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Sample records for alters bacterial attachment

  1. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Vlisidou, Isabella; Amos, Matthew R; Yang, Guowei; Muñoz-Berbel, Xavier; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Potter, Ursula J; Joyce, Susan A; Ciche, Todd A; Jenkins, A Toby A; Bagby, Stefan; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Waterfield, Nicholas R

    2010-05-12

    Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28 degrees C) and human (37 degrees C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of EPS properties. Despite

  2. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Susan A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C and human (37°C temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect

  3. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Robert T

    2010-05-12

    Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C) and human (37°C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of

  4. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ronald W.; Metge, David W.; Barber, Larry B.; Aiken, George R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength = 5 ?? 10-3 M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 ??g/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only ???3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  5. Bacterial Attachment, Aggregation, and Alignment on Subcellular Nanogratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chang Quan

    2018-04-03

    Recent investigations on the interactions of bacteria with micro/nanostructures have revealed a wide range of prokaryotic responses that were previously unknown. Despite these advances, however, it remains unclear how collective bacterial behavior on a surface would be influenced by the presence of anisotropic nanostructures with subcellular dimensions. To clarify this, the attachment, aggregation, and alignment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on orderly subcellular nanogratings with systematically varied geometries were investigated. Compared with a flat surface, attachment and aggregation of bacteria on the nanogratings were reduced by up to 83 and 84% respectively, whereas alignment increased by a maximum of 850%. Using a semiempirical quantitative model, these results were shown to be caused by a lowering of physicochemical attraction between the substrate and bacteria, possible disruption to cell communication, and physical isolation of bacteria that were entrenched in the nanogratings by capillary action. Furthermore, the bacterial attachment level was generally found to be exponentially related to the contact area between the substrate and bacterial cells, except when there were significant deficits in the available contact area, which prompted the bacterial cells to employ their appendages to maintain a minimum attachment rate. Because the contact area for adhesion is strongly dependent on the geometry of the surface features and orientation of the bacterial cells, these results indicate that the conventional practice of using roughness parameters to draw quantitative relationships between surface topographies and bacterial attachment could suffer from inaccuracies due to the lack of shape and orientation information provided by these parameters. On the basis of these insights, design principles for generating maximal and minimal bacterial attachment on a surface were also proposed and verified with results reported in the literature.

  6. Structured attachment of bacterial molecular motors for defined microflow induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerdemann Mike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial rotational motor complexes that propel flagellated bacteria possess unique properties like their size of a few nanometres and the ability of selfreproduction that have led to various exciting applications including biohybrid nano-machines. One mandatory prerequisite to utilize bacterial nano motors in fluid applications is the ability to transfer force and torque to the fluid, which usually can be achieved by attachment of the bacterial cell to adequate surfaces. Additionally, for optimal transfer of force or torque, precise control of the position down to the single cell level is of utmost importance. Based on a PIV (particle image velocimetry evaluation of the induced flow of single bacteria,we propose and demonstrate attachment of arbitrary patterns of motile bacterial cells in a fast light-based two-step process for the first time to our knowledge. First, these cells are pre-structured by holographic optical tweezers and then attached to a homogeneous, polystyrene-coated surface. In contrast to the few approaches that have been implemented up to now and which rely on pre-structured surfaces, our scheme allows for precise control on a single bacterium level, is versatile, interactive and has low requirements with respect to the surface preparation.

  7. Influence of Physicochemical Aspects of Substratum Nanosurface on Bacterial Attachment for Bone Implant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Mediaswanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation on implant materials is responsible for periprosthetic infections. Bacterial attachment is important as the first stage in biofilm formation. It is meaningful to understand the influence of nanostructured surface on bacterial attachment. This review discusses the influence of physicochemical aspects of substratum nanosurface on bacterial attachment.

  8. Influence of Physicochemical Aspects of Substratum Nanosurface on Bacterial Attachment for Bone Implant Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mediaswanti, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formation on implant materials is responsible for periprosthetic infections. Bacterial attachment is important as the first stage in biofilm formation. It is meaningful to understand the influence of nanostructured surface on bacterial attachment. This review discusses the influence of physicochemical aspects of substratum nanosurface on bacterial attachment.

  9. Influence of nanophase titania topography on bacterial attachment and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Park

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Margaret R Park1, Michelle K Banks1, Bruce Applegate2, Thomas J Webster31School of Civil Engineering; 2Department of Food Science; 3School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USAAbstract: Surfaces with nanophase compared to conventional (or nanometer smooth topographies are known to have different properties of area, charge, and reactivity. Previously published research indicates that the attachment of certain bacteria (such as Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL is higher on surfaces with nanophase compared to conventional topographies, however, their effect on bacterial metabolism is unclear. Results presented here show that the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL and Pseudomonas putida TVA8 was higher on nanophase than conventional titania. Importantly, in terms of metabolism, bacteria attached to the nanophase surfaces had higher bioluminescence rates than on the conventional surfaces under all nutrient conditions. Thus, the results from this study show greater select bacterial metabolism on nanometer than conventional topographies, critical results with strong consequences for the design of improved biosensors for bacteria detection.Keywords: bacteria, attachment, nanophase, topography, metabolism

  10. Development of antifouling surfaces to reduce bacterial attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mary Viola

    Bacteria are exceptionally good at adhering to surfaces and forming complex structures known as biofilms. This process, known as biofouling, can cause problems for infrastructure (eg, clogging and damaging pipes), for the food industry (eg, contamination of processing surfaces and equipment, and for the medical industry (eg, contamination of indwelling medical devices). Accordingly, multiple strategies have been explored to combat biofouling, including chemical modification of surfaces, development of antibiotic coatings, and more recently, the use of engineered surface topography. When designed properly, engineered surface topographies can significantly reduce bacterial surface attachment, ultimately limiting surface colonization. In this work, we hypothesized that the morphology, size, spacing, and surface pre-treatment of topographical features should directly correlate with the size and shape of target organisms, in order to reduce biofouling. Topographical features with size and spacing from 0.25 to 2 mum were fabricated in silicone elastomer and tested against rod shaped bacteria with an average size of 0.5 x 2 mum and spherical bacteria (cocci) ranging from 0.5 - 1 μm in diameter. Antifouling properties of the different topographical features were tested in both static and flow-based assays, and under oxygen plasma-treated (hydrophilic) and untreated (hydrophobic) surface conditions. We found that surface pre-treatment universally affects the ability bacteria to attach to surfaces, while surface topography limits attachment in a manner dependent on the bacterial size/shape and the size/spacing of the topography.

  11. WxcX is involved in bacterial attachment and virulence in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Fan; Liao, Chao-Tsai; Chiang, Ying-Chuan; Li, Chih-En; Hsiao, Yi-Min

    2018-03-05

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the causative agent of black rot in crucifers. Here, one EZ-Tn5 transposon mutant of Xcc, altered in bacterial attachment, was isolated. Further analysis revealed that the transposon was inserted in the wxcX gene (encodes a hypothetical protein) of the transposon mutant. Sequence analysis revealed that WxcX is highly conserved in Xanthomonas, but none has been characterized. In this study, it was indicated that mutation of wxcX resulted in enhanced bacterial attachment, reduced virulence on the host cabbage, and increased sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate. The affected phenotypes of the wxcX mutant could be complemented to wild-type levels by the intact wxcX gene. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that E408 and E411 are critical amino acid residues for WxcX function in bacterial attachment. Taken together, our results demonstrate the roles of wxcX in attachment, virulence, and tolerance to sodium dodecyl sulfate in Xanthomonas for the first time. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Aquaporins contribute to diarrhoea caused by attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Julian A; Samji, Fereshte N; Li, Yuling; Deng, Wanyin; Lin, Ann; Finlay, B Brett

    2007-01-01

    Attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) cause serious global health problems. These bacteria colonize the gastrointestinal system, attach to intestinal epithelial cells, efface (collapse) infected cell microvilli and cause overt diarrhoea that may ultimately result in death of the host. Although pathogenically induced diarrhoea is a significant global health issue, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this disease remain largely unknown. A natural murine infection model, employing the A/E pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, has been helpful in studying the diseases in vivo. C. rodentium colonize the colon at high levels, attach to colonocytes, efface microvilli and cause hyperplasia and inflammation in infected mice. As the disease progresses, the mice develop a diarrhoea-like phenotype. Aquaporin (AQP) water channels have been proposed to play a role in the normal dehydration of faecal contents. Here we examine whether C. rodentium infection may alter AQP localization in colonocytes. We demonstrate that during infection, AQP2 and AQP3 are mislocalized from their normal location along cell membranes to the cell cytoplasm. The change in localization of these proteins correlates with the diarrhoea-like phenotype present in infected mice. Mice that recover from the infection at 28-35 days post inoculum regain their normal membrane AQP localization. The altered localization of AQPs is partially dependent on the bacterial type III effector proteins EspF and EspG. We conclude that altered AQP localization may be a contributing factor to diarrhoea during bacterial infection.

