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Sample records for alters foot mobility

  1. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  2. Augmented low-Dye tape alters foot mobility and neuromotor control of gait in individuals with and without exercise related leg pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman Andrew R; Franettovich Melinda; Blanch Peter; Vicenzino Bill

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Augmented low-Dye (ALD) tape is frequently used in the management of lower limb musculoskeletal pain and injury, yet our knowledge of its effect is incomplete, especially in regard to its neuromotor effects. Methods We measured electromyographic (EMG) activity of twelve lower limb muscles, three-dimensional kinematics of the ankle, knee, hip and pelvis, foot posture and foot mobility to determine the physiological effect of ALD tape. Fourteen females with exercise related ...

  3. Augmented low-Dye tape alters foot mobility and neuromotor control of gait in individuals with and without exercise related leg pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Andrew R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Augmented low-Dye (ALD tape is frequently used in the management of lower limb musculoskeletal pain and injury, yet our knowledge of its effect is incomplete, especially in regard to its neuromotor effects. Methods We measured electromyographic (EMG activity of twelve lower limb muscles, three-dimensional kinematics of the ankle, knee, hip and pelvis, foot posture and foot mobility to determine the physiological effect of ALD tape. Fourteen females with exercise related leg pain and 14 matched asymptomatic females walked on a treadmill under three conditions: pre-tape, tape and post-tape. A series of repeated measure analysis of variance procedures were performed to investigate differences in EMG, kinematic, foot posture and mobility measurements. Results Application of ALD tape produced reductions in recruitment of tibialis anterior (7.3% and tibialis posterior (6.9%. Large reductions in midfoot mobility (0.45 to 0.63 cm and increases in arch height (0.58 cm, as well as moderate changes in ankle motion in the sagittal (2.0 to 5.3° and transverse planes (4.0 to 4.3° were observed. Reduced muscle activation ( Conclusions This study provides evidence that ALD tape influences muscle recruitment, movement patterns, foot posture and foot mobility. These effects occur in individuals with and without pain, and are dissipated up the kinetic chain. ALD tape should be considered in the management of individuals where increased arch height, reduced foot mobility, reduced ankle abduction and plantar flexion or reduced activation of leg muscles is desired.

  4. Effects of a flat prosthetic foot rocker section on balance and mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hansen, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the effective rocker shape of the physiologic ankle-foot system during standing and fore-aft swaying is much flatter than that used during walking, which indicates a more stable base of support for the standing/swaying activity. Previous work suggests that flat regions within the effective rocker shapes of prosthetic ankle-foot systems could provide enhanced stability for standing balance tasks. An experimental prosthetic foot was altered to provide three different flat region lengths within its effective rocker shape. It was hypothesized that longer flat regions of the effective rocker shape would lead to improved standing balance outcomes and reduced walking performance for unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. However, no significant changes were seen in the balance and mobility outcomes of 12 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users when using the three prosthetic foot conditions. Subjects in the study significantly preferred prosthetic feet with relatively low to moderate flat regions over those with long flat regions. All the subjects without loss of light touch or vibratory sensation selected the prosthetic foot with the shortest flat region. More work is needed to investigate the effects of prosthetic foot properties on balance and mobility of prosthesis users.

  5. The relationship of foot and ankle mobility to the frontal plane projection angle in asymptomatic adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wyndow, Narelle; De Jong, Amy; Rial, Krystal; Tucker, Kylie; Collins, Natalie; Vicenzino, Bill; Russell, Trevor; Crossley, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Background The frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) is frequently used as a measure of dynamic knee valgus during functional tasks, such as the single leg squat. Increased dynamic knee valgus is observed in people with knee pathologies including patellofemoral pain and anterior cruciate injury. As the foot is the primary interface with the support surface, foot and ankle mobility may affect the FPPA. This study investigated the relationship between foot and ankle mobility and the FPPA in asy...

  6. Mobility and Balance and Their Correlation with Physiological Factors in Elderly with Different Foot Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Mohd Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines (1 the correlation between mobility and balance performances with physiological factors and (2 the relationship between foot postures with anthropometric characteristics and lower limb characteristics among elderly with neutral, pronated, and supinated foot. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in community-dwelling elderly (age: 69.86 ± 5.62 years. Participants were grouped into neutral (n=16, pronated (n=14, and supinated (n=14 foot based on the foot posture index classification. Anthropometric data (height, weight, and BMI, lower limb strength (5-STS and endurance (30 s chair rise test, mobility (TUG, and balance (FSST were determined. Data were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Body weight was negatively and moderately correlated (rs=-0.552, P<0.05 with mobility in supinated foot; moderate-to-high positive linear rank correlation was found between lower limb strength and mobility (rs=0.551 to 0.804, P<0.05 for pronated and neutral foot. Lower limb endurance was negatively and linearly correlated with mobility in pronated (rs=-0.699 and neutral (rs=-0.573 foot. No correlation was observed in balance performance with physiological factors in any of the foot postures. We can conclude that muscle function may be the most important feature to make movement possible in older persons regardless of the type of foot postures.

  7. Effects of a flat prosthetic foot rocker section on balance and mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Hansen, PhD; Eric Nickel, MS; Joseph Medvec, CP; Steven Brielmaier, DPT; Alvin Pike, CP; Marilyn Weber, MD

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effective rocker shape of the physiologic ankle-foot system during standing and fore-aft swaying is much flatter than that used during walking, which indicates a more stable base of support for the standing/swaying activity. Previous work suggests that flat regions within the effective rocker shapes of prosthetic ankle-foot systems could provide enhanced stability for standing balance tasks. An experimental prosthetic foot was altered to provide three diff...

  8. Disaster in agriculture: or foot and mouth mobilities

    OpenAIRE

    John Law

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an exploration of the dynamics of the outbreak of foot and mouth disease in the United Kingdom in 2001. Following Perrow’s analysis of the catastrophic breakdown of technological systems, the author treats the UK agricultural system as a set of flows that are both tightly coupled and complex. This suggests that the stability of the agricultural system is precarious, and that when it is disrupted (as it was with the arrival of the foot and mouth virus) the consequences may be lar...

  9. Prevalence and severity of foot pad alterations in German turkey poults during the early rearing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, S; Ziegler, N; Bartels, T; Hübel, J; Schumacher, C; Rauch, E; Brandl, S; Bender, A; Casalicchio, G; Krautwald-Junghanns, M-E; Erhard, M H

    2013-05-01

    In the previously performed field study from 2007 to 2009, it became evident that foot pad alterations were already commonly found in turkeys at the age of 6 wk. At this early age, 45% of the clinically examined birds were diagnosed with epithelial necrosis. Therefore, it became important to specifically analyze the situation during the early rearing phase. The present study reflects the prevalence and severity of foot pad alterations of turkey poults up to the age of 35 d (5 wk), starting as early as the age of 3 d. From 24 turkey farms throughout Germany, in general 5,531 turkeys [3,131 male and 2,400 female] of the British United Turkeys 6 strain from 46 flocks, were examined to that effect. Prevalence and severity increased within the duration of stay in the stable, and the prevalence was higher (P < 0.001) during the second visit between d 22 to 35 (factor: 0.94). Therefore, 27.3% (d 3 to 5; male/female: 39.1/25.0%) and 63.3% (d 22 to 35: 61.3/65.7%) of the examined poults had alterations of the foot pads, such as hyperkeratosis (d 3 to 5: 20.4/14.2%; d 22 to 35: 17.6/17.1%), high-grade hyperkeratosis with adhesive dirt (d 3 to 5: 8.7/10.7%; d 22 to 35: 29.2/39.3%), and epithelial necrosis (d 3 to 5: 0.1/0.1%; d 22 to 35: 14.6/9.3%). Female poults showed a higher risk (P < 0.001) of developing food pad alterations (factor: 0.76) than male poults. Male poults developed a higher percentage of epithelial necrosis than hens shortly before relocation. A higher stocking density during the very early rearing phase (d 3 to 5) led to a worse foot pad health status (P < 0.001). Because even mild alterations in the foot pad condition can be indicators for suboptimal design of the rearing environment and are to be seen as a pre-state for severe cases of foot pad dermatitis, it is important to set the main focus on the early rearing phase. PMID:23571325

  10. Fitness alteration of foot-and-mouth disease virus mutants: measurement of adaptability of viral quasispecies.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, M A; Carrillo, C; González-candelas, F; Moya, A.; Domingo, E; Sobrino, F

    1991-01-01

    We document the rapid alteration of fitness of two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mutants resistant to a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Both mutants showed a selective disadvantage in BHK-21 cells when passaged in competition with their parental FMDV. Upon repeated replication of the mutants alone, they acquired a selective advantage over the parental FMDV and fixed additional genomic substitutions without reversion of the monoclonal antibody-resistant phenotype. Thus, variants that w...

  11. A feasibility study of UMTS mobile phones for supporting nurses doing home visits to patients with diabetic foot ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Bo; Clemensen, Jane; Ejskjær, Niels

    2006-01-01

    We tested the feasibility of Universal Mobile Telephone System (UMTS) mobile phones for video consultations in the home. Five patients with diabetic foot ulcers were included in the study. Each of them was offered three video consultations instead of visits to the hospital outpatient clinic...

  12. Reliability and normative values for the foot mobility magnitude: a composite measure of vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was conducted to determine the reliability and minimal detectable change for a new composite measure of the vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot called the foot mobility magnitude. Methods Three hundred and forty-five healthy participants volunteered to take part in the study. The change in dorsal arch height between weight bearing and non-weight bearing as well as the change in midfoot width between weight bearing and non-weight bearing were measured at 50% of total foot length and used to calculate the foot mobility magnitude. The reliability and minimal detectable change for the measurements were then determined based on the assessment of the measurements by three raters with different levels of clinical experience. Results The change in dorsal arch height between weight bearing and non-weight bearing, midfoot width between weight bearing and non-weight bearing, and the foot mobility magnitude were shown to have high levels of intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Normative data are provided for the left and right feet of both the female (n = 211 and male (n = 134 subjects. Conclusion While the measurements of navicular drop and drift have been used as a clinical method to assess both the vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot, poor to fair levels of inter-rater reliability have been reported. The results of the current study suggest that the foot mobility magnitude provides the clinician and researcher with a highly reliable measure of vertical and medial-lateral midfoot mobility.

  13. Reliability and normative values for the foot mobility magnitude: a composite measure of vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot

    OpenAIRE

    McPoil Thomas G; Vicenzino Bill; Cornwall Mark W; Collins Natalie; Warren Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A study was conducted to determine the reliability and minimal detectable change for a new composite measure of the vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot called the foot mobility magnitude. Methods Three hundred and forty-five healthy participants volunteered to take part in the study. The change in dorsal arch height between weight bearing and non-weight bearing as well as the change in midfoot width between weight bearing and non-weight bearing were measure...

  14. Can toe-ground footwear margin alter swing-foot ground clearance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Hanatsu; Sparrow, W A; Begg, Rezaul K

    2015-07-01

    Falls are an important healthcare concern in the older population and tripping is the primary cause. Greater swing foot-ground clearance is functional for tripping prevention. Trips frequently occur due to the lowest part of the shoe contacting the walking surface. Shoe design effects on swing foot-ground clearance are, therefore, important considerations. When a shoe is placed on a flat surface, there usually is small vertical margin (VM) between the walking surface and the minimum toe point (MTP). The current study examined the effects of VM on swing foot-ground clearance at a critical gait cycle event, minimum foot clearance (MFC). 3D coordinates of the swing foot (i.e. MTP and heel) were obtained during the swing phase. MTP represented the swing foot-ground clearance and various MTPs were modelled based on a range of VMs. The sagittal orientation of the toe and heel relative to the walking surface was also considered to evaluate effects of VM and swing foot angle on foot-ground clearance. Greater VM increased the swing foot-ground clearance. At MFC, for example, 0.09 cm increase was estimated for every 0.1cm VM. Foot angle throughout the swing phase was typically -30° and 70°. Increasing swing ankle dorsiflexion can maximise VM, which is effective for tripping prevention. Further research will be needed to determine the maximum thresholds of VM to be safely incorporated into a shoe.

  15. The efficacy of foot orthoses on alteration to center of pressure displacement in subjects with flat and normal feet: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutorabi, Atefe; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Hutchins, Stephen William; Curran, Sarah; Maleki, Maryam

    2014-04-29

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of this review was to evaluate and compare the effect of foot orthoses on center of pressure (CoP) displacement in healthy patients and those with flat foot. Method: The search strategy was based on the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) method. A search was performed in PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and ISI web of knowledge databases by using selected keywords. Seventeen articles were selected for final evaluation. The procedure was followed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method. Result: The results of the literature review demonstrated that there is lack of evidence to show that FOs improve CoP displacement in subjects with flat foot. Conclusion: There is no consistent evidence to prove the efficacy of FOs on altering CoP displacement in healthy subjects but in those with flat foot, FOs decreased CoP excursion. Implications for Rehabilitation Foot orthoses (FOs) have become an integral part of the treatment of injuries of the foot, ankle, and lower extremity. Assessment of FOs effect on the COP displacement can help to provide a better understanding of the body's compensatory mechanisms and their therapeutic effects. There is no consistent evidence to prove the efficacy of FOs on CoP displacement in healthy subjects but in flat foot subjects foot orthoses decreased CoP excursion has been demonstrated.

  16. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Valenzuela, Scott K. Lynn, Lisa R. Mikelson, Guillermo J. Noffal, Daniel A. Judelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m. On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern –forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS] x 2 (Group – PFFG, PRFG mixed model ANOVAs (p < 0.05 were run on speed, active peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF, peak early stance and mid stance sagittal ankle moments, sagittal plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW, dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg-1, and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°. There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg-1, peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°, and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32° as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait.

  17. Omni directional mobile robot capable of variable foot printing based on hub type drive module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, an increased amount of research has been carried out on mobile robots to improve the performance of service robots. Mobile robots maximize the mobility of service robots, thus allowing them to work in different areas. However, conventional service robots have their center of mass placed high above the ground, which may cause them to fall when moving at high speed. Furthermore, hub type actuators, which are often used for mobile robots, are large and expensive. In this study, we propose a mobile robot with a hub type actuator unit and a variable footprint mechanism. The proposed variable footprint mechanism greatly improves the stability and mobility of the robot, allowing it to move freely in a narrow space and carry out various tasks. The performance of the proposed robot is verified experimentally

  18. Design and Test of a Hybrid Foot Force Sensing and GPS System for Richer User Mobility Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Poslad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wearable and accompanied sensors and devices are increasingly being used for user activity recognition. However, typical GPS-based and accelerometer-based (ACC methods face three main challenges: a low recognition accuracy; a coarse recognition capability, i.e., they cannot recognise both human posture (during travelling and transportation mode simultaneously, and a relatively high computational complexity. Here, a new GPS and Foot-Force (GPS + FF sensor method is proposed to overcome these challenges that leverages a set of wearable FF sensors in combination with GPS, e.g., in a mobile phone. User mobility activities that can be recognised include both daily user postures and common transportation modes: sitting, standing, walking, cycling, bus passenger, car passenger (including private cars and taxis and car driver. The novelty of this work is that our approach provides a more comprehensive recognition capability in terms of reliably recognising both human posture and transportation mode simultaneously during travel. In addition, by comparing the new GPS + FF method with both an ACC method (62% accuracy and a GPS + ACC based method (70% accuracy as baseline methods, it obtains a higher accuracy (95% with less computational complexity, when tested on a dataset obtained from ten individuals.

  19. The Conventional Non-Articulated SACH or a Multiaxial Prosthetic Foot for Hypomobile Transtibial Amputees? A Clinical Comparison on Mobility, Balance, and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paradisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a non-articulated SACH and a multiaxial foot-ankle mechanism on the performance of low-activity users are of great interest for practitioners in amputee rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to compare these two prosthetic feet and assess possible improvements introduced by the increased degrees of freedom provided by the multiaxial foot. For this purpose, a group of 20 hypomobile transtibial amputees (TTAs had their usual SACH replaced with a multiaxial foot. Participants’ functional mobility, involving ambulatory skills in overground level walking, ramps, and stairs, was evaluated by performing Six-Minute Walking Test (6MWT, Locomotor Capability Index-5 (LCI-5, Hill Assessment Index (HAI, and Stair Assessment Index (SAI. Balance performances were assessed using Berg Balance Scale (BBS and analysing upper body accelerations during gait. Moreover, the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ was performed to indicate the prosthesis-related quality of life. Results showed that participants walked faster using the multiaxial foot (p<0.05 maintaining the same upright gait stability. Significant improvements with the multiaxial foot were also observed in BBS, LCI-5, and SAI times and 4 of 9 subscales of the PEQ. Our findings demonstrate that a multiaxial foot represents a considerable alternative solution with respect to the conventional SACH in the prosthetic prescription for hypomobile TTAs.

  20. Maternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavinasab, Moazamehosadat; Moazzami, Kasra; Shabani, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Some studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) may result in structural damage to neurons. In this study, we have elucidated the alteration in the hippocampal function of offspring Wistar rats (n = 8 rats in each group) that were chronically exposed to mobile phones during their gestational period by applying behavioral, histological, and electrophysiological tests. Rats in the EMF group were exposed to 900 MHz pulsed-EMF irradiation for 6 h/day. Whole cell recordings in hippocampal pyramidal cells in the mobile phone groups did show a decrease in neuronal excitability. Mobile phone exposure was mostly associated with a decrease in the number of action potentials fired in spontaneous activity and in response to current injection in both male and female groups. There was an increase in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in mobile phone rats compared with the control. The results of the passive avoidance and Morris water maze assessment of learning and memory performance showed that phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention in male and female rats compared with the control rats. Light microscopy study of brain sections of the control and mobile phone-exposed rats showed normal morphology.Our results suggest that exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. PMID:24604340

  1. Maternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavinasab, Moazamehosadat; Moazzami, Kasra; Shabani, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Some studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) may result in structural damage to neurons. In this study, we have elucidated the alteration in the hippocampal function of offspring Wistar rats (n = 8 rats in each group) that were chronically exposed to mobile phones during their gestational period by applying behavioral, histological, and electrophysiological tests. Rats in the EMF group were exposed to 900 MHz pulsed-EMF irradiation for 6 h/day. Whole cell recordings in hippocampal pyramidal cells in the mobile phone groups did show a decrease in neuronal excitability. Mobile phone exposure was mostly associated with a decrease in the number of action potentials fired in spontaneous activity and in response to current injection in both male and female groups. There was an increase in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in mobile phone rats compared with the control. The results of the passive avoidance and Morris water maze assessment of learning and memory performance showed that phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention in male and female rats compared with the control rats. Light microscopy study of brain sections of the control and mobile phone-exposed rats showed normal morphology.Our results suggest that exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques.

  2. Kids Mobile Gaming : mobiles Spielen bei Kindern im Alter von 6 bis 13 Jahren

    OpenAIRE

    Hugger, Kai-Uwe; Tillmann, Angela; Bader, Julia; Cwielong, Ilona; Kratzer, Verena

    2013-01-01

    "Kindliches Medienverhalten ist heute zunehmend geprägt durch die Hinwendung zu digitalen Medien, insbesondere zu Spielen auf mobilen Endgeräten. Damit nehmen Kinder Teil an einem medialen und gesellschaftlichen Wandel, in dem Mobilität von zentraler Bedeutung ist. Zur Nutzung und Verarbeitung mobiler Spiele durch Kinder liegen allerdings sowohl national wie international bisher kaum sozialwissenschaftliche oder psychologische Untersuchungen vor. Erziehungswissenschaftlich ausgerichtete Studi...

  3. Foot and ankle joint kinematics in rheumatoid arthritis cannot only be explained by alteration in walking speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeldam, R.; Nene, A.V.; Buurke, J.H.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Baan, H.; Drossaers-Bakker, K.W.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.; Hermens, H.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) manifests itself in the foot and ankle of RA patients. The foot and ankle joint kinematics of these patients differ from that of healthy subjects. However, the factors that lead to these differences are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyse the effe

  4. Trench Foot or Immersion Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Trench Foot or Immersion Foot DISASTER RECOVERY FACT SHEET Recommend on Facebook ... is trench foot? Trench foot, also known as immersion foot, occurs when the feet are wet for ...

  5. Trench Foot or Immersion Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Trench Foot or Immersion Foot DISASTER RECOVERY FACT SHEET Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is trench foot? Trench foot, also known as immersion foot, occurs ...

  6. Mobile Phone Radiation Induced Plasma Protein Alterations And Eye Pathology In Newly Born Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eid*, M. Abou Zeid **, N Hanafi *** and A. El-Dahshan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The hazardous health effect of the exposure to 900-1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF which emitted from mobile phones was investigated on the plasma protein and eye of newly born mice. Twenty one newly born mice were divided into 3 groups, the 1st group served as control, the 2nd group exposed to mobile phone radiation daily for one month (45 min/day and the 3rd group remained one month following the end of exposure. The results showed deleterious changes in the plasma protein pattern by electrophoretic analysis. Also, the microscopic examination demonstrated numerous histopathological and histochemical changes in the eye mainly represented by degenerated, hemorrhagic areas and detachment in some layers of the eye with alteration in collagen, polysaccharides, total protein and marked increase in amyloid beta (β protein contents of newly born mice exposed to RF-EMF from mobile phone (45 min/day for one month as well as after one month following the end of exposure. It was concluded that the exposure to mobile phone radiation causes plasma proteins alterations and eye pathology in newly born mice.

  7. Radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration haloes in albite: implications for alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization and element mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D. C.; Chaudhuri, T.

    2016-07-01

    Uraninite, besides occurring in other modes, occurs as inclusions in albite in feldspathic schist in the Bagjata uranium deposits, Singhbhum shear zone, India. The feldspathic schist, considered the product of Na-metasomatism, witnessed multiple hydrothermal events, the signatures of which are preserved in the alteration halo in albite surrounding uraninite. Here we report radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration halo in albite and its various geological implications. Microscopic observation and SRIM/TRIM simulations reveal that the dimension of the alteration halo is dependent collectively on the zone of maximum cumulative α dose that albite was subjected to and by the extent of dissolution of uraninite during alteration. In well-preserved alteration haloes, from uraninite to the unaltered part of albite, the alteration minerals are systematically distributed in different zones; zone-1: K-feldspar; zone-2: chlorite; zone-3: LREE-phase/pyrite/U-Y-silicate. Based on textures of alteration minerals in the alteration microdomain, we propose a generalized Na+➔K+➔H+ alteration sequence, which is in agreement with the regional-scale alteration pattern. Integrating distribution of ore and alteration minerals in the alteration zone and their geochemistry, we further propose multiple events of U, REE, and sulfide mineralization/mobilization in the Bagjata deposit. The alteration process also involved interaction of the hydrothermal fluid with uraninite inclusions resulting in resorption of uraninite, redistribution of elements, including U and Pb, and resetting of isotopic clock. Thus, our study demonstrates that alteration halo is a miniature scale-model of the regional hydrothermal alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization/mobilization. This study further demonstrates that albite is vulnerable to radiation damage and damage-controlled fluid-assisted alteration, which may redistribute metals, including actinides, from radioactive minerals

  8. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toenails straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall ... disease, heart disease, or high blood pressure. Good foot care and regular foot checks are an important ...

  9. Foot Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Foot Drop Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Foot Drop? Foot drop describes the inability to raise ...

  10. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders. PMID:27199831

  11. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  12. Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joint. Diagnosis In diagnosing osteoarthritis, the foot and ankle surgeon will examine the foot thoroughly, looking for swelling in the joint, limited mobility, and pain with movement. In some cases, deformity ...

  13. Altered gray matter volume and white matter integrity in college students with mobile phone dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone dependence (MPD is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Gray matter volume (GMV and white matter (WM integrity (four indexes: fractional anisotropy, FA; mean diffusivity, MD; axial diffusivity, AD; and radial diffusivity, RD were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female were enrolled and separated into two groups (MPD group, N=34; control group, N=34 based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11. In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG, right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG, and bilateral thalamus (Thal. In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of white matter integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH. Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with phone-overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation with other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  14. Diversity and transboundary mobility of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus in East Africa: Implications for vaccination policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila; Sangula, Abraham; Heller, Rasmus;

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O has been responsible for most reported outbreaks of the disease in East Africa. A sustained campaign for the past 40 years to control FMD mainly by vaccination, combined with quarantine and zoosanitary measures has been undertaken with limited success......). All but one strain isolated post-2000 belonged to topotypes EA-2, EA-3 and EA-4, while all three vaccines have been based on strains in the EA-1 topotype. The estimated dN/dS ratios across the individual codons of the entire VP1 coding region revealed that purifying (negative) selection constituted...

  15. Muscle performance and ankle joint mobility in long-term patients with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Macellari Velio; Cesinaro Stefano; D'Ambrogi Emanuela; Giacomozzi Claudia; Uccioli Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Long-term patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy show altered foot biomechanics and abnormal foot loading. This study aimed at assessing muscle performance and ankle mobility in such patients under controlled conditions. Methods Forty six long-term diabetes patients with (DN) and without (D) peripheral neuropathy, and 21 controls (C) were examined. Lower leg muscle performance and ankle mobility were assessed by means of a dedicated equipment, with the patient se...

  16. Subcellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus proteins and alterations induced in infected cells: A comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intracellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) proteins and the induced reorganization of endomembranes in IBRS-2 cells were analyzed. Fluorescence to new SVDV capsids appeared first upon infection, concentrated in perinuclear circular structures and colocalized to dsRNA. As in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells, a vesicular pattern was predominantly found in later stages of SVDV capsid morphogenesis that colocalized with those of non-structural proteins 2C, 2BC and 3A. These results suggest that assembly of capsid proteins is associated to the replication complex. Confocal microscopy showed a decreased fluorescence to ER markers (calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase), and disorganization of cis-Golgi gp74 and trans-Golgi caveolin-1 markers in SVDV- and FMDV-, but not in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells. Electron microscopy of SVDV-infected cells at an early stage of infection revealed fragmented ER cisternae with expanded lumen and accumulation of large Golgi vesicles, suggesting alterations of vesicle traffic through Golgi compartments. At this early stage, FMDV induced different patterns of ER fragmentation and Golgi alterations. At later stages of SVDV cytopathology, cells showed a completely vacuolated cytoplasm containing vesicles of different sizes. Cell treatment with brefeldin A, which disrupts the Golgi complex, reduced SVDV (∼ 5 log) and VSV (∼ 4 log) titers, but did not affect FMDV growth. Thus, three viruses, which share target tissues and clinical signs in natural hosts, induce different intracellular effects in cultured cells

  17. Athlete's Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  18. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much higher rates of foot problems. For women, pain in the toes and ball of the foot is much more common than in men, and it gets worse with age. However, pain in the heel tends to decrease as we ...

  19. Negative-pressure wound therapy induces endothelial progenitor cell mobilization in diabetic patients with foot infection or skin defects

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang Gyo; Yeo, Ji Hyun; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji-Beom; Cho, Tae-Joon; Lee, Dong Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Non healing chronic wounds are difficult to treat in patients with diabetes and can result in severe medical problems for these patients and for society. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been adopted to treat intractable chronic wounds and has been reported to be effective. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of this treatment have not been elucidated. To assess the vasculogenic effect of NPWT, we evaluated the systemic mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) ...

  20. Foot pain

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Foot complaints are very common in general practice and their incidence increases with age. Three out of four people complain of foot pain during the course of a lifetime, while approximately 20% of people aged 65 years or older complain of non-traumatic foot problems.

  1. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  2. Short GSM mobile phone exposure does not alter human auditory brainstem response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuróczy György

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are about 1.6 billion GSM cellular phones in use throughout the world today. Numerous papers have reported various biological effects in humans exposed to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of potential adverse effects of the GSM mobile phones on the human hearing system. Methods Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR was recorded with three non-polarizing Ag-AgCl scalp electrodes in thirty young and healthy volunteers (age 18–26 years with normal hearing. ABR data were collected before, and immediately after a 10 minute exposure to 900 MHz pulsed electromagnetic field (EMF emitted by a commercial Nokia 6310 mobile phone. Fifteen subjects were exposed to genuine EMF and fifteen to sham EMF in a double blind and counterbalanced order. Possible effects of irradiation was analyzed by comparing the latency of ABR waves I, III and V before and after genuine/sham EMF exposure. Results Paired sample t-test was conducted for statistical analysis. Results revealed no significant differences in the latency of ABR waves I, III and V before and after 10 minutes of genuine/sham EMF exposure. Conclusion The present results suggest that, in our experimental conditions, a single 10 minute exposure of 900 MHz EMF emitted by a commercial mobile phone does not produce measurable immediate effects in the latency of auditory brainstem waves I, III and V.

  3. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    simple movements of people, goods, and information from A to B. The ‘mobilities turn’ has made it its hallmark to explore the ‘more than’ effects of a world increasingly on the move. This new title in the Routledge Series ‘Critical Concepts in Built Environment’ creates a state-of-the-art reference work...... to social networks, personal identities, and our relationship to the built environment. The omnipresence of mobilities within everyday life, high politics, technology, and tourism (to mention but a few) all point to a key insight harnessed by the ‘mobilities turn’. Namely that mobilities is much more than...... will cover diverse topics such as theories, concepts, methods, and approaches as well as it will explore various modes of mobilities and the relationship to everyday life practices. The selection also covers the ‘politics of mobilities’ from local urban planning schemes to geopolitical issues of refugees...

  4. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, YongMing; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional ...

  5. Sulphide mineral evolution and metal mobility during alteration of the oceanic crust: Insights from ODP Hole 1256D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, C. G. C.; Pitcairn, I. K.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.

    2016-11-01

    Fluxes of metals during the hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust have far reaching effects including buffering of the compositions of the ocean and lithosphere, supporting microbial life and the formation of sulphide ore deposits. The mechanisms responsible for metal mobilisation during the evolution of the oceanic crust are complex and are neither fully constrained nor quantified. Investigations into the mineral reactions that release metals, such as sulphide leaching, would generate better understanding of the controls on metal mobility in the oceanic crust. We investigate the sulphide and oxide mineral paragenesis and the extent to which these minerals control the metal budget in samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1256D. The ODP Hole 1256D drill core provides a unique sample suite representative of a complete section of a fast-spreading oceanic crust from the volcanic section down to the plutonic complex. The sulphide population at Hole 1256D is divided into five groups based on mineralogical assemblage, lithological location and texture: the magmatic, metasomatised, high temperature hydrothermal, low temperature and patchy sulphides. The initiation of hydrothermal alteration by downward flow of moderate temperature (250-350 °C) hydrothermal fluids under oxidising conditions leads to metasomatism of the magmatic sulphides in the sheeted dyke and plutonic complexes. Subsequent increase in the degree of hydrothermal alteration at temperatures >350 °C under reducing conditions then leads to the leaching of the metasomatised sulphides by rising hydrothermal fluids. Mass balance calculations show that the mobility of Cu, Se and Au occurs through sulphide leaching during high temperature hydrothermal alteration and that the mobility of Zn, As, Sb and Pb is controlled by silicate rather than sulphide alteration. Sulphide leaching is not complete at Hole 1256D and more advanced alteration would mobilise greater masses of metals. Alteration of oxide

  6. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... irritation of the arch ligament and tissues, called PLANTAR FASCIITIS. Try to keep weight off your foot until ... bone, but more likely to be due to PLANTAR FASCIITIS. See your doctor. He or she can suggest ...

  7. Foot Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the toe to maintain realignment. Neuroma Surgery: Neuroma surgery involves removing a benign enlargement of a nerve, usually between the metatarsal heads in the ball of the foot. This soft tissue surgery tends to have a ...

  8. Club foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, V; Damborg, F; Andersen, M;

    2006-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital club foot is unclear. Although studies on populations, families and twins suggest a genetic component, the mode of inheritance does not comply with distinctive patterns. The Odense-based Danish Twin Registry contains data on all 73,000 twin pairs born in Denmark over the...... last 130 years. In 2002 all 46 418 twins born between 1931 and 1982 received a 17-page questionnaire, one question of which was 'Were you born with club foot?' A total of 94 twins answered 'Yes', giving an overall self-reported prevalence of congenital club foot of 0.0027 (95% confidence interval (CI.......09 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.32) for DZss and 0.05 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.18) for all dizygotic (DZtot) twins. We have found evidence of a genetic component in congenital club foot, although non-genetic factors must play a predominant role....

  9. The presence of altered craniocervical posture and mobility in smartphone-addicted teenagers with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Craniocervical posture and mobility were examined by lateral cephalometric analysis and a cervical range of motion instrument. [Results] Cephalometric analysis showed no significant difference in the craniocervical angles of the resting positions of the two groups. However, measurement using an inclinometer revealed a significantly flexed cervical posture while using smartphones and decreased cervical range of motion in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. The clinical profile of temporomandibular disorders revealed that muscular problems were more frequently presented in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that smartphone addiction has a negative influence on craniocervical posture and mobility. Further, it can be postulated that smartphone addiction among teenagers may have contributed to the occurrence of myogenous temporomandibular disorders. In conclusion, smartphone-addicted teenagers may be more frequently subjected to muscular disturbance in the craniocervical area, which probably affects the pathologic process of temporomandibular disorders in teenagers. PMID:27065516

  10. Optimising Ankle Foot Orthoses for children with Cerebral Palsy walking with excessive knee flexion to improve their mobility and participation; protocol of the AFO-CP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerkum Yvette L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs, are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy cost of FROs is both limited and inconclusive. Much of this ambiguity may be due to a mismatch between the FRO ankle stiffness and the patient’s gait deviations. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of FROs optimised for ankle stiffness on the walking energy cost in children with SCP, compared to walking with shoes alone. In addition, effects on various secondary outcome measures will be evaluated in order to identify possible working mechanisms and potential predictors of FRO treatment success. Method/Design A pre-post experimental study design will include 32 children with SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion in midstance, recruited from our university hospital and affiliated rehabilitation centres. All participants will receive a newly designed FRO, allowing ankle stiffness to be varied into three configurations by means of a hinge. Gait biomechanics will be assessed for each FRO configuration. The FRO that results in the greatest reduction in knee flexion during the single stance phase will be selected as the subject’s optimal FRO. Subsequently, the effects of wearing this optimal FRO will be evaluated after 12–20 weeks. The primary study parameter will be walking energy cost, with the most important secondary outcomes being intensity of participation, daily activity, walking speed and gait biomechanics. Discussion The AFO-CP trial will be the first experimental study to evaluate the effect of individually optimised FROs on mobility and participation. The evaluation will include outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, providing a unique

  11. Hydrothermal alteration in an exhumed crustal fault zone: geochemical mobility in the Caleta Coloso Fault, Atacama Fault System, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, G.; Fujita, K.; Hoshino, K.; Mitchell, T. M.; Cembrano, J. M.; Gomila, R.; Morata, D.; Faulkner, D. R.; Rempe, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fault zones must be considered as complex and heterogeneous systems, with areas of high permeability that alternate with very low permeability bands. Strike-slip fault zones play an important role in fluid migration in the crust, and exhumed faults can provide insights into the interrelationships of deformation mechanisms, fluid-rock interactions and bulk chemical redistributions. We determined the mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry of the damage zone and fault core of the Caleta Coloso Fault, a complex major crustal scale strike-slip fault in Northern Chile, in order to constrain the physical and chemical conditions of fluids that lead to strong hydrothermal alteration. Caleta Coloso Fault consists of variably altered protocataclasites, cataclasites and discrete bands of ultracataclasite derived from a protolith of Jurassic tonalite. Hydrothermal alteration associated with fault-related fluid flow is characterized by a very low-grade association composed by chlorite, epidote, albite, quartz and calcite. Chlorite thermometry indicates T-values in the range of 284 to 352 °C (average temperature of 323 °C) and no differences in mineral composition or T-values were observed among different cataclastic rock types. Mass balance and volume change calculations document that the major chemical mobility was observed in protocataclasite, whereas cataclasite and ultracataclasite show smaller changes. This suggests that fluid flow and chemical alteration post-dated the faulting, when the protocataclasite was relatively permeable and the cataclasite and ultracataclasite acted as a barrier for fluid flow having a very low permeability due to extreme grain size reduction during cataclasis.

  12. REE mobility during the alteration of Carbonatite and their economic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Christian; Dijkstra, Arjan; Wilkins, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The supply risk of Rare Earth Elements is an unpredictable economic factor for the future application and development of modern technology for the EU. Therefore a better understanding of REE mobilisation during hydrothermal alteration of Carbonatites is essential for a safer supply of REE in general. The hydrothermal alteration of Carbonatite within the Fen Complex (Norway) forms a fine grained red hematized rock type, called Rødbergite, which is partially enriched in REE. The variation of REE within the Rødbergite is poorly understood and problematic for any future REE exploitation from Rødbergite. A genetic model of the formation of Rødbergite will provide more information about the economic potential of Rødbergite. The gradual transformation of carbonatite to Rødbergite is not easily observable due to sparse outcrop in the Fen Complex. A fresh road cut near the Bjørndallen farm (Fen Complex) provides a unique insight to the progressive hydrothermal alteration from carbonatite to Rødbergite and is therefore crucial for a genetic model of the formation of Rødbergite. 14 Samples were taken along the profile. The mineralogical, geochemical and textural characterization of the samples using the SEM as well as major-, trace- and isotopic elemental data revealed the breakdown of the primary minerals due to the infiltration of an oxidizing fluid along grain boundaries. The primary REE-minerals in unaltered Carbonatite are REE fluorocarbonates. With the increasing alteration to Rødbergite REE fluorocarbonates are progressively replaced by hematite. In contrast, monazite - a REE-phosphate - is the dominant REE mineral species in the Rødbergite. A transitional Rødbergite sample shows apatite aggregates with a strong preferential concentration of monazite along the rim of the apatite aggregates. This observation provides strong evidence for the solution of REE in the primary rock (carbonatite) by fluids and later precipitation of REE along phosphate bearing

  13. Changing climate and sea level alter Hg mobility at Lake Tulane, Florida, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, G L; Norton, S A; Grimm, E C; Edgar, T

    2012-11-01

    Between 45,000 cal years BP and the beginning of the Holocene, the accumulation rate for Hg in sediments of Lake Tulane, Florida ranged from ≈2 to 10 μg m(-2) yr(-1), compared with 53 μg Hg m(-2) yr(-1) in the 1985-1990 period of anthropogenic input. The locality experienced regional draw-down of the water table during the Wisconsinan glaciation, which lowered global sea level by nearly 130 m. Natural atmospheric deposition of Hg to the surrounding area resulted in long-term (ca. 100,000 years) sequestration of this atmospheric flux of Hg, primarily by adsorption in the oxic Al- and Fe-hydroxide-rich sandy subsoil. Global sea level rise during deglaciation led to a rising regional water table, flooding the oxidized soils surrounding Tulane. Iron and adsorbed Hg were mobilized by reductive dissolution and transported by groundwater flow to Lake Tulane and ultimately to the accumulating sediment. The accumulation rate of Hg (and Fe) increased rapidly about 16,000 cal years BP, peaked at nearly 60 μg Hg m(-2) yr(-1) ca. 13,000-14,000 cal years BP, declined sharply during the Younger Dryas, and then increased sharply to a second 60 μg Hg m(-2) yr(-1) peak about 5000 cal years BP. Thereafter, it declined nearly to background by 900 cal years BP. In similar geologic situations, rapid modern sea level rise will initiate this process globally, and may mobilize large accumulations of Hg and lesser amounts of As, and other redox sensitive metals to groundwater and surface water.

