. While morphological and functional measures have been shown to be correlated with plantar load, no exhaustive data are currently available on the possible relationships between range of motion of foot joints and plantar load regional parameters. Joints' kinematics from a validated multi-segmental foot model were recorded together with plantar pressure parameters in 21 normal-arched healthy subjects during three barefoot walking trials. Plantar pressure maps were divided into six anatomically-based regions of interest associated to corresponding foot segments. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationships between pressure-based parameters, joints range of motion and normalized walking speed (speed/subject height). Sagittal- and frontal-plane joint motion were those most correlated to plantar load. Foot joints' range of motion and normalized walking speed explained between 6% and 43% of the model variance (adjusted R 2 ) for pressure-based parameters. In general, those joints' presenting lower mobility during stance were associated to lower vertical force at forefoot and to larger mean and peak pressure at hindfoot and forefoot. Normalized walking speed was always positively correlated to mean and peak pressure at hindfoot and forefoot. While a large variance in plantar pressure data is still not accounted for by the present models, this study provides statistical corroboration of the close relationship between joint mobility and plantar pressure during stance in the normal healthy foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Minor foot amputations in diabetic foot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, C; Eckhard, M; Szalay, G; Heiss, C

    2016-10-01

    The treatment strategy for diabetic foot syndrome must take into account protective sensibility of the foot, open wounds, infection status, and the rules of septic bone surgery. Interventions are classified as elective, prophylactic, curative, or emergency. Amputations in the forefoot and midfoot region are performed as ray amputations (including metatarsal), which can often be carried out as "inner" amputations. Gentle tissue treatment mandatory because of greater risk of revision with re-amputation compared to classical amputation. Good demarcation of infection, acute osteomyelitis, osteolytic lesions, neurotropic ulcer, arterial and venous blood flow to the other toes, gangrene of other toes with metatarsal affection. Arterial occlusive disease, infection of neighboring areas, avoidable amputations, poorly healing ulcers on the lower leg. Primary dorsal approach; minimal incisional distance (5 cm) to minimize skin necrosis risk. Atraumatic preparation, minimize hemostasis to not compromise the borderline perfusion situation. In amputations, plantar skin preparation and longer seams placed as dorsal as possible, either disarticulated and maintain cartilage, or round the cortical metatarsal bone after resection. Diabetes control. Braun splint, mobilization in a shoe with forefoot decompression and hindfoot support, physiotherapy. Antibiotics based on resistance testing. If no complications, dressing change on postoperative day 1. Optimal wound drainage by lowering foot several times a day; drainage removal after 12-24 h. Insoles and footwear optimization. Amputations require continued attention and if necessary treatment to avoid sequelae. Insufficient treatment associated with recurrent ulceration and altered anatomy.

  20. An overview of head support solutions for people with reduced or altered head mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geers, A.M.; van der Pijl, Dick; Verstegen, Paul; Bergsma, A.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To create an overview of existing assistive devices for supporting the head of people with decreased or altered head mobility. Additionally, to investigate if there are any functionalities missing in the current head support solutions. Search strategy: A systematic literature review was

  1. Galectin-3 alters the lateral mobility and clustering of β1-integrin receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther H Yang

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein receptors are influenced by myriad intermolecular interactions at the cell surface. Specific glycan structures may interact with endogenous lectins that enforce or disrupt receptor-receptor interactions. Glycoproteins bound by multivalent lectins may form extended oligomers or lattices, altering the lateral mobility of the receptor and influencing its function through endocytosis or changes in activation. In this study, we have examined the interaction of Galectin-3 (Gal-3, a human lectin, with adhesion receptors. We measured the effect of recombinant Gal-3 added exogenously on the lateral mobility of the α5β1 integrin on HeLa cells. Using single-particle tracking (SPT we detected increased lateral mobility of the integrin in the presence of Gal-3, while its truncated C-terminal domain (Gal-3C showed only minor reductions in lateral mobility. Treatment of cells with Gal-3 increased β1-integrin mediated migration with no apparent changes in viability. In contrast, Gal-3C decreased both cell migration and viability. Fluorescence microscopy allowed us to confirm that exogenous Gal-3 resulted in reorganization of the integrin into larger clusters. We used a proteomics analysis to confirm that cells expressed endogenous Gal-3, and found that addition of competitive oligosaccharide ligands for the lectin altered the lateral mobility of the integrin. Together, our results are consistent with a Gal-3-integrin lattice model of binding and confirm that the lateral mobility of integrins is natively regulated, in part, by galectins.

  2. Design and test of a hybrid foot force sensing and GPS system for richer user mobility activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zelun; Poslad, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Wearable and accompanied sensors and devices are increasingly being used for user activity recognition. However, typical GPS-based and accelerometer-based (ACC) methods face three main challenges: a low recognition accuracy; a coarse recognition capability, i.e., they cannot recognise both human posture (during travelling) and transportation mode simultaneously, and a relatively high computational complexity. Here, a new GPS and Foot-Force (GPS + FF) sensor method is proposed to overcome these challenges that leverages a set of wearable FF sensors in combination with GPS, e.g., in a mobile phone. User mobility activities that can be recognised include both daily user postures and common transportation modes: sitting, standing, walking, cycling, bus passenger, car passenger (including private cars and taxis) and car driver. The novelty of this work is that our approach provides a more comprehensive recognition capability in terms of reliably recognising both human posture and transportation mode simultaneously during travel. In addition, by comparing the new GPS + FF method with both an ACC method (62% accuracy) and a GPS + ACC based method (70% accuracy) as baseline methods, it obtains a higher accuracy (95%) with less computational complexity, when tested on a dataset obtained from ten individuals.

  3. Design and Test of a Hybrid Foot Force Sensing and GPS System for Richer User Mobility Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Poslad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wearable and accompanied sensors and devices are increasingly being used for user activity recognition. However, typical GPS-based and accelerometer-based (ACC methods face three main challenges: a low recognition accuracy; a coarse recognition capability, i.e., they cannot recognise both human posture (during travelling and transportation mode simultaneously, and a relatively high computational complexity. Here, a new GPS and Foot-Force (GPS + FF sensor method is proposed to overcome these challenges that leverages a set of wearable FF sensors in combination with GPS, e.g., in a mobile phone. User mobility activities that can be recognised include both daily user postures and common transportation modes: sitting, standing, walking, cycling, bus passenger, car passenger (including private cars and taxis and car driver. The novelty of this work is that our approach provides a more comprehensive recognition capability in terms of reliably recognising both human posture and transportation mode simultaneously during travel. In addition, by comparing the new GPS + FF method with both an ACC method (62% accuracy and a GPS + ACC based method (70% accuracy as baseline methods, it obtains a higher accuracy (95% with less computational complexity, when tested on a dataset obtained from ten individuals.

  4. The Conventional Non-Articulated SACH or a Multiaxial Prosthetic Foot for Hypomobile Transtibial Amputees? A Clinical Comparison on Mobility, Balance, and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paradisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a non-articulated SACH and a multiaxial foot-ankle mechanism on the performance of low-activity users are of great interest for practitioners in amputee rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to compare these two prosthetic feet and assess possible improvements introduced by the increased degrees of freedom provided by the multiaxial foot. For this purpose, a group of 20 hypomobile transtibial amputees (TTAs had their usual SACH replaced with a multiaxial foot. Participants’ functional mobility, involving ambulatory skills in overground level walking, ramps, and stairs, was evaluated by performing Six-Minute Walking Test (6MWT, Locomotor Capability Index-5 (LCI-5, Hill Assessment Index (HAI, and Stair Assessment Index (SAI. Balance performances were assessed using Berg Balance Scale (BBS and analysing upper body accelerations during gait. Moreover, the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ was performed to indicate the prosthesis-related quality of life. Results showed that participants walked faster using the multiaxial foot (p<0.05 maintaining the same upright gait stability. Significant improvements with the multiaxial foot were also observed in BBS, LCI-5, and SAI times and 4 of 9 subscales of the PEQ. Our findings demonstrate that a multiaxial foot represents a considerable alternative solution with respect to the conventional SACH in the prosthetic prescription for hypomobile TTAs.

  5. Hemopathologic consequences of protracted gamma irradiation: alterations in granulocyte reserves and granulocyte mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.; Cullen, S.M.; Kaspar, L.V.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    Aplastic anemia and myelogenous leukemia are prominent pathologic effects in beagles exposed to continuous, daily, low-dose gamma irradiation. In the present work, granulocyte reserves and related mobilization functions have been sequentially assessed by the endotoxin stress assay during the preclinical and clinical phases of these hemopoietic disorders. Characteristic patterns of granulocyte reserve mobilization are described that reflect given stages of pathologic progression. For radiation-induced leukemia, a five-stage pattern has been proposed. In contrast, a simple pattern of progressive, time-dependent contraction of granulocyte reserves and mobilization capacity was noted in the development of terminal aplastic anemia. Early preclinical phases of radiation-induced leukemia appear to involve an extensive depletion of the granulocyte reserves (phase I) during the first approx. 200 days of exposure followed by a partial renewal of the reserves and associated mobilization functions between approx. 200 and 400 days (phase II). Sustained, subnormal granulocyte mobilizations (phase III) following endotoxin stress typify the responses of dogs during the intermediate phase, whereas late preclinical, preleukemic stages (phase IV) are characterized by a further expansion of the reserves and in the mobilization capacities, particularly of the less mature granulocytes. Such late alterations in the pattern of granulocyte mobilization, together with other noted cellular aberrancies in the peripheral blood and marrow, appear to indicate leukemia (phase V) onset

  6. Healing ulcers and preventing their recurrences in the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabapathy, S Raja; Periasamy, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen percent of people with diabetes develop an ulcer in the course of their lifetime. Eighty-five percent of the major amputations in diabetes mellitus are preceded by an ulcer. Management of ulcers and preventing their recurrence is important for the quality of life of the individual and reducing the cost of care of treatment. The main causative factors of ulceration are neuropathy, vasculopathy and limited joint mobility. Altered bio-mechanics due to the deformities secondary to neuropathy and limited joint mobility leads to focal points of increased pressure, which compromises circulation leading to ulcers. Ulcer management must not only address the healing of ulcers but also should correct the altered bio-mechanics to reduce the focal pressure points and prevent recurrence. An analysis of 700 patients presenting with foot problems to the Diabetic Clinic of Ganga Hospital led to the stratification of these patients into four classes of incremental severity. Class 1 - the foot at risk, Class 2 - superficial ulcers without infection, Class 3 - the crippled foot and Class 4 - the critical foot. Almost 77.5% presented in either Class 3 or 4 with complicated foot ulcers requiring major reconstruction or amputation. Class 1 foot can be managed conservatively with foot care and appropriate foot wear. Class 2 in addition to measures for ulcer healing would need surgery to correct the altered bio-mechanics to prevent the recurrence. The procedures called surgical offloading would depend on the site of the ulcer and would need an in-depth clinical study of the foot. Class 3 would need major reconstructive procedures and Class 4 would need amputation since it may be life-threatening. As clinicians, our main efforts must be focused towards identifying patients in Class 1 and offer advice on foot care and Class 2 where appropriate surgical offloading procedure would help preserve the foot.

  7. Healing ulcers and preventing their recurrences in the diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabapathy, S. Raja; Periasamy, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen percent of people with diabetes develop an ulcer in the course of their lifetime. Eighty-five percent of the major amputations in diabetes mellitus are preceded by an ulcer. Management of ulcers and preventing their recurrence is important for the quality of life of the individual and reducing the cost of care of treatment. The main causative factors of ulceration are neuropathy, vasculopathy and limited joint mobility. Altered bio-mechanics due to the deformities secondary to neuropathy and limited joint mobility leads to focal points of increased pressure, which compromises circulation leading to ulcers. Ulcer management must not only address the healing of ulcers but also should correct the altered bio-mechanics to reduce the focal pressure points and prevent recurrence. An analysis of 700 patients presenting with foot problems to the Diabetic Clinic of Ganga Hospital led to the stratification of these patients into four classes of incremental severity. Class 1 – the foot at risk, Class 2 – superficial ulcers without infection, Class 3 – the crippled foot and Class 4 – the critical foot. Almost 77.5% presented in either Class 3 or 4 with complicated foot ulcers requiring major reconstruction or amputation. Class 1 foot can be managed conservatively with foot care and appropriate foot wear. Class 2 in addition to measures for ulcer healing would need surgery to correct the altered bio-mechanics to prevent the recurrence. The procedures called surgical offloading would depend on the site of the ulcer and would need an in-depth clinical study of the foot. Class 3 would need major reconstructive procedures and Class 4 would need amputation since it may be life-threatening. As clinicians, our main efforts must be focused towards identifying patients in Class 1 and offer advice on foot care and Class 2 where appropriate surgical offloading procedure would help preserve the foot. PMID:28216809

  8. Effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits in rheumatoid arthritis with pain and foot deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Carolina Mendes; Almeida da Rocha, Bruna; Tanaka, Clarice

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits of rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA) with pain and foot deformities. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with RA pain and foot deformity were allocated into two groups: G1: individual exercise program and G2: group exercise program. The variables analyzed were Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) for balance, Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) and Functional Reach (FR) for mobility, and Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ-Br) for perceived benefits. Both exercise programs consisted of functional rehabilitation exercises and self-care guidance aimed at reducing pain and improving balance and mobility. Intragroup comparisons of variables between A1 (pre-intervention) and A2 (post-intervention) were performed. [Results] Patients in both groups were similar in A1 (pre-intervention) in all the variables analyzed. Comparison between A1 and A2 for each variable showed improvement for G1 in the NRS, BBS, FR, TUG and in four out of ten domains of FHSQ-Br. G2 showed improvement in the NRS, BBS and eight out of ten domains of FHSQ-Br. [Conclusion] Both individual and group programs revealed benefits for patients with RA, however, group exercise programs showed better perception of benefits.

  9. Cholesterol mobilization from hepatic lipid droplets during endotoxemia is altered in obese ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisqueta, Lino; Navarro-Imaz, Hiart; Rueda, Yuri; Fresnedo, Olatz

    2015-10-01

    The innate immune response to pathogens during the acute phase response includes lipid metabolism adaptations. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) and cholesteryl ester (CE) storage in and mobilization from lipid droplets (LDs) respond to metabolic changes under the control of liver X receptor (LXR) transactivation and cytokine transduction. To evaluate whether alterations of these mechanisms have an impact in the adaptive response to endotoxemia, we analysed liver metabolism changes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated ob/ob mice, which show altered metabolic and innate responses and a higher sensitivity to sepsis. Lipid composition of serum lipoproteins and hepatic LDs was determined in wild type and ob/ob mice 24 h after LPS treatment. Liver metabolic profiling was done by measuring enzyme activities and mRNA levels. Increased CE hydrolase activity in LDs from endotoxemic mice was accompanied by a lower content of CE and low or no induction of LXR-mediated expression of genes involved in HDL secretion. The attenuated response in liver lipid mobilization accompanied by the strain-specific cholesterol enrichment of secreted VLDL might lead to accumulation of LDL cholesterol. According to our findings, obese leptin-deficient mice present an altered control of hepatic lipid metabolism responses to LPS, which might be, in part at least, a consequence of impaired LXR. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  10. The healthy donor profile of immunoregulatory soluble mediators is altered by stem cell mobilization and apheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melve, Guro Kristin; Ersvaer, Elisabeth; Paulsen Rye, Kristin; Bushra Ahmed, Aymen; Kristoffersen, Einar K; Hervig, Tor; Reikvam, Håkon; Hatfield, Kimberley Joanne; Bruserud, Øystein

    2018-03-22

    Peripheral blood stem cells from healthy donors mobilized by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and thereafter harvested by leukapheresis are commonly used for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Plasma levels of 38 soluble mediators (cytokines, soluble adhesion molecules, proteases, protease inhibitors) were analyzed in samples derived from healthy stem cell donors before G-CSF treatment and after 4 days, both immediately before and after leukapheresis. Donors could be classified into two main subsets based on their plasma mediator profile before G-CSF treatment. Seventeen of 36 detectable mediators were significantly altered by G-CSF; generally an increase in mediator levels was seen, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, soluble adhesion molecules and proteases. Several leukocyte- and platelet-released mediators were increased during apheresis. Both plasma and graft mediator profiles were thus altered and showed correlations to graft concentrations of leukocytes and platelets; these concentrations were influenced by the apheresis device used. Finally, the mediator profile of the allotransplant recipients was altered by graft infusion, and based on their day +1 post-transplantation plasma profile our recipients could be divided into two major subsets that differed in overall survival. G-CSF alters the short-term plasma mediator profile of healthy stem cell donors. These effects together with the leukocyte and platelet levels in the graft determine the mediator profile of the stem cell grafts. Graft infusion also alters the systemic mediator profile of the recipients, but further studies are required to clarify whether such graft-induced alterations have a prognostic impact. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Hallux valgus and plantar pressure loading: the Framingham foot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV), a common structural foot deformity, can cause foot pain and lead to limited mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in plantar pressure and force during gait by HV status in a large population-based cohort of men and women. Methods A trained examiner performed a validated physical examination on participants’ feet and recorded the presence of hallux valgus and other specific foot disorders. Each foot was classified into one of four mutually exclusive groups based on the foot examination. Foot groups were: (i) HV only, (ii) HV and at least one additional foot disorder (FD), (iii) no HV but at least one other FD, and (iv) neither HV nor FD (referent). Biomechanical data for both feet were collected using Tekscan Matscan. Foot posture during quiet standing, using modified arch index (MAI), and foot function during gait, using center of pressure excursion index (CPEI), were calculated per foot. Further, walking scans were masked into eight sub-regions using Novel Automask, and peak pressure and maximum force exerted in each region were calculated. Results There were 3205 participants, contributing 6393 feet with complete foot exam data and valid biomechanical measurements. Participants with HV had lower hallucal loading and higher forces at lesser toes as well as higher MAI and lower CPEI values compared to the referent. Participants with HV and other FDs were also noted to have aberrant rearfoot forces and pressures. Conclusions These results suggest that HV alters foot loading patterns and pressure profiles. Future work should investigate how these changes affect the risk of other foot and lower extremity ailments. PMID:24138804

  12. Altered intracellular localization and mobility of SBDS protein upon mutation in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orelio, Claudia; van der Sluis, Renée M; Verkuijlen, Paul; Nethe, Micha; Hordijk, Peter L; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2011-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (SDS) is a rare inherited disease caused by mutations in the SBDS gene. Hematopoietic defects, exocrine pancreas dysfunction and short stature are the most prominent clinical features. To gain understanding of the molecular properties of the ubiquitously expressed SBDS protein, we examined its intracellular localization and mobility by live cell imaging techniques. We observed that SBDS full-length protein was localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas patient-related truncated SBDS protein isoforms localize predominantly to the nucleus. Also the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of these patient-related SBDS proteins was disturbed. Further studies with a series of SBDS mutant proteins revealed that three distinct motifs determine the intracellular mobility of SBDS protein. A sumoylation motif in the C-terminal domain, that is lacking in patient SBDS proteins, was found to play a pivotal role in intracellular motility. Our structure-function analyses provide new insight into localization and motility of the SBDS protein, and show that patient-related mutant proteins are altered in their molecular properties, which may contribute to the clinical features observed in SDS patients.

  13. Altered intracellular localization and mobility of SBDS protein upon mutation in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Orelio

    Full Text Available Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (SDS is a rare inherited disease caused by mutations in the SBDS gene. Hematopoietic defects, exocrine pancreas dysfunction and short stature are the most prominent clinical features. To gain understanding of the molecular properties of the ubiquitously expressed SBDS protein, we examined its intracellular localization and mobility by live cell imaging techniques. We observed that SBDS full-length protein was localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas patient-related truncated SBDS protein isoforms localize predominantly to the nucleus. Also the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of these patient-related SBDS proteins was disturbed. Further studies with a series of SBDS mutant proteins revealed that three distinct motifs determine the intracellular mobility of SBDS protein. A sumoylation motif in the C-terminal domain, that is lacking in patient SBDS proteins, was found to play a pivotal role in intracellular motility. Our structure-function analyses provide new insight into localization and motility of the SBDS protein, and show that patient-related mutant proteins are altered in their molecular properties, which may contribute to the clinical features observed in SDS patients.

  14. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  15. An Alteration of Lymphocytes Subpopulations and Immunoglobulins Levels in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers Infected Particularly by Resistant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Fejfarová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyse immune abnormalities in patients with chronic infected diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs especially those infected by resistant microorganisms. Methods. 68 patients treated in our foot clinic for infected chronic DFUs with 34 matched diabetic controls were studied. Patients with infected DFUs were subdivided into two subgroups according to the antibiotic sensitivity of causal pathogen: subgroup S infected by sensitive (n=50 and subgroup R by resistant pathogens (n=18. Selected immunological markers were compared between the study groups and subgroups. Results. Patients with infected chronic DFUs had, in comparison with diabetic controls, significantly reduced percentages (p<0.01 and total numbers of lymphocytes (p<0.001 involving B lymphocytes (p<0.01, CD4+ (p<0.01, and CD8+ T cells (p<0.01 and their naive and memory effector cells. Higher levels of IgG (p<0.05 including IgG1 (p<0.001 and IgG3 (p<0.05 were found in patients with DFUs compared to diabetic controls. Serum levels of immunoglobulin subclasses IgG2 and IgG3 correlated negatively with metabolic control (p<0.05. A trend towards an increased frequency of IgG2 deficiency was found in patients with DFUs compared to diabetic controls (22% versus 15%; NS. Subgroup R revealed lower levels of immunoglobulins, especially of IgG4 (p<0.01 in contrast to patients infected by sensitive bacteria. The innate immunity did not differ significantly between the study groups. Conclusion. Our study showed changes mainly in the adaptive immune system represented by low levels of lymphocyte subpopulations and their memory effector cells, and also changes in humoral immunity in patients with DFUs, even those infected by resistant pathogens, in comparison with diabetic controls.

  16. Foot pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - foot ... Foot pain may be due to: Aging Being on your feet for long periods of time Being overweight A ... sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, ...

  17. Activation of protein kinase C alters the intracellular distribution and mobility of cardiac Na+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaq, Haifa; Wang, Dao W; Kunic, Jennifer D; George, Alfred L; Wells, K Sam; Murray, Katherine T

    2012-02-01

    Na(+) current derived from expression of the cardiac isoform SCN5A is reduced by receptor-mediated or direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Previous work has suggested a possible role for loss of Na(+) channels at the plasma membrane in this effect, but the results are controversial. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PKC activation acutely modulates the intracellular distribution of SCN5A channels and that this effect can be visualized in living cells. In human embryonic kidney cells that stably expressed SCN5A with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the channel COOH-terminus (SCN5A-GFP), Na(+) currents were suppressed by an exposure to PKC activation. Using confocal microscopy, colocalization of SCN5A-GFP channels with the plasma membrane under control and stimulated conditions was quantified. A separate population of SCN5A channels containing an extracellular epitope was immunolabeled to permit temporally stable labeling of the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrated that Na(+) channels were preferentially trafficked away from the plasma membrane by PKC activation, with a major contribution by Ca(2+)-sensitive or conventional PKC isoforms, whereas stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA) had the opposite effect. Removal of the conserved PKC site Ser(1503) or exposure to the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin eliminated the PKC-mediated effect to alter channel trafficking, indicating that both channel phosphorylation and ROS were required. Experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that both PKC and PKA also modified channel mobility in a manner consistent with the dynamics of channel distribution. These results demonstrate that the activation of protein kinases can acutely regulate the intracellular distribution and molecular mobility of cardiac Na(+) channels in living cells.

  18. Altered gray matter volume and white matter integrity in college students with mobile phone dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone dependence (MPD is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Gray matter volume (GMV and white matter (WM integrity (four indexes: fractional anisotropy, FA; mean diffusivity, MD; axial diffusivity, AD; and radial diffusivity, RD were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female were enrolled and separated into two groups (MPD group, N=34; control group, N=34 based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11. In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG, right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG, and bilateral thalamus (Thal. In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of white matter integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH. Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with phone-overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation with other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  19. Foot structure and footwear prescription in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2008-01-01

    Foot structure abnormalities such as foot deformity and limited joint mobility are common and well established components of the diabetic foot which are associated with increased levels of mechanical stress on the foot and the development of ulcers. Our understanding of foot structure abnormality in

  20. Diversity and transboundary mobility of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus in East Africa: Implications for vaccination policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila; Sangula, Abraham; Heller, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O has been responsible for most reported outbreaks of the disease in East Africa. A sustained campaign for the past 40 years to control FMD mainly by vaccination, combined with quarantine and zoosanitary measures has been undertaken with limited success...... the dominant evolutionary force. Cross-border disease transmission within the region has been suggested with probable incursions of topotypes EA-3 and EA-4 into Kenya and Uganda from neighboring Ethiopia and Sudan. We conclude that the vaccines have probably been effective in controlling EA-1, but less so....... We investigated the genetic relationships among serotype O strains in eastern Africa using complete VP1 coding region sequences obtained from 46 FMD virus isolates collected in Kenya in the years 1964–2008 and 8 Ugandan isolates collected between 1999 and 2006. In addition, 21 selected FMDV sequences...

  1. Street-level desires, Discovering the city on foot : Pedestrian mobility and the regeneration of the European city centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, R.E.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.; Van der Spek, S.C.; Smit, M.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Pedestrian mobility and the regeneration of the European city centre. Cities can be chaotic and confusing places at the best of times – even for local people! Spatial Metro, a project largely funded by the EU, aims to make city visits more enjoyable for pedestrians by making cities easier to

  2. Athlete's Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  3. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can also cause foot problems. The Most Common Types of Foot Problems In older adults, the foot complaints encountered ... people include: Arch pain . From fallen arches (flat feet), or abnormally high arches. Tarsal tunnel syndrome . A type of pinched nerve disorder. Achilles tendonitis . Inflammation of ...

  4. Foot pain

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Foot complaints are very common in general practice and their incidence increases with age. Three out of four people complain of foot pain during the course of a lifetime, while approximately 20% of people aged 65 years or older complain of non-traumatic foot problems.

  5. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  6. DIABETES IMPAIRS HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL MOBILIZATION THROUGH ALTERATION OF NICHE FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Francesca; Lymperi, Stefania; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón; Saez, Borja; Spencer, Joel A; Yeap, Beow Y; Masselli, Elena; Graiani, Gallia; Prezioso, Lucia; Rizzini, Elisa Lodi; Mangoni, Marcellina; Rizzoli, Vittorio; Sykes, Stephen M; Lin, Charles P.; Frenette, Paul S.; Quaini, Federico; Scadden, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) transplantation success depends upon adequate cell collection after G-CSF-administration that a substantial fraction of patients fails to achieve. Retrospective analysis of patient records demonstrated that diabetes correlated with lower CD34+ cell mobilization. Using mouse models, we found impaired HSPC egress from the bone marrow in either streptozotocin-induced or db/db diabetic animals. HSPC aberrantly localized within the marrow microenvironment of diabetic animals in association with abnormalities in sympathetic neuron number and function. Markedly increased sympathetic neuron density was accompanied by abnormal response to β-adrenergic stimulation and a failure to generate the G-CSF-induced CXCL12 gradient in nestin-expressing mesenchymal cells associated with HSPC mobilization. Alternative mobilization by direct pharmacologic inhibition of CXCL12-CXCR4 interaction rescued the defect. These data reveal diabetes-induced changes in bone marrow physiology and microanatomy and point to a pathophysiologically based approach to overcome HSPC mobilization defects in diabetic patients. PMID:21998408

  7. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and environmental degradation. The spaces and territories marked by mobilities as well as the sites marked by the bypassing of such are explored. Moreover, the architectural and technological dimensions to infrastructures and sites of mobilities will be included as well as the issues of power, social exclusion...... for all students and scholars with an interest in the ‘mobilities turn’ and its contributions to a deeper understanding of the contemporary and mobile world. The entries chosen all are amongst the most creative, thought provoking, and thoughtful of this diverse field of analysis and thought. The selection...

  8. Athlete's foot

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Fay

    2009-01-01

    Fungal infection of the feet can cause white and soggy skin between the toes, dry and flaky soles, or reddening and blistering of the skin all over the foot. Around 15% to 25% of people are likely to have athlete's foot at any one time.The infection can spread to other parts of the body and to other people.

  9. Athlete's Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot is a type of fungal skin infection. Fungi (the plural of fungus) are microscopic plant-like organisms that thrive in damp, warm environments. They're usually not dangerous, but sometimes can cause disease. When they infect the skin, they cause mild ...

  10. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  11. Subordination, migration and mobilization : strategies for coping in an altered security situation

    OpenAIRE

    Langslet, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Why do people respond differently to an apparently equal security threat, and which factors are decisive in the decision making? The present thesis explores different strategies for coping with an altered security situation among Pashtuns in northern Afghanistan. In 2001 a US-led coalition toppled the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. This had severe implications for persons belonging to the Pashtun ethnic group in northern Afghanistan. The Pashtun constitute the biggest ethnic grou...

  12. The presence of altered craniocervical posture and mobility in smartphone-addicted teenagers with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Craniocervical posture and mobility were examined by lateral cephalometric analysis and a cervical range of motion instrument. [Results] Cephalometric analysis showed no significant difference in the craniocervical angles of the resting positions of the two groups. However, measurement using an inclinometer revealed a significantly flexed cervical posture while using smartphones and decreased cervical range of motion in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. The clinical profile of temporomandibular disorders revealed that muscular problems were more frequently presented in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that smartphone addiction has a negative influence on craniocervical posture and mobility. Further, it can be postulated that smartphone addiction among teenagers may have contributed to the occurrence of myogenous temporomandibular disorders. In conclusion, smartphone-addicted teenagers may be more frequently subjected to muscular disturbance in the craniocervical area, which probably affects the pathologic process of temporomandibular disorders in teenagers.

  13. Adult Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Foot & Ankle / Adult Foot Health Adult Foot Health Page Content The Normal Foot There are 26 bones and 33 joints in ... Pay attention to cuts and bruises of the foot. Like any other injury they should be cleansed ...

  14. Changing climate and sea level alter Hg mobility at Lake Tulane, Florida, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, G L; Norton, S A; Grimm, E C; Edgar, T

    2012-11-06

    Between 45,000 cal years BP and the beginning of the Holocene, the accumulation rate for Hg in sediments of Lake Tulane, Florida ranged from ≈2 to 10 μg m(-2) yr(-1), compared with 53 μg Hg m(-2) yr(-1) in the 1985-1990 period of anthropogenic input. The locality experienced regional draw-down of the water table during the Wisconsinan glaciation, which lowered global sea level by nearly 130 m. Natural atmospheric deposition of Hg to the surrounding area resulted in long-term (ca. 100,000 years) sequestration of this atmospheric flux of Hg, primarily by adsorption in the oxic Al- and Fe-hydroxide-rich sandy subsoil. Global sea level rise during deglaciation led to a rising regional water table, flooding the oxidized soils surrounding Tulane. Iron and adsorbed Hg were mobilized by reductive dissolution and transported by groundwater flow to Lake Tulane and ultimately to the accumulating sediment. The accumulation rate of Hg (and Fe) increased rapidly about 16,000 cal years BP, peaked at nearly 60 μg Hg m(-2) yr(-1) ca. 13,000-14,000 cal years BP, declined sharply during the Younger Dryas, and then increased sharply to a second 60 μg Hg m(-2) yr(-1) peak about 5000 cal years BP. Thereafter, it declined nearly to background by 900 cal years BP. In similar geologic situations, rapid modern sea level rise will initiate this process globally, and may mobilize large accumulations of Hg and lesser amounts of As, and other redox sensitive metals to groundwater and surface water.

  15. Club foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, V; Damborg, F; Andersen, M

    2006-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital club foot is unclear. Although studies on populations, families and twins suggest a genetic component, the mode of inheritance does not comply with distinctive patterns. The Odense-based Danish Twin Registry contains data on all 73,000 twin pairs born in Denmark over...... the last 130 years. In 2002 all 46 418 twins born between 1931 and 1982 received a 17-page questionnaire, one question of which was 'Were you born with club foot?' A total of 94 twins answered 'Yes', giving an overall self-reported prevalence of congenital club foot of 0.0027 (95% confidence interval (CI.......09 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.32) for DZss and 0.05 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.18) for all dizygotic (DZtot) twins. We have found evidence of a genetic component in congenital club foot, although non-genetic factors must play a predominant role....

  16. Foot Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is being done? The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts research related to the neurological conditions that cause foot drop in its laboratories at the National ...

  17. High Amplitude EEG Motor Potential during Repetitive Foot Movement: Possible Use and Challenges for Futuristic BCIs That Restore Mobility after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljoscha Thomschewski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroprostheses provide us with promising ideas of how to improve the quality of life in people suffering from impaired motor functioning of upper and lower limbs. Especially for patients after spinal cord injury (SCI, futuristic devices that are controlled by thought via brain-computer interfaces (BCIs might be of tremendous help in managing daily tasks and restoring at least some mobility. However, there are certain problems arising when trying to implement BCI technology especially in such a heterogenous patient group. A plethora of processes occurring after the injuries change the brain's structure as well as its functionality collectively referred to as neuroplasticity. These changes are very different between individuals, leading to an increasing interest to reveal the exact changes occurring after SCI. In this study we investigated event-related potentials (ERPs derived from electroencephalography (EEG signals recorded during the (attempted execution and imagination of hand and foot movements in healthy subjects and patients with SCI. As ERPs and especially early components are of interest for BCI research we aimed to investigate differences between 22 healthy volunteers and 7 patients (mean age = 51.86, SD = 15.49 suffering from traumatic or non-traumatic SCI since 2–314 months (mean = 116,57, SD = 125,55. We aimed to explore differences in ERP responses as well as the general presence of component that might be of interest to further consider for incorporation into BCI research. In order to match the real-life situation of BCIs for controlling neuroprostheses, we worked on small trial numbers (<25, only. We obtained a focal potential over Pz in ten healthy participants but in none of the patients after lenient artifact rejection. The potential was characterized by a high amplitude, it correlated with the repeated movements (6 times in 6 s and in nine subjects it significantly differed from a resting condition

  18. Optimising Ankle Foot Orthoses for children with Cerebral Palsy walking with excessive knee flexion to improve their mobility and participation; protocol of the AFO-CP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerkum Yvette L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs, are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy cost of FROs is both limited and inconclusive. Much of this ambiguity may be due to a mismatch between the FRO ankle stiffness and the patient’s gait deviations. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of FROs optimised for ankle stiffness on the walking energy cost in children with SCP, compared to walking with shoes alone. In addition, effects on various secondary outcome measures will be evaluated in order to identify possible working mechanisms and potential predictors of FRO treatment success. Method/Design A pre-post experimental study design will include 32 children with SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion in midstance, recruited from our university hospital and affiliated rehabilitation centres. All participants will receive a newly designed FRO, allowing ankle stiffness to be varied into three configurations by means of a hinge. Gait biomechanics will be assessed for each FRO configuration. The FRO that results in the greatest reduction in knee flexion during the single stance phase will be selected as the subject’s optimal FRO. Subsequently, the effects of wearing this optimal FRO will be evaluated after 12–20 weeks. The primary study parameter will be walking energy cost, with the most important secondary outcomes being intensity of participation, daily activity, walking speed and gait biomechanics. Discussion The AFO-CP trial will be the first experimental study to evaluate the effect of individually optimised FROs on mobility and participation. The evaluation will include outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, providing a unique

  19. Optimising Ankle Foot Orthoses for children with cerebral palsy walking with excessive knee flexion to improve their mobility and participation; protocol of the AFO-CP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkum, Yvette L; Harlaar, Jaap; Buizer, Annemieke I; van den Noort, Josien C; Becher, Jules G; Brehm, Merel-Anne

    2013-02-01

    Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs), are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy cost) of FROs is both limited and inconclusive. Much of this ambiguity may be due to a mismatch between the FRO ankle stiffness and the patient's gait deviations.The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of FROs optimised for ankle stiffness on the walking energy cost in children with SCP, compared to walking with shoes alone. In addition, effects on various secondary outcome measures will be evaluated in order to identify possible working mechanisms and potential predictors of FRO treatment success. A pre-post experimental study design will include 32 children with SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion in midstance, recruited from our university hospital and affiliated rehabilitation centres. All participants will receive a newly designed FRO, allowing ankle stiffness to be varied into three configurations by means of a hinge. Gait biomechanics will be assessed for each FRO configuration. The FRO that results in the greatest reduction in knee flexion during the single stance phase will be selected as the subject's optimal FRO. Subsequently, the effects of wearing this optimal FRO will be evaluated after 12-20 weeks. The primary study parameter will be walking energy cost, with the most important secondary outcomes being intensity of participation, daily activity, walking speed and gait biomechanics. The AFO-CP trial will be the first experimental study to evaluate the effect of individually optimised FROs on mobility and participation. The evaluation will include outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, providing a unique set of data with which to assess relationships between outcome

  20. Diabetic Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Akbulut; Umit Aydogan; Y. Cetin Doganer

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a multisystemic disease progressively seen more frequently in the general population. Diabetes foot, seen in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, is a frequent result of improper foot care and requires long and serious treatment. The disease plays an important role in terms of public health and can be a cause for high morbidity and mortality rates. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000): 375-382

  1. Mycetoma foot

    OpenAIRE

    Gooptu, Somnath; Ali, Iqbal; Singh, Gurjit; Mishra, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    Mycetoma is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infective disease of the skin, dermis and subcutaneous tissues predominantly seen in tropical countries. A patient presented to our hospital with the swelling of the left foot with a healed sinus and a painful nodule. He gave a history of sinuses in the left foot from which there was discharge of yellow granules. Culture of the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed growths of Nocardia species. The patient was tre...

  2. Genomic change, retrotransposon mobilization and extensive cytosine methylation alteration in Brassica napus introgressions from two intertribal hybridizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Zhang

    Full Text Available Hybridization and introgression represent important means for the transfer and/or de novo origination of traits and play an important role in facilitating speciation and plant breeding. Two sets of introgression lines in Brassica napus L. were previously established by its intertribal hybridizations with two wild species and long-term selection. In this study, the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP, sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP were used to determine their genomic change, retrotransposon mobilization and cytosine methylation alteration in these lines. The genomic change revealed by the loss or gain of AFLP bands occurred for ∼10% of the total bands amplified in the two sets of introgressions, while no bands specific for wild species were detected. The new and absent SSAP bands appeared for 9 out of 11 retrotransposons analyzed, with low frequency of new bands and their total percentage of about 5% in both sets. MSAP analysis indicated that methylation changes were common in these lines (33.4-39.8% and the hypermethylation was more frequent than hypomethylation. Our results suggested that certain extents of genetic and epigenetic alterations were induced by hybridization and alien DNA introgression. The cryptic mechanism of these changes and potential application of these lines in breeding were also discussed.

  3. Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Common Mobile Phone Jammers Alters the Pattern of Muscle Contractions: an Animal Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, A; Rahimi, S; Talebi, A; Soleimani, A; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, S M J

    2015-09-01

    The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog's isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz). Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer's antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T), the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz) as stimuli. The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.

  4. Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Common Mobile Phone Jammers Alters the Pattern of Muscle Contractions: an Animal Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafati A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz. Materials and Methods: Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer’s antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T, the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz as stimuli. Results: The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion: These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.

  5. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    will cover diverse topics such as theories, concepts, methods, and approaches as well as it will explore various modes of mobilities and the relationship to everyday life practices. The selection also covers the ‘politics of mobilities’ from local urban planning schemes to geopolitical issues of refugees...

  6. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot morphology, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot morphology allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot morphology. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot morphology, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (P<0.05), decreased contact surface on the hindfoot (P<0.03). While results indicated the important role of foot morphology in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot function, and in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Having the Foot at Risk: Experience Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Luz Barros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory changes due to neuropathy, namely those affecting the feet, make diabetic patients more prone to repeated trauma that tends to create clinically significant lesions, often with serious consequences and a considerable negative impact in well-being and quality of life. Objective: To understand the implications of diabetic foot ulcers on the daily life of patients. Methods: Experience Report resorting to informal interviews, application of the Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule. Results: Patients expressed particular concern in 4 areas: the future; tranquility in the face of disease; resources; and knowledge of risks. About the questionnaire data, the only life activity shown to be altered was mobility. Conclusions: There has been a concern to empower and inform the patient, which helps to better adapt to the transformations that will pass the course of their disease. It would be advantageous refer the patient to primary health care and nurse surveillance.

  8. Optimising Ankle Foot Orthoses for children with Cerebral Palsy walking with excessive knee flexion to improve their mobility and participation; protocol of the AFO-CP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkum, Y.L.; Harlaar, J.; Buizer, A.I.; van den Noort, J.C.; Becher, J.G.; Brehm, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs), are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of

  9. Optimising Ankle Foot Orthoses for children with cerebral palsy walking with excessive knee flexion to improve their mobility and participation; protocol of the AFO-CP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkum, Yvette L.; Harlaar, Jaap; Buizer, Annemieke I.; van den Noort, Josien C.; Becher, Jules G.; Brehm, Merel-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs), are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy

  10. An individual approach for optimizing ankle-foot orthoses to improve mobility in children with spastic cerebral palsy walking with excessive knee flexion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkum, Yvette L.; Harlaar, Jaap; Buizer, Annemieke I.; van den Noort, Josien C.; Becher, Jules G.; Brehm, Merel-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to promote gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The AFO prescription process is however largely dependent on clinical experience, resulting in confusing results regarding treatment efficacy. To maximize efficacy, the AFO's mechanical

  11. Neutrophil mobilization by surface-glycan altered Th17-skewing bacteria mitigates periodontal pathogen persistence and associated alveolar bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P Settem

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone (tooth-supporting bone erosion is a hallmark of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease that often leads to tooth loss. Periodontitis is caused by a select group of pathogens that form biofilms in subgingival crevices between the gums and teeth. It is well-recognized that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in these biofilms is responsible for modeling a microbial dysbiotic state, which then initiates an inflammatory response destructive to the periodontal tissues and bone. Eradication of this pathogen is thus critical for the treatment of periodontitis. Previous studies have shown that oral inoculation in mice with an attenuated strain of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia altered in O-glycan surface composition induces a Th17-linked mobilization of neutrophils to the gingival tissues. In this study, we sought to determine if immune priming with such a Th17-biasing strain would elicit a productive neutrophil response against P. gingivalis. Our data show that inoculation with a Th17-biasing T. forsythia strain is effective in blocking P. gingivalis-persistence and associated alveolar bone loss in mice. This work demonstrates the potential of O-glycan modified Tannerella strains or their O-glycan components for harnessing Th17-mediated immunity against periodontal and other mucosal pathogens.