  13. Stimulation of bacterial DNA synthesis by algal exudates in attached algal-bacterial consortia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.E.; Cooksey, K.E.; Priscu, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Algal-bacterial consortia attached to polystyrene surfaces were prepared in the laboratory by using the marine diatom Amphora coffeaeformis and the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolytica (the approved name of this bacterium is Vibrio proteolyticus. The organisms were attached to the surfaces at cell densities of approximately 5 x 10 4 cells cm -2 (diatoms) and 5 x 10 6 cells cm -2 (bacteria). The algal-bacterial consortia consistently exhibited higher rates of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation than did biofilms composed solely of bacteria. The rates of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation by the algal-bacterial consortia were fourfold greater than the rates of incorporation by monobacterial biofilms 16 h after biofilm formation and were 16-fold greater 70 h after biofilm formation. Extracellular material released from the attached Amphora cells supported rates of bacterial activity (0.8 x 10 -21 mol to 17.9 x 10 -21 mol of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporated cell -1 h -1 ) and growth (doubling time, 29.5 to 1.4 days) comparable to values reported for a wide variety of marine and freshwater ecosystems. In the presence of sessile diatom populations, DNA synthesis by attached V. proteolytica cells was light dependent and increased with increasing algal abundance. The metabolic activity of diatoms thus appears to be the rate-limiting process in biofilm development on illuminated surfaces under conditions of low bulk-water dissolved organic carbon

  14. Locomotion of bacteria in liquid flow and the boundary layer effect on bacterial attachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangchao@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Liao, Qiang, E-mail: lqzx@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchen@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhu, Xun, E-mail: zhuxun@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2015-06-12

    The formation of biofilm greatly affects the performance of biological reactors, which highly depends on bacterial swimming and attachment that usually takes place in liquid flow. Therefore, bacterial swimming and attachment on flat and circular surfaces with the consideration of flow was studied experimentally. Besides, a mathematical model comprehensively combining bacterial swimming and motion with flow is proposed for the simulation of bacterial locomotion and attachment in flow. Both experimental and theoretical results revealed that attached bacteria density increases with decreasing boundary layer thickness on both flat and circular surfaces, the consequence of which is inherently related to the competition between bacterial swimming and the non-slip motion with flow evaluated by the Péclet number. In the boundary layer, where the Péclet number is relatively higher, bacterial locomotion mainly depends on bacterial swimming. Thinner boundary layer promotes bacterial swimming towards the surface, leading to higher attachment density. To enhance the performance of biofilm reactors, it is effective to reduce the boundary layer thickness on desired surfaces. - Highlights: • Study of bacterial locomotion in flow as an early stage in biofilm formation. • Mathematical model combining bacterial swimming and the motion with flow. • Boundary layer plays a key role in bacterial attachment under flow condition. • The competition between bacterial swimming and the motion with flow is evaluated.

  15. Locomotion of bacteria in liquid flow and the boundary layer effect on bacterial attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chao; Liao, Qiang; Chen, Rong; Zhu, Xun

    2015-01-01

    The formation of biofilm greatly affects the performance of biological reactors, which highly depends on bacterial swimming and attachment that usually takes place in liquid flow. Therefore, bacterial swimming and attachment on flat and circular surfaces with the consideration of flow was studied experimentally. Besides, a mathematical model comprehensively combining bacterial swimming and motion with flow is proposed for the simulation of bacterial locomotion and attachment in flow. Both experimental and theoretical results revealed that attached bacteria density increases with decreasing boundary layer thickness on both flat and circular surfaces, the consequence of which is inherently related to the competition between bacterial swimming and the non-slip motion with flow evaluated by the Péclet number. In the boundary layer, where the Péclet number is relatively higher, bacterial locomotion mainly depends on bacterial swimming. Thinner boundary layer promotes bacterial swimming towards the surface, leading to higher attachment density. To enhance the performance of biofilm reactors, it is effective to reduce the boundary layer thickness on desired surfaces. - Highlights: • Study of bacterial locomotion in flow as an early stage in biofilm formation. • Mathematical model combining bacterial swimming and the motion with flow. • Boundary layer plays a key role in bacterial attachment under flow condition. • The competition between bacterial swimming and the motion with flow is evaluated

  16. Does circumcision alter the periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised boys and to evaluate the effect of circumcision on alteration of periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Pattern of periurethral bacterial flora before and after circumcision was studied ...

  17. Direct laser interference patterning for decreased bacterial attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Denise; Valle, Jaoine; Burgui, Saioa; Gil, Carmen; Solano, Cristina; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Helbig, Ralf; Werner, Carsten; Lasa, Inigo; Lasagni, Andrés. F.

    2016-03-01

    In the past 15 years, many efforts were made to create functionalized artificial surfaces showing special anti-bacterial and anti-biofouling properties. Thereby, the topography of medical relevant materials plays an important role. However, the targeted fabrication of promising surface structures like hole-, lamella- and pyramid-like patterns with feature sizes in the sub-micrometer range in a one-step process is still a challenge. Optical and e-beam lithography, molding and selfassembly layers show a great potential to design topographies for this purpose. At the same time, most of these techniques are based on sequential processes, require masks or molds and thus are very device relevant and time consuming. In this work, we present the Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) technology as a capable method for the fast, flexible and direct fabrication of periodic micrometer- and submicrometer structures. This method offers the possibility to equip large plain areas and curved devices with 1D, 2D and 3D patterns. Simple 1D (e.g. lines) and complex 3D (e.g. lamella, pillars) patterns with periodic distances from 0.5 μm to 5 μm were fabricated on polymeric materials (polyimide, polystyrene). Subsequently, we characterized the adhesion behavior of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus bacteria under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The results revealed that the topographies have a significant impact on bacteria adhesion. On the one side, one-dimensional line-like structures especially with dimensions of the bacteria enhanced microbe attachment. While on the other hand, complex three-dimensional patterns prevented biofilm formation even after implantation and contamination in living organisms.

  18. A simple technique to assess bacterial attachment to metal surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    There are several methods to assess bacterial adhesion to metal surfaces. Although these methods are sensitive, they are time consuming and need expensive chemicals and instruments. Hence, their use in assessing bacterial adhesion is limited...

  19. A simple method to assess bacterial attachment to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak; Bhosle

    of ineubation. There was a highly significant positive linear relationship between crystal violet stained attached cells and the viable cell count of cells attached to aluminium panels (r = 0.9997; p less than 0.001: n = 6). The method is relatively simple...

  20. Locomotion of bacteria in liquid flow and the boundary layer effect on bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liao, Qiang; Chen, Rong; Zhu, Xun

    2015-06-12

    The formation of biofilm greatly affects the performance of biological reactors, which highly depends on bacterial swimming and attachment that usually takes place in liquid flow. Therefore, bacterial swimming and attachment on flat and circular surfaces with the consideration of flow was studied experimentally. Besides, a mathematical model comprehensively combining bacterial swimming and motion with flow is proposed for the simulation of bacterial locomotion and attachment in flow. Both experimental and theoretical results revealed that attached bacteria density increases with decreasing boundary layer thickness on both flat and circular surfaces, the consequence of which is inherently related to the competition between bacterial swimming and the non-slip motion with flow evaluated by the Péclet number. In the boundary layer, where the Péclet number is relatively higher, bacterial locomotion mainly depends on bacterial swimming. Thinner boundary layer promotes bacterial swimming towards the surface, leading to higher attachment density. To enhance the performance of biofilm reactors, it is effective to reduce the boundary layer thickness on desired surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stochasticity of bacterial attachment and its predictability by the extended derjaguin-landau-verwey-overbeek theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Teck Wah R; Nguyen, Vu Tuan; McMeekin, Thomas; Fegan, Narelle; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial attachment onto materials has been suggested to be stochastic by some authors but nonstochastic and based on surface properties by others. We investigated this by attaching pairwise combinations of two Salmonella enterica serovar Sofia (S. Sofia) strains (with different physicochemical and attachment properties) with one strain each of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Infantis, or S. enterica serovar Virchow (all with similar physicochemical and attachment abilities) in ratios of 0.428, 1, and 2.333 onto glass, stainless steel, Teflon, and polysulfone. Attached bacterial cells were recovered and counted. If the ratio of attached cells of each Salmonella serovar pair recovered was the same as the initial inoculum ratio, the attachment process was deemed stochastic. Experimental outcomes from the study were compared to those predicted by the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory. Significant differences (P attached ratios for serovar pairs containing S. Sofia S1296a for all different ratios were apparent for all materials. For S. Sofia S1635-containing pairs, 7 out of 12 combinations of serovar pairs and materials had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratio of 0.428. Five out of 12 and 10 out of 12 samples had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratios of 1 and 2.333, respectively. These results demonstrate that bacterial attachment to different materials is likely to be nonstochastic only when the key physicochemical properties of the bacteria were significantly different (P theory could successfully predict the attachment of some individual isolates to particular materials but could not be used to predict the likelihood of stochasticity in pairwise attachment experiments.

  2. Bacterial vaginosis, alterations in vaginal flora and HIV genital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial vaginosis, alterations in vaginal flora and HIV genital shedding among HIV-1-infected women in Mozambique. ... We compared women with detectable cervical HIV viral load (≥40 copies/ml) with women with undetectable cervical HIV. Results. We enrolled 106 women. Women with abnormal vaginal flora ...