  14. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI <25). Obese participants were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. PMID:26260010

  15. Foot Disorders, Foot Posture, and Foot Function: The Framingham Foot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hagedorn, Thomas J; Alyssa B Dufour; RISKOWSKI, JODY L.; Hillstrom, Howard J; Menz, Hylton B.; Casey, Virginia A.; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Foot disorders are common among older adults and may lead to outcomes such as falls and functional limitation. However, the associations of foot posture and foot function to specific foot disorders at the population level remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between specific foot disorders, foot posture, and foot function. Methods: Participants were from the population-based Framingham Foot Study. Quintiles of the modified arch index and...

  16. Diabetic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause you to lose feeling in your feet. You may not feel a cut, a blister or a sore. Foot injuries such as these can cause ulcers and ... the blood vessels can also mean that your feet do not get enough blood and oxygen. It ...

  17. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Exhibits an Altered Tropism in the Presence of Specific Immunoglobulins, Enabling Productive Infection and Killing of Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, L; Windsor, M.; McLaughlin, K.; Hope, J.; Jackson, T; Charleston, B.

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an acute vesicular disease of farm animals. The development of successful control strategies is limited by an incomplete understanding of the immune response to FMDV. Dendritic cells (DC) mediate the induction of immunity to pathogens, but their role in FMDV infection of cattle is uncharacterized. Bovine monocyte-derived DC (moDC) were exposed to integrin-binding and cell culture-adapted strains of FMDV in vitro. MoDC were not largely susceptible to ...

  18. Diabetic foot and exercise therapy: step by step the role of rigid posture and biomechanics treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Piergiorgio; Gulisano, Massimo; Anichini, Roberto; Seghieri, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Lower extremity ulcers represent a serious and costly complication of diabetes mellitus. Many factors contribute to the development of diabetic foot. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main causes of foot ulceration and contribute in turn to the growth of additional risk factors such as limited joint mobility, muscular alterations and foot deformities. Moreover, a deficit of balance, posture and biomechanics can be present, in particular in patients at high risk for ulceration. The result of this process may be the development of a vicious cycle which leads to abnormal distribution of the foot's plantar pressures in static and dynamic postural conditions. This review shows that some of these risk factors significantly improve after a few weeks of exercise therapy (ET) intervention. Accordingly it has been suggested that ET can be an important weapon in the prevention of foot ulcer. The aim of ET can relate to one or more alterations typically found in diabetic patients, although greater attention should be paid to the evaluation and possible correction of body balance, rigid posture and biomechanics. Some of the most important limitations of ET are difficult access to therapy, patient compliance and the transitoriness of the results if the training stops. Many proposals have been made to overcome such limitations. In particular, it is important that specialized centers offer the opportunity to participate in ET and during the treatment the team should work to change the patient's lifestyle by improving the execution of appropriate daily physical activity.

  19. Neutrophil mobilization by surface-glycan altered Th17-skewing bacteria mitigates periodontal pathogen persistence and associated alveolar bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P Settem

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone (tooth-supporting bone erosion is a hallmark of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease that often leads to tooth loss. Periodontitis is caused by a select group of pathogens that form biofilms in subgingival crevices between the gums and teeth. It is well-recognized that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in these biofilms is responsible for modeling a microbial dysbiotic state, which then initiates an inflammatory response destructive to the periodontal tissues and bone. Eradication of this pathogen is thus critical for the treatment of periodontitis. Previous studies have shown that oral inoculation in mice with an attenuated strain of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia altered in O-glycan surface composition induces a Th17-linked mobilization of neutrophils to the gingival tissues. In this study, we sought to determine if immune priming with such a Th17-biasing strain would elicit a productive neutrophil response against P. gingivalis. Our data show that inoculation with a Th17-biasing T. forsythia strain is effective in blocking P. gingivalis-persistence and associated alveolar bone loss in mice. This work demonstrates the potential of O-glycan modified Tannerella strains or their O-glycan components for harnessing Th17-mediated immunity against periodontal and other mucosal pathogens.

  20. Mycetoma foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Gooptu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infective disease of the skin, dermis and subcutaneous tissues predominantly seen in tropical countries. A patient presented to our hospital with the swelling of the left foot with a healed sinus and a painful nodule. He gave a history of sinuses in the left foot from which there was discharge of yellow granules. Culture of the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed growths of Nocardia species. The patient was treated with a multi-drug therapy along with debridement of the painful nodule. He experienced symptomatic relief and a regression of the swelling within the three months of follow-up so far. Due to the relatively slow progression of the disease, patients are diagnosed at a late stage. Hence, emphasis should be placed on health education and the importance of wearing footwear.

  1. Optimising Ankle Foot Orthoses for children with Cerebral Palsy walking with excessive knee flexion to improve their mobility and participation; protocol of the AFO-CP study

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkum Yvette L; Harlaar Jaap; Buizer Annemieke I; van den Noort Josien C; Becher Jules G; Brehm Merel-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs), are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy cost) of FROs is both limited and inconclusive. Much of this ambiguity may be due to a mismatch between the FRO ankle stiffness and the patient’s gait deviations. The primary ai...

  2. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  3. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  4. Common Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Common Foot Problems A A A Trauma, infection, skin disease, ... the sole of the front part of the foot and on the toes. Foot infections include warts; ...

  5. Foot sprain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-foot sprain ... There are many bones and ligaments in your foot. A ligament is a strong flexible tissue that holds bones together. When the foot lands awkwardly, some ligaments can stretch and tear. ...

  6. 自体干细胞移植治疗糖尿病足的干细胞动员和采集%Stem cell mobilization and collection for autologous peripheral blood stem cells transplantation in diabetic foot treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 陈旭艳; 周斌; 冯亮华; 肖萍萍; 吴完婷

    2011-01-01

    .OBJECTIVE: To explore the best mobilizing scheme and harvesting opportunity and to increase the security of the treatment. METHODS: Eighteen diabetes foot patients preparing for stem cell transplantation were enrolled. G-CSF of 5-10μg/(kg·d)was used for mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells. The relations between mobilization dose and days of G-CSF and the numbers of WBC, peripheral single nuclear cells and CD34+ were analyzed. Coagulation indexes and platelet count were detected before and after mobilization and collecting. Patients' adverse effects were observed during process of acquisition and mobilization. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The acquisition efficiency of stem cells was closely related to mobilization dose and days of G-CSF. There were no significant changes in coagulation indexes before and after mobilization and collecting. Platelet count had no change before and after mobilization, but dropped dramaticlly after collecting There was only one patient with mild bone ache and one patient who had a fever during the mobilization. Other patients all had no obvious adverse effects. The optimal time of stem cell collecting for patient with diabetic foot is decided by the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD34+cells, not only by mobilization days and white blood cells counts. Mobilization and collecting of stem cells has a smaller effect on patients and a higher security.

  7. Altering gait by way of stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot: the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles in older fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatton Anna L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that textured insoles can alter gait and standing balance by way of enhanced plantar tactile stimulation. However, to date, this has not been explored in older people at risk of falling. This study investigated the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles on gait and double-limb standing balance in older fallers. Methods Thirty older adults >65 years (21 women, mean [SD] age 79.0 [7.1], with self-reported history of ≥2 falls in the previous year, conducted tests of level-ground walking over 10 m (GAITRite system, and double-limb standing with eyes open and eyes closed over 30 seconds (Kistler force platform under two conditions: wearing textured insoles (intervention and smooth (control insoles in their usual footwear. Results Wearing textured insoles caused significantly lower gait velocity (P = 0.02, step length (P = 0.04 and stride length (P = 0.03 compared with wearing smooth insoles. No significant differences were found in any of the balance parameters (P > 0.05. Conclusions A textured insole worn by older adults with a history of falls significantly lowers gait velocity, step length and stride length, suggesting that this population may not have an immediate benefit from this type of intervention. The effects of prolonged wear remain to be investigated.

  8. An individual approach for optimizing ankle-foot orthoses to improve mobility in children with spastic cerebral palsy walking with excessive knee flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkum, Yvette L; Harlaar, Jaap; Buizer, Annemieke I; van den Noort, Josien C; Becher, Jules G; Brehm, Merel-Anne

    2016-05-01

    Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to promote gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The AFO prescription process is however largely dependent on clinical experience, resulting in confusing results regarding treatment efficacy. To maximize efficacy, the AFO's mechanical properties should be tuned to the patient's underlying impairments. This study aimed to investigate whether the efficacy of a ventral shell AFO (vAFO) to reduce knee flexion and walking energy cost could be improved by individually optimizing AFO stiffness in children with CP walking with excessive knee flexion. Secondarily, the effect of the optimized vAFO on daily walking activity was investigated. Fifteen children with spastic CP were prescribed with a hinged vAFO with adjustable stiffness. Effects of a rigid, stiff, and flexible setting on knee angle and the net energy cost (EC) [Jkg(-1)m(-1)] were assessed to individually select the optimal stiffness. After three months, net EC, daily walking activity [stridesmin(-1)] and knee angle [deg] while walking with the optimized vAFO were compared to walking with shoes-only. A near significant 9% (p=0.077) decrease in net EC (-0.5Jkg(-1)m(-1)) was found for walking with the optimized vAFO compared to shoes-only. Daily activity remained unchanged. Knee flexion in stance was reduced by 2.4° (p=0.006). These results show that children with CP who walk with excessive knee flexion show a small, but significant reduction of knee flexion in stance as a result of wearing individually optimized vAFOs. Data suggest that this also improves gait efficiency for which an individual approach to AFO prescription is emphasized. PMID:27131186

  9. Does excessive flatfoot deformity affect function? A comparison between symptomatic and asymptomatic flatfeet using the Oxford Foot Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösl, Matthias; Böhm, Harald; Multerer, Christel; Döderlein, Leonhard

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of asymptomatic flexible flatfeet is a subject of great controversy. The purpose of this study was to examine foot function during walking in symptomatic (SFF) and asymptomatic (ASFF) flexible flatfeet. Thirty-five paediatric and juvenile patients with idiopathic flexible flatfeet were recruited from an orthopaedic outpatient department (14 SFF and 21 ASFF). Eleven age-matched participants with typically developing feet served as controls (TDF). To study foot function, 3D multi-segment foot kinematics and ankle joint kinetics were captured during barefoot gait analysis. Overall, alterations in foot kinematics in flatfeet were pronounced but differences between SFF and ASFF were not observed. Largest discriminatory effects between flatfeet and TDF were noticed in reduced hindfoot dorsiflexion as well as in increased forefoot supination and abduction. Upon clinical examination, restrictions in passive dorsiflexion in ASFF and SFF were significant. During gait, the hindfoot in flatfeet (both ASFF and SFF) was more everted, but less flexible. In sagittal plane, limited hindfoot dorsiflexion of ASFF and SFF was compensated for by increased forefoot mobility and a hypermobile hallux. Concerning ankle kinetics, SFF lacked positive joint energy for propulsion while ASFF needed to absorb more negative ankle joint energy during loading response. This may risk fatigue and overuse syndrome of anterior shank muscles in ASFF. Hence, despite a lack of symptoms flatfoot deformity in ASFF affected function. Yet, contrary to what was expected, SFF did not show greater deviations in 3D foot kinematics than ASFF. Symptoms may rather depend on tissue wear and subjective pain thresholds.

  10. Mobility of rare earth elements in hydrothermally altered meta-turbites associated with mesothermal gold mineralisation in central Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth elements (REE) and high-field-strength elements (HFSE) are useful in understanding the process that lead to the genesis of a given ore deposit, as they can provide constraints on the nature, source and composition of ore-forming hydrothermal fluids, when used in conjunction with pertrographical information, fluid inclusion data, and isotopic signatures. Alteration traverses across and away from auriferous structures in six deposits (Ballarat West, Ballarat East, Fiddlers Reef, Fosterville, Maldon, Tarnagulla) sampled during previous studies provided an ideal opportunity to investigate possible systematic variations in REE distributions in hydrothermally altered meta-sedimentary rocks. Most noticeably, systematic trends (i.e., from most altered to least altered samples) cannot be identified in any of the traverses. Aside from some variations in the total REE content, all samples display chondrite-normalised REE signatures very similar to Post-Archaean Average Shale (PAAS) with general REE enrichment relative to chondrite values, and particular enrichment in light REE (LREE). (La/Yb)n ranges from 7.1 1 to 1 1.93, they are moderately depleted in Eu (Eu/Eu* 0.48-0.69) and have relatively flat heavy REE (HREE) patterns with (Tb/Yb)n approximating 1.1. These REE signatures, which suggest that REE and HFSE remained practically immobile throughout hydrothermal alteration, rule out high-temperature, strongly reducing or strongly acidic fluid compositions and further support the argument that REE remain relatively immobile during sericitisation and carbonatisation of siliclastic sediments, notwithstanding relatively high fluid-rock ratios

  11. Muscle performance and ankle joint mobility in long-term patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macellari Velio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy show altered foot biomechanics and abnormal foot loading. This study aimed at assessing muscle performance and ankle mobility in such patients under controlled conditions. Methods Forty six long-term diabetes patients with (DN and without (D peripheral neuropathy, and 21 controls (C were examined. Lower leg muscle performance and ankle mobility were assessed by means of a dedicated equipment, with the patient seated and the examined limb unloaded. 3D active ranges of motion and moments of force were recorded, the latter during maximal isometric contractions, with the foot blocked in different positions. Results All patients showed reduced ankle mobility. In the sagittal and transversal planes reduction vs C was 11% and 20% for D, 20% and 21% for DN, respectively. Dorsal-flexing moments were significantly reduced in all patients and foot positions, the highest reduction being 28% for D and 37% for DN. Reductions of plantar-flexing moments were in the range 12–15% for D (only with the foot blocked in neutral and in dorsal-flexed position, and in the range 10–24% for DN. In all patients, reductions in the frontal and transversal planes ranged 14–41%. Conclusion The investigation revealed ankle functional impairments in patients with diabetes, with or without neuropathy, thus suggesting that other mechanisms besides neuropathy might contribute to alter foot-ankle biomechanics. Such impairments may then play a role in the development of abnormal gait and in the onset of plantar ulcers.

  12. Brachymetatarsia with accessory navicular in right foot: A rare coincidental finding

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Praveen Kumar; Pawar, Inder; Beniwal, Sandeep Kumar; Verma, Raaghav R.

    2016-01-01

    A 33 years old female patient presented with posttraumatic pain in the right foot for which radiographs of the right foot was advised. No fracture was detected on radiographs and patient was managed conservatively on medications and posterior splint immobilization. We found coincidentally a short fourth metatarsal and an accessory navicular bone in the right foot radiographs. After 3 weeks of immobilization, she underwent mobilization of the right foot, weight bearing and intensive physiother...

  13. Functional analysis of the foot and ankle myology of gibbons and bonobos

    OpenAIRE

    Vereecke, Evie; D'Aout, K; Payne, R; Aerts, P.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the foot and ankle myology of gibbons and bonobos, and compares it with the human foot. Gibbons and bonobos are both highly arboreal species, yet they have a different locomotor behaviour. Gibbon locomotion is almost exclusively arboreal and is characterized by speed and mobility, whereas bonobo locomotion entails some terrestrial knuckle-walking and both mobility and stability are important. We examine if these differences in locomotion are reflected in their foot myo...

  14. Mobilities Mobilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pompeyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.John Urry (1946-, profesor en la Universidad de Lancaster, es un sociólogo de sobra conocido y altamente reputado en el panorama internacional de las ciencias sociales. Su dilatada carrera, aparentemente dispersa y diversificada, ha seguido senderos bastante bien definidos dejando tras de sí un catálogo extenso de obras sociológicas de primer nivel. Sus primeros trabajos se centraban en el campo de la teoría social y la filosofía de las ciencias sociales o de la sociología del poder [...

  15. Genome-wide DNA methylation identifies trophoblast invasion-related genes: Claudin-4 and Fucosyltransferase IV control mobility via altering matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuxiang; Blair, John D; Yuen, Ryan K C; Robinson, Wendy P; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Previously we showed that extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT) outgrowth and migration on a collagen gel explant model were affected by exposure to decidual natural killer cells (dNK). This study investigates the molecular causes behind this phenomenon. Genome wide DNA methylation of exposed and unexposed EVT was assessed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (450 K array). We identified 444 differentially methylated CpG loci in dNK-treated EVT compared with medium control (P EVT. Among these genes, CLDN4 (encoding claudin-4) and FUT4 (encoding fucosyltransferase IV) were chosen for follow-up studies because of their biological relevance from research on tumor cells. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of both CLDN4 and FUT4 in dNK-treated EVT were significantly reduced compared with control (P EVT mobility at least partially in association with an alteration of DNA methylation profile. Hypermethylation of CLDN4 and FUT4 reduces protein expression. CLDN4 and FUT4 are representative genes that participate in modulating trophoblast mobility. PMID:25697377

  16. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FootNotes Newsletter Current Issue Archive Subscribe Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot A A A | Print | Share ... or certain activities. Diagnosis In diagnosing a sesamoid injury, the foot and ankle surgeon will examine the foot, focusing on the ...

  17. Foot posture is associated with kinematics of the foot during gait: A comparison of normal, planus and cavus feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldt, Andrew K; Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Menz, Hylton B; Nester, Christopher J; Landorf, Karl B

    2015-06-01

    Variations in foot posture are associated with the development of some lower limb injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. The objective of this study was to compare foot kinematics between normal, pes cavus and pes planus foot posture groups using a multi-segment foot model. Ninety-seven healthy adults, aged 18-47 were classified as either normal (n=37), pes cavus (n=30) or pes planus (n=30) based on normative data for the Foot Posture Index, Arch Index and normalised navicular height. A five segment foot model was used to measure tri-planar motion of the rearfoot, midfoot, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot and hallux during barefoot walking at a self-selected speed. Angle at heel contact, peak angle, time to peak angle and range of motion was measured for each segment. One way ANOVAs with post-hoc analyses of mean differences were used to compare foot posture groups. The pes cavus group demonstrated a distinctive pattern of motion compared to the normal and pes planus foot posture groups. Effect sizes of significant mean differences were large and comparable to similar studies. Three key differences in overall foot function were observed between the groups: (i) altered frontal and transverse plane angles of the rearfoot in the pes cavus foot; (ii) Less midfoot motion in the pes cavus foot during initial contact and midstance; and (iii) reduced midfoot frontal plane ROM in the pes planus foot during pre-swing. These findings indicate that foot posture does influence motion of the foot.

  18. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... sick Is HFMD the Same as Foot-and-Mouth Disease? No. HFMD is often confused with foot- ...

  19. Foot structure and footwear prescription in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A

    2008-01-01

    Foot structure abnormalities such as foot deformity and limited joint mobility are common and well established components of the diabetic foot which are associated with increased levels of mechanical stress on the foot and the development of ulcers. Our understanding of foot structure abnormality in diabetes has improved recently, mainly through the findings from in vivo imaging studies. Several examples will be discussed in this review. A limited understanding, however, still exists about several aspects related to the assessment, etiology, and consequences of change in foot structure in diabetes. Knowledge on these matters is needed if we are to better deal with the implications of foot structure change in diabetes. Diabetic patients with neuropathy and foot deformity are commonly prescribed with custom footwear, in particular after ulcer healing. The goal of this footwear is to redistribute and reduce plantar foot pressures, and to prevent ulcer recurrence. However, the available evidence for the effectiveness of custom footwear in secondary ulcer prevention is not yet strong. This may be associated with several factors, including a lack of standardized or systematic approach (a set of guidelines) in footwear prescription and evaluation or with the significant variability that exists across patients in the offloading effect of different footwear interventions, which increases the difficulty of predicting what works for a given patient. Objective evaluation tools such as in-shoe plantar pressure analysis can be helpful in this regard in order to ensure efficacy of an intervention. This provides a more optimal footwear solution that may lower the risk for ulceration.

  20. Diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated.

  1. The foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging of the foot and ankle can be difficult because of the complex anatomy. Familiarity with the bony and ligamentous anatomy is essential for proper evaluation of radiographic findings. Therefore, pertinent anatomy is discussed as it applies to specific injuries. Special views, tomography, arthrography, and other techniques may be indicated for complete evaluation of foot and ankle trauma

  2. Mobility of Au and related elements during the hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust: implications for the sources of metals in VMS deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Clifford G. C.; Pitcairn, Iain K.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Harris, Michelle

    2016-02-01

    Volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits are commonly enriched in Cu, Zn and Pb and can also be variably enriched in Au, As, Sb, Se and Te. The behaviour of these elements during hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust is not well known. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1256D penetrates a complete in situ section of the upper oceanic crust, providing a unique sample suite to investigate the behaviour of metals during hydrothermal alteration. A representative suite of samples was analysed for Au, As, Sb, Se and Te using low detection limit methods, and a mass balance of metal mobility has been carried out through comparison with a fresh Mid-Oceanic Ridge Basalt (MORB) glass database. The mass balance shows that Au, As, Se, Sb, S, Cu, Zn and Pb are depleted in the sheeted dyke and plutonic complexes by -46 ± 12, -27 ± 5, -2.5 ± 0.5, -27 ± 6, -8.4 ± 0.7, -9.6 ± 1.6, -7.9 ± 0.5 and -44 ± 6 %, respectively. Arsenic and Sb are enriched in the volcanic section due to seawater-derived fluid circulation. Calculations suggest that large quantities of metal are mobilised from the oceanic crust but only a small proportion is eventually trapped as VMS mineralisation. The quantity of Au mobilised and the ratio of Au to base metals are similar to those of mafic VMS, and ten times enrichment of Au would be needed to form a Au-rich VMS. The Cu-rich affinity of mafic VMS deposits could be explained by base metal fractionation both in the upper sheeted dykes and during VMS deposit formation.

  3. Ambulatory measurement of foot kinematics using wearable ultrasonic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yongbin; Soh, Cheong Boon; Gunawan, Erry; Low, Kay-Soon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an ultrasonic-based system for foot parameters measurement has been proposed and investigated. An extended Kalman filtering-based methodology has been developed to extract foot parameters including step length, stride length and cycle time from horizontal displacement during walking. The system comprises of one ultrasonic transmitter (mobile) and four ultrasonic receivers (anchors) with fixed known positions. A Radio Frequency (RF) module is used in our system not only to provide synchronization clock between the mobile and anchors, but also to transmit collected data wirelessly to reduce the wires used. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, the 2-dimensional foot displacement and the foot parameters were measured and validated against the reference camera motion capture system. These experiment results demonstrate the capability of the proposed system being used as a gait analysis tool for rehabilitation and other medical applications. PMID:25571433

  4. Functional clinical typology of the foot and kinematic gait parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Marenčáková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The foot plays a key role in a standing posture, walking and running performance. Changes in its structure or function may alter upper segments of kinematic chain which can lead to formation of musculoskeletal disorders. Although functional clinical typology provides a complex view of foot kinesiology there is a lack of knowledge and evidence about influences of different foot types on human gait. Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse differences of kinematic gait parameters of lower extremity joints and pelvis between functional clinical foot types in healthy young men. Methods: Three-dimensional kinematic analysis by the Vicon Motion Capture MX System device in synchronization with 2 Kistler force platforms was used to obtain kinematic data from 18 healthy men (mean age 23.2 ± 1.9 years. The functional clinical foot type was clinically examined and sorted into 3 basic foot type groups - forefoot varus (FFvar, rearfoot varus (RFvar and forefoot valgus (FFvalg. Peak angular values and range of an angular displacement in all of three movement planes were analysed for pelvis, hip, knee and ankle joint. For statistical analysis of kinematic gait parameters differences between foot types Mann Whitney U test at a statistical significance level p < .05 and Cohen's coefficient d for effect size were used. Results: This study showed that functional clinical foot type can affect kinematic parameters of gait in the joints of the lower limb and pelvis. Significant differences were presented in the FFvar in comparison with other two foot type groups with middle and high size of effect. The most alterations were observed in pelvis area and in a sagittal plane of movement. Nevertheless, significant differences between FFvalg and RFvar foot types were not noticed. Conclusions: Functional clinical foot typology provides one of the possible methods to describe foot structure and function. Our results showed that foot type could

  5. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Foot Problems How can diabetes affect my feet? Too much glucose, also called ... you have any of these signs. How can diabetes change the shape of my feet? Nerve damage ...

  6. Software tool for the prosthetic foot modeling and stiffness optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbac, Matija; Popović, Dejan B

    2012-01-01

    We present the procedure for the optimization of the stiffness of the prosthetic foot. The procedure allows the selection of the elements of the foot and the materials used for the design. The procedure is based on the optimization where the cost function is the minimization of the difference between the knee joint torques of healthy walking and the walking with the transfemural prosthesis. We present a simulation environment that allows the user to interactively vary the foot geometry and track the changes in the knee torque that arise from these adjustments. The software allows the estimation of the optimal prosthetic foot elasticity and geometry. We show that altering model attributes such as the length of the elastic foot segment or its elasticity leads to significant changes in the estimated knee torque required for a given trajectory.

  7. Software Tool for the Prosthetic Foot Modeling and Stiffness Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Štrbac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the procedure for the optimization of the stiffness of the prosthetic foot. The procedure allows the selection of the elements of the foot and the materials used for the design. The procedure is based on the optimization where the cost function is the minimization of the difference between the knee joint torques of healthy walking and the walking with the transfemural prosthesis. We present a simulation environment that allows the user to interactively vary the foot geometry and track the changes in the knee torque that arise from these adjustments. The software allows the estimation of the optimal prosthetic foot elasticity and geometry. We show that altering model attributes such as the length of the elastic foot segment or its elasticity leads to significant changes in the estimated knee torque required for a given trajectory.

  8. Foot Anthropometry and Morphology Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Agić, Ante; NIKOLIĆ, VASILIJE; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-01-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in ...

  9. Alterations in oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-mobility group box 1 protein and acute phase response in cross-bred suckling piglets suffering from rotaviral enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar De, Ujjwal; Mukherjee, Reena; Nandi, Sukdeb; Patel, Bhimnere Hanumatnagouda Manjunatha; Dimri, Umesh; Ravishankar, Chintu; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Rotaviral enteritis has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in piglets during their post-natal life. The present study was carried out to examine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices in the serum of suckling piglets suffering from enteritis with or without association of porcine group A rotavirus infection. The present investigation utilized 23 clinical cases with signs of acute enteritis and 12 more healthy piglets of a similar age group as control animals. Out of 23 enteritis cases, 12 cases were found to be positive for porcine group A rotavirus infection as confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers for group A rotavirus, and the rest were found negative. The acute enteritis cases in piglets were associated with an elevated level of HMGB1 protein and serum haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin suggestive of an acute phase response. Among the oxidative stress indices, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in serum were significantly increased. A pronounced drop of total antioxidant capacity and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase in the serum of piglets suffering from acute enteritis compared to healthy ones were also noticed. The alterations in HMGB1 protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices were more pronounced in cases with the involvement of porcine rotavirus as compared to rotavirus-negative cases. It is concluded that HMGB1 protein, markers of oxidative stress and acute phase proteins might play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of porcine diarrhoea caused by rotavirus and might be true markers in diagnosing the conditions leading to the extension of the prompt and effective therapeutic care.

  10. Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Clément, Gilles R.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Taylor, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the various dimensions of the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space flight by reviewing the research and operational evidence demonstrating sensorimotor performance decrements during and after space flight. These sensorimotor performance decrements might affect vehicle and complex system control, including decreased visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial and geographic orientation perception, and cognitive function. Sensorimotor performance decrements might also affect the ability to egress and walk away from the vehicle in case of an emergency or an extravehicular activity on a planetary surface. We also review the countermeasures that have been tested, including medication, prevention techniques and training exercises, physical rehabilitation, and mechanical devices. Furthermore, we identify the current knowledge and mitigation gaps that must be filled through further research and/or data mining efforts before the risk can be fully mitigated. We conclude that the true operational risks associated with the impacts of adaptive sensorimotor changes on mobility and crew abilities to control vehicles and other complex systems will only be estimable after the gaps have been filled and we have been able to accurately assess integrated performance in off-nominal operational settings. A large body of sensorimotor research data obtained from space flight experiments over the past half-century demonstrates significant decrements in oculomotor control, eye-hand coordination, spatial orientation, posture\\locomotor control and cognition during space flight missions. While these changes are most severe during and after G-transitions, the most crucial time for many critical operational tasks (e.g., landing and egress), only limited information is available to assess the operational impacts of these changes. Some of the operational observations are

  11. A possible Madura foot from medieval Estremoz, southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Curto, Ana; Fernandes, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Maduromycosis, commonly called Madura foot, is an infectious pathology caused by fungi or bacteria, and it is native of the tropical, subtropical and equatorial areas. This paper presents a well preserved male skeleton, between 23 and 57 years old from a medieval necropolis (13th-15th centuries) in Estremoz, Portugal.The left foot of this individual showed marked alterations on the morphology of the calcaneus and cuboid that are ankylosed, which led to arthrosis of the calcaneous and talus. T...

  12. Brachymetatarsia with accessory navicular in right foot: A rare coincidental finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Praveen-Kumar; Pawar, Inder; Beniwal, Sandeep-Kumar; Verma, Raaghav-R

    2016-01-01

    A 33 years old female patient presented with posttraumatic pain in the right foot for which radiographs of the right foot was advised. No fracture was detected on radiographs and patient was managed conservatively on medications and posterior splint immobilization. We found coincidentally a short fourth metatarsal and an accessory navicular bone in the right foot radiographs. After 3 weeks of immobilization, she underwent mobilization of the right foot, weight bearing and intensive physio- therapy for 6 weeks. After two months of injury she was still complaining of pain on the plantar aspect of right foot which was diagnosed as metatarsalgia and operated on by excision of the neuroma present in the 3rd web space of the right foot. After surgery she was completely relieved of pain and could do activities well related to the right foot. PMID:27033277

  13. Brachymetatarsia with accessory navicular in right foot: A rare coincidental finding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey; Inder Pawar; Sandeep Kumar Beniwal; Raaghav R.Verma

    2016-01-01

    A 33 years old female patient presented with posttraumatic pain in the right foot for which radiographs of the right foot was advised.No fracture was detected on radiographs and patient was managed conservatively on medications and posterior splint immobilization.We found coincidentally a short fourth metatarsal and an accessory navicular bone in the right foot radiographs.After 3 weeks of immobilization,she underwent mobilization of the right foot,weight bearing and intensive physiotherapy for 6 weeks.After two months of injury she was still complaining of pain on the plantar aspect of right foot which was diagnosed as metatarsalgia and operated on by excision of the neuroma present in the 3rd web space of the right foot.After surgery she was completely relieved of pain and could do activities well related to the right foot.

  14. Effects of hallux limitus on plantar foot pressure and foot kinematics during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gheluwe, Bart; Dananberg, Howard J; Hagman, Friso; Vanstaen, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    The effects of hallux limitus on plantar foot pressure and foot kinematics have received limited attention in the literature. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effects of limited first metatarsophalangeal joint mobility on plantar foot pressure. It was equally important to identify detection criteria based on plantar pressures and metatarsophalangeal joint kinematics, enabling differentiation between subjects affected by hallux limitus and people with normal hallux function. To further our understanding of the relation between midtarsal collapse and hallux limitus, kinematic variables relating to midtarsal pronation were also included in the study. Two populations of 19 subjects each, one with hallux limitus and the other free of functional abnormalities, were asked to walk at their preferred speed while plantar foot pressures were recorded along with three-dimensional foot kinematics. The presence of hallux limitus, structural or functional, caused peak plantar pressure under the hallux to build up significantly more and at a faster rate than under the first metatarsal head. Additional discriminators for hallux limitus were peak dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, time to this peak value, peak pressure ratios of the first metatarsal head and the more lateral metatarsal heads, and time to maximal pressure under the fourth and fifth metatarsal heads. Finally, in approximately 20% of the subjects, with and without hallux limitus, midtarsal pronation occurred after heel lift, validating the claim that retrograde midtarsal pronation does occur. PMID:16988174

  15. Analysis of foot structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical evaluation by validated measures and serological correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bartoloni Bocci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine foot involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to characterize structural alterations in patients with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP antibody-positive and -negative disease. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with RA with foot pain were consecutively enrolled. The Manchester Hallux Valgus (MHV rating scale was used to evaluate the hallux valgus deformity degree. The Foot Posture Index (FPI6, a novel, foot-specific outcome measure, was adopted in order to quantify variation in the position of the foot. The findings were correlated with disease duration and presence or absence of anti-CCP antibodies. Results: About 84.6% patients had different degrees of hallux valgus and 65.4% subjects had a pronated foot. These two foot alterations were prevalently found in patients with long-standing disease and circulating anti-CCP antibodies. On the contrary, RA patients without anti-CCP and early disease essentially displayed a supinated foot without relevant hallux valgus deformity. Conclusion: Our findings allowed to identify different anatomic foot alterations in RA patients according to disease duration and negative prognostic factors such as anti-CCP antibodies. Our findings support the role of an accurate analysis of foot structural damage and may suggest the usefulness of a correct plantar orthosis prescription also in early phases of the disease.

  16. Imaging of Charcot foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The onset of a Charcot foot ist a feared complication of a long lasting diabetes mellitus. A peripheral neuropathy and continuous weight bearing of the foot subsequent to repeated traumas depict the conditions. There exist three types of a Charcot foot, an atrophic, a hypertophic and a mixed type. In early stages a differentiation from osteoarthritis is difficult. Subluxation or luxation within the Lisfranc's joint is typical. The joints of the foot could rapidly and extensively be destroyed or may present the morphology of a 'superosteoarthritis'. Often, soft tissue infections or osteomyelitis evolve from ulcers of the skin as entry points. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis necessitate MR imaging as plain radiography offers only low sensitivity for detection of an osteomyelitis. The existence of periosteal reactions is not a proof for osteomyelitis. Bone marrow edema and soft tissue edema also appear in a non infected Charcot foot. The range of soft tissue infections goes from cellulitis over phlegmon to abscesses. The ghost sign is the most suitable diagnostic criterion for osteomyelitis. In addition, the penumbra sign or the existence of a sinus tract between a skin ulcer and the affected bone may be helpful. (orig.)

  17. Charcot foot syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcoate, W J

    2015-06-01

    Charcot foot syndrome is an uncommon complication of diabetes but is potentially devastating in its consequences. Outcome is made worse by widespread professional ignorance leading to delayed diagnosis, but it is also hampered by lack of understanding of its causes and lack of treatments with proven effectiveness, other than offloading. There remains a desperate need for studies into its causes as well as comparative audit and trials designed to determine the best treatment for this difficult condition. Such work can probably only be effectively carried out through the establishment of multicentre networks. Nevertheless, improved understanding in recent years of the likely role of inflammatory pathways has raised awareness of the multiple ways in which the effects of neuropathy may be manifest in the development of the Charcot foot. This awareness is also leading to the realization that similar processes may conceivably contribute to the refractoriness of other foot diseases in diabetes, including both chronic unhealing ulcers and osteomyelitis.

  18. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  19. Insights into the Capabilities of Tactile-Foot Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Velázquez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel wearable interface for the foot: a shoe‐integrated tactile display that enables users to obtain information through the sense of touch via their feet. A 16‐point array of actuators stimulates the sole of the foot by inducing different vibration frequencies. A series of experiments were conducted with 20 sighted and 5 blind voluntary subjects to evaluate the role of tactile perception by the human foot and the tactile sensitivity of the plantar surface. Tests evaluated the perception of simple shapes, patterns and directional instructions. The results showed that some information is discriminable and that tactile‐foot stimulation could be used for a wide number of applications in human‐machine interaction. Furthermore, the results also suggested that the blind perform better in some key tasks and support the feasibility of footwear providing tactile feedback for situational awareness, mobility and the navigation assistance of the blind.

  20. Minimally invasive surgery for diabetic plantar foot ulcerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Nery

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Complications of diabetes mellitus constitute the most common indications for hospitalization and non-traumatic amputations in the USA. The most important risk factors for the development of diabetic foot ulcerations include the presence of peripheral neuropathy, vasculopathy, limited joint mobility, and pre-existing foot deformities. In our study, 500 diabetic patients treated for plantar forefoot ulcerations were enrolled in a prospective study from 2000 to 2008 at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty-two patients in the study met the criteria and underwent surgical treatment consisting of percutaneous Achilles tendon lengthening to treat plantar forefoot ulcerations. The postoperative follow-up demonstrated prevention of recurrent foot ulcerations in 92% of these diabetic patients that maintained an improved foot function. In conclusion, our study supports that identification and treatment of ankle equinus in the diabetic population may potentially lead to decreased patient morbidity, including reduced risk for both reulceration, and potential lower extremity amputation.

  1. Influence of foot-stretcher height on rowing technique and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, Erica M; Weinert-Aplin, Robert A; Bull, Anthony M J; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-11-01

    Strength, technique, and coordination are crucial to rowing performance, but external interventions such as foot-stretcher set-up can fine-tune technique and optimise power output. For the same resultant force, raising the height of foot-stretchers on a rowing ergometer theoretically alters the orientation of the resultant force vector in favour of the horizontal component. This study modified foot-stretcher heights and examined their instantaneous effect on foot forces and rowing technique. Ten male participants rowed at four foot-stretcher heights on an ergometer that measured handle force, stroke length, and vertical and horizontal foot forces. Rowers were instrumented with motion sensors to measure ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar-pelvic kinematics. Key resultant effects of increased foot-stretcher heights included progressive reductions in horizontal foot force, stroke length, and pelvis range of motion. Raising foot-stretcher height did not increase the horizontal component of foot force as previously speculated. The reduced ability to anteriorly rotate the pelvis at the front of the stroke may be a key obstacle in gaining benefits from raised foot-stretcher heights. This study shows that small changes in athlete set-up can influence ergometer rowing technique, and rowers must individually fine-tune their foot-stretcher height to optimise power transfer through the rowing stroke on an ergometer.

  2. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot & Ankle Surgeon? A A A | Print | Share What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle ... of conditions that affect people of every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? ...

  3. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with infected people Commonly Confused With Foot-and-Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease is often ... and-Mouth Disease . Outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth ...