  12. Diabetic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can damage your nerves or blood vessels. Nerve damage from diabetes can cause you to lose feeling in your feet. You may not feel a cut, a blister or a sore. Foot injuries such as these can cause ulcers and infections. ...

  13. The effect of a prefabricated foot orthotic on frontal plane joint mechanics in healthy runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonroeder, Thomas G; Benson, Lauren C; O'Connor, Kristian M

    2015-06-01

    The mechanism of action of a foot orthotic is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to use principal components analysis (PCA) to analyze the effects of a prefabricated foot orthotic on frontal plane knee and ankle mechanics during running. Thirty-one healthy subjects performed running trials with and without a foot orthotic and PCA was performed on the knee and ankle joint angles and moments to identify the dominant modes of variation. MANOVAs were conducted on the retained principal components of each waveform and dependent t tests (P foot orthotic. However, mechanics of the knee were significantly altered as subjects demonstrated an increase in the magnitude of the knee abduction moment waveform in an orthotic condition. Subjects also demonstrated a significant shift in the timing of the knee abduction moment waveform toward later in the stance phase in the orthotic condition. These orthotic effects were not related to subject's foot mobility, measured using the navicular drop test. The mechanism of action of a foot orthotic may be related to their effect on the timing of frontal plane knee loading.

  14. Diabetic Foot and Exercise Therapy: Step by Step The Role of Rigid Posture and Biomechanics Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Piergiorgio; Gulisano, Massimo; Anichini, Roberto; Seghieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Lower extremity ulcers represent a serious and costly complication of diabetes mellitus. Many factors contribute to the development of diabetic foot. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main causes of foot ulceration and contribute in turn to the growth of additional risk factors such as limited joint mobility, muscular alterations and foot deformities. Moreover, a deficit of balance, posture and biomechanics can be present, in particular in patients at high risk for ulceration. The result of this process may be the development of a vicious cycle which leads to abnormal distribution of the foot's plantar pressures in static and dynamic postural conditions. This review shows that some of these risk factors significantly improve after a few weeks of exercise therapy (ET) intervention. Accordingly it has been suggested that ET can be an important weapon in the prevention of foot ulcer. The aim of ET can relate to one or more alterations typically found in diabetic patients, although greater attention should be paid to the evaluation and possible correction of body balance, rigid posture and biomechanics. Some of the most important limitations of ET are difficult access to therapy, patient compliance and the transitoriness of the results if the training stops. Many proposals have been made to overcome such limitations. In particular, it is important that specialized centers offer the opportunity to participate in ET and during the treatment the team should work to change the patient’s lifestyle by improving the execution of appropriate daily physical activity. PMID:24807636

  15. The ground reaction force thresholds for detecting postural stability in participants with and without flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S

    2016-01-04

    Foot mobility commonly contributes to injury via altered motion of the lower extremities. However, there is a lack of understanding of sensitive kinetic changes with flat foot. The purpose of this study was to investigate the threshold that best distinguishes between participants with and without flat foot. The kinetic stability index was developed based on the three-dimensional data from the ground reaction force (GRF) during one leg standing. In total, 34 control participants and 30 participants with flat foot were asked to maintain one leg standing for 25s with the contra lateral hip and knee flexed approximately 90°. The various thresholds (3, 7, 15, 30, 50, and 200N) were analyzed by the kinetic stability index. The standing time was not significantly different between groups (t=1.07, p=0.28); however, there were significant differences on threshold level (F=369.23, p=0.001) as well as group interactions with threshold (F=6.72, p=0.01). The post hoc test indicated that less than 15N was the best to detect the kinetic stability index between the groups. Clinicians need to understand sensitive threshold settings to differentiate the participants with and without flat foot. The threshold changes might be altered to detect postural deficits by the kinetic stability index. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R; Treyer, V; Borbély, A A; Schuderer, J; Gottselig, J M; Landolt, H-P; Werth, E; Berthold, T; Kuster, N; Buck, A; Achermann, P

    2002-12-01

    Usage of mobile phones is rapidly increasing, but there is limited data on the possible effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on brain physiology. We investigated the effect of EMF vs. sham control exposure on waking regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and on waking and sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in humans. In Experiment 1, positron emission tomography (PET) scans were taken after unilateral head exposure to 30-min pulse-modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic field (pm-EMF). In Experiment 2, night-time sleep was polysomnographically recorded after EMF exposure. Pulse-modulated EMF exposure increased relative rCBF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ipsilateral to exposure. Also, pm-EMF exposure enhanced EEG power in the alpha frequency range prior to sleep onset and in the spindle frequency range during stage 2 sleep. Exposure to EMF without pulse modulation did not enhance power in the waking or sleep EEG. We previously observed EMF effects on the sleep EEG (A. A. Borbély, R. Huber, T. Graf, B. Fuchs, E. Gallmann and P. Achermann. Neurosci. Lett., 1999, 275: 207-210; R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbély, and P. Achermann. Neuroreport, 2000, 11: 3321-3325), but the basis for these effects was unknown. The present results show for the first time that (1) pm-EMF alters waking rCBF and (2) pulse modulation of EMF is necessary to induce waking and sleep EEG changes. Pulse-modulated EMF exposure may provide a new, non-invasive method for modifying brain function for experimental, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  17. Radiofrequency field emitted by mobile phones and alteration of the blood-brain barrier: how strong is the experimental evidence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagroye, I.; Haro, E.; Billaudel, B.; Ruffie, G.; Poulletier de Gannes, F.; Taxile, M.; Laclau, M.; Veyret, B.; Leveque, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: It is known that high power, thermal radiofrequency radiation (RFR) can alter the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability with a brain averaged specific absorption rate (BASAR) threshold evaluated at around 100 W/kg (1). Mobile communication technologies are using RFR with exposure guidelines for public local exposure at 2 W/kg, far lower than the threshold previously mentioned. However, in a paper recently published (2) the occurrence of BBB leakage and brain damage (presence of dark neurons) has been reported 50 days after a single 2-hour exposure of rats to a GSM-900 signal. In that investigation however, bias could have occurred as, for instance, exposed animals were mixed in terms of age (12- to 26-week old) and gender, while those differences were not taken into account in the analysis. Moreover, other groups have published contradictory results (3). Our group undertook a confirmation study of the Salford experiments within an international collaborative programme including technical improvements. Our study includes the detection of dark neurons, alteration of the permeability of the BBB and apoptosis 14 or 50 days after GSM-900 exposure. The exposure setup was the loop antenna that allows for head-only exposure. Five groups of 16 Fisher 344 rats (14 -week old) were exposed to GSM-900 during 2 hours at various SAR levels (0, 0.14 and 2.0 W/kg), or were used as cage control or positive controls. Positive controls were treated with kainic acid (10 mg/kg) or by cold injury (dry ice during 5 minutes). After exposure, rats were kept alive during 14 or 50 days to study brain damages. Then, they were anesthetized with urethane (i.p. 1.5 mg/kg), perfused with PBS and fixed with paraformaldehyde 4% (PAF 4%). Brains were extracted and put in cold PAF 4% during the following night, then placed in cold sucrose 20% during 2-3 days, frozen with isopentane and placed at -80 deg. C. Coding was done on brains. Frozen brains were cut in 3

  18. Cavus Foot Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toes All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Cavus Foot Surgery Page Content What is a cavus foot? A cavus or high-arched foot may have ... related problems. What are the goals of cavus foot surgery? The main goal of surgery is to ...

  19. Altering Shank-Rear-Foot Joint Coupling During Gait With Ankle Taping in Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, C Collin; Chinn, Lisa; Hertel, Jay

    2016-02-01

    Lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is one of the most common injuries in active individuals. Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a condition that commonly occurs after LAS and is associated with long-term disability and a high risk of multiple ankle sprains. Ankle taping is a commonly used intervention for the prevention of ankle sprains. To analyze the ankle-joint coupling using vector coding during walking and jogging gait with the application of ankle tape and without ankle tape in young adults with and without CAI. Observational laboratory study design. Patients walked and jogged on an instrumented treadmill while taped and not taped. Fifteen strides for each subject were collected and analyzed using a vector-coding technique to compare magnitude coupled motion, ratio of coupled motion, and the variability (VCV) within groups. Within-group means and 90% confidence intervals (CI) were compared between the taped and nontaped condition, and where the CIs did not overlap was considered significant. A 12-camera 3D motion-capture system with instrumented treadmill. 12 patients with CAI and 11 healthy controls. Magnitude to coupled motion, ratio of coupled motion, and the VCV of shank-rear-foot joint coupling. Magnitude of coupled motion and VCV were significantly lower in the taped condition than in the nontaped condition in both groups. Magnitude differences were identified near initial contact during walking and during swing phase of jogging. VCV differences were identified throughout the gait cycle at both walking and jogging. No differences were identified in theta between tape and nontaped conditions. A decrease in the magnitude of coupled motion and VCV may represent a protective mechanism of ankle taping in CAI and healthy patients during gait.

  20. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawacha, Zimi; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Guarneri, Gabriella; Corazza, Stefano; Donà, Giulia; Denti, Paolo; Facchinetti, Andrea; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2009-10-23

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation) were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate the major sources of variation (true variation in the subject

  1. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  2. Foot sprain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-foot sprain ... Most foot sprains happen due to sports or activities in which your body twists and pivots but your feet ... snowboarding, and dance. There are three levels of foot sprains. Grade I, minor. You have small tears ...

  3. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  4. Effect of Rocker Bar Ankle Foot Orthosis on Functional Mobility in Post-Stroke Hemiplegic Patients: Timed Up and Go and Gait Speed Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Farmani

    2016-03-01

    Discussion: RAFO led to a significant improvement in functional mobility in hemiplegic patients post stroke. This may be due to the positive effect of rocker modification on improving push off and transferring weight during the stance phase of gait.

  5. Foot Disorders, Foot Posture, and Foot Function: The Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Thomas J.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Menz, Hylton B.; Casey, Virginia A.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Foot disorders are common among older adults and may lead to outcomes such as falls and functional limitation. However, the associations of foot posture and foot function to specific foot disorders at the population level remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between specific foot disorders, foot posture, and foot function. Methods Participants were from the population-based Framingham Foot Study. Quintiles of the modified arch index and center of pressure excursion index from plantar pressure scans were used to create foot posture and function subgroups. Adjusted odds ratios of having each specific disorder were calculated for foot posture and function subgroups relative to a referent 3 quintiles. Results Pes planus foot posture was associated with increased odds of hammer toes and overlapping toes. Cavus foot posture was not associated with the foot disorders evaluated. Odds of having hallux valgus and overlapping toes were significantly increased in those with pronated foot function, while odds of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus were significantly decreased in those with supinated function. Conclusions Foot posture and foot function were associated with the presence of specific foot disorders. PMID:24040231

  6. Altering gait by way of stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot: the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles in older fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatton Anna L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that textured insoles can alter gait and standing balance by way of enhanced plantar tactile stimulation. However, to date, this has not been explored in older people at risk of falling. This study investigated the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles on gait and double-limb standing balance in older fallers. Methods Thirty older adults >65 years (21 women, mean [SD] age 79.0 [7.1], with self-reported history of ≥2 falls in the previous year, conducted tests of level-ground walking over 10 m (GAITRite system, and double-limb standing with eyes open and eyes closed over 30 seconds (Kistler force platform under two conditions: wearing textured insoles (intervention and smooth (control insoles in their usual footwear. Results Wearing textured insoles caused significantly lower gait velocity (P = 0.02, step length (P = 0.04 and stride length (P = 0.03 compared with wearing smooth insoles. No significant differences were found in any of the balance parameters (P > 0.05. Conclusions A textured insole worn by older adults with a history of falls significantly lowers gait velocity, step length and stride length, suggesting that this population may not have an immediate benefit from this type of intervention. The effects of prolonged wear remain to be investigated.

  7. Planus Foot Posture and Pronated Foot Function are Associated with Foot Pain: The Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of foot posture and foot function to foot pain. Methods Data were collected on 3,378 members of the Framingham Study who completed foot examinations in 2002–2008. Foot pain (generalized and at six locations) was based on the response to the question “On most days, do you have pain, aching or stiffness in either foot?” Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static pressure measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the center of pressure excursion index from dynamic pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of foot posture and function on generalized and location-specific foot pain, adjusting for age and weight. Results Planus foot posture was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of arch pain in men (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 – 1.90), while cavus foot posture was protective against ball of foot pain (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00) and arch pain (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48 – 0.85) in women. Pronated foot function was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of generalized foot pain (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04 – 1.56) and heel pain (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04 – 2.27) in men, while supinated foot function was protective against hindfoot pain in women (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00). Conclusion Planus foot posture and pronated foot function are associated with foot symptoms. Interventions that modify abnormal foot posture and function may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of foot pain. PMID:23861176

  8. Association of planus foot posture and pronated foot function with foot pain: the Framingham foot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Dufour, Alyssa B; Riskowski, Jody L; Hillstrom, Howard J; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-12-01

    To examine the associations of foot posture and foot function to foot pain. Data were collected on 3,378 members of the Framingham Study cohort who completed foot examinations in 2002-2008. Foot pain (generalized and at 6 locations) was based on the response to the following question: "On most days, do you have pain, aching or stiffness in either foot?" Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus, or cavus using static pressure measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated, or supinated using the center of pressure excursion index from dynamic pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of foot posture and function on generalized and location-specific foot pain, adjusting for age and weight. Planus foot posture was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of arch pain in men (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.01-1.90), while cavus foot posture was protective against ball of foot pain (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-1.00) and arch pain (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.85) in women. Pronated foot function was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of generalized foot pain (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.56) and heel pain (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04-2.27) in men, while supinated foot function was protective against hindfoot pain in women (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-1.00). Planus foot posture and pronated foot function are associated with foot symptoms. Interventions that modify abnormal foot posture and function may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of foot pain. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Geochemical element mobility during the hydrothermal alteration in the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit represents one of the important copper source and mineral deposits in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Balikesir province, NW Turkey. It considered as a vein-type deposit locally associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within the brecciation, quartz stockwork veining, and brittle fracture zones in the main host rock that represented by hornfels, as well as generally related to the shallow intermediate to silicic intrusive Eybek pluton. Based on the field and geologic relationships and types of ore mineral assemblages and the accompanied alteration types, there are two mineralization zones; hypogene (primary) and oxidation/supergene zones are observed associated with three alteration zones; potassic, phyllic, and propylitic zones related to this porphyry deposit. The phyllic and propylitic alterations locally surrounded the potassic alteration. The ore minerals related to the hypogene zone represented by mostly chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, and pyrite with subordinate amount of marcasite, enargite, and gold. On the other hand they include mainly cuprite with chalcopyrite, pyrite and gold as well as hematite and goethite at the oxidation/supergene zone. This study deals with the quantitative calculations of the mass/volume changes (gains and losses) of the major and trace elements during the different episodes of alteration in this porphyry deposit. These mass balance data reveal that the potassic alteration zone that the main Cu- and Mo-enriched zone, has enrichment of K, Si, Fe, and Mg, and depletion of Na referring to replacement of plagioclase and amphibole by K-feldspar, sericite and biotite. While the propylitic alteration that is the main Mo- and Au-enriched zone is accompanied with K and Na depletion with enrichment of Si, Fe, Mg, and Ca forming chlorite, epidote, carbonate and pyrite. On the other hand the phyllic alteration that occurred in the outer part around the potassic alteration, characterized by less amount

  10. Date palm waste biochars alter a soil respiration, microbial biomass carbon, and heavy metal mobility in contaminated mined soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Usman, Adel Rabie A; Al-Farraj, Abdullah S; Ok, Yong Sik; Abduljabbar, Adel; Al-Faraj, Abdulelah I; Sallam, Abdelazeem S

    2017-04-19

    A 30-day incubation experiment was conducted using a heavy metal-contaminated mined soil amended with date palm feedstock (FS) and its derivative biochars (BCs) at three pyrolysis temperatures of 300 (BC-300), 500 (BC-500), and 700 °C (BC-700) with different application rates (0.0, 5, 15, and 30 g kg -1 ) to investigate their short-term effects on soil respiration (CO 2 -C efflux), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil organic carbon (SOC), mobile fraction of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC). The results showed that FS and BC-300 with increasing addition rate significantly reduced soil pH, whereas SOC, CO 2 -C efflux, and soil MBC were increased compared to the control. On the contrary, BC-500 and BC-700 increased soil pH at early stage of incubation and have small or no effects on SOC, CO 2 -C efflux, and MBC. Based on the results, the date palm biochars exhibited much lower cumulative CO 2 -C efflux than feedstock, even with low-temperature biochar, indicating that BCs have C sequestration potential. Applying BC-700 at 15 and 30 g kg -1 significantly reduced cumulative CO 2 -C efflux by 21.8 and 45.4% compared to the control, respectively. The incorporation of FS into contaminated soil significantly increased the mobile content of Cd and Mn, but decreased the mobile content of Cu. However, BC-300 significantly reduced the mobile content of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. It could be concluded that low-temperature biochar could be used as a soil amendment for reducing heavy metal mobility in mining contaminated soil in addition to minimize soil CO 2 -C efflux.

  11. An individual approach for optimizing ankle-foot orthoses to improve mobility in children with spastic cerebral palsy walking with excessive knee flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkum, Yvette L; Harlaar, Jaap; Buizer, Annemieke I; van den Noort, Josien C; Becher, Jules G; Brehm, Merel-Anne

    2016-05-01

    Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to promote gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The AFO prescription process is however largely dependent on clinical experience, resulting in confusing results regarding treatment efficacy. To maximize efficacy, the AFO's mechanical properties should be tuned to the patient's underlying impairments. This study aimed to investigate whether the efficacy of a ventral shell AFO (vAFO) to reduce knee flexion and walking energy cost could be improved by individually optimizing AFO stiffness in children with CP walking with excessive knee flexion. Secondarily, the effect of the optimized vAFO on daily walking activity was investigated. Fifteen children with spastic CP were prescribed with a hinged vAFO with adjustable stiffness. Effects of a rigid, stiff, and flexible setting on knee angle and the net energy cost (EC) [Jkg(-1)m(-1)] were assessed to individually select the optimal stiffness. After three months, net EC, daily walking activity [stridesmin(-1)] and knee angle [deg] while walking with the optimized vAFO were compared to walking with shoes-only. A near significant 9% (p=0.077) decrease in net EC (-0.5Jkg(-1)m(-1)) was found for walking with the optimized vAFO compared to shoes-only. Daily activity remained unchanged. Knee flexion in stance was reduced by 2.4° (p=0.006). These results show that children with CP who walk with excessive knee flexion show a small, but significant reduction of knee flexion in stance as a result of wearing individually optimized vAFOs. Data suggest that this also improves gait efficiency for which an individual approach to AFO prescription is emphasized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidermal growth factor treatment of A431 cells alters the binding capacity and electrophoretic mobility of the cytoskeletally associated epidermal growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, L.M.; Gittinger, C.K.; Landreth, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor interacts with structural elements of A431 cells and remains associated with the cytoskeleton following extraction with nonionic detergents. Extraction of cells with 0.15% Triton X-100 resulted in detection of only approximately 40% of the EGF binding sites on the cytoskeleton. If the cells were exposed to EGF prior to extraction, approximately twofold higher levels of low-affinity EGF binding sites were detected. The difference in number of EGF binding sites was not a consequence of differences in numbers of EGF receptors associated with the cytoskeleton; equal amounts of 35S-labeled receptor were immunoprecipitated from the cytoskeletons of both control and EGF-treated cells. The effect of EGF pretreatment on binding activity was coincident with a change in the mobility of the receptor from a doublet of Mr approximately 160-180 kDa to a single sharp band at 180 kDa. The alteration in receptor mobility was not a simple consequence of receptor phosphorylation in that the alteration was not reversed by alkaline phosphatase treatment, nor was the shift produced by treatment of the cells with phorbol ester. The two EGF receptor species demonstrated differential susceptibility to V8 proteinase digestion. The EGF-induced 180 kDa species was preferentially digested by the proteinase relative to the 160 kDa species, indicating that EGF binding results in a conformational change in the receptor. The EGF-mediated preservation of binding activity and altered conformation may be related to receptor oligomerization

  13. The TransEurope FootRace Project: longitudinal data acquisition in a cluster randomized mobile MRI observational cohort study on 44 endurance runners at a 64-stage 4,486 km transcontinental ultramarathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Uwe H W; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Knechtle, Beat; Machann, Jürgen; Wiedelbach, Heike; Ehrhardt, Martin; Freund, Wolfgang; Gröninger, Stefan; Brunner, Horst; Schulze, Ingo; Brambs, Hans-Jürgen; Billich, Christian

    2012-07-19

    The TransEurope FootRace 2009 (TEFR09) was one of the longest transcontinental ultramarathons with an extreme endurance physical load of running nearly 4,500 km in 64 days. The aim of this study was to assess the wide spectrum of adaptive responses in humans regarding the different tissues, organs and functional systems being exposed to such chronic physical endurance load with limited time for regeneration and resulting negative energy balance. A detailed description of the TEFR project and its implemented measuring methods in relation to the hypotheses are presented. The most important research tool was a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner mounted on a mobile unit following the ultra runners from stage to stage each day. Forty-four study volunteers (67% of the participants) were cluster randomized into two groups for MRI measurements (22 subjects each) according to the project protocol with its different research modules: musculoskeletal system, brain and pain perception, cardiovascular system, body composition, and oxidative stress and inflammation. Complementary to the diverse daily mobile MR-measurements on different topics (muscle and joint MRI, T2*-mapping of cartilage, MR-spectroscopy of muscles, functional MRI of the brain, cardiac and vascular cine MRI, whole body MRI) other methods were also used: ice-water pain test, psychometric questionnaires, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), skinfold thickness and limb circumference measurements, daily urine samples, periodic blood samples and electrocardiograms (ECG). Thirty volunteers (68%) reached the finish line at North Cape. The mean total race speed was 8.35 km/hour. Finishers invested 552 hours in total. The completion rate for planned MRI investigations was more than 95%: 741 MR-examinations with 2,637 MRI sequences (more than 200,000 picture data), 5,720 urine samples, 244 blood samples, 205 ECG, 1,018 BIA, 539 anthropological measurements and 150 psychological questionnaires. This

  14. Tumours of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohndorf, K.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological diagnosis of tumours of the foot is difficult, especially, since these tumours are rare and the bones of the foot are small. The latter leads to a more uniform radiographic manifestation of the tumours. We differentiate tumours of the foot arising in the foot primarily and soft tissue tumours, affecting the bones secondarily. Cystic lesions of the calcaneus are discussed in further detail. (orig.) [de

  15. Ion chromatography of transition metals: specific alteration of retention by complexation reactions in the mobile and on the stationary phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, S.

    1992-05-01

    Ion chromatography of mono- and bivalent cations was performed on a conventional cation exchanger. The pH influence of an ethylene-diamine/citrate eluent was significant for the retention of alkaline earth and transition metals, but negligible for alkali ions. This was dealt with from a mechanistic point of view. Mobile phase optimization allowed fast isocratic analysis of mono- and bivalent cations and the separation of the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90. A newly synthesized stationary phase containing iminodiacetate (IDA) function was investigated for cation chromatography using ethylenediamine/citrate eluents, polyhydroxy acid and dipicolinic acid. The column's high selectivity for transition metal ions in comparison to alkali and alkaline earth metals may be governed by the choice of complexing ability and pH of the eluent. Applications verified by atomic absorption spectroscopy include alkaline earth metals in beverages and the determination of Co, Cd and Zn in solutions containing more than 10 14 -fold excess of Na and Mg, such as sea water

  16. Reliability of foot caliper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janchai, Siriporn; Tantisiriwat, Natthiya

    2005-09-01

    To determine the reliability of foot caliper Descriptive study. Rehabilitation Medicine Outpatient Department, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Fifteen volunteers were recruited from Rehabilitation residents and health care professionals of Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. The authors created 3 sets of simple Foot Caliper and measured foot dimension including foot width, foot length and toe depth while subjects stood with equal weight bearing to both feet. The authors set 3 examiners to measure foot dimension by the same method. To determine reliability of 3 sets of foot caliper, one examiner was assigned to measure foot dimension of 30 feet with all calipers. To determine the reliability of examiners, all examiners measured foot dimension of the same 30 feet. All parameters were recorded in millimeters. The data was analyzed and presented as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% CI. There were fifteen volunteers (8 men and 7 women). The average age was 28.6 +/- 4.11 years (range 22-39). Average foot width,length and great toe depth (millimeters) were 9.64 +/- 0.63, 24.17 +/- 1.10 and 1.91 +/- 0.24 respectively. For reliability analysis of 3 sets off foot caliper, the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% CI were 0.985 (0.972-0.992), 0.996 (0.992-0.998) and 0.982 (0.968-991) for foot width, length and great toe depth, respectively. For Inter-examiner reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.941 (0.864-0.969), 0.850 (0.46-0.920) and 0.834 (0.721-0.910) for foot width, length and great toe depth, respectively. These results showed high agreement of data. These simple foot calipers have high reliability forf oot measurement. These devices are appropriate for clinical use.

  17. Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Clement, Gilles R.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Taylor, Laura C..

    2015-01-01

    Control of vehicles and other complex systems is a high-level integrative function of the central nervous system (CNS). It requires well-functioning subsystem performance, including good visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial and geographic orientation perception, and cognitive function. Evidence from space flight research demonstrates that the function of each of these subsystems is altered by removing gravity, a fundamental orientation reference, which is sensed by vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic receptors and used by the CNS for spatial orientation, posture, navigation, and coordination of movements. The available evidence also shows that the degree of alteration of each subsystem depends on a number of crew- and mission-related factors. There is only limited operational evidence that these alterations cause functional impacts on mission-critical vehicle (or complex system) control capabilities. Furthermore, while much of the operational performance data collected during space flight has not been available for independent analysis, those that have been reviewed are somewhat equivocal owing to uncontrolled (and/or unmeasured) environmental and/or engineering factors. Whether this can be improved by further analysis of previously inaccessible operational data or by development of new operational research protocols remains to be seen. The true operational risks will be estimable only after we have filled the knowledge gaps and when we can accurately assess integrated performance in off-nominal operational settings (Paloski et al. 2008). Thus, our current understanding of the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space flight is limited primarily to extrapolation of scientific research findings, and, since there are limited ground-based analogs of the sensorimotor and vestibular changes associated with space flight, observation of their functional

  18. Haemorheology in diabetic foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karandikar S

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was undertaken to study the haemorheology in patients with diabetic foot lesions. Haemorheology of 30 patients with foot lesions and 30 age and sex matched controls was studied. The haemorheological parameters evaluated were whole blood and plasma viscosity and RBC filter ability. Plasma viscosity was significantly increased (p < 0.05. It substantiates the need for using rheomodulators in management of diabetic foot lesions.

  19. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about common foot problems affecting athletes: Prevent Foot & Ankle Running Injuries (downloadable PDF) Back-to-School Soccer Season Surgeons ... Foot Diagram Soccer Injuries to the Foot and Ankle Soccer is hard on the feet! Injuries to the foot and ankle can occur from ...

  20. Foot posture is associated with kinematics of the foot during gait: A comparison of normal, planus and cavus feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldt, Andrew K; Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Menz, Hylton B; Nester, Christopher J; Landorf, Karl B

    2015-06-01

    Variations in foot posture are associated with the development of some lower limb injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. The objective of this study was to compare foot kinematics between normal, pes cavus and pes planus foot posture groups using a multi-segment foot model. Ninety-seven healthy adults, aged 18-47 were classified as either normal (n=37), pes cavus (n=30) or pes planus (n=30) based on normative data for the Foot Posture Index, Arch Index and normalised navicular height. A five segment foot model was used to measure tri-planar motion of the rearfoot, midfoot, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot and hallux during barefoot walking at a self-selected speed. Angle at heel contact, peak angle, time to peak angle and range of motion was measured for each segment. One way ANOVAs with post-hoc analyses of mean differences were used to compare foot posture groups. The pes cavus group demonstrated a distinctive pattern of motion compared to the normal and pes planus foot posture groups. Effect sizes of significant mean differences were large and comparable to similar studies. Three key differences in overall foot function were observed between the groups: (i) altered frontal and transverse plane angles of the rearfoot in the pes cavus foot; (ii) Less midfoot motion in the pes cavus foot during initial contact and midstance; and (iii) reduced midfoot frontal plane ROM in the pes planus foot during pre-swing. These findings indicate that foot posture does influence motion of the foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The evaluation of modified foot orthosis on muscle activity and kinetic in a subject with flexible flat foot : single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Hassan; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Majddoleslam, Basir; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Tabatabai Ghomshe, Farhad; Movahedi Yeganeh, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    Due to blocking of pronation/dorsiflexion in flexible flat foot and restriction of these movements in using the University of California Berkeley Laboratory orthosis, provided pressures in sole by the orthosis were increased. Therefore, this article describes the evaluation of modified foot orthosis with flexible structure in the management of individuals with flexible flat foot. CASE DESCRIPTION AND METHOD: The patient was a 21-year-old male who had symptomatic flat foot. The modified foot orthosis included movable surface and the outside structure. The modified foot orthosis was evaluated by standing foot X-ray, comfort rate, electromyography of leg muscle and vertical ground reaction force during walking. The modified foot orthosis improved the foot alignment and decreased the symptoms of flat foot with more comfort. Subtalar position by sub-maximum supination had higher position than neutral in sagittal plane. It may increase the muscle activity of peroneus longus by 7% compared to barefoot, and there was a decrease of 11% ground reaction force in mid stance. The result of this single case evaluation only proposed the feasibility of this modified insole as the orthotic treatment in flexible flat foot. Clinical relevance The modified foot orthosis, which is mobile in the midfoot, is an orthosis for walking and standing in subjects with flexible flat foot.

  2. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What Is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer ... age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle ...

  3. Foot structure and footwear prescription in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A

    2008-01-01

    Foot structure abnormalities such as foot deformity and limited joint mobility are common and well established components of the diabetic foot which are associated with increased levels of mechanical stress on the foot and the development of ulcers. Our understanding of foot structure abnormality in diabetes has improved recently, mainly through the findings from in vivo imaging studies. Several examples will be discussed in this review. A limited understanding, however, still exists about several aspects related to the assessment, etiology, and consequences of change in foot structure in diabetes. Knowledge on these matters is needed if we are to better deal with the implications of foot structure change in diabetes. Diabetic patients with neuropathy and foot deformity are commonly prescribed with custom footwear, in particular after ulcer healing. The goal of this footwear is to redistribute and reduce plantar foot pressures, and to prevent ulcer recurrence. However, the available evidence for the effectiveness of custom footwear in secondary ulcer prevention is not yet strong. This may be associated with several factors, including a lack of standardized or systematic approach (a set of guidelines) in footwear prescription and evaluation or with the significant variability that exists across patients in the offloading effect of different footwear interventions, which increases the difficulty of predicting what works for a given patient. Objective evaluation tools such as in-shoe plantar pressure analysis can be helpful in this regard in order to ensure efficacy of an intervention. This provides a more optimal footwear solution that may lower the risk for ulceration.

  4. The foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Imaging of the foot and ankle can be difficult because of the complex anatomy. Familiarity with the bony and ligamentous anatomy is essential for proper evaluation of radiographic findings. Therefore, pertinent anatomy is discussed as it applies to specific injuries. Special views, tomography, arthrography, and other techniques may be indicated for complete evaluation of foot and ankle trauma

  5. A study of dynamic foot pressure measurement in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka D Madhale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcer is a major source of morbidity and a leading cause of hospitalization. It is estimated that approximately 20% of hospital admissions among patients with diabetes mellitus are due to diabetic foot ulcer. It can lead to infection, gangrene, amputation, and even death if appropriate care is not provided. Overall, the lower limb amputation in diabetic patients is 15 times higher than in non-diabetics. In the majority of cases, the cause for the foot ulcer is the altered architecture of the foot due to neuropathy resulting in abnormal pressure points on the soles. Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner and check its reliability and validity which can help to prevent foot ulceration. Design/Methodology/Approach: In the present study, a low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner is developed, and dynamic plantar pressures in a group of 110 Indian patients with diabetes with or without neuropathy and foot ulcers are measured. Practical Implications: If these pressure points can be detected, ulcers can be prevented by providing offloading footwear. Originality/Value: Differences are found in dynamic foot pressures in different study groups, namely, diabetic patients, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, patients with foot ulcers, and nondiabetics. The differences are significant (P < 0.01, which showed the validity of the tool. Reliability and consistency of the tool was checked by test–retest method. Paper Type: Original Research work. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that the scanner is successfully developed and it can measure foot pressures. It is a novel device to proactively monitor foot health in diabetics in an effort to prevent and reduce diabetic foot complications.

  6. The diabetic foot management - recent advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinwar, Prabhu Dayal

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic ulceration of the foot represents a major global medical, social and economic problem. It is the commonest major end-point of diabetic complications. Diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main etiological factors in foot ulceration and may act alone, together, or in combination with other factors such as microvascular disease, biomechanical abnormalities, limited joint mobility and increased susceptibility to infection. In the diabetic foot, distal sensory polyneuropathy is seen most commonly. The advent of insulin overcame the acute problems of ketoacidosis and infection, but could not prevent the vascular and neurological complications. Management of diabetic neuropathic ulcer by appropriate and timely removal of callus, control of infection and reduction of weight bearing forces. Management of diabetic ischaemic foot are medical management, surgical management and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of stenosed and occluded lower extremity arteries. Foot ulceration in persons with diabetes is the most frequent precursor to amputation. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional clinical typology of the foot and kinematic gait parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Marenčáková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The foot plays a key role in a standing posture, walking and running performance. Changes in its structure or function may alter upper segments of kinematic chain which can lead to formation of musculoskeletal disorders. Although functional clinical typology provides a complex view of foot kinesiology there is a lack of knowledge and evidence about influences of different foot types on human gait. Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse differences of kinematic gait parameters of lower extremity joints and pelvis between functional clinical foot types in healthy young men. Methods: Three-dimensional kinematic analysis by the Vicon Motion Capture MX System device in synchronization with 2 Kistler force platforms was used to obtain kinematic data from 18 healthy men (mean age 23.2 ± 1.9 years. The functional clinical foot type was clinically examined and sorted into 3 basic foot type groups - forefoot varus (FFvar, rearfoot varus (RFvar and forefoot valgus (FFvalg. Peak angular values and range of an angular displacement in all of three movement planes were analysed for pelvis, hip, knee and ankle joint. For statistical analysis of kinematic gait parameters differences between foot types Mann Whitney U test at a statistical significance level p < .05 and Cohen's coefficient d for effect size were used. Results: This study showed that functional clinical foot type can affect kinematic parameters of gait in the joints of the lower limb and pelvis. Significant differences were presented in the FFvar in comparison with other two foot type groups with middle and high size of effect. The most alterations were observed in pelvis area and in a sagittal plane of movement. Nevertheless, significant differences between FFvalg and RFvar foot types were not noticed. Conclusions: Functional clinical foot typology provides one of the possible methods to describe foot structure and function. Our results showed that foot type could

  8. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or cups with infected people Commonly Confused With Foot-and-Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease ... Library, Foot-and-Mouth Disease . Outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Large outbreaks of hand, foot, ...

  9. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in ...

  10. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  11. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they do not stretch or “breathe.” When buying shoes, make sure they feel good and have ... thorough foot exam, including a check of the feeling and pulses in your feet. Get a thorough ...

  12. Education for diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to stratify the risk in a consecutive group of diabetic patients presenting, for the first time, in a diabetic foot clinic. Additional aims were to investigate the preventive measures in the local health system and to evaluate the level of patient’s awareness about diabetic foot-associated morbidity. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult diabetic patients referred to a Diabetic Foot Clinic of a Municipal Public Hospital comprised the sample for this observational study. The enrollment visit was considered as the first health-system intervention for potential foot morbidity. The average time elapsed since a diagnosis of diabetes among patients was five years. Rresults: At the time of presentation, 94% of sample was not using appropriate footwear. Pedal pulses (dorsalis pedis and/or posterior tibial arteries were palpable in 76% of patients. Thirty subjects (60% had signs of peripheral neuropathy. Twenty-one subjects (42% had clinical deformity. There was a positive correlation between a history of foot ulcer, the presence of peripheral neuropathy, and the presence of foot deformity (p < 0.004 in each correlation. Cconclusions: Informing and educating the patients and those interested in this subject and these problems is essential for favorable outcomes in this scenario.

  13. Effects of Taping and Orthoses on Foot Biomechanics in Adults with Flat-Arched Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christopher; Arnold, John B; May, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    There is a paucity of evidence on the biomechanical effects of foot taping and foot orthoses in realistic conditions. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect and relationships between changes in multisegment foot biomechanics with foot taping and customized foot orthoses in adults with flat-arched feet. Multisegment foot biomechanics were measured in 18 adults with flat-arched feet (age 25.1 ± 2.8 yr; height 1.73 ± .13 m, body mass 70.3 ± 15.7 kg) during walking in four conditions in random order: neutral athletic shoe, neutral shoe with tape (low-Dye method and modified method) and neutral shoe with customized foot orthoses. In-shoe foot biomechanics were compared between conditions using a purpose developed foot model with three-dimensional kinematic analysis and inverse dynamics. Foot orthoses significantly delayed peak eversion compared to the neutral shoe (44% stance vs 39%, P = 0.002). Deformation across the midfoot and medial longitudinal arch was reduced with both the low-Dye taping (2.4°, P foot orthoses (R2 = 0.08-0.52, P = 0.006 to Foot orthoses more effectively altered timing of hindfoot motion whereas taping was superior in supporting the midfoot and medial longitudinal arch. The biomechanical response to taping was significantly related to the subsequent change observed with the use of foot orthoses.

  14. Wound management of chronic diabetic foot ulcers: from the basics to regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Karen L; Houdek, Matthew T; Kiemele, Lester J

    2015-02-01

    Hospital-based studies have shown that mortality rates in individuals with diabetic foot ulcers are about twice those observed in individuals with diabetes without foot ulcers. To assess the etiology and management of chronic diabetic foot ulcers. Literature review. Systematic review of the literature discussing management of diabetic foot ulcers. Since there were only a few randomized controlled trials on this topic, articles were selected to attempt to be comprehensive rather than a formal assessment of study quality. Chronic nonhealing foot ulcers occur in approximately 15% of patients with diabetes. Many factors contribute to impaired diabetic wound healing. Risk factors include peripheral neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, limited joint mobility, foot deformities, abnormal foot pressures, minor trauma, a history of ulceration or amputation, and impaired visual acuity. With the current treatment for nonhealing diabetic foot ulcers, a significant number of patients require amputation. Diabetic foot ulcers are optimally managed by a multidisciplinary integrated team. Offloading and preventative management are important. Dressings play an adjunctive role. There is a critical need to develop novel treatments to improve healing of diabetic foot ulcers. The goal is to have wounds heal and remain healed. Diabetic neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease are major factors involved in a diabetic foot ulcer. Despite current treatment modalities for nonhealing diabetic foot ulcers, there are a significant number of patients who require amputations. No known therapy will be effective without concomitant management of ischemia, infection, and adequate offloading. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  15. Biomechanics and pathophysiology of flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boerum, Drew H; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2003-09-01

    When the foot works properly it is an amazing, adaptive, powerful aid during walking, running, jumping, and in locomotion up or down hill and over uneven ground. Dysfunction of the foot can often arise from the foot losing its normal structural support, thus altering is shape. An imbalance in the forces that tend to flatten the arch and those that support the arch can lead to loss of the medial longitudinal arch. An increase in the arch-flattening effects of the triceps surae or an increase in the weight of the body will tend to flatten the arch. Weakness of the muscular, ligamentous, or bony arch supporting structures will lead to collapse of the arch. The main factors that contribute to an acquired flat foot deformity are excessive tension in the triceps surae, obesity, PTT dysfunction, or ligamentous laxity in the spring ligament, plantar fascia, or other supporting plantar ligaments. Too little support for the arch or too much arch flattening effect will lead to collapse of the arch. Acquired flat foot most often arises from a combination of too much force flattening the arch in the face of too little support for the arch. Treatment of the adult acquired flat foot is often difficult. The clinician should remember the biomechanics of the normal arch and respond with a treatment that strengthens the supporting structures of the arch or weakens the arch-flattening effects on the arch. After osteotomies or certain hindfoot fusions, the role of the supporting muscles of the arch, in particular the PTT, play less of a role in supporting the arch. Rebalancing the forces that act on the arch can improve function and lessen the chance for further or subsequent development of deformity.