  3. Effect of UV-photofunctionalization on oral bacterial attachment and biofilm formation to titanium implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Lima, Bruno P; Sekiya, Takeo; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Ogawa, Takahiro; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial biofilm infections remain prevalent reasons for implant failure. Dental implant placement occurs in the oral environment, which harbors a plethora of biofilm-forming bacteria. Due to its trans-mucosal placement, part of the implant structure is exposed to oral cavity and there is no effective measure to prevent bacterial attachment to implant materials. Here, we demonstrated that UV treatment of titanium immediately prior to use (photofunctionalization) affects the ability of human polymicrobial oral biofilm communities to colonize in the presence of salivary and blood components. UV-treatment of machined titanium transformed the surface from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic. UV-treated surfaces exhibited a significant reduction in bacterial attachment as well as subsequent biofilm formation compared to untreated ones, even though overall bacterial viability was not affected. The function of reducing bacterial colonization was maintained on UV-treated titanium that had been stored in a liquid environment before use. Denaturing gradient gel-electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing analyses revealed that while bacterial community profiles appeared different between UV-treated and untreated titanium in the initial attachment phase, this difference vanished as biofilm formation progressed. Our findings confirm that UV-photofunctionalization of titanium has a strong potential to improve outcome of implant placement by creating and maintaining antimicrobial surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of UV-photofunctionalization on Oral Bacterial Attachment and Biofilm Formation to Titanium Implant Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Lima, Bruno P.; Sekiya, Takeo; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Ogawa, Takahiro; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm infections remain prevalent reasons for implant failure. Dental implant placement occurs in the oral environment, which harbors a plethora of biofilm-forming bacteria. Due to its trans-mucosal placement, part of the implant structure is exposed to oral cavity and there is no effective measure to prevent bacterial attachment to implant materials. Here, we demonstrated that UV treatment of titanium immediately prior to use (photofunctionalization) affects the ability of human polymicrobial oral biofilm communities to colonize in the presence of salivary and blood components. UV-treatment of machined titanium transformed the surface from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic. UV-treated surfaces exhibited a significant reduction in bacterial attachment as well as subsequent biofilm formation compared to untreated ones, even though overall bacterial viability was not affected. The function of reducing bacterial colonization was maintained on UV-treated titanium that had been stored in a liquid environment before use. Denaturing gradient gel-electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing analyses revealed that while bacterial community profiles appeared different between UV-treated and untreated titanium in the initial attachment phase, this difference vanished as biofilm formation progressed. Our findings confirm that UV-photofunctionalization of titanium has a strong potential to improve outcome of implant placement by creating and maintaining antimicrobial surfaces. PMID:26210175

  5. Decreased Bacterial Attachment and Protein Adsorption to Coatings Produced by Low Enegy Plasma Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.E.; Kingshott, Peter; Benter, M.

    and instrumental setup was similar to that previously described [3]. Static bacteria attachment assay: Punched out pieces were placed in 24 well microtitre plates and quantification of bacterial adhesion was carried out using a method based on the assay by Christensen et al. [4], but substantially modified...... adsorption and bacteria attachment/colonization. This is emphasized by the fact that long dwelling urinary catheters, which is a typical silicone medical device, causes 5% per day incidence of urinary tract infection [1,2]. A demand therefore exists for surface modifications providing the silicone material...... with a surface less prone to the adsorption of biological matter. In the current study two different hydrophilic nanoscale coatings were produced by low energy plasma polymerization [3] and investigated· f()rl()w ... pr()tein adsorption and bacterial attachment properties. Methods were setup to enable...

  6. Does circumcision alter the periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Ahmad Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised boys and to evaluate the effect of circumcision on alteration of periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Pattern of periurethral bacterial flora before and after circumcision was studied prospectively in 124 boys. The results were analysed to compare change in bacterial colonisation before and after circumcision. Results: The age range was 6 weeks to 96 months. Most (94.3% of the boys had religious indication and 5.7% had medical indication for circumcision. E. coli, Proteus and Klebsiella were most common periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised subjects. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus was most common periurethral bacterial flora in circumcised subjects. In 66.1% of circumcised subjects, no bacteria were grown from periurethral region. Conclusion: We conclude that presence of prepuce is associated with great quantity of periurethral bacteria, greater likelihood of the presence of high concentration of uropathogens and high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI. This study provides circumstantial evidence supporting the idea that early circumcision may be beneficial for prevention of UTI.

  7. Issues in determining factors influencing bacterial attachment: a review using the attachment of Escherichia coli to abiotic surfaces as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulter, R M; Gentle, I R; Dykes, G A

    2009-07-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms which facilitate the attachment of Escherichia coli and other bacterial species to abiotic surfaces is desired by numerous industries including the food and medical industries. Numerous studies have attempted to explain bacterial attachment as a function of bacterial properties such as cellular surface charge, hydrophobicity and outer membrane proteins amongst others. Conflicting evidence in the literature both for and against a positive relationship may arise from the nature of the test methods used to measure them. A handful of recent studies utilizing technologies such as atomic force microscopy have begun to look at bacterial attachment at a single cell and molecular level. These studies may provide the information required to fully understand the underlying factors which influence bacterial cell attachment to abiotic surfaces. A number of issues in determining the influential factors of bacterial attachment have been identified from the literature: a lack of standardization and sensitivity of methods, as well as the value of measuring bulk properties of a number of cells rather than the behaviour of single cells which may overlook key interactions at a molecular level. These issues will need to be addressed in future studies in this area.

  8. Canopy soil bacterial communities altered by severing host tree limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody R. Dangerfield

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trees of temperate rainforests host a large biomass of epiphytic plants, which are associated with soils formed in the forest canopy. Falling of epiphytic material results in the transfer of carbon and nutrients from the canopy to the forest floor. This study provides the first characterization of bacterial communities in canopy soils enabled by high-depth environmental sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Canopy soil included many of the same major taxonomic groups of Bacteria that are also found in ground soil, but canopy bacterial communities were lower in diversity and contained different operational taxonomic units. A field experiment was conducted with epiphytic material from six Acer macrophyllum trees in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA to document changes in the bacterial communities of soils associated with epiphytic material that falls to the forest floor. Bacterial diversity and composition of canopy soil was highly similar, but not identical, to adjacent ground soil two years after transfer to the forest floor, indicating that canopy bacteria are almost, but not completely, replaced by ground soil bacteria. Furthermore, soil associated with epiphytic material on branches that were severed from the host tree and suspended in the canopy contained altered bacterial communities that were distinct from those in canopy material moved to the forest floor. Therefore, the unique nature of canopy soil bacteria is determined in part by the host tree and not only by the physical environmental conditions associated with the canopy. Connection to the living tree appears to be a key feature of the canopy habitat. These results represent an initial survey of bacterial diversity of the canopy and provide a foundation upon which future studies can more fully investigate the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of these communities.

  9. Comparison of bacterial attachment to platelet bags with and without preconditioning with plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza-Correa, M; Kalab, M; Yi, Q-L; Eltringham-Smith, L J; Sheffield, W P; Ramirez-Arcos, S

    2017-07-01

    Canadian Blood Services produces apheresis and buffy coat pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) stored in bags produced by two different manufacturers (A and B, respectively), both made of polyvinyl chloride-butyryl trihexyl citrate. This study was aimed at comparing Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to the inner surface of both bag types in the presence or absence of plasma factors. Sets (N = 2-6) of bags type A and B were left non-coated (control) or preconditioned with platelet-rich, platelet-poor or defibrinated plasma (PRP, PPP and DefibPPP, respectively). Each bag was inoculated with a 200-ml S. epidermidis culture adjusted to 0·5 colony-forming units/ml. Bags were incubated under platelet storage conditions for 7 days. After culture removal, bacteria attached to the plastic surface were either dislodged by sonication for bacterial quantification or examined in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Higher bacterial adhesion was observed to preconditioned PC bags than control containers for both bag types (P 0·05). By contrast, a significant increase in bacterial adherence was observed to type A bags compared with type B bags in the absence of plasma (P platelet collection bags depends on the presence of plasma factors. Future efforts should be focused on reducing plasma proteins' attachment to platelet storage containers to decrease subsequent bacterial adhesion. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. A single natural nucleotide mutation alters bacterial pathogen host tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, David; Comos, María; McAdam, Paul R; Ward, Melissa J; Selva, Laura; Guinane, Caitriona M; González-Muñoz, Beatriz M; Tristan, Anne; Foster, Simon J; Fitzgerald, J Ross; Penadés, José R

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of microbial pathogens to alter their host tropism leading to epidemics in distinct host species populations is a global public and veterinary health concern. To investigate the molecular basis of a bacterial host-switching event in a tractable host species, we traced the evolutionary trajectory of the common rabbit clone of Staphylococcus aureus. We report that it evolved through a likely human-to-rabbit host jump over 40 years ago and that only a single naturally occurring nucleotide mutation was required and sufficient to convert a human-specific S. aureus strain into one that could infect rabbits. Related mutations were identified at the same locus in other rabbit strains of distinct clonal origin, consistent with convergent evolution. This first report of a single mutation that was sufficient to alter the host tropism of a microorganism during its evolution highlights the capacity of some pathogens to readily expand into new host species populations.

  11. Mechanisms of Bacterial (Serratia marcescens) Attachment to, Migration along, and Killing of Fungal Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, Tal; Maya, Tal; Ron, Sapir; Sandovsky, Hani; Shadkchan, Yana; Kijner, Nitzan; Mitiagin, Yulia; Fichtman, Boris; Harel, Amnon; Shanks, Robert M Q; Bruna, Roberto E; García-Véscovi, Eleonora; Osherov, Nir

    2016-05-01

    We have found a remarkable capacity for the ubiquitous Gram-negative rod bacterium Serratia marcescens to migrate along and kill the mycelia of zygomycete molds. This migration was restricted to zygomycete molds and several basidiomycete species. No migration was seen on any molds of the phylum Ascomycota. S. marcescens migration did not require fungal viability or surrounding growth medium, as bacteria migrated along aerial hyphae as well.S. marcescens did not exhibit growth tropism toward zygomycete mycelium. Bacterial migration along hyphae proceeded only when the hyphae grew into the bacterial colony. S. marcescens cells initially migrated along the hyphae, forming attached microcolonies that grew and coalesced to generate a biofilm that covered and killed the mycelium. Flagellum-defective strains of S. marcescens were able to migrate along zygomycete hyphae, although they were significantly slower than the wild-type strain and were delayed in fungal killing. Bacterial attachment to the mycelium does not necessitate type 1 fimbrial adhesion, since mutants defective in this adhesin migrated equally well as or faster than the wild-type strain. Killing does not depend on the secretion of S. marcescens chitinases, as mutants in which all three chitinase genes were deleted retained wild-type killing abilities. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which S. marcescens binds to, spreads on, and kills fungal hyphae might serve as an excellent model system for such interactions in general; fungal killing could be employed in agricultural fungal biocontrol. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Bacterial cell numbers and community structures of seawater biofilms depend on the attachment substratum

    KAUST Repository

    Yap, Scott A.