  4. Relação entre a mobilidade do tornozelo e pé e a magnitude da força vertical de reação do solo Relationship between ankle and foot mobility and the magnitude of the vertical ground reaction force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Vianna

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a relação entre a mobilidade do tornozelo e do pé, e o pico da força vertical de reação do solo, considerada como porcentagem do peso corporal, gerada durante a fase de apoio da marcha. MÉTODOS: foram estudados pés normais do lado direito e esquerdo de 15 homens com 22,1±2,7 anos (19-28 e 15 mulheres 24,20±5,24 anos (19-34. Os parâmetros de exclusão foram: deformidades nos pés, doenças ou traumas, que pudessem acometer o sistema musculoesquelético e a marcha. A mobilidade do tornozelo e dos pés foi obtida através da goniometria da flexão plantar, dorsiflexão, extensão do hálux e extensão dos dedos, o pico da força vertical de reação do solo FRS, foi obtido pela baropodometria computadorizada do sistema FSCAN R. A correlação entre ambas foi feita pelo teste estatístico de Spearman. RESULTADOS: os indivíduos do grupo masculino apresentaram menores valores de mobilidade, e maiores valores do pico da força vertical de reação do solo, quando comparados com o grupo feminino. Não houve diferença entre os pés direito e esquerdo. No sexo feminino foi encontrada correlação negativa estatisticamente significante entre os valores da flexão plantar e a força vertical, e entre os valores da extensão dos dedos e a foça vertical. No sexo masculino, houve correlação negativa estatisticamente significante entre os valores da dorsiflexão e a força vertical. Entre os demais valores não foi encontrada correlação significante. CONCLUSÃO: Há relação entre a mobilidade e a força vertical gerada durante a marcha.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between ankle and foot mobility and the peak of the vertical ground reaction force, as a percentage of body weight, generated during the gait stance phase. METHOD: Fifteen men with mean age of 22.1 ± 2.7 years (range: 19-28 and fifteen women with mean age of 24.20 ± 5.24 years (range: 19-34 with normal feet were studied. The exclusion criteria

  5. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children under age 10 ...

  6. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot ...

  7. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most ...

  8. Imaging diagnostics of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  9. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  10. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Menz, Hylton B.; Alyssa B Dufour; RISKOWSKI, JODY L.; Hillstrom, Howard J; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002–05).

  11. Mobile Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-110 mission, deployed this railcar, called the Mobile Transporter, and an initial 43-foot section of track, the S0 (S-zero) truss, preparing the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks. The first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The 27,000-pound S0 truss is the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002. STS-110's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station.

  12. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    as people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility...

  13. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page. Home Contact Us FootCareMD Currently selected About Us Overview of Foot & Ankle Glossary of Foot & Ankle Terms Adult Foot Health ... Map American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society ® Orthopaedic Foot ... US) Copyright © 2016 All Rights Reserved

  14. The neuropathic diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathur, Haris M; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, and result in major medical, social and economic consequences for the patients, their families, and society. Foot ulcers are likely to be of neuropathic origin and, therefore, are eminently preventable. Individuals with the greatest risk of ulceration can easily be identified by careful clinical examination of their feet: education and frequent follow-up is indicated for these patients. When infection complicates a foot ulcer, the combination can be limb-threatening, or life-threatening. Infection is defined clinically, but wound cultures assist in identification of causative pathogens. Tissue specimens are strongly preferred to wound swabs for wound cultures. Antimicrobial therapy should be guided by culture results, and although such therapy may cure the infection, it does not heal the wound. Alleviation of the mechanical load on ulcers (offloading) should always be a part of treatment. Plantar neuropathic ulcers typically heal in 6 weeks with nonremovable casts, because pressure at the ulcer site is mitigated and compliance is enforced. The success of other approaches to offloading similarly depends on the patient's adherence to the strategy used for pressure relief.

  15. The diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathur, Haris M; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, resulting in major medical, social and economic consequences for the patients, their families, and society. Foot ulcers are more likely to be of neuropathic origin, and therefore eminently preventable. People at greatest risk of ulceration can easily be identified by careful clinical examination of the feet: education and frequent follow-up is indicated for these patients. When infection complicates a foot ulcer, the combination can be limb or life-threatening. Infection is defined clinically, but wound cultures assist in identifying the causative pathogens. Tissue specimens are strongly preferred to wound swabs for wound cultures. Antimicrobial therapy should be guided by culture results, and although such therapy may cure the infection, it does not heal the wound. Alleviation of the mechanical load on ulcers (offloading) should always be a part of treatment. Plantar neuropathic ulcers typically heal in 6 weeks with irremovable casting, because pressure at the ulcer site is mitigated and compliance is enforced. The success of other approaches to offloading similarly depends on the patients' adherence to the effectiveness of pressure relief.

  16. Chondroblastoma of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B R; Temple, H T; Chiricosta, F M; Mizel, M S; Murphey, M D

    1997-04-01

    A total of 322 cases of chondroblastoma were referred to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology between 1960 and 1990. Ten additional cases of chondroblastoma were treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center between 1985 and 1993. Forty-two of these involved the foot, two of which were treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Patients with chondroblastoma of the foot were male in 35 (81%) cases, with a mean age of 25.5 years, which was significantly different from the mean age of 17.3 years in patients with chondroblastoma of the long bones (P Chondroblastoma of the foot is most commonly found in the posterior subchondral areas of the talus and calcaneus as well as in the calcaneal apophysis. Radiographically, the lesion was associated with an articular surface or apophyseal area in all cases and appeared radiolucent, with little to no matrix production. The margins were generally well defined. Cystic features were noted grossly and histologically in 24 (57%) specimens, a feature seen in only 21% of all chondroblastomas overall. Treatment consists of thorough curetting and bone grafting with good oncologic and functional results.

  17. Clinical measures of hip and foot-ankle mechanics as predictors of rearfoot motion and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Thales R; Mancini, Marisa C; Araújo, Vanessa L; Carvalhais, Viviane O C; Ocarino, Juliana M; Silva, Paula L; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2014-10-01

    Health professionals are frequently interested in predicting rearfoot pronation during weight-bearing activities. Previous inconsistent results regarding the ability of clinical measures to predict rearfoot kinematics may have been influenced by the neglect of possible combined effects of alignment and mobility at the foot-ankle complex and by the disregard of possible influences of hip mobility on foot kinematics. The present study tested whether using a measure that combines frontal-plane bone alignment and mobility at the foot-ankle complex and a measure of hip internal rotation mobility predicts rearfoot kinematics, in walking and upright stance. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent assessment of forefoot-shank angle (which combines varus bone alignments at the foot-ankle complex with inversion mobility at the midfoot joints), with a goniometer, and hip internal rotation mobility, with an inclinometer. Frontal-plane kinematics of the rearfoot was assessed with a three-dimensional system, during treadmill walking and upright stance. Multivariate linear regressions tested the predictive strength of these measures to inform about rearfoot kinematics. The measures significantly predicted (p ≤ 0.041) mean eversion-inversion position, during walking (r(2) = 0.40) and standing (r(2) = 0.31), and eversion peak in walking (r(2) = 0.27). Greater values of varus alignment at the foot-ankle complex combined with inversion mobility at the midfoot joints and greater hip internal rotation mobility are related to greater weight-bearing rearfoot eversion. Each measure (forefoot-shank angle and hip internal rotation mobility) alone and their combination partially predicted rearfoot kinematics. These measures may help detecting foot-ankle and hip mechanical variables possibly involved in an observed rearfoot motion or posture.

  18. Towards a better understanding of foot and ankle kinematics in rheumatoid arthritis : the effects of walking speed and structural impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Dubbeldam, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    From an early stage of the disease 40% to 60% of the Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients suffer from walking impairments such as pain, diminished mobility and problems with daily activities. With the recent development of optical recording technologies and detailed foot and ankle computer models, typical RA foot and ankle kinematic measures have been assessed and reported. However, the relationships between kinematics and walking impairments or pathological changes of foot and ankle structures...

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2011-02-01

    Although simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant improves most complications of type 1 diabetes, suppression of the immune system increases the risk for infection. The authors report the case of a patient who, despite receiving a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, subsequently developed neuro-ischemic ulcers of his right foot requiring repeated amputations. He then developed an infected ulcer of his remaining right big toe, with significant implications for his mobility. This ulcer proved resistant to multiple courses of antibiotics and care in a specialist foot clinic but resolved completely following a course of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic foot ulcers is not yet fully established but should be considered in resistant cases with vascular insufficiency and a significant infective component.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2012-02-01

    Although simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant improves most complications of type 1 diabetes, suppression of the immune system increases the risk for infection. The authors report the case of a patient who, despite receiving a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, subsequently developed neuro-ischemic ulcers of his right foot requiring repeated amputations. He then developed an infected ulcer of his remaining right big toe, with significant implications for his mobility. This ulcer proved resistant to multiple courses of antibiotics and care in a specialist foot clinic but resolved completely following a course of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic foot ulcers is not yet fully established but should be considered in resistant cases with vascular insufficiency and a significant infective component.

  1. 3D representation of geochemical data, the corresponding alteration and associated REE mobility at the Ranger uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Louise A.; Cleverley, James S.; Pownceby, Mark; MacRae, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Interrogation and 3D visualisation of multiple multi-element data sets collected at the Ranger 1 No. 3 uranium mine, in the Northern Territory of Australia, show a distinct and large-scale chemical zonation around the ore body. A central zone of Mg alteration, dominated by extensive clinochlore alteration, overprints a biotite-muscovite-K-feldspar assemblage which shows increasing loss of Na, Ba and Ca moving towards the ore body. Manipulation of pre-existing geochemical data and integration of new data collected from targeted `niche' samples make it possible to recognise chemical architecture within the system and identify potential fluid conduits. New trace element and rare earth element (REE) data show strong fractionation associated with the zoned alteration around the deposit and with fault planes that intersect and bound the deposit. Within the most altered portion of the system, isocon analysis indicates addition of elements including Mg, S, Cu, Au and Ni and removal of elements including Ca, K, Ba and Na within a zone of damage associated with ore precipitation. In the more distal parts of the system, processes of alteration and replacement associated with the mineralising system can be recognised. REE element data show enrichment in HREE centred about a characteristic peak in Dy in the high-grade ore zone while LREEs are enriched in the outermost portions of the system. The patterns recognised in 3D in zoning of geochemical groups and contoured S, K and Mg abundance and the observed REE patterns suggest a fluid flow regime in which fluids were predominately migrating upwards during ore deposition within the core of the ore system.

  2. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry;

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  3. Foot Push-Up Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you can easily rise up onto the ball of your foot but experience pain in your arch, your arch may be inflamed ... at any point between the heel and the ball of the foot is often referred to as arch pain. Although this description is nonspecific, most arch pain ...

  4. Foot posture in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feller Julian A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot posture has long been considered to contribute to the development of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions as it may alter the mechanical alignment and dynamic function of the lower limb. This study compared foot posture in people with and without medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA using a range of clinical foot measures. The reliability of the foot measures was also assessed. Methods The foot posture of 32 patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed OA predominantly in the medial compartment of the knee and 28 asymptomatic age-matched healthy controls was investigated using the foot posture index (FPI, vertical navicular height and drop, and the arch index. Independent t tests and effect size (Cohen's d were used to investigate the differences between the groups in the foot posture measurements. Results Significant differences were found between the control and the knee OA groups in relation to the FPI (1.35 ± 1.43 vs. 2.46 ± 2.18, p = 0.02; d = 0.61, medium effect size, navicular drop (0.02 ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 ± 0.01, p = 0.01; d = 1.02, large effect size and the arch index (0.22 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.04, p = 0.04; d = 1.02, large effect size. No significant difference was found for vertical navicular height (0.24 ± 0.03 vs. 0.23 ± 0.03, p = 0.54; d = 0.04, negligible effect size. Conclusion People with medial compartment knee OA exhibit a more pronated foot type compared to controls. It is therefore recommended that the assessment of patients with knee OA in clinical practice should include simple foot measures, and that the potential influence of foot structure and function on the efficacy of foot orthoses in the management of medial compartment knee OA be further investigated.

  5. Relationship between foot type, foot deformity, and ulcer occurrence in the high-risk diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, William R; Shofer, Jane B; Smith, Douglas G; Sullivan, Katrina; Hayes, Shane G; Assal, Mathieu; Reiber, Gayle E

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized an association between foot type, foot deformity, and foot ulceration and conducted an analysis of a well-characterized, high-risk diabetic population of 398 subjects. The average age was 62 years of age and 74% of the study population were males. Foot-type distributions were 19.5% pes cavus (high arch), 51.5% neutrally aligned (normal arch), and 29.0% pes planus (low arch). We quantified the presence of hallux valgus (23.9%), hammer/claw toes (46.7%), and hallux limitus (24.4%). A significant association was found between foot type and hallux valgus (p = 0.003); pes planus feet had the highest prevalence as compared with neutrally aligned feet (odds ratio [OR] = 2.43, p = 0.0006). Foot type was also significantly associated with fixed hammer/claw toes (p = 0.01); pes cavus feet had the highest prevalence as compared with neutrally aligned feet (OR = 3.89, p = 0.001). Foot type was also significantly associated with hallux limitus (p = 0.006) with pes planus feet having the highest prevalence as compared with neutrally aligned feet (OR = 2.19, p = 0.003). However, foot type was not significantly related to any ulcer outcome (p = 0.7). Fixed hammer/claw toes (OR = 3.91, p = 0.003) and hallux limitus (OR = 3.02, p = 0.006) were associated with increased risk of any ulcer occurrence. This study affirms that foot type and foot deformity are related and that foot deformities are associated with ulcer occurrence. PMID:16586192

  6. The Effect of Taping on Foot Structure, Functional Foot Stability and Running Gait Patterns of the Foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malia Ho; Tsai Djun; John Cher Chay Tan

    2015-01-01

    Running related foot injuries are associated with excessive foot movements due to malaligned foot structure and poor functional foot stability. Clinicians tape the foot to alleviate pain and prevent further injuries, whilst allowing the athlete to continue training. However, the effect of taping is not conclusive. The purpose of this study is to investigate if taping effectively improves foot structure, functional foot stability and reduces excessive foot movements during running. Twenty-two subjects had their foot structure identified as: fiat foot stable, fiat foot unstable and normal arched unstable according to the FPI (foot posture index) and the Modified Romberg's Test with the BESS (balance error scoring system) criteria. The subjects ran on an instrumented treadmill barefooted with their feet taped and untaped. Running kinetic and kinematic data were collected and analysed using a paired t-test and 3x2 ANOVA. Taping improved foot structure but not functional foot stability. During running, taping significantly reduced rearfoot eversion. Taping increased the loading rate in the fiat foot and normal arched unstable groups but reduced the loading rate for the flat foot stable group. Implication on the appropriate use of foot taping was discussed.

  7. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage.

  8. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage.

  9. Effect of flow material ski boots on foot circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflin, F; Kempi, V; van der Linden, W; Ringquist, I

    1976-01-01

    The effect of modern "flow material" ski boots on foot circulation was studied. Pressure inside a flow material ski boot was found to be markedly higher than in a conventional ski boot. In some places the pressure exceeded the diastolic pressure in the foot. 113mIndium chloride, which when injected intravenously is bound to transferrin was used for blood pool scanning. In healthy young volunteers the uptake of radioactivity in the two feet--one with and one without a ski boot--was compared. The activity level of the foot with the ski boot was significantly lower than in the other foot. After corrections were made for absorption by the boot, a significant difference remained. Plethysmographic studies were performed with a mercury strain gauge using a ski boot in which a hole was cut over the big toe. No difference was demonstrated between the blood pressure at the leg just above the boot top and at the big toe. The arterial pulse wave at the big toe was altered; i.e., there was an absence of a dichrotic wave. Intramuscular perfusion was studied with 133xenon. The disappearance curve in a foot with a boot was more shallow than that in a bare foot. Unbuckling resulted in an immediate fall in radioactivity, the disappearance curve then becoming identical to that of the bare foot. The results indicate that when flow material ski boots are to be used by skiers who are not in the habit of unbuckling for short intervals, buckle tension should not be too high.

  10. Complications of the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Steinberg, John S

    2013-12-01

    The diabetic foot is at high risk for complications because of its role in ambulation. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease can lead to chronic foot ulcers, which are at high risk for infection, in part attributable to areas of high pressure caused by lack of tolerance of the soft tissue and bone and joint deformity. If left untreated, infection and ischemia lead to tissue death, culminating in amputation. Treatment strategies include antibiosis, topical therapies, offloading, debridement, and surgery. A multidisciplinary team approach is necessary in the prevention and treatment of complications of the diabetic foot.

  11. MR imaging features of foot involvement in patients with psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey)], E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Tekin, Nilgun Solak [Department of Dermatology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey); Sarikaya, Selda [Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey); Erdem, L. Oktay; Gulec, Sezen [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    Objective: To determine alterations of the soft tissues, tendons, cartilage, joint spaces, and bones of the foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with psoriasis. Materials and methods: Clinical and MR examination of the foot was performed in 26 consecutive patients (52 ft) with psoriasis. As a control group, 10 healthy volunteers (20 ft) were also studied. Joint effusion/synovitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, retroachilles bursitis, Achilles tendonitis, soft-tissue edema, para-articular enthesophytes, bone marrow edema, sinus tarsi syndrome, enthesopathy at the Achilles attachment and at the plantar fascia attachment, plantar fasciitis, tenosynovitis, subchondral cysts, and bone erosions, joint space narrowing, subchondral signal changes, osteolysis, luxation, and sub-luxation were examined. Results: Clinical signs and symptoms (pain and swelling) due to foot involvement were present in none of the patients while frequency of involvement was 92% (24/26) by MR imaging. The most common MR imaging findings were Achilles tendonitis (acute and peritendinitis) (57%), retrocalcaneal bursitis (50%), joint effusion/synovitis (46%), soft-tissue edema (46%), and para-articular enthesophytes (38%). The most commonly involved anatomical region was the hindfoot (73%). Conclusion: Our data showed that the incidence of foot involvement was very high in asymptomatic patients with psoriasis on MR imaging. Further MR studies are needed to confirm these data. We conclude that MR imaging may be of importance especially in early diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory changes in the foot.

  12. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FootNotes Newsletter Current Issue Archive Subscribe Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle A A A | ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle Depending on the sport, your feet and ankles ...

  13. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain —This condition is most often caused by plantar fasciitis, although other things, such as stress fractures or ... foot structure is the most common cause of plantar fasciitis, it can also result from wearing shoes that ...

  14. Design and Implementation of Anti Lost Bluetooth Low Energy Mobile Device for Mobile Phone

    OpenAIRE

    Prajakta S. Chavan; Uttam L. Bombale

    2014-01-01

    Today mobile phone like smart phone, tablet are very costly ranging from 300 USD to 600 USD , to avoid them to get forget at any social places, we can have mobile device(gadget) which will warn us (beep)this device is left back .To make commercialize product which will act as mobile phone watchmen, with specification and characteristic like smallest device foot print, comfortable to carry along, ultra low power consumption to increase battery life and to avoid frequent chargin...

  15. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  16. Synovial sarcoma of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekarev, Mikhail; Elsinger, Elisabeth C; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza; Borzykowski, Ross M; Geller, David S

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 75-year-old male who underwent lung lobectomy for presumed lung cancer. Thereafter, he presented with a painful mass between the third and fourth metatarsal heads in the foot that was assumed to be Morton's neuroma. After extensive oncologic evaluation, the foot mass was diagnosed as a synovial sarcoma. In retrospect, his lung lesion was understood to be metastatic disease. PMID:23632071

  17. Purple grape juice as a protector against acute X-irradiation induced alterations on mobility, anxiety, and feeding behaviour in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix A. A. Soares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that a moderate intake of organic purple grape juice shows a positive radiomodifier effect over early behavioural damage following acute X-irradiation in mice. Anxiety-, locomotion-, and feeding-related responses to 6 Gy total body X-irradiation (TBI were studied via open field, Rotarod, and feeding/drinking recording. Thirty-two male mice weighing 25-30 g were grouped according grape juice (J or water (W ad libitum drinking and either non-irradiated (N or irradiated (R. 24 h post-TBI the access frequency to the center and corners of the open field was decreased, and the total stay in the corners increased, in RW vs. NW mice. Anxiety-related parameters decreased in RJ vs. RW mice. Rotarod latency times increased 72 h post-TBI in RJ vs RW mice. No overall changes in food and drink intake were observed along the experimental period. On the irradiation day, bout number was increased and bout duration was decreased in RW mice. The changes were reversed by purple grape juice intake. Grape juice intake before and after TBI can overcome several radiation-induced changes in behaviour within 24-72 hours after sub-lethal X-irradiation. This beneficial effect on short-term anxiety and mobility-related activities could probably be included in the list of flavonoid bio-effects. The present findings could be relevant in designing preventive interventions aimed to enhance body defense mechanisms against short-term irradiation damage.

  18. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  19. Biomechanical Model of the Diabetic Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Agić, Ante; NIKOLIĆ, VASILIJE; Mijović, Budimir; Reischl, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a two dimensional (2D) finite element foot model was established from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a male subject. The model comprises first medial planar cross-section through the foot, representing the foot in standing posture. For specified external load, the stress and strain distribution field under foot structure are determined. The material characterization of foot structure components are stronger related to diabetic phenomena. The new material model f...

  20. Imaging the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.H. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tong, D.T.F. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Crim, J.R. [Durham Radiology Associates, Durham, NC (United States); Seeger, L.L. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a {sup 111}In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  1. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  2. Overview of diabetic foot; novel treatments in diabetic foot ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Foot ulcers are one of the main complications in diabetes mellitus, with a 15% life time risk in all diabetic patients. The problem and features are infection, ulceration, or gangrene. Neuropathy, poor circulation, and susceptibility to infection are the three major contributors to the development of diabetic foot; which when present, foot deformities or minor trauma can readily lead to ulceration and infection. Not all diabetic foots are preventable, but appropriate preventive measures can dramatically reduce their occurrences. Awareness of physicians about foot problems in diabetic patients, clinical examination and Para clinical assessment, regular foot examination, patient education, simple hygienic practices and provision of appropriate footwear combined with prompt treatment of minor injuries can decrease ulcer occurrence by 50%. Many different methods have been proposed and their goal is to accelerate the wound healing. These treatments other than standard therapy include local use of epidermal growth factor, vacuum-compression therapy (VCT, hyperbaric oxygen and peripheral Stem cell injection. Since all these treatments have a partial effect in ulcer improvement and amputation rate; so more effective treatments are essential."nA novel drug for treatment of this complication is an herbal extract, ANGIPARSTM, which has been studied in all steps of clinical trial. This new treatment by topical, oral and intravenous routs has had beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer after one month. Angiogenesis is one of the considered mechanisms of action of this drug. Results of these clinical trials showed that this treatment can be superior to other treatments.

  3. International Pork Trade and Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shang-Ho; Reed, Michael R.; Saghaian, Sayed H.

    2012-01-01

    International pork trade has not only been influenced by trade agreements but also altered by consumer perceptions on disease-infected animals. This study uses a gravity model with fixed-effects to investigate how pork trade is affected by foot-and-mouth disease among 186 countries. Results confirm that pork export falls when an exporting country develops FMD. Exporters with a vaccination policy have larger negative impacts than those with a slaughter policy. Further, pork importers that deve...

  4. Footwear choices made by young women and their potential impact on foot health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branthwaite, Helen; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Grogan, Sarah; Jones, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Modern footwear has been associated with the development of foot pain and pathology in the ageing adult. Yet this foot health issue does not seem to alter the footwear purchases made by younger women. In total, 162 teenage girls were questioned regarding shoes purchased over a 6-month period. The results indicated that footwear choices are activity specific and participants chose the style and design of shoes related to the image they wanted to portray. Association of footwear choice to foot function and health was not found to influence choice of footwear.

  5. Correlates between kinematics and baropodometric measurements for an integrated in-vivo assessment of the segmental foot function in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Claudia; Leardini, Alberto; Caravaggi, Paolo

    2014-08-22

    Baropodometry and multi-segmental foot kinematics are frequently employed to obtain insight into the mechanics of the foot-ground interaction in both basic research and clinical settings. However, nothing hitherto has been reported on the full integration of kinematics with baropodometric parameters, and only a few studies have addressed the association between intersegmental kinematics and plantar loading within specific foot regions. The aim of this study was to understanding the relationships between foot joint mobility and plantar loading by focusing on the correlation between these two measures. An integrated pressure-force-kinematics system was used to measure plantar pressure and rotations between foot segments during the stance phase of walking in 10 healthy subjects. An anatomically-based mask was applied to each footprint to obtain six regions according to the position of the markers; hence each kinematic segment was paired with a corresponding area of the plantar surface. Relationships between segmental motion and relevant baropodometric data were explored by means of correlation analysis. Negative, weak-to-moderate correlations (R(2)segmental range of motion across all foot joints except the Calcaneus-Midfoot. Temporal profiles of sagittal-plane kinematics and baropodometric parameters were well correlated, particularly at the ankle joint. Larger motion in the foot joints during walking was associated with lower plantar pressure in almost all regions. The study helps improve our understanding of the relationship between joint mobility and plantar loading in the healthy foot and represents a critical preliminary analysis before addressing possible clinical applications.

  6. In vitro study of foot kinematics using a dynamic walking cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, C J; Liu, A M; Ward, E; Howard, D; Cocheba, J; Derrick, T; Patterson, P

    2007-01-01

    There is a dearth of information on navicular, cuboid, cuneiform and metatarsal kinematics during walking and our objective was to study the kinematic contributions these bones might make to foot function. A dynamic cadaver model of walking was used to apply forces to cadaver feet and mobilise them in a manner similar to in vivo. Kinematic data were recorded from 13 cadaver feet. Given limitations to the simulation, the data describe what the cadaver feet were capable of in response to the forces applied, rather than exactly how they performed in vivo. The talonavicular joint was more mobile than the calcaneocuboid joint. The range of motion between cuneiforms and navicular was similar to that between talus and navicular. Metatarsals four and five were more mobile relative to the cuboid than metatarsals one, two and three relative to the cuneiforms. This work has confirmed the complexity of rear, mid and forefoot kinematics. The data demonstrate the potential for often-ignored foot joints to contribute significantly to the overall kinematic function of the foot. Previous emphasis on the ankle and sub talar joints as the principal articulating components of the foot has neglected more distal articulations. The results also demonstrate the extent to which the rigid segment assumptions of previous foot kinematics research have over simplified the foot.

  7. [Foot equipment of diabetic arteriopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miault, D; Brun, J P; Dupre, J C; Pill, M; Miault, P; Deschamps, E; Priollet, P; Laurian, C; Fichelle, J M; Cormier, J M

    1993-01-01

    Surgical appliances have a place of choice in the care of the foot with trophic lesions in diabetics, after partial amputation and as a preventive measure when it is free from trophic disorders. The type of appliance will depend on the footwear and the possibility of wearing orthopedic soles, whatever the stage of the affection. For the foot free from trophic disorders the shoes should be wide fitting, in soft leather and of the seamless type. Made to measure shoes should be reserved for badly deformed feet. The soles should be molded in silicone or polyurethane to distribute weight bearing and to avoid it over zones at risk. Appliances for the foot with trophic lesions should allow the resumption of walking. If the lesions are too extensive an orthosis is performed or a specific type of slipper with molded soles is worn to avoid pressure on the wounds. After amputation of toes a silicone orthoplasty is used to fill the interdigital space to avoid deformity of the other toes. If a front of foot has been amputated a corrected silicone molded sole with false extremity is applied. For a back of foot amputation an orthoprosthesis is made, preferentially in silicone introductible in a regular high sided shoe. In order to fulfil its preventive or temporary role, the appliance should evolve with time and be followed up regularly with close collaboration between the diabetic specialist the podologist and the orthotist. PMID:8473812

  8. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB;

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerabl......). There was no significant association between foot size and FLT values. CONCLUSION: The FLT is a reproducible technique to assess foot posture.......STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerable...... limitations regarding reliability and validity. METHODS: One hundred thirty subjects with mean foot size 44 (41-50 European size) participated. Two examiners, blinded to each other's measurements, measured the right foot of the subjects twice and the left foot once. The position of the most medial aspect...

  9. Foot Comfort for the Fashionable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Modellista Footwear's new shoe line uses Tempur(TM) material, which conforms to each wearer's unique foot shape to absorb shock and cushion the foot. The foam's properties allow the shoe to change with the wearer's foot as it shrinks and swells throughout the day. Scientists at NASA's Ames Research Center originally developed temper foam in the early 1970s to relieve the intense pressure of G-forces experienced by astronauts during rocket launches. Tempur-Pedic, Inc., further developed the foam and granted Modellista a license to use it in footwear. The Modellista collection is the first shoe design and construction to be certified by the Space Awareness Alliance. The shoes, with designs ranging from traditional clog shapes to sling backs and open-toe sandals, are currently available nationwide at select specialty shoe stores and through catalogs. Tempur(TM) is a registered trademark of Tempur-Pedic, Inc.

  10. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  11. Differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2014-02-01

    Our understanding of age-related changes to foot function during walking has mainly been based on plantar pressure measurements, with little information on differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Joint kinematics of the foot and ankle for 20 young (mean age 23.2 years, standard deviation (SD) 3.0) and 20 older adults (mean age 73.2 years, SD 5.1) were quantified during walking with a 12 camera Vicon motion analysis system using a five segment kinematic model. Differences in kinematics were compared between older adults and young adults (preferred and slow walking speeds) using Student's t-tests or if indicated, Mann-Whitney U tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the differences were also computed. The older adults had a less plantarflexed calcaneus at toe-off (-9.6° vs. -16.1°, d = 1.0, p = Walking speed did not influence these differences, as they remained present when groups walked at comparable speeds. The findings of this study indicate that independent of walking speed, older adults exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics compared to younger adults, characterised by less propulsion and reduced mobility of multiple foot segments.

  12. Interpreting radiographs. 1. The foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography of the foot of a conscious standing horse is within the capability of all modern portable X-ray machines; radiographic examination of the feet of horses with long-standing lameness is frequently carried out in practice. With the introduction of modern fast intensifying screens and films there is little excuse for poor results caused by movement or the low output of portable machines. Sadly, although the foot is the most commonly radiographed part of the horse, a high percentage of the films taken are not of diagnostic quality. This is due, first, to over exposure, secondly, to poor developing techniques and thirdly, to poor positioning

  13. Diagnostic radiology of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray radiography continues to be the first and most applied method for diagnostic imaging of the foot and ankle joint. The application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for examination of the foot and ankle joint is on the rise, due to the excellent imaging of soft tissue lesions. A basic requirement of purposeful application, and correct diagnosis, of the various radiological modalities available is a profound knowledge of the anatomy as well as the pathology of the morphological and functional features. (orig./CB)

  14. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease A parent's guide for infants and babies ... a herpes virus infection. Overview Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a common illness of infants and ...

  16. American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week @ ACFAS Poll Results Arthroscopy e-Book The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery Read some of the latest research from the official peer-reviewed scientific journal of ACFAS, The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery ( ...

  17. Tuberculosis of the foot: An osteolytic variety

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Mandeep S; Sameer Aggarwal; Sharad Prabhakar; Vikas Bachhal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Foot involvement in osteoarticular tuberculosis is uncommon and isolated bony involvement of foot bones with an osteolytic defect is even more rare; diagnostic and therapeutic delays can occur, worsening the prognosis. We present a retrospective series of osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: We present 24 osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis (Eleven calcaneus, four cuboid, two cunieforms, one talus, three metatarsals, three phalanges) out of 92 fo...

  18. An overview of the Charcot foot pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    ÖĞÜT, Tahir; Kaynak, Gökhan; Birsel, Olgar; Güven, Mehmet Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Charcot arthropathy of the foot is a rare but devastating complication of diabetes that remains to be a challenging issue for the foot and ankle surgeons. Charcot foot fails to be an obvious diagnostic option that comes to mind, even in a pathognomonic clinical appearance. The rarity of the disorder, more common pathologies that mimic the condition, and the self-limiting prognosis deviate the clinician from the right diagnosis. The clinical challenges in the diagnosis of Charcot foot require ...

  19. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb...

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

  1. Management of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the infecting agent in diabetic food infection with the susceptibility pattern, and to evaluate the effect of wound infection, was culopathy, neuropathy and control of diabetes mellitus on the outcome of the patients. Design: A descriptive and observational study. Place and duration of study: Patients with diabetic foot, admitted in surgical unit 1, B.V. Hospital Bahawalpur, from April 1999 to April 2000, were included in this study. Subject and methods: A total of 60 known diabetic patients were studied, out of these 47 were males and 13 females. They were assessed for angiopathy, neuropathy and extend of foot involvement. Necessary investigations, including x-ray foot, ECG, serum urea and creatinine, pus culture and sensitivity were carried out. Diabetes was controlled on insulin of the basis of serum sugar and urine sugar chart and treated accordingly. Results: The most common age of foot involvement was between 40-70 years. Right side was involved more often than the left (67%: 37%). Most of the infections were due to staphylococcus (50%), pseudomonas (25%) and streptococci (8%). Antibiotic was started based on sensitivity report. Fluoro quinolone plus clindamycin was used in 50%, fluoro quinolone plus metronidazole in 20% and amoxicillin/clavulanate in 23%. Most of the patients (61.7%) were in grade iii or iv of Meggit wagner classification of diabetic foot. Three patients (5%) were treated by below knee amputations while 1.7% patient by above knee amputation. In twenty-four (40%) patients some form of to amputation/ray amputation had to be done,while 32(53.3%) patients had complete healing of would without any amputation. Mortality was 3.33% all the 4 patients (6.7%) who presented late, having uncontrolled diabetes, with angiopathy (absent foot pulses), neuropathy, infection of the foot (grade iii or above) resulted in major amputation sooner or latter. The 32 patients (53.3%) having controlled diabetes mellitus with no angiopathy or

  2. DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rajagopal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Infections of all types are more common in patients with diabetes, on the basis of outcome of retrospective study in Canada. Many types of infections are very common in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. Foot is the most common site. Diabetic foot infections range from mild infections to limb threatening conditions. Most require emergency medical attention. Diabetic foot infection is a global burden and projected to increase from 246 million people to over 380 million people by the year 2025. Many people with diabetes develop complications that seriously affect their quality and length of life. Lower limb complications are common, particularly foot ulcers and gangrene. Development of these complications is attributed to individual risk factors, poverty, racial and ethnic differences, and quality of local and national health care systems. The wide variations noted suggest that best practices in low incidence areas could easily be adapted in high incidence areas to reduce the burden of complications. Almost every infection begins in a wound, often as neuropathic ulceration or a traumatic break in the skin. Infections that begin as a small problem may progress to involve soft tissue, bones and joints. Because of these morbidity and occasional mortality by these foot infections several authoritative groups have recently developed guidelines for assessing and treating diabetic foot. METHODOLOGY 100 Diabetic patients with foot ulcers were admitted and wounds were classified using wagner’s classification. Pus was sent for culture and sensitivity and treated accordingly. RESULTS In our study the most common organism cultured from the wound with diabetes mellitus was staphylococcus. The most sensitive drug for these organisms was found to be chloramphenicol on most occasions. CONCLUSION The rationale of pus culture and sensitivity is not only to definitively treat the diabetic wound after the culture sensitivity report is

  3. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have completely transformed the way we live, work, learn and conduct our everyday activities. Mobile phones have also changed the way users access lexicographic data. In fact, it can be argued that mobile phones and lexicography are not yet compatible. Modern users...... are already mobile – but lexicography is not yet fully ready for the mobile challenge, mobile users and mobile user situations. The article is based on empirical data from two surveys comprising 10 medical doctors, who were asked to look up five medical substances with the medical dictionary app Medicin...... lexicography....

  4. Foot posture, leg length discrepancy and low back pain--their relationship and clinical management using foot orthoses--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Julie C; Bird, Adam R; Azari, Michael F

    2014-06-01

    Mechanical low back pain (LBP) is a very common, expensive, and significant health issue in the western world. Functional musculoskeletal conditions are widely thought to cause mechanical low back pain. The role of foot posture and leg length discrepancy in contributing to abnormal biomechanics of the lumbopelvic region and low back pain is not sufficiently investigated. This critical review examines the evidence for the association between foot function, particularly pronation, and mechanical LBP. It also explores the evidence for a role for foot orthoses in the treatment of this condition. There is a body of evidence to support the notion that foot posture, particularly hyperpronation, is associated with mechanical low back pain. Mechanisms that have been put forward to account for this finding are based on either mechanical postural changes or alterations in muscular activity in the lumbar and pelvic muscles. More research is needed to explore and quantify the effects of foot orthoses on chronic low back pain, especially their effects on lumbopelvic muscle function and posture. The clinical implications of this work are significant since foot orthoses represent a simple and potentially effective therapeutic measure for a clinical condition of high personal and social burden.

  5. Effect of prosthetic design on center of pressure excursion in partial foot prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Dillon, PhD, BPO(Hons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the gait of persons with partial foot amputation (PFA suggest that the effective foot length can be restored when the prosthesis incorporates a relatively stiff forefoot, restricts dorsiflexion, and includes a mechanism whereby forces caused by loading the toe lever can be comfortably distributed to the leg (e.g., an anterior tibial shell. The purpose of this investigation was to systematically alter these variables to understand which design elements are responsible for restoration of the effective foot length. By manipulating features of the prosthesis design in two persons with PFA, we demonstrated using three-dimensional motion analysis that the prosthesis must incorporate each of these design elements to restore the effective foot length. When these design elements were used in concert, the persons with PFA adopted a gait pattern more consistent with nondisabled persons. Further work is required on a larger cohort to ensure the observations are generalizable.

  6. Sensory disturbance and polyneuropathy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with foot deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Karaca Umay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Our aim in this study was to present the results of sensory evaluation tests and electrophysiological evaluations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients with foot deformity and to determine their relation with general health status and lower extremity functionality. Materials and methods Fifty-one patients with RA diagnosis and foot deformity were included in the study. Demographic and disease characteristics of the patients were recorded, and a detailed neurological examination was performed. Superficial sensation, pain, heat, vibration, and two-point discrimination sensation were evaluated in each foot, and their sum was used to determine the sensory deficits index (SDI of 0–10. The presence of polyneuropathy was evaluated with electrophysiological methods. The Health Assessment Questionnaire and mobility and walking subscales of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales-2 were used to assess general health status and lower extremity functionality, respectively. According to the sensory examination and electromyography results, patients were compared in terms of their general health status and lower extremity functional status. Results Sensory disturbance was detected in 39 patients (74% during the examination; however, 27 patients (52.9% had polyneuropathy determined electrophysiologically. In patients with sensory deficits, statistically significant deterioration was detected in general health and foot functionality, including mobility and walking, when compared to patients with a normal sensory evaluation. Conclusions Even in the presence of normal electrophysiological tests, sensory dysfunction alone seems to be associated with severe disability in general health status and foot functionality when compared to patients with a normal sensory examination.