  16. Metabolic Foot- and Fingerprinting of Lactobacillus paracasei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Kristina Bak

    in the metabolome, and an increased understanding of bile response mechanisms could be obtained by analysis of the response by tools within metabolomics. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to develop a platform for metabolic foot- and fingerprinting of L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strain (L. casei CRL-431......, it was demonstrated that the subsequent method used to extract intracellular metabolites from the L. paracasei cells altered the metabolic fingerprint. A comparative study was performed to characterise the effect of the genetic alterations in a set of mutants with enhanced bile tolerance from the parental strain of L...

  17. Analysis of foot structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical evaluation by validated measures and serological correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bartoloni Bocci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine foot involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to characterize structural alterations in patients with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP antibody-positive and -negative disease. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with RA with foot pain were consecutively enrolled. The Manchester Hallux Valgus (MHV rating scale was used to evaluate the hallux valgus deformity degree. The Foot Posture Index (FPI6, a novel, foot-specific outcome measure, was adopted in order to quantify variation in the position of the foot. The findings were correlated with disease duration and presence or absence of anti-CCP antibodies. Results: About 84.6% patients had different degrees of hallux valgus and 65.4% subjects had a pronated foot. These two foot alterations were prevalently found in patients with long-standing disease and circulating anti-CCP antibodies. On the contrary, RA patients without anti-CCP and early disease essentially displayed a supinated foot without relevant hallux valgus deformity. Conclusion: Our findings allowed to identify different anatomic foot alterations in RA patients according to disease duration and negative prognostic factors such as anti-CCP antibodies. Our findings support the role of an accurate analysis of foot structural damage and may suggest the usefulness of a correct plantar orthosis prescription also in early phases of the disease.

  18. Imaging of Charcot foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, Rainer; Schmitz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The onset of a Charcot foot ist a feared complication of a long lasting diabetes mellitus. A peripheral neuropathy and continuous weight bearing of the foot subsequent to repeated traumas depict the conditions. There exist three types of a Charcot foot, an atrophic, a hypertophic and a mixed type. In early stages a differentiation from osteoarthritis is difficult. Subluxation or luxation within the Lisfranc's joint is typical. The joints of the foot could rapidly and extensively be destroyed or may present the morphology of a 'superosteoarthritis'. Often, soft tissue infections or osteomyelitis evolve from ulcers of the skin as entry points. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis necessitate MR imaging as plain radiography offers only low sensitivity for detection of an osteomyelitis. The existence of periosteal reactions is not a proof for osteomyelitis. Bone marrow edema and soft tissue edema also appear in a non infected Charcot foot. The range of soft tissue infections goes from cellulitis over phlegmon to abscesses. The ghost sign is the most suitable diagnostic criterion for osteomyelitis. In addition, the penumbra sign or the existence of a sinus tract between a skin ulcer and the affected bone may be helpful. (orig.)

  19. Pathophysiology diabetic foot ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafril, S.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to have many complications. Diabetes and its complications are rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and one of the most distressing is Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU). Chronic wound complications are a growing concern worldwide, and the effect is a warning to public health and the economy. The etiology of a DFU is multifaceted, and several components cause added together create a sufficient impact on ulceration: neuropathy, vasculopathy, immunopathy, mechanical stress, and neuroarthropathy. There are many classifications of the diabetic foot. About 50% of patients with foot ulcers due to DM present clinical signs of infection. It is essential to manage multifactorial etiology of DFU to get a good outcome.

  20. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  1. Minimally invasive surgery for diabetic plantar foot ulcerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Nery

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Complications of diabetes mellitus constitute the most common indications for hospitalization and non-traumatic amputations in the USA. The most important risk factors for the development of diabetic foot ulcerations include the presence of peripheral neuropathy, vasculopathy, limited joint mobility, and pre-existing foot deformities. In our study, 500 diabetic patients treated for plantar forefoot ulcerations were enrolled in a prospective study from 2000 to 2008 at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty-two patients in the study met the criteria and underwent surgical treatment consisting of percutaneous Achilles tendon lengthening to treat plantar forefoot ulcerations. The postoperative follow-up demonstrated prevention of recurrent foot ulcerations in 92% of these diabetic patients that maintained an improved foot function. In conclusion, our study supports that identification and treatment of ankle equinus in the diabetic population may potentially lead to decreased patient morbidity, including reduced risk for both reulceration, and potential lower extremity amputation.

  2. Relação entre a mobilidade do tornozelo e pé e a magnitude da força vertical de reação do solo Relationship between ankle and foot mobility and the magnitude of the vertical ground reaction force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Vianna

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a relação entre a mobilidade do tornozelo e do pé, e o pico da força vertical de reação do solo, considerada como porcentagem do peso corporal, gerada durante a fase de apoio da marcha. MÉTODOS: foram estudados pés normais do lado direito e esquerdo de 15 homens com 22,1±2,7 anos (19-28 e 15 mulheres 24,20±5,24 anos (19-34. Os parâmetros de exclusão foram: deformidades nos pés, doenças ou traumas, que pudessem acometer o sistema musculoesquelético e a marcha. A mobilidade do tornozelo e dos pés foi obtida através da goniometria da flexão plantar, dorsiflexão, extensão do hálux e extensão dos dedos, o pico da força vertical de reação do solo FRS, foi obtido pela baropodometria computadorizada do sistema FSCAN R. A correlação entre ambas foi feita pelo teste estatístico de Spearman. RESULTADOS: os indivíduos do grupo masculino apresentaram menores valores de mobilidade, e maiores valores do pico da força vertical de reação do solo, quando comparados com o grupo feminino. Não houve diferença entre os pés direito e esquerdo. No sexo feminino foi encontrada correlação negativa estatisticamente significante entre os valores da flexão plantar e a força vertical, e entre os valores da extensão dos dedos e a foça vertical. No sexo masculino, houve correlação negativa estatisticamente significante entre os valores da dorsiflexão e a força vertical. Entre os demais valores não foi encontrada correlação significante. CONCLUSÃO: Há relação entre a mobilidade e a força vertical gerada durante a marcha.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between ankle and foot mobility and the peak of the vertical ground reaction force, as a percentage of body weight, generated during the gait stance phase. METHOD: Fifteen men with mean age of 22.1 ± 2.7 years (range: 19-28 and fifteen women with mean age of 24.20 ± 5.24 years (range: 19-34 with normal feet were studied. The exclusion criteria

  3. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... someone is sick. Is HFMD the Same as Foot-and-Mouth Disease? No. HFMD is often confused ...

  4. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that ...

  5. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript in your browser. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot What Is a Sesamoid? A sesamoid is a ... contributing factor. Types of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of sesamoid injuries in ...

  6. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  7. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A | Print | Share What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle surgeons are the surgical ... every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? After completing undergraduate education, the foot ...

  8. Radiologic evaluation of foot deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, R.; Fischedick, A.R.; Peters, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    In order to analyze foot deformities, the foot is divided into three compartments. Their normal and pathological positions are defined by the alignment of the bones' axes. The various foot deformities can be put down to a malalignment of the particular compartments. X-ray analysis of the malalignment allows a diagnosis to be made. The most important congenital and acquired foot deformities are discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Movement coordination patterns between the foot joints during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Arnold

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 3D gait analysis, kinematics of the foot joints are usually reported via isolated time histories of joint rotations and no information is provided on the relationship between rotations at different joints. The aim of this study was to identify movement coordination patterns in the foot during walking by expanding an existing vector coding technique according to an established multi-segment foot and ankle model. A graphical representation is also described to summarise the coordination patterns of joint rotations across multiple patients. Methods Three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics were recorded in 13 adults during walking. A modified vector coding technique was used to identify coordination patterns between foot joints involving calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux segments. According to the type and direction of joints rotations, these were classified as in-phase (same direction, anti-phase (opposite directions, proximal or distal joint dominant. Results In early stance, 51 to 75% of walking trials showed proximal-phase coordination between foot joints comprising the calcaneus, midfoot and metatarsus. In-phase coordination was more prominent in late stance, reflecting synergy in the simultaneous inversion occurring at multiple foot joints. Conversely, a distal-phase coordination pattern was identified for sagittal plane motion of the ankle relative to the midtarsal joint, highlighting the critical role of arch shortening to locomotor function in push-off. Conclusions This study has identified coordination patterns between movement of the calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux by expanding an existing vector cording technique for assessing and classifying coordination patterns of foot joints rotations during walking. This approach provides a different perspective in the analysis of multi-segment foot kinematics, and may be used for the objective quantification of the alterations in foot joint

  10. Movement coordination patterns between the foot joints during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Caravaggi, Paolo; Fraysse, François; Thewlis, Dominic; Leardini, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    In 3D gait analysis, kinematics of the foot joints are usually reported via isolated time histories of joint rotations and no information is provided on the relationship between rotations at different joints. The aim of this study was to identify movement coordination patterns in the foot during walking by expanding an existing vector coding technique according to an established multi-segment foot and ankle model. A graphical representation is also described to summarise the coordination patterns of joint rotations across multiple patients. Three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics were recorded in 13 adults during walking. A modified vector coding technique was used to identify coordination patterns between foot joints involving calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux segments. According to the type and direction of joints rotations, these were classified as in-phase (same direction), anti-phase (opposite directions), proximal or distal joint dominant. In early stance, 51 to 75% of walking trials showed proximal-phase coordination between foot joints comprising the calcaneus, midfoot and metatarsus. In-phase coordination was more prominent in late stance, reflecting synergy in the simultaneous inversion occurring at multiple foot joints. Conversely, a distal-phase coordination pattern was identified for sagittal plane motion of the ankle relative to the midtarsal joint, highlighting the critical role of arch shortening to locomotor function in push-off. This study has identified coordination patterns between movement of the calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux by expanding an existing vector cording technique for assessing and classifying coordination patterns of foot joints rotations during walking. This approach provides a different perspective in the analysis of multi-segment foot kinematics, and may be used for the objective quantification of the alterations in foot joint coordination patterns due to lower limb pathologies or following injuries.

  11. Caracterización del estado de las alteraciones de la movilidad en una comunidad rural venezolana Characterization of the state of mobility alterations in a Venezuelan rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisis Osorio Illas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo en la población de adultos mayores de una comunidad rural perteneciente al municipio Piar, en Venezuela, durante los meses de marzo-abril de 2004, para conocer diferentes aspectos epidemiológicos relacionados con la inmovilidad. Se analizaron como variables: la edad, el sexo, los factores de riesgo, las causas, las complicaciones y la clasificación de las alteraciones de la movilidad. Estos datos se reflejaron a través de tablas. Como resultado se obtuvo que 56 de los pacientes estudiados presentaron alteraciones de la movilidad, con el sexo masculino como el más afectado. Los principales factores de riesgo fueron el medio donde vive el adulto mayor y las artropatías, que afectaron a 42 y 38 pacientes respectivamente. El 53,6 % de las alteraciones de la movilidad fueron leves. Las afecciones músculo-esqueléticas (44,7 % fueron las causas fundamentales de la inmovilidad, y se supo que las principales complicaciones estuvieron relacionadas con el sistema osteomioarticular y la esfera psicosocial.An observational descriptive study was conducted in the population of older adults from a rural community of “Piar” municipality, in Venezuela , from March to April, 2004, aimed at knowing the different epidemiological aspects related to inmobility. Variables such as age, sex, risk factors, causes, complications and the classification of the mobility alterations, were analized. These data were shown in tables. As a result, it was observed that 56 of the studied patients presented mobility alterations and that males were the most affected. The main risk factors were the setting where the older adults live and arthropathies that affected 42 and 38 patients, respectively. 53.6 % of the mobility alterations were mild.The musculoskeletal affections (44.7 % were the fundamental causes of inmobility, whereas the main complications were related to the osteomyoarticular system and to the psychosocial

  12. Imaging diagnostics of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel; Walther, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  13. Ambulatory assessment of foot dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Veltink, Petrus H.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of foot dynamics is important, especially for patients with foot impairments. However, this analysis is difficult with commonly used systems. This study presents an ambulatory system for the estimation of ankle and foot power using an instrumented shoe equipped with six degrees-of-freedom

  14. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002–05).

  15. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Dufour, Alyssa B; Riskowski, Jody L; Hillstrom, Howard J; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002-05). Low back pain, aching or stiffness on most days was documented on a body chart. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static weight-bearing measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the centre of pressure excursion index derived from dynamic foot pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of foot posture, foot function and asymmetry with low back pain, adjusting for confounding variables. Foot posture showed no association with low back pain. However, pronated foot function was associated with low back pain in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.1, 2.07, P = 0.011] and this remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, smoking and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07, 2.05, P = 0.018). These findings suggest that pronated foot function may contribute to low back symptoms in women. Interventions that modify foot function, such as orthoses, may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of low back pain.

  16. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002–05). Methods. Low back pain, aching or stiffness on most days was documented on a body chart. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static weight-bearing measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the centre of pressure excursion index derived from dynamic foot pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of foot posture, foot function and asymmetry with low back pain, adjusting for confounding variables. Results. Foot posture showed no association with low back pain. However, pronated foot function was associated with low back pain in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.1, 2.07, P = 0.011] and this remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, smoking and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07, 2.05, P = 0.018). Conclusion. These findings suggest that pronated foot function may contribute to low back symptoms in women. Interventions that modify foot function, such as orthoses, may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of low back pain. PMID:24049103

  17. [Prevention of diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljacić Crkvencić, Neva

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia

  18. A comparison of foot kinematics in people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Barton, Christian J; Cotchett, Matthew P; McSweeney, Simone R; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-10-01

    Foot posture is thought to influence predisposition to overuse injuries of the lower limb. Although the mechanisms underlying this proposed relationship are unclear, it is thought that altered foot kinematics may play a role. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate differences in foot motion between people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Foot posture in 19 participants was documented as normal-arched (n=10) or flat-arched (n=9) using a foot screening protocol incorporating measurements from weightbearing antero-posterior and lateral foot radiographs. Differences between the groups in triplanar motion of the tibia, rearfoot and forefoot during walking were evaluated using a three-dimensional motion analysis system incorporating a multi-segment foot model (OFM). Participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated greater peak forefoot plantar-flexion (-13.7° ± 5.6° vs -6.5° ± 3.7°; p=0.004), forefoot abduction (-12.9° ± 6.9° vs -1.8° ± 6.3°; p=0.002), and rearfoot internal rotation (10.6° ± 7.5° vs -0.2°± 9.9°; p=0.018) compared to those with normal-arched feet. Additionally, participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated decreased peak forefoot adduction (-7.0° ± 9.2° vs 5.6° ± 7.3°; p=0.004) and a trend towards increased rearfoot eversion (-5.8° ± 4.4° vs -2.5° ± 2.6°; p=0.06). These findings support the notion that flat-arched feet have altered motion associated with greater pronation during gait; factors that may increase the risk of overuse injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived...... asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites...

  20. Clinical measures of hip and foot-ankle mechanics as predictors of rearfoot motion and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Thales R; Mancini, Marisa C; Araújo, Vanessa L; Carvalhais, Viviane O C; Ocarino, Juliana M; Silva, Paula L; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2014-10-01

    Health professionals are frequently interested in predicting rearfoot pronation during weight-bearing activities. Previous inconsistent results regarding the ability of clinical measures to predict rearfoot kinematics may have been influenced by the neglect of possible combined effects of alignment and mobility at the foot-ankle complex and by the disregard of possible influences of hip mobility on foot kinematics. The present study tested whether using a measure that combines frontal-plane bone alignment and mobility at the foot-ankle complex and a measure of hip internal rotation mobility predicts rearfoot kinematics, in walking and upright stance. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent assessment of forefoot-shank angle (which combines varus bone alignments at the foot-ankle complex with inversion mobility at the midfoot joints), with a goniometer, and hip internal rotation mobility, with an inclinometer. Frontal-plane kinematics of the rearfoot was assessed with a three-dimensional system, during treadmill walking and upright stance. Multivariate linear regressions tested the predictive strength of these measures to inform about rearfoot kinematics. The measures significantly predicted (p ≤ 0.041) mean eversion-inversion position, during walking (r(2) = 0.40) and standing (r(2) = 0.31), and eversion peak in walking (r(2) = 0.27). Greater values of varus alignment at the foot-ankle complex combined with inversion mobility at the midfoot joints and greater hip internal rotation mobility are related to greater weight-bearing rearfoot eversion. Each measure (forefoot-shank angle and hip internal rotation mobility) alone and their combination partially predicted rearfoot kinematics. These measures may help detecting foot-ankle and hip mechanical variables possibly involved in an observed rearfoot motion or posture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mobile marketing for mobile games

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Giang

    2016-01-01

    Highly developed mobile technology and devices enable the rise of mobile game industry and mobile marketing. Hence mobile marketing for mobile game is an essential key for a mobile game success. Even though there are many articles on marketing for mobile games, there is a need of highly understanding mobile marketing strategies, how to launch a mobile campaign for a mobile game. Besides that, it is essential to understand the relationship between mobile advertising and users behaviours. There...

  2. DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    P. Rajagopal; S. Senthilvel; N. Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Infections of all types are more common in patients with diabetes, on the basis of outcome of retrospective study in Canada. Many types of infections are very common in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. Foot is the most common site. Diabetic foot infections range from mild infections to limb threatening conditions. Most require emergency medical attention. Diabetic foot infection is a global burden and projected to increase from 246 million people to o...

  3. Resistance training performed at distinct angular velocities elicits velocity-specific alterations in muscle strength and mobility status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Davis A; Sharp, Rick L; Selsby, Joshua T; Ganesan, Shanthi S; Franke, Warren D

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high and low velocity knee extension training on changes in muscle strength and mobility status in high-functioning older adults. Twenty-six (16 female, 10 male) older adults (mean age of 65) were randomized to either 6weeks of low velocity resistance training (LVRT) performed at 75°/s or high velocity resistance training (HVRT) performed at 240°/s. Both groups performed 3 sets of knee extension exercises at maximal effort, 3 times a week. Muscle strength was assessed through a range of testing velocities on an isokinetic dynamometer. Mobility status was assessed with the short physical performance battery (SPPB) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) transcript levels were quantified via qRT-PCR. From baseline to post-training, there were several significant (Pstrength and functional characteristics in LVRT (n=13) and HVRT (n=13) groups. From baseline to post-training, MyHC-α mRNA and MyHC-IIa mRNA showed a significant (Ptraining stimulus for the older adult. The present study demonstrates, in addition to increased strength and functional outcomes, HVRT elicits a potentially therapeutic (i.e., slow to fast) transcriptional response in MyHC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Tendinopathies of the foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboukrat, P

    1997-01-01

    Tendinitis of the foot is frequent and is generally due to mechanical overload or inflammatory rheumatic disorders. It most often involves the posterior tibial tendon when obesity and calcaneus valgus combine to contribute to mechanical overwork, or in the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis. More rarely, the anterior tibial tendon or the fibular tendons are involved. The anatomic-clinical stages proceed from oedema to fissuration necrosis and ruptured tendon. The long-term risk is of a sinking internal arch and a fixed calcaneus valgus. A simple but effective treatment is the correction of the calcaneus valgus, but surgical arthrodesis may be necessary.

  5. The relationship between foot posture and lower limb kinematics during walking: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldt, Andrew K; Murley, George S; Butterworth, Paul; Levinger, Pazit; Menz, Hylton B; Landorf, Karl B

    2013-07-01

    Variations in foot posture, such as pes planus (low-arched foot) or pes cavus (high-arched foot), are thought to be an intrinsic risk factor for injury due to altered motion of the lower extremity. Hence, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the relationship between foot posture and lower limb kinematics during walking. A systematic database search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Embase and Inspec was undertaken in March 2012. Two independent reviewers applied predetermined inclusion criteria to selected articles for review and selected articles were assessed for quality. Articles were then grouped into two broad categories: (i) those comparing mean kinematic parameters between different foot postures, and (ii) those examining associations between foot posture and kinematics using correlation analysis. A final selection of 12 articles was reviewed. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity between studies. Selected articles primarily focused on comparing planus and normal foot postures. Five articles compared kinematic parameters between different foot postures - there was some evidence for increased motion in planus feet, but this was limited by small effect sizes. Seven articles investigated associations between foot posture and kinematics - there was evidence that increasing planus foot posture was positively associated with increased frontal plane motion of the rearfoot. The body of literature provides some evidence of a relationship between pes planus and increased lower limb motion during gait, however this was not conclusive due to heterogeneity between studies and small effect sizes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2011-02-01

    Although simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant improves most complications of type 1 diabetes, suppression of the immune system increases the risk for infection. The authors report the case of a patient who, despite receiving a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, subsequently developed neuro-ischemic ulcers of his right foot requiring repeated amputations. He then developed an infected ulcer of his remaining right big toe, with significant implications for his mobility. This ulcer proved resistant to multiple courses of antibiotics and care in a specialist foot clinic but resolved completely following a course of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic foot ulcers is not yet fully established but should be considered in resistant cases with vascular insufficiency and a significant infective component.

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2012-02-01

    Although simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant improves most complications of type 1 diabetes, suppression of the immune system increases the risk for infection. The authors report the case of a patient who, despite receiving a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, subsequently developed neuro-ischemic ulcers of his right foot requiring repeated amputations. He then developed an infected ulcer of his remaining right big toe, with significant implications for his mobility. This ulcer proved resistant to multiple courses of antibiotics and care in a specialist foot clinic but resolved completely following a course of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic foot ulcers is not yet fully established but should be considered in resistant cases with vascular insufficiency and a significant infective component.

  8. Mortality associated with acute Charcot foot and neuropathic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Juliette; Hubbard, Richard; Game, Fran; Jeffcoate, William

    2010-01-01

    To compare the mortality of patients with an acute Charcot foot with a matched population with uninfected neuropathic foot ulcers (NFUs). Data were extracted from a specialist departmental database, supplemented by hospital records. The findings were compared with the results of earlier populations

  9. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Soccer Season Prime time for foot and ankle injuries. Parents and coaches should think twice before coaxing ... Ankle Tennis involves much foot work. Foot and ankle injuries can occur from the continuous side-to-side ...

  10. A Wearable Foot-mounted / Instrument-mounted Effect Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konovalovs, Kristians; Zovnercuka, Jelizaveta; Adjorlu, Ali

    2017-01-01

    . The classic foot activated effect pedals that are used to alter the sound of the instrument are stationary, forcing the performer to return to the same location in order to interact with the pedals. This paper presents a new design that enables the performer to interact with the effect pedals anywhere...... on the stage. By designing a foot&instrumentmounted effect controller, we kept the strongest part of the classical pedal design, while allowing the activation of the effect at any location on the stage. The usability of the device has been tested on thirty experienced guitar players. Their performance has been...

  11. Tumors of the foot skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, K.

    2007-01-01

    About 3-4% of all tumors and tumor-like lesions of the skeleton are located in the foot. Many of these lesions have a predilection for certain locations, so that the spectrum of entities occurring in the foot differs from the rest of the skeleton. Despite the fact that practically any entity can occur in the foot in rare cases, taken together the ten most frequent lesions make up for the vast majority of tumors and tumor-like lesions of the foot. The differential diagnosis of these lesions follows the general principles that apply in the rest of the skeleton. It is based on the analysis of the lesion's X-ray morphology and location, the patient's age, and in certain entities, the MR morphology. This article describes the most important tumors and tumor-like lesions of the foot, their differential diagnosis, and the principles of local staging. (orig.) [de

  12. [Improved care of foot ulcer using foot pressure measurement and foot care method sheet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinen, Takaaki; Iha, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Chiaki; Yusa, Masaru; Taira, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Kinuko

    2008-09-01

    At this sanatorium, the number of foot bottom ulcer patients was 13 and the tenure of the foot bottom ulcer was average 11 years. According to the treatment that was not unified, we thought about the cause of the prolongation. Therefore, we made evaluation and care method sheet ("foot care sheet") of the ulcer for the unification. We used the foot pressure measurement system (F-scan) to 4 patients for the pressure dispersion of the ulcer. We devised the protection law of the ulcer, and an ulcer did not require pressure more than 5 kilos/cm2. We recorded the size of the ulcer, weight of the liquid from ulcer, a photograph to care sheet once a week. I performed ulcer protection law and management with the foot care sheet to 4 patients for average 4 months. As a result, the ulcers of 3 patients out of 4 patients became small.

  13. The mechanics of the gibbon foot and its potential for elastic energy storage during bipedalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecke, Evie E; Aerts, Peter

    2008-12-01

    The mechanics of the modern human foot and its specialization for habitual bipedalism are well understood. The windlass mechanism gives it the required stability for propulsion generation, and flattening of the arch and stretching of the plantar aponeurosis leads to energy saving. What is less well understood is how an essentially flat and mobile foot, as found in protohominins and extant apes, functions during bipedalism. This study evaluates the hypothesis that an energy-saving mechanism, by stretch and recoil of plantar connective tissues, is present in the mobile gibbon foot and provides a two-dimensional analysis of the internal joint mechanics of the foot during spontaneous bipedalism of gibbons using a four-link segment foot model. Available force and pressure data are combined with detailed foot kinematics, recorded with a high-speed camera at 250 Hz, to calculate the external joint moments at the metatarsophalangeal (MP), tarsometatarsal (TM) and talocrural (TC) joints. In addition, instantaneous joint powers are estimated to obtain insight into the propulsion-generating capacities of the internal foot joints. It is found that, next to a wide range of motion at the TC joint, substantial motion is observed at the TM and MP joint, underlining the importance of using a multi-segment foot model in primate gait analyses. More importantly, however, this study shows that although a compliant foot is less mechanically effective for push-off than a ;rigid' arched foot, it can contribute to the generation of propulsion in bipedal locomotion via stretch and recoil of the plantarflexor tendons and plantar ligaments.

  14. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  15. Immersion Foot: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachary; Kman, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    Immersion foot (commonly called "trench foot") was originally described in the military literature during World War I. Since that time, the emergency department (ED) has become a common setting where this injury presents. However, this topic is neglected in the emergency medicine literature. The purpose of this case report is to present trench foot in a way that is relevant to emergency physicians and to provide an up-to-date summary of the history, case reports, physiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of this injury. Here we present the case of a homeless, schizophrenic patient who presented to one Midwestern ED in January for immersion foot. Photos of the actual patient are shown to illustrate the case. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Due to unfamiliarity, immersion foot can go undiagnosed during assessment of patients exposed to moist environments. In addition, patients at increased risk for developing immersion foot are frequently encountered in EDs. Most importantly, the appropriate treatment for immersion foot is different than the treatment for other freezing cold injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mortality Associated With Acute Charcot Foot and Neuropathic Foot Ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Juliette; Hubbard, Richard; Game, Fran; Jeffcoate, William

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the mortality of patients with an acute Charcot foot with a matched population with uninfected neuropathic foot ulcers (NFUs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were extracted from a specialist departmental database, supplemented by hospital records. The findings were compared with the results of earlier populations with Charcot foot and uninfected NFUs managed from 1980. Finally, the results of all patients with acute Charcot foot and all control subjects managed between 1980 and 2007 were compared with normative mortality data for the U.K. population. RESULTS A total of 70 patients presented with an acute Charcot foot (mean age 57.4 ± 12.0 years; 48 male [68.6%]) between 2001 and 2007; there were 66 matched control subjects. By 1 October 2008, 13 (eight male; 18.6%) patients with a Charcot foot had died, after a median of 2.1 years (interquartile range 1.1–3.3). Twenty-two (20 male; 33.3%) control subjects had also died after a median of 1.3 years (0.6–2.5). There was no difference in survival between the two groups (log-rank P > 0.05). Median survival of all 117 patients with acute Charcot foot managed between 1980 and 2007 was 7.88 years (4.0–15.4) and was not significantly different from the control NFU patients (8.43 years [3.4–15.8]). When compared with normative U.K. population data, life expectancy in the two groups was reduced by 14.4 and 13.9 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These data confirm that the mortality in patients presenting to our unit with either an acute Charcot foot and an uninfected neuropathic ulcer was unexpectedly high. PMID:20185744

  17. MR imaging features of foot involvement in patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal; Tekin, Nilgun Solak; Sarikaya, Selda; Erdem, L. Oktay; Gulec, Sezen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine alterations of the soft tissues, tendons, cartilage, joint spaces, and bones of the foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with psoriasis. Materials and methods: Clinical and MR examination of the foot was performed in 26 consecutive patients (52 ft) with psoriasis. As a control group, 10 healthy volunteers (20 ft) were also studied. Joint effusion/synovitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, retroachilles bursitis, Achilles tendonitis, soft-tissue edema, para-articular enthesophytes, bone marrow edema, sinus tarsi syndrome, enthesopathy at the Achilles attachment and at the plantar fascia attachment, plantar fasciitis, tenosynovitis, subchondral cysts, and bone erosions, joint space narrowing, subchondral signal changes, osteolysis, luxation, and sub-luxation were examined. Results: Clinical signs and symptoms (pain and swelling) due to foot involvement were present in none of the patients while frequency of involvement was 92% (24/26) by MR imaging. The most common MR imaging findings were Achilles tendonitis (acute and peritendinitis) (57%), retrocalcaneal bursitis (50%), joint effusion/synovitis (46%), soft-tissue edema (46%), and para-articular enthesophytes (38%). The most commonly involved anatomical region was the hindfoot (73%). Conclusion: Our data showed that the incidence of foot involvement was very high in asymptomatic patients with psoriasis on MR imaging. Further MR studies are needed to confirm these data. We conclude that MR imaging may be of importance especially in early diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory changes in the foot

  18. MR imaging features of foot involvement in patients with psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey)], E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Tekin, Nilgun Solak [Department of Dermatology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey); Sarikaya, Selda [Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey); Erdem, L. Oktay; Gulec, Sezen [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    Objective: To determine alterations of the soft tissues, tendons, cartilage, joint spaces, and bones of the foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with psoriasis. Materials and methods: Clinical and MR examination of the foot was performed in 26 consecutive patients (52 ft) with psoriasis. As a control group, 10 healthy volunteers (20 ft) were also studied. Joint effusion/synovitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, retroachilles bursitis, Achilles tendonitis, soft-tissue edema, para-articular enthesophytes, bone marrow edema, sinus tarsi syndrome, enthesopathy at the Achilles attachment and at the plantar fascia attachment, plantar fasciitis, tenosynovitis, subchondral cysts, and bone erosions, joint space narrowing, subchondral signal changes, osteolysis, luxation, and sub-luxation were examined. Results: Clinical signs and symptoms (pain and swelling) due to foot involvement were present in none of the patients while frequency of involvement was 92% (24/26) by MR imaging. The most common MR imaging findings were Achilles tendonitis (acute and peritendinitis) (57%), retrocalcaneal bursitis (50%), joint effusion/synovitis (46%), soft-tissue edema (46%), and para-articular enthesophytes (38%). The most commonly involved anatomical region was the hindfoot (73%). Conclusion: Our data showed that the incidence of foot involvement was very high in asymptomatic patients with psoriasis on MR imaging. Further MR studies are needed to confirm these data. We conclude that MR imaging may be of importance especially in early diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory changes in the foot.

  19. MR imaging features of foot involvement in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, C Zuhal; Tekin, Nilgun Solak; Sarikaya, Selda; Erdem, L Oktay; Gulec, Sezen

    2008-09-01

    To determine alterations of the soft tissues, tendons, cartilage, joint spaces, and bones of the foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with psoriasis. Clinical and MR examination of the foot was performed in 26 consecutive patients (52 ft) with psoriasis. As a control group, 10 healthy volunteers (20 ft) were also studied. Joint effusion/synovitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, retroachilles bursitis, Achilles tendonitis, soft-tissue edema, para-articular enthesophytes, bone marrow edema, sinus tarsi syndrome, enthesopathy at the Achilles attachment and at the plantar fascia attachment, plantar fasciitis, tenosynovitis, subchondral cysts, and bone erosions, joint space narrowing, subchondral signal changes, osteolysis, luxation, and sub-luxation were examined. Clinical signs and symptoms (pain and swelling) due to foot involvement were present in none of the patients while frequency of involvement was 92% (24/26) by MR imaging. The most common MR imaging findings were Achilles tendonitis (acute and peritendinitis) (57%), retrocalcaneal bursitis (50%), joint effusion/synovitis (46%), soft-tissue edema (46%), and para-articular enthesophytes (38%). The most commonly involved anatomical region was the hindfoot (73%). Our data showed that the incidence of foot involvement was very high in asymptomatic patients with psoriasis on MR imaging. Further MR studies are needed to confirm these data. We conclude that MR imaging may be of importance especially in early diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory changes in the foot.

  20. Flat Foot in a Random Population and its Impact on Quality of Life and Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Gonzalez-Martin, Cristina; Alonso-Tajes, Francisco; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Perez-Garcia, Sergio; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanesa

    2017-04-01

    Flat foot is a common deformity in adults. It is characterized by medial rotation and plantar flexion of the talus, eversion of the calcaneus, collapsed medial arch and abduction of the forefoot. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot and its impact on quality of life, dependence, foot pain, disability and functional limitation among random population of 40-year-old and above. A cross-sectional study in a random population sample from Cambre (A Coruña-Spain) (n=835) was performed (α =0.05; Precision=±3.4%). The diagnosis of flat foot was stablished by the study of the footprint obtained with a pedograph. Anthropometric variables were studied, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, function and state of foot (Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ)), quality of life (SF-36), and dependence for activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index). A logistic and linear multiple regression analysis was performed. The prevalence of flat foot was 26.62%. Patients with flat foot were significantly older (65.73±11.04 vs 61.03±11.45-year-old), showed a higher comorbidity index (0.92±1.49 vs 0.50±0.98), had a greater BMI (31.45±5.55 vs 28.40±4.17) and greater foot size (25.16±1.66 vs 24.82±1.65). The presence of flat foot diminishes the quality of life, as measured by the FHSQ, and foot function, measured by the FFI. The presence of flat foot does not alter the physical and mental dimension of the SF-36 or the degree of dependence. Flat foot was associated with age, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, BMI and foot size. The SF-36, Barthel and Lawton questionnaires remained unaltered by the presence of flat foot. The FHSQ and FFI questionnaires did prove to be sensitive to the presence of flat foot in a significant manner.

  1. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical

  2. Athlete's Foot: How to Prevent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around pools, gyms, shower or locker areas, and hotel rooms. The fungus that causes athlete’s foot may ... Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Dermatology. All ...

  3. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  4. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  5. Imaging the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.H. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tong, D.T.F. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Crim, J.R. [Durham Radiology Associates, Durham, NC (United States); Seeger, L.L. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a {sup 111}In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  6. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C

    2006-02-01

    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  7. The effect of foot type on in-shoe plantar pressure during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit; Nunley, James A; Mall, Nathan A; Queen, Robin M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if low arch feet have altered plantar loading patterns when compared to normal feet during both walking and running. Fifty healthy subjects (34 normal feet, 16 flat feet) walked and ran five trials each at standard speeds. In-shoe pressure data were collected at 50 Hz. Contact area, peak pressure, maximum force, and force-time integral were analyzed in eight different regions of the foot. Foot type was determined by examining navicular height, arch angle, rearfoot angle, and a clinical score. A series of 2 x 2 repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine statistical differences (alphatype and movement type for the maximum force in the medial midfoot. Total foot contact area, maximum force and peak pressure were significantly increased during running. Contact area in each insole area, except for the rearfoot, was significantly increased during running. Peak pressure and maximum force were significantly increased during running in each of the foot regions. However, the force-time integral was significantly decreased during running in the rearfoot, lateral midfoot, middle forefoot, and lateral forefoot. Significant differences between foot types existed for contact area in the medial midfoot and maximum force and peak pressure in the lateral forefoot. The maximum force and peak pressures were significantly decreased for the flat foot type. Therefore, individuals with a flat foot could be at a lower risk for lateral column metatarsal stress fractures, indicating that foot type should be assessed when determining an individual's risk for metatarsal stress fractures.

  8. Current and emerging therapies in the management of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karri, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy; Kuppusamy, Gowthamarajan; Talluri, Siddhartha Venkata; Yamjala, Karthik; Mannemala, Sai Sandeep; Malayandi, Rajkumar

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are one of the major causes of mortality in diabetic patients. Very few drugs and therapies have regulatory approval for this indication and several agents from diverse pharmacological classes are currently in various phases of clinical trials for the management of diabetic foot ulcers. The purpose of this review is to provide concise information of the drugs and therapies which are approved and present in clinical trials. This review was carried out by systematic searches of relevant guidelines, patents, published articles, reviews and abstracts in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar of all English language articles up to 1 March 2015. The following search terms were used: diabetes, diabetic foot, diabetic foot ulcer, diabetic wound, diabetic foot infections, wound management, randomized controlled trials, approved treatments, new treatments and clinical trials. The various drugs and therapies for the management of diabetic foot ulcers comprise antibiotics, neuropathic drugs, wound dressings, skin substitutes, growth factors and inflammatory modulators. The majority of these therapies target the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers to address the altered biochemical composition of the diabetic wound. However, no single treatment can be definitively recommended for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

  9. Correlates between kinematics and baropodometric measurements for an integrated in-vivo assessment of the segmental foot function in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Claudia; Leardini, Alberto; Caravaggi, Paolo

    2014-08-22

    Baropodometry and multi-segmental foot kinematics are frequently employed to obtain insight into the mechanics of the foot-ground interaction in both basic research and clinical settings. However, nothing hitherto has been reported on the full integration of kinematics with baropodometric parameters, and only a few studies have addressed the association between intersegmental kinematics and plantar loading within specific foot regions. The aim of this study was to understanding the relationships between foot joint mobility and plantar loading by focusing on the correlation between these two measures. An integrated pressure-force-kinematics system was used to measure plantar pressure and rotations between foot segments during the stance phase of walking in 10 healthy subjects. An anatomically-based mask was applied to each footprint to obtain six regions according to the position of the markers; hence each kinematic segment was paired with a corresponding area of the plantar surface. Relationships between segmental motion and relevant baropodometric data were explored by means of correlation analysis. Negative, weak-to-moderate correlations (R(2)foot joints except the Calcaneus-Midfoot. Temporal profiles of sagittal-plane kinematics and baropodometric parameters were well correlated, particularly at the ankle joint. Larger motion in the foot joints during walking was associated with lower plantar pressure in almost all regions. The study helps improve our understanding of the relationship between joint mobility and plantar loading in the healthy foot and represents a critical preliminary analysis before addressing possible clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  11. Change of cortical foot activation following 70 days of head down bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Koppelmans, Vincent; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia; De Dios, Yiri; Gadd, Nichole; Riascos, Roy; Kofman, Igor; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael D

    2018-02-28

    Head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) has been used as a spaceflight analog to study some of the effects of microgravity on human physiology, cognition, and sensorimotor functions. Previous studies have reported declines in balance control and functional mobility after spaceflight and HDBR. Here we investigated how the brain activation for foot movement changed with HDBR. Eighteen healthy men participated in the current HDBR study. They were in a 6{degree sign} head-down tilt position continuously for 70 days. Functional MRI scans were acquired to estimate brain activation for foot movement pre-, during- and post-HDBR. Another eleven healthy males who did not undergo HDBR participated as control subjects and were scanned at four time points. In the HDBR subjects, the cerebellum, fusiform gyrus, hippocampus, and middle occipital gyrus exhibited HDBR-related increases in activation for foot tapping, whereas no HDBR-associated activation decreases were found. For the control subjects, activation for foot tapping decreased across sessions in a couple of cerebellar regions, while no activation increase with session was found. Furthermore, we observed that less HDBR-related declines in functional mobility and balance control were associated with greater pre-to-post HDBR increases in brain activation for foot movement in several cerebral and cerebellar regions. Our results suggest that more neural control is needed for foot movement as a result of HDBR.

  12. Dynamic foot function changes following total knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Pazit; Menz, Hylton B; Morrow, Adam D; Bartlett, John R; Feller, Julian A; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Bergman, Neil R

    2012-12-01

    Individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) have flatter/more pronated feet than those without OA, but it is unclear whether altered foot posture and function are a cause or consequence of knee OA. The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in foot posture and function occur after realignment of the knee following total knee replacement (TKR). Nineteen patients with predominantly medial compartment knee OA were tested prior to and 12 months after TKR. The Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Arch Index (AI) were measured as well as motion of the tibia, rearfoot and forefoot using a 3D motion analysis system incorporating a multisegment foot model. There were no significant changes in FPI or AI following TKR, however gait analysis revealed significant increases in tibial external rotation (-18.7 ± 7.0° vs -22.5 ± 8.7°, p=0.002), tibial transverse plane range of motion (-9.1 ± 4.6° vs -11.4 ± 6.1°, p=0.0028) and rearfoot range of motion in the frontal plane (8.6 ± 2.6° vs 10.4 ± 2.7°, p=0.002), and a decrease in rearfoot transverse plane range of motion (8.7 ± 5.3° vs 5.9 ± 4.1°, p=0.038) following the procedure. TKR produces no change in static foot posture, but results in significant changes in rearfoot kinematics during gait. These findings suggest that rearfoot motion compensates for changes in the alignment of the knee, highlighting the ability of the foot to accommodate for proximal skeletal malalignment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  14. Mobility management in mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medidi, Sirisha; Golshani, Forouzan

    2002-07-01

    There is an emerging interest in integrating mobile wireless communication with the Internet based on the Ipv6 technology. Many issues introduced by the mobility of users arise when such an integration is attempted. This paper addresses the problem of mobility management, i.e., that of tracking the current IP addresses of mobile terminals and sustaining active IP connections as mobiles move. The paper presents some architectural and mobility management options for integrating wireless access to the Internet. We then present performance results for Mobile IPv4, route optimization and Mobile IPv6.