    2018-02-02

    Seawater is increasingly being used as a source for various industrial applications. For such applications, biofilm growth creates various problems including but not limited to pipe biocorrosion. In this study, it is hypothesized that the material type is preferred by certain bacterial populations in the seawater to attach and establish biofilms. By comparing differences in the total cell counts and microbial communities attached to high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polycarbonate, stainless steel (SS316) and titanium, the appropriate material can be used to minimize biofilm growth. All four materials have hydrophilic surfaces, but polycarbonate exhibits higher surface roughness. There were no significant differences in the cell numbers attached to polycarbonate, HDPE and titanium. Instead, there were significantly fewer cells attached to SS316. However, there was a higher relative abundance of genera associated with opportunistic pathogens on SS316. Copy numbers of genes representing Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae, both of which are sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), were approximately 10-fold higher in biofilms sampled from SS316. The enrichment of SRB in the biofilm associated with SS316 indicates that this material may be prone to biocorrosion. This study highlights the need for industries to consider the choice of material used in seawater applications to minimize microbial-associated problems.

  13. POLYSACCHARIDES AND eDNA AID BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT TO POLYMER BRUSH COATINGS (PLL-g-PEG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    Polymer brush coatings of poly(ethylene glycol) are considered the gold standard for nonfouling surfaces, but nevertheless, a few bacteria manage to attach and initiate biofilm formation on these coatings. To achieve robust resistance against bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, grafting...... density plays a critical role and we therefore investigated the antifouling properties of the poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) coating produced by the recently developed temperature-induced polyelectrolyte (TIP) grafting technique. The PLL-g-PEG coatings with higher density resulted...

  14. Subversion of actin dynamics by EspM effectors of attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeloa, Ana; Bulgin, Richard R; MacKenzie, Georgina; Shaw, Robert K; Pallen, Mark J; Crepin, Valerie F; Berger, Cedric N; Frankel, Gad

    2008-01-01

    Rho GTPases are common targets of bacterial toxins and type III secretion system effectors. IpgB1 and IpgB2 of Shigella and Map of enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli were recently grouped together on the basis that they share a conserved WxxxE motif. In this study, we characterized six WxxxE effectors from attaching and effacing pathogens: TrcA and EspM1 of EPEC strain B171, EspM1 and EspM2 of EHEC strain Sakai and EspM2 and EspM3 of Citrobacter rodentium. W...

  15. Mutations That Alter the Bacterial Cell Envelope Increase Lipid Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Zhang, Weiping; Langer, Samantha J.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Hu, Dehong; Lemke, Rachelle A.; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Orr, Galya; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.; Ruby, Edward G.

    2017-05-23

    ABSTRACT

    Lipids from microbes offer a promising source of renewable alternatives to petroleum-derived compounds. In particular, oleaginous microbes are of interest because they accumulate a large fraction of their biomass as lipids. In this study, we analyzed genetic changes that alter lipid accumulation inRhodobacter sphaeroides. By screening anR. sphaeroidesTn5mutant library for insertions that increased fatty acid content, we identified 10 high-lipid (HL) mutants for further characterization. These HL mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to drugs that target the bacterial cell envelope and changes in shape, and some had the ability to secrete lipids, with two HL mutants accumulating ~60% of their total lipids extracellularly. When one of the highest-lipid-secreting strains was grown in a fed-batch bioreactor, its lipid content was comparable to that of oleaginous microbes, with the majority of the lipids secreted into the medium. Based on the properties of these HL mutants, we conclude that alterations of the cell envelope are a previously unreported approach to increase microbial lipid production. We also propose that this approach may be combined with knowledge about biosynthetic pathways, in this or other microbes, to increase production of lipids and other chemicals.

    IMPORTANCEThis paper reports on experiments to understand how to increase microbial lipid production. Microbial lipids are often cited as one renewable replacement for petroleum-based fuels and chemicals, but strategies to increase the yield of these compounds are needed to achieve this goal. While lipid biosynthesis is often well understood, increasing yields of these compounds to industrially relevant levels is a challenge, especially since genetic, synthetic biology, or engineering approaches are not feasible in many microbes. We show that altering the bacterial cell envelope can be used to increase

  16. Effect of ultraviolet treatment on bacterial attachment and osteogenic activity to alkali-treated titanium with nanonetwork structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Honghao Zhang,1,2 Satoshi Komasa,1 Chiho Mashimo,3 Tohru Sekino,4 Joji Okazaki1 1Department of Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Stomatology, Nanfang Hospital and College of Stomatology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 3Department of Bacteriology, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, 4The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan Purpose: Alkali-treated titanium with nanonetwork structures (TNS possesses good osteogenic activity; however, the resistance of this material to bacterial contamination remains inadequate. As such, TNS implants are prone to postoperative infection. In this work, we attempted to alter the biological properties of TNS by treatment with short-duration high-intensity ultraviolet (UV irradiation.Methods: TNS discs were treated with UV light (wavelength =254 nm, strength =100 mW/cm2 for 15 minutes using a UV-irradiation machine. We carried out a surface characterization and evaluated the discs for bacterial film formation, protein adsorption, and osteogenic features.Results: The superhydrophilicity and surface hydrocarbon elimination exhibited by the treated material (UV-treated titanium with a nanonetwork structure [UV-TNS] revealed that this treatment effectively changed the surface characteristics of TNS. Notably, UV-TNS also showed reduced colonization by Actinomyces oris during an initial attachment period and inhibition of biofilm formation for up to 6 hours. Moreover, compared to conventional TNS, UV-TNS showed superior osteogenic activity as indicated by increased levels of adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteogenic factor production, and osteogenesis-related gene expression by rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs. This inverse relationship between bacterial attachment and cell adhesion could be due to the presence of electron–hole pairs

  17. Evaluation of penicylinders used in disinfectant testing: bacterial attachment and surface texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, E C; Rutala, W A; Carson, J L

    1987-01-01

    Two possible deficiencies in the AOAC use-dilution method for registration of chemical disinfectants by the Environmental Protection Agency are examined: (1) the physical disparities among brands of penicylinders and (2) the variability of bacterial numbers on penicylinders depending upon test strain and penicylinder surface texture. Textural differences of 2 brands of stainless steel penicylinders, one brand of porcelain, and one brand of glass were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. A considerable variation in smoothness of both inner and outer surfaces of stainless steel and porcelain penicylinders was observed. Glass penicylinders were very smooth. Numbers of bacteria attached to a penicylinder were assessed by vortexing the penicylinders 30 s at No. 4 after using the AOAC method of bacterial inoculation and drying 40 min at 37 degrees C. With this methodology, stainless steel carriers retained the 3 AOAC-recommended bacterial test strains differentially: ca 10(7) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 5 X 10(6) for Staphylococcus aureus, and 10(6) for Salmonella choleraesuis; glass retained 10(6)-10(7) organisms of all 3 test strains; porcelain retained about that amount of S. aureus but 10(5)-10(6) P. aeruginosa and 10(3)-10(4) S. choleraesuis. These data suggest that disinfectants are not similarly challenged with the AOAC-recommended test bacteria and that an alternative method should be considered to ensure comparable numbers of bacteria on penicylinders.

  18. POLYSACCHARIDES AND eDNA AID BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT TO POLYMER BRUSH COATINGS (PLL-g-PEG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    density plays a critical role and we therefore investigated the antifouling properties of the poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) coating produced by the recently developed temperature-induced polyelectrolyte (TIP) grafting technique. The PLL-g-PEG coatings with higher density resulted......Polymer brush coatings of poly(ethylene glycol) are considered the gold standard for nonfouling surfaces, but nevertheless, a few bacteria manage to attach and initiate biofilm formation on these coatings. To achieve robust resistance against bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, grafting......-cell adhesion forces measured for each strain and toward titanium and the two types of PLL-g-PEG coatings. We were intrigued by the strain-dependent results in adhesion to conventional PLL-g-PEG, and investigated if the difference in adhesion mechanism between the three strains could explain the result. We...

  19. A Molecular Genetic Basis Explaining Altered Bacterial Behavior in Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bacterial behavior has been observed to change during spaceflight. Higher final cell counts enhanced biofilm formation increased virulence and reduced susceptibility...