  7. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  8. The best way to reduce reulcerations: if you understand biomechanics of the diabetic foot, you can do it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Alvaro-Afonso, Francisco Javier; García-Morales, Esther; García-Álvarez, Yolanda; Molines-Barroso, Raúl Juan

    2014-12-01

    Foot ulcer recurrence is still an unresolved issue. Although several therapies have been described for preventing foot ulcers, the rates of reulcerations are very high. Footwear and insoles have been recommended as effective therapies that prevent the development of new ulcers; however, the majority of studies have analyzed their effects in terms of reducing peak plantar pressure rather than ulcer relapse. Knowledge of biomechanical considerations is low, in general, in the team approach to diabetic foot because heterogeneous professionals having competence in recurrence prevention are involved. Assessment of biomechanical alterations define a foot type position; examining foot structure and recording plantar pressure could help in appropriate insole and footwear prescription and design. Patient education and compliance should be taken into consideration for better therapy success. When patients suffer from rigid deformities or have undergone an amputation, surgical offloading should be considered as an alternative.

  9. 糖尿病足部的减负治疗%Burden-reducing treatment of the diabetic foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹新华; 陈洪平; 李炳辉

    2012-01-01

    Reducing treatment can alter the force of foot to avoid diabetic foot wounds,promoting wound healing; Burden reduction can also prevent diabetic foot.Burden reduction are important measures for prevention and treatment of diabetic foot.This is an a review about the burden-reduction treatment of the diabetic foot by now.%减负治疗能够改变患足的受力情况,避免糖尿病足创面受压,促进创面的愈合;减负治疗还能预防糖尿病足的发生.因而,减负治疗是预防和治疗糖尿病足的重要措施.现对糖尿病足减负治疗的方法进行综述.

  10. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments...... are increasingly becoming ‘second nature’ but also expressions of power, exclusion, and difference. In this talk I will be applying a perspective of ‘mobile situationism’ illustrating how mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from above’ in planning and policy frameworks, design codes and architectural...... designs, but also how the situated and embodied mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from below’ in concrete acts of choice concerning modes of mobilities, ways of moving and interacting. The ‘staging mobilites’ framework opens up to an understanding of the meaning of ‘mobilities design...

  11. Mobile payment

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Paying with mobile devices such as mobile phones or smart phones will expand worldwide in the coming years. This development provides opportunities for various industries (banking, telecommunications, credit card business, manufacturers, suppliers, retail) and for consumers.

  12. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  13. Mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, W.J.; Marquina, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a conference on mobile robots. Topics the conference included are the following: mobility systems for robotic vehicles; detection and control of mobile robot motion by real-time computer vision, obstacle avoidance algorithms for an autonomous land vehicle; hierarchical processor and matched filters for range image processing; asynchronous distributed control system for a mobile robot, and, planning in a hierarchical nested autonomous control system.

  14. Biomechanics of Climbing Coconut Trees and its Implications in Ankle Foot Morphology- A Video Sequence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    George, Bincy M.; Kumar, Arunachalam; Rao, Muddanna S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies regarding foot changes and health of professional coconut tree climbers of south India are reported. Medical emergencies are very common, especially due to accidental fall from coconut trees, while on job. Objective of the present study is to analyze the altered biomechanics of lower limb joints used by the coconut tree climbers.

  15. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Users are already mobile, but the question is to which extent knowledge-based dictionary apps are designed for the mobile user situation. The objective of this article is to analyse the characteristics of the mobile user situation and to look further into the stationary user situation and the mob...

  16. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  17. Measurement of foot placement and its variability with inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebula, John R; Ojeda, Lauro V; Adamczyk, Peter G; Kuo, Arthur D

    2013-09-01

    Gait parameters such as stride length, width, and period, as well as their respective variabilities, are widely used as indicators of mobility and walking function. Foot placement and its variability have thus been applied in areas such as aging, fall risk, spinal cord injury, diabetic neuropathy, and neurological conditions. But a drawback is that these measures are presently best obtained with specialized laboratory equipment such as motion capture systems and instrumented walkways, which may not be available in many clinics and certainly not during daily activities. One alternative is to fix inertial measurement units (IMUs) to the feet or body to gather motion data. However, few existing methods measure foot placement directly, due to drift associated with inertial data. We developed a method to measure stride-to-stride foot placement in unconstrained environments, and tested whether it can accurately quantify gait parameters over long walking distances. The method uses ground contact conditions to correct for drift, and state estimation algorithms to improve estimation of angular orientation. We tested the method with healthy adults walking over-ground, averaging 93 steps per trial, using a mobile motion capture system to provide reference data. We found IMU estimates of mean stride length and duration within 1% of motion capture, and standard deviations of length and width within 4% of motion capture. Step width cannot be directly estimated by IMUs, although lateral stride variability can. Inertial sensors measure walks over arbitrary distances, yielding estimates with good statistical confidence. Gait can thus be measured in a variety of environments, and even applied to long-term monitoring of everyday walking. PMID:23810335

  18. Diabetic foot ulcer: assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraogi, Ravi Kant

    2008-02-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a rising health problem with rising prevalence of diabetes. It is the most important cause of non-traumatic foot amputations. Diabetic foot ulcers are primarily due to neuropathy and/or ischaemia, and are frequently complicated by infection. Up to 85% of all diabetic foot related problems are preventable through a combination of good foot care and appropriate education for patients and healthcare providers. The holistic care of diabetic foot ulcer patients requires a multidisciplinary team approach. Apart from blood sugar control, treatment of ulcer involves debridement, offloading, appropriate dressings, vascular maintenance and infection control. Use of adjunctive treatments such as various growth factors, skin replacement dressings and vacuum assisted closure will accelerate healing in selected cases.

  19. Foot kinematics and kinetics during adolescent gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWilliams, Bruce A; Cowley, Matthew; Nicholson, Diane E

    2003-06-01

    Gait analysis models typically analyze the ankle joint complex and treat the foot as a rigid segment. Such models are inadequate for clinical decision making for patients with foot impairments. While previous multisegment foot models have been presented, no comprehensive kinematic and kinetic databases for normal gait exist. This study provides normative foot joint angles, moments and powers during adolescent gait. Eighteen subjects were evaluated using 19 retroreflective markers, six cameras, a pressure platform and a force plate. A nine-segment model determined 3D angles, 3D moments, and powers in eight joints or joint complexes. A complete sets of sagittal, coronal and frontal plane results are presented. Results indicate that single link models of the foot significantly overestimate ankle joint powers during gait. Understanding normal joint kinematics and kinetics during gait will provide a baseline for documenting impairments in patients with foot disorders.

  20. Foot Plantar Pressure Measurement System: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufridin Wahab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury prevention and other applications. This paper reviews foot plantar sensors characteristics as reported in the literature in addition to foot plantar pressure measurement systems applied to a variety of research problems. Strengths and limitations of current systems are discussed and a wireless foot plantar pressure system is proposed suitable for measuring high pressure distributions under the foot with high accuracy and reliability. The novel system is based on highly linear pressure sensors with no hysteresis.

  1. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided......In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  2. Foot Deformities in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    E Ameri; A. Yeganeh

    2007-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: In patients with cerebral palsy (CP) the most common presentation is lower extremity deformity specially foot deformity. Inability to ambulation is the one of the most important disabilities, that dependent to the variety of factors such as severity of disease, kind of CP, etc. This study was aimed to assess prevalence of kinds of foot deformity in CP and communication between kind of CP and foot deformity and another hand inability to ambulation.Materials & Methods...

  3. Hyperspectral Imaging in Diabetic Foot Wound Care

    OpenAIRE

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nouvong, Aksone; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication of diabetes and afflicts as many as 15 to 25% of type 1 and 2 diabetes patients during their lifetime. If untreated, diabetic foot ulcers may become infected and require total or partial amputation of the affected limb. Early identification of tissue at risk of ulcerating could enable proper preventive care, thereby reducing the incidence of foot ulceration. Furthermore, noninvasive assessment of tissue viability around already formed ulcers co...

  4. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the background of the ‘mobilities turn’ (e.g. Cresswell 2006, Urry 2007) this book articulates a new and emerging research field, namely that of ‘m...... enter into a fruitful relationship with mobilities research, offering a relational and mobile design thinking and a valuable base for a reflective design practice around the ubiquitous structures, spaces and systems of mobilities....... that of ‘mobilities design’. The book revolves around the following research question: How are design decisions and interventions staging mobilities? It builds upon the Staging Mobilities model (Jensen 2013) in an explorative inquiry into the problems and potentials of the design of mobilities. The exchange value...... between mobilities and design research is twofold. To mobilities research this means getting closer to the ‘material’, and to engage in the creative, explorative and experimental approaches of the design world which offer new potentials for innovative research. Design research, on the other hand, might...

  5. Effects of prosthetic foot forefoot flexibility on gait of unilateral transtibial prosthesis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Klodd, MS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Five solid-ankle experimental prosthetic feet were used in this double-blind randomized crossover study to determine the effects of forefoot flexibility on gait of 14 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. Flexibility in experimental feet was altered by changing the number of flexural hinges in their forefoot sections. When experimental prosthetic foot conditions were compared, measured prosthetic ankle dorsiflexion range of motion increased as much as 3.3° with increasing flexibility (p < 0.001 and the foot's anterior moment arm (measured as the effective foot length ratio increased as much as 23% of the foot length with decreasing flexibility (p < 0.001. Subjects also showed increases in the difference between sound and prosthetic ankle moments as high as 0.53 Nm/kg in late stance phase of walking as flexibility decreased (p < 0.001. The difference between first peaks of the vertical ground reaction forces on the sound and prosthetic sides increased as much as 9% of body weight when subjects used the foot with the greatest flexibility (p = 0.001. The results of this study suggest solid-ankle prosthetic foot designs with overly flexible forefoot sections can cause a "drop-off" effect in late stance phase and during the transition of loading between prosthetic and contralateral limbs.

  6. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A

    2012-02-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical outcome. However, several aspects related to offloading are underexposed. First, in the management of foot complications, offloading is mostly studied as a single entity, whereas it should be analysed in a broader perspective of contributing factors to better predict clinical outcome. This includes assessment of patient behavioural factors such as type and intensity of daily physical activity and adherence to prescribed treatment. Second, a large gap exists between evidence-based recommendations and clinical practice in the use of offloading for ulcer treatment, and this gap needs to be bridged. Possible ways to achieve this are discussed in this article. Third, our knowledge about the efficacy and role of offloading in treating complicated and non-plantar neuropathic foot ulcers needs to be expanded because these ulcers currently dominate presentation in multidisciplinary foot practice. Finally, foot ulcer prevention is underexposed when compared with ulcer treatment. Prevention requires a larger focus, in particular regarding the efficacy of therapeutic footwear and its relative role in comparison with other preventative strategies. These priorities need the attention of clinicians, scientists and professional societies to improve our understanding of offloading and to improve clinical outcome in the management of the diabetic foot.

  7. Mobile Semiotics - signs and mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    a potential for mobilities studies if the awareness of seeing the environment as a semiotic layer and system can be sensitized to the insights of the ‘mobilities turn’. Empirically the paper tentatively explores the usefulness of a mobile semiotics approach to cases such as street signage, airport design...

  8. The diabetic foot: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, J B; Thanh Phong, L; Schneider, F; Illuminati, G; Belmonte, R; Valagier, A; Régnault De La Mothe, G

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is among the most frequent complications of diabetes. Neuropathy and ischaemia are the initiating factors and infection is mostly a consequence. We have shown in this review that any DFU should be considered to have vascular impairment. DFU will generally heal if the toe pressure is >55 mmHg and a transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) <30 mmHg has been considered to predict that a diabetic ulcer may not heal. The decision to intervene is complex and made according to the symptoms and clinical findings. If both an endovascular and a bypass procedure are possible with an equal outcome to be expected, endovascular treatments should be preferred. Primary and secondary mid-term patency rates are better after bypass, but there is no difference in limb salvage. Bedridden patients with poor life expectancy and a non-revascularisable leg are indications for performing a major amputation. A deep infection is the immediate cause of amputation in 25% to 50% of diabetic patients. Patients with uncontrolled abscess, bone or joint involvement, gangrene, or necrotising fasciitis have a "foot-at risk" and need prompt surgical intervention with debridement and revascularisation. As demonstrated in this review, foot ulcer in diabetic is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Early referral, non-invasive vascular testing, imaging and intervention are crucial to improve DFU healing and to prevent amputation. Diabetics are eight to twenty-four times more likely than non-diabetics to have a lower limb amputation and it has been suggested that a large part of those amputations could be avoided by an early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:24126512

  9. Clinical Measures of Shoulder Mobility in the Professional Baseball Player

    OpenAIRE

    Downar, Jacquelyn M; Sauers, Eric L.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Professional baseball players must achieve a delicate balance between shoulder mobility and stability to attain optimal sports performance. The sport-specific demands of repetitive overhead throwing may result in an altered mobility-stability relationship.

  10. ARIES: A mobile robot inspector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) is a mobile robot inspection system being developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) to survey and inspect drums containing mixed and low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at DOE facilities. The drums are typically stacked four high and arranged in rows with three-foot aisle widths. The robot will navigate through the aisles and perform an autonomous inspection operation, typically performed by a human operator. It will make real-time decisions about the condition of the drums, maintain a database of pertinent information about each drum, and generate reports

  11. On Sound Footing: The Health of Your Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe On Sound Footing The Health of Your Feet Your feet ... search Features A Bang to the Brain On Sound Footing Wise Choices Links Foot Health Tips Use ...

  12. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored.

  13. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject's foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions. PMID:26703622

  14. Evaluation of a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analyser in highly active, moderately active and less active young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ann M; Swartz, Ann M; Jeremy Evans, M; King, George A; Thompson, Dixie L

    2002-08-01

    The Tanita TBF-305 (Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan) is a commercially available foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system. The manufacturer-supplied equations incorporate gender, mass, height, activity category and a measured impedance value to determine % body fat (BF). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the manufacturer-supplied 'adult' and 'athlete' equations provided an accurate estimate of % BF for a group of young men with varying activity levels. Fifty-seven men (18-35 years old) were categorized into the following groups: (1) highly active (HA) (> or = 10.0 h aerobic activity/week); (2) moderately active (MA) (2.5-10.0 h aerobic activity/week); (3) less active (LA) (aerobic activity/week). The % BF was measured using the BIA 'athlete' and 'adult' modes. After BIA measurements, residual volume was measured and hydrostatic weighing (HW) was performed. The amount of activity performed by each group was significantly different (P<0.001). No significant differences were found between the % BF determined by the 'athlete' mode and HW for HA (P=0.309) and MA (P=0.091). However, a significant difference was found for LA (P=0.001). The % BF determined by the 'adult' mode and HW was not different for LA (P=0.395), but was significantly different for MA (P<0.001) and HA (P<0.001). The choice of activity mode on the foot-to-foot BIA significantly alters prediction of % BF. With careful selection of activity mode, there was no statistical difference between % BF determined by HW and the BIA, but the range of individual error scores was large. PMID:12144724

  15. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences of contemporary......-making. The paper proposes that increased understanding of the material affordances facilitated through design provides important insight to planning and policymaking that at times might be in risk of becoming too detached from the everyday life of the mobile subject within contemporary mobilities landscapes....

  16. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration...... by constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  17. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile...... users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... performance, improve utilization of resources and create flexible platforms to share resources in very novel ways. Energy efficient aspects of mobile clouds are discussed in detail, showing how being cooperative can bring mobile users significant energy saving. The book presents and discusses multiple...

  18. [The "diabetic foot" syndrome. An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E

    1999-01-01

    Amputation has been used most frequently to treat the diabetic foot syndrome, occlusive microangiopathy being suspected as the underlying cause. This paradigm is obsolete: most diabetic foot lesions are due to traumatic painless (neuropathic) infections. Evidence is presented for alternative treatment strategies to effectively reduce exorbitant amputation rates in diabetic patients.

  19. Chronic lateral instability of the foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.K. Louwerens

    1996-01-01

    textabstractInjmy to the ligaments on the lateral side of the ankle and foot, caused by a sudden excessive inversion andlor torsion of the foot in relation to the leg, is probably the most common everyday injury of the locomotory system. Most of these injuries are sustained during sport, but with in

  20. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  1. A comparison of haemolytic responses in fore-foot and rear-foot distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Stuart; McDonald, Kirsty A; Dawson, Brian; Stearne, Sarah M; Green, Ben A; Rubenson, Jonas; Clemons, Tristan D; Peeling, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the haemolytic effects of an interval-based running task in fore-foot and rear-foot striking runners. Nineteen male distance runners (10 fore-foot, 9 rear-foot) completed 8 × 3 min repeats at 90% vVO2peak on a motorised treadmill. Pre- and post-exercise venous blood samples were analysed for serum haptoglobin to quantify the haemolytic response to running. Vertical ground reaction forces were also captured via a force plate beneath the treadmill belt. Haptoglobin levels were significantly decreased following exercise (P = 0.001) in both groups (but not between groups), suggesting that the running task created a haemolytic stress. The ground reaction force data showed strong effect sizes for a greater peak force (d = 1.20) and impulse (d = 1.37) in fore-foot runners, and a greater rate of force development (d = 2.74) in rear-foot runners. The lack of difference in haptoglobin response between groups may be explained by the trend for fore-foot runners to experience greater peak force and impulse during the stance phase of their running gait, potentially negating any impact of the greater rate of force development occurring from the rear-foot runners' heel strike. Neither type of runner (fore-foot or rear-foot) appears more susceptible to technique-related foot-strike haemolysis. PMID:26618486

  2. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    We have developed an assay for a substance from hydra that accelerates foot regeneration in the animal. This substance is specific for the foot as evidenced by the following findings: (1) It is present in the animal as a steep gradient descending from foot to head, paralleling the foot-forming po......We have developed an assay for a substance from hydra that accelerates foot regeneration in the animal. This substance is specific for the foot as evidenced by the following findings: (1) It is present in the animal as a steep gradient descending from foot to head, paralleling the foot...

  3. Foot bone kinematics as measured in a cadaveric robotic gait simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Eric C; Aubin, Patrick M; Ledoux, William R

    2011-04-01

    The bony motion of the foot during the stance phase of gait is useful to further our understanding of joint function, disease etiology, injury prevention and surgical intervention. In this study, we used a 10-segment in vitro foot model with anatomical coordinate systems and a robotic gait simulator (RGS) to measure the kinematics of the tibia, talus, calcaneus, cuboid, navicular, medial cuneiform, first metatarsal, hallux, third metatarsal, and fifth metatarsal from six cadaveric feet. The RGS accurately reproduced in vivo vertical ground reaction force (5.9% body weight RMS error) and tibia to ground kinematics. The kinematic data from the foot model generally agree with invasive in vivo descriptions of bony motion and provides the most realistic description of bony motion currently available for an in vitro model. These data help to clarify the function of several joints that are difficult to study in vivo; for example, the combined range of motion of the talonavicular, naviculocuneiform, metatarsocuneiform joints provided more sagittal plane mobility (27.4°) than the talotibial joint alone (23.2°). Additionally, the anatomical coordinate systems made it easier to meaningfully determine bone-to-bone motion, describing uniplanar motion as rotation about a single axis rather than about three. The data provided in this study allow for many kinematic interpretations to be made about dynamic foot bone motion, and the methodology presents a means to explore many invasive foot biomechanics questions under near-physiologic conditions.

  4. Mobile phones and mobile communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Donner, Jonathan

    With staggering swiftness, the mobile phone has become a fixture of daily life in almost every society on earth. In 2007, the world had over 3 billion mobile subscriptions. Prosperous nations boast of having more subscriptions than people. In the developing world, hundreds of millions of people who...... researchers in the field, this volume presents an overview of the mobile telephone as a social and cultural phenomenon. Research is summarized and made accessible though detailed descriptions of ten mobile users from around the world. These illustrate popular debates, as well as deeper social forces at work...... could never afford a landline telephone now have a mobile number of their own. With a mobile in our hand many of us feel safer, more productive, and more connected to loved ones, but perhaps also more distracted and less involved with things happening immediately around us. Written by two leading...

  5. Mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  6. Mobile Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2013-01-01

    is a ‘mobile sense making’ where signs and materially situated meanings connect to the moving human body and thus create particular challenges and complexities of making sense of the world. The chapter includes notions of mobility systems and socio-technical networks in order to show how a ‘semiotic layer’ may...

  7. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Within the so-called ‘mobilities turn’ (Adey 2010; Cresswell 2006; Urry 2007) much research has taken place during the last decade bringing mobilities into the centre of sociological analysis. However, the materiality and spatiality of artefacts, infrastructures, and sites hosting mobilities...... are often still not engaged with in a sufficiently manner. Often social sciences keep distance to the physical and material as if the social was still to be understood as a realm separate of technology, architecture, and design (for a critique of this see; Latour 2005 and Urry 2000). This paper takes point...... of departure in the sociological perspective termed ‘Staging Mobilities’ (Jensen 2013a) and utilizes this as an analytical frame for exploring cases of mobility design. The paper put focus on how the material shape, design and architectures of technologies, spaces and sites influence mobilities practices...

  8. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  9. Design and Implementation of Anti Lost Bluetooth Low Energy Mobile Device for Mobile Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta S. Chavan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today mobile phone like smart phone, tablet are very costly ranging from 300 USD to 600 USD , to avoid them to get forget at any social places, we can have mobile device(gadget which will warn us (beepthis device is left back .To make commercialize product which will act as mobile phone watchmen, with specification and characteristic like smallest device foot print, comfortable to carry along, ultra low power consumption to increase battery life and to avoid frequent charging, ultra low Sleep currents and efficient performance. As per this specification we will develop a mobile device (gadget which will connect to mobile phone by Bluetooth connectivity if this gadget will go beyond 4 to 6 meters gadget will beep loud when Bluetooth connectivity breaks.

  10. MR imaging features of foot involvement in ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Sarikaya, Selda; Erdem, L. Oktay; Ozdolap, Senay; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine alterations of the soft tissue, tendon, cartilage, joint space, and bone of the foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Materials and Method: Clinical and MR examination of the foot was performed in 23 AS patients (46 feet). Ten asymptomatic volunteers (20 feet) were studied on MR imaging, as a control group. MR imaging protocol included; T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast-field echo (FFE) and fat-suppressed short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences in sagittal, sagittal oblique, and coronal planes using a head coil. Specifically, we examined: bone erosions, tendinitis (acute and chronic), para-articular enthesophyte, joint effusion, plantar fasciitis, joint space narrowing, soft tissue edema, bone marrow edema, enthesopathy in the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia attachment, subchondral signal intensity abnormalities (edema and sclerosis), tenosynovitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, subchondral cysts, subchondral fissures, and bony ankylosis. Midfoot, hindfoot, and ankle were included in examined anatomic regions. Results: Clinical signs and symptoms (pain and swelling) due to foot involvement were present in 3 (13%) of the patients while frequency of involvement was 21 (91%) with MR imaging assessment. The MR imaging findings were bone erosions (65%), Achilles tendinitis (acute and chronic) (61%), para-articular enthesophyte (48%), joint effusion (43%), plantar fasciitis (40%), joint space narrowing (40%), subchondral sclerosis (35%), soft tissue edema (30%), bone marrow edema (30%), enthesopathy of the Achilles attachment (30%), subchondral edema (26%), enthesopathy in the plantar fascia attachment (22%), retrocalcaneal bursitis (22%), subchondral cysts (17%), subchondral fissures (17%), tendinitis and enthesopathy of the plantar ligament (13%), and bony ankylosis (9%). The most common involved anatomical region was the hindfoot (83%) following by midfoot (69% ) and ankle (22

  11. Clinical anatomy of the ankle and foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Canoso, Juan J; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Vargas, Angélica; Kalish, Robert A

    This paper emphasizes the anatomical substrate of several foot conditions that are seldom discussed in this context. These include the insertional and non-insertional Achilles tendinopathies, plantar fasciopathy, inferior and posterior heel spurs, foot compartment syndromes, intermetatarsal bursitis and Morton's neuroma. It is a rather superficial anatomical review of an organ that remains largely neglected by rheumatologists. It is our hope that the cases discussed and the cross examination by instructors and participants will stimulate study of the foot and the attention it deserves. PMID:23228530

  12. Multi-joint foot kinetics during walking in people with Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLiberto, Frank E; Tome, Josh; Baumhauer, Judith F; Quinn, Jill R; Houck, Jeff; Nawoczenski, Deborah A

    2015-10-15

    Neuropathic tissue changes can alter muscle function and are a primary reason for foot pathologies in people with Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DMPN). Understanding of foot kinetics in people with DMPN is derived from single-segment foot modeling approaches. This approach, however, does not provide insight into midfoot power and work. Gaining an understanding of midfoot kinetics in people with DMPN prior to deformity or ulceration may help link foot biomechanics to anticipated pathologies in the midfoot and forefoot. The purpose of this study was to evaluate midfoot (MF) and rearfoot (RF) power and work in people with DMPN and a healthy matched control group. Thirty people participated (15 DMPN and 15 Controls). An electro-magnetic tracking system and force plate were used to record multi-segment foot kinematics and ground reaction forces during walking. MF and RF power, work, and negative work ratios were calculated and compared between groups. Findings demonstrated that the DMPN group had greater negative peak power and reduced positive peak power at the MF and RF (all p≤0.05). DMPN group negative work ratios were also greater at the MF and RF [Mean difference MF: 9.9%; p=0.24 and RF: 18.8%; pstudy is recommended to determine how both MF and RF kinetics influence the development of deformity and ulceration in people with DMPN.

  13. Sustainable Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

    This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired...... by mobility management, a concept aiming to reduce carbon emissions from transportation in western societies. The article focuses on how municipal planners formulate the role of mobility management activities organized around private companies, and how their practices are connected to wider ideas on planning....

  14. Accentual mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olander, Thomas Kristoffer

    slaviske mobile accentparadigmer i høj grad stemmer overens med hinanden, er det sandsynligt at accentmobiliteten i de to sproggrupper går tilbage til et fælles udgangspunkt. Formålet med afhandlingen er at bestemme den urindoeuropæiske baggrund for de baltoslaviske mobile accentparadigmer. I de...... paradigmatiske accent i urbaltoslavisk på grundlag af materiale fra de tre baltiske sprog og urslavisk. I kapitel IV foretages af en undersøgelse af den foreslåede accentlov ud fra en sammenligning af de rekonstruerede urindoeuropæiske endelser og de tilsvarende former i de urbaltoslaviske mobile...

  15. Subversive Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The article approaches mobility through a cultural history of urban conflict. Using a case of “The Copenhagen Trouble,“ a series of riots in the Danish capital around 1900, a space of subversive mobilities is delineated. These turn-of-the-century riots points to a new pattern of mobile gathering......, the swarm; to a new aspect of public action, the staging; and to new ways of configuring public space. These different components indicate an urban assemblage of subversion, and a new characterization of the “throwntogetherness“ of the modern public....

  16. Going Mobile?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tallon, Loic; Froes, Isabel Cristina G.

    2011-01-01

    If the future is mobile, how is the museum community developing within that future? What are the challenges museums face within it? In which directions should we be seeking to evolve our collective knowledge share? It was to gain observations on questions such as these that the 2011 Museums & Mob...... & Mobile survey was developed: 660 museum professionals responded. In this paper the authors highlight nine survey observations that they believe are important to the museum community’s increased understanding of and continued progress within mobile interpretation....

  17. Clinical and functional correlates of foot pain in diabetic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Dekker, E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: patients with diabetes mellitus frequently suffer from foot pain. This pain seems to be a neglected area in studies on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical variables associated with foot pain in diabetic patients. In addition, the relationships between foot

  18. Effect of forward/backward standing posture on foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Tan, T.K.; Punte, P.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Foot length and breadth are generally used to determine the correct shoe size. An important question is whether foot length and foot breadth are dependent upon body posture. Therefore, the effect of leaning forward/backward on foot length and breadth is investigated in this study. Seven subjects par

  19. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private/public spaces...... in the article is that the many mobility systems enable specialization of places that are targeted at a special section of the population. This means that various forms of motilities not only create new opportunities for urban life but it is also one of the most critical components of production of new exclusion......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...

  20. Mobile museology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    posts from the research project blog with three research articles: ‘Museum metamorphosis à la mode’, proposing a fashion perspective on ongoing museum developments; ‘Augmenting the agora: media and civic engagement in museums’, questioning the idea of social media holding a vital potential......Drawing together perspectives from museology, digital culture studies and fashion theory, this thesis considers changes in and challenges for current - day museums as related to ‘mobile museology’. This concept is developed for and elucidated in the thesis to describe an orientation towards...... the fashionable, the ephemeral, and towards an (ideal) state of change and changeability. This orientation is characterised with the triplet concepts of mobile, mobility, and mobilisation, as related to mobile media and movability; to ‘trans - museal’ mediation; and to the mobilisation of collections, audiences...

  1. A survey of foot problems in community-dwelling older Greek Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are common in older people and are associated with impaired mobility and quality of life. However, the characteristics of foot problems in older Australians for whom English is a second language have not been evaluated. Methods One hundred and four community-dwelling people aged 64 to 90 years with disabling foot pain (according to the case definition of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, or MFPDI were recruited from four Greek elderly citizens clubs in Melbourne, Australia. All participants completed a Greek language questionnaire consisting of general medical history, the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire, the MFPDI, and specific questions relating to foot problems and podiatry service utilisation. In addition, all participants underwent a brief clinical foot assessment. Results The MFPDI score ranged from 1 to 30 (median 14, out of a total possible score of 34. Women had significantly higher total MFPDI scores and MFPDI subscale scores. The MFPDI total score and subscale scores were significantly associated with most of the SF-36 subscale scores. The most commonly reported foot problem was difficulty finding comfortable shoes (38%, and the most commonly observed foot problem was the presence of hyperkeratotic lesions (29%. Only 13% of participants were currently receiving podiatry treatment, and 40% stated that they required more help looking after their feet. Those who reported difficulty finding comfortable shoes were more likely to be female, and those who required more help looking after their feet were more likely to be living alone and have osteoarthritis in their knees or back. Conclusions Foot problems appear to be common in older Greek Australians, have a greater impact on women, and are associated with reduced health-related quality of life. These findings are broadly similar to previous studies in English-speaking older people in Australia. However, only a small

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF A FOOT ORTHOTIC ON LOWER EXTREMITY TRANSVERSE PLANE KINEMATICS IN COLLEGIATE FEMALE ATHLETES WITH PES PLANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Carcia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries in female athletes remain prevalent. Athletes with excessive foot pronation have been identified to be at greater risk for non-contact ACL injury. Excessive foot pronation has been linked to increased medial tibial rotation. Increased medial tibial rotation heightens ACL strain and has been observed at or near the time of ACL injury. Foot orthotics have been shown to decrease medial tibial rotation during walking and running tasks. The effect of a foot orthotic on activities that simulate a non-contact ACL injury mechanism (i.e. landing however is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether a foot orthotic was capable of altering transverse plane lower extremity kinematics in female athletes during landing. Twenty uninjured collegiate female athletes participating in the sports of basketball, soccer or volleyball with pes planus volunteered. Utilizing a repeated measures counterbalanced design, subjects completed two landing tasks with and without a foot orthotic using standardized footwear. The prefabricated orthotic had a rigid shell and a 6 extrinsic rear-foot varus post. Dependent measures included initial contact angle, peak angle, excursion and time to peak angle for both the tibia and femur. Statistical analysis suggested that the selected foot orthosis had little influence over lower extremity transverse plane kinematics. Several factors including: the limitation of a static measure to predict dynamic movement, inter-subject variability and the physical characteristics of the orthotic device likely account for the results. Future research should examine the influence of different types of foot orthotics not only on lower extremity kinematics but also tibiofemoral kinetics

  3. [Diabetic, neuropathic, arteriopathic foot and dressing choice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, S; Kayoumi, M

    2012-11-14

    The definition for the diabetic foot is infection, ulceration or destruction of deep tissues of the foot associated with neuropathy or peripheral vascular disease in the lower extremity of people with diabetes. Non-diabetic patients may suffer the same risks when neuropathy and arteriopathy are present. Knowing that 85% of amputations are preceded by foot ulcers, prevention is primordial. At the onset of an ulcer, immediate treatment must be undertaken and preferably by an interdisciplinary team. Delayed healing and increased risk of infection are often due to an associated vascular disease. While the array of dressings is expansive there is no «gold standard» treatment or «miracle dressing» described for foot ulcers. The management consists of wound analysis, debridement, woundcare and especially offloading.

  4. Diabetic foot ulcer management: the podiatrist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turns, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot complications result from two broad pathologies-neuropathic and neuro-ischaemic feet. It is important for diabetic patients to have at least a yearly review of foot ulcer risk factors, and they should have a corresponding risk classification agreed based on this assessment. Diabetic foot ulcer assessment should include a wound classification tool, which can give an indication of wounds at greater risk of non-healing or amputation. The treatment of diabetic foot ulcers should be part of a comprehensive care plan that should also include treatment of infection, frequent debridement (if deemed appropriate by a skilled specialist clinician), biomechanical offloading, blood glucose control and treatment of comorbidities. Clinicians should base dressing selection on the wound's location, size and depth, amount of exudate, presence of infection or necrosis and the condition of the surrounding tissue.

  5. Diabetic foot resulting in amputation: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Patel

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: Foot ulceration in diabetic patients is a resource consuming, disabling morbidity that often is the first step towards lower extremity amputation. Prevention is the best treatment. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 210-214

  6. The diabetic foot in 2015: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, K; Bowling, F L; Boulton, A J M

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, it can be said that the diabetic foot is no longer the Cinderella of diabetic complications. Thirty years ago there was little evidence-based research taking place on the diabetic foot, and there were no international meetings addressing this topic. Since then, the biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot meetings started in 1986, the American Diabetes Association founded their Foot Council in 1987, and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes established a Foot Study Group in 1998. The first International Symposium on the Diabetic Foot in The Netherlands was convened in 1991, and this was soon followed by the establishment of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot that has produced useful guidelines in several areas of investigation and the management of diabetic foot problems. There has been an exponential rise in publications on diabetic foot problems in high impact factor journals, and a comprehensive evidence-base now exists for many areas of treatment. Despite the extensive evidence available, it, unfortunately, remains difficult to demonstrate that most types of education are efficient in reducing the incidence of foot ulcers. However, there is evidence that education as part of a multi-disciplinary approach to diabetic foot ulceration plays a pivotal role in incidence reduction. With respect to treatment, strong evidence exists that offloading is the best modality for healing plantar neuropathic foot ulcers, and there is also evidence from two randomized controlled trials to support the use of negative-pressure wound therapy in complex post-surgical diabetic foot wounds. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy exhibits the same evidence level and strength of recommendation. International guidelines exist on the management of infection in the diabetic foot. Many randomized trials have been performed, and these have shown that the agents studied generally produced comparable results, with the exception of one study in which tigecycline was shown to

  7. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  8. Mobile Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Enache

    2016-01-01

    Mobile commerce, or m-commerce, refers to the use of wireless digital devices to enable transactions on the Web. Described more fully in Chapter 3, m-commerce involves the use of wireless networks to connect cell phones, handheld devices such Blackberries, and personal computers to the Web. Once connected, mobile consumers can conduct transactions, including stock trades, in-store price comparisons, banking, travel reservations, and more.

  9. A dynamic 3D foot reconstruction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ali K; Trucco, Emanuele; Salvi, Joaquim; Wang, Weijie; Abboud, Rami J

    2011-01-01

    Foot problems are varied and range from simple disorders through to complex diseases and joint deformities. Wherever possible, the use of insoles, or orthoses, is preferred over surgery. Current insole design techniques are based on static measurements of the foot, despite the fact that orthoses are prevalently used in dynamic conditions while walking or running. This paper presents the design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion, and its use to show that foot measurements in dynamic conditions differ significantly from their static counterparts. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Engineering and clinical tests were carried out for the validation of the system. The accuracy of the system was found to be 0.34 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.44 mm (static case) and 2.81 mm (dynamic case). Furthermore, a study was performed to compare the effective length of the foot between static and dynamic reconstructions using the 4D system. Results showed an average increase of 9 mm for the dynamic case. This increase is substantial for orthotics design, cannot be captured by a static system, and its subject-specific measurement is crucial for the design of effective foot orthoses.

  10. Postoperative infection in the foot and ankle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Victoria O

    2012-07-01

    Our discussion highlights the commonly performed surgical procedures in the foot and ankle and reviews the various imaging modalities available for the detection of infection with graphic examples to better enable radiologists to approach the radiological evaluation of postoperative infection in the foot and ankle. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious inflammation remains a diagnostic challenge usually needing a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and imaging studies to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  11. A Case of Hot Foot Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu Çayırlı; Sinem Budak

    2012-01-01

    Hot foot syndrome (HFS) is a benign, self-limited disorder, which is apparently caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. The disease is characterized by the acute onset in children with painful plantar nodules which generally does not require antibiotic therapy. Particularly, the mechanically stressed areas of the foot are affected after contact with contaminated water from saunas, swimming pools or hot tubs. HFS is a potentially important public health hazard that may causes outbreaks. In...

  12. The management of the infected diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggi, Carlo; Sganzaroli, Adriana; Galenda, Paolo; Bassetti, Matteo; Ferraresi, Roberto; Gabrielli, Livio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease with a worldwide increasing trend. Foot complications, closely related to neuropathy and obstructive peripheral vascular disease, are responsible for more than 1 million of leg amputations every year. Foot infection can dramatically increase the risk of amputation. Although many ulcer classification systems have been proposed to stratify the severity of the infectious process, the definition of a specific therapeutic approach still remains an unsolved problem. A Diabetic Foot Triage and an Integrated Surgical Protocol are proposed to identify a diagnostic flowchart and a step-by-step surgical protocol that can be applied in the treatment of diabetic foot infection. Considering the rapid climbing of multidrug resistant strains it is very important to rationalize the use of antibiotics utilizing them only for the treatment of true infected ulcers. PAD is widely considered the most important factor conditioning the outcome of a diabetic foot ulcer. Currently no randomized control trials are reported in the international literature directly comparing open versus endovascular revascularisation in diabetic patients with CLI. Insufficient data are available to demonstrate whether open bypass surgery or endovascular interventions are more effective in these patients. A decisional flow chart in choosing the best revascularization strategy in diabetic patients with CLI is proposed. Goals and technical aspects of emergency and elective surgical procedures in diabetic foot are analysed to evaluate critical aspects and to suggest proper surgical choices.