  15. Multisegmental Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis After Hallux Valgus Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco, Karl; Long, Jason; Smedberg, Thomas; Tarima, Sergey; Marks, Richard M.; Harris, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gait changes in patients with hallux valgus, including altered kinematic and temporal-spatial parameters, have been documented in the literature. Although operative treatment can yield favorable clinical and radiographic results, restoration of normal gait in this population remains unclear. Segmental kinematic changes within the foot and ankle during ambulation after operative correction of hallux valgus have not been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in multisegmental foot and ankle kinematics in patients who underwent operative correction of hallux valgus. Methods A 15-camera Vicon Motion Analysis System was used to evaluate 24 feet in 19 patients with hallux valgus preoperatively and postoperatively. The Milwaukee Foot Model was used to characterize segmental kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters (TSPs). Preoperative and postoperative kinematics and TSPs were compared using paired nonparametric methods; comparisons with normative data were performed using unpaired nonparametric methods. Outcomes were evaluated using the SF-36 assessment tool. Results Preoperatively, patients with hallux valgus showed significantly altered temporal-spatial and kinematic parameters. Postoperatively, kinematic analysis demonstrated restoration of hallux position to normal. Hallux valgus angles and intermetatarsal angles were significantly improved, and outcomes showed a significant increase in performance of physical activities. Temporal-spatial parameters and kinematics in the more proximal segments were not significantly changed postoperatively. Conclusion Postoperative results demonstrated significant improvement in foot geometry and hallux kinematics in the coronal and transverse planes. However, the analysis did not identify restoration of proximal kinematics. Clinical Relevance Further investigation is necessary to explore possible causes/clinical relevance and appropriate treatment interventions for the persistently altered kinematics

  16. The Charcot Foot in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykberg, Robert G.; Armstrong, David G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B.; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K.; Uccioli, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21868781

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovere......-encoded proteases, to about 12 mature products which are required for virus replication and assembly. Some of these viral proteins modify host cell activities to block anti-virus defence systems. Thus, this small virus displays a remarkably complex array of biological activities....

  18. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY OF THE VASTUS MEDIALIS OBLIQUE AND VASTUS LATERALIS DURING MAXIMUM VOLUNTARY ISOMETRICS IN DIFFERENT WEIGHT BEARING POSITIONS OF THE FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekar Kumar Reddy .R

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a very common disorder. 90% of the general population has some degree of pathologic changes of the patellofemoral joint. Knowledge regarding the cause and prevention of patellofemoral pain syndrome is essential. Therefore the purpose of this study is intended to know whether different foot positions alter Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis that leads to dysfunctions of knee joint. Method: 30 subjects are included in study and investigated foot in different foot positions are in neutral, pronated and supinated foot positions and performed maximum voluntary isometric contractions are recorded with electromyography. Results: EMG amplitudes (microvolts of VL and VMO at three different weight bearing positions of foot during maximum voluntary contraction analysis by using one-way Analysis of Variance. Mean amplitudes of foot positions in pronation shown significant difference while comparing with neutral and supination. Conclusion: The VMO and VL activity shows significant difference in the pronated foot weight bearing position compared to the neutral and supinated foot. Performing the maximum voluntary isometric contractions of VMO and VL with pronated foot elicited significantly higher EMG activity compared to Neutral or supinated weight bearing positions of foot. The results of this study also suggested that for patellofemoral pain which is caused by pronated foot can be treat with by using the soft foot orthoses.

  19. A systematic review of instruments measuring foot function, foot pain, and foot-related disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leeden, M.; Steultjens, M.P.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Rosenbaum, D.; Turner, D.; Woodburn, J.; Dekker, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To compose an inventory of instruments that have been described to measure foot function (i.e., pressure and/or gait parameters), foot pain, and foot-related disability in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the clinimetric quality of these measures. Methods. A systematic search

  20. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle surgeons warn against ... a "face lift" and fit them into high-fashion shoes. But physician members of the American College ...

  1. Glossary of Foot and Ankle Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary of Foot & Ankle Terms Glossary of Foot & Ankle Terms Page Content Achilles tendon - The Achilles tendon ... research grants, humanitarian outreach and public education initiatives. Ankle instability - Chronic, repetitive sprains of the ankle. This ...

  2. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IFFAS / AOFAS eBook ​The AOFAS and MD Conference Express invite you to enjoy complimentary access to the ... Foundation Exhibit Privacy Statement Legal Disclosure Site Map American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society ® Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Foundation ...

  3. Intensive versus conventional glycaemic control for treating diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu E; Seneviratne, Ridmee M; Tan, Yong Mong; Lazzarini, Peter A; Sangla, Kunwarjit S; Cunningham, Margaret; Buttner, Petra G; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-01-13

    The estimated likelihood of lower limb amputation is 10 to 30 times higher amongst people with diabetes compared to those without diabetes. Of all non-traumatic amputations in people with diabetes, 85% are preceded by a foot ulcer. Foot ulceration associated with diabetes (diabetic foot ulcers) is caused by the interplay of several factors, most notably diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and changes in foot structure. These factors have been linked to chronic hyperglycaemia (high levels of glucose in the blood) and the altered metabolic state of diabetes. Control of hyperglycaemia may be important in the healing of ulcers. To assess the effects of intensive glycaemic control compared to conventional control on the outcome of foot ulcers in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In December 2015 we searched: The Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; Elsevier SCOPUS; ISI Web of Knowledge Web of Science; BioMed Central and LILACS. We also searched clinical trial databases, pharmaceutical trial databases and current international and national clinical guidelines on diabetes foot management for relevant published, non-published, ongoing and terminated clinical trials. There were no restrictions based on language or date of publication or study setting. Published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were considered for inclusion where they investigated the effects of intensive glycaemic control on the outcome of active foot ulcers in people with diabetes. Non randomised and quasi-randomised trials were excluded. In order to be included the trial had to have: 1) attempted to maintain or control blood glucose levels and measured changes in markers of glycaemic control (HbA1c or fasting, random, mean, home capillary or urine glucose

  4. Structural design of isolated column footings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Abdrabbo

    2016-09-01

    The study showed that shear span to depth ratio of a footing and distributions of contact stress at footing–soil interface are key factors in the structural design of the footing. ECP203-11, ACI318-08, and EC2-2004 code provisions, underestimate the structural failure loads of isolated column footings, while BS 8110.1-1997 overpredicts the failure loads of isolated column footings, if punching provisions at perimeter of column are pulled out from the code.

  5. Mobile Election

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Elena; Lovitskii, Vladimir; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David

    2009-01-01

    Mobile phones have the potential of fostering political mobilisation. There is a significant political power in mobile technology. Like the Internet, mobile phones facilitate communication and rapid access to information. Compared to the Internet, however, mobile phone diffusion has reached a larger proportion of the population in most countries, and thus the impact of this new medium is conceivably greater. There are now more mobile phones in the UK than there are people (ave...

  6. Mobile Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Alamuri, Lavanya

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this project was to get an understanding of how companies adopt mobile as an advertising medium. The literature review aided in framing a draft of the factors that affect mobile advertising adoption and possible forms of mobile advertising. Considering the scope of the thesis work, branding strategy, service costs, personalization and privacy and platform were considered to be the factors that could affect the mobile advertising adoption. A few possible forms on mobile device we...

  7. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  8. What is the diabetic foot?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-03

    Jan 3, 2011 ... 1). These include peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot deformities, external trauma and peripheral oedema. With the exception of trauma, it is usually a combination of problems ... commonly find that moving, standing or walking alleviates the pain.7 .... on specific imaging tests. Wound ...

  9. What is the diabetic foot?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    79 age group had diabetes. This estimate is expected to ... unable to detect trauma or discomfort and as a result wounds often go .... should be considered when underlying bone is exposed or can be palpated with a blunt probe or in any chronic non-healing wound. Bone is infected in up to 20% of patients with foot ulcers ...

  10. Avoiding foot complications in diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) issued a call to action in 2005 in ... by the IWGDF.4 The Diabetic Foot Working Group (DFWG), a multidisciplinary organisation, was formed in 2007, with the aim .... team management.3,8,9. This comprehensive approach works in developed ...

  11. Performance of isolated and folded footings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Samir El-kady

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Folded foundations have been used as an alternative to the conventional flat shallow foundations, in situations involving heavy loads or weak soils. They can be geometrically shaped in many forms especially for isolated footings. The purpose of this paper is introducing an alternative foundation shape that reduces the cost of foundations by reducing the amount of reinforcing steel by minimizing or even eliminating the tension zones in the folded isolated footings. Also, achieving lower soil stresses through changing the isolated footing shape will consequently reduce the expected settlements and the footing stresses. Experimental and numerical studies are performed on five (5 quarter scale footings of which one (1 footing of flat shape is tested as a reference sample and four (4 footings are of folded shape by folding angles of 10°, 20°, 30°, and 40° with the horizontal. Results showed that the folded isolated footings achieve economic design by decreasing the quantities of reinforcement. It also induced less soil settlements, and stresses. In addition, the tensile stresses in the reinforced concrete footing body are also less in folded isolated footings than the flat one. Results show that the folded isolated footing have a better load carrying capacity when compared with the conventional slab/flat footing of similar cross sectional area for both cases of experimental and numerical analysis.

  12. Management of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, M.; Amin, Z.; Chaudhary, T. H.; Shaheen, J.; Alvi, Z. R.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the infecting agent in diabetic food infection with the susceptibility pattern, and to evaluate the effect of wound infection, was culopathy, neuropathy and control of diabetes mellitus on the outcome of the patients. Design: A descriptive and observational study. Place and duration of study: Patients with diabetic foot, admitted in surgical unit 1, B.V. Hospital Bahawalpur, from April 1999 to April 2000, were included in this study. Subject and methods: A total of 60 known diabetic patients were studied, out of these 47 were males and 13 females. They were assessed for angiopathy, neuropathy and extend of foot involvement. Necessary investigations, including x-ray foot, ECG, serum urea and creatinine, pus culture and sensitivity were carried out. Diabetes was controlled on insulin of the basis of serum sugar and urine sugar chart and treated accordingly. Results: The most common age of foot involvement was between 40-70 years. Right side was involved more often than the left (67%: 37%). Most of the infections were due to staphylococcus (50%), pseudomonas (25%) and streptococci (8%). Antibiotic was started based on sensitivity report. Fluoro quinolone plus clindamycin was used in 50%, fluoro quinolone plus metronidazole in 20% and amoxicillin/clavulanate in 23%. Most of the patients (61.7%) were in grade iii or iv of Meggit wagner classification of diabetic foot. Three patients (5%) were treated by below knee amputations while 1.7% patient by above knee amputation. In twenty-four (40%) patients some form of to amputation/ray amputation had to be done,while 32(53.3%) patients had complete healing of would without any amputation. Mortality was 3.33% all the 4 patients (6.7%) who presented late, having uncontrolled diabetes, with angiopathy (absent foot pulses), neuropathy, infection of the foot (grade iii or above) resulted in major amputation sooner or latter. The 32 patients (53.3%) having controlled diabetes mellitus with no angiopathy or

  13. DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rajagopal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Infections of all types are more common in patients with diabetes, on the basis of outcome of retrospective study in Canada. Many types of infections are very common in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. Foot is the most common site. Diabetic foot infections range from mild infections to limb threatening conditions. Most require emergency medical attention. Diabetic foot infection is a global burden and projected to increase from 246 million people to over 380 million people by the year 2025. Many people with diabetes develop complications that seriously affect their quality and length of life. Lower limb complications are common, particularly foot ulcers and gangrene. Development of these complications is attributed to individual risk factors, poverty, racial and ethnic differences, and quality of local and national health care systems. The wide variations noted suggest that best practices in low incidence areas could easily be adapted in high incidence areas to reduce the burden of complications. Almost every infection begins in a wound, often as neuropathic ulceration or a traumatic break in the skin. Infections that begin as a small problem may progress to involve soft tissue, bones and joints. Because of these morbidity and occasional mortality by these foot infections several authoritative groups have recently developed guidelines for assessing and treating diabetic foot. METHODOLOGY 100 Diabetic patients with foot ulcers were admitted and wounds were classified using wagner’s classification. Pus was sent for culture and sensitivity and treated accordingly. RESULTS In our study the most common organism cultured from the wound with diabetes mellitus was staphylococcus. The most sensitive drug for these organisms was found to be chloramphenicol on most occasions. CONCLUSION The rationale of pus culture and sensitivity is not only to definitively treat the diabetic wound after the culture sensitivity report is

  14. Co-Producing Mobilities : negotiating geographical knowledge in a conference session on the move

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, Simon; Davidson, Anna; Stratford, Elaine; Middleton, Jennie; Plyushteva, Anna; Fitt, Helen; Cranston, Sophie; Simpson, Paul; Delaney, Hannah; Evans, Kate; Jones, Amy; Kershaw, Jonathan; Bissell, David; Williams, Nina; Duncan, Tara; Sengers, F.; Elvy, Joanna; Wilmott, Clancy

    2016-01-01

    In an experimental session entitled Co-Producing Mobilities held at the 2014 Royal Geographical Society-Institute of British Geographers Annual Conference, 20 mobility scholars travelled around London on foot, by bus and by Tube to investigate how mobilities could be considered co-produced. In this

  15. Diabetes: foot ulcers and amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dereck L

    2011-08-26

    Diabetic foot ulceration is full-thickness penetration of the dermis of the foot in a person with diabetes. Severity is classified using the Wagner system, which grades it from 1 to 5. The annual incidence of ulcers among people with diabetes is 2.5% to 10.7% in resource-rich countries, and the annual incidence of amputation for any reason is 0.25% to 1.8%. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent foot ulcers and amputations in people with diabetes? What are the effects of treatments in people with diabetes with foot ulceration? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 50 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: debridement, human cultured dermis, human skin equivalent, patient education, pressure off-loading with felted foam or pressure-relief half-shoe, pressure off-loading with total-contact or non-removable casts, screening and referral to foot-care clinics, systemic hyperbaric oxygen for non-infected ulcers, systemic hyperbaric oxygen in infected ulcers, therapeutic footwear, topical growth factors, and wound dressings.

  16. Foot Problems in a Group of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Unmet Need for Foot Care

    OpenAIRE

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. Patients and Methods: A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapie...

  17. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerabl......). There was no significant association between foot size and FLT values. CONCLUSION: The FLT is a reproducible technique to assess foot posture....

  18. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    that of ‘mobilities design’. The book revolves around the following research question: How are design decisions and interventions staging mobilities? It builds upon the Staging Mobilities model (Jensen 2013) in an explorative inquiry into the problems and potentials of the design of mobilities. The exchange value...... between mobilities and design research is twofold. To mobilities research this means getting closer to the ‘material’, and to engage in the creative, explorative and experimental approaches of the design world which offer new potentials for innovative research. Design research, on the other hand, might...... enter into a fruitful relationship with mobilities research, offering a relational and mobile design thinking and a valuable base for a reflective design practice around the ubiquitous structures, spaces and systems of mobilities....

  19. Foot sole skin vibration perceptual thresholds are elevated in a standing posture compared to sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildren, Robyn L; Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Bent, Leah R

    2016-01-01

    Foot sole sensitivity is commonly assessed while individuals are seated or prone; however the primary role of foot sole cutaneous feedback is for the control of upright stance and gait. The aim of this study was to compare vibration perceptual thresholds across the foot sole between sitting and standing postures. Vibration perceptual thresholds were measured in sitting and standing postures in 18 healthy participants (8 male) using a custom vibration device. Two foot sole locations (heels and metatarsals) were tested at four vibration frequencies (3, 15, 40, and 250Hz) selected to target different cutaneous afferent populations. At each frequency, perceptual thresholds across the foot sole were significantly higher in the standing posture compared to the sitting posture; this is indicative of lower sensitivity while standing. In addition, threshold differences between the heels and metatarsals for lower frequency vibratory stimuli were more pronounced while standing, with higher thresholds observed at the heels. Our results demonstrate that standing significantly alters sensitivity across the foot sole. Therefore, conducting perceptual tests at the foot sole during stance could potentially provide more direct information about the ability of cutaneous afferents to signal tactile information in a state where this feedback can contribute to postural control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Foot posture, leg length discrepancy and low back pain--their relationship and clinical management using foot orthoses--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Julie C; Bird, Adam R; Azari, Michael F

    2014-06-01

    Mechanical low back pain (LBP) is a very common, expensive, and significant health issue in the western world. Functional musculoskeletal conditions are widely thought to cause mechanical low back pain. The role of foot posture and leg length discrepancy in contributing to abnormal biomechanics of the lumbopelvic region and low back pain is not sufficiently investigated. This critical review examines the evidence for the association between foot function, particularly pronation, and mechanical LBP. It also explores the evidence for a role for foot orthoses in the treatment of this condition. There is a body of evidence to support the notion that foot posture, particularly hyperpronation, is associated with mechanical low back pain. Mechanisms that have been put forward to account for this finding are based on either mechanical postural changes or alterations in muscular activity in the lumbar and pelvic muscles. More research is needed to explore and quantify the effects of foot orthoses on chronic low back pain, especially their effects on lumbopelvic muscle function and posture. The clinical implications of this work are significant since foot orthoses represent a simple and potentially effective therapeutic measure for a clinical condition of high personal and social burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments...... designs, but also how the situated and embodied mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from below’ in concrete acts of choice concerning modes of mobilities, ways of moving and interacting. The ‘staging mobilites’ framework opens up to an understanding of the meaning of ‘mobilities design...

  2. Mobile Workforce, Mobile Technology, Mobile Threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies' introduction into the world of safeguards business processes such as inspection creates tremendous opportunity for novel approaches and could result in a number of improvements to such processes. Mobile applications are certainly the wave of the future. The success of the application ecosystems has shown that users want full fidelity, highly-usable, simple purpose applications with simple installation, quick responses and, of course, access to network resources at all times. But the counterpart to opportunity is risk, and the widespread adoption of mobile technologies requires a deep understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities inherent in mobile technologies. Modern mobile devices can be characterized as small computers. As such, the threats against computing infrastructure apply to mobile devices. Meanwhile, the attributes of mobile technology that make it such an obvious benefit over traditional computing platforms all have elements of risk: pervasive, always-on networking; diverse ecosystems; lack of centralized control; constantly shifting technological foundations; intense competition among competitors in the marketplace; the scale of the installation base (from millions to billions); and many more. This paper will explore the diverse and massive environment of mobile, the number of attackers and vast opportunities for compromise. The paper will explain how mobile devices prove valuable targets to both advanced and persistent attackers as well as less-skilled casual hackers. Organized crime, national intelligence agencies, corporate espionage are all part of the landscape. (author)

  3. Sensory disturbance and polyneuropathy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with foot deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Karaca Umay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Our aim in this study was to present the results of sensory evaluation tests and electrophysiological evaluations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients with foot deformity and to determine their relation with general health status and lower extremity functionality. Materials and methods Fifty-one patients with RA diagnosis and foot deformity were included in the study. Demographic and disease characteristics of the patients were recorded, and a detailed neurological examination was performed. Superficial sensation, pain, heat, vibration, and two-point discrimination sensation were evaluated in each foot, and their sum was used to determine the sensory deficits index (SDI of 0–10. The presence of polyneuropathy was evaluated with electrophysiological methods. The Health Assessment Questionnaire and mobility and walking subscales of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales-2 were used to assess general health status and lower extremity functionality, respectively. According to the sensory examination and electromyography results, patients were compared in terms of their general health status and lower extremity functional status. Results Sensory disturbance was detected in 39 patients (74% during the examination; however, 27 patients (52.9% had polyneuropathy determined electrophysiologically. In patients with sensory deficits, statistically significant deterioration was detected in general health and foot functionality, including mobility and walking, when compared to patients with a normal sensory evaluation. Conclusions Even in the presence of normal electrophysiological tests, sensory dysfunction alone seems to be associated with severe disability in general health status and foot functionality when compared to patients with a normal sensory examination.

  4. Sensory disturbance and polyneuropathy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with foot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca Umay, Ebru; Gurcay, Eda; Karsli, Pinar Bora; Cakci, Aytul

    2016-01-01

    Our aim in this study was to present the results of sensory evaluation tests and electrophysiological evaluations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with foot deformity and to determine their relation with general health status and lower extremity functionality. Fifty-one patients with RA diagnosis and foot deformity were included in the study. Demographic and disease characteristics of the patients were recorded, and a detailed neurological examination was performed. Superficial sensation, pain, heat, vibration, and two-point discrimination sensation were evaluated in each foot, and their sum was used to determine the sensory deficits index (SDI) of 0-10. The presence of polyneuropathy was evaluated with electrophysiological methods. The Health Assessment Questionnaire and mobility and walking subscales of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales-2 were used to assess general health status and lower extremity functionality, respectively. According to the sensory examination and electromyography results, patients were compared in terms of their general health status and lower extremity functional status. Sensory disturbance was detected in 39 patients (74%) during the examination; however, 27 patients (52.9%) had polyneuropathy determined electrophysiologically. In patients with sensory deficits, statistically significant deterioration was detected in general health and foot functionality, including mobility and walking, when compared to patients with a normal sensory evaluation. Even in the presence of normal electrophysiological tests, sensory dysfunction alone seems to be associated with severe disability in general health status and foot functionality when compared to patients with a normal sensory examination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  6. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  7. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gause, Matěj

    2012-01-01

    The goal of bachelor's thesis on the theme "Mobile marketing" is to outline its development and why is this new phenomen so important for all modern companies around the world. The work is not about simple description of mobile marketing media but it vividly informs about the latest trends and news from the world of mobile apps and games. It presents the most successful mobile apps which registered more than billion downloads and from their unique characteristics it unveils great potential of...

  8. Treatment of congenital club foot with Ponseti method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (Club Foot is a complex deformity that is difficult to correct. The goal of treatment is to reduce or eliminate its four components so that the patient has a functional, pain free, plantigrade foot, with good mobility and without calluses, and does not need to wear modified shoes. Material and Methods: We have treated 41 patients with 60 idiopathic clubfoot deformity using Ponseti method of management. The severity of foot deformity was assessed according to the grading system of Dimeglio et al. Results: The mean number of casts that were applied to obtain correction was six (range four to nine casts. Tenotomy was done in 58 feet. Fifty eight feet had good results.Two patients developed recurrence of the deformity due to non-compliance of the use of orthrotics. Conclusion: The Ponseti method is a safe and effective treatment for congenital idiopathic clubfoot and radically decreases the need for extensive corrective surgery. Non compliance with orthotics has been widely reported to be the main factor causing failure of the technique.

  9. Gait COP trajectory of left side hip-dislocation and scoliotic patient using ankle-foot orthoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Albert K.; Alrikabi, Redha; Milburn, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Plantar pressure-sensing mats and insole plantar sensor pads are ideal low-cost alternatives to force plates for capturing plantar COP excursion during gait. The acquired COP traces, in the form of pedobarographic images are favored by many clinicians and allied health professionals for evaluation of foot loading and balance in relation to foot biomechanics, foot injury, foot deformation, and foot ulceration. Researchers have recommended the use of COP trace for the biomechanical study of the deformed foot and lower-limb to improve orthosis design and testing. A correctly designed orthoses improves mobility and reduces pain in the foot, lower limb and lower spine region during gait. The research was carried out to evaluate the performance of two types of orthosis, namely: a custom-molded orthosis and an over-the-counter molded orthosis to determine the quality of gait of an adult scoliotic patient. COP trace patterns were compared with those of a healthy adult and showed the design of the custom-molded orthosis resulted in an improved quality of movements and provided enhanced stability for the deformed left foot during gait.

  10. Motion analysis to track navicular displacements in the pediatric foot: relationship with foot posture, body mass index, and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Alpesh; Dixon, Philippe Courtney; Stebbins, Julie; Zavatsky, Amy Beth; Theologis, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Increased navicular drop (NDro) and navicular drift (NDri) are associated with musculoskeletal pathology in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate navicular motion in children, with respect to foot posture, and identify altered patterns of motion that demonstrate midfoot dysfunction. Navicular motion in different activities was evaluated as well as the role of flexibility and body mass index (BMI). Twenty-five children with flatfeet and 26 with neutral feet (age range, 8-15) underwent gait analysis using a 12-camera Vicon MX system (Vicon, UK). Navicular motion indices were calculated from marker coordinates. Student t tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) were used to investigate navicular motion differences between groups. The relationship between NDRo, NDRi, and their dynamic counterparts was also assessed. Normalized NDri (NNDri) and normalized NDro (NNDro) correlated strongly in neutral feet (R = 0.56, P = .003) but not in flatfeet (R = 0.18, P > .05). Flatfeet demonstrated reduced NNDri compared to neutral footed children (0.7 vs 1.6, P = .007). No difference was observed in NNDro between groups. Standard and dynamic measures of NDri and NDRo were highly correlated. Navicular motion correlated poorly with BMI and flexibility. Motion of the navicular in the transverse and the sagittal plane is important when investigating foot function. Uncoupling of this motion in flatfeet may indicate impaired midfoot function. Reduced navicular medial translation in flatfeet may indicate altered alignment of the talonavicular joint. The measurement of dynamic navicular motion indices did not add information about dynamic foot function compared to measurement of static indices. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Within the so-called ‘mobilities turn’ (Adey 2010; Cresswell 2006; Urry 2007) much research has taken place during the last decade bringing mobilities into the centre of sociological analysis. However, the materiality and spatiality of artefacts, infrastructures, and sites hosting mobilities are ......: motorway ecologies, bicycle systems design, urban shopping malls and a train transit hub....

  12. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon; Jensen, Ole B.

    2017-01-01

    utilitarian transport from A to B; they constitute a rich societal phenomenon with, for example, social, cultural, sensorial, emotional, and material dimensions. The article proposes two fruitful links between the mobilities turn and the designerly examination of mobilities spaces. First, the mobilities turn...

  13. Subversive Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The article approaches mobility through a cultural history of urban conflict. Using a case of “The Copenhagen Trouble,“ a series of riots in the Danish capital around 1900, a space of subversive mobilities is delineated. These turn-of-the-century riots points to a new pattern of mobile gathering...

  14. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  15. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  16. 2015 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel Evidence and Status Review For: the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), NASA Headquarters, and NASA Research and Education Support Services (NRESS) on December 17, 2015 (list of participants is in Section VI of this report). The SRP reviewed the new Evidence Report for the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Spaceflight (from here on referred to as the 2015 Sensorimotor Evidence Report), and also received a status review of the Risk. The opening section of the 2015 Sensorimotor Evidence Report provides written descriptions of various incidents that have occurred during space missions. In most of these incidents, the main underlying contributing factors are not easy to identify unambiguously. For example, in section 1.9, a number of falls occurred while astronauts were walking on the moon. It is not clear to the SRP, however, why they fell. It is only possible to extrapolate from likely specific psychophysical or physiological abnormalities, but how these abnormalities were determined, and how they were directly responsible for the falls is unclear to the SRP. Section 2.1.2 on proprioception is very interesting, but the functional significance of the abnormalities detected is not clear. The SRP sees this as a problem throughout the report: a mapping between the component abnormalities identified and the holistic behaviors that are most relevant, for example, controlling the vehicle, and locomotion during egress, is generally lacking. The SRP thinks the cognitive section is too strongly focused on vestibular functioning. The SRP questions the notion that the main cognitive effects are mainly attributable to reversible vestibular changes induced by spaceflight. The SRP thinks that there can also

  17. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  18. Mobile Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter aims to understand the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The chapter explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. What takes place...... is a ‘mobile sense making’ where signs and materially situated meanings connect to the moving human body and thus create particular challenges and complexities of making sense of the world. The chapter includes notions of mobility systems and socio-technical networks in order to show how a ‘semiotic layer’ may...... work to afford or restrict mobile practices....

  19. Validation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Computerized Adaptive Tests Against the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score for 6 Common Foot and Ankle Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltsov, Jayme C B; Greenfield, Stephen T; Soukup, Dylan; Do, Huong T; Ellis, Scott J

    2017-08-01

    The field of foot and ankle surgery lacks a widely accepted gold-standard patient-reported outcome instrument. With the changing infrastructure of the medical profession, more efficient patient-reported outcome tools are needed to reduce respondent burden and increase participation while providing consistent and reliable measurement across multiple pathologies and disciplines. The primary purpose of the present study was to validate 3 Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System computer adaptive tests (CATs) most relevant to the foot and ankle discipline against the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the Short Form 12 general health status survey in patients with 6 common foot and ankle pathologies. Patients (n = 240) indicated for operative treatment for 1 of 6 common foot and ankle pathologies completed the CATs, FAOS, and Short Form 12 at their preoperative surgical visits, 1 week subsequently (before surgery), and at 6 months postoperatively. The psychometric properties of the instruments were assessed and compared. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System CATs each took less than 1 minute to complete, whereas the FAOS took 6.5 minutes, and the Short Form 12 took 3 minutes. CAT scores were more normally distributed and had fewer floor and ceiling effects than those on the FAOS, which reached as high as 24%. The CATs were more precise than the FAOS and had similar responsiveness and test-retest reliability. The physical function and mobility CATs correlated strongly with the activities subscale of the FAOS, and the pain interference CAT correlated strongly with the pain subscale of the FAOS. The CATs and FAOS were responsive to changes with operative treatment for 6 common foot and ankle pathologies. The CATs performed as well as or better than the FAOS in all aspects of psychometric validity. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System CATs show tremendous potential for improving the study of patient

  20. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Users are already mobile, but the question is to which extent knowledge-based dictionary apps are designed for the mobile user situation. The objective of this article is to analyse the characteristics of the mobile user situation and to look further into the stationary user situation...... and the mobile user situation. The analysis is based on an empirical survey involving ten medical doctors and a monolingual app designed to support cognitive lexicographic functions, cf. (Tarp 2006:61-64). In test A the doctors looked up five medical terms while sitting down at a desk and in test B the doctors......:565), and it was found that the information access success of the mobile user situation is lower than that of the stationary user situation, primarily because users navigate in the physical world and in the mobile device at the same time. The data also suggest that the mobile user situation is not fully compatible...

  1. Laboratory evaluation of footings for lunar telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Koon M.; Golis, Kelly M.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1992-01-01

    Presented here are the results of laboratory experiments with diffferent footing shapes for lunar telescopes. These experiments used a variety of soils including some to simulate regolith response. Based on what is known of regolith and regolith-structure interaction, a shallow-multiple-contact points footing foundation can be adequately designed to support lunar telescopes. Plane-strain load-displacement tests were conducted with different footings and different lunar simulants in a deep transparent plexiglass container. The model footings considered include the rectangular, hemispherical, and spudcan designs. Simulants used to reproduce the mechanical properties of the lunar regolith were fly ash, crushed basalt with and without glass, and a processed lunar simulant. Load-displacement curves were obtained for the different footings in Ottawa sand and in the crushed basalt with glass. The spudcan footing was found to be self-digging and yet stiff, thus providing excellent lateral stability in a large variety of soils.

  2. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  3. Osteomyelitis in diabetic foot: A comprehensive overview

    OpenAIRE

    Giurato, Laura; Meloni, Marco; Izzo, Valentina; Uccioli, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Foot infection is a well recognized risk factor for major amputation in diabetic patients. The osteomyelitis is one of the most common expression of diabetic foot infection, being present approximately in present in 10%-15% of moderate and in 50% of severe infectious process. An early and accurate diagnosis is required to ensure a targeted treatment and reduce the risk of major amputation. The aim of this review is to report a complete overview about the management of diabetic foot osteomyeli...

  4. Acquired flat foot deformity: postoperative imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmick, Simon; Chhabra, Avneesh; Grujic, Leslie; Linklater, James M

    2012-07-01

    Flat foot (pes planus) is a progressive and disabling pathology that is treated initially with conservative measures and often followed by a variety of surgeries. This article briefly reviews the pathology in acquired flat foot deformity, the classification of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, discusses surgical techniques for the management of adult flat foot deformity, and reviews potential complications and their relevant imaging appearances. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. The Manchester?Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, D.; Jenkinson, C.; Doll, H.; Lavis, G.; Sharp, R.; Cooke, P.; Dawson, J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) is a validated 16-item, patient-reported outcome measure for evaluating outcomes of foot or ankle surgery. The original development of the instrument identified three domains. This present study examined whether the three domains could legitimately be summed to provide a single summary index score. METHODS: The MOXFQ and Short-Form (SF)-36 were administered to 671 patients before surgery of the foot or ankle. Data from the three dom...

  6. A review of the biomechanics of the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, C. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    In general, diabetic foot ulcers result from abnormal mechanical loading of the foot, such as repetitive moderate pressure applied to the plantar aspect of the foot while walking. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes changes in foot structure, affecting foot function and subsequently leading to

  7. Sex-related differences in foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, I; Grau, S; Mauch, M; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in foot morphology. In total, 847 subjects were scanned using a 3-D-footscanner. Three different analysis methods were used: (1) comparisons were made for absolute foot measures within 250-270 mm foot length (FL); (2) and for averaged measures (% FL) across all sizes; (3) the feet were then classified using a cluster analysis. Within 250-270 mm FL, male feet were wider and higher (mean differences (MD) 1.3-5.9 mm). No relevant sex-related differences could be found in the comparison of averaged measures (MD 0.3-0.6% FL). Foot types were categorised into voluminous, flat-pointed and slender. Shorter feet were more often voluminous, longer feet were more likely to be narrow and flat. However, the definition of 'short' and 'long' was sex-related; thus, allometry of foot measures was different. For shoe design, measures should be derived for each size and sex separately. Different foot types should be considered to account for the variety in foot shape. Improper footwear can cause foot pain and deformity. Therefore, knowledge of sex-related differences in foot measures is important to assist proper shoe fit in both men and women. The present study supplements the field of knowledge within this context with recommendations for the manufacturing of shoes.

  8. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil; Kim, Seung Kook

    2006-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus

  9. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Gwangju Health College, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus.

  10. Prevention and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jonathan Zhang Ming; Ng, Natasha Su Lynn; Thomas, Cecil

    2017-03-01

    The rising prevalence of diabetes estimated at 3.6 million people in the UK represents a major public health and socioeconomic burden to our National Health Service. Diabetes and its associated complications are of a growing concern. Diabetes-related foot complications have been identified as the single most common cause of morbidity among diabetic patients. The complicating factor of underlying peripheral vascular disease renders the majority of diabetic foot ulcers asymptomatic until latter evidence of non-healing ulcers become evident. Therefore, preventative strategies including annual diabetic foot screening and diabetic foot care interventions facilitated through a multidisciplinary team have been implemented to enable early identification of diabetic patients at high risk of diabetic foot complications. The National Diabetes Foot Care Audit reported significant variability and deficiencies of care throughout England and Wales, with emphasis on change in the structure of healthcare provision and commissioning, improvement of patient education and availability of healthcare access, and emphasis on preventative strategies to reduce morbidities and mortality of this debilitating disease. This review article aims to summarise major risk factors contributing to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. It also considers the key evidence-based strategies towards preventing diabetic foot ulcer. We discuss tools used in risk stratification and classifications of foot ulcer.

  11. Prosthetic management of the partial foot amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonclas, Peter P; O'donnell, Casey J

    2005-07-01

    Partial foot amputations provide advantages and challenges to the patient confronting loss of limb and the rehabilitation team. The partial foot amputation offers the potential for retention of plantar load-bearing tissues that are capable of tolerating the forces involved in weight bearing; this can allow the patient to ambulate with or without a prosthesis. Because of the complexity of the foot-ankle complex and the multiple types of partial foot amputations encountered, choosing the appropriate prosthesis can be challenging. This article explains some of the rationale and common options available for the different levels of amputation.

  12. Foot type biomechanics part 1: structure and function of the asymptomatic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, Howard J; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Mootanah, Rajshree; Dufour, Alyssa B; Chow, Betty Shingpui; Deland, Jonathan T

    2013-03-01

    Differences in foot structure are thought to be associated with differences in foot function during movement. Many foot pathologies are of a biomechanical nature and often associated with foot type. Fundamental to the understanding of foot pathomechanics is the question: do different foot types have distinctly different structure and function? To determine if objective measures of foot structure and function differ between planus, rectus and cavus foot types in asymptomatic individuals. Sixty-one asymptomatic healthy adults between 18 and 77 years old, that had the same foot type bilaterally (44 planus feet, 54 rectus feet, and 24 cavus feet), were recruited. Structural and functional measurements were taken using custom equipment, an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device, a GaitMat II gait pattern measurement system, and a goniometer. Generalized Estimation Equation modeling was employed to determine if each dependent variable of foot structure and function was significantly different across foot type while accounting for potential dependencies between sides. Post hoc testing was performed to assess pair wise comparisons. Several measures of foot structure (malleolar valgus index and arch height index) were significantly different between foot types. Gait pattern parameters were invariant across foot types. Peak pressure, maximum force, pressure-time-integral, force-time-integral and contact area were significantly different in several medial forefoot and arch locations between foot types. Planus feet exhibited significantly different center of pressure excursion indices compared to rectus and cavus feet. Planus, rectus and cavus feet exhibited significantly different measures of foot structure and function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 1: Structure and Function of the Asymptomatic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, Howard J.; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Mootanah, Rajshree; Dufour, Alyssa B.; PT, Betty (Shingpui) Chow; Deland, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Differences in foot structure are thought to be associated with differences in foot function during movement. Many foot pathologies are of a biomechanical nature and often associated with foot type. Fundamental to the understanding of foot pathomechanics is the question: do different foot types have distinctly different structure and function? Aim To determine if objective measures of foot structure and function differ between planus, rectus and cavus foot types in asymptomatic individuals. Methods Sixty-one asymptomatic healthy adults between 18 and 77 years old, that had the same foot type bilaterally (44 planus feet, 54 rectus feet, and 24 cavus feet), were recruited. Structural and functional measurements were taken using custom equipment, an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device, a GaitMatII gait pattern measurement system, and a goniometer. Generalized Estimation Equation modeling was employed to determine if each dependent variable of foot structure and function was significantly different across foot type while accounting for potential dependencies between sides. Post hoc testing was performed to assess pairwise comparisons. Results Several measures of foot structure (malleolar valgus index and arch height index) were significantly different between foot types. Gait pattern parameters were invariant across foot types. Peak pressure, maximum force, pressure-time-integral, force-time-integral and contact area were significantly different in several medial forefoot and arch locations between foot types. Planus feet exhibited significantly different center of pressure excursion indices compared to rectus and cavus feet. Conclusions Planus, rectus and cavus feet exhibited significantly different measures of foot structure and function. PMID:23107625

  14. The impact of foot insole on the energy consumption of flat-footed individuals during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Fereshtehnejad, Niloofar; Pool, Fatemeh

    2013-02-01

    The human foot contains one of the most variable structures of the body, which is the medial longitudinal arch. Decrease in the height of this arch results in a flat foot. Although there is some evidence regarding the influence of flat foot on gait performance of flat-footed individuals, there is no strong evidence to support the theory that being flat-footed has an effect on energy consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find the relationship between flat foot and energy consumption. Two groups of normal and flat-footed participants were recruited in this research project. They were selected from the staff and students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The foot indexes of both groups were obtained using the footprint method with help of Solid worker software. The physiological cost index (PCI) of the participants was measured by the use of a heart rate monitoring system (Polar Electro, Finland). The differences between the PCIs of both groups of participants was determined using a t test. In addition, the influence of using an insole was evaluated using a paired t test. The energy consumption of flat-footed individuals differed significantly from that of normal individuals (the PCIs of normal and flat-footed individuals were 0.357 and 0.368 beats/m, respectively). Using a foot insole improved the performance of the flat-footed individuals during walking. The PCI of flat-footed individuals is more than that of normal participants as a result of misalignment of foot structure. Moreover, using a foot insole improved foot alignment and decreased energy consumption.

  15. ARIES: A mobile robot inspector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) is a mobile robot inspection system being developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) to survey and inspect drums containing mixed and low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at DOE facilities. The drums are typically stacked four high and arranged in rows with three-foot aisle widths. The robot will navigate through the aisles and perform an autonomous inspection operation, typically performed by a human operator. It will make real-time decisions about the condition of the drums, maintain a database of pertinent information about each drum, and generate reports

  16. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... by constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  17. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences of contemporary......-making. The paper proposes that increased understanding of the material affordances facilitated through design provides important insight to planning and policymaking that at times might be in risk of becoming too detached from the everyday life of the mobile subject within contemporary mobilities landscapes....

  18. Assessment of signs of foot infection in diabetes patients using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Constantijn E. V. B.; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Sjef G.; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetic foot disease require frequent screening to prevent complications and may be helped through telemedical home monitoring. Within this context, the goal was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing diabetic foot infection using photographic foot imaging and infrared

  19. A new method to normalize plantar pressure measurements for foot size and foot progression angle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, N.L.; Stolwijk, N.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement provides important information about the structure and function of the foot and is a helpful tool to evaluate patients with foot complaints. In general, average and maximum plantar pressure of 6-11 areas under the foot are used to compare groups of subjects. However,

  20. Mobil marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Engelová, Kateřina

    2006-01-01

    Mobil marketing - reklama a podpora prodeje prostřednictvím mobilních telefonů. Technologické a kulturní předpoklady vzniku tohoto odvětví. Mobil marketing a marketingový mix, možnosti synergie. Nástroje mobil marketingu - reklamní SMS a MMS, lokační služby, soutěže, ankety a hlasování, věrnostní systémy, mobilní obsah. Subjekty mobil marketingu. M-komerce. Využití pro podnikové aplikace.