  20. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this attachment to the Annual report 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) the economic and personnel data of the UJD, used abbreviations, as well as the International nuclear event scales - INES are presented. Professional level of staff of the UJD is influenced by the education structure of its staff, when nearly 75% of the total number of staff has a university degree. A of 31.12.1999 there were 79 employees as average calculated number. Financing of the regulator in 1999 was mainly provided from the state budget, which represented 96% of all expenditures. The total volume of expenditures for UJD activity funded from the state budget achieved as of 31.12.1999 Slovak crowns (SK) 67 067 thousands. In the main category of expenditures an amount of SK 63 499 thous. was used for current activities, and the difference of SK 3 587 thous. was used for raising capital assets. Significant increase expenditures in the evaluated year compared to the 1998 was caused by a special purpose payment made by the Slovakia into the Fund for reconstruction of the Chernobyl cover (SK 19 996 thous.) funded through the budget chapter of the regulator. In the structure of current expenditures the highest share is taken by current transfers to abroad in total of SK 22 543 thous., i.e. contribution to reconstruction of Chernobyl cover made to the EBRD and contributions to the Fund of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA. For procurement of goods and services an amount of SK 19 814 thous. was spent, of which SK 7 054 thous. was used for funding science and technology tasks which were contracted out. The decision-making process in performing state supervision forced UJD to contact out various expert opinions and studies, for which UJD paid SK 2 058 thous. in total. Other expenditures in a volume of SK 10 702 thous. represent travel expenses, goods and services for UJD, rent for offices and other inevitable expenses. Salaries of staff represented SK 15 953

  1. Altered Bacterial Profiles in Saliva from Adults with Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, D; Fiehn, N-E; Nielsen, C H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn whether presence of caries in an adult population was associated with a salivary bacterial profile different from that of individuals without untreated caries. Stimulated saliva samples from 621 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey were analyzed ...... of commensal microbial communities are involved in the shift from oral health to tooth decay. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel....... using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray technology. Samples from 174 individuals with dental caries and 447 from a control cohort were compared using frequency and levels of identified bacterial taxa/clusters as endpoints. Differences at taxon/cluster level were analyzed using Mann......-Whitney's test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles. A reduced bacterial diversity was observed in samples from subjects with dental caries. Five bacterial taxa (Veillonella parvula, Veillonella atypica...

  2. Plasma of Argon Increases Cell Attachment and Bacterial Decontamination on Different Implant Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canullo, Luigi; Genova, Tullio; Wang, Hom-Lay; Carossa, Stefano; Mussano, Federico

    This in vitro study tested the effects of argon atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (APDBD) on different implant surfaces with regard to physical changes, bacterial decontamination, and osteoblast adhesion. Seven hundred twenty disks with three different surface topographies-machined (MAC), titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS), and zirconia-blasted and acid-etched (ZRT)-were tested in this experiment. Bacterial adhesion tests were performed repeatedly on a simplified biofilm of Streptococcus mitis. Bacteria were incubated in the presence of the samples, which were subsequently either left untreated as controls or treated with APDBD for 30, 60, and 120 seconds. Samples were then metalized, prior to the recurring acquisition of images using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Protein adsorption, surface wettability, and early biologic response were determined for both treated (120 seconds) and untreated implant surfaces. For depicting the eukaryotic cell behavior, preosteoblastic murine cells were used. Cells were conveniently stained, and nuclei were counted. Cell viability was assessed by a chemiluminescent assay at 1, 2, and 3 days. On all treated samples, values of the contact angle measurements were lower than 10 degrees. The untreated samples showed values of contact angle of 80, 100, and 110 degrees, respectively, for MAC, TPS, and ZRT. The protein adsorption on TPS and ZRT was significantly increased after the plasma of argon treatment. However, no significant effect was noted on the MAC disks. The number and the cell spreading area of adherent osteoblasts significantly increased in all treated surfaces. Nonetheless, argon treatment did not influence the osteoblast proliferation and viability at different time points. Bacteria adhesion was significantly reduced, even after 60 seconds of argon treatment. Preliminary data showed that argon atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge disinfected the implant surface, with potential to promote

  3. Root bacterial endophytes alter plant phenotype, but not physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Jeremiah A.; Weston, David J.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    phenotype. We chose three bacterial strains that differed in predicted metabolic capabilities, plant hormone production and metabolism, and secondary metabolite synthesis. We inoculated each bacterial strain on a single genotype of Populus trichocarpa and measured the response of plant growth related traits......Plant traits, such as root and leaf area, influence how plants interact with their environment and the diverse microbiota living within plants can influence plant morphology and physiology. Here, we explored how three bacterial strains isolated from the Populus root microbiome, influenced plant...... (root:shoot, biomass production, root and leaf growth rates) and physiological traits (chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, net photosynthesis at saturating light-Asat, and saturating CO2-Amax). Overall, we found that bacterial root endophyte infection increased root growth rate up to 184% and leaf...

  4. Subversion of actin dynamics by EspM effectors of attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeloa, Ana; Bulgin, Richard R; MacKenzie, Georgina; Shaw, Robert K; Pallen, Mark J; Crepin, Valerie F; Berger, Cedric N; Frankel, Gad

    2008-07-01

    Rho GTPases are common targets of bacterial toxins and type III secretion system effectors. IpgB1 and IpgB2 of Shigella and Map of enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli were recently grouped together on the basis that they share a conserved WxxxE motif. In this study, we characterized six WxxxE effectors from attaching and effacing pathogens: TrcA and EspM1 of EPEC strain B171, EspM1 and EspM2 of EHEC strain Sakai and EspM2 and EspM3 of Citrobacter rodentium. We show that EspM2 triggers formation of global parallel stress fibres, TrcA and EspM1 induce formation of localized parallel stress fibres and EspM3 triggers formation of localized radial stress fibres. Using EspM2 and EspM3 as model effectors, we report that while substituting the conserved Trp with Ala abolished activity, conservative Trp to Tyr or Glu to Asp substitutions did not affect stress-fibre formation. We show, using dominant negative constructs and chemical inhibitors, that the activity of EspM2 and EspM3 is RhoA and ROCK-dependent. Using Rhotekin pull-downs, we have shown that EspM2 and EspM3 activate RhoA; translocation of EspM2 and EspM3 triggered phosphorylation of cofilin. These results suggest that the EspM effectors modulate actin dynamics by activating the RhoA signalling pathway.

  5. Using bacterial extract along with differential gene expression in Acropora millepora larvae to decouple the processes of attachment and metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachshon Siboni

    Full Text Available Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP, isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100% with little or no attachment (0-2%. To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI, selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05 in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05 following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that

  6. Impact of Membrane Phospholipid Alterations in Escherichia coli on Cellular Function and Bacterial Stress Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlett, Veronica W; Mallampalli, Venkata K P S; Karlstaedt, Anja; Dowhan, William; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Margolin, William; Vitrac, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    Bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to sense and rapidly adapt to challenging and ever-changing environmental conditions. The ability to alter membrane lipid composition, a key component of the cellular envelope, is crucial for bacterial survival and adaptation in response to environmental stress. However, the precise roles played by membrane phospholipids in bacterial physiology and stress adaptation are not fully elucidated. The goal of this study was to define the role of membrane phospholipids in adaptation to stress and maintenance of bacterial cell fitness. By using genetically modified strains in which the membrane phospholipid composition can be systematically manipulated, we show that alterations in major Escherichia coli phospholipids transform these cells globally. We found that alterations in phospholipids impair the cellular envelope structure and function, the ability to form biofilms, and bacterial fitness and cause phospholipid-dependent susceptibility to environmental stresses. This study provides an unprecedented view of the structural, signaling, and metabolic pathways in which bacterial phospholipids participate, allowing the design of new approaches in the investigation of lipid-dependent processes involved in bacterial physiology and adaptation. IMPORTANCE In order to cope with and adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions, bacteria have to sense and quickly respond to fluctuating conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of systematic and controlled alterations in bacterial phospholipids on cell shape, physiology, and stress adaptation. We provide new evidence that alterations of specific phospholipids in Escherichia coli have detrimental effects on cellular shape, envelope integrity, and cell physiology that impair biofilm formation, cellular envelope remodeling, and adaptability to environmental stresses. These findings hold promise for future antibacterial therapies that target bacterial lipid biosynthesis

  7. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation......, the fungus will produce various by-products like organic acids and polyols. In order to circumvent this problem we here study the effects of the expression of a bacterial hemoglobin protein on the metabolism of A. niger. We integrated the vgb gene from Vitreoscilla sp. into the genome at the pyrA locus...... behind the strong gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of secreted metabolites, oxygen uptake, CO2 evolution and biomass formation points towards a relief of stress in the mutant expressing VHB when it is exposed to oxygen limitation. Our findings therefore point to an interesting strategy...

  8. Biofilm growth alters regulation of conjugation by a bacterial pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Laura; Barnes, Aaron; Dunny, Gary; Chatterjee, Anushree; Hu, Wei-Shou; Yarwood, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Conjugation is an important mode of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, enhancing the spread of antibiotic resistance. In clinical settings, biofilms are likely locations for antibiotic resistance transfer events involving nosocomial pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis. Here we demonstrate that growth in biofilms alters the induction of conjugation by a sex pheromone in E. faecalis. Mathematical modeling suggested that a higher plasmid copy number in biofilm cells would enhance a switch-like behavior in the pheromone response of donor cells with a delayed, but increased response to the mating signal. Alterations in plasmid copy number, and a bimodal response to induction of conjugation in populations of plasmid-containing donor cells were both observed in biofilms, consistent with the predictions of the model. The pheromone system may have evolved such that donor cells in biofilms are only induced to transfer when they are in extremely close proximity to potential recipients in the biofilm community. These results may have important implications for development of chemotherapeutic agents to block resistance transfer and treat biofilm-related clinical infections. PMID:21843206

  9. Pectin and Xyloglucan Influence the Attachment of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes to Bacterial Cellulose-Derived Plant Cell Wall Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Michelle S F; Rahman, Sadequr; Dykes, Gary A