  13. THE MADURA FOOT - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazimuddin Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Madura foot or mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease characterized by localized infection of subcutaneous tissues by actinomycetes or fungi. The inflammatory response can extend to the underlying bone. Mycetoma was described first in the mid 1800s and was initially called Madura foot. The infection can be caused by true fungi (eumycetoma in 40%, or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma in 60%.Actinomycetoma may be due to Actinomadura madurae, Actinomadura pelletieri, Streptomyces somaliensis, Nocardia species. The infection, which may remain latent for a time, forms small, subcutaneous swellings that enlarge, soften with pus, and break through the skin surface, with concurrent invasion of deeper tissues. Sulfonamide, iodide, and antibiotic therapy have been used against actinomycotic infections, but the fungi are more resistant to treatment. We reported a patient of madura foot from International Medical College Hospital, Tongi, Gazipur. A 82-years old male was admitted to the International medical college hospital with a 16 months history of swelling with multiple discharging sinuses filled with granules localized in his right foot. Pus was examined by gram staining and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining. Moderate number of filamentous branching gram positive bacilli were found . The organism was recognized as a member of the actinomyces genus. PAS staining did not reveal any other organism. The aggressive course and progression of the disease affected the short bones of the involved foot. The patient was diagnosed as a case of Madura foot and was treated in the same hospital.

  14. The Charcot foot: pathophysiology, diagnosis and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, K

    2016-09-01

    Neuropathic changes in the foot are common with a prevalence of approximately 1%. The diagnosis of neuropathic arthropathy is often delayed in diabetic patients with harmful consequences including amputation. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment can avoid an extensive programme of treatment with significant morbidity for the patient, high costs and delayed surgery. The pathogenesis of a Charcot foot involves repetitive micro-trauma in a foot with impaired sensation and neurovascular changes caused by pathological innervation of the blood vessels. In most cases, changes are due to a combination of both pathophysiological factors. The Charcot foot is triggered by a combination of mechanical, vascular and biological factors which can lead to late diagnosis and incorrect treatment and eventually to destruction of the foot. This review aims to raise awareness of the diagnosis of the Charcot foot (diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy and the differential diagnosis, erysipelas, peripheral arterial occlusive disease) and describe the ways in which the diagnosis may be made. The clinical diagnostic pathways based on different classifications are presented. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1155-9.

  15. Hand, foot and mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Muppa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is an acute viral illness with a distinct clinical presentation of oral and characteristic distal extremity lesions. Knowledge of this is important for the dentists as the oral lesions are the first clinical signs and sometimes may be the only sign because the condition occasionally may regress even before the lesions appear on the extremities. This case describes a 5-year-old boy in whom low-grade fever of 38.7°C and oral lesions were the initial manifestations. Proper diagnosis was established later based on the typical location of the initial intraoral ulcers on the soft palate followed by cutaneous lesions on the hands and feet with vesicle formation surrounded by an erythematous halo. The recognition of HFMD is important for both pediatricians and pedodontists as oral manifestations are the first signs and may mimic many other conditions like acute herpetic gingivostomstomatitis, apthous stomatitis, chickenpox, erythema multiformae and misdiagnosis may involve an inappropriate prescription of medication.

  16. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  17. The Effect of Foot Massage on Physiological Indicators of Female Patients with CVA Admitted in the ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Moshtaqeshgh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit is one of stressful wards for patients and stress creates some alterations in physiologic indicators of patients. So it is necessary to use a low expense and comforting method to stabilize physiologic indicators. The purpose of the present research is to determine the effect of foot massage on physiologic indicators including pulse, respiration, mean arterial pressure, temperature and arterial blood oxygen saturation. Methods: This research was a quasi experimental study and a clinical trial with repeated measures in which 46 patients with brain stroke hospitalized in intensive care unit of Tajrish Shohada Hospital in Tehran were studied. Information was collected 10 minutes before and 10 and 30 minute intervals after foot stroke massage on the second, third and fourth days of ICU admission. Data was analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA statistical method. Results: Findings showed that after 5-minute foot massage, pulse rate, respiratory rate and mean arterial blood pressure significantly decreased (P<0.001 and spo2 increased (P<0.001. Decreasing temperature was significant but alterations were little and clinically it can be said that body temperature had no alteration and approximately remained constant. Conclusion: Findings showed that parasympathetic activity after foot massage results in alteration of various body physiologic responses, relaxes patients and decreases their anxiety. Therefore anxiety of patients can decreased with using a simple, low expense and non invasive method and can stabilize physiologic indicators and decrease effects of vital signs instability.

  18. Influence of Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy on Tissue Oxygenation of the Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Shon, Yoo-Seok; Lee, Ye-Na; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is believed to accelerate wound healing by altering wound microvascular blood flow. Although many studies using laser Doppler have found that NPWT increases perfusion, recent work using other modalities has demonstrated that perfusion is reduced. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of NPWT on tissue oxygenation of the foot, which is the most sensitive region of the body to ischemia. Methods Transcutaneous partial pressur...

  19. COMPARISON OF GAIT USING A MULTIFLEX FOOT VERSUS A QUANTUM FOOT IN KNEE DISARTICULATION AMPUTEES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONSTRA, AM; FIDLER, [No Value; SPITS, GMA; HOF, AL; Tuil, P.

    1993-01-01

    The subjective responses and gait patterns of unilateral knee disarticulation amputees wearing prostheses fitted first with the Multiflex foot and then with the Quantum foot were studied. Nine amputees were included in the trial. A questionnaire asked the amputees about their preference for one of t

  20. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, N.M.; Koenraadt, K.L.M.; Louwerens, J.W.; Grim, D.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Keijsers, N.L.W.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. METHODS: The f

  1. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  2. Long distance running and acute effects on plantar foot sensitivity and plantar foot loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfuth, Martin; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2011-09-26

    The plantar surface of the foot senses local pressures during stance and locomotion. These foot loading characteristics may be affected by long distance running. Little is known about the physiological effects of sports-related loading on plantar sensitivity and their relationship with plantar foot loading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of long distance running on plantar sensitivity to touch and their relationship with foot loading characteristics. It was hypothesized that plantar sensation would decrease after long distance running and may be related to foot loading characteristics. In 15 middle-aged runners, sensory detection thresholds to light touch and plantar pressures were measured before and after a 10 km run. After the run, no significant changes in sensory perception thresholds were observed so that correlations between foot sensitivity and foot loading could not be calculated. A significant decrease of force-time integrals and maximum forces was demonstrated in the whole foot (-6.2%, p=0.003; -3.9%, p=0.001) and the heel (-10.5%, p=0.003; -8.5%, p=0.002). Furthermore, maximum force was significantly reduced in the lateral midfoot (-6.4%, p=0.002). In conclusion, a sub-maximal 10 km running exercise appears to have no significant acute effects on plantar sensitivity, plantar pressure distribution and peak forces. PMID:21871535

  3. Diagnostics and treatment of the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelqvist, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Every 30 s, a lower limb is amputated due to diabetes. Of all amputations in diabetic patients 85% are preceded by a foot ulcer which subsequently deteriorates to a severe infection or gangrene. There is a complexity of factors related to healing of foot ulcers including strategies for treatment of decreased perfusion, oedema, pain, infection, metabolic disturbances, malnutrition, non-weight bearing, wound treatment, foot surgery, and management of intercurrent disease. Patients with diabetic foot ulcer and decreased perfusion do often not have rest pain or claudication and as a consequence non-invasive vascular testing is recommended for early recognition of ulcers in need of revascularisation to achieve healing. A diabetic foot infection is a potentially limb-threatening condition. Infection is diagnosed by the presence or increased rate of signs inflammation. Often these signs are less marked than expected. Imaging studies can diagnose or better define deep, soft tissue purulent collections and are frequently needed to detect pathological findings in bone. The initial antimicrobial treatment as well as duration of treatment is empiric. There is a substantial delay in wound healing in diabetic foot ulcer which has been related to various abnormalities. Several new treatments related to these abnormalities have been explored in wound healing with various successes. An essential part of the strategy to achieve healing is an effective offloading. Many interventions with advanced wound management have failed due to not recognizing the need for effective offloading. A multidisciplinary approach to wounds and foot ulcer has been successfully implemented in different centres with a substantial decrease in amputation rate.

  4. Is it important to position foot in subtalar joint neutral position during non–weight-bearing molding for foot orthoses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winson C. C. Lee, PhD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available When taking molds for foot orthoses, it is accepted practice to position the subtalar joint in its neutral position. However, foot orthoses have no contact with the talus, and this leads to a hypothesis that as long as there is correction available to appropriately align the forefoot relative to the hindfoot when taking a mold, changes in subtalar joint angles do not lead to significant alterations in the plantar surface shapes of the molds taken. This study tested this presumption with 20 subjects between 22 and 46 years old. During non–weight-bearing casting, the subtalar joints were aligned at positions of 4° of eversion, 2° of eversion, 2° of inversion, and in neutral. At each orientation, forces were applied over the forefoot such that the metatarsal heads were aligned with the rearfoot. Digital scanning was used to analyze the shape of each negative mold. There were significant changes in projection volume in different subtalar joint orientations. However, the changes in arch heights, navicular height, and protrusion were insignificant and very small. It is therefore suggested that as long as the forefoot and hindfoot are appropriately aligned, variations in the orientation of the subtalar joint would be acceptable.

  5. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  6. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Benoussaad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU placed on the subject’s foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions.

  7. Mobile Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryana, Bijan; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a country specific comparative mobile usability study is presented, using Iran and Turkey as the two chosen emerging/emergent nation exemplars of smartphone usage and adoption. In a focus group study, three mobile applications were selected by first-time users of smartphones...... personal contacts. The results and analysis establish the existence of country specific issues and concerns, as well as reveal generic usability issues. The article concludes that the source of these issues is most likely due to a combination of certain contextual features endemic to both Iran and Turkey...

  8. Poleward expansion of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus under climate change: implications for the spread of lyme disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Roy-Dufresne

    Full Text Available The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus is an important reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and its distribution is expanding northward. We used an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis to identify the climatic factors associated with the distribution shift of the white-footed mouse over the last 30 years at the northern edge of its range, and modeled its current and potential future (2050 distributions using the platform BIOMOD. A mild and shorter winter is favouring the northern expansion of the white-footed mouse in Québec. With more favorable winter conditions projected by 2050, the distribution range of the white-footed mouse is expected to expand further northward by 3° latitude. We also show that today in southern Québec, the occurrence of B. burgdorferi is associated with high probability of presence of the white-footed mouse. Changes in the distribution of the white-footed mouse will likely alter the geographical range of B. burgdorferi and impact the public health in northern regions that have yet to be exposed to Lyme disease.

  9. A shift in priority in diabetic foot care and research: 75% of foot ulcers are preventable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A; van Netten, Jaap J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a heavy burden on the patient and the healthcare system, but prevention thereof receives little attention. For every euro spent on ulcer prevention, ten are spent on ulcer healing, and for every randomized controlled trial conducted on prevention, ten are conducted on healing. In this article, we argue that a shift in priorities is needed. For the prevention of a first foot ulcer, we need more insight into the effect of interventions and practices already applied globally in many settings. This requires systematic recording of interventions and outcomes, and well-designed randomized controlled trials that include analysis of cost-effectiveness. After healing of a foot ulcer, the risk of recurrence is high. For the prevention of a recurrent foot ulcer, home monitoring of foot temperature, pressure-relieving therapeutic footwear, and certain surgical interventions prove to be effective. The median effect size found in a total of 23 studies on these interventions is large, over 60%, and further increases when patients are adherent to treatment. These interventions should be investigated for efficacy as a state-of-the-art integrated foot care approach, where attempts are made to assure treatment adherence. Effect sizes of 75-80% may be expected. If such state-of-the-art integrated foot care is implemented, the majority of problems with foot ulcer recurrence in diabetes can be resolved. It is therefore time to act and to set a new target in diabetic foot care. This target is to reduce foot ulcer incidence with at least 75%.

  10. Effect of Custom-Molded Foot Orthoses on Foot Pain and Balance in Children With Symptomatic Flexible Flat Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Jae; Lim, Kil-Byung; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Tae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. Method A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic technique to control foot overpronation. Pain questionnaire was used to obtain pain sites, degree, and frequency. Balancing ability was determined using computerized posturography. These evaluations were performed prior to custom-molded foot orthoses, 1 month, and 3 months after fitting foot orthoses. Result Of 24 children with symptomatic flexible flat feet recruited for this study, 20 completed the study. Significant (p<0.001) improvements in pain degree and frequency were noted after 1 and 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. In addition, significant (p<0.05) improvement in balancing ability was found after 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. Conclusion Short-term use of custom-molded foot orthoses significantly improved foot pain and balancing ability in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot. PMID:26798604

  11. Mobile Misfortune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    of the mobility it enables. This article, thus, looks at the motives and manners in which young men in Bissau become caught up in transnational flows of cocaine. It shows how motion is emotively anchored and affectively bound: tied to and directed toward a feeling of worth and realisation of being, and how...

  12. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    How is the width of the pavement shaping the urban experience? How is the material design of transport infrastructure and mobile technology affording social interaction in everyday life spaces? How do people inhabit these spaces with their bodies and in accordance to social and cultural norms...

  13. Mobil nationalisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2006-01-01

    , varer, mennesker og kapital men derimod en integreret del af disse tendenser. Gennem begrebet mobil nationalisme argumenteres der for en analytisk optik, hvor nationalisme forstås som en proces hvorigennem skiftende relationer og bevægelser mellem forskellige socio-rumlige skalaer som kroppen...

  14. Mobile Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍万杰

    2004-01-01

    Your mobile phone rings.and instead of usual electronic signals,it's playing your favorite music.A friend sends your favorite song to cheer you up.One day,a record company might forward new records and music videos to your phone.

  15. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

    2014-06-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested.

  16. Compartments of the foot: topographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faymonville, C; Andermahr, J; Seidel, U; Müller, L P; Skouras, E; Eysel, P; Stein, G

    2012-12-01

    Recent publications have renewed the debate regarding the number of foot compartments. There is also no consensus regarding allocation of individual muscles and communication between compartments. The current study examines the anatomic topography of the foot compartments anew using 32 injections of epoxy-resin and subsequent sheet plastination in 12 cadaveric foot specimens. Six compartments were identified: dorsal, medial, lateral, superficial central, deep forefoot, and deep hindfoot compartments. Communication was evident between the deep hindfoot compartment and the superficial central and deep central forefoot compartments. In the hindfoot, the neurovascular bundles were located in separate tissue sheaths between the central hindfoot compartment and the medial compartment. In the forefoot, the medial and lateral bundles entered the deep central forefoot compartment. The deep central hindfoot compartment housed the quadratus plantae muscle, and after calcaneus fracture could develop an isolated compartment syndrome. PMID:22638720

  17. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

    2014-06-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested. PMID:24703060

  18. A Case of Hot Foot Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Çayırlı

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot foot syndrome (HFS is a benign, self-limited disorder, which is apparently caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. The disease is characterized by the acute onset in children with painful plantar nodules which generally does not require antibiotic therapy. Particularly, the mechanically stressed areas of the foot are affected after contact with contaminated water from saunas, swimming pools or hot tubs. HFS is a potentially important public health hazard that may causes outbreaks. In search of literature we detected three published reports to date of outbreaks of pseudomonas hot foot syndrome associated with the use of community whirlpools. Here we present a four-year old girl presented with painful plantar erythematous nodules localized in heels that developed one day after contacting with contaminated water from bath tub. According to data of literature we able to reach, our case is the first HFS case presented in Turkey. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 111-3

  19. Chinese Herbal Foot Bath plus Acupoint Massage Beneficial to the Improvement of Grade 0 Diabetic Foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiao-xia; Xu Xu-yuan; Shangguan Bin-bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of foot bath with Tao Hong Si Wu Tang plus massage on acupoints at the sole for grade 0 diabetic foot. Methods: One hundred and sixty eligible cases were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 80 cases in each group. The two groups were treated with routine basic medications to control blood sugar. The patients in the observation group were given foot bath withTao Hong Si Wu Tangplus massage on acupoints at the sole, once every day. At the same time, the patients were instructed to understand the knowledge of diabetes, accept the education on foot care and to know the self-management for diabetes. The patients in the control group only accepted the education on foot care and studied the self-management for diabetes. The patients in the two groups were followed up once every week by phone. The local examination was intensified for the patients in their clinical visit every month. The therapeutic effects were assessed after three months of continuous treatment. Results: The total effective rate was 92.5% in the observation group, remarkably higher than 65.0% in the control group. The difference in comparison of the general therapeutic effect was statistically significant (P Conclusion: Foot bath withTao Hong Si Wu Tang plus massage on acupoints at the sole was beneficial to the improvement of clinical symptoms of grade 0 diabetic foot.

  20. O型口蹄疫病毒蛋白酶编码序列及氨基酸序列变化的分析%Analysis on the alterations of the viral protease-coding sequence and the amino acid sequence in O type of foot and mouth disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建华; 丛国正; 常惠芸

    2009-01-01

    目的 与方法从GenBank中下载了19株O型口蹄疫病毒的Lab、3C、3D基因,结合本实验室收录的FMDV OA/58 Lab、3C、3D的序列信息,分析比较了三种FMDV蛋白酶(Lpro, 3Cpro, 3Dpol)的编码序列和氨基酸序列.结果 这FMDV具有的蛋白酶的编码序列在突变上没有显著差异(P>0.05),而在氨基酸序列的突变上存在着显著差异(P0.05). However, overall analysis of the amino acid substitutions revealed that the Lpro- coding region was more prone to amino acid alterations than 3Cpro and 3Dpol- coding regions(P<0.01), but via multiple comparison, at the amino acid mutation, both 3Cpro and 3Dpol showed no significant difference. Depending on Swiss--pdb-Viewer sofe to simulate amino acid alterations at mutation hotspots, the findings showed that these alterations at hotspots failed to ruin the spatial structures of these 3 proteases. This result presents that the nucleotide mutation just acts on dynamics related to FMDV mutation, but the real evolutionary power must depend on the infected host cells to select functions with each viral proteases.

  1. Living with diabetic foot ulcers: a life of fear, restrictions, and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribu, Lis; Wahl, Astrid

    2004-02-01

    Lower extremity ulcers are a common and challenging problem for people with diabetes and clinicians who provide their care. A qualitative study of seven patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who had leg and/or foot ulcers was conducted to enhance understanding of the patient's perspective of living with lower extremity ulcers and diabetes. Data were collected through in-depth interviews guided by the patients' descriptive priorities. Results indicated that patients experienced changes in their feet, pain and insomnia, fatigue and limited mobility, social isolation and loneliness, a restricted life, loss of control, and fear for the future. When treating a patient's leg or foot ulcer, clinicians need to consider patients' subjective feelings toward the various aspects of their life situations and the impact of their situation on their quality of life. Understanding the ramifications of lower extremity ulcers and diabetes on patients is important to the health professional's ability to provide support during the illness process. PMID:15129612

  2. Distal amputations for the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Nather

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Minor amputations in diabetic patients with foot complications have been well studied in the literature but controversy still remains as to what constitutes successful or non-successful limb salvage. In addition, there is a lack of consensus on the definition of a minor or distal amputation and a major or proximal amputation for the diabetic population. In this article, the authors review the existing literature to evaluate the efficacy of minor amputations in this selected group of patients in terms of diabetic limb salvage and also propose several definitions regarding diabetic foot amputations.

  3. Pathology-designed custom molded foot orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    Treating patients with custom foot orthoses for common pathologies is a rewarding experience when the proper steps are taken during foot casting and custom-orthosis prescription writing. This article describes successful methods for orthoses casting and prescription writing for custom-molded orthoses for Achilles tendonitis, pes planus, hallux limitus, plantar fasciitis/heel spurs, lateral ankle instability, metatarsalgia, and pes cavus. In addition, a summary of orthotic laboratory instructions for each pathology-designed custom orthosis is provided, which should be considered by orthotic laboratories. PMID:21276525

  4. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  5. A control model for zygodactyl bird's foot

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Anna Chiara; Loreti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are interested to the zygodactyly phenomenon in birds, and in particolar in parrots. This arrangement, common in species living on trees, is a distribution of the foot with two toes facing forward and two back. We give a model for the foot, and thanks to the methods of iterated function system we are able to describe the reachability set. Moreover we give a necessary and sufficient condition for the grasping problem. Finally we introduce a hybrid dynamical system modeling owl...

  6. Foot and Ankle Injuries in Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Yin, Amy; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2016-02-01

    Foot and ankle injuries account for nearly one-third of running injuries. Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciopathy, and ankle sprains are 3 of the most common types of injuries sustained during training. Other common injuries include other tendinopathies of the foot and ankle, bone stress injuries, nerve conditions including neuromas, and joint disease including osteoarthritis. This review provides an evidence-based framework for the evaluation and optimal management of these conditions to ensure safe return to running participation and reduce risk for future injury. PMID:26616180

  7. Foot Drop: Looking Beyond Common Peroneal Nerve Palsy – A Neurophysiology Centre Experience

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yap, SM

    2016-04-01

    Foot drop is a complex symptom with a considerable range in aetiology, severity and prognosis. We aim to characterise the aetiologies of foot drop and assess the diagnostic contribution of neurophysiologic testing (NCS\\/EMG). Retrospective review of consecutive referrals of foot drop to the Neurophysiology Department in Cork University Hospital was performed over a two year period (January 2012 to December 2013). Of a total of 59 referrals, common peroneal nerve (CPN) palsy comprised only slightly more than half of cases; 3(5%) have central origin; 3(5%) have motor neuron disease. Six (10%) have diabetes; 7(12%) have cancer; 5(8%) were bilateral. NCS\\/EMG altered initial working diagnosis in 14 out of 52 (27%) cases whereby initial diagnosis was provided. However one-third of all cases revealed additional coexistent pathology in an anatomic location remote to that of the primary diagnosis. Foot drop with central and proximal localisations are important and under recognised. NCS\\/EMG is valuable and also reveals additional pathology which warrants investigation

  8. Goniometry in limited joint mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the utility of goniometry in screening for limited joint mobility (LJM in patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected data of 100 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic without any complications were used. Baseline neuropathy assessments, namely monofilament and biothesiometry were done. Range of movement around the ankle joint and 1 st metatarsal joint was done using goniometry. Both the results were compared. Inclusion Criteria: Selected 100 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic and on regular follow-up were included in the study. Exclusion Criteria: Sick patients requiring parenteral feeds, IV antibiotics, co-morbid conditions such as microvascular complication, autonomic gastroparesis, and diabetic foot infections were excluded from the study. Conclusion: Goniometric screening for LJM is a cheap and effective screening tool for detecting early structural deformity producing a higher plantar pressure and ulcer, and thereby preventing them at early stage.

  9. Mobile-to-mobile wireless channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zajic, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    Present-day mobile communications systems can be classified as fixed-to-mobile because they allow mobility on only one end (e.g. the mobile phone to a fixed mobile operator's cell tower). In answer to the consumer demand for better coverage and quality of service, emerging mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communications systems allow mobile users or vehicles to directly communicate with each other. This practical book provides a detailed introduction to state-of-the-art M-to-M wireless propagation. Moreover, the book offers professionals guidance for rapid implementation of these communications syste

  10. Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control. PMID:17365634

  11. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part I. Pathophysiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious, life-long condition that is the sixth leading cause of death in North America. Dermatologists frequently encounter patients with diabetes mellitus. Up to 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus will develop diabetic foot ulcers. Foot ulcer patients have an increased risk of amputation and increased mortality rate. The high-risk diabetic foot can be identified with a simplified screening, and subsequent foot ulcers can be prevented. Early recognition of the high-risk foot and timely treatment will save legs and improve patients' quality of life. Peripheral arterial disease, neuropathy, deformity, previous amputation, and infection are the main factors contributing to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. Early recognition of the high-risk foot is imperative to decrease the rates of mortality and morbidity. An interprofessional approach (ie, physicians, nurses, and foot care specialists) is often needed to support patients' needs.

  12. Back to School Foot Pain (Flip-Flops)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foot and ankle surgeons see an increase in ankle injuries among young athletes. Football, soccer and basketball are ... to School Soccer Season Prime time for foot, ankle injuries. Parents and coaches should think twice before coaxing ...

  13. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  14. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  15. Comorbidities associated with Egyptian diabetic foot disease subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N. Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Special attention should be paid toward the identification of patients who are at risk of foot ulceration to help prevent foot problems. Comorbid conditions must also be identified early and managed aggressively.

  16. OPTIMUM PAD FOOTING DESIGN BY USING GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paki TURGUT

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Genetic Algorithm (GA has been developed in order to find the optimum geometrical sizes in pad footing design. In the solutions of pad footing sizes found by manually or/and software, there is a required assumption of pad footing sizes held by an experienced designer at the beginning. After the assumption of the initial pad footing sizes, the exact sizes have been determined by a time consuming trial and error process. In the developed GA software without the requirement in the assumption of initial pad footing sizes, the most suitable pad footing sizes has been determined within a short period by minimizing the pad footing volume. In contrast to classical methods, developed GA has simultaneously and relationally calculated the pad footing base sizes and its height.

  17. The coordination dynamics of mobile conjugate reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, J A Scott; Fuchs, Armin

    2016-02-01

    What we know about infant learning and memory is founded largely on systematic studies by the late Carolyn Rovee-Collier (1942-2014) and her associates of a phenomenon called mobile conjugate reinforcement. Experiments show that when a ribbon is attached from a 3-month-old infant's foot to a mobile suspended overhead the baby quickly realizes it can make the mobile move. The mobile, which offers interesting sights and sounds, responds conjugately to the baby's vigorous kicks which increase in rate by a factor of 3-4. In this paper, using the concepts, methods and tools of coordination dynamics, we present a theoretical model which reproduces the experimental observations of Rovee-Collier and others and predicts a number of additional features that can be experimentally tested. The model is a dynamical system consisting of three equations, one for the baby's leg movements, one for the jiggling motion of the mobile and one for the functional coupling between the two. A key mechanism in the model is positive feedback which is shown to depend sensitively on bifurcation parameters related to the infant's level of attention and inertial properties of the mobile. The implications of our model for the dynamical (and developmental) origins of agency are discussed. PMID:26759265

  18. Intensive mobilities:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience....... By exploring how experiences of long-distance workers become constituted by a range of different material forces enables us to more sensitively consider the practical, technical, and political implications of this increasingly prevalent yet underexplored regime of work....

  19. Network Mobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamali Masoud Alfrgani .Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are becoming increasingly popular for delivering multimedia content, particularly by means of streaming. The main disadvantage of these devices is their limited battery life. Unfortunately, streaming of multimedia content causes the battery of the device to discharge very fast, often causing the battery to deplete before the streaming task finishes, resulting in user dissatisfaction. It is generally not possible to charge the device while on the go as electricity socket and charger are required. Therefore, to avoid this user dissatisfaction, it is necessary to find ways to prolong the battery lifetime and to support the completion of the multimedia streaming tasks. A typical architecture for mobile multimedia streaming is presented In this architecture, a wired server streams multimedia content over a wireless IP network to a number of client devices. These devices could be PDAs, smartphones or any other mobile device with 802.11 connectivity. In relation to possible power savings, the multimedia streaming process can be described as consisting of three stages: reception, decoding and playing. Other researchers have shown that energy savings can be made in each stage, for example by using pre-buffering in the reception stage, feedback control during decoding and backlight adjustment for playing. However, it is not a common practice to combine energy savings in the three stages in order to achieve the best

  20. Non-sagittal plane foot movement during late swing

    OpenAIRE

    VAN ZWIETEN, Koos Jaap; Biesmans, Steven; REYSKENS, Ann; ROBEYNS, Inge; VANDERSTEEN, Marjan; Schmidt, Klaus; LIPPENS, Peter; NARAIN, Faridi; MAHABIER, Roberto; Lamur, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Foot dorsiflexor m.tibialis anterior causes foot inversion too. Foot inversion turns the footsole inwards; eversion turns it outwards. Backgrounds: Quadrupedalism in primates and precursors is characterized by moving forward in a parasagittal plane, while the forefoot keeps clinging to the substratum. This imposes external rotation on the lower leg, tranferred to foot inversion by cardan-like functions of the ankle-joint. Such rotational movements include calcaneo-cuboid pivot i...

  1. The African Mobile Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks......This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks...

  2. Imaging diagnostics of the foot; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Fusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel [Radiologie in Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany); Walther, Markus (eds.) [Schoen-Klinik Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Fuss- und Sprunggelenkchirurgie

    2012-11-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  3. Diabetic foot complications: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurini, John M; Lyons, Thomas E

    2005-09-01

    Foot complications in patients with diabetes mellitus are a challenge to the health care industry. A great deal of expenditure is due to the management of diabetic foot complications. This places a great burden on the health care industry. It also places a great burden on those diabetic patients with foot complications and their families. Therefore, their effective management in an efficient manner is crucial to our patients. To deal with these problems, a dedicated, knowledgeable, and experienced multidisciplinary team is key. Intervention at the earliest possible time yields the best outcome. Prevention is the focus for those with no ulcerations. For those with ulcerations, prompt recognition and treatment is key. The importance of classifying ulcerations according to size, depth, presence or absence of infection, and vascular status can not be overstated. Proper offloading is vital for those with neuropathic lesions. Recognition of patients with a component of ischemia and vascular intervention to increase perfusion will aid in wound healing. Of course deep infection requires immediate drainage. All efforts of those in the multidisciplinary team are directed at the restoration and maintenance of an ulcer-free foot which is important in enabling our patients to maintain their ambulatory status.

  4. Hand Foot Skin Reaction Associated with Sunitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Çevirgen Cemil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunitinib is a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor showing benefits in patients with renal cell carcinoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Sunitinib may cause various cutaneous toxicities. The most characteristic and common cutaneous toxicity is hand-foot skin reaction. Lesions are characterized by yellow painful callus like hyperkeratosis surrounded by a rim of erythema, they are well-demarcated and localized especially over pressure areas. A 54-year-old male patient with a history of renal cell carcinoma developed painful eruption twenty days after oral sunitinib had been started on 50 mg daily. Dermatological examination showed multiple, yellow, hyperkeratotic plaques with erythematous halos on palms, and soles. The patient was diagnosed as hand-foot skin reaction due to sunitinib due to descriptive clinical findings. Hand-foot skin reaction can greatly affect patients’ quality of life and treatment dosages. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of hand-foot skin reaction will be vital to ensure maximum potential of these drugs.

  5. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: We

  6. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except when environmental conditions exist that present a hazard greater than that against which the footwear is designed to protect. (b) Each pair of footwear must be marked with the information specified by ANSI Z41 for the...

  7. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUALIFIED The Orthopaedic Distinction ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​ The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) is an organization of more than 2,200 orthopaedic surgeons from the US and abroad who specialize in the medical and ...

  8. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the...

  10. Influence of footings stiffness on punching resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ĺudovít Fillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper brings new aspects of punching resistance due to influence of footing stiffness and consequential ground stresses distribution. Diagrams of design load versus effective depth were created coming from new design criteria which depend on the maximum punching resistance defined from shear-bending failure and on the maximum punching resistance defined from crushing of concrete struts.

  11. ATA gas propagation - 1 foot tank experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first gas propagation experiment on ATA is planned to be conducted in a 1-foot diameter tank of up to 10 m length. The primary objectives are to measure beam parameters at injection to determine whether the desired beam conditioning is achieved, and to observe how such conditioned beams propagate in air and neon

  12. On-the-Job Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of protective footwear or complain about it. Safety footwear can be comfort- able, flexible, stylish, and still provide protection from injury. The foot is a most valuable part of your body subjected to injury in industry. Because of the many potential work hazards, it ...

  13. Pixel classification for automated diabetic foot diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloeze, C.; Klein, A.; Hazenberg, S.; Heijden, van der F.; Baal, van J.G.; Bus, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 180 million people suffer from diabetes mellitus. Approximately 50% of these patients will develop complications to their feet. Neuropathy, combined with poor blood supply and biomechanical changes results in a high risk for foot ulcers, which is a key problem in the diabetic fo

  14. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  15. Ron Rash: One Foot in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of Ron Rash's novel One Foot in Eden, focusing on his attachment to place and his depiction of the internal conflicts between farmers and townspeople in a small Appalachian community. Rash depicts the contemporary Southerner’s struggle to maintain his or her roots in a time of rapid...

  16. Complex interventions for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Ruben C; Dorresteijn, Johannes A N; Kriegsman, Didi M W; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can lead to the amputation of feet and legs, is a major problem for people with diabetes mellitus, and can cause substantial economic burden. Single preventive strategies have not been shown to reduce the incidence of foot ulceration to a significant extent.

  17. Trisomy 18 syndrome with cleft foot.

    OpenAIRE

    Castle, D; Bernstein, R.

    1988-01-01

    Ectrodactyly of the feet has been reported only twice in association with trisomy 18 syndrome. A severe form of this anomaly, the first with published illustrative x rays, is described in a male infant with trisomy 18 syndrome. It is suggested that this may represent an extreme expression of the foot anomalies more commonly associated with this syndrome.

  18. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  19. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high ris...

  20. The relation between foot arch stability, and mechanical and physiological properties of the foot

    OpenAIRE

    Sakalauskaitė, Raminta

    2013-01-01

    The foot keeps body balance and stability during walking, running and performing various physical activities. It has been determined that mechanical properties of musculoskeletal system influence motion control, body balance maintenance (Richardson et al., 2005; Biewener, Daley, 2007; Nishikawa, 2007). However, it is yet unclear whether there is a relation between body stability and foot arch stability. The relation is yet unknown between the mechanical and physiological properties of the foo...

  1. Tuberculosis of the foot: An osteolytic variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Dhillon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foot involvement in osteoarticular tuberculosis is uncommon and isolated bony involvement of foot bones with an osteolytic defect is even more rare; diagnostic and therapeutic delays can occur, worsening the prognosis. We present a retrospective series of osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: We present 24 osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis (Eleven calcaneus, four cuboid, two cunieforms, one talus, three metatarsals, three phalanges out of 92 foot TB cases collected over last 20 years. There were 16 adults and eight children. Tissue diagnosis was established in 23 of 24 cases based on PCR AFB staining, culture, and histopathology. Surgical intervention was reserved for patients with either a juxtaarticular focus threatening to involve a joint or an impending collapse of a midfoot bone with cystic destruction. Results: Fifteen cases had an osteolytic lesion on the radiographs resembling a space-occupying lesion, five had patchy osteolysis, while four showed coke like sequestra; one patient had a lesion in two bones. Antitubercular chemotherapy after biopsy was sufficient to heal the lesion in 19 cases, while in five cases surgical debridement needed to be done. The lesions healed eventually. At an average followup of 8.3 years, (range 2-15 years there were no recurrences and all patients were free from pain, with no restriction of movements. Six patients complained of occasional pain during walking on uneven ground. Conclusion: When tuberculous pathology is limited to the bone, the prognosis is better than in articular disease, as there is less deformity, and hence, less residual pain and disability.

  2. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redmond Anthony C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant, FPI scores and body mass index (BMI where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619 confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4. A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p t = -1.44, p = 0.149. No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making.

  3. Current Research and Development Trend of Surface Drop Foot Stimulator%表面垂足刺激器的研究现状与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴臻; 周慧; 李光林

    2013-01-01

    Foot drop is the inability to voluntarily dorsiflex the ankle during the swing phase of gait and is usually caused by weakness and damages of the peroneal nerve. The consequences of the foot drop include the decreasing of gait quality, the limiting of mobility, the increasing of falling risk, and great increasing of energy expenditure during walking. Firstly bio-signal sensors are used in the drop foot stimulator to detect foot movements. Then the surface drop foot stimulator produces a predefined stimulation profile to the peroneal nerve or tibialis anterial to elicit a dorsiflexion of the foot synchronized with the swing phase of gait to lift the foot. This paper reviewed the fundamentals and current researches of drop foot stimulators. Moreover, the development trends of the closed loop drop foot stimulator were also discussed in the paper.%  足下垂是由腓总神经功能障碍引起踝关节无法背屈、行走时足趾拖地的症状。它不仅影响患者日常行走,还会使其产生自卑心理。表面垂足刺激器将刺激电极贴附在腓总神经或者胫骨前肌上,使用传感器来侦测脚步动作,通过电刺激使脚踝产生背曲屈及翻转动作,改善步行摆动期所发生的足下垂现象。本文阐述了表面垂足刺激器的工作原理及研究进展,并对基于生物信号反馈的闭环足下垂刺激器的研究趋势进行了介绍。

  4. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  5. Robotique Mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Filliat, David

    2011-01-01

    1 Introduction I Les bases de la navigation 2 Les différents types de navigation 3 Les sources d'information 4 Matériels courants en robotique mobile II Navigation réactive 5 Navigation vers un but 6 Évitement d'obstacles 7 Apprentissage par renforcement III Navigation utilisant une carte 8 Localisation, Cartographie et Planification 9 Les représentations de l'environne 10 Localisation 11 Cartographie 12 Planification École d'ingénieur

  6. Management of High-Energy Foot and Ankle Injuries in the Geriatric Population

    OpenAIRE

    Herscovici, Dolfi; Scaduto, Julia M.

    2012-01-01

    By the year 2035 almost 20% of the US population of 389 million people will be 65 years and older. What this group has, compared with aged populations in the past, is better health, more mobility, and more active lifestyles. From January 1989 through December 2010, a total of 494 elderly patients with 536 foot and ankle injuries were identified. Within this group, 237 (48%) patients with 294 injuries were sustained as a result of a high-energy mechanism. These mechanisms consisted of 170 moto...

  7. Alteraciones radiológicas y movilidad de la columna vertebral observadas en pilotos de combate españoles Radiological alterations and spine mobility in Spanish fighter pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Carbayo Herencia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Objetivos: El dolor de espalda es padecido por la mayoría de pilotos de combate. Los objetivos del presente estudio han sido valorar en esta población si aparecen lesiones precoces de la columna vertebral y la movilidad de ésta. Material y Métodos: Participaron 30 pilotos de combate y 16 militares como grupo de comparación (GC, no pilotos, destinados en la Base Aérea de Albacete, España. A todos se les practicó 6 radiografías (dos en la columna cervical, dos en la columna dorsal y dos en la región lumbosacra. Se calculó la razón de prevalencias (RP de las lesiones valoradas entre los dos grupos, considerando significativo un valor de P≤0,05. Resultados: Tanto la edad media de los pilotos (31,9 años [DE=5,9] como la del GC (32,3 años [DE=3,4], así como su índice de masa corporal (24,4 kg/m² en los pilotos frente a 24,4 [DE=1,9] del GC fueron similares. Encontramos diferencias significativas entre los dos grupos en las siguientes variables: uncoartrosis (RP=2,4; P=0,02, artrosis interapofisarias (RP=2,82; P=0,02, osteofitos (RP=4,26; P=0,007, pérdida de altura del cuerpo vertebral (RP=11,29; P=0,008 en la región cervical, e irregularidades subcondrales (RP=2,82; P=0,02 en la región dorsal. La movilidad de la espalda (valorada por flexiones en las distintas regiones, extensiones, rotaciones y lateralizaciones fue menor en el piloto de combate. Conclusiones: Los pilotos de combate de nuestro estudio presentan una mayor rigidez en la columna vertebral, asi como alteraciones radiológicas precoces, principalmente en la región cervical, comparados con un GC similar.Background and Objectives: Back pain is suffered by most fighter pilots. The objectives of this study were evaluated in this population if there are early lesions of the spine and their mobility. Material and Methods: The participants were 30 fighter pilots and 16 soldiers as a comparison group (CG, no fighter pilots, stationed in the Air Base in

  8. Optimum Mobility Performance with Mobile IP & SIP

    OpenAIRE

    B. Naresh Kumar; DR. R. V. KRISHNAIAH

    2013-01-01

    Mobility will place an efficient role in now days in the wireless communications. Mobile IP andSIP provide the mobility service to the handset users. The problems in Mobile IP and SIP s are triangular,handoff, Intra domain problems. These problems create signal lose and improper signalling to the user. Toovercome these we provide add of service to the Mobile IP and SIP with the integration of the two services.This service provides optimum performance of the system.