  1. The free moment in walking and its change with foot rotation angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almosnino Sivan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation characterized the time-history pattern of the free moment (FM during walking and, additionally, assessed whether walking with either an internally or externally rotated foot position altered the FM's time-history. Methods Force plate and foot kinematic data were acquired simultaneously for 11 healthy subjects (6 males, 5 females while walking at their self-selected comfortable speed in 3 foot rotation conditions (normal, internal and external. The FM was calculated and normalized by the product of each participant's body weight and height prior to extraction of peak FM, occurrence of peak FM in stance and net relative impulse. Differences in these values across foot rotation conditions were assessed using separate one-way, repeated measures analysis of variance and subsequent pair-wise comparisons. Results The average FM pattern during normal walking exhibits a biphasic shape: resisting inward rotation during approximately the first half of stance and outward rotation during the latter part of stance. While no differences in peak FM or net relative impulse were observed between the internal foot rotation condition and normal walking, the external foot rotation condition resulted in significantly greater peak FM and relative net impulse in comparison to normal walking. Conclusion The differences in selected FM variables between normal walking and the external foot rotation condition are attributable to individual subject response to walking with an externally rotated foot. In this condition, some subjects displayed a FM pattern that was similar to that recorded during normal walking, while others displayed markedly larger FM patterns that are comparable in magnitude to those reported for running. The larger FM values in these latter subjects are speculated to be a result of excessive transverse plane body movements. Whilst further investigation is warranted regarding the FM time-history characteristics

  2. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Mobile Semiotics - signs and mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper is about how to comprehend the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The paper explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. The theoretical scope...... is therefore an attempt to mobilize semiotics by drawing on a central body of theory within and adjacent to the discipline. For instance the founding works of C. S. Peirce will be related to the contemporary notions of ‘geosemiotics’ by Scollon & Scollon. The paper’s theoretical claim is that semiotics hold...... a potential for mobilities studies if the awareness of seeing the environment as a semiotic layer and system can be sensitized to the insights of the ‘mobilities turn’. Empirically the paper tentatively explores the usefulness of a mobile semiotics approach to cases such as street signage, airport design...

  4. Mobile phones and mobile communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Donner, Jonathan

    With staggering swiftness, the mobile phone has become a fixture of daily life in almost every society on earth. In 2007, the world had over 3 billion mobile subscriptions. Prosperous nations boast of having more subscriptions than people. In the developing world, hundreds of millions of people who...... could never afford a landline telephone now have a mobile number of their own. With a mobile in our hand many of us feel safer, more productive, and more connected to loved ones, but perhaps also more distracted and less involved with things happening immediately around us. Written by two leading...... researchers in the field, this volume presents an overview of the mobile telephone as a social and cultural phenomenon. Research is summarized and made accessible though detailed descriptions of ten mobile users from around the world. These illustrate popular debates, as well as deeper social forces at work...

  5. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2015-12-23

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject's foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions.

  6. The effectiveness of non-surgical interventions in the treatment of Charcot foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline; Kumar, Saravana; Causby, Ryan

    2007-12-01

    trials evaluating bisphosphonates reported greater reduction in foot temperature and disease activity for intervention subjects compared with controls. Another outcome of this review indicated additional beneficial effects of bisphosphonates in reducing pain and discomfort. The trial evaluating palliative radiotherapy found no difference between groups on any outcome. A significant reduction in the amount of deformity and reduced healing time to consolidation was found after treatment in the group receiving magnetic therapy treatment. Discussion  There is a lack of clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of non-operative interventions for the management of Charcot foot (immobilisation, removable cast walkers, advice/dispensing of footwear and prescribing of orthotics). Bisphosphonates may be useful adjuncts to standard management of Charcot foot by improved healing demonstrated by a reduction in disease activity indicated by skin temperature and bone destruction. Magnetic therapy may reduce deformity, joint destruction and improve mobility. Conclusion  There is a lack of evidence supporting the use of pharmacological or non-surgical interventions with reducing lesions, ulceration, rate of surgical intervention, hospital admissions and improving the quality of life of subjects with Charcot foot. Bisphosphonates may improve the healing of Charcot foot by reducing skin temperature and disease activity of Charcot foot, when applied in addition to standard interventions to control the position and shape of the foot.

  7. Preventing Diabetic Foot Complications : Strategic Recommendations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diabetic foot is the commonest cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation in the developed and developing nations. Several risk factors predispose the diabetic patient to foot ulceration and peripheral neuropathy, with peripheral vascular disease are the commonest risk factors. Clinical examination for these risk ...

  8. VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE IN DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Moganakannan; `Prema; Arun Sundara Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Comparision of vacuum assisted closure vs conventional dressing in management of diabetic foot patients. 30 patients were taken in that 15 underwent vacuum therapy and remaining 15 underwent conventional dressing.They were analysed by the development of granulation tissue and wound healing.The study showed Vac therapy is the best modality for management of diabetic foot patients.

  9. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Hirose, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1 Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar's brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  10. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except when environmental conditions exist that present a hazard greater than that against which the footwear is designed to...

  11. Mobile Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryana, Bijan; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a country specific comparative mobile usability study is presented, using Iran and Turkey as the two chosen emerging/emergent nation exemplars of smartphone usage and adoption. In a focus group study, three mobile applications were selected by first-time users of smartphones...

  12. Mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  13. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different...

  14. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept...... of resource sharing takes a wider and deeper meaning, creating the foundations for a global real-time multidimensional resource pool, the underlying infrastructure for shareconomy. Above all, this is an inspiring book for anyone who is concerned about the future of wireless and mobile communications networks...

  15. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and li......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments...

  16. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the backgound of the ‘mobilities turn’ (for short review paper on this see; Sheller 2011, Vannini 2010) this paper proposes a further development....... There is a need for research targeting the material, physical and design-oriented dimensions of the multiple mobilities from the local to the global. Despite its cross-disciplinary identity the ‘mobilities turn’ has not sufficiently capitalized from the potential in exploring issues of material design...... of life’ for billions of people in the everyday life. This paper is structured in three parts. After the general introduction we present the mobilities theory perspective of ‘staging mobilities’ and connects this to the empirical phenomenon of parking lots and their design. The paper ends in section three...

  17. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    are already mobile – but lexicography is not yet fully ready for the mobile challenge, mobile users and mobile user situations. The article is based on empirical data from two surveys comprising 10 medical doctors, who were asked to look up five medical substances with the medical dictionary app Medicin.......dk and five students, who were asked to look up five terms with the dictionary app Gyldendal Engelsk-Dansk. The empirical data comprise approximately 15 hours of recordings of user behavior, think-aloud data and interview data. The data indicate that there is still much to be done in this area...... and that lexicographic innovation is needed. A new type of users, new user situations and new access methods call for new lexicographic solutions, and this article proposes a six-pointed hexagram model, which can be used during dictionary app design to lexicographically calibrate the six dimensions in mobile...

  18. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning.......A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...

  19. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  20. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private/public spaces...

  1. Foot osteoarthritis: latest evidence and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Edward; Menz, Hylton B

    2018-04-01

    Foot osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem in older adults yet is under-researched compared to knee or hand OA. Most existing studies focus on the first metatarsophalangeal joint, with evidence relating to midfoot OA being particularly sparse. Symptomatic radiographic foot OA affects 17% of adults aged 50 years and over. The first metatarsophalangeal joint is most commonly affected, followed by the second cuneometatarsal and talonavicular joints. Epidemiological studies suggest the existence of distinct first metatarsophalangeal joint and polyarticular phenotypes, which have differing clinical and risk factor profiles. There are few randomized controlled trials in foot OA. Existing trials provide some evidence of the effectiveness for pain relief of physical therapy, rocker-sole shoes, foot orthoses and surgical interventions in first metatarsophalangeal joint OA and prefabricated orthoses in midfoot OA. Prospective epidemiological studies and randomized trials are needed to establish the incidence, progression and prognosis of foot OA and determine the effectiveness of both commonly used and more novel interventions.

  2. Differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2014-02-01

    Our understanding of age-related changes to foot function during walking has mainly been based on plantar pressure measurements, with little information on differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Joint kinematics of the foot and ankle for 20 young (mean age 23.2 years, standard deviation (SD) 3.0) and 20 older adults (mean age 73.2 years, SD 5.1) were quantified during walking with a 12 camera Vicon motion analysis system using a five segment kinematic model. Differences in kinematics were compared between older adults and young adults (preferred and slow walking speeds) using Student's t-tests or if indicated, Mann-Whitney U tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the differences were also computed. The older adults had a less plantarflexed calcaneus at toe-off (-9.6° vs. -16.1°, d = 1.0, p = plane range of motion (ROM) of the midfoot (11.9° vs. 14.8°, d = 1.3, p = plane ROM of the metatarsus (3.2° vs. 4.3°, d = 1.1, p = 0.006) compared to the young adults. Walking speed did not influence these differences, as they remained present when groups walked at comparable speeds. The findings of this study indicate that independent of walking speed, older adults exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics compared to younger adults, characterised by less propulsion and reduced mobility of multiple foot segments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The kinetic and kinematic stability measures in healthy adult subjects with and without flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S; Zipple, J Timothy; Andraka, John M; Danial, Pamela

    2017-03-01

    Flat foot problems are associated with impaired mobility and postural stability. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematic and kinetic indices during one leg standing between subjects with and without flat foot. Forty-four participants enrolled in the study, including 22 subjects with flat foot and 22 control subjects. The measurements included kinematic stability on the trunk as well as kinetic stability from a force plate. All participants were asked to maintain one leg standing with the contralateral hip and knee flexed to approximately 90° for 25seconds. The kinetic index decreased in the flat foot group (t=-5.08, p=0.001) during one leg standing without visual input. There were strong correlations between kinetic and kinematic stabilities (0.75-0.86) with visual input and moderate correlations (0.49-0.67) without visual input in the control group. The flat foot group exhibited a significantly decreased kinetic index without visual input. The more effective postural stability in the control group might be due to efficient compensatory strategies utilized without visual input to maintain one leg standing. These outcome measures could help to develop a practical test leading to kinematic postural changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The association of foot arch posture and prior history of shoulder or elbow surgery in elite-level baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Luis A; Roach, Kathryn E; Kaplan, Lee D; Lesniak, Bryson; Cunningham, Sean

    2013-11-01

    Case-control. The specific aim of this study was to examine the association between abnormal foot arch postures and a history of shoulder or elbow surgery in baseball pitchers. Pitching a baseball generates forces throughout the musculoskeletal structures of the upper and lower limbs. Structures such as the longitudinal arch of the foot are adaptable to stresses over time. Repeated pitching-related stresses may contribute to acquiring abnormal foot arch postures. Inversely, congenitally abnormal foot arch posture may lead to altered stresses of the upper limb during pitching. A convenience sample of 77 pitchers was recruited from a Division I university team and a professional baseball franchise. Subjects who had a history of shoulder or elbow surgery to the pitching arm were classified as cases. Subjects who met the criteria for classification of pes planus or pes cavus based on longitudinal arch angle were classified as having abnormal foot arch posture. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the association between abnormal foot arch posture and pitching-arm injury requiring surgery. Twenty-three subjects were classified as cases. The odds of being a case were 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 9.6; P = .02) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot arch posture and 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 8.1; P = .04) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot posture on the lunge leg. Abnormal foot arch posture and a surgical history in the pitching shoulder or elbow may be associated. Because the foot and its arches are adaptable and change over time, the pathomechanics of this association should be further explored.

  5. Foot problems in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an unmet need for foot care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapies were determined by the questionnaire. Radiological changes were assessed according to modified Larsen scoring system. The scores of disease activity scale of 28 joints and Health Assessment Questionnaire indicating the functional status of RA patients were collected from patient files. A total of 100 RA patients (90 female, 10 male) with a mean age of 52.5 ±10.9 years were enrolled to the study. Eighty-nine of the 100 patients had experienced foot complaints/symptoms in the past or currently. Foot pain and foot symptoms were reported as the first site of involvement in 14 patients. Thirty-six patients had ankle pain and the most common sites of the foot symptoms were ankle (36%) and forefoot (30%) followed by hindfoot (17%) and midfoot (7%) currently. Forty-nine of the patients described that they had difficulty in performing their foot care. Insoles and orthopedic shoes were prescribed in 39 patients, but only 14 of them continued to use them. The main reasons for not wearing them were; 17 not helpful (43%), 5 made foot pain worse (12.8%), and 3 did not fit (7.6%). Foot symptoms were reported to be decreased in 24 % of the subjects after the medical treatment and 6 patients indicated that they had underwent foot surgery. Current foot pain was significantly associated with higher body mass index and longer disease duration, and duration of morning stiffness. The radiological scores did not correlate with duration of foot symptoms and current foot pain (p>0.05) but the total number of foot deformities was

  6. Effect of Custom-Molded Foot Orthoses on Foot Pain and Balance in Children With Symptomatic Flexible Flat Feet

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hong-Jae; Lim, Kil-Byung; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yoon, Sung-Won; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Tae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. Method A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic techni...

  7. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  8. Holistic management of diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the most costly and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus, which affect 15% of diabetic patients during their lifetime. DFUs are complex, chronic wounds, which have a major long-term impact on the morbidity, mortality and quality of patients’ lives. Individuals who develop a DFU are at greater risk of premature death, myocardial infarction and fatal stroke than those without a history of DFU. Unlike other chronic wounds, the development and progression of DFU is often complicated by wideranging diabetic changes, such as neuropathy and vascular disease. The management of DFU should be optimized by using a multidisciplinary team, due to a holistic approach to wound management is required. Based on studies, blood sugar control, wound debridement, advanced dressings and offloading modalities should always be a part of DFU management. Furthermore, surgery to heal chronic ulcer and prevent recurrence should be considered as an essential component of management in some cases.

  9. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandi C

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical grading and bacteriological study of 107 patients with diabetic foot lesions revealed polymicrobial aetiology in 69 (64.4% and single aetiology in 21 (19.6%. Among 107 patients 62 had ulcer. Of these 31 had mixed aerobes. Twenty six patients with cellulitis and 12 with gangrene had more than 5 types of aerobes and anaerobes such as E.coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Enterobactor spp., Enterococci spp., Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. It was noted that 50 out of 62 patients with ulcer, and all the patients with cellulitis and gangrene were given surgical management and treated with appropriate antibiotics based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

  10. Going Mobile?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tallon, Loic; Froes, Isabel Cristina G.

    2011-01-01

    If the future is mobile, how is the museum community developing within that future? What are the challenges museums face within it? In which directions should we be seeking to evolve our collective knowledge share? It was to gain observations on questions such as these that the 2011 Museums...... & Mobile survey was developed: 660 museum professionals responded. In this paper the authors highlight nine survey observations that they believe are important to the museum community’s increased understanding of and continued progress within mobile interpretation....

  11. Accentual mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olander, Thomas Kristoffer

    slaviske mobile accentparadigmer i høj grad stemmer overens med hinanden, er det sandsynligt at accentmobiliteten i de to sproggrupper går tilbage til et fælles udgangspunkt. Formålet med afhandlingen er at bestemme den urindoeuropæiske baggrund for de baltoslaviske mobile accentparadigmer. I de...... paradigmatiske accent i urbaltoslavisk på grundlag af materiale fra de tre baltiske sprog og urslavisk. I kapitel IV foretages af en undersøgelse af den foreslåede accentlov ud fra en sammenligning af de rekonstruerede urindoeuropæiske endelser og de tilsvarende former i de urbaltoslaviske mobile...

  12. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  13. Comparison of three ankle-foot orthosis configurations for children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckon, Cathleen E; Thomas, Susan Sienko; Jakobson-Huston, Sabrina; Moor, Michael; Sussman, Michael; Aiona, Michael

    2004-09-01

    This study compared the functional efficacy of three commonly prescribed ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) configurations (solid [SAFO], hinged [HAFO], and posterior leaf spring [PLS]). Sixteen independently ambulatory children (10 males, six females; mean age 8 years 4 months, SD 2 years 4 months; range 4 years 4 months to 11 years 6 months) with spastic diplegia participated in this study. Four children were classified at level I of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS; Palisano et al. 1997); the remaining 12 were at level II. Children were assessed barefoot (BF) at baseline (baseline assessment of energy consumption was performed with shoes on, no AFO) and in each orthotic configuration after three months of use, using gait analysis, oxygen consumption, and functional outcome measures. AFO use did not markedly alter joint kinematics or kinetics at the pelvis, hip, or knee. All AFO configurations normalized ankle kinematics in stance, increased step/stride length, decreased cadence, and decreased energy cost of walking. Functionally, all AFO configurations improved the execution of walking/running/jumping skills, upper extremity coordination, and fine motor speed/dexterity. However, the quality of gross motor skill performance and independence in mobility were unchanged. These results suggest that most children with spastic diplegia benefit functionally from AFO use. However, some children at GMFCS level II demonstrated a subtle but detrimental effect on function with HAFO use, shown by an increase in peak knee extensor moment in early stance, excessive ankle dorsiflexion, decreased walking velocity, and greater energy cost. Therefore, constraining ankle motion by using a PLS or SAFO should be considered for most, but not all, children with spastic diplegia.

  14. Assessment of signs of foot infection in diabetes patients using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Constantijn E V B; van Netten, Jaap J; van Baal, Sjef G; Bus, Sicco A

    2014-06-01

    Patients with diabetic foot disease require frequent screening to prevent complications and may be helped through telemedical home monitoring. Within this context, the goal was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing diabetic foot infection using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography. For 38 patients with diabetes who presented with a foot infection or were admitted to the hospital with a foot-related complication, photographs of the plantar foot surface using a photographic imaging device and temperature data from six plantar regions using an infrared thermometer were obtained. A temperature difference between feet of >2.2 °C defined a "hotspot." Two independent observers assessed each foot for presence of foot infection, both live (using the Perfusion-Extent-Depth-Infection-Sensation classification) and from photographs 2 and 4 weeks later (for presence of erythema and ulcers). Agreement in diagnosis between live assessment and (the combination of ) photographic assessment and temperature recordings was calculated. Diagnosis of infection from photographs was specific (>85%) but not very sensitive (90%) but not very specific (60%) and specific (>79%). Intra-observer agreement between photographic assessments was good (Cohen's κ=0.77 and 0.52 for both observers). Diagnosis of foot infection in patients with diabetes seems valid and reliable using photographic imaging in combination with infrared thermography. This supports the intended use of these modalities for the home monitoring of high-risk patients with diabetes to facilitate early diagnosis of signs of foot infection.

  15. MR imaging features of foot involvement in ankylosing spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal; Sarikaya, Selda; Erdem, L. Oktay; Ozdolap, Senay; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine alterations of the soft tissue, tendon, cartilage, joint space, and bone of the foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Materials and Method: Clinical and MR examination of the foot was performed in 23 AS patients (46 feet). Ten asymptomatic volunteers (20 feet) were studied on MR imaging, as a control group. MR imaging protocol included; T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast-field echo (FFE) and fat-suppressed short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences in sagittal, sagittal oblique, and coronal planes using a head coil. Specifically, we examined: bone erosions, tendinitis (acute and chronic), para-articular enthesophyte, joint effusion, plantar fasciitis, joint space narrowing, soft tissue edema, bone marrow edema, enthesopathy in the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia attachment, subchondral signal intensity abnormalities (edema and sclerosis), tenosynovitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, subchondral cysts, subchondral fissures, and bony ankylosis. Midfoot, hindfoot, and ankle were included in examined anatomic regions. Results: Clinical signs and symptoms (pain and swelling) due to foot involvement were present in 3 (13%) of the patients while frequency of involvement was 21 (91%) with MR imaging assessment. The MR imaging findings were bone erosions (65%), Achilles tendinitis (acute and chronic) (61%), para-articular enthesophyte (48%), joint effusion (43%), plantar fasciitis (40%), joint space narrowing (40%), subchondral sclerosis (35%), soft tissue edema (30%), bone marrow edema (30%), enthesopathy of the Achilles attachment (30%), subchondral edema (26%), enthesopathy in the plantar fascia attachment (22%), retrocalcaneal bursitis (22%), subchondral cysts (17%), subchondral fissures (17%), tendinitis and enthesopathy of the plantar ligament (13%), and bony ankylosis (9%). The most common involved anatomical region was the hindfoot (83%) following by midfoot (69% ) and ankle (22

  16. MR imaging features of foot involvement in ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Sarikaya, Selda; Erdem, L. Oktay; Ozdolap, Senay; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine alterations of the soft tissue, tendon, cartilage, joint space, and bone of the foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Materials and Method: Clinical and MR examination of the foot was performed in 23 AS patients (46 feet). Ten asymptomatic volunteers (20 feet) were studied on MR imaging, as a control group. MR imaging protocol included; T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast-field echo (FFE) and fat-suppressed short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences in sagittal, sagittal oblique, and coronal planes using a head coil. Specifically, we examined: bone erosions, tendinitis (acute and chronic), para-articular enthesophyte, joint effusion, plantar fasciitis, joint space narrowing, soft tissue edema, bone marrow edema, enthesopathy in the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia attachment, subchondral signal intensity abnormalities (edema and sclerosis), tenosynovitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, subchondral cysts, subchondral fissures, and bony ankylosis. Midfoot, hindfoot, and ankle were included in examined anatomic regions. Results: Clinical signs and symptoms (pain and swelling) due to foot involvement were present in 3 (13%) of the patients while frequency of involvement was 21 (91%) with MR imaging assessment. The MR imaging findings were bone erosions (65%), Achilles tendinitis (acute and chronic) (61%), para-articular enthesophyte (48%), joint effusion (43%), plantar fasciitis (40%), joint space narrowing (40%), subchondral sclerosis (35%), soft tissue edema (30%), bone marrow edema (30%), enthesopathy of the Achilles attachment (30%), subchondral edema (26%), enthesopathy in the plantar fascia attachment (22%), retrocalcaneal bursitis (22%), subchondral cysts (17%), subchondral fissures (17%), tendinitis and enthesopathy of the plantar ligament (13%), and bony ankylosis (9%). The most common involved anatomical region was the hindfoot (83%) following by midfoot (69% ) and ankle (22

  17. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolwijk, N M; Koenraadt, K L M; Louwerens, J W K; Grim, D; Duysens, J; Keijsers, N L W

    2014-02-01

    Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. The foot length and MLA angle of 34 healthy subjects (18 males, 16 females) at 3 velocities (preferred, low (preferred -0.4 m/s) and fast (preferred +0.4 m/s) speed were investigated with a 3D motion analysis system (VICON(®)). The MLA angle was calculated as the angle between the second metatarsal head, the navicular tuberculum and the heel in the local sagittal plane. Foot length was calculated as the distance between the marker at the heel and the 2nd metatarsal head. A General Linear Model for repeated measures was used to indicate significant differences in MLA angle and foot length between different walking speeds. The foot lengthened during the weight acceptance phase of gait and shortened during propulsion. With increased walking speed, the foot elongated less after heel strike and shortened more during push off. The MLA angle and foot length curve were similar, except between 50% and 80% of the stance phase in which the MLA increases whereas the foot length showed a slight decrease. Foot length seems to represent the Hicks mechanism in the foot and the ability of the foot to bear weight. At higher speeds, the foot becomes relatively stiffer, presumably to act as a lever arm to provide extra propulsion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [The rheumatoid foot. Origin of deformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Claustre, J; Allieu, Y

    1980-02-01

    Deformations of the foot are a logical and predictable function of the biomechanics of the foot and the constraints undergone by the articulations of the foot, that are unstabilized by the inflammatory process. They result from the combination of three factors : anevolutive teno-articular synovitis, predictible forces (the weight of the extrinsic muscle, the anti-physiological foot), and the congenital morphotype of the foot. Typical deformations (peroneal " coup de vent " of the toes, triangular metatarsus), differ on the clinical level in keeping with the morphotype but respond to the same mechanism. The " coup de vent peronier " remains the most characteristic deformation and is furthered by the excentric action of the extrinsic muscles, and in particular the foot muscle. The common denomination of deformations of the back part of the foot is represented by the valgus calcanean, linked to the action of the weight on the orsion forces that is more or less modified. A better knowledge of the cause of these deformations would make it possible to avoid, if not their apparition, at least their worsening.

  19. Diabetic foot ulcer teams in Norwegian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberstad, Mari; Bentsen, Signe Berit; Berg, Tore Julsrud; Iversen, Marjolein M

    2017-09-19

    The national clincial guidelines for diabetes recommend that diabetic foot ulcers be treated by interdisciplinary diabetic foot ulcer teams. This study aims to survey the extent of diabetic foot ulcer teams in the specialist health service in Norwegian hospitals and to describe their clinical composition, organisation and working routines. The study is cross-sectional with the use of a questionnaire survey. The criteria for participating were somatic hospitals with 24-hour operations and a specialist function for patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 41 hospitals participated of the 51 that fulfilled the criteria. Altogether 17 of 41 hospitals had diabetic foot ulcer teams. The teams had a broad clinical composition and followed national recommendations for surveying risk factors and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Nine foot ulcer teams had written routines for assessment, five used the Noklus diabetes patient records to document ulcer treatment, and ten had planned interdisciplinary meetings. Only one-quarter of the teams included both medical and surgical competence in the planned interdisciplinary collaboration. The diabetic foot ulcer teams had broad clinical competence and followed national clinical guidelines. The teams had a short waiting time for the initial consultation, half had written guidelines, and 60 % had planned interdisciplinary meetings. Far fewer had included both medical and surgical competence in the planned interdisciplinary collaboration.

  20. Diabetic Foot Complications Despite Successful Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyo; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Jungu; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Han, Duck Jong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-01

    It is known that successful pancreas transplantation enables patients with diabetes to maintain a normal glucose level without insulin and reduces diabetes-related complications. However, we have little information about the foot-specific morbidity in patients who have undergone successful pancreas transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predisposing factors for foot complications after successful pancreas transplantation. This retrospective study included 218 patients (91 males, 127 females) who had undergone pancreas transplantation for diabetes. The mean age was 40.7 (range, 15-76) years. Diabetes type, transplantation type, body mass index, and diabetes duration before transplantation were confirmed. After pancreas transplantation, the occurrence and duration of foot and ankle complications were assessed. Twenty-two patients (10.1%) had diabetic foot complications. Fifteen patients (6.9%) had diabetic foot ulcer and 7 patients (3.2%) had Charcot arthropathy. Three patients had both diabetic foot ulcer and Charcot arthropathy. Three insufficiency fractures (1.4%) were included. Mean time of complications after transplantation was 18.5 (range, 2-77) months. Creatinine level 1 year after surgery was higher in the complication group rather than the noncomplication group ( P = .02). Complications of the foot and ankle still occurred following pancreas transplantation in patients with diabetes. Level III, comparative study.

  1. Malignant tumours of the foot and ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E.; Gaspar, N.; Brugières, L.; Glorion, C.; Pannier, S.; Gomez-Brouchet, A.

    2017-01-01

    Most of tumours of the foot are tumour-like (synovial cyst, foreign body reactions and epidermal inclusion cyst) or benign conditions (tenosynovial giant cells tumours, planta fibromatosis). Malignant tumours of the soft-tissue and skeleton are very rare in the foot and their diagnosis is often delayed with referral to specialised teams after initial inappropriate procedures or unplanned excisions. The adverse effect of these misdiagnosed tumours is the increasing rate of amputation or local recurrences in the involved patients. In every lump, imaging should be discussed before any local treatment. Every lesion which is not an obvious synovial cyst or plantar fibromatosis should have a biopsy performed. After the age of 40 years, chondrosarcoma is the most usual malignant tumour of the foot. In young patients bone tumours such as osteosarcoma or Ewing’s sarcoma, are very unusually located in the foot. Synovial sarcoma is the most frequent histological diagnosis in soft tissues. Epithelioid sarcoma or clear cell sarcoma, involve more frequently the foot and ankle than other sites. The classic local treatment of malignant conditions of the foot and ankle was below-knee amputation at different levels. Nowadays, with the development of adjuvant therapies, some patients may benefit from conservative surgery or partial amputation after multidisciplinary team discussions. The prognosis of foot malignancy is not different from that at other locations, except perhaps in chondrosarcoma, which seems to be less aggressive in the foot. The anatomy of the foot is very complex with many bony and soft tissue structures in a relatively small space making large resections and conservative treatments difficult to achieve. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160078. Originally published online at www.efortopenreviews.org PMID:28630763

  2. FOOT POSTURAL DEVIATIONS IN FEMALE KATHAK DANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopika Sabharwal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kathak is a very complex dance form in which greater emphasis is laid on foot work thus putting substantial amount of stress over the feet. The purpose of this study was to investigate the foot postural deviations amongst the Kathak dancers. Methods: Screening of 40 Female Kathak Dancers was done for the study from Department of Dance, Punjabi University, Patiala on the basis of inclusion criteria. Subjects were assessed for Postural deviations via. Foot Posture Index, Medial Longitudinal Arch Angle, Navicular Drop, Rearfoot angle and Forefoot angle. Results: Percentile analysis of Foot Posture index scores suggested that a large population of kathak dancers (approx 92.5 % have pronated feet. Most of the Kathak dancers showed increase in Rearfoot angle (approx. 90%, Forefoot angle (approx.75% and Navicular drop (approx. 97% and decrease in Medial Longitudinal Arch angle (approx. 95%. Analysis of Coefficient of Correlation suggested a significant positive relationship of Foot Posture Index scores with Rearfoot angle (r = 0.40, p= 0.0087, Navicular Drop (r = 0.62, p= < 0.0001 and Forefoot angle (r = 0.51, p=0.0007 and a significant negative correlation with Medial Longitudinal Arch angle (r = -0.42, p= 0.0059. Conclusion: From the observations, it can be concluded that with time kathak dancers start developing certain Postural Deviations at Foot which can lead to hyperpronation. These changes if not treated on time may lead to various degenerative changes in the Foot and Ankle thus leading to the instabilities and can also make them susceptible to foot and ankle injuries, shin pain, etc. Thus, the study recommends that the dancers should be educated and trained about the foot problems associated with kathak dance and their prevention.

  3. Association of frontal plane knee alignment with foot posture in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Hiroshi; Iijima, Hirotaka; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kaneda, Eishi; Ohi, Kazuko; Abe, Kaoru

    2017-06-07

    To examine the association of radiographic frontal plane knee alignment with three-dimensional foot posture in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Participants in orthopedic clinics with Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade ≥1 (88 patients and 88 knees; age, 61-91 years; 65.9% female) were enrolled. An anteroposterior radiographic view was used to assess the anatomical axis angle (AAA) after subtracting a sex-specific correction factor. The three-dimensional foot posture was also evaluated. Multiple regression analyses showed that increased corrected AAA (i.e., valgus direction) was independently associated with a decrease in the hallux valgus angle (regression coefficient: -0.40 per degree, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.72, -0.09; P = 0.013) and increase in the pronation angle of the calcaneus relative to floor (regression coefficient: 0.33 per degree, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.56; P = 0.005) adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. The relationship between the corrected AAA and hallux valgus angle strengthened (regression coefficient: -0.60 per degree, 95% CI: -1.08, -0.13; P = 0.014) in varus-aligned knees examined separately (63 knees). The other foot postures (navicular height, navicular height/foot length, and rearfoot angle) were not significantly associated with corrected AAA. Radiographic frontal plane knee alignment was associated with hallux valgus angle and calcaneus angle relative to the floor in patients with medial knee OA, particularly in varus-aligned knees. These results indicate a connection between altered frontal knee alignment and foot posture, which may be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of altered foot posture observed in patients with knee OA.

  4. Staying Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most appropriate aid(s). Mobility aids can: Make shopping trips manageable and visits to a museum or ... Association for Driver Rehabilitation Specialists (ADED) Provides an online search tool to locate rehabilitation specialists, certified driver ...

  5. Mobile museology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    Drawing together perspectives from museology, digital culture studies and fashion theory, this thesis considers changes in and challenges for current - day museums as related to ‘mobile museology’. This concept is developed for and elucidated in the thesis to describe an orientation towards...... the fashionable, the ephemeral, and towards an (ideal) state of change and changeability. This orientation is characterised with the triplet concepts of mobile, mobility, and mobilisation, as related to mobile media and movability; to ‘trans - museal’ mediation; and to the mobilisation of collections, audiences...... and institutional mindsets. The research project’s transdisciplinary and exploratory approach takes inspiration from critical design, minding Latour’s (2004a) call for rethink ing critical approaches in the humanities. Through a creative process, focused on designs for framing fashion in everyday contexts...

  6. Mobile Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Enache

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile commerce, or m-commerce, refers to the use of wireless digital devices to enable transactions on the Web. Described more fully in Chapter 3, m-commerce involves the use of wireless networks to connect cell phones, handheld devices such Blackberries, and personal computers to the Web. Once connected, mobile consumers can conduct transactions, including stock trades, in-store price comparisons, banking, travel reservations, and more.

  7. Muscle-Activation Onset Times With Shoes and Foot Orthoses in Participants With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Peeraer, Louis; Deschamps, Kevin; Fieuws, Steffen; Janssens, Luc; Staes, Filip

    2015-07-01

    Participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI) use an altered neuromuscular strategy to shift weight from double-legged to single-legged stance. Shoes and foot orthoses may influence these muscle-activation patterns. To evaluate the influence of shoes and foot orthoses on onset times of lower extremity muscle activity in participants with CAI during the transition from double-legged to single-legged stance. Cross-sectional study. Musculoskeletal laboratory. A total of 15 people (9 men, 6 women; age = 21.8 ± 3.0 years, height = 177.7 ± 9.6 cm, mass = 72.0 ± 14.6 kg) who had CAI and wore foot orthoses were recruited. A transition task from double-legged to single-legged stance was performed with eyes open and with eyes closed. Both limbs were tested in 4 experimental conditions: (1) barefoot (BF), (2) shoes only, (3) shoes with standard foot orthoses, and (4) shoes with custom foot orthoses (SCFO). The onset of activity of 9 lower extremity muscles was recorded using surface electromyography and a single force plate. Based on a full-factorial (condition, region, limb, vision) linear model for repeated measures, we found a condition effect (F(3,91.8) = 9.39, P shoes-only (P = .02) and shoes-with-standard-foot-orthoses (P = .03) conditions than in the BF condition. No differences were observed for the hip muscles. Earlier onset of muscle activity was most apparent in the SCFO condition for ankle and knee muscles but not for hip muscles during the transition from double-legged to single-legged stance. These findings might help clinicians understand how shoes and foot orthoses can influence neuromuscular control in participants with CAI.

  8. Effects of plantar foot sensitivity manipulation on postural control of young adult and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Subjects with sensorial losses present balance deficits. Although such condition is often observed among elderly, there is discussion concerning the dependence on sensorial information for body sway control in the elderly without sensorial losses. Purpose: We investigated the effects of foot sensitivity manipulation on postural control during upright standing in young adults and independent elderly (n = 19/group. Methods: Plantar sensitivity was evaluated by esthesiometry, and speed of center of pressure shift data during upright posture were evaluated for each foot using a baropodometer while the subjects were standing with eyes open or closed. The young adult group was evaluated for center of pressure in normal conditions and after plantar sensitivity disturbance, by immersing their feet in water and ice. Results: Young adults did not show alterations in their center of pressure after sensorial perturbation and presented, even under sensorial perturbation, better postural control than elderly subjects. The elderly showed lower foot sensitivity and greater center of pressure oscillation than young adults. Conclusion: Elderly subjects seem to rely more on foot sensitivity for control of body sway than young adults. In the elderly, a clinical intervention to improve foot sensitivity may help in upright posture maintenance.

  9. The influence of foot and ankle injury patterns and treatment delays on outcomes in a tertiary hospital; a one-year prospective observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Dhillon, M S; Dhatt, Sarvdeep Singh

    2016-03-01

    Ankle and foot fractures are amongst the most common injuries, and patterns may vary from primary care set up to tertiary hospitals. Severe foot injuries are projected to have significantly worse outcomes and surgical delays are thought to alter prognosis. All patients with foot and ankle trauma were prospectively evaluated at a Tertiary trauma centre over one year. The incidence, fracture patterns, risk factors, and outcomes were evaluated, and cases were divided into simple foot injuries (FASS ≤ 3) and severe foot injuries (FASS>3). Injury mechanisms, associated injuries, and delays in treatment were evaluated, and outcomes were analyzed using Visual-Analogue Scale Foot and Ankle (VASFA), Maryland Foot Score (MFS) and Foot and ankle disability index (FADI). 294 Foot and Ankle injuries (51 females, 243 males) were encountered in 2919 trauma cases (incidence of 10%). 80 patients (27.2%) had simple foot injuries and 214 (72.8%) had severe foot injuries. 29 patients (9.9%) were below 18 years; most (65.3%) patients were between 18 and 45 years age. Road traffic accident was most commonest mode of injury, with ankle fractures (30.6%) the most common. Metatarsal fractures (27.9%) and calcaneal fractures (21.4%) were 2nd and 3rd most common injuries in the foot. Surgical delay averaged 1 day in both severe and simple injuries. Injury led to 32 (10.9%) below knee amputations. Outcome evaluation in 127 (91 severe, 36 simple injuries) patients showed mean Maryland foot score of 89.30 in simple injury group and 84.87 in severe injury group. Mean VASFA score was 82.87 (simple) and 81.87 in severe injury, and mean FADI score was 93.13 (simple) and 91.05 (severe injury). More detailed analysis revealed that more good scores (64.4%) were documented in severe injuries group, and more excellent scores (52.8%) in simple injuries group. Foot injuries constitute 10% of all orthopaedic trauma at tertiary hospitals; Majority of them are severe foot injuries, with 68.7% being open

  10. Effect of forward/backward standing posture on foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Tan, T.K.; Punte, P.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Foot length and breadth are generally used to determine the correct shoe size. An important question is whether foot length and foot breadth are dependent upon body posture. Therefore, the effect of leaning forward/backward on foot length and breadth is investigated in this study. Seven subjects

  11. Clinical and functional correlates of foot pain in diabetic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Dekker, E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: patients with diabetes mellitus frequently suffer from foot pain. This pain seems to be a neglected area in studies on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical variables associated with foot pain in diabetic patients. In addition, the relationships between foot

  12. Knowledge evaluation and educating diabetic patients on self foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion and recommendation: A considerable number of diabetic patients have poor self foot care knowledge and the level of knowledge on self foot care improved prominently following foot care education session. Therefore there is a need for establishment and strengthening effective foot care education for diabetic ...

  13. Age-related differences in women's foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansuategui Echeita, Jone; Hijmans, Juha M.; Smits, Sharon; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Postema, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Describe age-related differences in women's foot shape using a wide range of measurements and ages. Study design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Main outcome measurements: Six foot-shape measurements of each foot: foot lengths, ball widths, ball circumferences, low instep

  14. Increased plantar foot pressure in persons affected by leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slim, Frederik J.; van Schie, Carine H.; Keukenkamp, Renske; Faber, William R.; Nollet, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Although foot pressure has been reported to be increased in people affected by leprosy, studies on foot pressure and its determinants are limited. Therefore, the aim was to assess barefoot plantar foot pressure and to identify clinical determinants of increased plantar foot pressure in leprosy

  15. The diabetic foot: recognition and principles of management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lynne Tudhope is President of the Diabetic Foot Working Group of South Africa and an editorial board member for diabetes in the Journal of Wound Healing of South .... foot care team is the most effective way to provide patient education, manage foot ulceration, infection and deformity. Palpation of foot pulses is crucial in.