    2016-01-15

    Minimally processed fresh produce has been implicated as a major source of foodborne microbial pathogens globally. These pathogens must attach to the produce in order to be transmitted. Cut surfaces of produce that expose cell walls are particularly vulnerable. Little is known about the roles that different structural components (cellulose, pectin, and xyloglucan) of plant cell walls play in the attachment of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Using bacterial cellulose-derived plant cell wall models, we showed that the presence of pectin alone or xyloglucan alone affected the attachment of three Salmonella enterica strains (Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis ATCC 13076, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Salmonella enterica subsp. indica M4) and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. In addition, we showed that this effect was modulated in the presence of both polysaccharides. Assays using pairwise combinations of S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 showed that bacterial attachment to all plant cell wall models was dependent on the characteristics of the individual bacterial strains and was not directly proportional to the initial concentration of the bacterial inoculum. This work showed that bacterial attachment was not determined directly by the plant cell wall model or bacterial physicochemical properties. We suggest that attachment of the Salmonella strains may be influenced by the effects of these polysaccharides on physical and structural properties of the plant cell wall model. Our findings improve the understanding of how Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes attach to plant cell walls, which may facilitate the development of better ways to prevent the attachment of these pathogens to such surfaces. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Impervious Surfaces Alter Soil Bacterial Communities in Urban Areas: A Case Study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinhong; Dou, Xiaolin; Li, Juanyong; Li, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete), permeable pavement (bricks with round holes), shrub coverage ( Buxus megistophylla Levl. ), lawns ( Festuca elata Keng ex E. Alexeev ), and roadside trees ( Sophora japonica Linn. ) in Beijing, to explore the response of bacteria to impervious surfaces. The soil bacterial communities were addressed by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We found that Proteobacteria , Actinobacteria , Acidobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Chloroflexi , and Firmicutes were the predominant phyla in urban soils. Soil from impervious surfaces presented a lower bacterial diversity, and differed greatly from other types of land cover. Soil bacterial diversity was predominantly affected by Zn, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil moisture content (SMC). The composition of the bacterial community was similar under shrub coverage, roadside trees, and lawns, but different from beneath impervious surfaces and permeable pavement. Variance partitioning analysis showed that edaphic properties contributed to 12% of the bacterial community variation, heavy metal pollution explained 3.6% of the variation, and interaction between the two explained 33% of the variance. Together, our data indicate that impervious surfaces induced changes in bacterial community composition and decrease of bacterial diversity. Interactions between edaphic properties and heavy metals were here found to change the composition of the bacterial community and diversity

  11. Impervious Surfaces Alter Soil Bacterial Communities in Urban Areas: A Case Study in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhong Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete, permeable pavement (bricks with round holes, shrub coverage (Buxus megistophylla Levl., lawns (Festuca elata Keng ex E. Alexeev, and roadside trees (Sophora japonica Linn. in Beijing, to explore the response of bacteria to impervious surfaces. The soil bacterial communities were addressed by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We found that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes were the predominant phyla in urban soils. Soil from impervious surfaces presented a lower bacterial diversity, and differed greatly from other types of land cover. Soil bacterial diversity was predominantly affected by Zn, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and soil moisture content (SMC. The composition of the bacterial community was similar under shrub coverage, roadside trees, and lawns, but different from beneath impervious surfaces and permeable pavement. Variance partitioning analysis showed that edaphic properties contributed to 12% of the bacterial community variation, heavy metal pollution explained 3.6% of the variation, and interaction between the two explained 33% of the variance. Together, our data indicate that impervious surfaces induced changes in bacterial community composition and decrease of bacterial diversity. Interactions between edaphic properties and heavy metals were here found to change the composition of the bacterial community and

  12. Vizantin inhibits bacterial adhesion without affecting bacterial growth and causes Streptococcus mutans biofilm to detach by altering its internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shoji; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohshima, Hayato; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Terao, Yutaka; Noiri, Yuichiro

    2016-11-11

    An ideal antibiofilm strategy is to control both in the quality and quantity of biofilm while maintaining the benefits derived from resident microflora. Vizantin, a recently developed immunostimulating compound, has also been found to have antibiofilm property. This study evaluated the influence on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of sulfated vizantin and biofilm development following bacterial adhesion on a hydroxyapatite disc coated with sulfated vizantin. Supplementation with sulfated vizantin up to 50 μM did not affect either bacterial growth or biofilm formation, whereas 50 μM sulfated vizantin caused the biofilm to readily detach from the surface. Sulfated vizantin at the concentration of 50 μM upregulated the expression of the gtfB and gtfC genes, but downregulated the expression of the gtfD gene, suggesting altered architecture in the biofilm. Biofilm development on the surface coated with sulfated vizantin was inhibited depending on the concentration, suggesting prevention from bacterial adhesion. Among eight genes related to bacterial adherence in S. mutans, expression of gtfB and gtfC was significantly upregulated, whereas the expression of gtfD, GbpA and GbpC was downregulated according to the concentration of vizantin, especially with 50 μM vizantin by 0.8-, 0.4-, and 0.4-fold, respectively. These findings suggest that sulfated vizantin may cause structural degradation as a result of changing gene regulation related to bacterial adhesion and glucan production of S. mutans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Therapeutic doses of radiation alter proliferation and attachment of osteoblasts to implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mansur; Sampair, Christopher; Nazmul-Hossain, Abu N M; Khurana, Neerja; Nerness, Andrew; Wutticharoenmongkol, Patcharaporn

    2008-09-15

    Osseointegration of implants in irradiated bone is inadequate. The effect of radiation on cell-implant material interaction has not been adequately studied. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiationon the proliferation, differentiation, and attachment of osteoblasts to commercially pure titanium (cpTi). Human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) were irradiated either before or after plating in tissue culture (TC) dishes with or without cpTi disks. Radiation was single dose of 10 cGy, 25 cGy, 50 cGy, 1 Gy, 2 Gy, 4 Gy or 8 Gy. Cell proliferation was determined by counting trypsinized cells on 7 days after irradiation. Attachment of irradiated hFOB was measured indirectly by counting cells 2 and 6 h after plating. Differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity. Compared with nonirradiated sham controls, higher doses of radiation significantly reduced cell attachment and proliferation. Both proliferation and attachment were significantly lower on cpTi compared with TC. Attachment decreased based on the length of postirradiation period. Although differentiation was significantly enhanced by a dose of 8 Gy, proliferation was lowest. These initial studies show that effects of therapeutic doses of radiation on osteoblasts varied depending on the surface, time-elapsed, and amount of radiation.

  14. A Biofilm Pocket Model to Evaluate Different Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment Modalities in Terms of Biofilm Removal and Reformation, Surface Alterations and Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägi, Tobias T; Klemensberger, Sabrina; Bereiter, Riccarda; Nietzsche, Sandor; Cosgarea, Raluca; Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of suitable in vitro models to evaluate various treatment modalities intending to remove subgingival bacterial biofilm. Consequently, the aims of this in vitro-study were: a) to establish a pocket model enabling mechanical removal of biofilm and b) to evaluate repeated non-surgical periodontal treatment with respect to biofilm removal and reformation, surface alterations, tooth hard-substance-loss, and attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. Standardized human dentin specimens were colonized by multi-species biofilms for 3.5 days and subsequently placed into artificially created pockets. Non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed as follows: a) hand-instrumentation with curettes (CUR), b) ultrasonication (US), c) subgingival air-polishing using erythritol (EAP) and d) subgingival air-polishing using erythritol combined with chlorhexidine digluconate (EAP-CHX). The reduction and recolonization of bacterial counts, surface roughness (Ra and Rz), the caused tooth substance-loss (thickness) as well as the attachment of PDL fibroblasts were evaluated and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA with Post-Hoc LSD. After 5 treatments, bacterial reduction in biofilms was highest when applying EAP-CHX (4 log10). The lowest reduction was found after CUR (2 log10). Additionally, substance-loss was the highest when using CUR (128±40 µm) in comparison with US (14±12 µm), EAP (6±7 µm) and EAP-CHX (11±10) µm). Surface was roughened when using CUR and US. Surfaces exposed to US and to EAP attracted the highest numbers of PDL fibroblasts. The established biofilm model simulating a periodontal pocket combined with interchangeable placements of test specimens with multi-species biofilms enables the evaluation of different non-surgical treatment modalities on biofilm removal and surface alterations. Compared to hand instrumentation the application of ultrasonication and of air-polishing with erythritol prevents from substance-loss and

  15. Inhibition of bacterial growth by iron oxide nanoparticles with and without attached drug: Have we conquered the antibiotic resistance problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Leisha M.; Jain, Priyanka; Malagodi, Angelina; Fornelli, F. Zuly; Hayat, Allison; Rivera, Antonio C.; French, Michael; Smyth, Hugh D. C.; Osiński, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the top three leading causative opportunistic human pathogens, possessing one of the largest bacterial genomes and an exceptionally large proportion of regulatory genes therein. It has been known for more than a decade that the size and complexity of the P. aeruginosa genome is responsible for the adaptability and resilience of the bacteria to include its ability to resist many disinfectants and antibiotics. We have investigated the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa bacterial biofilms to iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles (NPs) with and without attached drug (tobramycin). We also characterized the susceptibility of zero-valent iron NPs, which are known to inactivate microbes. The particles, having an average diameter of 16 nm were capped with natural alginate, thus doubling the hydrodynamic size. Nanoparticle-drug conjugates were produced via cross-linking drug and alginate functional groups. Drug conjugates were investigated in the interest of determining dosage, during these dosage-curve experiments, NPs unbound to drug were tested in cultures as a negative control. Surprisingly, we found that the iron oxide NPs inhibited bacterial growth, and thus, biofilm formation without the addition of antibiotic drug. The inhibitory dosages of iron oxide NPs were investigated and the minimum inhibitory concentrations are presented. These findings suggest that NP-drug conjugates may overcome the antibiotic drug resistance common in P. aeruginosa infections.