  9. Measurement of multi-segment foot joint angles during gait using a wearable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Hossein; Favre, Julien; Crevoisier, Xavier; Aminian, Kamiar

    2012-06-01

    Usually the measurement of multi-segment foot and ankle complex kinematics is done with stationary motion capture devices which are limited to use in a gait laboratory. This study aimed to propose and validate a wearable system to measure the foot and ankle complex joint angles during gait in daily conditions, and then to investigate its suitability for clinical evaluations. The foot and ankle complex consisted of four segments (shank, hindfoot, forefoot, and toes), with an inertial measurement unit (3D gyroscopes and 3D accelerometers) attached to each segment. The angles between the four segments were calculated in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes using a new algorithm combining strap-down integration and detection of low-acceleration instants. To validate the joint angles measured by the wearable system, three subjects walked on a treadmill for five minutes at three different speeds. A camera-based stationary system that used a cluster of markers on each segment was used as a reference. To test the suitability of the system for clinical evaluation, the joint angle ranges were compared between a group of 10 healthy subjects and a group of 12 patients with ankle osteoarthritis, during two 50-m walking trials where the wearable system was attached to each subject. On average, over all joints and walking speeds, the RMS differences and correlation coefficients between the angular curves obtained using the wearable system and the stationary system were 1 deg and 0.93, respectively. Moreover, this system was able to detect significant alteration of foot and ankle function between the group of patients with ankle osteoarthritis and the group of healthy subjects. In conclusion, this wearable system was accurate and suitable for clinical evaluation when used to measure the multi-segment foot and ankle complex kinematics during long-distance walks in daily life conditions.

  10. Metabolic profile of foot and mouth disease stressed sheep in semi arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita R Gupta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate serum biochemical parameters in twenty local bred sheep infected with Foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype O. Ten healthy sheep were used as controls. Peripheral blood was collected from both diseased and control group and serum was separated which was further used to estimate the concentration of glucose, total protein, albumin, urea, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol and activity of AST, ALT and ALP. It was found that there was a significant increase in glucose, AST and phosphorus in FMD affected sheep (p<0.01. Total protein, albumin, calcium, cholesterol and urea level were significantly lower (p<0.05 in FMD group compared to those in the control group. The biochemical alteration indicates the development of pancreatic dysfunction in Foot and Mouth disease affected sheep with FMDV serotype O.

  11. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, Sarah;

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis can be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  12. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, S.;

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis showed to be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  13. Combined Insulin Deficiency and Endotoxin Exposure Stimulate Lipid Mobilization and Alter Adipose Tissue Signaling in an Experimental Model of Ketoacidosis in Subjects With Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svart, Mads; Kampmann, Ulla; Voss, Thomas; Pedersen, Steen B; Johannsen, Mogens; Rittig, Nikolaj; Poulsen, Per L; Nielsen, Thomas S; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Most often, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults results from insufficient insulin administration and acute infection. DKA is assumed to release proinflammatory cytokines and stress hormones that stimulate lipolysis and ketogenesis. We tested whether this perception of DKA can be reproduced in an experimental human model by using combined insulin deficiency and acute inflammation and tested which intracellular mediators of lipolysis are affected in adipose tissue. Nine subjects with type 1 diabetes were studied twice: 1) insulin-controlled euglycemia and 2) insulin deprivation and endotoxin administration (KET). During KET, serum tumor necrosis factor-α, cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone levels increased, and free fatty acids and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and the rate of lipolysis rose markedly. Serum bicarbonate and pH decreased. Adipose tissue mRNA contents of comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) increased and G0/G1 switch 2 gene (G0S2) mRNA decreased robustly. Neither protein levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) nor phosphorylations of hormone-sensitive lipase were altered. The clinical picture of incipient DKA in adults can be reproduced by combined insulin deficiency and endotoxin-induced acute inflammation. The precipitating steps involve the release of proinflammatory cytokines and stress hormones, increased lipolysis, and decreased G0S2 and increased CGI-58 mRNA contents in adipose tissue, compatible with latent ATGL stimulation. PMID:26884439

  14. Effects of mobile phone use on specific intensive care unit devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: To observe the effects of mobile phone use in the vicinity of medical devices used in a critical care setting. Subjects and Methods: Electromagnetic interference (EMI was tested by using two types of mobile phones - GSM and CDMA. Mobile phones were placed at a distance of one foot from three medical devices - syringe pump, mechanical ventilator, and the bedside monitor - in switch off, standby, and talking modes of the phone. Medical devices were observed for any interference caused by the electromagnetic radiations (EMR from the mobile phones. Results: Out of the three medical devices that were tested, EMI occurred while using the mobile phone in the vicinity of the syringe pump, in the ′talk mode.′ The mean variation observed in the calculated and delivered volume of the syringe pump was 2.66 ml. Mechanical ventilator did not show any specific adverse effects with mobile phone use in the one-foot vicinity. No other adverse effects or unexplained malfunctions or shutdown of the syringe pump, mechanical ventilator, or the bedside monitor was noted during the study period of 36 hours. Conclusion: EMI from mobile phones have an adverse effect on the medical devices used in critical care setup. They should be used at least one foot away from the diameter of the syringe pump.

  15. Changes in multi-segment foot biomechanics with a heat-mouldable semi-custom foot orthotic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferber Reed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semi-custom foot orthoses (SCO are thought to be a cost-effective alternative to custom-made devices. However, previous biomechanical research involving either custom or SCO has only focused on rearfoot biomechanics. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine changes in multi-segment foot biomechanics during shod walking with and without an SCO. We chose to investigate an SCO device that incorporates a heat-moulding process, to further understand if the moulding process would significantly alter rearfoot, midfoot, or shank kinematics as compared to a no-orthotic condition. We hypothesized the SCO, whether moulded or non-moulded, would reduce peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, arch deformation, and plantar fascia strain as compared to the no-orthoses condition. Methods Twenty participants had retroreflective markers placed on the right limb to represent forefoot, midfoot, rearfoot and shank segments. 3D kinematics were recorded using an 8-camera motion capture system while participants walked on a treadmill. Results Plantar fascia strain was reduced by 34% when participants walked in either the moulded or non-moulded SCO condition compared to no-orthoses. However, there were no significant differences in peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, or medial longitudinal arch angles between any conditions. Conclusions A semi-custom moulded orthotic does not control rearfoot, shank, or arch deformation but does, however, reduce plantar fascia strain compared to walking without an orthoses. Heat-moulding the orthotic device does not have a measurable effect on any biomechanical variables compared to the non-moulded condition. These data may, in part, help explain the clinical efficacy of orthotic devices.

  16. How To Prevent Foot Ulcers In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Morshed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of development of foot ulcers in diabetic patients is 4% to 10%, these ulcers may be infected, cause morbidity and may lead to lower extremity amputation.Objective: Prevention of diabetic foot ulcers in patients known to be diabetics by fasting blood sugar (FBS, HbA1C tests.Material and Methods: The study was done on 120 patients between March 2010 and July 2011 diagnosed as diabetics and they performed simple screening tests for peripheral neuropathy (Semmes-Weinstein monofilament examination (SWME, superficial pain, vibration testing by the on-off method, the timed method. Nerve conduction studies (NCS were used as standard criterion for detection of neuropathy, they also underwent Doppler ultrasound and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI measurement to assess the vascularity of their lower limbs. All patients were given proper education to prevent foot ulcers, including optimising glycemic control, cessation of smoking, debridement of calluses, appropriate foot wear and foot care with periodic foot examination.Results: In our study we succeeded in increasing the prevention of foot ulceration in our diabetic patients by 95%, compared to results achieved with the previous measures.Conclusion: Screening tests are effective for all diabetic patients to identify patients at risk of foot ulceration. They may benefit from prophylactic interventions including, optimising glycemic control, cessation of smoking, debridement of calluses, appropriate foot wear and intensive foot care.Also, we take care of patients with low risk of foot ulceration by adequate foot care and periodic foot examination to prevent foot ulceration.

  17. Mineralogia e mobilidade de cations de uma alteração intempérica de diabásio Mineralogy and cation mobility of a weathering alteration of diabase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Clemente

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Em uma seqüência de alteração intempérica de diabásio, situada no município de Capivari, SP, foram estudadas a mobilidade de cátions liberados no processo e a evolução mineralógica ocorrida. A seqüência situa-se em condições de clima sub-tropical semi-úmido e de boa drenagem. A mineralogia do diabásio, constituída essencialmente de plagioclásios e piroxênios, evoluiu para uma mineralogia simples, onde na fração argila do solo ocorre apenas a caulinita, associada a óxidos de ferro, que não foram determinados. Vermiculita ocorre nas fases intermediárias, como o único argilomineral 2:1. A lixiviação de cátions solúveis ocorre já nos primeiros estágios do processo, seguidos da sílica, também com remoção rápida, mas que, em face de seu elevado teor na rocha de origem, permanece maior tempo no sistema, permitindo a gênese da caulinita e també, de quartzo em pequena quantidade. Alumínio e ferro são imobilizados no sistema, o alumínio como constituinte de caulinita e o ferro como óxido.The mobility of the main cátions and the mineralógical evolution are studied for a weathering sequence of a diabase, from unaltered rock to the rock-derived soil. The diabase is located in conditions of subhumid and subtropical weather, having good drainage, located in Capivari (SP, Brazil. The mineralogy of diabase, essentialy constitued of plagioclases and pyroxenes, developed to a simple mineralogy, in which the clay fraction of the soil consists only of kaolinite, associated to non determined iron oxides. Vermiculite occurs in the intermediary stages, as the only 2:1 clay mineral. The leaching of soluble cátions occurs rapidly in the first stages of the process, followed by silica, also with rapid removal, however due to its high concentration in the original rock, it remains longer time in the system, in the structure of kaolinite and also as quartz in small quantity. Aluminium and iron are immobilized in the system

  18. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  19. Innovations in diabetic foot reconstruction using supermicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Hong, Joon Pio

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic foot ulceration is complex with multiple factors involved, and it may often lead to limb amputation. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted to cover the spectrum of treatment for diabetic foot, but in complex wounds, surgical treatment is inevitable. Surgery may involve the decision to preserve the limb by reconstruction or to amputate it. Reconstruction involves preserving the limb with secure coverage. Local flaps usually are able to provide sufficient coverage for small or moderate sized wound, but for larger wounds, soft tissue coverage involves flaps that are distantly located from the wound. Reconstruction of distant flap usually involves microsurgery, and now, further innovative methods such as supermicrosurgery have further given complex wounds a better chance to be reconstructed and limbs salvaged. This article reviews the microsurgery involved in reconstruction and introduces the new method of supermicrosurgery.

  20. Foot mounted inertial system for pedestrian navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses algorithmic concepts, design and testing of a system based on a low-cost MEMS-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) and high-sensitivity global positioning system (HSGPS) receivers for seamless personal navigation in a GPS signal degraded environment. The system developed here is mounted on a pedestrian shoe/foot and uses measurements based on the dynamics experienced by the inertial sensors on the user's foot. The IMU measurements are processed through a conventional inertial navigation system (INS) algorithm and are then integrated with HSGPS receiver measurements and dynamics derived constraint measurements using a tightly coupled integration strategy. The ability of INS to bridge the navigation solution is evaluated through field tests conducted indoors and in severely signal degraded forest environments. The specific focus is on evaluating system performance under challenging GPS conditions

  1. [Subintimal angioplasty and diabetic foot revascularisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Charles; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Bordier, Lise; Blin, Emmanuel; Duverger, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic wounds foot are responsible for 5-10% minor or major amputation in France. In fact, amputation risk of lower limbs is 15-30% higher for diabetic patients. University of Texas classification (UT) is the reference for diabetic foot wound. It distinguish non ischemic and ischemic wound with more amputation. If ischaemia is combined, revascularization may be considered for salvage of the limb. Some revascularization techniques are well known: as surgical by-pass, angioplasty with or without stent, or hybrid procedures with the both. Subintimal angioplasty is a more recent endovascular technique, in assessment for old patients who are believed to be unsuitable candidates for conventional by-pass or angioplasty.

  2. A study of dermatoglyphics in club foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadakat Ali

    2014-04-01

    Results: Frequency of whorls increase in both hands significantly, frequency of arches and ulnar loops decrease significantly, frequency of radial loops increase in right hand and decrease in left hand but difference was not significant. TFRC count was reduced significantly and no significant difference was found in a-t-d angle and a-b ridge count. Conclusion: Dermatoglyphics is a genetically determined reliable marker for detecting the incidence of club foot. Merely by identifying the dermatoglyphics pattern of couples with family history of club foot may be at risk of having their offspring affected, and they can be diagnosed early and preventive measures can be taken. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 557-559

  3. Minor amputations for diabetic foot salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Y. Habel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Foot ulceration in diabetic patients is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM, necessitating hospitalization for control of infection, wound care and glycemic control. These patients are at risk for potential loss of the involved limb as well as for future loss of the contralateral limb. Diabetic foot is the consequence of peripheral neuropathy complicated by infrapopliteal peripheral vascular disease. Most of the patients present with chronic plantar ulceration and with cellulitis or an abscess. In a significant number of patients, it is observed that the frequency of life or limb threatening infection is less with an intact skin cover. Limb salvage employs the use of culture specific antibiotics, sharp debridement or a minor amputation, wound care and/or skin cover as the situation demands.

  4. Mobile shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalms, Michael; Jueptner, Werner

    2005-04-01

    By reason of their sensitivity, accuracy and non-contact as well as non-destructive characteristics, modern optical methods such as digital speckle shearography have found an increasing interest for NDT applications on the factory floor. With new carbon filter technologies and other lightweight constructions in aircraft and automotive manufacturing, adapted examination designs and especially developed testing methods are necessary. Shearography as a coherent optical method has been widely accepted as an useful NDT tool. It is a robust interferometric method to determine locations with maximum stress on various material structures. However, limitations of this technique can be found in the bulky equipment components, the interpretation of the complex sherographic result images and at the work with non-cooperative surfaces (dark absorber, bright shining reflectors). We report a mobile shearography system that was especially designed for investigations at aircraft and automotive constructions.

  5. Restoration of ankle movements with the ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator: a safe and reliable treatment option for permanent central leg palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Klaus Daniel; Polanski, Witold Henryk; Schulz, Anne-Kathrin; Jöbges, Michael; Hoff, Hansjoerg; Schackert, Gabriele; Pinzer, Thomas; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The ActiGait drop foot stimulator is a promising technique for restoration of lost ankle function by an implantable hybrid stimulation system. It allows ankle dorsiflexion by active peroneal nerve stimulation during the swing phase of gait. In this paper the authors report the outcome of the first prospective study on a large number of patients with stroke-related drop foot. METHODS Twenty-seven patients who experienced a stroke and with persisting spastic leg paresis received an implantable ActiGait drop foot stimulator for restoration of ankle movement after successful surface test stimulation. After 3 to 5 weeks, the stimulator was activated, and gait speed, gait endurance, and activation time of the system were evaluated and compared with preoperative gait tests. In addition, patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. RESULTS Postoperative gait speed significantly improved from 33.9 seconds per 20 meters to 17.9 seconds per 20 meters (p mobility, social participation, and quality of life was confirmed by 89% to 96% of patients. CONCLUSIONS The ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator improves gait speed, endurance, and quality of life in patients with stroke-related drop foot. Regarding gait speed, the ActiGait system appears to be advantageous compared with foot orthosis or surface stimulation devices. Randomized trials with more patients and longer observation periods are needed to prove the long-term benefit of this device. PMID:26207599

  6. Nodular Foot Myxedema Masquerading as Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Javier A.; Schmidt, Birgitta A. R.; Greene, Arin K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Lymphedema results from abnormal development or injury to the lymphatic system. One-fourth of patients with lower extremity enlargement are erroneously labeled with “lymphedema.” We describe a patient with hypothyroidism who developed soft-tissue overgrowth of her foot. She was referred to our Lymphedema Program for management of “lymphedema” and overgrown toes. The patient’s lymphoscintigram showed normal lymphatic function in her extremities, and she was diagnosed with myxedema by ...

  7. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  8. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  9. Tendon transfers for the drop foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Karl M; Jones, Carroll P

    2014-03-01

    The paralytic drop foot represents a challenging problem for even the most experienced orthopedic surgeon. Careful patient selection, thorough preoperative examination and planning, and application of tendon transfer biomechanical and physiologic principles outlined in this article can lead to successful results, either through a posterior tibialis tendon transfer, Bridle transfer, or variations on these procedures. Achilles lengthening or gastrocnemius recession may also be needed at the time of tendon transfer. PMID:24548510

  10. Radiology of the ankle and foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic approach to the diagnosis of common foot conditions, including traumatic conditions, arthritis, and tumors. The differential diagnosis of monarticular arthritis and pain in the big toe is discussed. The characteristic features of rheumatoid arthritis are compared with those of degenerative and metabolic deposition disease. Trauma, including common athletic injuries, is reviewed. Selected tumors that frequently cause confusion, such as synovial chondromatosis, PVNS, and tendon sheath xanthoma, are shown

  11. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required

  12. Bacteriological study of diabetic foot infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Azmi ABD KADIR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foot infections are one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and a significant risk factor for lower extremity amputation. Providing effective antimicrobial therapy is an important component in treating these infections. This study assesses the microbial isolates of patients with diabetic foot infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 75 patients with diabetic foot infections admitted to RIPAS hospital between June 2008 and June 2010 was undertaken. Bacteriological specimens were obtained and processed using standard hospital procedure for microbiological culture and sensitivity testing. Results: Overall, 40 (54% patients had subcutaneous infections, 22 (29% had infected superficial ulcers, seven (9% had infected deep ulcers involving muscle tissues and six (8% had osteomyelitis. A total of 98 pathogens were isolated. Forty percent of the patients had polymicrobial infection, 39 (52% had single organism and 6(8% had no growth. Gram-negative bacteria (67% were more commonly isolated than gram-positive bacteria (30%. The three most frequently found gram-negative organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.3%, and Acinetobacter spp. (10.2% and gram-positive organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (10.2%, Streptococcus pyogenes (7.1% and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] (7.1%. Vancomycin was found to be the most effective against gram-positive bacteria while amikacin was the most effective against gram-negative bacteria based on antibiotic testing. Conclusion: In 40% of diabetic feet infection was polymicrobial. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common gram-positive and gram-negative organisms respectively. This study helps us to choose the empirical antibiotics for cases of diabetic foot infections.

  13. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2015-11-10

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  14. Multiscale Phenomena Related to Diabetic Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Tatjana; Mijović, Budimir

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases causing a system disorder, i.e.; it cannot be explained or understood by phenomena on single material scale. The diabetic foot is studied as flexible multibody structure by nonlinear finite element method. The physical and geometrical multiscale heterogeneity is solved by multilevel finite element approach. The diabetic tissue is described by internal coordinate’s formalism, as complex multiscale process in tissue. The accompanying problem...

  15. Mobile video with mobile IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil

  16. Surgical reconstruction in diabetic foot syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umid Shoyusupov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerable morbidity upon spontaneous wound healing (phlegmons, osteomyelitis, and purulent osteoarthritis of metatarsophalangeal joint as well as loss of the diseased foot’s walking ability are among the reasons for transition to plastic surgery in management tactics. The longer foot lesion persists, the higher probability of amputation. Improvement of treatment of both wound and ulcer lesions by means of reconstructive surgery in patients with diabetic foot syndrome was the main aim of the study. Outcomes of treatment of 460 patients managed at the Center for the Scientific and Clinical Study of Endocrinology, within the period from 2001 to 2009 were analyzed. Size, form, depth and localization of a wound, tissue composition of the wound bed as well as circulation in skin flaps caused the choice of specific operation: autodermoplasty by Parin (with the split-thickness skin flap, local tissue plastic operation (with the sliding or inter-advancing skin flaps, flaps from previously amputated toe or Indian flaps, plastic operation with the controlled tissue tension or combined plastic operation. Reconstructive foot wound surgery allows restoring load-bearing function of the extremity much earlier in contrast to spontaneous healing, reducing incidence of post-operative and long-term complications, amputations and re-amputations, decreasing period of treatment.

  17. Diabetes Foot Ulcers: A novel Treatment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Namazi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Foot ulcers are common in 12-25 percent of diabetic patients. Preventing, controlling and treating of these kind chronic wounds are of the major clinical challenges.Evidence based documents revealed that DFU (Diabetic Foot ulcer is a chronic wound type originating from disturbed cellular and molecular mechanisms that have to be in its functional form to overcome its problem. In diabetes and some other chronic based diseases, harmonized acting machine causes chronic phases that result in conditions as foot ulceration and related complications seen commonly in diabetes.DFU needs to be transformed into acute phase in order to be healed in a physiological manner. Disturbed mechanisms have to be corrected reversely and to achieve such a goal it is essential to better understanding of disturbing factors responsible for biological abnormalities. Factors associated with DFU are as cellular and molecular recruitment and function impairments and there is need to repair these mechanisms. For this, we believe that the activated Th-1 cells (T helper-1 Cells might have a critical role in regulation of the several effector functions of the cellular and molecular mechanisms essential to the body to act the best. Evidences and our successful results urge us to suggest this regulatory role for effector cells and molecules generated through activation of Th-1 cells as a treatment strategy.

  18. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  19. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  20. Are diabetic foot lesions precipitated by accidental trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, H K; Moissinac, K; Harwant, S

    2001-12-01

    Diabetic foot lesions may arise from frictional trauma due to tight or inappropriate footwear, repetitive stresses on parts of the foot, overlying bony prominence generated by walking and accidental trauma to the neuropathic foot. Many diabetics have been found to be unaware of their foot lesion, or know what the precipitating cause was. Based on the assumption that accidental trauma would affect the foot in a random fashion and result in lesions distributed evenly throughout the foot, a study was performed to determine whether foot lesions were distributed evenly or concentrated to certain areas of predilection. It was found that foot lesions were not evenly distributed but concentrated to certain areas of predilection. Even though relatively high proportion of the study population walked about in open slippers and barefeet, the study showed that accidental trauma was not a predominant precipitant of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot lesions tend to occur as a result of cumulative, repetitive trauma to areas of prediliection rather than accidental trauma. PMID:14569763

  1. Mobile OS Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian

    2013-01-01

    In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.

  2. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  3. Micro Mobility Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik; Skov, Mikael B.

    2008-01-01

    Mobile marketing refers to marketing of services or goods using mobile technology and mobile marketing holds potentially great economical opportunities. Traditionally, mobile marketing has been viewed as mobility in the large taking place virtually anywhere, anytime. Further, research shows...... considerable number of studies on push-based SMS mobile marketing campaigns. This paper explores a related yet different form of mobile marketing namely micro mobility marketing. Micro mobility marketing denotes mobility in the small, meaning that promotion of goods takes place within a circumscribed location......, in our case a medium-sized retail supermarket. Two prototypes based on push and pull marketing strategies are implemented and evaluated. Taking outset in a synthesis of central issues in contemporary research on mobile marketing, we discuss their role in micro mobility marketing to point to similarities...

  4. Photoperiodic Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow in White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Teplitsky, Seth; Gnyawali, Surya; Nelson, Randy J; Rink, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Individuals living outside the tropics need to adjust their behavioral and physiological repertoires throughout the year to adapt to the changing seasons. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) reduce hippocampal volumes, hippocampal-dependent memory function, long-term potentiation, and alter neurogenesis in response to short (winter-like) day lengths (photoperiods). During winter, these mice putatively shunt energy away from the brain to maximize peripheral thermogenesis, immune function, and survival. We hypothesized that these changes in brain function are accompanied by alterations in brain vasculature. We maintained white-footed mice in short (8 h light/16 h dark) or long (16 h light/8 h dark) photoperiods for 8-9 weeks. Mice were then perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin to visualize the perfused cerebrovasculature. Short-day mice reduced hippocampal and cortical capillary density (FITC(+) area); vessels isolated from short day-exposed mice expressed higher mRNA levels of the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Additionally, short-day mice reduced cerebral blood flow ∼15% compared with their long-day counterparts, as assessed by laser speckle flowmetry. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher levels of MMP2 in the hippocampus of mice maintained in short days compared with long days, potentially contributing to the observed vascular remodeling. These data demonstrate that a discrete environmental signal (i.e., day length) can substantially alter cerebral blood flow in adult mammals. PMID:27570829

  5. A Preliminary Assessment of Legged Mobility Provided by a Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Persons With Paraplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Farris, Ryan J.; Quintero, Hugo A.; Murray, Spencer A.; Ha, Kevin H.; Hartigan, Clare; Goldfarb, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of a lower limb exoskeleton for providing legged mobility to people with paraplegia. In particular, the paper presents a single-subject case study comparing legged locomotion using the exoskeleton to locomotion using knee–ankle–foot orthoses (KAFOs) on a subject with a T10 motor and sensory complete injury. The assessment utilizes three assessment instruments to characterize legged mobility, which are the timed up-and-go test, the Ten-Meter Walk Test (10 MWT)...

  6. Weight Status in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for Mobility Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Pilutti, Lara A.; Deirdre Dlugonski; Pula, John H.; Motl, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of excess body weight may have important health and disease consequences for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined the effect of weight status on mobility using a comprehensive set of mobility outcomes including ambulatory performance (timed 25-foot walk, T25FW; 6-minute walk, 6MW; oxygen cost of walking, C w; spatiotemporal parameters of gait; self-reported walking impairment, Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12); and free-living activity, accele...

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle suggests impairment of cell-mediated immunity in the nasopharynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, transcriptome alterations associated with the FMDV carrier state were characterized using a bovine whole-transcriptome microarray. Eighteen cattle (8 vaccinated with a recombinant FMDV A vac...

  8. Inter-assessor reliability of practice based biomechanical assessment of the foot and ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarvis Hannah L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no consensus on which protocols should be used to assess foot and lower limb biomechanics in clinical practice. The reliability of many assessments has been questioned by previous research. The aim of this investigation was to (i identify (through consensus what biomechanical examinations are used in clinical practice and (ii evaluate the inter-assessor reliability of some of these examinations. Methods Part1: Using a modified Delphi technique 12 podiatrists derived consensus on the biomechanical examinations used in clinical practice. Part 2: Eleven podiatrists assessed 6 participants using a subset of the assessment protocol derived in Part 1. Examinations were compared between assessors. Results Clinicians choose to estimate rather than quantitatively measure foot position and motion. Poor inter-assessor reliability was recorded for all examinations. Intra-class correlation coefficient values (ICC for relaxed calcaneal stance position were less than 0.23 and were less than 0.14 for neutral calcaneal stance position. For the examination of ankle joint dorsiflexion, ICC values suggest moderate reliability (less than 0.61. The results of a random effects ANOVA highlight that participant (up to 5.7°, assessor (up to 5.8° and random (up to 5.7° error all contribute to the total error (up to 9.5° for relaxed calcaneal stance position, up to 10.7° for the examination of ankle joint dorsiflexion. Kappa Fleiss values for categorisation of first ray position and mobility were less than 0.05 and for limb length assessment less than 0.02, indicating slight agreement. Conclusion Static biomechanical assessment of the foot, leg and lower limb is an important protocol in clinical practice, but the key examinations used to make inferences about dynamic foot function and to determine orthotic prescription are unreliable.

  9. Trends in Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Chocholová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to assess the state of the mobile marketing as of the first quarter of 2011 and to discuss various scenarios of the future development. This thesis defines the terms "mobile marketing" and "mobile advertising" and identifies the main players in the industry. It explores the main categories of mobile advertising such as mobile messaging, in-content and mobile internet advertising. Later, it analyzes the latest trends in the industry and describes in detail t...

  10. Cooperating mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  11. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities. PMID:27076876

  12. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the "foot at risk" to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-04-10

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities.

  13. Mobile Schools for a Mobile World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, independent schools are embracing mobile devices--laptops, iPads or other tablets, and smartphones--to enhance teaching and learning. This article describes the results of the "NAIS 2012 Mobile Learning Survey." Among its findings were that 75 percent of NAIS-member schools currently use mobile learning devices in at…

  14. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S; Abdulhadi, Nadia N; Coppell, Kirsten J

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002-2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  15. Pathogenesis of foot ulcers and the need for offloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathur, H M; Boulton, A J

    2005-04-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration represents a major medical, social and economic problem all over the world. While more than 5% of diabetic patients have a history of foot ulceration, the cumulative lifetime incidence may be as high as 15%. Ethnic differences exist in both ulcer and amputation incidences. Foot ulceration results from the interaction of several contributory factors, the most important of which is neuropathy. The use of the total-contact cast is demonstrated in the treatment of plantar neuropathic ulcers. Histological evidence suggests that pressure relief results in chronic foot ulcers changing their morphological appearance by displaying some features of an acute wound. Thus, repetitive stresses on the insensate foot appear to play a major role in maintaining ulcer chronicity. It is hoped that research activity in foot disease will ultimately result in fewer ulcers and less amputation in diabetes.

  16. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  17. Rationale, Science, and Economics of Surgical Nerve Decompression for Diabetic Neuropathy Foot Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, David Scott

    2016-04-01

    Nerve decompression is effective and safe for dealing with the pain and numbness symptoms of the frequent nerve compression entrapments in diabetic symmetric peripheral neuropathy (DSPN). Evidence has accumulated of balance and stability improvements and protection against diabetic foot ulceration, recurrence and its complication cascade. Nerve decompression proffers significant benefit versus the large socioeconomic costs of DSPN complications. Advancing understanding of the mechanism of nerve compression and altered axonal activity in diabetes clarifies the basis of clinical benefit. Clinicians should seek out and recognize nerve entrapments and consider advising nerve decompression for relief of DSPN symptoms and prevention of complications. PMID:27013417

  18. Secondary changes in the skeleton of the foot in Lupus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of a seventy-year old lady is presented who, fortyfive years ago, had dermal tuberculosis of the left lower limb and foot. After removal of the infected skin areas with an electric cauter the patient developed massive skin indurations, besides the typical scarification. Actual X-rays showed a decrease in seize of metatarsal bones and digits without lytic or porotic signs. Furthermore, dorsal luxation of the digits was visible. These alterations were interpreted as secondary bone remodelling resulting from long-term traction due to the extensive scarring. (orig.)

  19. Foot posture influences the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait

    OpenAIRE

    Menz Hylton B; Murley George S; Landorf Karl B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Some studies have found that flat-arched foot posture is related to altered lower limb muscle function compared to normal- or high-arched feet. However, the results from these studies were based on highly selected populations such as those with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare lower limb muscle function of normal and flat-arched feet in people without pain or disease. Methods Sixty adults aged 18 to 47 years were recruited to this...

  20. Reliability and Clinical Significance of Mobility and Balance Assessments in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Paul, Lorna; McFadyen, Angus K.; Mattison, Paul; Miller, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the test-retest reliability, clinical significance and precision of four mobility and balance measures--the Timed 25-Foot Walk, Six-minute Walk, Timed Up and Go and the Berg Balance Scale--in individuals moderately affected by multiple sclerosis. Twenty four participants with multiple sclerosis (Extended…

  1. Mutagenicity in Salmonella of a Simulated Urban-Smog Atmosphere Generated Using a Mobile Reaction Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Mobile Reaction Chamber (MRC) is a 24-foot trailer containing a 14.3-m3 Teflon lined photochemical chamber used to generate simulated urban atmospheres. Photochemistry in the MRC is catalyzed by 120 fluorescent bulbs evenly mixed with black light bulbs and UV bulbs (300 &...

  2. Climate, Weather and Daily Mobility : Transport Mode Choices and Travel Experiences in the Randstad Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böcker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Intuitively, weather plays an important role in everyday mobility. How often do we not expose ourselves to cold, heat, sun, rain, snow or wind when we are travelling on foot or by bicycle; waiting at a bus stop; walking towards a parked car; or driving under slippery road conditions. Recently, weath

  3. Use of Pressure Offloading Devices in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Stephanie C; Jensen, Jeffrey L.; Weber, Anna K.; Robinson, Daniel E.; David G Armstrong

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Pressure mitigation is crucial for the healing of plantar diabetic foot ulcers. We therefore discuss characteristics and considerations associated with the use of offloading devices. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A diabetic foot ulcer management survey was sent to foot clinics in all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2005. A total of 901 geographically diverse centers responded. The survey recorded information regarding usage frequency and characteristics of assessment and tre...

  4. Interdigital foot infections: Corynebacterium minutissimum and agents of superficial mycoses

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Mutlu Sariguzel; A. Nedret Koc; Gülhan Yagmur; Elife Berk

    2014-01-01

    Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly wit...

  5. Hand, foot and mouth disease - a short case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, that was once considered a disease of cattle, has been emerging as a common human childhood disease in the last few years. It is a viral disease characterized by a brief febrile illness and typical vesicular rashes. In rare cases, patients may also develop neurological complications. This report describes a case of hand, foot and mouth disease, presented with typical clinical features in the South Indian region. Key words:Hand, foot and mouth disease, viral lesio...

  6. 6-Axis Force/Moment Sensor In Humanoid Robot Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai-Faifi, Badrih; Al-Shammary, Maryam; Al-Shehry, Zinab

    2014-07-01

    The foot is the most Important part of the humanoid .Thought the sensor of the robot can understand the environment In which they live, it is important to developed an intelligent foot. In order to walk on uneven terrain safely this poster describes an intelligent foot with 6- axis force/moment sensors for humanoid robot that is one of the solution that can help the robot to walk in uneven terrain safely.

  7. FootPrinter3: phylogenetic footprinting in partially alignable sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Fei; Blanchette, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    FootPrinter3 is a web server for predicting transcription factor binding sites by using phylogenetic footprinting. Until now, phylogenetic footprinting approaches have been based either on multiple alignment analysis (e.g. PhyloVista, PhastCons), or on motif-discovery algorithms (e.g. FootPrinter2). FootPrinter3 integrates these two approaches, making use of local multiple sequence alignment blocks when those are available and reliable, but also allowing finding motifs in unalignable regions....

  8. Tibialis posterior tendon transfer for drop foot deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Bekler, Halil; Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin; Gokce, Alper

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) transfers in patients with drop foot deformity. Methods: Eight patients with drop foot deformity (2 females, 6 males; mean age 40 years; range 15 to 75 years) underwent TPT transfer to the dorsum of the foot. The deformity was on the left in three patients and on the right in five patients. Etiology was traumatic peroneal nerve injuries in six patients, and upper-level nerve injuries after hip and lumbar surgery in two patients. For ...

  9. Costs of Deep Foot Infections in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnel Ragnarson Tennvall; Jan Apelqvist; Magnus Eneroth

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To calculate costs for the management of deep foot infections and to identify the most important factors related to treatment costs. Design: Costs for in-hospital care, surgery, investigations, antibacterials, visits to the foot-care team, orthopaedic appliances and topical treatment were calculated retrospectively from diagnosis until healing or death. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors that independently affect costs. Setting: A multidisciplinary foot-care ...

  10. MEMS Technology Sensors as a More Advantageous Technique for Measuring Foot Plantar Pressure and Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Sanz Morère

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor activities are part and parcel of daily human life. During walking or running, feet are subjected to high plantar pressure, leading sometimes to limb problems, pain, or foot ulceration. A current objective in foot plantar pressure measurements is developing sensors that are small in size, lightweight, and energy efficient, while enabling high mobility, particularly for wearable applications. Moreover, improvements in spatial resolution, accuracy, and sensitivity are of interest. Sensors with improved sensing techniques can be applied to a variety of research problems: diagnosing limb problems, footwear design, or injury prevention. This paper reviews commercially available sensors used in foot plantar pressure measurements and proposes the utilization of pressure sensors based on the MEMS (microelectromechanical systems technique. Pressure sensors based on this technique have the capacity to measure pressure with high accuracy and linearity up to high pressure levels. Moreover, being small in size, they are highly suitable for this type of measurement. We present two MEMS sensor models and study their suitability for the intended purpose by performing several experiments. Preliminary results indicate that the sensors are indeed suitable for measuring foot plantar pressure. Importantly, by measuring pressure continuously, they can also be utilized for body balance measurements.

  11. Surgical Treatment Guidelines for Digital Deformity Associated With Intrinsic Muscle Spasticity (Intrinsic Plus Foot) in Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffeli, Troy J; Collier, Rachel C

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic plus foot deformity has primarily been associated with cerebral palsy and involves spastic contracture of the intrinsic musculature with resultant toe deformities. Digital deformity is caused by a dynamic imbalance between the intrinsic muscles in the foot and extrinsic muscles in the lower leg. Spastic contracture of the toes frequently involves curling under of the lesser digits or contracture of the hallux into valgus or plantarflexion deformity. Patients often present with associated pressure ulcers, deformed toenails, shoe or brace fitting challenges, and pain with ambulation or transfers. Four different patterns of intrinsic plus foot deformity have been observed by the authors that likely relate to the different patterns of muscle involvement. Case examples are provided of the 4 patterns of intrinsic plus foot deformity observed, including global intrinsic plus lesser toe deformity, isolated intrinsic plus lesser toe deformity, intrinsic plus hallux valgus deformity, and intrinsic plus hallux flexus deformity. These case examples are presented to demonstrate each type of deformity and our approach for surgical management according to the contracture pattern. The surgical approach has typically involved tenotomy, capsulotomy, or isolated joint fusion. The main goals of surgical treatment are to relieve pain and reduce pressure points through digital realignment in an effort to decrease the risk of pressure sores and allow more effective bracing to ultimately improve the patient's mobility. PMID:25154656

  12. Multi-segment foot kinematics after total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis during relatively long-distance gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, H; Favre, J; Aminian, K; Crevoisier, X

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of ankle osteoarthritis (AOA) treatments, i.e., ankle arthrodesis (AA) and total ankle replacement (TAR), on the kinematics of multi-segment foot and ankle complex during relatively long-distance gait. Forty-five subjects in four groups (AOA, AA, TAR, and control) were equipped with a wearable system consisting of inertial sensors installed on the tibia, calcaneus, and medial metatarsals. The subjects walked 50-m twice while the system measured the kinematic parameters of their multi-segment foot: the range of motion of joints between tibia, calcaneus, and medial metatarsals in three anatomical planes, and the peaks of angular velocity of these segments in the sagittal plane. These parameters were then compared among the four groups. It was observed that the range of motion and peak of angular velocities generally improved after TAR and were similar to the control subjects. However, unlike AOA and TAR, AA imposed impairments in the range of motion in the coronal plane for both the tibia-calcaneus and tibia-metatarsals joints. In general, the kinematic parameters showed significant correlation with established clinical scales (FFI and AOFAS), which shows their convergent validity. Based on the kinematic parameters of multi-segment foot during 50-m gait, this study showed significant improvements in foot mobility after TAR, but several significant impairments remained after AA.