  16. The Occurrence of Ipsilateral or Contralateral Foot Disorders and Hand Dominance: The Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D. T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Positano, Rock G.; Dines, Joshua S.; Dodson, Christopher C.; Gagnon, David R.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2011-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, hand dominance and side of foot disorders has not been described in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether hand dominance was associated with ipsilateral foot disorders among community-dwelling older men and women Methods Data were from the Framingham Foot Study (n=2,089, examined 2002–2008). Hand preference for writing was used to classify hand dominance. Foot disorders and side of disorders were based on a validated foot examination. Generalized linear models with GEE was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), accounting for intra-person variability. Results Left-handed people were less likely to have foot pain or any foot disorders ipsilateral, but were more likely to have hallux valgus ipsilateral to the left hand. Among right-handed people, the following statistically significant increased odds of having an ipsilateral foot disorder versus contralateral foot disorder were seen: 30% for Morton’s Neuroma, 18% for hammer toes, 21% for lesser toe deformity, and a 2-fold increased odds of any foot disorder; there was a 17% decreased odds for Tailor’s Bunion, and an 11% decreased odds for pes cavus. Conclusion For the 2089 study participants, certain forefoot disorders were shown to be ipsilateral while other foot disorders were contralateral to the dominant hand. It is possible that the side of the dominant hand was a proxy for biomechanics of the dominant foot that may explain some of the associations with ipsilateral forefoot disorders. PMID:23328848

  17. Associations of Foot Posture and Function to Lower Extremity Pain: The Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskowski, JL; Dufour, AB; Hagedorn, TJ; Hillstrom, Howard; Casey, VA; Hannan, MT

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have implicated foot posture and foot function as risk factors for lower extremity pain. Empirical population-based evidence for this assertion is lacking; therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional associations of foot posture and foot function to lower extremity joint pain in a population-based study of adults. Methods Participants were members of the Framingham Foot Study. lower extremity joint pain was determined by the response to the NHANES-type question, “On most days do you have pain, aching or stiffness in your [hips, knees, ankles, or feet]?” Modified Arch Index (MAI) classified participants as having planus, rectus (referent) or cavus foot posture. Center of Pressure Excursion Index (CPEI) classified participants as having over-pronated, normal (referent) or over-supinated foot function. Crude and adjusted (age, gender, BMI) logistic regression determined associations of foot posture and function to lower extremity pain. Results Participants with planus structure had higher odds of knee (1.57, 95% CI: 1.24– 1.99) or ankle (1.47, 95% CI: 1.05–2.06) pain, whereas those with a cavus foot structure had increased odds of ankle pain only (7.56, 95% CI: 1.99–28.8) and pain at one lower extremity site (1.37, 95% CI: 1.04–1.80). Associations between foot function and lower extremity joint pain were not statistically significant, except for a reduced risk of hip pain in those with an over-supinated foot function (0.69, 95% CI: 0.51–0.93). Conclusions These findings offer a link between foot posture and lower extremity pain, highlighting the need for longitudinal or intervention studies. PMID:24591410

  18. Weight transfer analysis in adults with hemiplegia using ankle foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Karen J; Yarossi, Mathew

    2011-03-01

    Identifying and understanding the changes in transfer of momentum that are directly affected by orthotic intervention are significant factors related to the improvement of mobility in individuals with hemiplegia. The purpose of this investigation was to use a novel analysis technique to objectively measure weight transfer during double support (DS) in healthy individuals and individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke with and without an ankle foot orthosis. Prospective, Repeated measures, case-controlled trial. Participants included 25 adults with stroke-related hemiplegia >6 months using a prescribed ankle foot orthosis and 12 age-matched healthy controls. Main outcome measures included the weight transfer point timing (WTP, %DS), maximum total force timing (MTF, %DS), timing difference between WTP and MTF (MTF-WTP, %DS) and the linearity of loading (LOL, R(2)) during the DS phase of the gait cycle. The WTP and LOL were significantly different between conditions with and without the ankle foot orthosis for the affected and unaffected limb in post-stroke individuals, p ≤ 0.01. The MTF and difference in timing between MTF-WTP were significantly different during affected limb loading with and without the ankle foot orthosis in the stroke group, p ≤ 0.0001 and p = 0.03, respectively. MTF, MTF-WTP and LOL were significantly different between individuals with stroke (during affected limb loading) and healthy controls (during right limb loading). This research established a systematic method for analysing weight transfer during walking to evaluate the effect of an ankle foot orthosis on loading during double support in hemiplegic gait. This novel method can be used to elucidate biomechanical mechanisms behind orthosis-mediated changes in gait patterns and quantify functional mobility outcomes in rehabilitation. This novel approach to orthotic assessment will provide the clinician with needed objective evidence to select the most effective orthotic

  19. Angiography in the region of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-01-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg. (orig.) [de

  20. Foot Swelling during Air Travel: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern? What causes leg and foot swelling during air travel? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. ... had major surgery or you take birth control pills, for example — consult your doctor before flying. He ...

  1. Diabetic foot infections: current concept review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberlee B. Hobizal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a current concept review on the diagnosis and management of diabetic foot infections which are among the most serious and frequent complications encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus. A literature review on diabetic foot infections with emphasis on pathophysiology, identifiable risk factors, evaluation including physical examination, laboratory values, treatment strategies and assessing the severity of infection has been performed in detail. Diabetic foot infections are associated with high morbidity and risk factors for failure of treatment and classification systems are also described. Most diabetic foot infections begin with a wound and once an infection occurs, the risk of hospitalization and amputation increases dramatically. Early identification of infection and prompt treatment may optimize the patient's outcome and provide limb salvage.

  2. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  3. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You will need to change the dressing on your limb. This will help ...

  4. On-the-Job Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves your efficiency and keeps you on the job. Your podiatric physician and surgeon is a specialist ... 20814 FP-65M-4/96 2014 ON-THE-JOB FOOT HEALTH YOUR PODIATRIC PHYSICIAN TALKS ABOUT ON- ...

  5. A survey of foot problems in community-dwelling older Greek Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are common in older people and are associated with impaired mobility and quality of life. However, the characteristics of foot problems in older Australians for whom English is a second language have not been evaluated. Methods One hundred and four community-dwelling people aged 64 to 90 years with disabling foot pain (according to the case definition of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, or MFPDI were recruited from four Greek elderly citizens clubs in Melbourne, Australia. All participants completed a Greek language questionnaire consisting of general medical history, the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire, the MFPDI, and specific questions relating to foot problems and podiatry service utilisation. In addition, all participants underwent a brief clinical foot assessment. Results The MFPDI score ranged from 1 to 30 (median 14, out of a total possible score of 34. Women had significantly higher total MFPDI scores and MFPDI subscale scores. The MFPDI total score and subscale scores were significantly associated with most of the SF-36 subscale scores. The most commonly reported foot problem was difficulty finding comfortable shoes (38%, and the most commonly observed foot problem was the presence of hyperkeratotic lesions (29%. Only 13% of participants were currently receiving podiatry treatment, and 40% stated that they required more help looking after their feet. Those who reported difficulty finding comfortable shoes were more likely to be female, and those who required more help looking after their feet were more likely to be living alone and have osteoarthritis in their knees or back. Conclusions Foot problems appear to be common in older Greek Australians, have a greater impact on women, and are associated with reduced health-related quality of life. These findings are broadly similar to previous studies in English-speaking older people in Australia. However, only a small

  6. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; Tørholm, Søren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Segmented CT data from one healthy subject was used to create a template Glasgow-Maastricht foot model (GM-model). Following this, the template was scaled to produce subject-specific models for five additional healthy participants using a surface scan of the foot and ankle. Forty-three skin mounted markers, mainly positioned around the foot and ankle, were used to capture the stance phase of the right foot of the six healthy participants during walking. The GM-model was then applied to calculate the intrinsic foot kinematics. Distinct motion patterns where found for all joints. The variability in outcome depended on the location of the joint, with reasonable results for sagittal plane motions and poor results for transverse plane motions. The results of the GM-model were comparable with existing literature, including bone pin studies, with respect to the range of motion, motion pattern and timing of the motion in the studied joints. This novel model is the most complete kinematic model to date. Further evaluation of the model is warranted.

  7. Body weight and the medial longitudinal foot arch: high-arched foot, a hidden problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniacka, R; Bac, A; Matusik, S; Szczygieł, E; Ciszek, E

    2013-05-01

    This study had two objectives. First, to determine the prevalence of hollow (high-arched) and flat foot among primary school children in Cracow (Poland). Second, to evaluate the relationship between the type of medial longitudinal arch (MLA; determined by the Clarke's angle) and degree of fatness. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was determined by means of IOTF cut-offs with respect to age and gender. A sample of 1,115 children (564 boys and 551 girls) aged between 3 and 13 years was analyzed. In all age groups, regardless of gender, high-arched foot was diagnosed in the majority of children. A distinct increase in the number of children with high-arched foot was observed between 7- and 8-year olds. Regardless of the gender, high-arched foot was more common among underweight children. In the group of obese children, the biggest differences were attributed to gender. High-arched foot was the most frequently observed among boys. In all gender and obesity level groups, the flat foot was more common among boys than among girls. High-arched foot is the most common foot defect among children 3-13 years old regardless of gender. Flat foot is least frequently observed in children 3-13 years old. A statistic correlation between MLA and adiposity is observed. Stronger correlation is observed among girls.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF A FOOT ORTHOTIC ON LOWER EXTREMITY TRANSVERSE PLANE KINEMATICS IN COLLEGIATE FEMALE ATHLETES WITH PES PLANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Carcia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries in female athletes remain prevalent. Athletes with excessive foot pronation have been identified to be at greater risk for non-contact ACL injury. Excessive foot pronation has been linked to increased medial tibial rotation. Increased medial tibial rotation heightens ACL strain and has been observed at or near the time of ACL injury. Foot orthotics have been shown to decrease medial tibial rotation during walking and running tasks. The effect of a foot orthotic on activities that simulate a non-contact ACL injury mechanism (i.e. landing however is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether a foot orthotic was capable of altering transverse plane lower extremity kinematics in female athletes during landing. Twenty uninjured collegiate female athletes participating in the sports of basketball, soccer or volleyball with pes planus volunteered. Utilizing a repeated measures counterbalanced design, subjects completed two landing tasks with and without a foot orthotic using standardized footwear. The prefabricated orthotic had a rigid shell and a 6 extrinsic rear-foot varus post. Dependent measures included initial contact angle, peak angle, excursion and time to peak angle for both the tibia and femur. Statistical analysis suggested that the selected foot orthosis had little influence over lower extremity transverse plane kinematics. Several factors including: the limitation of a static measure to predict dynamic movement, inter-subject variability and the physical characteristics of the orthotic device likely account for the results. Future research should examine the influence of different types of foot orthotics not only on lower extremity kinematics but also tibiofemoral kinetics

  9. Mobile tele-medicine systems in the multidisciplinary approach of diabetes management : the remote prevention of diabetes complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammas, Constantinos S; Geropoulos, Spyros; Markou, Georgia; Saatsakis, George; Lemonidou, Chryssa; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of feasibility and reliability of Mobile-Telemedicine Systems (M-TS) in the remote prevention of diabetes related complications. A feasibility-reliability evaluation based on a simulating experimentation by ten specialists (N=10) who examined a diabetic patient on the electronic space of a mobile experimental telemedicine system (MU-Exp.-TS). I. Remote prevention of diabetic foot and other diabetes related complications is feasible (acceptability: 89-100%). II. Remote ulcer classification and diabetic foot amputation risk estimation: Accuracy=89%. The proposed MU-TS based multidisciplinary approach and prevention of diabetes related complications is feasible while that of diabetic foot is both feasible and reliable.

  10. The Foot-Reading Cult of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Bosmia, Arpan N; Tubbs, R S

    2017-10-01

    Ho-no-Hana-Sanpogyo was a Japanese new religious movement referred to as the "foot-reading cult" in the media. Its founder, Fukunaga Hogen, claimed to have divine authority and the ability to diagnose physical illness by studying the soles of an individual's feet. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the history of Ho-no-Hana-Sanpogyo and Fukunaga's practice of foot reading.

  11. CLINICOMICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Palaniappan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors affecting all organs in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the common and serious long-term complications of diabetes leads to recurrent and chronic infections, which results in limb loss when treatment is delayed. The aim of this study is to find out the clinical outcome and microbiological profile in patients admitted with diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study conducted between November 2008 to November 2009 over 50 patients with history of foot ulceration and diabetes. 50 patients were admitted with diabetic foot ulcer over a period of one year between November 2008-2009. They were studied after getting written consent. A predesigned pro forma was used to get the parameters comprising age, gender, duration, type of diabetes mellitus, presence of neuropathy, nephropathy (serum creatinine, urine albumin, retinopathy (screening funduscopy by ophthalmologist. RESULTS Among 50 patients admitted and treated for diabetic foot ulcers with mean stay of 18 days, 29 (58% had complete healing on conservative management, 18 (36% underwent minor amputation (toes, 3 (6% had major amputation (below knee/above knee. No mortality among the study groups encountered. Gram-negative aerobes E. coli (36%, Pseudomonas (52%, Klebsiella (28%, Proteus vulgaris (20% and Acinetobacter (16% were most frequently isolated followed by gram-positive aerobes MRSA (14%, Enterococcus (6%, Strep pyogenes (4% and no anaerobic growth. CONCLUSION Diabetic foot infections are frequently polymicrobial and predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacteria at presentation. Multidrug resistance pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA in diabetic foot ulcer is at its emergence and life threatening. Initial aggressive multimodal approach with surgical intervention, culture specific and sensitive targeted combined broad-spectrum antibiotics decreases the morbidity and mortality

  12. Surgical revascularization techniques for diabetic foot

    OpenAIRE

    Kota, Siva Krishna; Kota, Sunil Kumar; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Sahoo, Satyajit; Mohapatra, Sudeep; Modi, Kirtikumar Dharmsibhai

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. The diabetic foot is characterized by the presence of arteriopathy and neuropathy. The vascular damage includes non-occlusive microangiopathy and macroangiopathy. Diabetic foot wounds are responsible for 5–10% of the cases of major or minor amputations. In fact, the risk of amputation of the lower limbs is 15–20% higher in diabetic populations than in the general population. The University of Texas classification is the reference class...

  13. Postoperative infection in the foot and ankle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Victoria O

    2012-07-01

    Our discussion highlights the commonly performed surgical procedures in the foot and ankle and reviews the various imaging modalities available for the detection of infection with graphic examples to better enable radiologists to approach the radiological evaluation of postoperative infection in the foot and ankle. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious inflammation remains a diagnostic challenge usually needing a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and imaging studies to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  14. A preliminary study of the effect of restricted gastrocnemius length on foot kinematics and plantar pressure patterns during gait in children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek

    2008-01-01

      Summary/conclusion Kinematic foot modelling and pedobarography are complementary measurement methods for measuring foot biomechanics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Pedobarography appears to be the most sensitive instrument measuring significantly decreased hindfoot and increased lateral...... forefoot mean plantar pressure and force in the children with gastrocnemius contracture, whilst the corresponding changes in foot kinematics were non-significant.   Introduction Foot deformity is common in CP and is often due to hypertonia and contracture in spastic muscles. The aim of this study...... was to establish the repeatability of two measurement techniques and establish whether they could be used in the quantification of altered foot kinematics and kinetics that result from gastrocnemius contracture.   Method The gait of 8 healthy children selected at random (5 girls, 3 boys, mean ± SD, 12 ± 3 yrs...

  15. Biogas container - mobile plant concept for the decentralized power generation; Biogascontainer. Mobiles Anlagenkonzept zur dezentralen Energiegewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warncke, Jessica; Orth, Maik [Innovations- und Bildungszentrum Hohen Luckow e.V., Hohen Luckow (Germany); Schlegel, Mathias [Rostock Univ. (Germany); Steinhagen, Katrin [ROSOMA GmbH, Rostock-Marienehe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the framework of a cooperation project of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology was developed a small biogas system, that is concepted in the order of a 40-foot standard container, that is modular structured, works energy-independent and optional can be used mobile. First rank the system was designed for biogas production in developing and emerging countries. Now there are inter alia also concrete inquiries of german partners. (orig.)

  16. The growth of foot arches and influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferial Hadipoetro Idris

    2016-01-01

    Background Foot arches are important components for body sup- port. Foot arch deformity caused by growth abnormalities cause serious limitations in daily activities. Objectives To determine the patterns of foot arch growth, factors influencing foot arch growth, and the timing for intervention in er- rant growth patterns. Methods A cross-sectional study evaluated the foot arches of chil- dren aged 0-18 years according to age and sex. Subjects included had no evidence of...

  17. The effects of common footwear on stance-phase mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Scham, Joel; Orendurff, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Prosthetic feet are prescribed based on their mechanical function and user functional level. Subtle changes to the stiffness and hysteresis of heel, midfoot, and forefoot regions can influence the dynamics and economy of gait in prosthesis users. However, the user's choice of shoes may alter the prosthetic foot-shoe system mechanical characteristics, compromising carefully prescribed and rigorously engineered performance of feet. Observe the effects of footwear on the mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system including commonly prescribed prosthetic feet. Repeated-measures, Mechanical characterization. The stiffness and energy return was measured using a hydraulic-driven materials test machine across combinations of five prosthetic feet and four common shoes as well as a barefoot condition. Heel energy return decreased by an average 4%-9% across feet in all shoes compared to barefoot, with a cushioned trainer displaying the greatest effect. Foot designs that may improve perceived stability by providing low heel stiffness and rapid foot-flat were compromised by the addition of shoes. Shoes altered prosthesis mechanical characteristics in the sagittal and frontal planes, suggesting that shoe type should be controlled or reported in research comparing prostheses. Understanding of how different shoes could alter certain gait-related characteristics of prostheses may aid decisions on footwear made by clinicians and prosthesis users. Clinical relevance Shoes can alter function of the prosthetic foot-shoe system in unexpected and sometimes undesirable ways, often causing similar behavior across setups despite differences in foot design, and prescribing clinicians should carefully consider these effects on prosthesis performance.

  18. Taiwanese adult foot shape classification using 3D scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Wang, Mao-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    This study classifies the foot shapes of Taiwanese using 3D foot scanning data from 2000 males and 1000 females. Nine foot dimensions relative to foot length and absolute measures in the common foot length categories were applied to compare the gender differences. Using foot breadth in % foot length (% FL), ball of foot length in % FL and arch height in % FL as feature parameters, three foot shape types for males and females can be classified. Significant gender differences were found in seven of the nine foot dimensions. Females had greater ball of foot length than males (0.2% FL). When comparing feet of the same foot length, males had greater breadth, girth and height dimensions than females, except for toe height. In addition, ethnic differences in foot shape were also observed. The findings can provide very useful information for building gender-specific shoe lasts and designing footwear insoles. 3D foot scanning data of 2000 males and 1000 females were classified into three different footshapes for males and females, respectively. Gender and ethnic differences on foot shape were also compared. The finding scan provide very useful information for gender-specific shoe last design and footwear production.

  19. Contributions of foot muscles and plantar fascia morphology to foot posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angin, Salih; Mickle, Karen J; Nester, Christopher J

    2018-01-27

    The plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia differ between different foot postures. However, how each individual plantar structure contribute to foot posture has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between static foot posture and morphology of plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia and thus the contributions of these structures to static foot posture. A total of 111 participants were recruited, 43 were classified as having pes planus and 68 as having normal foot posture using Foot Posture Index assessment tool. Images from the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), peroneus longus and brevis (PER), flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles, and the calcaneal (PF1), middle (PF2) and metatarsal (PF3) regions of the plantar fascia were obtained using a Venue 40 ultrasound system with a 5-13 MHz transducer. In order of decreasing contribution, PF3 > FHB > FHL > PER > FDB were all associated with FPI and able to explain 69% of the change in FPI scores. PF3 was the highest contributor explaining 52% of increases in FPI score. Decreased thickness was associated with increased FPI score. Smaller cross sectional area (CSA) in FHB and PER muscles explained 20% and 8% of increase in FPI score. Larger CSA of FDB and FHL muscles explained 4% and 14% increase in FPI score respectively. The medial plantar structures and the plantar fascia appear to be the major contributors to static foot posture. Elucidating the individual contribution of multiple muscles of the foot could provide insight about their role in the foot posture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    竹安, 数博; Takeyasu, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with one of the modern trends in marketing communication, which is mobile marketing. Towards the end of 2008, several projects which use mobile phones for target marketing communication were launched. Commercial SMS´s are sent on the base of agreement or registration of the consumers on special websites, for example hellomobil.cz. The benefit for the consumers is the bonus which can have more forms - not only sending money to the account, free SMS´s/MMS´s and minutes but al...

  1. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different...... the symposium collects six articles written by authors who all presented papers at the event. Contributing authors: Ditte Bendix Lanng, Ole B. Jensen, David Pinder, Magnus Rönn, Jani Tartia, Anne Tietjen, Anne Elisabeth Toft, Even Smith Wergeland, Simon Wind...

  2. Patterns of lower leg and foot eczema in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chougule Abhijit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of eczema is altered by geography, habits of people and environmental factors and regional variation in skin structure and function. Aims: Our study was done to estimate frequency and patterns of lower leg and foot eczemas. Methods: A total of 200 patients with various types of lower leg and foot eczemas were recruited over a period of 2 years. Demographic and clinical characteristics were noted. Suspected cases of allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested. Results: The frequency of these eczemas was 2.5 per 1000 out patients. Mean age of patients was 40.49 years. Female to male ratio was 1.6:1. Sixty (30% patients were farmers, sixty (30% were housewives, forty (20% were students, nineteen (9.5% were daily laborers, nine had sedentary jobs and three were teachers. Most eczemas were bilateral (72%. Mean duration of eczema was 36.6 months. Most common type of eczema was lichen simplex chronicus (36% followed by discoid eczema (18.5%, allergic contact dermatitis (14.5% and stasis eczema (7.5%. Other eczemas noted were juvenile plantar dermatosis, cumulative irritant contact dermatitis, infected eczema, hyperkeratotic eczema, asteatotic eczema, pompholyx, infective eczema and unclassified endogenous eczema. Common sites of involvement were dorsa of feet (49.5%, followed by lateral aspect of lower leg (31%, medial aspect of lower leg (17.5% and ankle (12%. Conclusion : Our study highlights lichen simplex chronicus as the most common eczema affecting the lower legs and feet.

  3. The Effect of Foot Massage on Physiological Indicators of Female Patients with CVA Admitted in the ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Moshtaqeshgh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit is one of stressful wards for patients and stress creates some alterations in physiologic indicators of patients. So it is necessary to use a low expense and comforting method to stabilize physiologic indicators. The purpose of the present research is to determine the effect of foot massage on physiologic indicators including pulse, respiration, mean arterial pressure, temperature and arterial blood oxygen saturation. Methods: This research was a quasi experimental study and a clinical trial with repeated measures in which 46 patients with brain stroke hospitalized in intensive care unit of Tajrish Shohada Hospital in Tehran were studied. Information was collected 10 minutes before and 10 and 30 minute intervals after foot stroke massage on the second, third and fourth days of ICU admission. Data was analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA statistical method. Results: Findings showed that after 5-minute foot massage, pulse rate, respiratory rate and mean arterial blood pressure significantly decreased (P<0.001 and spo2 increased (P<0.001. Decreasing temperature was significant but alterations were little and clinically it can be said that body temperature had no alteration and approximately remained constant. Conclusion: Findings showed that parasympathetic activity after foot massage results in alteration of various body physiologic responses, relaxes patients and decreases their anxiety. Therefore anxiety of patients can decreased with using a simple, low expense and non invasive method and can stabilize physiologic indicators and decrease effects of vital signs instability.

  4. Comparing 3D foot scanning with conventional measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Lin, Gloria; Wang, Mao-Jiun J

    2014-01-01

    Foot dimension information on different user groups is important for footwear design and clinical applications. Foot dimension data collected using different measurement methods presents accuracy problems. This study compared the precision and accuracy of the 3D foot scanning method with conventional foot dimension measurement methods including the digital caliper, ink footprint and digital footprint. Six commonly used foot dimensions, i.e. foot length, ball of foot length, outside ball of foot length, foot breadth diagonal, foot breadth horizontal and heel breadth were measured from 130 males and females using four foot measurement methods. Two-way ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sex and method effect on the measured foot dimensions. In addition, the mean absolute difference values and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used for precision and accuracy evaluation. The results were also compared with the ISO 20685 criteria. The participant's sex and the measurement method were found (p < 0.05) to exert significant effects on the measured six foot dimensions. The precision of the 3D scanning measurement method with mean absolute difference values between 0.73 to 1.50 mm showed the best performance among the four measurement methods. The 3D scanning measurements showed better measurement accuracy performance than the other methods (mean absolute difference was 0.6 to 4.3 mm), except for measuring outside ball of foot length and foot breadth horizontal. The ICCs for all six foot dimension measurements among the four measurement methods were within the 0.61 to 0.98 range. Overall, the 3D foot scanner is recommended for collecting foot anthropometric data because it has relatively higher precision, accuracy and robustness. This finding suggests that when comparing foot anthropometric data among different references, it is important to consider the differences caused by the different measurement methods.

  5. Sural artery perforator flap with posterior tibial neurovascular decompression for recurrent foot ulcer in leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail, Hossam El-din Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sensory loss and alteration of the shape of the foot make the foot liable to trauma and pressure, and subsequently cause more callus formation, blisters, and ulcers. Foot ulcers usually are liable to secondary infection as cellulitis or osteomyelitis, and may result in amputations. Foot ulcers are a major problem and a major cause of handicaps in leprosy patients. The current study is to present our clinical experience and evaluate the use of sural flap with posterior tibial neurovascular decompression (PTND in recurrent foot ulcers in leprosy patients.Patient and methods: A total number of 9 patients were suffering from chronic sequelae of leprosy as recurrent foot ulcers. All the patients were reconstructed with the reverse sural artery fasciocutaneous flap with posterior tibial neurovascular decompression from September 2012 to August 2015. Six patients were male and three were female with a mean age of 39.8 years (range, 30–50 years. All the soft tissue defects were in the weight-bearing area of the inside of the foot. The flap sizes ranged from 15/4 to 18/6 cm. Mean follow-up period was 21.2 months (range, 35–2 months.Results: All the flaps healed uneventfully. There was no major complication as total flap necrosis. Only minor complications occurred which were treated without surgical intervention except in two patients who developed superficial necrosis of the skin paddle. Surgical debridement was done one week later. The flap was completely viable after surgery, and the contour of the foot was restored. We found that an improvement of sensation occurred in those patients in whom the anesthesia started one year ago or less and no sensory recovery in patient in whom the anesthesia had lasted for more than two years.Conclusion: The reverse sural artery flap with posterior tibial neurovascular decompression provides a reliable method for recurrent foot soft tissue reconstruction in leprosy patients with encouraging

  6. COMPARISON OF GAIT USING A MULTIFLEX FOOT VERSUS A QUANTUM FOOT IN KNEE DISARTICULATION AMPUTEES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONSTRA, AM; FIDLER, [No Value; SPITS, GMA; HOF, AL; Tuil, P.

    The subjective responses and gait patterns of unilateral knee disarticulation amputees wearing prostheses fitted first with the Multiflex foot and then with the Quantum foot were studied. Nine amputees were included in the trial. A questionnaire asked the amputees about their preference for one of

  7. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model for Kinematic Gait Analysis of the Foot and Ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeve, S.; Vos, J.; Weijers, P.; Verbruggen, J.; Willems, P.; Poeze, M.; Meijer, K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kinematic gait analysis via the multi-segmental Oxford foot model (OFM) may be a valuable addition to the biomechanical examination of the foot and ankle. The aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the OFM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects, without a

  8. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, N.M.; Koenraadt, K.L.M.; Louwerens, J.W.; Grim, D.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Keijsers, N.L.W.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. METHODS: The

  9. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  10. Sustainable Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

    This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired...

  11. Mobile IP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Sallent, S.; Pras, Aiko

    1999-01-01

    The Internet is growing exponentially, both in the amount of traffic carried, and in the amount of hosts connected. IP technology is becoming more and more important, in company networks (Intranets), and also in the core networks for the next generation mobile networks. Further, wireless access to

  12. M.E.366-J embodiment design project: Portable foot restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Randall; Meyer, Eikar; Schmidt, Davey; Enders, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    During space shuttle operations, astronauts require support to carry out tasks in the weightless environment. In the past, portable foot restraints (PFR) with orientations adjustable in pitch, roll, and yaw provided this support for payload bay operations. These foot restraints, however, were designed for specific tasks with a load limit of 111.2 Newtons. Since the original design, new applications for foot restraints have been identified. New designs for the foot restraints have been created to boost the operational work load to 444.8 Newtons and decrease setup times. What remains to be designed is an interface between the restraint system and the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots. NASA provided a proposed locking device involving a spring-loaded mechanism. This locking mechanism must withstand loads of 1334.4 Newtons in any direction and weigh less than 222.4 Newtons. This paper develops an embodiment design for the interface between the PFR and the EMU boots. This involves design of the locking mechanism and a removable cleat that allows the boot to interface with this mechanism. The design team used the Paul Beitz engineering methodology to present the systematic development, structural analysis, and production considerations of the embodiment design. This methodology provides a basis for understanding the justification behind the decisions made in the design.

  13. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Azevedo Coste, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject’s foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15% under the various walking conditions. PMID:26703622

  14. Relationship between foot eversion and thermographic foot skin temperature after running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego Quesada, Jose Ignacio; Gil-Calvo, Marina; Jimenez-Perez, Irene; Lucas-Cuevas, Ángel G; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    The main instruments to assess foot eversion have some limitations (especially for field applications), and therefore it is necessary to explore new methods. The objective was to determine the relationship between foot eversion and skin temperature asymmetry of the foot sole (difference between medial and lateral side), using infrared thermography. Twenty-two runners performed a running test lasting 30 min. Skin temperature of the feet soles was measured by infrared thermography before and after running. Foot eversion during running was measured by kinematic analysis. Immediately after running, weak negative correlations were observed between thermal symmetry of the rearfoot and eversion at contact time, and between thermal symmetry of the entire plantar surface of the foot and maximum eversion during stance phase (r=-0.3 and p=0.04 in both cases). Regarding temperature variations, weak correlations were also observed (r=0.4 and pfoot eversion. However, these results open interesting future lines of research.

  15. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2011-03-18

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1) in stance phase, there is a significant difference (pflat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  16. The influence of foot position on lower leg muscle activity during a heel raise exercise measured with fine-wire and surface EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Imai, Atsushi; Iizuka, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Naoto; Kaneoka, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Exercises for lower leg muscles are important to improve function. To examine the influence of foot position on lower leg muscle activity during heel raises. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Laboratory. Fourteen healthy men participated in this study. The muscle activity levels of the tibialis posterior (TP), peroneus longus (PL), flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) were measured. The heel raises consisted of three foot positions: 1) neutral, 2) 30° abduction, and 3) 30° adduction. The EMG data for five repetitions of each foot position were normalized to maximum voluntary contraction. One-way repeated measure ANOVA was employed for statistical analysis. The muscle activity level of TP, PL and FDL was significantly different between the three foot positions during the heel raises. TP and FDL showed the highest activity level in 30° foot adduction while PL demonstrated the highest activity level in 30° foot abduction. Heel raises with 30° foot adduction and abduction positions can change lower leg muscle activity; These findings suggest that altering foot posture during the heel raise exercise may benefit patients with impaired TP, PL or FDL function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beyond the Bottom of the Foot: Topographic Organization of the Foot Dorsum in Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Taryn; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Sun, Yao; Barss, Trevor S; Kaupp, Chelsea; Munro, Bridget; Frank, Nick; Zehr, E Paul

    2017-12-01

    Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking. Muscle activity from muscles acting at the ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder were recorded along with ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetic information from forces under the foot. All data were sorted on the basis of stimulus occurrence in 12 step cycle phases, before being averaged together within a phase for subsequent analysis. Results reveal dynamic changes in reflex amplitudes and kinematics that are site specific and phase dependent. Most responses from discrete sites on the foot dorsum were seen in the swing phase suggesting function to conform foot trajectory to maintain stability of the moving limb. In general, responses from lateral stimulation differed from medial stimulation, and effects were largest from stimulation at the distal end of the foot at the metatarsals; that is, in anatomical locations where actual impact with an object in the environment is most likely during swing. Responses to stimulation extend to include muscles at the hip and shoulder. We reveal that afferent feedback from specific cutaneous locations on the foot dorsum influences stance and swing phase corrective responses. This emphasizes the critical importance of feedback from the entire foot surface in locomotor control and has application for rehabilitation after neurological injury and in footwear development.

  18. A shift in priority in diabetic foot care and research: 75% of foot ulcers are preventable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A; van Netten, Jaap J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a heavy burden on the patient and the healthcare system, but prevention thereof receives little attention. For every euro spent on ulcer prevention, ten are spent on ulcer healing, and for every randomized controlled trial conducted on prevention, ten are conducted on healing. In this article, we argue that a shift in priorities is needed. For the prevention of a first foot ulcer, we need more insight into the effect of interventions and practices already applied globally in many settings. This requires systematic recording of interventions and outcomes, and well-designed randomized controlled trials that include analysis of cost-effectiveness. After healing of a foot ulcer, the risk of recurrence is high. For the prevention of a recurrent foot ulcer, home monitoring of foot temperature, pressure-relieving therapeutic footwear, and certain surgical interventions prove to be effective. The median effect size found in a total of 23 studies on these interventions is large, over 60%, and further increases when patients are adherent to treatment. These interventions should be investigated for efficacy as a state-of-the-art integrated foot care approach, where attempts are made to assure treatment adherence. Effect sizes of 75-80% may be expected. If such state-of-the-art integrated foot care is implemented, the majority of problems with foot ulcer recurrence in diabetes can be resolved. It is therefore time to act and to set a new target in diabetic foot care. This target is to reduce foot ulcer incidence with at least 75%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Predictors of lower-extremity amputation in patients with an infected diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickwell, Kristy; Siersma, Volkert; Kars, Marleen; Apelqvist, Jan; Bakker, Karel; Edmonds, Michael; Holstein, Per; Jirkovská, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Mauricio, Didac; Piaggesi, Alberto; Ragnarson Tennvall, Gunnel; Reike, Heinrich; Spraul, Maximilian; Uccioli, Luigi; Urbancic, Vilma; van Acker, Kristien; van Baal, Jeff; Schaper, Nicolaas

    2015-05-01

    Infection commonly complicates diabetic foot ulcers and is associated with a poor outcome. In a cohort of individuals with an infected diabetic foot ulcer, we aimed to determine independent predictors of lower-extremity amputation and the predictive value for amputation of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) classification system and to develop a risk score for predicting amputation. We prospectively studied 575 patients with an infected diabetic foot ulcer presenting to 1 of 14 diabetic foot clinics in 10 European countries. Among these patients, 159 (28%) underwent an amputation. Independent risk factors for amputation were as follows: periwound edema, foul smell, (non)purulent exudate, deep ulcer, positive probe-to-bone test, pretibial edema, fever, and elevated C-reactive protein. Increasing IWGDF severity of infection also independently predicted amputation. We developed a risk score for any amputation and for amputations excluding the lesser toes (including the variables sex, pain on palpation, periwound edema, ulcer size, ulcer depth, and peripheral arterial disease) that predicted amputation better than the IWGDF system (area under the ROC curves 0.80, 0.78, and 0.67, respectively). For individuals with an infected diabetic foot ulcer, we identified independent predictors of amputation, validated the prognostic value of the IWGDF classification system, and developed a new risk score for amputation that can be readily used in daily clinical practice. Our risk score may have better prognostic accuracy than the IWGDF system, the only currently available system, but our findings need to be validated in other cohorts. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. Implications of recent research on microstructure modifications, through heat-related processing and trait alteration to bio-functions, molecular thermal stability and mobility, metabolic characteristics and nutrition in cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds with advanced molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yuguang; Zhang, Huihua; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-02-16

    The cutting-edge synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy have recently been developed. These novel techniques are able to reveal structure features at cellular and molecular levels with the tested tissues being intact. However, to date, the advanced techniques are unfamiliar or unknown to food and feed scientists and have not been used to study the molecular structure changes in cool-climate cereal grain seeds and other types of bio-oil and bioenergy seeds. This article aims to provide some recent research in cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds on molecular structures and metabolic characteristics of carbohydrate and protein, and implication of microstructure modification through heat-related processing and trait alteration to bio-functions, molecular thermal stability and mobility, and nutrition with advanced molecular techniques- synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy in the areas of (1) Inherent microstructure of cereal grain seeds; (2) The nutritional values of cereal grains; (3) Impact and modification of heat-related processing to cereal grain; (4) Conventional nutrition evaluation methodology; (5) Synchrotron radiation-based and globar-sourced vibrational (micro)-spectroscopy for molecular structure study and molecular thermal stability and mobility, and (6) Recent molecular spectroscopic technique applications in research on raw, traits altered and processed cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds. The information described in this article gives better insights of research progress and update in cool-climate cereal grains and other seeds with advanced molecular techniques.

  1. Diabetic foot syndrome: Immune-inflammatory features as possible cardiovascular markers in diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS), as defined by the World Health Organization, is an “ulceration of the foot (distally from the ankle and including the ankle) associated with neuropathy and different grades of ischemia and infection”. Pathogenic events able to cause diabetic foot ulcers are multifactorial. Among the commonest causes of this pathogenic pathway it’s possible to consider peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, abnormal foot pressures, abnormal joint mobility, trauma, peripheral artery disease. Several studies reported how diabetic patients show a higher mortality rate compared to patients without diabetes and in particular these studies under filled how cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is 2-4 times higher among patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. This higher degree of cardiovascular morbidity has been explained as due to the observed higher prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factor, of asymptomatic findings of cardiovascular diseases, and of prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot complications. In diabetes a fundamental pathogenic pathway of most of vascular complications has been reported as linked to a complex interplay of inflammatory, metabolic and procoagulant variables. These pathogenetic aspects have a direct interplay with an insulin resistance, subsequent obesity, diabetes, hypertension, prothrombotic state and blood lipid disorder. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects as reported by Tuttolomondo et al confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the a “adipo-vascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. This “adipo-vascular axis” in patients with type 2 diabetes has been reported as characterized

  2. [Diabetic foot care. importance of education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreguitart, Maite Valverde

    2011-05-01

    Diabetes is the most prevalent chronic disease at present. It is estimated that approximately 250 million people worldwide have diabetes, representing 5.9% of the adult population. According to a study published recently in Spain, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes varies between 10 and 15%. Cardiovascular complications associated with the disease produce a high social and health costs significantly reducing the quality of life of patients and their families and are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Complications of diabetes with higher economic costs are the "diabetic foot", which consume about 20% of resources devoted to the care of these patients. Each year more than 1 million people worldwide suffer from a leg amputation due to this condition. Between 50% and 70% of non-traumatic amputations occur in patients with diabetes. Most of these amputations are preceded by a foot ulcer The most important factors related to the development of these ulcers are loss of sensation due to neuropathy minor trauma, foot deformity and peripheral vascular disease. According to the International Diabetes Federation, 15% of people with diabetes will develop foot ulcers during their lifetime. Interventions aimed at preventing foot ulcers in patients such as the comprehensive control, education of people with diabetes and their families as well as health professionals, have been shown to reduce lower extremity amputations by 50% and 85%.

  3. [Diabetic foot: from diagnosis to therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchi, P; Ferrari, P; Spina, M L

    2005-01-01

    Four percent of Italians are affected by diabetes mellitus. There are 120 million diabetics worldwide: it is expected that 15% of them will have wounds on their feet during their lifetime. In industrialized countries diabetes mellitus is the main cause of non-accidental amputation and this risk is approximately 15 times higher in diabetics than in any other population. The vasculopathy and/or the diabetic neuropathy represent the basic pathogenic elements in the development of diabetic foot: 15% of diabetics are affected by arteriopathy after 10 yrs of illness and just 40% have neuropathy after 25 yrs. The infection is the third, and often, concomitant pathogenetic factor in the diabetic ulcera. The diagnostics of the vasculopathic diabetic foot makes use of a careful objective check; doppler ultrasonography and arteriography (with the therapeutic application of the PTCA). In addition to the objective check, EMG and the neuropathy autonomy test are fundamental in the neuropathic diabetic foot. Osteomyelitis represents the most fearful complication in the diabetic foot; it can often be solved only through surgical destructive therapy. Therapy of the diabetic foot must come from careful and synergic team work, in which dietician, vascular surgeon, orthopedist and dermatologist make available their own skill with humility and endless patience.

  4. Iambic Feet in Paumari and the Theory of Foot Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Everett

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes stress and moraic constituencies in Paumari, an endangered language of the Arawan family of the Brazilian Amazon. It argues that Paumari feet are quantity-insensitive iambs, built from right-to-left within the prosodic word. Both of these latter claims are theoretically important because they violate some proposed universals of foot structure. The paper also discusses more general implications of the Paumari data for theories of foot size and shape, proposing two constraints on foot size, Foot Maximality and Foot Minimality, to replace the less fine-tuned constraint Foot Binarity.

  5. Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

  6. A three-dimensional model to assess the effect of ankle joint axis misalignments in ankle-foot orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatone, Stefania; Johnson, William Brett; Tucker, Kerice

    2016-04-01

    Misalignment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis joint axis with the anatomic joint axis may lead to discomfort, alterations in gait, and tissue damage. Theoretical, two-dimensional models describe the consequences of misalignments, but cannot capture the three-dimensional behavior of ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this project was to develop a model to describe the effects of ankle-foot orthosis ankle joint misalignment in three dimensions. Computational simulation. Three-dimensional scans of a leg and ankle-foot orthosis were incorporated into a link segment model where the ankle-foot orthosis joint axis could be misaligned with the anatomic ankle joint axis. The leg/ankle-foot orthosis interface was modeled as a network of nodes connected by springs to estimate interface pressure. Motion between the leg and ankle-foot orthosis was calculated as the ankle joint moved through a gait cycle. While the three-dimensional model corroborated predictions of the previously published two-dimensional model that misalignments in the anterior -posterior direction would result in greater relative motion compared to misalignments in the proximal -distal direction, it provided greater insight showing that misalignments have asymmetrical effects. The three-dimensional model has been incorporated into a freely available computer program to assist others in understanding the consequences of joint misalignments. Models and simulations can be used to gain insight into functioning of systems of interest. We have developed a three-dimensional model to assess the effect of ankle joint axis misalignments in ankle-foot orthoses. The model has been incorporated into a freely available computer program to assist understanding of trainees and others interested in orthotics. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  7. Effects of ankle-foot orthoses on mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Accurate and precise mediolateral foot placement is important for balance during gait, but is impaired post stroke. Mediolateral foot placement may be improved with ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an ankle-foot orthosis improves mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke ambulation. Crossover trial with randomized order of conditions tested. The accuracy and precision of mediolateral foot placement was quantified while subjects targeted four different randomized step widths. Subjects were tested with and without their regular non-rigid ankle-foot orthosis in two separate visits (order randomized). While ankle-foot orthosis use corrected foot and ankle alignment (i.e. significantly decreased mid-swing plantar flexion, p = 0.000), effects of ankle-foot orthosis use on hip hiking (p = 0.545), circumduction (p = 0.179), coronal plane hip range of motion (p = 0.06), and mediolateral foot-placement ability (p = 0.537) were not significant. While ankle-foot orthosis-mediated equinovarus correction of the affected foot and ankle was not associated with improved biomechanics of walking (i.e. proximal ipsilateral hip kinematics or mediolateral foot-placement ability), it may affect other aspects of balance that were not tested in this study (e.g. proprioception, cerebellar, vestibular, and cognitive mechanisms). Studies that investigate the effect of ankle-foot orthosis on gait can help advance stroke rehabilitation by documenting the specific gait benefits of ankle-foot orthosis use. In this study, we investigated the effect of ankle-foot orthosis use on mediolateral foot-placement ability, an aspect of gait important for maintaining balance. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  8. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different...... discursive perceptions of the concept would foster greater insight into and understanding of both the challenges and potentials that it represents. It focused on some of the key themes currently facing cities and the urban: the transformation of the city and our built environment; migration; rural decline......; the interaction between city, architecture, and inhabitants; the role of architects and architecture in the creation of democratic and sustainable urban contexts; the city and its representation; the politics of intervention; and the actions of governing and developing. This proceedings publication from...