  16. Carbon nanomaterials alter plant physiology and soil bacterial community composition in a rice-soil-bacterial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yi; Ma, Chuanxin; Zhang, Zetian; Song, Youhong; Cao, Weidong; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Guopeng; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Liming; Xing, Baoshan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity effects of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), namely fullerene (C 60 ), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), on a mini-ecosystem of rice grown in a loamy potted soil. We measured plant physiological and biochemical parameters and examined bacterial community composition in the CNMs-treated plant-soil system. After 30 days of exposure, all the three CNMs negatively affected the shoot height and root length of rice, significantly decreased root cortical cells diameter and resulted in shrinkage and deformation of cells, regardless of exposure doses (50 or 500 mg/kg). Additionally, at the high exposure dose of CNM, the concentrations of four phytohormones, including auxin, indoleacetic acid, brassinosteroid and gibberellin acid 4 in rice roots significantly increased as compared to the control. At the high exposure dose of MWCNTs and C 60 , activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in roots increased significantly. High-throughput sequencing showed that three typical CNMs had little effect on shifting the predominant soil bacterial species, but the presence of CNMs significantly altered the composition of the bacterial community. Our results indicate that different CNMs indeed resulted in environmental toxicity to rice and soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere and suggest that CNMs themselves and their incorporated products should be reasonably used to control their release/discharge into the environment to prevent their toxic effects on living organisms and the potential risks to food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Endocytosis-inducer adhesins produced by enteropathogenic serogroups of Escherichia coli participate on bacterial attachment to infant enterocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ramos Costa Andrade

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC infection of Hep-2 cells preoceeds through bacterial attachment to cell surface and internalization of adhered bacteria. EPEC attachment is a prerequisite for cell infection and is mediated by adhesins that recognize carbohydrate-containing receptors on cell membrane. Such endocytosis-inducer adhesins (EIA also promote EPEC binding to infant enterocytes, suggesting that EIA may have an important role on EPEC gastroenteritis.A infecção de células Hep-2 por E. coli enteropatogênicas (ECEP implica na aderência bacteriana e posterior interiorização dos microrganismos aderidos por um mecanismo de endocitose. A aderência das ECEP é pré-requisito para a infecção e é mediada por adesinas que reconhecem receptores inibidos por certas oses na membrana celular. Tais "adesinas indutoras da endocitose" (AIE também promovem a ligação bacteriana a enterócitos obtidos do intestino delgado de lactente, sugerindo que as AIE possam desempenhar algum papel nas diarréias causadas por ECEP.

  18. Modeling bacterial attachment to surfaces as an early stage of biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moustaid, Fadoua; Eladdadi, Amina; Uys, Lafras

    2013-06-01

    Biofilms are present in all natural, medical and industrial surroundings where bacteria live. Biofilm formation is a key factor in the growth and transport of both beneficial and harmful bacteria. While much is known about the later stages of biofilm formation, less is known about its initiation which is an important first step in the biofilm formation. In this paper, we develop a non-linear system of partial differential equations of Keller-Segel type model in one-dimensional space, which couples the dynamics of bacterial movement to that of the sensing molecules. In this case, bacteria perform a biased random walk towards the sensing molecules. We derive the boundary conditions of the adhesion of bacteria to a surface using zero-Dirichlet boundary conditions, while the equation describing sensing molecules at the interface needed particular conditions to be set. The numerical results show the profile of bacteria within the space and the time evolution of the density within the free-space and on the surface. Testing different parameter values indicate that significant amount of sensing molecules present on the surface leads to a faster bacterial movement toward the surface which is the first step of biofilm initiation. Our work gives rise to results that agree with the biological description of the early stages of biofilm formation.

  19. Bacterial effector NleL promotes enterohemorrhagic E. coli-induced attaching and effacing lesions by ubiquitylating and inactivating JNK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiangpeng; You, Qing; Zhu, Hongnian; Chang, ZeNan; Li, Qingrun; Wang, Haifeng; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongyan; Hui, Lijian; Du, Chongtao; Xie, Xiaoduo; Zeng, Rong; Lin, Anning; Shi, Dongfang; Ruan, Kangcheng; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George Fu; Shao, Feng; Hu, Ronggui

    2017-07-01

    As a major diarrheagenic human pathogen, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) produce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, characterized by the formation of actin pedestals, on mammalian cells. A bacterial T3SS effector NleL from EHEC O157:H7 was recently shown to be a HECT-like E3 ligase in vitro, but its biological functions and host targets remain elusive. Here, we report that NleL is required to effectively promote EHEC-induced A/E lesions and bacterial infection. Furthermore, human c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) were identified as primary substrates of NleL. NleL-induced JNK ubiquitylation, particularly mono-ubiquitylation at the Lys 68 residue of JNK, impairs JNK's interaction with an upstream kinase MKK7, thus disrupting JNK phosphorylation and activation. This subsequently suppresses the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1), which modulates the formation of the EHEC-induced actin pedestals. Moreover, JNK knockdown or inhibition in host cells complements NleL deficiency in EHEC infection. Thus, we demonstrate that the effector protein NleL enhances the ability of EHEC to infect host cells by targeting host JNK, and elucidate an inhibitory role of ubiquitylation in regulating JNK phosphorylation.

  20. Bacterial effector NleL promotes enterohemorrhagic E. coli-induced attaching and effacing lesions by ubiquitylating and inactivating JNK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangpeng Sheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a major diarrheagenic human pathogen, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC produce attaching and effacing (A/E lesions, characterized by the formation of actin pedestals, on mammalian cells. A bacterial T3SS effector NleL from EHEC O157:H7 was recently shown to be a HECT-like E3 ligase in vitro, but its biological functions and host targets remain elusive. Here, we report that NleL is required to effectively promote EHEC-induced A/E lesions and bacterial infection. Furthermore, human c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs were identified as primary substrates of NleL. NleL-induced JNK ubiquitylation, particularly mono-ubiquitylation at the Lys 68 residue of JNK, impairs JNK's interaction with an upstream kinase MKK7, thus disrupting JNK phosphorylation and activation. This subsequently suppresses the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1, which modulates the formation of the EHEC-induced actin pedestals. Moreover, JNK knockdown or inhibition in host cells complements NleL deficiency in EHEC infection. Thus, we demonstrate that the effector protein NleL enhances the ability of EHEC to infect host cells by targeting host JNK, and elucidate an inhibitory role of ubiquitylation in regulating JNK phosphorylation.

  1. Altered functionality of anti-bacterial antibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

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    Anne Lamontagne

    Full Text Available Using comparative glycoproteomics, we have previously identified a glycoprotein that is altered in both amount and glycosylation as a function of liver cirrhosis. The altered glycoprotein is an agalactosylated (G0 immunoglobulin G molecule (IgG that recognizes the heterophilic alpha-gal epitope. Since the alpha gal epitope is found on gut enterobacteria, it has been hypothesized that anti-gal antibodies are generated as a result of increased bacterial exposure in patients with liver disease.The N-linked glycosylation of anti-gal IgG molecules from patients with fibrosis and cirrhosis was determined and the effector function of anti-bacterial antibodies from over 100 patients examined. In addition, markers of microbial exposure were determined.Surprisingly, the subset of agalactosylated anti-gal antibodies described here, was impaired in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis and inhibited the complement-mediated destruction of common gut bacteria. In an analysis of serum from more than 100 patients with liver disease, we have shown that those with increased levels of this modified anti-gal antibody had increased levels of markers of bacterial exposure.Anti-gal antibodies in patients with liver cirrhosis were reduced in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis of target cells. As bacterial infection is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial products such as LPS are thought to play a major role in the development and progression of liver fibrosis, this finding has many clinical implications in the etiology, prognosis and treatment of liver disease.

  2. Supplemental Dietary Inulin of Variable Chain Lengths Alters Intestinal Bacterial Populations in Young Pigs123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jannine K.; Yasuda, Koji; Welch, Ross M.; Miller, Dennis D.; Lei, Xin Gen

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we showed that supplementation of diets with short-chain inulin (P95), long-chain inulin (HP), and a 50:50 mixture of both (Synergy 1) improved body iron status and altered expression of the genes involved in iron homeostasis and inflammation in young pigs. However, the effects of these 3 types of inulin on intestinal bacteria remain unknown. Applying terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we determined the abundances of luminal and adherent bacterial populations from 6 segments of the small and large intestines of pigs (n = 4 for each group) fed an iron-deficient basal diet (BD) or the BD supplemented with 4% of P95, Synergy 1, or HP for 5 wk. Compared with BD, all 3 types of inulin enhanced (P inulin on bacterial populations in the lumen contents were found. Meanwhile, all 3 types of inulin suppressed the less desirable bacteria Clostridium spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen and mucosa of various gut segments. Our findings suggest that the ability of dietary inulin to alter intestinal bacterial populations may partially account for its iron bioavailability-promoting effect and possibly other health benefits. PMID:20980641

  3. Organo-Selenium Coatings Inhibit Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacterial Attachment to Ophthalmic Scleral Buckle Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phat; Arnett, Avery; Jarvis, Courtney; Mosley, Thomas; Tran, Khien; Hanes, Rob; Webster, Dan; Mitchell, Kelly; Dominguez, Leo; Hamood, Abdul; Reid, Ted W

    2017-09-01

    Biofilm formation is a problem for solid and sponge-type scleral buckles. This can lead to complications that require removal of the buckle, and result in vision loss due to related ocular morbidity, primarily infection, or recurrent retinal detachment. We investigate the ability of a covalent organo-selenium coating to inhibit biofilm formation on a scleral buckle. Sponge and solid Labtican brand scleral buckles were coated with organo-selenium coupled to a silyation reagent. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation was monitored by a standard colony-forming unit assay and the confocal laser scanning microscopy, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Stability studies were done, by soaking in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at room temperature for 2 months. Toxicity against human corneal epithelial cell was examined by growing the cells in the presence of organo-selenium-coated scleral buckles. The organo-selenium coating inhibited biofilm formation by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The buckle coatings also were shown to be fully active after soaking in PBS for 2 months. The organo-selenium coatings had no effect on the viability of human corneal epithelial cells. Organo-selenium can be used to covalently coat a scleral buckle, which is stable and inhibits biofilm formation for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The organo-selenium buckle coating was stable and nontoxic to cell culture. This technology provides a means to inhibit bacterial attachment to devices attached to the eye, without damage to ocular cells.