  13. Facts that every vascular surgeon needs to know about the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes important aspects of the diabetic foot which the vascular surgeon needs to understand to efficiently manage the diabetic foot. Firstly, it emphasises the three main pathologies which come together in the diabetic foot, namely neuropathy, ischemia and immunopathy, the latter predisposing to infection. As a result of neuropathy, the signs and symptoms of tissue breakdown, infection and ischemia may be minimal. Nevertheless the pathology emanating from such clinical events proceeds rapidly without the body being aware of it and the end stage of tissue death and necrosis is quickly reached. It is important to have a prompt system of evaluation and intervention to prevent the rapid progression to necrosis. Thus, secondly, the paper describes a simple rapid assessment of the diabetic foot, which comprises inspection, palpation and sensory testing and leads on to a modern classification and staging of the diabetic foot. This classifies six subdivisions of the diabetic foot: foot with neuropathic ulceration, Charcot foot, neuroischemic foot, critically ischemic foot, acutely ischemic foot and renal ischemic foot and six stages in the natural history of each of these subdivisions: normal foot, high risk foot, ulcerated foot, infected foot, necrotic foot and unsalvageable foot. Thirdly, it describes modern management of the diabetic foot, emphazising wound care and revascularization within the context of a multidisciplinary care team that provides integrated care focused in a diabetic foot clinic, to which patients with diabetes should have easy and rapid access. Members of the team include podiatrist, nurse, orthotist, physician, radiologist and surgeons.

  14. Influence of patellofemoral pain syndrome on plantar pressure in the foot rollover process during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aliberti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is one of the most common knee disorders among physically active young women. Despite its high incidence, the multifactorial etiology of this disorder is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome on plantar pressure distribution during the foot rollover process (i.e., the initial heel contact, midstance and propulsion phases of the gait. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven young adults, including 22 subjects with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (30 ± 7 years, 165 ± 9 cm, 63 ± 12 kg and 35 control subjects (29 ± 7 years, 164 ± 8 cm, 60 ± 11 kg, volunteered for the study. The contact area and peak pressure were evaluated using the Pedar-X system (Novel, Germany synchronized with ankle sagittal kinematics. RESULTS: Subjects with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome showed a larger contact area over the medial (p = 0.004 and central (p = 0.002 rearfoot at the initial contact phase and a lower peak pressure over the medial forefoot (p = 0.033 during propulsion when compared with control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is related to a foot rollover pattern that is medially directed at the rearfoot during initial heel contact and laterally directed at the forefoot during propulsion. These detected alterations in the foot rollover process during gait may be used to develop clinical interventions using insoles, taping and therapeutic exercise to rehabilitate this dysfunction.

  15. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadagiri Surender Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  16. Benign and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain and focal masses in the foot and ankle are frequently encountered and often initiate a workup including imaging. It is important to differentiate benign lesions from aggressive benign or malignant lesions. In this review, multiple examples of osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle will be presented. Additionally, the compartmental anatomy of the foot and ankle will be discussed in terms of its relevance for percutaneous biopsy planning and eventual surgery. Finally, a general overview of the surgical management of benign, benign aggressive and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. Clinical workflow for personalized foot pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucki, M; Luboz, V; Perrier, A; Champion, E; Diot, B; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Foot pressure ulcers are a common complication of diabetes because of patient's lack of sensitivity due to neuropathy. Deep pressure ulcers appear internally when pressures applied on the foot create high internal strains nearby bony structures. Monitoring tissue strains in persons with diabetes is therefore important for an efficient prevention. We propose to use personalized biomechanical foot models to assess strains within the foot and to determine the risk of ulcer formation. Our workflow generates a foot model adapted to a patient's morphology by deforming an atlas model to conform it to the contours of segmented medical images of the patient's foot. Our biomechanical model is composed of rigid bodies for the bones, joined by ligaments and muscles, and a finite element mesh representing the soft tissues. Using our registration algorithm to conform three datasets, three new patient models were created. After applying a pressure load below these foot models, the Von Mises equivalent strains and "cluster volumes" (i.e. volumes of contiguous elements with strains above a given threshold) were measured within eight functionally meaningful foot regions. The results show the variability of both location and strain values among the three considered patients. This study also confirms that the anatomy of the foot has an influence on the risk of pressure ulcer. PMID:27212210

  18. Role of industries in the care of diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, A; Lakshmi, S; Arun, Nanditha; Samith Shetty, A; Snehalatha, C

    2010-09-01

    Diabetic foot disease is a dreaded complication causing severe economic and social burden, mental and physical agony, and severe morbidity and mortality. This complication is largely preventable if the risk factors such as peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease are detected early and appropriate measures are taken to control glycemia, foot pressure, and chances of foot injury. In the case of ulceration, proper microbial control, pressure offloading by debridement, and use of appropriate footwear are mandatory to save the foot. This article focuses on the need for preventive care for diabetic complications demonstrating potentially helpful roles for industry in India. PMID:20705621

  19. Benign and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Adam D.; Datir, Abhijit; Langley, Travis [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tresley, Jonathan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Clifford, Paul D.; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Pain and focal masses in the foot and ankle are frequently encountered and often initiate a workup including imaging. It is important to differentiate benign lesions from aggressive benign or malignant lesions. In this review, multiple examples of osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle will be presented. Additionally, the compartmental anatomy of the foot and ankle will be discussed in terms of its relevance for percutaneous biopsy planning and eventual surgery. Finally, a general overview of the surgical management of benign, benign aggressive and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle will be discussed. (orig.)

  20. Acute Effects of Foot Rotation in Healthy Adults during Running on Knee Moments and Lateral-Medial Shear Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Kevin A; Lynn, Scott K; Noffal, Guillermo J; Brown, Lee E

    2016-03-01

    As runners age, the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis (OA) significantly increases as 10% of people 55+ have symptomatic knee OA while 70% of people 65+ have radiographic signs of knee OA. The lateral-medial shear force (LMF) and knee adduction moment (KAM) during gait have been associated with cartilage loading which can lead to OA. Foot rotation during gait has been shown to alter the LMF and KAM, however it has not been investigated in running. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the KAM and LMF with foot rotation during running. Twenty participants volunteered and performed five running trials in three randomized conditions (normal foot position [NORM], external rotation [EXT], and internal rotation [INT]) at a running speed of 3.35m·s(-1) on a 20 meter runway. Kinematic and kinetic data were gathered using a 9-camera motion capture system and a force plate, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVAs determined differences between conditions. The KAM and LMF were lower in both EXT and INT conditions compared to the NORM, but there were no differences between EXT and INT conditions. The decreases in KAM and LMF in the EXT condition were expected and concur with past research in other activities. The reductions in the INT condition were unexpected and contradict the literature. This may indicate that participants are making mechanical compensations at other joints to reduce the KAM and LMF in this abnormal internal foot rotation condition. Key pointsExternal rotation of the foot during running reduced the loads on the medial compartment of the kneeInternal rotation of the foot also reduced the medial loads, but is a more unnatural interventionExternal and internal rotation reduced the shear forces on the knee, which may help slow the degeneration of knee joint cartilage. PMID:26957926

  1. Cross platform Mobile Applications Development: Mobile Apps Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Redda, Yonathan Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the mobile computing sector has been having quite a revolution.Mobile computing devices have shed loads of weight, gone slim, achieved mass popularityand a great market penetration. But one of the challenges that has been part ofmobile computing is technology and device fragmentation leaving application developersfor mobile phones bewildered. Platform developers, device manufacturers comewith so many features and functionalities that it has been dicult to provide developerswi...

  2. Effect of Foot Massage on Physiologic Indicators in Critically Ill Patients Admitted in the I.C.U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Alavi- Majd

    2006-10-01

    conc.10 minutes before massage and values at 30 minutes after foot massage were more than the values10 minutes before and 10 minutes after foot massage (p<0.001, Decrease in temperature on third and fourth days of ICU admission 10 minutes and 30 minutes after foot massage as compared to 10 minutes before massage was significant, but alterations were little and clinically, we can say that body temperature did not alter and approximately remind constant. Data analysis also showed that alterations in values of physiologic indicators during the three days of manipulation were the same and there was no difference between the alterations on different days (p<0.001. Conclusion: In general, parasympathetic activity after foot massages results in alteration of body physiologic responses. Decrease in heart rate, mean arterial pressure and respiratory rate along with increase in arterial oxygen concentration showed that patients were less anxious and more relaxed.

  3. Ambulatory measurement of three-dimensional foot displacement during treadmill walking using wearable wireless ultrasonic sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yongbin; Soh, Cheong Boon; Gunawan, Erry; Low, Kay-Soon

    2015-03-01

    Techniques that could be used to monitor human motion precisely are helpful in various applications such as rehabilitation, gait analysis, and athletic performance analysis. This paper focuses on the 3-D foot trajectory measurements based on a wearable wireless ultrasonic sensor network. The system consists of an ultrasonic transmitter (mobile) and several receivers (anchors) with fixed known positions. In order not to restrict the movement of subjects, a radio frequency (RF) module is used for wireless data transmission. The RF module also provides the synchronization clock between mobile and anchors. The proposed system measures the time-of-arrival (TOA) of the ultrasonic signal from mobile to anchors. Together with the knowledge of the anchor's position, the absolute distance that the signal travels can be computed. Then, the range information defines a circle centered at this anchor with radius equal to the measured distance, and the mobile resides within the intersections of several such circles. Based on the TOA-based tracking technique, the 3-D foot trajectories are validated against a camera-based motion capture system for ten healthy subjects walking on a treadmill at slow, normal, and fast speeds. The experimental results have shown that the ultrasonic system has sufficient accuracy of net root-mean-square error ( 4.2 cm) for 3-D displacement, especially for foot clearance with accuracy and standard deviation ( 0.62 ±7.48 mm) compared to the camera-based motion capture system. The small form factor and lightweight feature of the proposed system make it easy to use. Such a system is also much lower in cost compared to the camera-based tracking system. PMID:24759996

  4. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2010-01-01

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) of plantar and the rate of the footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1) in stance phase, there is a significant difference (p<0.01) in the distributions of VGRF of plantar; (2) in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (p<0.01) in the rates of the footprint areas. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension...

  5. Mechanism and Design Analysis of Articulated Ankle Foot Orthoses for Drop-Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morshed Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technologies are being employed increasingly in the treatment of lower limb disabilities. Individuals suffering from stroke and other neurological disorders often experience inadequate dorsiflexion during swing phase of the gait cycle due to dorsiflexor muscle weakness. This type of pathological gait, mostly known as drop-foot gait, has two major complications, foot-slap during loading response and toe-drag during swing. Ankle foot orthotic (AFO devices are mostly prescribed to resolve these complications. Existing AFOs are designed with or without articulated joint with various motion control elements like springs, dampers, four-bar mechanism, series elastic actuator, and so forth. This paper examines various AFO designs for drop-foot, discusses the mechanism, and identifies limitations and remaining design challenges. Along with two commercially available AFOs some designs possess promising prospective to be used as daily-wear device. However, the design and mechanism of AFO must ensure compactness, light weight, low noise, and high efficiency. These entailments present significant engineering challenges to develop a new design with wide consumer adoption.

  6. The Hand and Foot in the Cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, W C

    1983-02-01

    In brief: Physiological and physical methods were used to study the effects of chilling on the hands and feet and to compare various mittens and footwear. The woolen liner-leather shell mitten is effective protection for the hands, and the woolen sock-felt liner-shoepac combination was good for protecting the feet. Direct contact with the ground greatly increases heat loss, so the thickness of the sole is important. Superficial rewarming of the hand will stimulate blood flow to it, but blood flow will not return to the foot unless the whole body is sufficiently warm. Therefore, torso protection is as important as extremity protection for long exposures. PMID:27463168

  7. Wheeled foot quadruped robot HITAN-I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Pengfei; Sun Lining

    2006-01-01

    In view of the robot running environment, the structure of wheeled foot and quadruped are adopted in this robot system, which combines the priorities of both wheeled robot and legged robot. Based on CAN bus, the two-class robot control system using multiple controllers and drivers is constructed. At the same time, serial inverse kinematics of swaying leg and parallel inverse kinematics of supporting legs are analyzed independently. The forward gait and turning gait are planned and experiment image is given at last.

  8. Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vipin Kamboj; Hitesh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones are used by every people in today’s life. We use mobile phones without knowing the different factors that a mobile used including its technology, operating system, CPU ,RAM etc. Many types of operating system are used by different mobile. Every operating system has their advantage

  9. TYPOLOGIES OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Ivan; Alin Zamfiroiu; Dragoş Palaghiţă3

    2013-01-01

    Mobile applications and their particularities are analyzed. Mobile application specific characteristics are defined. Types of applications are identified and analyzed. The paper established differences between mobile applications and mobile application categories. For each identified type the specific structures and development model are identified.

  10. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Robin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1. Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle.

  11. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Barquero, David

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  12. The German and Belgian accreditation models for diabetic foot services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbach, Stephan; Kersken, Joachim; Lobmann, Ralf; Nobels, Frank; Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot recommends that auditing should be part of the organization of diabetic foot care, the efforts required for data collection and analysis being balanced by the expected benefits. In Germany legislature demands measures of quality management for in- and out-patient facilities, and, in 2003, the Germany Working Group on the Diabetic Foot defined and developed a certification procedure for diabetic foot centres to be recognized as 'specialized'. This includes a description of management facilities, treatment procedures and outcomes, as well as the organization of mutual auditing visits between the centres. Outcome data is collected at baseline and 6 months on 30 consecutive patients. By 2014 almost 24,000 cases had been collected and analysed. Since 2005 Belgian multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics could apply for recognition by health authorities. For continued recognition diabetic foot clinics need to treat at least 52 patients with a new foot problem (Wagner 2 or more or active Charcot foot) per annum. Baseline and 6-month outcome data of these patients are included in an audit-feedback initiative. Although originally fully independent of each other, the common goal of these two initiatives is quality improvement of national diabetic foot care, and hence exchanges between systems has commenced. In future, the German and Belgian accreditation models might serve as templates for comparable initiatives in other countries. Just recently the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot initiated a working group for further discussion of accreditation and auditing models (International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot AB(B)A Working Group).

  13. Mobile platform security

    CERN Document Server

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  14. Tenured Public Servant Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Pauron

    2003-01-01

    The mobility of tenured public servants is studied from three points of view: geographic mobility (defined by a change of regional study and planning area (ZEAT) or department within a ZEAT), socio-economic mobility (change of socio-economic group) and structural mobility (change of ministry or service within a ministry). Geographic mobility is the most frequent, concerning an average 4.2% of staff every year. Not including upgrading (from grade D to grade C and from primary school teacher to...

  15. MOBILE MARKETING FUTURE TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    CĂTOIU, Iacob; GÂRDAN, Daniel Adrian; GÂRDAN, Doru Lucian

    2010-01-01

    The present article proposes an introspection into the field of a new marketing specialization – mobile marketing. The concept mainly refers to all marketing activities related to the new communication channel – Short Message Service, Multimedia Messaging Service, and internet access from mobile phone. The article provides, at the same time, a marketing perspective about future trends of mobile marketing and mobile media, and also a technical perspective related to the future mobile communica...

  16. ON MOBILE MESH NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Namiot, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in mobile computing technologies and the growth of the Net, mobile mesh networks are going through a set of important evolutionary steps. In this paper, we survey architectural aspects of mobile mesh networks and their use cases and deployment models. Also, we survey challenging areas of mobile mesh networks and describe our vision of promising mobile services. This paper presents a basic introductory material for Masters of Open Information Technologies Lab, interested in m...

  17. Nonlinear MHD waves in a Prominence Foot

    CERN Document Server

    Ofman, Leon; Kucera, Therese; Schmieder, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/SOT in Ca~II emission of a prominence on October 10, 2012 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of H$\\alpha$ intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity ($\\delta I/I\\sim \\delta n/n$). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height, and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes, and wavelengths $\\sim <$2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating wav...

  18. Imaging osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W. (Gottingen Univ. (Germany). Dep. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot is in most of the patients not possible without imaging the bone. The clinical problem is to diagnose infection as early, as reliable and as cheap as possible to prevent the possible longstanding and life-threatening complications. For imaging a lot of different radiological and nuclear medicine methods are available. This article focuses on the possible results of conventional plain radiography and tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as radiological and on bone scan, autologous white blood cell scintigraphy with [sup 111]In-oxin or [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO, antigranulocyte antibodies, [sup 99m]Tc/[sup 111]In-human immunoglobulin,[sup 67] Ga-citrate and [sup 99m]Tc-nanocelloids. Different methods after different answers. Radiological methods give detailed pathological answers, nuclear medicine methods answer questions of specificity such as leukocyte infiltration. If osteomyelitis is suspected, plain radiography should be the first, three phase bone scintigraphy the second and infection specific radiopharmaceuticals the third step of examination. Only in negative images with high clinical suspicion CT or MRI should be the final imaging procedure. In the diabetic foot imaging cascade should also start with plain radiography, followed by three phase bone scintigraphy or MRI. If clinically neuropathy is present specific nuclear medicine imaging should be performed.

  19. Microsurgical management of the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, Christian; Schwabegger, Anton H; Meirer, Romed; Perkmann, Reinhold; Ninkovic, Marina; Ninkovic, Milomir

    2003-11-01

    Allthough there has been dramatic progress in limb salvage in recent decades, management of nonhealing wounds in diabetic patients continues to present a dilemma for the reconstructive surgeon. However, the acceptance of free-flap resurfacing of diabetic foot ulcers has increased in recent years. This study reviews 10 microvascular free muscle flaps in nine patients over a mean follow-up period of 44 months. Five patients had evidence of peripheral vascular disease. There was one flap loss, and nine flaps were transferred successfully. No perioperative mortality was encountered. The operations required a long, costly hospitalization (average hospital stay was 40 days). Seven of eight patients whose flaps survived had complications related to the free-flap recipient site. These seven patients underwent 20 secondary surgical procedures due to arterial and venous thrombosis, partial necrosis of the skin grafts, minor local infections, and gangrene or necrosis of the remaining toes. In three patients, progressive ischemic necrosis of the remaining toes, with total survival of the flap, was attributed to a microvascular steal phenomenon. However, all eight patients whose flaps survived subsequently ambulated on their flaps. The study demonstrates that microvascular surgery may result in functional lower-extremity salvage in diabetic patients with foot wounds that are not treatable by local flaps or skin grafts, and are destined for amputation.

  20. Behaviors Predicting Foot Lesions in Patients with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Suico, Jeffrey G.; Marriott, Deanna J; Vinicor, Frank; Litzelman, Debra K.

    1998-01-01

    Associations between specific foot-care behaviors and foot lesions in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were prospectively investigated. Data from a randomized controlled trial for preventing diabetic foot lesions were analyzed as a prospective cohort using logistic regression. Independent variables included foot-care behaviors, patient self-foot examination, going barefoot, availability of foot-care assistance, and visits to health-care providers. The dependent variable w...

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Benjamin A; Berendt, Anthony R; Deery, H Gunner; Embil, John M; Joseph, Warren S; Karchmer, Adolf W; LeFrock, Jack L; Lew, Daniel P; Mader, Jon T; Norden, Carl; Tan, James S

    2006-06-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: 1. Foot infections in patients with diabetes cause substantial morbidity and frequent visits to health care professionals and may lead to amputation of a lower extremity. 2. Diabetic foot infections require attention to local (foot) and systemic (metabolic) issues and coordinated management, preferably by a multidisciplinary foot-care team (A-II). The team managing these infections should include, or have ready access to, an infectious diseases specialist or a medical microbiologist (B-II). 3. The major predisposing factor to these infections is foot ulceration, which is usually related to peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral vascular disease and various immunological disturbances play a secondary role. 4. Aerobic Gram-positive cocci (especially Staphylococcus aureus) are the predominant pathogens in diabetic foot infections. Patients who have chronic wounds or who have recently received antibiotic therapy may also be infected with Gram-negative rods, and those with foot ischemia or gangrene may have obligate anaerobic pathogens. 5. Wound infections must be diagnosed clinically on the basis of local (and occasionally systemic) signs and symptoms of inflammation. Laboratory (including microbiological) investigations are of limited use for diagnosing infection, except in cases of osteomyelitis (B-II). 6. Send appropriately obtained specimens for culture before starting empirical antibiotic therapy in all cases of infection, except perhaps those that are mild and previously untreated (B-III). Tissue specimens obtained by biopsy, ulcer curettage, or aspiration are preferable to wound swab specimens (A-I). 7. Imaging studies may help diagnose or better define deep, soft-tissue purulent collections and are usually needed to detect pathological findings in bone. Plain radiography may be adequate in many cases, but MRI (in preference to isotope scanning) is more sensitive and specific, especially for detection of soft-tissue lesions (A-I). 8. Infections

  2. Easy ways to offload diabetic foot ulcer in rural setup

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Vijay P

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic wound management has become a foremost problem in recent era. Offloading is one of the cornerstones of gold-standard treatment in diabetic neuropathic foot ulcer. The following article reviews the easily made offloading systems which are ideal to use in rural setup to offload diabetic foot ulcer.

  3. Innovations in plantar pressure and foot temperature measurements in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, S A

    2016-01-01

    Plantar pressure and temperature measurements in the diabetic foot primarily contribute to identifying abnormal values that increase risk for foot ulceration, and they are becoming increasingly more integrated in clinical practice and daily life of the patient. While plantar pressure measurements have long been present, only recently evidence shows their importance in ulcer prevention, as a data-driven approach to therapeutic footwear provision. The long-term monitoring of plantar pressures with the option to provide feedback, when alarming pressure levels occur, is a promising development in this area, although more technical and clinical validation is required. Shear is considered important in ulcer aetiology but is technically difficult to measure. Innovative research is underway to assess if foot temperature can act as a useful surrogate for shear. Because the skin heats up before it breaks down, frequent monitoring of foot temperature can identify these warning signals. This approach has shown to be effective in preventing foot ulcers. Innovation in diagnostic methods for foot temperature monitoring and evidence on cost effectiveness will likely facilitate implementation. Finally, monitoring of adherence to offloading treatment using temperature-based sensors has proven to be a feasible and relevant method with a wide range of possible research and patient care applications. These innovations in plantar pressure and temperature measurements illustrate an important transfer in diabetic foot care from subjective to objective evaluation of the high-risk patient. They demonstrate clinical value and a large potential in helping to reduce the patient and economic burden of diabetic foot disease.

  4. Foot posture and patellar tendon pain among adult volleyball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, R. de; Malliaras, P.; Munteanu, S.; Payne, C.; Morrissey, D.; Maffulli, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Field-based study among competing athletes. PARTICIPANTS: Volleyball player

  5. Skin and nail mycoses in patients with diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, M; Cicoletti, M; Fabrizi, V; Landucci, P

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects all socioeconomic and age groups and its incidence is rapidly increasing worldwide. The diabetic foot complication represents one of the most complex and serious complications in these patients. Fungal infections can also contribute to the severity of the diabetic foot. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of foot skin and toenail mycosis in a group of 75 patients with diabetic foot complication and in a matched control group. Diabetic patients showed onychomycosis in 53.3% and foot skin mycosis in 46.7% of the cases, with a prevalence of both fungal infections significantly higher than that observed in the control group. At least one type of these fungal infections was present in 69.3% of diabetic subjects with a highly significant difference compared to control group (Pdiabetic foot complication, and that the problem of fungal infections of the foot in diabetic subjects is still highly underestimated. Consequently, there is an important clinical rationale for careful mycological examination of diabetic foot and an adequate treatment tailored for each individual patient according to the fungal species involved.

  6. Foot and ankle injuries in child and adolescent athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Yakup; Esemenli, Tanil

    2004-01-01

    Foot and ankle injuries are most commonly encountered in athletes. Of these, pediatric and adolescent injuries have unique characteristics because of the distinct growth potentials and their consequences specific to this age group. In this article, foot and ankle injuries in child and adolescent athletes are reviewed in the light of the literature.

  7. Veterinary realities: what is foot and mouth disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Law; A. Mol

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary science draws on different traditions for knowing and acting, and mobilises different kinds of materials and techniques. This article explores these differences and their tensions for the diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in the UK in 2001. It shows that when they talk of foot and mouth

  8. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi eNaito

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available How very long-term (over many years motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while he rotated his right ankle at 1Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar’s brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  9. [Presentation of a flap web space laterodigital in cleft foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwebel, J; Haddad, R; Mitrofanoff, M

    2012-08-01

    Cleft foot deformity is characterized by the absence of one or more median rays of the foot. This rare polymorphous congenital anomaly occurs more frequently in males, with a frequent autosomal dominant type of transmission. The purpose of surgical treatment is to narrow the width of the foot, but also to improve its global aesthetic look. Toe reparation, and more specifically web space reconstruction, provide the main technical challenges. We present an adaptation to the foot of a laterodigital cutaneous flap published by Barsky in 1964 for commissural reconstruction in cleft hand syndroms. The anatomical structure of fingers and toes commisures being different, this flap seems more adapted to the surgery of the foot. We gathered seven patients' files treated for ectrodactyly of the foot with this technique by the same surgeon from 2005 to 2008. No particular postoperative complications were noted, and the patients all expressed their satisfaction regarding the improvement of the appearance of their foot. We recommend to add the use of this flap in the "tool box" of the surgeon in charge of the management of foot deformities. PMID:20947236

  10. Foot Posture and Patellar Tendon Pain Among Adult Volleyball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Reinier; Malliaras, Peter; Munteanu, Shannon; Payne, Craig; Morrissey, Dylan; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. Design: Observational study. Setting: Field-based study among competing athletes. Participants: Volleyball player

  11. Functional limitations due to foot involvement in spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaras, Nihal; Havan, Nuri; Poyraz, Emine; Rezvanı, Aylin; Aydın, Teoman

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Spondyloarthritis is a major inflammatory disease followed-up in the rheumatology clinics, foot involvement in spodyloarthritis is common. The functional states of patients with spondyloarthritis are usually evaluated globally. The aim of this study was to assess the foot involvement-related functional limitations in patients with spondyloarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Patients with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis with foot pain more than 4 weeks who underwent anteroposterior and lateral feet radiography were enrolled into the study. A “clinical findings score” was calculated by assigning 1 point for every finding of swelling, redness, and tenderness. C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were used as serum markers for disease activity. Foot radiograms were evaluated using the spondyloarthropathy tarsal radiographic index and the foot-related functional state of patients was determined by the Turkish version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score. [Results] There were no relationships between Foot and Ankle Outcome Score subscales and clinical findings score, serum markers, or radiologic score. Pain and symptoms subscale scores were result positively correlated with activity of daily living, sport and recreation, and quality of life subscale scores. [Conclusion] Pain and symptoms are the main determinants of foot-related functional limitations in spondyloarthritis. PMID:27512252

  12. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-01-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= −0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance. PMID:27419113

  13. Use of a backpack alters gait initiation of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Noll, Matias; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; da Costa, Paula Hentschel Lobo

    2016-06-01

    We assessed how backpack carriage influences the gait initiation (GI) process in high school students, who extensively use backpacks. GI involves different dynamics from gait itself, while the excessive use of backpacks can result in adverse effects. 117 high school students were evaluated in three experimental conditions: no backpack (NB), bilateral backpack (BB), and unilateral backpack (UB). Two force plates were used to acquire ground reaction forces (GRFs) and moments for each foot separately. Center of pressure (COP) scalar variables were extracted, and statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed over the entire COP/GRFs time series. GI anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) were reduced and were faster in backpack conditions; medial-lateral COP excursion was smaller in this phase. The uneven distribution of the extra load in the UB condition led to a larger medial-lateral COP shift in the support-foot unloading phase, with a corresponding vertical GRF change that suggests a more pronounced unloading swing foot/loading support foot mechanism. The anterior-posterior GRFs were altered, but the COP was not. A possible explanation for these results may be the forward trunk lean and the center of mass proximity of the base of support boundary, which induced smaller and faster APA, increased swing foot/support foot weight transfer, and increased load transfer to the first step. PMID:27088395

  14. MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND MOBILE HEALTH DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Meghisan; Georgeta-Madalina Meghisan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the potential of mobile health devices with a positive impact on the public health care system from Romania. More people monitoring their health situation with the help of mobile health applications could lead to less money spent by the public health sector with treating more advanced diseases. Approach/ methodology. The analysis of the Romanian mobile telecommunications market and health situation of the population from Romania was based on s...

  15. Mobile Notes: Mobile Devices in Creative Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Lars; Juarez, Guillermo; Hoppe, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    The trendy notion of "mobile learning" has different connotations: On the one hand, it can be understood as "learning on the move" - often referred to as "learning any time anywhere". Of course this interpretation relies on specific kinds of technological enabling, but the definition aims at the general setting of learning activities. Particularly, it includes informal learning settings (cf. [1]). A second interpretation sees mobile learning somewhat more pragmatically as learning with mobile...

  16. Development of an artificial multifunctional foot: A project review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, João; Ferreira, Maria José; Lobarinhas, Pedro; Silva, Luís F.; Leite, Abílio; Araújo, Alfredo; Sousa, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this project is the development of a multifunctional artificial foot, capable of duplicate a human foot in a laboratory environment, in order to evaluate and simulate footwear's performance under certain conditions. This foot is used as a laboratory prototype and is multisegmented, in order that each section is controlled independently in terms of heat generation and sweating rate, therefore it is possible to simulate more accurately the real behaviour of a human foot. The device produces thermal insulation values that will help to design footwear with better ability in terms of thermal comfort, replacing human volunteers in thermal comfort perception tests, which are very subjective. The prototype was already tested, and preliminary results indicated that thermal insulation values are within the range of expected values produced by other foot thermal manikins and by human volunteers' tests. This fact suggests that this lab prototype can be used infuture thermal comfort evaluations.

  17. The Modulation and Control of the Gecko's Foot Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ce; Dai Zhen-dong; Ji Ai-hong; Wang Wei-ying; Sun Jiu-rong

    2005-01-01

    The modulation and control of gecko's foot movements were studied electrophysiologically in order to design the motor control system of a gecko-mimic robot. In this study ( 1 ) the anatomy of the peripheral nerves controlling the gecko's foot movements was determined; (2) the relationship between the limb nerves of the gecko and its foot motor patterns was studied; (3) the afferent impulses of the nerves evoked by rubbing the gecko's toes and palm were recorded; (4) copying the natural patterns of movement of the gecko's foot (abduction, adduction, flexion, and revolution) and its limb nerve modulation and control mechanism, the nerves were stimulated under computer control, and the results recorded by CCD.Results suggest that gecko's foot movements can be successfully controlled by artificial electrical signals.

  18. Lower-extremity arterial revascularization: Is there any evidence for diabetic foot ulcer-healing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillarmet, J; Bourron, O; Gaudric, J; Lermusiaux, P; Millon, A; Hartemann, A

    2016-02-01

    The presence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important consideration in the management of diabetic foot ulcers. Indeed, arteriopathy is a major factor in delayed healing and the increased risk of amputation. Revascularization is commonly performed in patients with critical limb ischaemia (CLI) and diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), but also in patients with less severe arteriopathy. The ulcer-healing rate obtained after revascularization ranges from 46% to 91% at 1 year and appears to be improved compared to patients without revascularization. However, in those studies, healing was often a secondary criterion, and there was no description of the initial wound or its management. Furthermore, specific alterations associated with diabetes, such as microcirculation disorders, abnormal angiogenesis and glycation of proteins, can alter healing and the benefits of revascularization. In this review, critical assessment of data from the literature was performed on the relationship between PAD, revascularization and healing of DFUs. Also, the impact of diabetes on the effectiveness of revascularization was analyzed and potential new therapeutic targets described. PMID:26072053

  19. Flow pattern and related chemical quality of ground water in the "500-foot" sand in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edwin Allen; Nyman, Dale J.

    1968-01-01

    The '500-foot' sand is the major source of water supply for the Memphis area. Thick layers of impervious clay above and below the sand confine the water in the aquifer under artesian pressure and also protect the aquifer from contamination. Recharge from rainfall enters the '500-foot' sand in the outcrop, or intake area south and east of Memphis. Recharge from other aquifers enters the sand wherever the confining beds are breached or absent. Some of the recharge that enters the '500-foot' sand in eastern Arkansas moves down the gradients created by pumping in the Memphis area. All discharge from the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area results from well pumping. Since 1886 continuous withdrawals at gradually increasing rates of pumping have lowered water levels and altered hydraulic gradients in the area. These withdrawals have resulted in changes in direction and velocity of movement of water through the '500-foot' sand. Water in the sand in the southeaster n part of the Memphis area normally moves from the (outcrop area east and south of Memphis northwestward toward points of withdrawal. In the northwestern part of the area, water moves southeastward toward points of withdrawal. A flow-net analysis of the aquifer shows that the rate of water movement through the '500-foot' sand in 1964, toward the major cones of depression in the Memphis area, was about 350 feet per year, or 1 mile in 15 years. A flow-net analysis projected for the year 1975 indicates the rate will increase by about 20 percent in the 12-year period 1964-75. Water in the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area is generally a calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate type. It is soft, low in dissolved solids, high in concentrations of iron and carbon dioxide, and slightly to moderately corrosive. The softest and least mineralized water occurs in the southeastern part of the area, and the water becomes slightly harder and more mineralized as it moves downdip toward Memphis. The hardest and most mineralized

  20. Mobility Charters and Manifestos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explore a number of different cases of articulating notions of ‘correct’ mobility behavior and practice by looking into charters, manifestos and codes of mobility regulation. Within such discourses of ‘correct mobility’ more or less subtle expressions of power as well as normative...... and ethical positions on mobility prevail. Such ‘imagined correct mobility behavior’ are drawing on larger issues of societal change that need to be brought out in a critical analysis and discussion reflecting the attempts to control, design and orchestrate mobility patterns. The paper therefore argues within...... the ‘mobility turn’ that mobility is much more than movement from A to B. Seeing the cultural dimension as well as the underpinning power plays of normative mobility discourses opens up the reflection about imagined futures and imagined mobile subjects. Theoretically the paper bridges discourse studies...

  1. Custom-Made Foot Orthoses Decrease Medial Foot Loading During Drop Jump in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Richter, Camilla; Brushøj, Christoffer;

    2016-01-01

    with 12 weeks of follow-up. SETTING: Hospital setting. PARTICIPANTS: 23 adults with PFP. INTERVENTIONS: Custom-made foot orthoses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Foot loading (plantar pressure) was collected from the most painful side during drop jump and single leg squat using pressure sensitive Pedar insoles...

  2. Self mobile space manipulator project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Ben; Friedman, Mark; Xu, Yangsheng; Kanade, Takeo

    1992-01-01

    A relatively simple, modular, low mass, low cost robot is being developed for space EVA that is large enough to be independently mobile on a space station or platform exterior, yet versatile enough to accomplish many vital tasks. The robot comprises two long flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with 2-DOF 'wrist' joints and grippers at each end. It walks by gripping pre-positioned attachment points, such as trusswork nodes, and alternately shifting its base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. The robot can perform useful tasks such as visual inspection, material transport, and light assembly by manipulating objects with one gripper, while stabilizing itself with the other. At SOAR '90, we reported development of 1/3 scale robot hardware, modular trusswork to serve as a locomotion substrate, and a gravity compensation system to allow laboratory tests of locomotion strategies on the horizontal face of the trusswork. In this paper, we report on project progress including the development of: (1) adaptive control for automatic adjustment to loads; (2) enhanced manipulation capabilities; (3) machine vision, including the use of neural nets, to guide autonomous locomotion; (4) locomotion between orthogonal trusswork faces; and (5) improved facilities for gravity compensation and telerobotic control.

  3. Mobile Portal Implementation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Ping; Damsgaard, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Mobile portal plays an important role in mobile commerce market. Current literature focuses on static analysis on the value chain of mobile portals. This article provides a dynamic perspective on mobile portal strategy. Drawing upon network economics, we describe mobile portal implementation...... as a fourphase process. In different phase, a portal provider has various challenges to overcome and adopt diverse strategies, and correspondingly the regulator has different foci. The conceptual framework proposed in this article offers a basis for further analyses on the market dynamics of mobile commerce......, and can be generalized to studying other networked technologies...

  4. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  5. Low-level stored waste inspection using mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy to replace human inspectors in the routine, regulated inspection of radioactive waste stored in drums. The robot will roam the three-foot aisles of drums, stacked four high, making decisions about the surface condition of the drums and maintaining a database of information about each drum. A distributed system of onboard and offboard computers will provide versatile, friendly control of the inspection process. This mobile robot system, based on a commercial mobile platform, will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. This paper describes and discusses primarily the computer and control processes for the system

  6. Low-level stored waste inspection using mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-06-01

    A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy to replace human inspectors in the routine, regulated inspection of radioactive waste stored in drums. The robot will roam the three-foot aisles of drums, stacked four high, making decisions about the surface condition of the drums and maintaining a database of information about each drum. A distributed system of onboard and offboard computers will provide versatile, friendly control of the inspection process. This mobile robot system, based on a commercial mobile platform, will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. This paper describes and discusses primarily the computer and control processes for the system.