  9. The influence of a foot orthotic on lower extremity transverse plane kinematics in collegiate female athletes with pes planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, R Carcia; Drouin, Joshua M; Houglum, Peggy A

    2006-01-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes remain prevalent. Athletes with excessive foot pronation have been identified to be at greater risk for non-contact ACL injury. Excessive foot pronation has been linked to increased medial tibial rotation. Increased medial tibial rotation heightens ACL strain and has been observed at or near the time of ACL injury. Foot orthotics have been shown to decrease medial tibial rotation during walking and running tasks. The effect of a foot orthotic on activities that simulate a non-contact ACL injury mechanism (i.e. landing) however is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether a foot orthotic was capable of altering transverse plane lower extremity kinematics in female athletes during landing. Twenty uninjured collegiate female athletes participating in the sports of basketball, soccer or volleyball with pes planus volunteered. Utilizing a repeated measures counterbalanced design, subjects completed two landing tasks with and without a foot orthotic using standardized footwear. The prefabricated orthotic had a rigid shell and a 6 extrinsic rear-foot varus post. Dependent measures included initial contact angle, peak angle, excursion and time to peak angle for both the tibia and femur. Statistical analysis suggested that the selected foot orthosis had little influence over lower extremity transverse plane kinematics. Several factors including: the limitation of a static measure to predict dynamic movement, inter-subject variability and the physical characteristics of the orthotic device likely account for the results. Future research should examine the influence of different types of foot orthotics not only on lower extremity kinematics but also tibiofemoral kinetics. Key PointsLower extremity transverse plane kinematics in female athletes during a landing task exhibit substantial variability.A rigid prefabricated foot orthotic does not significantly alter transverse

  10. The African Mobile Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks......This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks...

  11. Metallic Foreign Body in the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A foreign body injury of the foot is a frequently encountered problem. These foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues, and their removal can be difficult and time consuming. Therefore, the removal of a foreign body requires good preoperative preparations. The surgical treatment results of patients with a foreign body, identified as a sewing needle, that had penetrated their foot were evaluated. Material and Method: Thirty-four patients (11 males, 23 females; mean age, 30.2 ± 18.6 years who were surgically treated between 2011 and 2013 were included. Data concerning the affected limb, placement of the needle, imaging techniques, season when the injury occurred, time between medical intervention and injury, anaesthesia type, fluoroscopy of use during surgery and surgical complications were analyzed. Results: A sewing needle had penetrated the right foot of 20 (58.8% patients and the left foot of 14 (41.1% patients. Broken needles were found in the toes of 14 (41.1% patients, in the middle of the foot of 12 (35.2% patients and in the heel area of 8 (23.5% patients. The injuries occurred in summer in 13 (38.2% patients, in winter in seven (20.6% patients, in spring in one (2.9% patient and in autumn in 13 (38.2% patients. Needle penetration had occurred in 28 (82.3% patients at home and 6 (17.6% patients outside of the home environment. The average follow-up time was 8.9 ± 2.8 months. Discussion: Removal of foreign bodies from the foot requires good preoperative preparations. Foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues. It is important to perform detailed physical and radiological examinations to obtain good treatment results in these patients.

  12. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J.; Brothers, Thomas D.; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. Methods A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), and CINAHL (1982–2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Discussion Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and

  13. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J; Brothers, Thomas D; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), and CINAHL (1982-2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and addressing social factors that lead to increased risk

  14. Structural Mobility, Exchange Mobility and Subgroup Consistent Mobility Measurement – US–German Mobility Measurements Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    C. SCHLUTER; D. VAN DE GAER

    2008-01-01

    We formalize the concept of structural mobility and use the framework of subgroup consistent mobility measurement to derive a relative and an absolute measure of mobility that is increasing both in upward structural mobility and exchange mobility. In our empirical illustration, we contribute substantively to the ongoing debate about mobility rankings between the USA and Germany.

  15. How common are foot problems among individuals with diabetes? Diabetic foot ulcers in the Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoekenbroek, Robert M; Lokin, Joost L C; Nielen, Mark M; Stroes, Erik S G; Koelemay, Mark J W

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary data on diabetic foot ulcer prevalence are scarce. Most studies were conducted in the 1990s, reporting incidence rates of 1.9-2.6%. Since then the prevalence of diabetes has doubled and the organisation of diabetes care has undergone major changes. Up-to-date data that quantify the occurrence of diabetic foot ulcers are required and could serve as baseline measures for future studies. Individuals with diabetes (n = 81,793) were identified from the NIVEL (Netherlands institute for health services research) Primary Care Database, which contains data for standardised routine care and is representative of the Dutch population. The annual incidence rates of ulcers and other foot abnormalities were calculated using data collected between 2010 and 2013. To account for inaccuracies, incidence rates were calculated using: (1) only individuals with a documented foot examination; (2) all individuals; and (3) individuals with explicit documentation of present/absent foot ulceration. There were 412 individuals with documented ulceration during the registration period (0.50%). The annual incidence rate of foot ulcers was 0.34% (range 0.22-1.08%). Of those individuals with a documented foot examination, 14.6% had absent pedal pulsations, 17.3% had neuropathy and 10.1% had callus/pressure marks. The annual incidence rate of foot ulcers in the current study was lower than previously reported. This observation could reflect the efficacy of screening practices and an increased awareness among professionals and patients. Nevertheless, approximately one in every five diabetic individuals had at least one identifiable risk factor on foot examination. This signifies the importance of preventive screening.

  16. Foot and Ankle Injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B

    Physicians need to be aware of a variety of foot and ankle injuries that commonly occur in American football, including turf toe, Jones fractures, Lisfranc injuries, syndesmotic and deltoid disruption, and Achilles ruptures. These injuries are often complex and require early individual tailoring of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. Successful management and return to play requires early diagnosis, a thorough work-up, and prompt surgical intervention when warranted with meticulous attention to restoration of normal foot and ankle anatomy. Physicians should have a high suspicion for subtle injuries and variants that can occur via both contact and noncontact mechanisms.

  17. Latin American foot and ankle surgery today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abello, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    Latin American medical orthopedic sub specialties have evolved a lot during the past decade. Foot and ankle surgery for instance, has gained high level of proficiency and competence throughout the international scientific communities. This may be due to the availability of new technology in osteosyntheses, orthopedic devices and surgical instruments used to optimize results, regardless of the low economic resources Latin American countries possess. Also, foot and ankle surgery training is being promoted by several International Medical associations that pursuit scientific knowledge and strengthen the practice. Day to day, more Latin American universities offer Fellowships for on-going training.

  18. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  19. Relationship between foot sensibility and postural control in the young and elderly. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p215

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Suemi Ueda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in the foot sensitivity in the elderly cause changes in locomotion and postural control that may increase fall risk. Understanding the use of foot afference in the elderly may help preventing loss of mobility and fall. However, there are few studies addressing the relation between the sensitivity of different foot regions and postural control. To investigating this lack in literature, the objective of our study was to assess the relationship between foot sensibility and postural control in young and elderly. Forty-two subjects volunteered to this study; they were assigned to a group according to their age (young or elderly. The participants were assessed regarding anthropometry, foot sensibility (using monofilaments and postural control (using a force plate. The indexes of foot sensibility and postural control were correlated and compared between the groups. Elderly had worst foot sensibility and postural control than young. Center of pressure are and amplitude in antero-posterior direction were correlated with the general foot sensibility, but not with a specific point of the foot in the elderly. For young, the sensitivity in the forefoot region was related to improved postural control.

  20. Foot Drop: Looking Beyond Common Peroneal Nerve Palsy – A Neurophysiology Centre Experience

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yap, SM

    2016-04-01

    Foot drop is a complex symptom with a considerable range in aetiology, severity and prognosis. We aim to characterise the aetiologies of foot drop and assess the diagnostic contribution of neurophysiologic testing (NCS\\/EMG). Retrospective review of consecutive referrals of foot drop to the Neurophysiology Department in Cork University Hospital was performed over a two year period (January 2012 to December 2013). Of a total of 59 referrals, common peroneal nerve (CPN) palsy comprised only slightly more than half of cases; 3(5%) have central origin; 3(5%) have motor neuron disease. Six (10%) have diabetes; 7(12%) have cancer; 5(8%) were bilateral. NCS\\/EMG altered initial working diagnosis in 14 out of 52 (27%) cases whereby initial diagnosis was provided. However one-third of all cases revealed additional coexistent pathology in an anatomic location remote to that of the primary diagnosis. Foot drop with central and proximal localisations are important and under recognised. NCS\\/EMG is valuable and also reveals additional pathology which warrants investigation

  1. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  2. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...... be extracted from hydra tissue with methanol and separated from other known morphogens of hydra by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. A substance with similar biological and physicochemical properties can be isolated from sea anemones.......We have developed an assay for a substance from hydra that accelerates foot regeneration in the animal. This substance is specific for the foot as evidenced by the following findings: (1) It is present in the animal as a steep gradient descending from foot to head, paralleling the foot...

  3. Back to School Foot Pain (Flip-Flops)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Soccer Season Prime time for foot and ankle injuries. Parents and coaches should think twice before coaxing ... foot and ankle surgeons see an increase in ankle injuries among young athletes. Football, soccer and basketball are ...

  4. Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot: A multidisciplinary approach accounting for the complex pathobiology and biomechanics of the diabetic foot is crucial to decrease the rate of amputations.

  5. Comorbidities associated with Egyptian diabetic foot disease subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N. Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Special attention should be paid toward the identification of patients who are at risk of foot ulceration to help prevent foot problems. Comorbid conditions must also be identified early and managed aggressively.

  6. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, M.; Steiner, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  7. Surgical Treatment Guidelines for Digital Deformity Associated With Intrinsic Muscle Spasticity (Intrinsic Plus Foot) in Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffeli, Troy J; Collier, Rachel C

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic plus foot deformity has primarily been associated with cerebral palsy and involves spastic contracture of the intrinsic musculature with resultant toe deformities. Digital deformity is caused by a dynamic imbalance between the intrinsic muscles in the foot and extrinsic muscles in the lower leg. Spastic contracture of the toes frequently involves curling under of the lesser digits or contracture of the hallux into valgus or plantarflexion deformity. Patients often present with associated pressure ulcers, deformed toenails, shoe or brace fitting challenges, and pain with ambulation or transfers. Four different patterns of intrinsic plus foot deformity have been observed by the authors that likely relate to the different patterns of muscle involvement. Case examples are provided of the 4 patterns of intrinsic plus foot deformity observed, including global intrinsic plus lesser toe deformity, isolated intrinsic plus lesser toe deformity, intrinsic plus hallux valgus deformity, and intrinsic plus hallux flexus deformity. These case examples are presented to demonstrate each type of deformity and our approach for surgical management according to the contracture pattern. The surgical approach has typically involved tenotomy, capsulotomy, or isolated joint fusion. The main goals of surgical treatment are to relieve pain and reduce pressure points through digital realignment in an effort to decrease the risk of pressure sores and allow more effective bracing to ultimately improve the patient's mobility. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Simple New Classification for Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    C Jain, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    AbstractGangrene, infections like abscesses and ulcers are some of the common diabetic foot complications. Of all these, diabetic foot ulcers pose a major public health problem. Around 80% of all the lower limb amputations are preceded by a foot ulcer. There are various classifications for diabetic foot ulcers out of which the two commonly used classifications are Wagner’s ulcer classification and the classification of University of Texas. The author proposes another simple new classification...

  9. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Luengo Cascudo, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es explicar y entender la importancia del Mobile Marketing como nueva herramienta de negocio en el Marketing empresarial. Para ello, el primer objetivo es entender los dos factores que para mí son la clave de su importancia: la evolución del entorno tecnológico y el cambio en los hábitos del consumidor. Debido a la novedad de esta nueva forma de Marketing y al hecho de que está en constante definición, es básico exponer de la forma más cla...

  10. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    movements of people, goods, and information 'from A to B'. Accordingly, the way people, goods, and information moves shapes the way we understand our built environment, other consociates, and ourselves. The book contributes with a new and critical-creative gaze on what might seem to be trivial and mundane...... acts of moving in the city. 'Designing Mobilities' is based on more than a decade of academic research by Professor of Urban Theory, Ole B. Jensen and a must-read for students and scholars with an interest in urban studies, urban design, architecture, urban planning, transport planning and geography...

  11. Downwardly mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    P & H Mining Equipment has produced the 250XP rotary blasthole drill, its first `clean sheet` drill after eight years of upgrading the line of large rotaries it acquired from Gardner Denver in 1991. A prototype has been working on an Australian coal mine since June 1998. A further two units of the 250XP are being erected at a diamond mine in Botswana for start-up in January 1999 and another will begin drilling at a Wyoming, USA coal mine in February. The drill is a highly mobile, heavy duty, highly reliable diesel/hydraulic drill weighing 113,500 kg and can drill holes at angles up to 30 degrees.

  12. Effect of mobility devices on orientation sensors that contain magnetometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendell, Cynthia; Lemaire, Edward D

    2009-01-01

    Orientation sensors containing magnetometers use the earth's magnetic field as a reference. Ferromagnetic objects may distort this magnetic field, leading to inaccurate orientation output. We explored the viability of these orientation sensors for motion analysis in an assistive mobility device rehabilitative setting. We attached two MTx orientation sensors (XSens; Enschade, the Netherlands), connected to the XBus Master data collection unit (XSens), to a plastic frame such that the relative angle between sensors was constant. We then moved a series of mobility devices in proximity to the plastic frame: two knee-ankle-foot orthoses (aluminum, stainless steel), one ankle-foot orthosis, two transtibial prostheses (exoskeletal, endoskeletal), two walkers (standard, Challenger Low Wide [Evolution Technologies; Port Coquitlam, Canada]), and two wheelchairs (Tango [OrthoFab; Quebec City, Canada], GTi [Quickie; Phoenix, Arizona]). For each mobility device, we calculated the average difference in relative angle between the baseline and peak angles for each of five trials. Errors ranged from less than 0.10 to 35.29 degrees, depending on the mobility device and frame positioning near the device. This demonstrated the large errors that can occur when magnetometer-based orientation sensors with mobility devices are used. While strategic orientation sensor placement on some mobility devices can minimize these errors to an acceptable level, testing protocols should be implemented to verify orientation sensor accuracy for these applications.

  13. The Manchester–Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, D.; Jenkinson, C.; Doll, H.; Lavis, G.; Sharp, R.; Cooke, P.; Dawson, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The Manchester–Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) is a validated 16-item, patient-reported outcome measure for evaluating outcomes of foot or ankle surgery. The original development of the instrument identified three domains. This present study examined whether the three domains could legitimately be summed to provide a single summary index score. Methods The MOXFQ and Short-Form (SF)-36 were administered to 671 patients before surgery of the foot or ankle. Data from the three domains of the MOXFQ (pain, walking/standing and social interaction) were subjected to higher order factor analysis. Reliability and validity of the summary index score was assessed. Results The mean age of the participants was 52.8 years (sd 15.68; 18 to 89). Higher order principle components factor analysis produced one factor, accounting for 74.7% of the variance. The newly derived single index score was found to be internally reliable (α = 0.93) and valid, achieving at least moderate correlations (r ≥ 0.5, p < 0.001) with related (pain/function) domains of the SF-36. Conclusions Analyses indicated that data from the MOXFQ can be presented in summary form. The MOXFQ summary index score (MOXFQ-Index) provides an overall indication of the outcomes of foot and ankle surgery. Furthermore, the single index reduces the number of statistical comparisons, and hence the role of chance, when exploring MOXFQ data. PMID:23673374

  14. Transkei Foot | Schartz | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological investigation of bone and joint abnormalities in a Xhosa population revealed 6 females with a condition characterised by marked lateral deviation of the fifth toes. This disorder does not seem to have been previously described, and we therefore propose that it should be named 'Transkei foot'.

  15. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS:

  16. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: We

  17. Habitual Physical Activity, Peripheral Neuropathy, Foot Deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...

  18. Complex interventions for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Ruben C; Dorresteijn, Johannes A N; Kriegsman, Didi M W; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can lead to the amputation of feet and legs, is a major problem for people with diabetes mellitus, and can cause substantial economic burden. Single preventive strategies have not been shown to reduce the incidence of foot ulceration to a significant extent.

  19. A portable foot-parameter-extracting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, MingKai; Liang, Jin; Li, Wenpan; Liu, Shifan

    2016-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of automatic foot measurement in garment customization, a new automatic footparameter- extracting system based on stereo vision, photogrammetry and heterodyne multiple frequency phase shift technology is proposed and implemented. The key technologies applied in the system are studied, including calibration of projector, alignment of point clouds, and foot measurement. Firstly, a new projector calibration algorithm based on plane model has been put forward to get the initial calibration parameters and a feature point detection scheme of calibration board image is developed. Then, an almost perfect match of two clouds is achieved by performing a first alignment using the Sampled Consensus - Initial Alignment algorithm (SAC-IA) and refining the alignment using the Iterative Closest Point algorithm (ICP). Finally, the approaches used for foot-parameterextracting and the system scheme are presented in detail. Experimental results show that the RMS error of the calibration result is 0.03 pixel and the foot parameter extracting experiment shows the feasibility of the extracting algorithm. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the system can be more portable, accurate and robust.

  20. Catapult splint: a foot dorsiflexion assist splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vineet; Agrawal, Mayank; Dhal, Anil

    2011-12-01

    Loss of dorsiflexion is a common problem in cases where an external fixator or Ilizarov assembly is applied. It results in functional impairment of the foot by affecting the swing phase of gait cycle. We devised a simple dynamic dorsiflexion assist splint for prevention, correction of equinus/cavus deformity and maintenance of normal dorsiflexion of foot. This prospective study used a rubber splint styled in the shape of a catapult, made of discarded car rubber tubes attached to the frame of fixator in 50 patients. In 17 patients there was varying amount of loss of dorsiflexion at the time of application of splint while in 22 patients it was applied soon after the application of the fixator. In the rest of patients it was applied for cavus deformity. Out of 17 patients 10 had complete recovery of dorsiflexion. 22 patients in whom it was applied at the outset had normal range of movement at ankle. Correction was achieved in all 6 cases of cavus deformity and prevented its occurrence in the rest of 5 cases. Catapult splint is a low cost foot dorsiflexion assist splint. Copyright © 2011 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible...

  2. Ambulatory assessment of ankle and foot dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    Ground reaction force (GRF) measurement is important in the analysis of human body movements. The main drawback of the existing measurement systems is the restriction to a laboratory environment. This paper proposes an ambulatory system for assessing the dynamics of ankle and foot, which integrates

  3. Malignant melanoma misdiagnosed as diabetic foot ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Dawei; Ran, Xingwu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Acral lentiginous melanoma (AML) does not exhibit the classic signs of malignant melanoma. ALM is frequently misdiagnosed because of its unusual sites and atypical clinical morphologies, which lead to poor prognosis. Patient concerns: A female patient aged 78 years was presented to our center with two ulcers on her right foot. Diabetic foot ulcer was considered as the primary diagnosis. The ulcers failed to improve after 2 weeks’ therapy. Diagnoses: An incisional biopsy of the lesion revealed malignant melanoma. Interventions: The patient received wide excision, skin grafting as well as biotherapy. Outcomes: The lesion was healed and no other metastasis has been founded until now. Lessons: Clinicians must maintain a high level of suspicion in distinguishing malignant melanoma from other more benign skin lesions of the foot. The need for early biopsy of ulcer, even when clinical suspicion is low, can not be overemphasized. Only in this way can we reduce misdiagnosis rate and improve survival rate in patients with foot ulcer. PMID:28723771

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Common causes for non-healing of diabetic foot ulcers are infection and/or ischaemia. Diabetic patients are compromised hosts as far as wound healing is concerned. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a defective cellular and humoral immunity. In particular, decreased chemotaxis, decreased

  5. Tumors of the ankle and foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankman, S; Cisa, J; Present, D

    1994-02-01

    Although tumor and tumor-like conditions of the foot and ankle are unusual, certain bone and soft tissue lesions are more common than others. Conventional radiographs remain essential in all such cases and are especially specific for intraosseous tumors. MR imaging is more sensitive to the presence and extent of both bone and soft tissue lesions.

  6. Giant epidermal cyst of the foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkoc Melih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidermoid inclusion cysts are usually composed of epidermal elements implanted into the dermal layers. Patients are seen in the outpatient clinics with a mass. Most of the complaints are mechanical and cosmetic problems. Case Outline. A 34-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic because of swelling and pain in her right foot. A palpable mass was detected in the first web. On the x-rays of the foot no osseous lesion was detected. There was a soft tissue mass in the first web according to MRI report. Soft tissue mass was excised and sent to pathology. According to pathology report the mass was an epidermoid cyst 5Ч2Ч1.5 cm in size. There were no problems during follow-up of the patient for 6 months after surgery. The patient had no swelling in the foot and had no additional complaints on checkup. Conclusion. In the differential diagnosis, we should take into consideration epidermoid cyst of large soft tissue masses of the foot. Surgical excision should be done within the appropriate limits.

  7. Diabetic foot and PAD: the endovascular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, J. A.; Lammer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is recognized as one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Active revascularisation plays a crucial role in achieving ulcer healing. Non-surgical, minimally invasive, revascularisation options for DFU have expanded over the last decade and have become a

  8. Foot Structure in Boys with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Down syndrome (DS is associated with numerous developmental abnormalities, some of which cause dysfunctions of the posture and the locomotor system. The analysis of selected features of the foot structure in boys with DS versus their peers without developmental disorders is done. Materials and Methods. The podoscopic examination was performed on 30 boys with DS aged 14-15 years. A control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched peers without DS. Results. The feet of boys with DS are flatter compared to their healthy peers. The hallux valgus angle is not the most important feature differentiating the shape of the foot in the boys with DS and their healthy peers. In terms of the V toe setting, healthy boys had poorer results. Conclusions. Specialized therapeutic treatment in individuals with DS should involve exercises to increase the muscle strength around the foot joints, enhancing the stabilization in the joints and proprioception. Introducing orthotics and proper footwear is also important. It is also necessary to monitor the state of the foot in order to modify undertaken therapies.

  9. A case of bilateral trench foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S L; Leach, I H; Charnley, R M

    1993-12-01

    A case of severe bilateral trench foot is presented in a patient who lived rough for 3 weeks without removing his boots. Non-operative management yielded no clinical improvement and bilateral below-knee amputation was necessary. Histology revealed subcutaneous and muscle necrosis with secondary arterial thrombosis.

  10. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment

  11. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  12. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General requirements. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective footwear when working in...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries... protective footwear complies with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working...

  15. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shock or burns, or other hazardous condition. (b) Safety-toe footwear for railroad bridge workers shall conform to the national consensus standards for safety-toe footwear (American National Standards Institute..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115 Foot...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Personal Protective Equipment... protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling...

  17. The Balloon Foot ; A Rare Presentation Of Congenital Constricting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a rare manifestation of congenital constricting annular band (CAB) in the lower extremity resulting in a severe excessive swelling of the foot which we have termed Balloon foot. The ballooned foot is caused by a progressive deepening of the circumferential constriction into the soft tissue of the lower ...

  18. A comparative study of foot measurements using Receiver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to assess the reliability of the foot measurements by comparing the male and female foot measurements, to know if there is correlation between the male and female foot measurements using the standard set by Landis and Koch (1977), and also to identity the true positive rate and false ...

  19. Imaging diagnostics of the foot; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Fusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel [Radiologie in Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany); Walther, Markus (eds.) [Schoen-Klinik Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Fuss- und Sprunggelenkchirurgie

    2012-11-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  20. Preventative foot care in people with diabetes: Quality patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot ulceration and amputation cause extensive burden on individuals and health care systems. One of the reasons for the poor outcome of foot complications in developing countries is the lack of patient education. Due to the multi-factorial pathology of diabetic foot ulceration, the person with diabetes should receive health ...

  1. Diabetic foot disease in Ethiopian patients: A hospital based study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ulcers of the foot are one of the most feared and common complications of diabetes. It is a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients and about 15% develop foot ulcers in their lifetime. So far, there are few published data in relation to the high-risk diabetic foot in Ethiopian ...

  2. Diabetic foot disease in Ethiopian patients: A hospital based study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Abstract. Background: Ulcers of the foot are one of the most feared and common complications of diabetes. It is a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients and about 15% develop foot ulcers in their lifetime. So far, there are few published data in relation to the high-risk diabetic foot in ...

  3. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  4. Mineralogia e mobilidade de cations de uma alteração intempérica de diabásio Mineralogy and cation mobility of a weathering alteration of diabase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Clemente

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Em uma seqüência de alteração intempérica de diabásio, situada no município de Capivari, SP, foram estudadas a mobilidade de cátions liberados no processo e a evolução mineralógica ocorrida. A seqüência situa-se em condições de clima sub-tropical semi-úmido e de boa drenagem. A mineralogia do diabásio, constituída essencialmente de plagioclásios e piroxênios, evoluiu para uma mineralogia simples, onde na fração argila do solo ocorre apenas a caulinita, associada a óxidos de ferro, que não foram determinados. Vermiculita ocorre nas fases intermediárias, como o único argilomineral 2:1. A lixiviação de cátions solúveis ocorre já nos primeiros estágios do processo, seguidos da sílica, também com remoção rápida, mas que, em face de seu elevado teor na rocha de origem, permanece maior tempo no sistema, permitindo a gênese da caulinita e també, de quartzo em pequena quantidade. Alumínio e ferro são imobilizados no sistema, o alumínio como constituinte de caulinita e o ferro como óxido.The mobility of the main cátions and the mineralógical evolution are studied for a weathering sequence of a diabase, from unaltered rock to the rock-derived soil. The diabase is located in conditions of subhumid and subtropical weather, having good drainage, located in Capivari (SP, Brazil. The mineralogy of diabase, essentialy constitued of plagioclases and pyroxenes, developed to a simple mineralogy, in which the clay fraction of the soil consists only of kaolinite, associated to non determined iron oxides. Vermiculite occurs in the intermediary stages, as the only 2:1 clay mineral. The leaching of soluble cátions occurs rapidly in the first stages of the process, followed by silica, also with rapid removal, however due to its high concentration in the original rock, it remains longer time in the system, in the structure of kaolinite and also as quartz in small quantity. Aluminium and iron are immobilized in the system

  5. Board-foot and cubic-foot volume tables for western red cedar in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald J. DeMars

    1996-01-01

    Four tables give cubic-foot and board-foot volume estimates for western redcedar given breast height diameter outside bark (DBHOB) and either total tree height or number of logs to a 6-inch top. The values for DBHOB and total tree height (or number of logs in the tree) that are in the tables have been limited to the ranges these variables had in the sample data.

  6. Trends in lumber processing in the western United States. Part I: board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber for logs processed by sawmills in the western United States. Board foot to cubic foot (BF/CF) ratios for the period from 2000 through 2006 ranged from 3.70 in Montana to 5.71 in the Four Corners Region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). Sawmills in the Four Corners Region,...

  7. Tibialis posterior tendon transfer corrects the foot drop component of cavovarus foot deformity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, T; Wolf, S I; Heitzmann, D; Fremd, C; Klotz, M C; Wenz, W

    2014-03-19

    The foot drop component of cavovarus foot deformity in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is commonly treated by tendon transfer to provide substitute foot dorsiflexion or by tenodesis to prevent the foot from dropping. Our goals were to use three-dimensional foot analysis to evaluate the outcome of tibialis posterior tendon transfer to the dorsum of the foot and to investigate whether the transfer works as an active substitution or as a tenodesis. We prospectively studied fourteen patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and cavovarus foot deformity in whom twenty-three feet were treated with tibialis posterior tendon transfer to correct the foot drop component as part of a foot deformity correction procedure. Five patients underwent unilateral treatment and nine underwent bilateral treatment; only one foot was analyzed in each of the latter patients. Standardized clinical examinations and three-dimensional gait analysis with a special foot model (Heidelberg Foot Measurement Method) were performed before and at a mean of 28.8 months after surgery. The three-dimensional gait analysis revealed significant increases in tibiotalar and foot-tibia dorsiflexion during the swing phase after surgery. These increases were accompanied by a significant reduction in maximum plantar flexion at the stance-swing transition but without a reduction in active range of motion. Passive ankle dorsiflexion measured in knee flexion and extension increased significantly without any relevant decrease in passive plantar flexion. The AOFAS (American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society) score improved significantly. Tibialis posterior tendon transfer was effective at correcting the foot drop component of cavovarus foot deformity in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, with the transfer apparently working as an active substitution. Although passive plantar flexion was not limited after surgery, active plantar flexion at push-off was significantly reduced and it is unknown whether

  8. [S2-Guideline: Pediatric Flat Foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Anna K; Döderlein, Leo; Eberhardt, Oliver; Hösl, Matthias; von Kalle, Thekla; Mecher, Frauke; Simon, Angela; Stinus, Hartmut; Wilken, Bernd; Wirth, Thomas

    2018-04-09

    In pediatric flat foot a differentiation has to be made between the flexible and the rigid form. The diagnosis is based on the history, clinical examination as well as pedobarography, gait analysis and imaging techniques. It is important to rule out neuropediatric conditions such as muscular dystrophies, Ehlers-Danlos- or Marfan syndrome. In children six years of age and younger a flexible flat foot is nearly always physiological (97% of all 19 months old children). Up to the age of ten years the medial column of the foot is developing. Only a minority of children (4% in ten year olds) has a persistent or progressive deformity. Beyond to age of ten there is a danger of deformity decompensation as well as an increased rigidity. Only a minority of children develops some pain (< 2%). A clear risk factor for persistent pediatric flat foot is obesity (62% of six year old children with flat foot are obese). Pathogenetic factors include muscular, bony or soft tissue conditions. However, there specific rule is still unclear. Prevention consists in a thorough parent information about the normal development as well as encouragement of regular sportive activities. Soft and large enough shoes should be carried as a protection. Barfoot walking has to be encouraged on uneven grounds. If physiotherapy is needed different methods can be applied. Orthosis treatment should include a proprioceptive approach. Surgical interventions in children are rare. If surgical treatment is planned a detailed algorhythm should be used before utilizing one of the many different surgical methods. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redmond Anthony C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant, FPI scores and body mass index (BMI where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619 confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4. A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p t = -1.44, p = 0.149. No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making.

  10. [Diabetic foot osteomyelitis: is conservative treatment possible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordano-Montañez, Queralt; Muñiz-Tatay, Montse; Viadé-Julià, Jordi; Jaen-Manzanera, Angeles; Royo-Serrando, Josep; Cuchí-Burgos, Eva; Anglada-Barceló, Jordi; de la Sierra-Iserte, Alejandro

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the proportion of foot ulcers, complicated by osteomyelitis in diabetic patients, that heal without amputation. Furthermore, an attempt is made to analyze the main clinical and microbiological characteristics of episodes, and to identify potential predictive factors leading to the failure of conservative treatment. A prospective observational study was carried out between 2007 and 2009 on diabetic patients with a foot lesion and attending a diabetic foot clinic. A percutaneous bone biopsy was required to be included in the study. A total of 81 episodes of diabetic foot osteomyelitis in 64 patients were evaluated. Staphylococcus aureus (28/81) and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (22/81) were the most frequent organisms isolated. Among the gramnegative group (34/81), non-fermenting gram negative bacteria were the most prevalent organisms isolated (14/81). Conservative treatment was successful in 73% of episodes. After a logistic regression analysis using the most significant prognostic variables, only lesion size greater than 2cm independently predicted failure of conservative treatment. Culture guided antibiotic treatment was associated with a better prognosis. Conservative treatment, including culture-guided antibiotics, is successful without amputation in a large proportion of diabetic patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Considering empiric therapy directed at non-fermenting gramnegative bacteria could be advisable in some cases, because they are frequently isolated in our setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. Linear and angular measurements of the foot of modern humans: a test of Morton's foot types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautzenheiser, Steven G; Kramer, Patricia Ann

    2013-10-01

    In his classic research, Morton established two functionally different configurations of the bipedal and non-bipedal primate foot: one optimized for stability, with a stiff longitudinal arch and adducted first metatarsal, and the other for compliance. Modern human feet were seen as conforming to the bipedal norm and variation from it as pathology, even though clinical evidence has been clear that variation from the norm of a stiff longitudinal arch or adducted first metatarsal exists. This study aims to document the variation in linear and angular measurements of the foot, using weight-bearing radiographs of 50 randomly selected people (25 men) from an urban US Level 1 trauma center. The radiographs were obtained to "rule-out" a foot fracture after trauma or as comparison films for a contralateral foot injury. Measurements were made using Osirix and correlations among the angular and length measurements were determined using Stata with P types. Whether or not this variation in modern humans is linked to functionally important consequences remains to be determined in future research. With the new evidence of a more variable foot structure in fossil hominins, understanding the relationship between foot morphology and function becomes more urgent. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  13. Effect of Custom-Molded Foot Orthoses on Foot Pain and Balance in Children With Symptomatic Flexible Flat Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Jae; Lim, Kil-Byung; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yoon, Sung-Won; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Tae-Ho

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic technique to control foot overpronation. Pain questionnaire was used to obtain pain sites, degree, and frequency. Balancing ability was determined using computerized posturography. These evaluations were performed prior to custom-molded foot orthoses, 1 month, and 3 months after fitting foot orthoses. Of 24 children with symptomatic flexible flat feet recruited for this study, 20 completed the study. Significant (pfoot orthoses. In addition, significant (pfoot orthoses. Short-term use of custom-molded foot orthoses significantly improved foot pain and balancing ability in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot.

  14. Voz, deglutição e qualidade de vida de pacientes com alteração de mobilidade de prega vocal unilateral pré e pós-fonoterapia Voice, deglutition and quality of life of patients with unilateral vocal cords mobility alteration prior and post speech therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Davison Mangilli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar as contribuições da fonoterapia na voz, na deglutição e na qualidade de vida de pacientes com alteração unilateral de mobilidade de prega vocal. MÉTODOS: Os sujeitos foram 13 pacientes, de ambos os sexos, com alteração unilateral de mobilidade de prega vocal. Foi realizado um levantamento da história clínica, dos dados de avaliação pré e pós-fonoterapia e da qualidade de vida dos mesmos a partir dos prontuários, das fitas de exame e das gravações de exames. RESULTADOS: Após a intervenção fonoaudiológica foi possível observar: nove pacientes apresentaram melhora da qualidade vocal após fonoterapia; todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora em pelo menos um parâmetro da avaliação acústica; dez pacientes apresentaram classificação dentro dos limites de normalidade em relação à escala de severidade da disfagia e nove em relação à escala de penetração/aspiração; seis pacientes referiram menor desvantagem vocal; nove pacientes referiram menor impacto da disfagia na qualidade de vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apontam melhoras na voz, na deglutição, na limitação vocal e na qualidade de vida relacionada à deglutição após fonoterapia. Pode-se dizer que a fonoterapia parece ser efetiva na melhora da voz, da deglutição, do nível de desvantagem vocal e da qualidade de vida em deglutição de pacientes com alterações na mobilidade das pregas vocais.PURPOSE: To investigate the contributions of speech therapy in voice, deglutition and quality of life of participants with unilateral vocal cords mobility alteration. METHODS: The subjects were 13 patients, both genders, with unilateral vocal cords mobility alteration. A research of clinical history, evaluation prior and post speech therapy and quality of life was carried out based on protocols, exam tapes and recordings from the participants' files. RESULTS: After speech therapy, it was possible to observe that: nine participants had better

  15. Holographic interferometry for early diagnosisof children flat foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Петрович Большаков

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first experience ofthe use of holographic interferometr y for earlydiagnosis of the flat foot in 4-5 years old children.13 patients were examined. The results of the clinicalexamination, plantography, and of the graphicalreconstruction of the form of the foot arch basedon the interferogramms of the prints on Pedilen areanalyzed. We revealed typical differences betweenthe form of the foot arches in children with flat foot and children with normal status. The use of the proposed method for early detection of congenital pes valgus and of the signs of “flexible flat” foot is being suggested.

  16. Hubungan Kejadian Flat Foot dengan Obesitas pada Anak

    OpenAIRE

    Levenia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Flat foot is usually occurs and do not cause symptoms in under 5 years old children. But if occur in older children can cause pain even injury in children’s foot. One of flat foot’s risk factor is obesity. Although the prevalence of obesity is increasing every year, research of relationship between obesity and flat foot is still limited. The purpose of this research were to detect prevalence of obesity and flat foot, also to detect the relationship between obesity and flat foot ...

  17. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis can be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  18. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis showed to be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  19. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  20. The impact of rheumatoid foot on disability in Colombian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Bayona, Javier; Zuluaga, Natalia; Mejia, Santiago; Hincapie, Maria-Eugenia; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Alterations in the feet of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are a cause of disability in this population. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact that foot impairment has on the patients' global quality of life (QOL) based on validated scales and its relationship to disease activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 95 patients with RA were enrolled. A complete physical examination, including a full foot assessment, was done. The Spanish versions of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) Disability Index and of the Disease Activity Score (DAS 28) were administered. A logistic regression model was used to analyze data and obtain adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Foot deformities were observed in 78 (82%) of the patients; hallux valgus (65%), medial longitudinal arch flattening (42%), claw toe (lesser toes) (39%), dorsiflexion restriction (tibiotalar) (34%), cock-up toe (lesser toes) (25%), and transverse arch flattening (25%) were the most frequent. In the logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, gender and duration of disease), forefoot movement pain, subtalar movement pain, tibiotalar movement pain and plantarflexion restriction (tibiotalar) were strongly associated with disease activity and disability. The positive squeeze test was significantly associated with disability risk (AOR = 6,3; 95% CI, 1.28–30.96; P = 0,02); hallux valgus, and dorsiflexion restriction (tibiotalar) were associated with disease activity. Conclusion Foot abnormalities are associated with active joint disease and disability in RA. Foot examinations provide complementary information related to the disability as an indirect measurement of quality of life and activity of disease in daily practice. PMID:19527518

  1. The impact of rheumatoid foot on disability in Colombian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Villarraga Adriana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in the feet of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are a cause of disability in this population. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact that foot impairment has on the patients' global quality of life (QOL based on validated scales and its relationship to disease activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 95 patients with RA were enrolled. A complete physical examination, including a full foot assessment, was done. The Spanish versions of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ Disability Index and of the Disease Activity Score (DAS 28 were administered. A logistic regression model was used to analyze data and obtain adjusted odds ratios (AORs. Results Foot deformities were observed in 78 (82% of the patients; hallux valgus (65%, medial longitudinal arch flattening (42%, claw toe (lesser toes (39%, dorsiflexion restriction (tibiotalar (34%, cock-up toe (lesser toes (25%, and transverse arch flattening (25% were the most frequent. In the logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, gender and duration of disease, forefoot movement pain, subtalar movement pain, tibiotalar movement pain and plantarflexion restriction (tibiotalar were strongly associated with disease activity and disability. The positive squeeze test was significantly associated with disability risk (AOR = 6,3; 95% CI, 1.28–30.96; P = 0,02; hallux valgus, and dorsiflexion restriction (tibiotalar were associated with disease activity. Conclusion Foot abnormalities are associated with active joint disease and disability in RA. Foot examinations provide complementary information related to the disability as an indirect measurement of quality of life and activity of disease in daily practice.

  2. Advertising on mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolevsky, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the new method of mobile advertising. Advertising in mobile applications - a subspecies of mobile marketing, where advertising is distributed using mobile phones and smartphones. Ad placement is going on inside of applications and games for smartphones. It has a high potential due to the large number of mobile phone users (over 6.5 billion in 2013).

  3. Mobile video with mobile IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil

  4. Comparison of body fat-free masses calculated from hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot resistances with DXA measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel Y; Dongmo, Edwige

    2011-11-01

    This article compares the determination of body fat-free-mass (FFM) by impedance, using either hand-to-foot resistance (R₁₃) or foot-to-foot one (R₃₄) from comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements in a normal population. The first goal was to see if the foot-to-foot resistance used in body fat analysers provides less accurate information for body FFM than the hand-to-foot one used by medical impedance-meters. Another goal was to compare the prediction accuracy of six different regression equations of FFM for each sex and for each resistance relatively to DXA. The impedancemeter used in this study was a Tefal prototype with 4 plantar electrodes and 4 additional electrodes for the hands and providing hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot resistances. Coefficients of these correlations were determined by comparison with FFM measured by DXA in a 1st cohort of 170 healthy adults. For an independent validation, these equations were tested in a 2nd cohort of 86 adults who underwent the same impedance and DXA protocols, using Student's paired t-tests. The accuracy of FFM prediction increased generally with the number of physiologic parameters included in the regression, but none of our equations gave FFM predictions significantly different from DXA. FFM calculated from the foot-to-foot resistance were closer to DXA values than those calculated from hand-to-foot resistance, as their average P-value of comparison with DXA was higher at 0.695 against 0.387 for R₁₃.