  7. Radiology of the foot in alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have reviewed the radiographic patterns of the foot in 28 patients affected by neuropathic joint disease complicating alcoholism, out of a series of 82 chronic ethylic patients. Sixteen of them were also affected by diabetes mellitus. On the basis of X-ray findings, lesion were divided into tree groups, reflecting the evolution of the disease: 1) early changes, especially affecting the soft tissue and joints;2) definite lesions, consisting of fractures, osteolysis, bone destruction and amputation, periarticulardebris; 3)''healing'' signs, simulating degenerative joint disease, which cause severe and weakening deformities. Tabe dorsalis and diabetic osteoarthropathy must be differentiated from alcohol-induced syndrome. Even though a correct differential diagnosis is often difficult to reach, it must be kept in mind that focal/diffuse osteopenia is the most characteristic manifestation of alcoholic osteopathy, whereas different radiographic findings simulate chronic degenerative arthropathies

  8. The diabetic foot; Der diabetische Fuss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestring, T. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Fiedler, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Technische Orthopaedie und Rehabilitation, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Greitemann, B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Technische Orthopaedie und Rehabilitation, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Sciuk, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    Familiarity with the spectrum of findings in the different imaging modalities appears essential. Radiographically, significant changes include Charcot joints of the tarsus (destructive type) and bone absorption of the forefoot (mutilating type). In diabetic foot problems, magnetic resonance imaging and leukocyte scintigraphy appear to be the most effective tools for detection of osteomyelitis, and a negative study makes osteomyelitis unlikely. However, the findings of both techniques in active, noninfected neuropathic osteoarthropathy may be indistinguishable from those of osteomyelitis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Da der diabetische Fuss zu einer der haeufigsten Komplikationen der Grunderkrankung zaehlt, muss das Befundspektrum bei den verschiedenen bildgebenden Verfahren bekannt sein. Bei der diabetischen Osteoarthropathie werden uebersichtsradiographisch 2 Formen unterschieden: der destruierende Typ, der die Tarsalknochen bevorzugt, und der mutilierende Typ, welcher sich an den Roehrenknochen des Fusses manifestiert. Die Magnetresonanztomographie und die Leukozytenszintigraphie sind zum Nachweis bzw. Ausschluss einer Osteomyelitis am besten geeignet. Aber auch diese Methoden koennen nicht sicher eine nicht infizierte, aktive Osteoarthropathie von einer Osteomyelitis differenzieren. (orig.)

  9. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies. PMID:27217177

  10. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0 to 3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to a significant changes in the impedance related......Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2 Hz. Unfortunately, environmental loads and the passage of blades past...... the tower may lead to excitation with frequencies of the same order of magnitude. Therefore, dynamic soil-structure interaction has to be accounted for in order to get an accurate prediction of the structural response. In this paper the particular problem of a rigid foundation on a layered subsoil...

  11. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2007-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0-3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to significant changes in the impedance related......Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2 Hz. Unfortunately, environmental loads and the passage of blades past...... the tower may lead to excitation with frequencies of the same order of magnitude. Therefore, dynamic soilstructure interaction has to be accounted for in order to get an accurate prediction of the structural response. In this paper the particular problem of a rigid foundation on a layered subsoil...

  12. Foot rot and other foot diseases of goat and sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildeni M.N Aguiar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence and epidemiology of outbreaks of foot rot and other foot diseases in goats and sheep in the semiarid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Four farms were inspected for the presence of foot lesion in sheep and goats and for environmental conditions, general hygiene, pastures, and disease control measures. The prevalence of foot lesions was 19.41% (170/876 in sheep and 17.99% (52/289 in goats, ranging between 5.77% and 33.85% in different farms. Foot rot was the most common disease, affecting 12.1% of the animals examined (141/1165, but with significantly higher (p<0.05 prevalence in sheep (13.69% than in goats (7.27%. The frequency of malignant foot rot was also significantly lower (p<0.05 in goats (9.53% than in the sheep (40.83%. On one farm, Dorper sheep showed significantly higher (p<0.05 prevalence of foot rot (17.5% than Santa Inês sheep (6.79%, and the number of digits affected was also higher in the former. Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum were isolated from cases of foot rot. White line disease was found in 3.95% of the animals, sole ulcers in 1.29%, foot abscess in 1.03% and hoof overgrowth in 0.5%. The high rainfall at the time of occurrence, grazing in wetlands, clay soils with poor drainage, presence of numerous stony grounds, closure of the flocks in pens at night, and introduction of affected animals were considered predisposing factors for the occurrence of foot diseases.

  13. Polymicrobial biofilms by diabetic foot clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Carla; Mendes, João J; Cristino, José Melo; Cavaco-Silva, Patrícia; Tavares, Luís; Oliveira, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major chronic disease that continues to increase significantly. One of the most important and costly complications of diabetes is foot ulceration that may be colonized by pathogenic and antimicrobial resistant bacteria, which may express several virulence factors that could impair treatment success. These bacterial communities can be organized in polymicrobial biofilms, which may be responsible for diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) chronicity. We evaluated the influence of polymicrobial communities in the ability of DFU isolates to produce biofilm, using a microtiter plate assay and a multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization, at three time points (24, 48, 72 h), after evaluating biofilm formation by 95 DFU isolates belonging to several bacterial genera (Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter). All isolates were biofilm-positive at 24 h, and the amount of biofilm produced increased with incubation time. Pseudomonas presented the higher biofilm production, followed by Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus. Significant differences were found in biofilm formation between the three time points. Polymicrobial communities produced higher biofilm values than individual species. Pseudomonas + Enterococcus, Acinetobacter + Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium + Staphylococcus produced higher biofilm than the ones formed by E. faecalis + Staphylococcus and E. faecalis + Corynebacterium. Synergy between bacteria present in dual or multispecies biofilms has been described, and this work represents the first report on time course of biofilm formation by polymicrobial communities from DFUs including several species. The biological behavior of different bacterial species in polymicrobial biofilms has important clinical implications for the successful treatment of these infections.

  14. Epidemiology of diabetic foot and management of foot problems in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes the global epidemic is rapidly increasing at an alarming rate. Developing countries like India harbor the majority of diabetic people and by the year 2030 AD India will have the largest number of diabetic patients. Diabetic foot is one of the common diabetic complications found in India. Both aerobic and anaerobic pathogens form the etiology for diabetic foot infection. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were the most prominent among the aerobes while members of the Genus Peptostreptococcus and Clostridium were most prominent among the anaerobes. Ulcers infected with anaerobic pathogens showed a longer healing time than ulcers infected with aerobic pathogens. Oxidative stress is one of the major markers of inflammatory response and oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase, G Peroxidase, G-S Peroxidase and plasma total antioxidant play a major role in the nonhealing of diabetic foot ulcers. Growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are needed for normal wound repair, while proteases such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and serine proteases found in chronic wounds delay the healing process.

  15. Exploring the Mobility of Mobile Phone Users

    CERN Document Server

    Csáji, Balázs Cs; Traag, V A; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread ...

  16. Alteration features in natural zirconolite from carbonatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nature, zirconolite occurs as an accessory mineral in many different rock types, but the majority of reported occurrences are from carbonatites (magmatic carbonates) of geological age varying from a few million years to 2 billion years old. Within these 19 carbonatite occurrences, of which 15 have been studied in some detail, zirconolite displays varying degrees of alteration in six samples. This alteration ranges from incipient minor effects to major corrosion, recrystallization and complete replacement by secondary phases. The degree of alteration broadly correlates with either the age, or actinide content of the zirconolite (or both), and thus the extent and degree of metamictization. Changes in zirconolite composition with alteration include an increase in hydration (H2O), Si, Ba and Pb (possibly radiogenic in origin), and a decrease primarily in Ca and Fe. Th can be remobilized, and of the rare earth elements (REE), there is evidence that the heavy-REE are mobilized more readily than the light-REE. Using backscattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses, this study documents and illustrates the range of alteration features observed in zirconolite from several carbonatites, in terms of both compositional and textural changes, and provides some physico-chemical information on the fluids responsible for the alteration. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  17. Mobile with renewable energy. Marketable solutions for climate-friendly electromobility; Erneuerbar mobil. Marktfaehige Loesungen fuer eine klimafreundliche Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The climatic change as well as the depletion of fossil energy resources modify the mobility tremendously. The electric mobility offers the chance of a sustainable alteration of the mobile life. Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration presents marketable solutions for a climate-friendly electromobility. In particular, funding projects are presented on the following aspects: (1) Determination of the environmental factors and climate factors of electric mobility; (2) Coupling of electromobility to renewable energy sources and its integration; (3) Launching of environmental standards; (4) Availability of resources and recycling; (5) Accompanying scientific research.

  18. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Feddema, John T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  19. Metrological analysis of the human foot: 3D multisensor exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.

    2011-08-01

    In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire 3D information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser triangulation. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire 3D information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.

  20. Predictive factors for diabetic foot ulceration: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Soares, M; Boyko, E J; Ribeiro, J; Ribeiro, I; Dinis-Ribeiro, M

    2012-10-01

    Improving ability to predict and prevent diabetic foot ulceration is imperative because of the high personal and financial costs of this complication. We therefore conducted a systematic review in order to identify all studies of factors associated with DFU and assess whether available DFU risk stratification systems incorporate those factors of highest potential value. We performed a search in PubMed for studies published through April 2011 that analysed the association between independent variables and DFU. Articles were selected by two investigators-independently and blind to each other. Divergences were solved by a third investigator. A total of 71 studies were included that evaluated the association between diabetic foot ulceration and more than 100 independent variables. The variables most frequently assessed were age, gender, diabetes duration, BMI, HbA(1c) and neuropathy. Diabetic foot ulceration prevalence varied greatly among studies. The majority of the identified variables were assessed by only two or fewer studies. Diabetic neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot deformity and previous diabetic foot ulceration or lower extremity amputation - which are the most common variables included in risk stratification systems - were consistently associated with diabetic foot ulceration development. Existing diabetic foot ulceration risk stratification systems often include variables shown repeatedly in the literature to be strongly predictive of this outcome. Improvement of these risk classification systems though is impaired because of deficiencies noted, including a great lack of standardization in outcome definition and variable selection and measurement.

  1. PATTERN OF AEROBIC B ACTERIAL INFECTION O F DIABETIC FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeshwari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the commonest complications of longstanding diabetes. Diabetic foot is a common cause of hospital admission in diabetic patients in India. The trio of problems leading onto diabetic foot is neuropathy, vascular changes and infections, which constitute the diabetic foot syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence of aerobic pathogens in diabetic foot lesions. METHODS: Tissue samples were taken from the affected foot of 109 diabetic patients and processed by routine microbiological methods. RESULTS : A total of 244 aerobic organisms were isolated from 100 cases with an average of 2.5 organisms per case. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant aerobe isolated (25.4% followed by Proteus mirabilis (21.3%. The other aerobes isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.65%, Kleb siella pneumonia (8.6%, Escherichia coli (6.9%, Enterococcus faecalis (5.32%, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (4.5%, Proteus vulgaris (4.09%, Klebsiella oxytoca (3.27%, Citrobacter freudii (2.86%, Corynebacterium species (2.04%, Group A streptococci and Acinetobacter species (1.63%, and Enterobacter species (0.82%. MRSA was 17.8%. CONCLUSION : Diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial in nature. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common among gram - positive organisms, while P roteus mirabilis was the most frequent isolate among the gram - negative pathogens. Hence early identification of the risk factors and timely institution of appropriate treatment is indispensable to avoid amputations.

  2. Gait Patterns in Hemiplegic Patients with Equinus Foot Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equinus deformity of the foot is a common feature of hemiplegia, which impairs the gait pattern of patients. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of ankle-foot deformity in gait impairment. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify the gait patterns of 49 chronic hemiplegic patients with equinus deformity of the foot, based on temporal-distance parameters and joint kinematic measures obtained by an innovative protocol for motion assessment in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes, synthesized by parametrical analysis. Cluster analysis identified five subgroups of patients with homogenous levels of dysfunction during gait. Specific joint kinematic abnormalities were found, according to the speed of progression in each cluster. Patients with faster walking were those with less ankle-foot complex impairment or with reduced range of motion of ankle-foot complex, that is with a stiff ankle-foot complex. Slow walking was typical of patients with ankle-foot complex instability (i.e., larger motion in all the planes, severe equinus and hip internal rotation pattern, and patients with hip external rotation pattern. Clustering of gait patterns in these patients is helpful for a better understanding of dysfunction during gait and delivering more targeted treatment.

  3. Relationships between foot type and dynamic rearfoot frontal plane motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuter Vivienne H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI provides an easily applicable, validated method for quantifying static foot posture. However there is limited evidence relating to the ability of the FPI to predict dynamic foot function. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dynamic rearfoot motion and FPI scores in pronated and normal foot types. Methods 40 participants were recruited with equal numbers of pronated and normal foot types as classified by their FPI score. Three dimensional rearfoot motion was collected for each of the participants. Dynamic maximum rearfoot eversion was correlated with the total FPI score across all participants and within the normal and pronated foot types. Linear correlations were performed between components of the total FPI scores measuring frontal plane rearfoot position and maximum rearfoot eversion. The capacity of the total FPI score to predict maximum frontal plane motion of the rearfoot was investigated using linear regression analysis. Results The correlation between the total FPI score and maximum rearfoot eversion was strongly positive (r = 0.92, p 2 = 0.85, p Conclusions The results of this study suggest the FPI has strong predictive ability for dynamic rearfoot function. This will assist in clinical screening and research by allowing easy classification by functional foot type. Positive correlations between frontal plane rearfoot measurements and maximum rearfoot eversion suggest the FPI may identify dominant planar components of dynamic rearfoot motion and warrants further investigation.

  4. Mobile Phones on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春宝

    2007-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, more and more people have mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile phone users. By the year 2005 the number has reached up to 30 million.

  5. Making Everyday Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon

    Based upon a qualitative PhD study of 11 families everyday mobility, this paper inquiries into the everyday mobility of families with children in the Greater Copenhagen Area and the role mobility plays in contributing to coping in the families’ everyday life. Drawing on Mobilities theory (Jensen...... 2013; Urry 2007) and family theory (Holdsworth 2013; Morgan 2011), it is argued that family mobility is far from only an instrumental phenomenon, displacing family members back and forth between activities and doings, but also a type of family practice (Morgan, 2011) carrying social and emotional...... repercussions. Moreover, family mobility does not simply happen, rather the successful performance of everyday mobility is a creative process that requires labour, skill and knowledge (Vannini 2012). It is proposed that families cope with everyday life through the on-going making and performance of mobility...

  6. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  7. Tandem mobile robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  8. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Börner, D. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presented at Mobile Learning in Context Symposium at the Open University of the Netherlands. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  9. Foot Morphological Difference between Habitually Shod and Unshod Runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shu

    Full Text Available Foot morphology and function has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researchers and footwear manufacturers. In this study, 168 habitually unshod runners (90 males whose age, weight & height were 23±2.4 years, 66±7.1 kg & 1.68±0.13 m and 78 females whose age, weight & height were 22±1.8 years, 55±4.7 kg & 1.6±0.11 m (Indians and 196 shod runners (130 males whose age, weight & height were 24±2.6 years, 66±8.2 kg & 1.72±0.18 m and 66 females whose age, weight & height were 23±1.5 years, 54±5.6 kg & 1.62±0.15 m (Chinese participated in a foot scanning test using the easy-foot-scan (a three-dimensional foot scanning system to obtain 3D foot surface data and 2D footprint imaging. Foot length, foot width, hallux angle and minimal distance from hallux to second toe were calculated to analyze foot morphological differences. This study found that significant differences exist between groups (shod Chinese and unshod Indians for foot length (female p = 0.001, width (female p = 0.001, hallux angle (male and female p = 0.001 and the minimal distance (male and female p = 0.001 from hallux to second toe. This study suggests that significant differences in morphology between different ethnicities could be considered for future investigation of locomotion biomechanics characteristics between ethnicities and inform last shape and design so as to reduce injury risks and poor performance from mal-fit shoes.

  10. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  11. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  12. Mobile internet protocol analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brachfeld, Lawrence J.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is a proposed standard that builds on the current Internet Protocol by making the fact that a user is mobile transparent to applications and higher level protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet while maintaining any current conne...

  13. Staging interrail mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This article applies the multiscalar ‘staging mobilities’ framework from the emergent subfield of mobilities design to analyse an enduring European rail travel phenomenon, interrail. This discussion extends and contributes to tourism mobilities research. Second, the article enriches previous stud...... and seat reservations. To reach these aims, the research design intertwines multi-sited ethnography, netnography, survey and interviews. The conclusion offers theoretical reflections pertaining to the role of mobilities designs and methodical hybrids in tourism mobilities research....

  14. PSiS Mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Anacleto, Ricardo; Luz, Nuno; Figueiredo, Lino

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a state of the art on applications of mobile devices to support decision of a tourist running on a trip. We focus on two types of applications, tourism recommendation and tourism guide, making a brief description of the main characteristics of each one of them. We also refer the main problems encountered on the development of applications for mobile devices, and present PSiS (Personalized Sightseeing Tours Recommendation System) Mobile, our proposal to a mobile recom...

  15. Mobile connections : curator's statement.

    OpenAIRE

    Hemment, Drew

    2004-01-01

    The Mobile Connections exhibition at the Futuresonic 2004 festival explored how mobile and locative media reconfigure social, cultural and information space. It looked beyond computing in its current form, towards the social and cultural possibilities opened by a new generation of networked, location-aware media. It sought an art of mobile communications: asking, are there any forms of expression that are intrinsic or unique to mobile and locative media?

  16. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  17. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  18. Superintendent Vulnerability and Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Phyllis

    1996-01-01

    Examined Callahan's vulnerability thesis to determine its ability to explain the mobility of superintendents in Texas between 1985 and 1990. Questionnaire and interview data indicated that, at least in Texas where superintendent mobility reached 50% in that time period, vulnerability did not appear to account for much of superintendent mobility.…

  19. Imaging of soft tissue lesions of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Laura W; Peterson, Jeffrey J; Kransdorf, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot can be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions can suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensity, and enhancement pattern. Knowledge of the incidence of specific neoplasms of the foot and ankle based on patient age aids in providing a limited differential diagnosis. PMID:19038615

  20. Ultrasound-guided interventions of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, Corrie M

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound (US) provides excellent delineation of tendons and ligaments in the foot and ankle and provides real-time visualization of a needle during interventions, yielding greater accuracy and efficacy than the traditional blind approach using anatomical landmarks. For this reason, US is rapidly gaining acceptance as the preferred modality for guiding interventions in the foot and ankle where the anatomy is complex, neurovascular structures should be identified, and precise technique is demanded. In the foot and ankle, US is especially useful to guide tendon sheath, bursal, and Achilles paratenon injections, Morton neuroma injections, plantar fascial injections, and joint aspirations and injections.

  1. A Rare Cause of Foot Pain With Golf Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrera, Massimo; Dwyer, Tim; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell J.

    2013-01-01

    The os vesalianum is an uncommon accessory bone of the foot, located proximally to the base of the fifth metatarsal. It is usually asymptomatic and detected incidentally on radiographs. This is a case of bilateral os vesalianum, symptomatic only in the right foot, in a golf player. After a failed nonoperative treatment, the os vesalianum in the symptomatic foot was excised and the peroneus brevis tendon reattached using a suture anchor. The functional outcome was excellent, and the patient returned to golf 8 weeks after surgery. PMID:24459554

  2. Imaging of Soft Tissue Lesions of the Foot and Ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot may be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions may suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensity, and the enhancement pattern. Knowledge of the incidence of specific neoplasms of the foot and ankle based on patient age aids in providing a limited differential diagnosis

  3. Ultrasound-guided interventions of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, Corrie M

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound (US) provides excellent delineation of tendons and ligaments in the foot and ankle and provides real-time visualization of a needle during interventions, yielding greater accuracy and efficacy than the traditional blind approach using anatomical landmarks. For this reason, US is rapidly gaining acceptance as the preferred modality for guiding interventions in the foot and ankle where the anatomy is complex, neurovascular structures should be identified, and precise technique is demanded. In the foot and ankle, US is especially useful to guide tendon sheath, bursal, and Achilles paratenon injections, Morton neuroma injections, plantar fascial injections, and joint aspirations and injections. PMID:23487336

  4. Studies on drying kinetics of olive foot cake

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlat, M. S.; Kadi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The olive foot cake is a very important by-product of olive oil industry since it can contain until 12 % of oil which can be extracted using solvent. The used solvent is often immiscible with water. This is the reason why its effect is limited by the moisture of olive foot cake making its drying imperative. In this paper, we present the behaviour of olive foot cake subjected to convective drying. The experimental results show that the drying rate versus moisture presents only one period of de...

  5. Assessment of Lumped-Parameter Models for Rigid Footings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The quality of consistent lumped-parameter models of rigid footings is examined. Emphasis is put on the maximum response during excitation and the geometrical damping related to free vibrations. The optimal order of a lumped-parameter model is determined for each degree of freedom, i.e. horizontal...... and vertical translations as well as torsion and rocking, and the necessity of coupling between horizontal sliding and rocking is discussed. Most of the analyses are carried out for hexagonal footings; but in order to generalise the conclusions to a broader variety of footings, comparisons are made...

  6. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C;

    2009-01-01

    habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. RESULTS: Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p...... collections correlated well. Foot length was independent of gender, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. CONCLUSION: Foot length correlated linearly to embryonic and foetal age, and was unaffected by gender, ETS, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption....

  7. Distributed mobility management - framework & analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Seite, P.; Karagiannis, G.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile operators consider the distribution of mobility anchors to enable offloading some traffic from their core network. The Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) Working Group is investigating the impact of decentralized mobility management to existing protocol solutions, while taking into account

  8. The system of care for the diabetic foot: objectives, outcomes, and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal R. Barshes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of lower extremity limb loss in the United States occur among people with diabetes who have a diabetic foot ulcer (DFU. These DFUs and the associated limb loss that may occur lead to excess healthcare costs and have a large negative impact on mobility, psychosocial well-being, and quality of life. The strategies for DFU prevention and management are evolving, but the implementation of these prevention and management strategies remains challenging. Barriers to implementation include poor access to primary medical care; patient beliefs and lack of adherence to medical advice; delays in DFU recognition; limited healthcare resources and practice heterogeneity of specialists. Herein, we review the contemporary outcomes of DFU prevention and management to provide a framework for prioritizing quality improvement efforts within a resource-limited healthcare environment.

  9. A Comparison of Two Injection Locations in Obese Patients Having Lower Leg/Foot Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Strain of Muscle and/or Tendon of Lower Leg; Fracture of Lower Leg; Crushing Injury of Lower Leg; Fracture Malunion - Ankle and/ or Foot; Complete Tear, Ankle and/or Foot Ligament; Pathological Fracture - Ankle and/or Foot; Loose Body in Joint of Ankle and/or Foot

  10. Mobility of calcium channels in the presynaptic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Romy; Hosy, Eric; Kohl, Johannes; Klueva, Julia; Choquet, Daniel; Thomas, Ulrich; Voigt, Andreas; Heine, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Unravelling principles underlying neurotransmitter release are key to understand neural signaling. Here, we describe how surface mobility of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) modulates release probabilities (P(r)) of synaptic vesicles (SVs). Coupling distances of 100 nm have been reported for SVs and VDCCs in different synapses. Tracking individual VDCCs revealed that within hippocampal synapses, ∼60% of VDCCs are mobile while confined to presynaptic membrane compartments. Intracellular Ca(2+) chelation decreased VDCC mobility. Increasing VDCC surface populations by co-expression of the α2δ1 subunit did not alter channel mobility but led to enlarged active zones (AZs) rather than higher channel densities. VDCCs thus scale presynaptic scaffolds to maintain local mobility. We propose that dynamic coupling based on mobile VDCCs supports calcium domain cooperativity and tunes neurotransmitter release by equalizing Pr for docked SVs within AZs. PMID:25892305

  11. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  12. Mobile intention recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Intention Recognition addresses problems of practical relevance for mobile system engineers: how can we make mobile assistance systems more intelligent? How can we model and recognize patterns of human behavior which span more than a limited spatial context? This text provides an overview on plan and intention recognition, ranging from the late 1970s to very recent approaches. This overview is unique as it discusses approaches with respect to the specificities of mobile intention recognition. This book covers problems from research on mobile assistance systems using methods from artific

  13. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  15. Foot Modeling and Smart Plantar Pressure Reconstruction from Three Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaida, Hussein Abou; Mottet, Serge; Goujon, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor pressure under feet, this study presents a biomechanical model of the human foot. The main elements of the foot that induce the plantar pressure distribution are described. Then the link between the forces applied at the ankle and the distribution of the plantar pressure is established. Assumptions are made by defining the concepts of a 3D internal foot shape, which can be extracted from the plantar pressure measurements, and a uniform elastic medium, which describes the soft tissues behaviour. In a second part, we show that just 3 discrete pressure sensors per foot are enough to generate real time plantar pressure cartographies in the standing position or during walking. Finally, the generated cartographies are compared with pressure cartographies issued from the F-SCAN system. The results show 0.01 daN (2% of full scale) average error, in the standing position. PMID:25400713

  16. Foote Brook Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring-Phase I in Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook Biomonitoring Project, Phase I geospatial dataset consists of data from the biomonitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates at three sites located along...

  17. Guidelines for taking and interpreting radiographs of the bovine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This step-by-step guide to radiographing the bovine foot tells you how to 1) obtain the radiograph you need, 2) allow for normal variations when assessing the findings, and 3) interpret abnormalities accurately by following a systematic approach

  18. Overuse injuries of the foot: imaging presentations of common pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Michael; Stock, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Overuse injuries of the foot are common, resulting in frequent visits to the primary care physician and orthopaedic surgeon. Radiologic workup often ensues. Morton's neuroma, plantar fasciitis and Haglund's syndrome are three such entities with classic MRI appearances. PMID:24367843

  19. Foote Brook Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring - Phase 2 in Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — In 2000, Foote Brook was identified as a high priority site for restoration after the extensive countywide stream stability study, Stream Stability Assessment of...

  20. LIPOMA ON THE SOLE OF FOOT: A RARE LOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Kumar; Gautham Reddy; Murali Krishna; Phaniteja; Sreeram Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Lipomas are benign soft tissue tumors that can occur at any age and frequently on the upper back, neck, shoulder and abdomen. We present a case of lipoma over sole of foot which is an uncommon location.

  1. Foot Care in Diabetes Mellitus (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foot problems Poor circulation — Some simple clues can point to circulatory problems. Poor pulses, cold feet, thin ... the laws and in the state and federal courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, USA. This Agreement ...

  2. LIPOMA ON THE SOLE OF FOOT: A RARE LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign soft tissue tumors that can occur at any age and frequently on the upper back, neck, shoulder and abdomen. We present a case of lipoma over sole of foot which is an uncommon location.

  3. Injuries and Footwear (Part 1): Athletic Shoe History and Injuries in Relation to Foot Arch Height and Training in Boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney; Orr, Robin; Grier, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the history of the athletic shoe, examines whether selecting running shoes based on foot arch height influences injuries, and examines historical data on injury rates when physical training (PT) is performed in boots versus running shoes. In the 1980s and into the 2000s, running shoe companies were advertising specialized shoes with "motion control," "stability," and "cushioning," designed for individuals with low, normal, and high arches, respectively. Despite marketing claims that these shoes would reduce injury rates, coordinated studies in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps basic training showed that assigning or selecting shoes on this basis had no effect on injury rates. Consistent with this finding, biomechanical studies have shown that the relationships between arch height, foot joint mobility, and rear-foot motion are complex, variable, and frequently not as strong as often assumed. In 1982, the US Army switched from PT in boots to PT in running shoes because of the belief that boots were causing injuries and that running shoes would reduce injury rates. However, a historical comparison of injury rates before and after the switch to running shoes showed virtually no difference in injury risk between the two periods. It is not clear at this point if the type of footwear effects injury incidence.

  4. Neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers – evidence-to-practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndip A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Agbor Ndip1–3, Leonard Ebah3,4, Aloysius Mbako51Department of Diabetes and Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, UK; 2Department of Medicine, Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UK; 3Cardiovascular Research Group, School of Biomedicine, University of Manchester, UK; 4Department of Renal Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, UK; 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wrexham Maelor Hospital, Wales, UKAbstract: Foot ulcers and their attendant complications are disquietingly high in people with diabetes, a majority of whom have underlying neuropathy. This review examines the evidence base underpinning the prevention and management of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers in order to inform best clinical practice. Since it may be impractical to ask patients not to weight-bear at all, relief of pressure through the use of offloading casting devices remains the mainstay for management of neuropathic ulcers, whilst provision of appropriate footwear is essential in ulcer prevention. Simple non-surgical debridement and application of hydrogels are both effective in preparing the wound bed for healthy granulation and therefore enhancing healing. Initial empirical antibiotic therapy for infected ulcers should cover the most common bacterial flora. There is limited evidence supporting the use of adjunctive therapies such as hyperbaric oxygen and cytokines or growth factors. In selected cases, recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor has been shown to enhance healing; however, its widespread use cannot be advised due to the availability of more cost-effective approaches. While patient education may be beneficial, the evidence base remains thin and conflicting. In conclusion, best management of foot ulcers is achieved by what is taken out of the foot (pressure, callus, infection, and slough rather than what is put on the foot (adjuvant treatment.Keywords: diabetic foot ulcers, neuropathic

  5. Diabetic foot disease is associated with reduced erythrocyte deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Avivit; Livshits, Leonid; Srulevich, Ariel; Raz, Itamar; Yedgar, Shaul; Barshtein, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetic foot disease is multifactorial and encompasses microvascular and macrovascular pathologies. Abnormal blood rheology may also play a part in its development. Using a cell flow analyser (CFA), we examined the association between erythrocyte deformability and diabetic foot disease. Erythrocytes from diabetic patients with no known microvascular complications (n = 11) and patients suffering from a diabetic foot ulcer (n = 11) were isolated and their average elongation ratio (ER) as well as the ER distribution curve were measured. Average ER was decreased in the diabetic foot patients compared with the patients with diabetes and no complications (1·64 ± 0·07 versus 1·71 ± 0·1; P = 0·036). A significant rise in the percentage of minimally deformable red blood cells RBCs in diabetic foot patients compared with the patients with no complications was observed (37·89% ± 8·12% versus 30·61% ± 10·17%; P = 0·039) accompanied by a significant decrease in the percentage of highly deformable RBCs (12·47% ± 4·43% versus 17·49% ± 8·17% P = 0·046). Reduced erythrocyte deformability may slow capillary flow in the microvasculature and prolong wound healing in diabetic foot patients. Conversely, it may be the low-grade inflammatory state imposed by diabetic foot disease that reduces erythrocyte deformability. Further study of the rheological changes associated with diabetic foot disease may enhance our understanding of its pathogenesis and aid in the study of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26018868

  6. Epidemiology and outcome in patients of diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of study was detailed analysis of the presentation of diabetic foot ulcers, characteristics and predictors of outcome (incidence of amputation in neuropathic, ischemic, neuro ischemic) in patients presenting with diabetic foot at our hospital. Methods: This prospective analytic study was conducted from January 2009-August 2010 at POF Hospital Wah Cantt. Diabetic patients who presented with foot ulcers were enrolled in this study. Demographics of patients along with ulcer size, type, site and Grade according to Wagner Classification were recorded. Wounds were managed with daily dressings, nursing care and de-sloughing of necrotic tissue along with appropriate antibiotic cover. Patients were followed over period until wound healed completely or a lower limb amputation performed, the outcome noted and patient was deemed to have completed study. Results: One hundred and fifteen patients with mean age 55.46 +- 8.23 years, both male and female were included in this study. Out of 115 patients 111 patients had Type-II diabetes while only 4 presented with Type-I. Mean Duration of diabetes was 14.61 +- 2.17 years. With respect to underlying causes 18.3% foot ulcers were ischemic, 22.6% were neuropathic and 59% were neuro-ischemic. Median ulcer size was 74% of ulcer classified as Wagner grade-II and III while 24% were of Grade-V. Lower limb amputation were performed in 25% of patients whereas limb salvage achieved in 75% of patients with wounds healed (median healing time 5 (3-10 weeks). Conclusion: Preservation of the limb function without endangering the patient must be a goal of treating diabetic foot. Once foot amputation is successful, rehabilitation with orthotic or prosthetic devices may allow years of a functional extremity along with preventive measures like cessation of smoking, daily foot hygiene and foot inspection. (author)

  7. Prevent Wounds by Conducting a Comprehensive Foot Examination and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Shelly Burdette-Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Lower extremity wounds and falls are on the rise with the demographics and projected aging population. Diabetes and heart disease supersede cancer deaths. A basic foot exam—performed routinely on patients identified as high risk allows time for early intervention and prevention. A Certified Foot and Nail Care Nurse (CFCN) who evaluates clients on a regular basis, conducts a comprehensive lower extremity exam for loss of protective sensation (LOPS) and compromised peripheral blood flow is more...

  8. Stereophotogrammetry and relief photography in the assessment of foot disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Craxford, A D; Rutherford, A.; Evans, M S; Park, C.

    1981-01-01

    Expanded polyethylene foam (Plastazote) is used in the treatment of rheumatoid, diabetic, and leprotic foot disorders. This paper describes a diagnostic use for this material. Two photographic techniques combine to give vivid and quantitative representations of foot deformities which are easily applicable to clinical use. Relief photography uses illumination to create an illusion of solidity in a 2-dimensional photography. Stereophotogrammetry produces contour plots from stereopairs of photog...

  9. Does Foot Massage Relieve Acute Postoperative Pain? A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanif Chanif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to examine the current state of knowledge regarding foot massageto determine if foot massage has an effect on relieving acute postoperative pain.Method: The following questions were used to guide this review: How does pain occur?What is the pain management modalities used in relieving acute postoperative pain? Does footmassage relieve acute postoperative pain? A comprehensive systematic search of publishedliterature and journal articles from Science Direct, CINAHL, PubMed, ProQuest and fromrelevant textbooks was conducted. The universal case entry website, Google-scholar was usedas well. The following keywords were used: foot massage, pain management, andpostoperative pain. Eight studies on foot massage and more than thirty related articles werereviewed.Result: Postoperative pain is caused by tissue damage that induces release of chemicalmediators from the surgical wound. The four processes of pain are transduction, transmission,perception and modulation. Pain medication is the goal standard for acute postoperative painrelief. In addition, foot massage is a modality that can be used in relieving acute postoperativepain. Massage stimulates large nerve fibers and dermatome layers which contain tactile andpressure receptors. The receptors subsequently transmit the nerve impulse to the centralnervous system. The gate control system in the dorsal horn is activated through the inhibitoryinterneuron, thus closing the gate. Subsequently, the brain does not receive the pain message.Eight reviewed studies demonstrated that foot massage relieves acute postoperative pain.However, there were some methodological limitations of these studies.Conclusion: It is recommended to examine the effect of foot massage on acute postoperativepain with high homogenous samples using various duration of massage and range of time forpain measurement at different settings.Key words: foot massage, pain management and postoperative pain.

  10. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Veena, KM; H. Jagadishchandra; Sham S Bhat; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hand, foot and mouth disease usually affect infants and children. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics, usually during the summer and autumn months. The incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease has recently been on the rise in India due to the probable mass immunization programs. This report describes a case of...

  11. Automatic presser-foot force control for industrial sewing machines

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Helder; Silva, Luís F.; A. M. Rocha; Monteiro, João L.

    2012-01-01

    To develop and test control methods for real-time automatic presser-foot force control in industrial sewing machines. In this work, a closed-loop controller that controls presser-foot maximum vertical displacement is presented and compared to existing solutions that adjust force depending on sewing speed. Automatic force control can reduce problems such as stitch irregularity, stitch distortions and material damage, besides making material handling easier. Design/methodology/approach ...

  12. Ultrasound-guided intervention in the ankle and foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakonaki, Eleni E; Allen, Gina M; Watura, Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this comprehensive review, we discuss the main interventions performed in the foot and ankle for Achilles tendinopathy, Morton's neuromas and Plantar fasciitis as well as techniques for intra-articular and peritendinous injections. We present the different imaging techniques and injectable agents that can be used in clinical practice, trying to help the reader decide the most appropriate way of managing the patient with a problem in the ankle and foot. PMID:26537692

  13. Rehabilitation of Ankle and Foot Injuries in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Chinn, Lisa; Hertel, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Foot and ankle injuries are extremely common among athletes and other physically active individuals. Rehabilitation programs that emphasize the use of therapeutic exercise to restore joint range of motion, muscle strength, neuromuscular coordination, and gait mechanics have been shown to have clinical success for patients suffering various foot and ankle pathologies. Rehabilitation programs are discussed for ankle sprains, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis, and turf toe.

  14. Characterising the biophysical properties of normal and hyperkeratotic foot skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Farina; Nester, Christopher; Wright, Ciaran; Newton, Veronica; Lam, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Background Plantar foot skin exhibits unique biophysical properties that are distinct from skin on other areas of the body. This paper characterises, using non-invasive methods, the biophysical properties of foot skin in healthy and pathological states including xerosis, heel fissures, calluses and corns. Methods Ninety three people participated. Skin hydration, elasticity, collagen and elastin fibre organisation and surface texture was measured from plantar calluses, corns, fissured heel ski...

  15. Imaging of Soft Tissue Lesions of the Foot and Ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot may be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions may suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensit...

  16. Assessing diabetic foot ulcer development risk with hyperspectral tissue oximetry

    OpenAIRE

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nouvong, Aksone; Schomacker, Kevin; Pilon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Foot ulceration remains a serious health concern for diabetic patients and has a major impact on the cost of diabetes treatment. Early detection and preventive care, such as offloading or improved hygiene, can greatly reduce the risk of further complications. We aim to assess the use of hyperspectral tissue oximetry in predicting the risk of diabetic foot ulcer formation. Tissue oximetry measurements are performed during several visits with hyperspectral imaging of the feet in type 1 and 2 di...

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth...

  18. Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Stephanie W.; Joyner, Patrick W.; Almekinders, Louis C.; Parekh, Selene G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are a common problem encountered by athletes of all levels and ages. These injuries can be difficult to diagnose and may be initially evaluated by all levels of medical personnel. Clinical suspicion should be raised with certain history and physical examination findings. Evidence Acquisition: Scientific and review articles were searched through PubMed (1930-2012) with search terms including stress fractures and 1 of the following: foot ankle, me...

  19. Contemporary Evaluation and Management of the Diabetic Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpio, Bauer E.

    2012-01-01

    Foot problems in patients with diabetes remain a major public health issue and are the commonest reason for hospitalization of patients with diabetes with prevalence as high as 25%. Ulcers are breaks in the dermal barrier with subsequent erosion of underlying subcutaneous tissue that may extend to muscle and bone, and superimposed infection is a frequent and costly complication. The pathophysiology of diabetic foot disease is multifactorial and includes neuropathy, infection, ischemia, and ab...

  20. Smart Diabetic Socks: Embedded device for diabetic foot prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Perrier, Antoine; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Luboz, Vincent; Bucki, Marek; Cannard, Francis; Diot, Bruno; Colin, Denis; Rin, Delphine; Bourg, Jean-Philippe; Payan, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    International audience 1) Objectives Most foot ulcers are the consequence of a trauma (repetitive high stress, ill-fitting footwear, or an object inside the shoe) associated to diabetes. They are often followed by amputation and shorten life expectancy. This paper describes the prototype of the Smart Diabetic Socks that has been developed in the context of the French ANR TecSan project. The objective is to prevent pressure foot ulcers for diabetic persons. 2) Material and methods A fully w...