  5. Effect of ski mountaineering track on foot sole loading pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselbacher, Matthias; Mader, Katharina; Werner, Maximiliane; Nogler, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ski boots and the same skis while performing the 4 different ascending techniques. An in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system was used to measure the mechanical load on the foot soles of each ski mountaineer. The foot sole was divided into 6 anatomic sections to measure the different loads in each section. Thirteen men with an average age of 29 years were enrolled in the study. The results showed small, not significant differences in the mechanical foot load in the flat field or in the direct ascent. The average mechanical foot load was highest on the valley side foot while traversing (179 kPa to 117 kPa). The higher load forces were in the medial ball of the foot and the longitudinal aspect of the foot side closer to the hill. The higher impact placed on the valley side foot and the concentration of force placed on the medial ball of the valley side foot suggested the influence of the track on the load pattern of the foot sole. This higher impact may result in upward forces that affect the force distribution in the ankle and knee joints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Mobile Misfortune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    part looks at the predicament of youth and the hope of migration in Bissau, the second illuminates the anguish of deportation and the despair of being forcefully ‘displaced back home.’ Following in the footsteps of the young men that seek to navigate the cocaine trade, in order to obtain better lives...... for themselves and their families, it shows how involvement in the cocaine trade is both a curse and a catalyst. Though trading the drug may facilitate migration and mobility, generating social being and worth in the process, it is an activity that is haunted by the threat of deportation and the termination...... migration from the global South often has negative potentiality as an end-point via the ascription of illegality and condition of deportability that shade it....

  7. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    : This study is based on a questionnaire survey sent out to healthcare professionals, primarily doctors, working with diabetic foot ulcers and Charcot feet in the public sector of the Danish healthcare system. RESULTS: The survey obtained a 52% response rate. A temperature difference of > 2 °C between the two......INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS...... and treatment practices of acute diabetic Charcot foot at diabetes foot clinics in Denmark. The responders seem to follow the international recommendations and guidelines on management of the acute diabetic Charcot foot, despite a lack of Danish guidelines. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  8. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    and treatment practices of acute diabetic Charcot foot at diabetes foot clinics in Denmark. The responders seem to follow the international recommendations and guidelines on management of the acute diabetic Charcot foot, despite a lack of Danish guidelines. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.......INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS...... feet was the most used method of diagnosing Charcot foot. Along with clinical inspection, temperature difference was also the measurement used for monitoring of healing. None of the suggested formalised classification systems were used to any extent. Most responders use detachable bandages...

  9. MobiLED: mobile-led and leading via mobile

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 250 million. China also has some 600 million cell phone subscribers so the potential for the mobile internet is enormous. Last year Google’s president in China, announced that Google was redesigning its products for a market where “most Chinese... browser [10]. Hadeda is a spelling "drill and practice" system that was developed as part of MobilED to investigate the use of the mobile web in education. Hadeda allows teachers and parents to create spelling lists using either a web browser or mobile...

  10. Development of an evaluation system for foot arch types in the elderly using foot pressure distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Kazuya; Iwakami, Yumi; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Hiejima, Yoshimitsu

    2012-01-01

    The foot arch serves important functions related to shock absorption and the action of walking. Simple and quantitative classifications of foot arch types, such as flat feet and high arches, help to provide health support services for the elderly. To develop an evaluation system for foot arch types using foot pressure distribution data, discriminant analyses were conducted using data from healthy elderly persons. The midfoot pressure ratio was selected and discriminants were derived. For evaluating the performance of the classification method, the derived discriminants were applied to the data from the other group of healthy elderly persons. Results indicate that both sensitivity and specificity of the classified foot arch types were sufficiently high.

  11. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  12. Effect of static foot posture on the dynamic stiffness of foot joints during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Sales, E; Sancho-Bru, J L; Roda-Sales, A; Pascual-Huerta, J

    2018-03-17

    The static foot posture has been related to the development of lower limb injuries. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic stiffness of foot joints during gait in the sagittal plane to understand the role of the static foot posture in the development of injuries. Seventy healthy adult male subjects with different static postures, assessed by the Foot Posture Index (FPI) (30 normal, 20 highly pronated and 20 highly supinated), were recruited. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded using an optical motion capture system and a pressure platform, and dynamic stiffness at the different stages of the stance was calculated from the slopes of the linear regression on the flexion moment-angle curves. The effect of foot type on dynamic stiffness and on ranges of motion and moments was analysed using ANOVAs and post-hoc tests, and linear correlation between dynamic stiffness and FPI was also tested. Highly pronated feet showed a significantly smaller range of motion at the ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints and also a larger range of moments at the metatarsophalangeal joint than highly supinated feet. Dynamic stiffness during propulsion was significantly greater at all foot joints for highly pronated feet, with positive significant correlations with the squared FPI. Highly supinated feet showed greater dynamic stiffness than normal feet, although to a lesser extent. Highly pronated feet during normal gait experienced the greatest decrease in the dorsiflexor moments during propulsion, normal feet being the most balanced regarding work generated and absorbed. Extreme static foot postures show greater dynamic stiffness during propulsion and greater absorbed work, which increases the risk of developing injuries. The data presented may be used when designing orthotics or prostheses, and also when planning surgery that modifies joint stiffness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development process and psychometric testing of foot health assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Minna; Suhonen, Riitta; Puukka, Pauli; Viitanen, Matti; Voutilainen, Päivi; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2013-05-01

    To describe the development process of the foot health assessment instrument for the assessment of foot health in older people and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the foot health assessment instrument. In clinical nursing, assessment of foot health and recognition of foot problems in older people is fundamental for maintain older persons' independent functional ability. However, valid and reliable nurse-administered foot health assessment instruments are lacking. A cross-sectional methodological design. The foot health assessment instrument was developed in 2008-2011 based on a literature review and expertise in podiatry and nursing. Content validity was evaluated in four expert panels. Inter-rater reliability between nurses' and researcher (MS) assessments was evaluated in the pilot test and in the empirical testing of the instrument with a sample of visiting home nurses. Inter-rater reliability was calculated with Cohen's kappa, internal consistency reliability was examined with Cronbach's alpha coefficients and item analysis, and construct validity was evaluated by principal component analysis with Varimax rotation and confirmatory factor analysis. Content validity was guaranteed by the expert analyses. Inter-rater reliability improved after pilot test. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total foot health assessment instrument was satisfactory. Item-to-total correlations varied between but most of them were acceptable. Principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported the four component structure of the foot health assessment instrument. The 23-item foot health assessment instrument showed preliminary acceptable psychometric properties. However, further modifications and testing are needed to strengthen the psychometric properties of the foot health assessment instrument. The existence of a foot health assessment instrument and its application would considerably improve the assessment of foot health in daily nursing

  14. Improved design and development of a functional moulded prosthetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Govindarajan; Gnanasundaram, Saraswathy; Ranganathan, Mohan; Ranganathan, Rajaraman; Gopalakrishna, Gautham; Das, Bhabendra Nath; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2016-01-01

    In the Indian scenario, the Jaipur foot is a low-cost breakthrough that enabled the disabled person to adapt to the Indian environment. The aim of this study is to modify the present foot in terms of ankle support design and method of fabrication, foot moulds profile and the inner core material in order to improve the performance and durability. The optimized design of ankle support and flat foot profile moulds suitable for both left and right foot were developed through CAD/CAM and prosthetic feet were fabricated using ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam as an appropriate alternative core material for microcellular rubber (MCR). The developed prosthetic feet were tested for rigidity by load-deflection analysis in universal testing machine. EVA foot had shown better rigidity than conventional MCR foot, which will help in weight transfer during walking and increase the durability. The CAD modeled ankle support and single block EVA had made the manufacturing process easy and reduced the weight of foot and improved Gait to the person fitted with it due to improved flat foot profile. The new artificial foot had proven to be efficacious technically as well as functionally, which is clearly borne out from the extremely positive feedback given by the amputees. Implications of Rehabilitation Persons with below knee amputation are usually provided with transtibial prosthesis, which allows for easier ambulation and helps them to get back to their normal life. Transtibial prosthesis is an artificial limb that replaces a lower limb that is amputated below the knee. In our study, a new prosthetic foot with a modified ankle support and flat foot profile using better inner-core material than the conventional Jaipur foot was developed and the process was also optimized for mass production. The developed prosthetic foot can be fitted with both above and below knee exoskeleton type of prosthesis.

  15. Prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in people with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a United Kingdom based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oonagh Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA derive from a combination of inflammation, altered foot mechanics, deformity and secondary skin lesions. Guidelines recommend regular review of patients’ feet, but the extent to which the general population of RA patients report foot symptoms and access foot care has not been established. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in all patients with RA in one geographical area and identify factors associated with accessing foot care. Methods Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of patients with RA, who resided within a single community-based National Health Service (NHS podiatry service. The questionnaire collected demographic data (age, gender, local deprivation score, clinical data (disease duration, arthritis medications, disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, current foot problems, foot care accessed (podiatry, orthotics and/or orthopaedics and care received, measures of impact (Foot Impact Scale and ability to work. Results Of 1003 total eligible patients in the target population, 739 were posted survey packs. Of these 413 (56% replied. Responders and non-responders had similar age (63.5 yr. vs.61.5 yr, gender (74.1%F vs. 75.2%F, and highest deprivation category (13.3% vs.15.9%. Of the responders 92.1% reported current foot problems: articular 73.8%, cutaneous lesions 65.4%, structural 57.6%, extra-articular 42.6%. Responders’ median (IQR disease duration 10 (5–20 years, HAQ 1.5 (0.75–2.0, FISIF 10 (6–14 and FISAP 16 (7–23 and 37.8% reported impacts on work. While 69.5% had accessed foot care there were differences in the route of access (by gender and whether independent or NHS provision and were older (64.9 yr. vs 60.4 yr. p = 0.001, had longer disease duration (12 yr. vs 7 yr. p < 0.001 and had a greater proportion of females (72.2% vs 61.7% p = 0.04 than those who had not accessed

  16. Micro Mobility Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik; Skov, Mikael B.

    2008-01-01

    Mobile marketing refers to marketing of services or goods using mobile technology and mobile marketing holds potentially great economical opportunities. Traditionally, mobile marketing has been viewed as mobility in the large taking place virtually anywhere, anytime. Further, research shows...... considerable number of studies on push-based SMS mobile marketing campaigns. This paper explores a related yet different form of mobile marketing namely micro mobility marketing. Micro mobility marketing denotes mobility in the small, meaning that promotion of goods takes place within a circumscribed location......, in our case a medium-sized retail supermarket. Two prototypes based on push and pull marketing strategies are implemented and evaluated. Taking outset in a synthesis of central issues in contemporary research on mobile marketing, we discuss their role in micro mobility marketing to point to similarities...

  17. MOBILITY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola I. Striuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the problem of mobility in the socio-educational and technical systems was carried out: the evolution of the concept of mobility in scientific sources of XIX–XXI centuries was analyzed and the new sources on the issue of mobility introduced into scientific circulation, the interrelation of the types of mobility in the socio-pedagogical and technical systems are theoretically grounded, an integrative model of mobility in the information society is proposed. The major trends in academic mobility are identified (the transition from student mobility to mobility programs and educational services providers, the new mobility programs (franchising, double/joint degrees, combinations, nostrification etc. are characterized. The new types of mobility providers are reviewed and attention is focused on virtual universities that are now the basis of virtual mobility of students and activities which are based on the use of new ICT in higher education, especially – the Internet and mobile learning environments.

  18. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  19. The feral horse foot. Part B: radiographic, gross visual and histopathological parameters of foot health in 100 Australian feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; de Laat, M A; Mills, P C; Walsh, D M; Pollitt, C C

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that the feral horse foot is a benchmark model for foot health in horses. However, the foot health of feral horses has not been formally investigated. To investigate the foot health of Australian feral horses and determine if foot health is affected by environmental factors, such as substrate properties and distance travelled. Twenty adult feral horses from five populations (n = 100) were investigated. Populations were selected on the basis of substrate hardness and the amount of travel typical for the population. Feet were radiographed and photographed, and digital images were surveyed by two experienced assessors blinded to each other's assessment and to the population origin. Lamellar samples from 15 feet from three populations were investigated histologically for evidence of laminitis. There was a total of 377 gross foot abnormalities identified in 100 left forefeet. There were no abnormalities detected in three of the feet surveyed. Each population had a comparable prevalence of foot abnormalities, although the type and severity of abnormality varied among populations. Of the three populations surveyed by histopathology, the prevalence of chronic laminitis ranged between 40% and 93%. Foot health appeared to be affected by the environment inhabited by the horses. The observed chronic laminitis may be attributable to either nutritional or traumatic causes. Given the overwhelming evidence of suboptimal foot health, it may not be appropriate for the feral horse foot to be the benchmark model for equine foot health. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Comparison of three ankle-foot orthosis configurations for children with spastic hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckon, C E; Thomas, S S; Jakobson-Huston, S; Sussman, M; Aiona, M

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the hinged ankle-foot orthosis (HAFO), posterior leaf spring (PLS), and solid ankle-foot orthosis (SAFO), in preventing contracture, improving efficiency of gait, and enhancing performance of functional motor skills in 30 children (21 male, 9 female; mean age 9 years 4 months; age range 4 to 18 years,) with spastic hemiplegia. Following a 3-month baseline period of no ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) use, each AFO was worn for 3 months after which ankle range of motion, gait analysis, energy consumption, and functional motor skills were assessed. The HAFO and PLS increased passive ankle dorsiflexion and normalization of ankle rocker function during gait. Normalization of knee motion in stance was dependent upon the knee abnormality present and AFO configuration. The HAFO was the most effective in controlling knee hyperextension in stance, while PLS was the most effective in promoting knee extension in children with >10 degree knee flexion in stance. Energy efficiency was improved in 21 of the children, with 13 of these children demonstrating the greatest improvement in HAFO and PLS. Improvements in functional mobility were greatest in the HAFO and PLS.

  1. Multidisciplinary valuation of the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sánchez Reyes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional classifications for diabetic foot, among them, Wagner Classification, do not contemplate the criteria or sichemia, neuropathy and infection, pillars that sustain the etiopathogy of this syndrome. With Modified Wagner Classification (MWC, there are cleary defined the phase and characteristics of the wound, incorporatin into the anatomical description by a graphical way (letters in capital letter or small one the mentioned props (infection, neuropathy and ischemia. In this way not only the language is equal (comes to an agreement to avoid interpretation mistakes, but also it is orientated by just one number and a letter towards a prognosis and treatment criteria. Cases received before and after the use of the MWC are compared perfoming a review, by two different professional groups, being catalogued by the same numbers in a high percentage. That is why we recommend its diffusion and generalized the employment for the managing of the diabetic foot.

  2. Recurrent Admissions for Diabetic Foot Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang CL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot complications are a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Patients who undergo recurrent admissions for the same diabetic foot problems represent a difficult subgroup to treat. From July 2007 to June 2008, there were 38 such patients who were admitted recurrently. Eighteen patients (47% were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgical treatment. Eighteen patients (47% received treatment as necessary but were still readmitted for recurrent infection at the same wound site. Assessment of patients’ compliance to outpatient treatment was found to be generally lacking. As a significant proportion were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgery, a trained counselor may be suitable in counselling patients for debridement or amputation surgery.

  3. [Subintimal angioplasty and diabetic foot revascularisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Charles; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Bordier, Lise; Blin, Emmanuel; Duverger, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic wounds foot are responsible for 5-10% minor or major amputation in France. In fact, amputation risk of lower limbs is 15-30% higher for diabetic patients. University of Texas classification (UT) is the reference for diabetic foot wound. It distinguish non ischemic and ischemic wound with more amputation. If ischaemia is combined, revascularization may be considered for salvage of the limb. Some revascularization techniques are well known: as surgical by-pass, angioplasty with or without stent, or hybrid procedures with the both. Subintimal angioplasty is a more recent endovascular technique, in assessment for old patients who are believed to be unsuitable candidates for conventional by-pass or angioplasty. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Chocholová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to assess the state of the mobile marketing as of the first quarter of 2011 and to discuss various scenarios of the future development. This thesis defines the terms "mobile marketing" and "mobile advertising" and identifies the main players in the industry. It explores the main categories of mobile advertising such as mobile messaging, in-content and mobile internet advertising. Later, it analyzes the latest trends in the industry and describes in detail t...

  5. Mobile Search and Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lovitskii, Vladimir; McCaffery, Colin; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David; Wright, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mobile advertising is a rapidly growing sector providing brands and marketing agencies the opportunity to connect with consumers beyond traditional and digital media and instead communicate directly on their mobile phones. Mobile advertising will be intrinsically linked with mobile search, which has transported from the internet to the mobile and is identified as an area of potential growth. The result of mobile searching show that as a general rule such search result exceed 1...

  6. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2015-11-10

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  7. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-01-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s −1 , in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure

  8. Habitual physical activity, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Function Scale, and a self-designed foot deformity audit form. Results: Habitual ... glycaemic control including the general control of the disorder ...... Intern Med. 2005;20(3):259–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-. 1497.2005.40198.x. 43. Gutiérrez-Fisac JL, Guallar-Castillón P, Díez-Gañán L, et al. Work-related physical ...

  9. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  10. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-07-11

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required.

  11. Diabetic foot infection treatment and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Emanuele; Fino, Pasquale; Onesti, Maria G; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-04-01

    Foot infections in diabetic patients are a common, complex and costly problem. They are potentially adverse with progression to deeper spaces and tissues and are associated with severe complications. The management of diabetic foot infection (DFI) requires a prompt and systematic approach to achieve more successful outcomes and to ultimately avoid amputations. This study reviews a multi-step treatment for DFIs. Between September 2010 and September 2012, a total of about 37 patients were consulted for DFI. The treatment algorithm included four steps, that is, several types of debridement according to the type of wound, the application of negative pressure therapy (NPT), other advanced dressings, a targeted antibiotic therapy local or systemic as the case may, and, if necessary, reconstructive surgery. This treatment protocol showed excellent outcomes, allowing us to avoid amputation in most difficult cases. Only about 8% of patients require amputation. This treatment protocol and a multidisciplinary approach with a specialised team produced excellent results in the treatment of DFI and in the management of diabetic foot in general, allowing us to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients and also to ensure cost savings. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Settlement Prediction of Footings Using VS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Ik CHO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity (VS is a key parameter for estimating the deformation characteristics of soil. In order to predict the settlement of shallow footings in granular soil, the VS and the concept of Schmertmann’s framework were adopted. The VS was utilized to represent soil stiffness instead of cone tip resistance (qc because the VS can be directly related to the small-strain shear modulus. By combining the VS measured in the field and the modulus reduction curve measured in the laboratory, the deformation characteristics of soil can be reliably estimated. Vertical stress increments were determined using two different profiles of the strain influence factor (Iz proposed in Schmertmann’s method and that calculated from the theory of elasticity. The corresponding modulus variation was determined by considering the stress level and strain at each depth. This state-dependent stress-strain relationship was utilized to calculate the settlement of footings based on the theory of elasticity. To verify the developed method, geotechnical centrifuge tests were carried out. The VS profiles were measured before each loading test, and the load-settlement curves were obtained during the tests. Comparisons between the measured and estimated load-settlement curves showed that the developed method adequately predicts the settlement of footings, especially for over-consolidated ground conditions.

  13. Inter-assessor reliability of practice based biomechanical assessment of the foot and ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarvis Hannah L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no consensus on which protocols should be used to assess foot and lower limb biomechanics in clinical practice. The reliability of many assessments has been questioned by previous research. The aim of this investigation was to (i identify (through consensus what biomechanical examinations are used in clinical practice and (ii evaluate the inter-assessor reliability of some of these examinations. Methods Part1: Using a modified Delphi technique 12 podiatrists derived consensus on the biomechanical examinations used in clinical practice. Part 2: Eleven podiatrists assessed 6 participants using a subset of the assessment protocol derived in Part 1. Examinations were compared between assessors. Results Clinicians choose to estimate rather than quantitatively measure foot position and motion. Poor inter-assessor reliability was recorded for all examinations. Intra-class correlation coefficient values (ICC for relaxed calcaneal stance position were less than 0.23 and were less than 0.14 for neutral calcaneal stance position. For the examination of ankle joint dorsiflexion, ICC values suggest moderate reliability (less than 0.61. The results of a random effects ANOVA highlight that participant (up to 5.7°, assessor (up to 5.8° and random (up to 5.7° error all contribute to the total error (up to 9.5° for relaxed calcaneal stance position, up to 10.7° for the examination of ankle joint dorsiflexion. Kappa Fleiss values for categorisation of first ray position and mobility were less than 0.05 and for limb length assessment less than 0.02, indicating slight agreement. Conclusion Static biomechanical assessment of the foot, leg and lower limb is an important protocol in clinical practice, but the key examinations used to make inferences about dynamic foot function and to determine orthotic prescription are unreliable.

  14. Heat removal using microclimate foot cooling: a thermal foot manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, John W; Demes, Robert; Endrusick, Thomas L; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J

    2014-04-01

    It has been proposed that microclimate cooling systems exploit the peripheral extremities because of more efficient heat transfer. The purpose of this study was to quantify, using a patented microclimate cooling technique, the heat transfer from the plantar surface of the foot for comparison to other commonly cooled body regions. A military boot was fitted with an insole embedded with a coiled, 1.27 m length of hollow tubing terminating in inlet and outlet valves. A thermal foot manikin with a surface temperature of 34 degrees C was placed in the boot and the valves were connected to a system that circulated water through the insole at a temperature of 20 degrees C and flow rate of 120 ml x min(-1). The manikin foot served as a constant heat source to determine heat transfer provided by the insole. Testing was done with the foot model dry and sweating at a rate of 500 ml x h(- 1) x m(-2). Climatic chamber conditions were 30 degrees C with 30% RH. Heat loss was approximately 4.1 +/- 0.1 and approximately 7.7 +/- 0.3 W from the dry and sweating foot models, respectively. On a relative scale, the heat loss was 3.0 W and 5.5 W per 1% (unit) body surface area, respectively, for the dry and sweating conditions. The relative heat loss afforded by plantar foot cooling was similar compared to other body regions, but the absolute amount of heat removal is unlikely to make an impact on whole body heat balance.

  15. Climate, Weather and Daily Mobility : Transport Mode Choices and Travel Experiences in the Randstad Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böcker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Intuitively, weather plays an important role in everyday mobility. How often do we not expose ourselves to cold, heat, sun, rain, snow or wind when we are travelling on foot or by bicycle; waiting at a bus stop; walking towards a parked car; or driving under slippery road conditions. Recently,

  16. Reliability and Clinical Significance of Mobility and Balance Assessments in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Paul, Lorna; McFadyen, Angus K.; Mattison, Paul; Miller, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the test-retest reliability, clinical significance and precision of four mobility and balance measures--the Timed 25-Foot Walk, Six-minute Walk, Timed Up and Go and the Berg Balance Scale--in individuals moderately affected by multiple sclerosis. Twenty four participants with multiple sclerosis (Extended…

  17. Mutagenicity in Salmonella of a Simulated Urban-Smog Atmosphere Generated Using a Mobile Reaction Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Mobile Reaction Chamber (MRC) is a 24-foot trailer containing a 14.3-m3 Teflon lined photochemical chamber used to generate simulated urban atmospheres. Photochemistry in the MRC is catalyzed by 120 fluorescent bulbs evenly mixed with black light bulbs and UV bulbs (300 &...

  18. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities. PMID:27076876

  19. Analysis of the human and ape foot during bipedal standing with implications for the evolution of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W J; Crompton, R H

    2004-12-01

    The ratio of the power arm (the distance from the heel to the talocrural joint) to the load arm (that from the talocrural joint to the distal head of the metatarsals), or RPL, differs markedly between the human and ape foot. The arches are relatively higher in the human foot in comparison with those in apes. This study evaluates the effect of these two differences on biomechanical effectiveness during bipedal standing, estimating the forces acting across the talocrural and tarsometatarsal joints, and attempts to identify which type of foot is optimal for bipedal standing. A simple model of the foot musculoskeletal system was built to represent the geometric and force relationships in the foot during bipedal standing, and measurements for a variety of human and ape feet applied. The results show that: (1) an RPL of around 40% (as is the case in the human foot) minimizes required muscle force at the talocrural joint; (2) the presence of an high arch in the human foot reduces forces in the plantar musculature and aponeurosis; and (3) the human foot has a lower total of force in joints and muscles than do the ape feet. These results indicate that the proportions of the human foot, and the height of the medial arch are indeed better optimized for bipedal standing than those of apes, further suggesting that their current state is to some extent the product of positive selection for enhanced bipedal standing during the evolution of the foot.

  20. Secondary changes in the skeleton of the foot in Lupus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triebel, H.J.; Oesterreich, F.U.

    1986-04-01

    The case of a seventy-year old lady is presented who, fortyfive years ago, had dermal tuberculosis of the left lower limb and foot. After removal of the infected skin areas with an electric cauter the patient developed massive skin indurations, besides the typical scarification. Actual X-rays showed a decrease in seize of metatarsal bones and digits without lytic or porotic signs. Furthermore, dorsal luxation of the digits was visible. These alterations were interpreted as secondary bone remodelling resulting from long-term traction due to the extensive scarring.

  1. Secondary changes in the skeleton of the foot in Lupus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triebel, H.J.; Oesterreich, F.U.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a seventy-year old lady is presented who, fortyfive years ago, had dermal tuberculosis of the left lower limb and foot. After removal of the infected skin areas with an electric cauter the patient developed massive skin indurations, besides the typical scarification. Actual X-rays showed a decrease in seize of metatarsal bones and digits without lytic or porotic signs. Furthermore, dorsal luxation of the digits was visible. These alterations were interpreted as secondary bone remodelling resulting from long-term traction due to the extensive scarring. (orig.) [de

  2. Painful Lytic Lesions of the Foot : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vaishya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lytic lesions in the bones of foot raises a number of diagnostic possibilities ranging from infection, inflammatory pathology to neoplastic conditions. Although the radiological picture is not pathognomonic of any pathology, clinical history and histopathological examination can help to clinch the diagnosis. We present a case of multiple lytic lesions of the foot and discuss possible differential diagnoses. The patient was diagnosed as a case of madura foot and the lesions responded to surgical debridement and anti-fungal treatment with a good functional outcome. Madura foot is an uncommon, chronic granulomatous fungal or bacterial infection with a predilection in people who walk barefoot. Although known for a specific geographical distribution, madura foot should be kept as a possible diagnosis in patients presenting with lytic lesions of the foot due to population emigration across the world.

  3. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. Al-Busaidi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman.

  4. MEMS Technology Sensors as a More Advantageous Technique for Measuring Foot Plantar Pressure and Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Sanz Morère

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor activities are part and parcel of daily human life. During walking or running, feet are subjected to high plantar pressure, leading sometimes to limb problems, pain, or foot ulceration. A current objective in foot plantar pressure measurements is developing sensors that are small in size, lightweight, and energy efficient, while enabling high mobility, particularly for wearable applications. Moreover, improvements in spatial resolution, accuracy, and sensitivity are of interest. Sensors with improved sensing techniques can be applied to a variety of research problems: diagnosing limb problems, footwear design, or injury prevention. This paper reviews commercially available sensors used in foot plantar pressure measurements and proposes the utilization of pressure sensors based on the MEMS (microelectromechanical systems technique. Pressure sensors based on this technique have the capacity to measure pressure with high accuracy and linearity up to high pressure levels. Moreover, being small in size, they are highly suitable for this type of measurement. We present two MEMS sensor models and study their suitability for the intended purpose by performing several experiments. Preliminary results indicate that the sensors are indeed suitable for measuring foot plantar pressure. Importantly, by measuring pressure continuously, they can also be utilized for body balance measurements.

  5. Foot morphology of normal, underweight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, M; Grau, S; Krauss, I; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-07-01

    Due to the fact that there is a global increase in obesity, knowledge about the impact of obesity on the development of a child's foot is of great importance for orthopaedic and paediatric physicians with regard to prevention, clinical treatment and management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass on the development of a child's foot based on a foot type classification. The feet of 1450 boys and 1437 girls aged 2-14 years were measured using a three-dimensional (3D) foot scanner (Pedus, Human Solutions Inc., Germany) in a bipedal upright position. Twelve relevant 3D foot measures were recorded, as well as the children's age, gender, height and mass. Factor analysis of principal components was used to obtain a smaller number of independent and standardized variables. The variables were used for cluster analysis to classify the children's feet. Five foot types were identified: flat, robust, slender, short and long feet. There were significant differences among foot types with respect to the children's body mass index. Normal weight children displayed an almost equal distribution of all foot types throughout childhood. Flat and robust feet were more common in overweight children, whereas underweight children showed more slender and long feet. The influence of excess, as well as deficient mass could be verified for the comprehensive foot morphology based on a foot type classification. Subsequently, foot discomfort as a result of various musculoskeletal disorders may develop. In turn, this might keep the children from being active and therefore reinforce the risk of developing obesity. However, there is still a lack of information regarding these relationships, which needs to be determined. This knowledge may help prevent orthopaedic foot problems and injuries.

  6. Are we telling the diabetic patients adequately about foot care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Din, M.J.U.; Jadoon, R.J.; Farooq, U.; Alam, M.A.; Qureshi, A.; Shah, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus affects more than 285 million people worldwide. The prevalence is expected to rise to 439 million by the year 2030. Diabetic foot ulcers precede 84 percentage of non-traumatic amputations in diabetics. One lower limb is lost every 30 seconds around the world because of diabetic foot ulceration. Apart from being lengthy, the treatment of diabetic foot is also very expensive. There is very limited emphasis on foot care in diabetic patients. Even in developed countries patients feel that they do not have adequate knowledge about foot care. This study was conducted to find out how much information is imparted by doctors to diabetic patients about foot care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in admitted patients of the Department of Medicine, DHQ Hospital, Abbottabad from May 2014 to June 2015. 139 diabetic patients more than 25 years of age were included by non-probability consecutive sampling. Results: The mean age was 57.17 ( percentage 11.1) years. 35.3 percentage of patients were male and 64.7 percentage were female. The mean duration of diabetes in patients was 8.3 (±6) years. Only 36.7 percentage of patients said that their doctor told them about foot care. Less than 40 percentage of patients knew that they should daily inspect their feet, wash them with gentle warm water, and dry them afterwards. Only 25.2 percentage of the participants knew how to manage corns or calluses on feet. 66.5 percentage of patients knew that they should not walk bare foot. Overall, 63 percentage of our patients had less than 50 percentage knowledge of the 11 points regarding foot care that the investigators asked them. Conclusion: Diabetic foot problems are the one of the costliest, most disabling and disheartening complication of diabetes mellitus. Doctors are not properly telling diabetic patients about foot care. There is a deficiency of knowledge among the diabetic patients regarding foot care. (author)

  7. Prevalence of flat foot in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martin; Kotz, Rainer; Ledl, Thomas; Hauser, Gertrude; Sluga, Maria

    2006-08-01

    Our aim with this study was to establish the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 3- to 6-year-old children to evaluate cofactors such as age, weight, and gender and to estimate the number of unnecessary treatments performed. A total of 835 children (411 girls and 424 boys) were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis of flat foot was based on a valgus position of the heel and a poor formation of the arch. Feet of the children were scanned (while they were in a standing position) by using a laser surface scanner, and rearfoot angle was measured. Rearfoot angle was defined as the angle of the upper Achilles tendon and the distal extension of the rearfoot. Prevalence of flexible flat foot in the group of 3- to 6-year-old children was 44%. Prevalence of pathological flat foot was flat foot decreases significantly with age: in the group of 3-year-old children 54% showed a flat foot, whereas in the group of 6-year-old children only 24% had a flat foot. Average rearfoot angle was 5.5 degrees of valgus. Boys had a significant greater tendency for flat foot than girls: the prevalence of flat foot in boys was 52% and 36% in girls. Thirteen percent of the children were overweight or obese. Significant differences in prevalence of flat foot between overweight, obese, and normal-weight children were observed. This study is the first to use a three-dimensional laser surface scanner to measure the rearfoot valgus in preschool-aged children. The data demonstrate that the prevalence of flat foot is influenced by 3 factors: age, gender, and weight. In overweight children and in boys, a highly significant prevalence of flat foot was observed; in addition, a retarded development of the medial arch in the boys was discovered. At the time of the study, > 90% of the treatments were unnecessary.

  8. Foot strike pattern in preschool children during running: sex and shod-unshod differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Párraga-Montilla, Juan A; Guardia-Monteagudo, Ignacio; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no inversion [INV]/eversion [EVE] and no foot rotation) in preschool children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 1356 children aged 3-6 years (673 boys and 683 girls) participated in this study. A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240 Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/ eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact. There were no between-sex significant differences in both shod and unshod conditions in RFS. In the unshod condition, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of RFS prevalence in both boys (shod condition = 44.2% vs. 34.7% unshod condition) and girls (shod condition = 48.5% vs. 36.1% unshod condition). As for neutral support, there were no between-sex differences in both shod and unshod conditions or in the shod-unshod comparison. In preschool children, no between-sex differences were found in relation to prevalence of RFS and neutral support (no INV/EVE). Shod running alters FSP of running barefoot, producing a significant increase of RFS prevalence.

  9. Mechanical performance of artificial pneumatic muscles to power an ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith E; Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    We developed a powered ankle-foot orthosis that uses artificial pneumatic muscles to produce active plantar flexor torque. The purpose of this study was to quantify the mechanical performance of the orthosis during human walking. Three subjects walked at a range of speeds wearing ankle-foot orthoses with either one or two artificial muscles working in parallel. The orthosis produced similar total peak plantar flexor torque and network across speeds independent of the number of muscles used. The orthosis generated approximately 57% of the peak ankle plantar flexor torque during stance and performed approximately 70% of the positive plantar flexor work done during normal walking. Artificial muscle bandwidth and force-length properties were the two primary factors limiting torque production. The lack of peak force and work differences between single and double muscle conditions can be explained by force-length properties. Subjects altered their ankle kinematics between conditions resulting in changes in artificial muscle length. In the double muscle condition greater plantar flexion yielded shorter artificial muscles lengths and decreased muscle forces. This finding emphasizes the importance of human testing in the design and development of robotic exoskeleton devices for assisting human movement. The results of this study outline the mechanical performance limitations of an ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles. This orthosis could be valuable for gait rehabilitation and for studies investigating neuromechanical control of human walking.

  10. Influence of patellofemoral pain syndrome on plantar pressure in the foot rollover process during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aliberti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is one of the most common knee disorders among physically active young women. Despite its high incidence, the multifactorial etiology of this disorder is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome on plantar pressure distribution during the foot rollover process (i.e., the initial heel contact, midstance and propulsion phases of the gait. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven young adults, including 22 subjects with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (30 ± 7 years, 165 ± 9 cm, 63 ± 12 kg and 35 control subjects (29 ± 7 years, 164 ± 8 cm, 60 ± 11 kg, volunteered for the study. The contact area and peak pressure were evaluated using the Pedar-X system (Novel, Germany synchronized with ankle sagittal kinematics. RESULTS: Subjects with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome showed a larger contact area over the medial (p = 0.004 and central (p = 0.002 rearfoot at the initial contact phase and a lower peak pressure over the medial forefoot (p = 0.033 during propulsion when compared with control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is related to a foot rollover pattern that is medially directed at the rearfoot during initial heel contact and laterally directed at the forefoot during propulsion. These detected alterations in the foot rollover process during gait may be used to develop clinical interventions using insoles, taping and therapeutic exercise to rehabilitate this dysfunction.

  11. Novel In-Shoe Exoskeleton for Offloading of Forefoot Pressure for Individuals With Diabetic Foot Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Mark C; Canavan, Paul K; Najafi, Bijan; Cooper Watchman, Marcy; Vaishnav, Kairavi; Armstrong, David G

    2017-09-01

    Infected diabetic foot ulcers are the leading cause of lower limb amputation. This study evaluated the ability of in-shoe exoskeletons to redirect forces outside of body and through an exoskeleton as an effective means of offloading plantar pressure, the major contributing factor of ulceration. We compared pressure in the forefoot and hind-foot of participants (n = 5) shod with novel exoskeleton footwear. Plantar pressure readings were taken during a 6-m walk at participant's self-selected speed, and five strides were averaged. Results were taken with Achilles exotendon springs disengaged as a baseline, followed by measurements taken with the springs engaged. When springs were engaged, all participants demonstrated a decrease in forefoot pressure, averaging a 22% reduction ( P exoskeleton solution. Results suggest that when the novel exoskeletons were deployed in footwear and exotendon springs engaged, force was successfully transferred from the lower leg through the exoskeleton-enabled shoe to ground, reducing load on the forefoot. The results need to be confirmed in a larger sample. Another study is warranted to examine the effectiveness of this offloading to prevent diabetic foot ulcer, while minimizing gait alteration in daily physical activities.

  12. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Barquero, David

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  13. Evolution of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongtraychack Anachack

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, we can see the rapid evolution of mobile technology, which involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Features of mobile phones largely depend on software. In contemporary information and communication age [1–4], mobile application is one of the most concerned and rapidly developing areas. At the same time, the development of mobile application undergoes great changes with the introduction of new software, service platforms and software development kits (SDK. These changes lead to appearance of many new service platforms such as Google with Android and Apple with iOS. This article presents the information about the evolution of mobile application, gives some statistical data on the past and present situation, demonstrates how individual users of mobile devices can benefit, and shows how mobile applications affect society from the ethical perspective.

  14. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  15. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadagiri Surender Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  16. Relationships between foot type and dynamic rearfoot frontal plane motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuter, Vivienne H

    2010-06-16

    The Foot Posture Index (FPI) provides an easily applicable, validated method for quantifying static foot posture. However there is limited evidence relating to the ability of the FPI to predict dynamic foot function. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dynamic rearfoot motion and FPI scores in pronated and normal foot types. 40 participants were recruited with equal numbers of pronated and normal foot types as classified by their FPI score. Three dimensional rearfoot motion was collected for each of the participants. Dynamic maximum rearfoot eversion was correlated with the total FPI score across all participants and within the normal and pronated foot types. Linear correlations were performed between components of the total FPI scores measuring frontal plane rearfoot position and maximum rearfoot eversion. The capacity of the total FPI score to predict maximum frontal plane motion of the rearfoot was investigated using linear regression analysis. The correlation between the total FPI score and maximum rearfoot eversion was strongly positive (r = 0.92, p foot type (FPI = +6 to +9) and maximum rearfoot eversion angle were more strongly positively correlated (r = 0.81, p foot type (FPI = 0 to +5) and maximum rearfoot eversion (r = 0.76, p plane rearfoot FPI score and frontal plane motion during gait were strongly positive, (r = 0.79 p foot type. Positive correlations between frontal plane rearfoot measurements and maximum rearfoot eversion suggest the FPI may identify dominant planar components of dynamic rearfoot motion and warrants further investigation.

  17. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...... be extracted from hydra tissue with methanol and separated from other known morphogens of hydra by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. A substance with similar biological and physicochemical properties can be isolated from sea anemones....

  18. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA FOOT WITH ILIOINGUINAL LYMPHADENOPATHY : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the foot is rare. This carcinoma of the foot may arise from a precursor lesion or may be secondary. Squamous cell carcinoma of the foot may resemble verrucous carcinoma or there can be distinct verrucous carcinoma of the foot or epithelioma cuniculatum. We reporting a case of 45 years old male patient developed squamous cell carcinoma over marjolins ulcer and develop ilio - inguinal lymphadenopathy after 1 month of malignancy. We have done below knee amputation and ilioinguinal block dissection

  19. Benign and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Adam D.; Datir, Abhijit; Langley, Travis [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tresley, Jonathan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Clifford, Paul D.; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Pain and focal masses in the foot and ankle are frequently encountered and often initiate a workup including imaging. It is important to differentiate benign lesions from aggressive benign or malignant lesions. In this review, multiple examples of osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle will be presented. Additionally, the compartmental anatomy of the foot and ankle will be discussed in terms of its relevance for percutaneous biopsy planning and eventual surgery. Finally, a general overview of the surgical management of benign, benign aggressive and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle will be discussed. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of different outcome instruments following foot and ankle trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Christina L; Schemitsch, Emil; Bhandari, Mohit; Mathew, George; Petrisor, Brad A

    2010-12-01

    Identifying optimal treatment strategies in patients with traumatic foot and ankle injuries has been hampered by the use of multiple available outcome measures with unproven reliability and validity. This prospective observational study aimed to measure the correlation between six functional outcome measures in patients with traumatic foot and ankle injuries. Patients 18 years of age or older with a traumatic foot or ankle injury completed the Short Form-12 (SF-12), Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA), Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS), Foot and Ankle Questionnaire and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale at a single followup visit. Raw scores for each of the outcome measures were calculated. Fifty-two patients were enrolled in our study. Pearson correlation coefficients provided measures of correlation. Moderate to strong correlations were found for most pairwise comparisons of raw scores and functional categorical rankings (ρ=|0.5243 to 0.92|, p Foot and Ankle Questionnaire. High correlations between scores on six commonly used functional outcome instruments suggest it is likely unnecessary to use more than one instrument when examining functional outcome in patients with traumatic foot and ankle injuries. However, inconsistencies between measures in the same patient population suggest a need for further validation and scrutiny.