  4. Altered host cell-bacteria interaction due to nanoparticle interaction with a bacterial biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Tara D; Lindler, Heidi; McNealy, Tamara L

    2013-02-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) use in everyday applications creates the potential for NPs to enter the environment where, in aquatic systems, they are likely to settle on substrates and interact with microbial communities. Legionella pneumophila biofilms are found as part of microbial communities in both natural and man-made environments, especially in man-made cooling systems. The bacterium is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. Legionella requires a host cell for replication in the environment, and amoebae commonly serve as this host cell. Our previous work demonstrated significant changes in Legionella biofilm morphology after exposure to 0.7 μg/L gold NPs (AuNPs). Here, we investigate how these morphology changes alter host-bacteria interactions using Acanthamoeba polyphaga as a model. Host-bacteria-NP interactions are affected by NP characteristics. Biofilms exposed to 4- and 18-nm, citrate-capped, spherical AuNPs significantly altered the grazing ability of A. polyphaga, which was not observed in biofilms exposed to 24-nm polystyrene beads. Uptake and replication of NP-exposed planktonic L. pneumophila within A. polyphaga were not altered regardless of NP size or core chemistry. Nanomaterial effects on the interaction of benthic organisms and bacteria may be directly or, as shown here, indirectly dependent on bacterial morphology. NP contamination therefore may alter interactions in a normal ecosystem function.

  5. Choice of bacterial growth medium alters the transcriptome and phenotype of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jessica M A; Richmond, Grace E; Bailey, Andrew M; Ivens, Al; Piddock, Laura J V

    2013-01-01

    The type of bacterial culture medium is an important consideration during design of any experimental protocol. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of medium choice on bacterial gene expression and physiology by comparing the transcriptome of Salmonella enterica SL1344 after growth in the widely used LB broth or the rationally designed MOPS minimal medium. Transcriptomics showed that after growth in MOPS minimal media, compared to LB, there was increased expression of 42 genes involved in amino acid synthesis and 23 genes coding for ABC transporters. Seven flagellar genes had decreased expression after growth in MOPS minimal medium and this correlated with a decreased motility. In both MOPS minimal medium and MEM expression of genes from SPI-2 was increased and the adhesion of S. Typhimurium to intestinal epithelial cells was higher compared to the levels after growth in LB. However, SL1344 invasion was not significantly altered by growth in either MOPs minimal media or MEM. Expression of SPI-2 was also measured using chromosomal GFP reporter fusions followed by flow cytometry which showed, for the first time, that the reduction in SPI-2 transcript after growth in different media related to a reduction in the proportion of the bacterial population expressing SPI-2. These data highlight the profound differences in the global transcriptome after in vitro growth in different media and show that choice of medium should be considered carefully during experimental design, particularly when virulence related phenotypes are being measured.

  6. Soil fungal:bacterial ratios are linked to altered carbon cycling

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    Ashish A. Malik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite several lines of observational evidence, there is a lack of consensus on whether higher fungal:bacterial (F:B ratios directly cause higher soil carbon (C storage. We employed RNA sequencing, protein profiling and isotope tracer techniques to evaluate whether differing F:B ratios are associated with differences in C storage. A mesocosm 13C labeled foliar litter decomposition experiment was performed in two soils that were similar in their physico-chemical properties but differed in microbial community structure, specifically their F:B ratio (determined by PLFA analyses, RNA sequencing and protein profiling; all three corroborating each other. Following litter addition, we observed a consistent increase in abundance of fungal phyla; and greater increases in the fungal dominated soil; implicating the role of fungi in litter decomposition. Litter derived 13C in respired CO2 was consistently lower, and residual 13C in bulk SOM was higher in high F:B soil demonstrating greater C storage potential in the fungal:bacterial dominated soil. We conclude that in this soil system, the increased abundance of fungi in both soils and the altered C cycling patterns in the fungal:bacterial dominated soils highlight the significant role of fungi in litter decomposition and indicate that F:B ratios are linked to higher C storage potential.

  7. Bacterial chitinolytic communities respond to chitin and pH alteration in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielak, Anna M; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Semenov, Alexander V; Sørensen, Søren J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Chitin amendment is a promising soil management strategy that may enhance the suppressiveness of soil toward plant pathogens. However, we understand very little of the effects of added chitin, including the putative successions that take place in the degradative process. We performed an experiment in moderately acid soil in which the level of chitin, next to the pH, was altered. Examination of chitinase activities revealed fast responses to the added crude chitin, with peaks of enzymatic activity occurring on day 7. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA and chiA genes showed structural changes of the phylogenetically and functionally based bacterial communities following chitin addition and pH alteration. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated (i) that the diversity of chiA gene types in soil is enormous and (i) that different chiA gene types are selected by the addition of chitin at different prevailing soil pH values. Interestingly, a major role of Gram-negative bacteria versus a minor one of Actinobacteria in the immediate response to the added chitin (based on 16S rRNA gene abundance and chiA gene types) was indicated. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the response of the soil bacterial communities to chitin and are of use for both the understanding of soil suppressiveness and the possible mining of soil for novel enzymes.

  8. Bacterial production and growth rate estimation from ( sup 3 H)thymidine incorporation for attached and free-living bacteria in aquatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriberri, J.; Unanue, M.; Ayo, B.; Barcina, I., Egea, L. (Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain))

    1990-02-01

    Production and specific growth rates of attached and free-living bacteria were estimated in an oligotrophic marine system, La Salvaje Beach, Vizcaya, Spain, and in a freshwater system having a higher nutrient concentration, Butron River, Vizcaya, Spain. Production was calculated from (methyl-{sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation by estimating specific conversion factors (cells or micrograms of C produced per mole of thymidine incorporated) for attached and free-living bacteria, respectively, in each system. Conversion factors were not statistically different between attached and free-living bacteria: 6.812 {times} 10{sup 11} and 8.678 {times} 10{sup 11} {mu}g of C mol{sup {minus}1} for free-living and attached bacteria in the freshwater system, and 1.276 {times} 10{sup 11} and 1.354 {times} 10{sup 11} {mu}g of C mol{sup {minus}1} for free-living and attached bacteria in the marine system. Therefore, use of a unique conversion factor for the mixed bacterial population is well founded. However, conversion factors were higher in the freshwater system than in the marine system. This could be due to the different tropic conditions of the two systems. Free-living bacteria contributed the most to production in the two systems (85% in the marine system and 67% in the freshwater system) because of their greater contribution to total biomass. Specific growth rates calculated from production data and biomass data were similar for attached and free-living bacteria.

  9. Bacterial production and growth rate estimation from [3H]thymidine incorporation for attached and free-living bacteria in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriberri, J.; Unanue, M.; Ayo, B.; Barcina, I.; Egea, L.

    1990-01-01

    Production and specific growth rates of attached and free-living bacteria were estimated in an oligotrophic marine system, La Salvaje Beach, Vizcaya, Spain, and in a freshwater system having a higher nutrient concentration, Butron River, Vizcaya, Spain. Production was calculated from [methyl- 3 H]thymidine incorporation by estimating specific conversion factors (cells or micrograms of C produced per mole of thymidine incorporated) for attached and free-living bacteria, respectively, in each system. Conversion factors were not statistically different between attached and free-living bacteria: 6.812 x 10 11 and 8.678 x 10 11 μg of C mol -1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the freshwater system, and 1.276 x 10 11 and 1.354 x 10 11 μg of C mol -1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the marine system. Therefore, use of a unique conversion factor for the mixed bacterial population is well founded. However, conversion factors were higher in the freshwater system than in the marine system. This could be due to the different tropic conditions of the two systems. Free-living bacteria contributed the most to production in the two systems (85% in the marine system and 67% in the freshwater system) because of their greater contribution to total biomass. Specific growth rates calculated from production data and biomass data were similar for attached and free-living bacteria

  10. Plant-synthesized E. coli CFA/I fimbrial protein protects Caco-2 cells from bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Yu, Jie; Henderson, David; Langridge, William H R

    2004-11-25

    A DNA fragment encoding the cholera toxin A2 subunit (CTA2) linked to the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colony forming fimbrial antigen CFA/I was inserted into a plant expression vector containing the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) fused to the rotavirus enterotoxin 22 amino acid epitope NSP422. Anti-CFA/I antibodies recognized a single band of approximately 72-kDa in transformed potato tuber tissue consistent with CFA/I-CTA2 and CTB-NSP4 fusion protein assembly into a cholera holotoxin-like structure. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GM1 ELISA) indicated that the CFA/I-CTA2 fusion protein bound specific GM1 ganglioside membrane receptors and made up approximately 0.002% of the total soluble tuber protein. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with transformed tuber tissues generated anti-CFA/I serum and intestinal IgG and IgA secretory antibodies. Attachment of ETEC H10407 to enterocyte-like Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells incubated with antiserum from immunized mice was reduced by 15% in comparison with Caco-2 cells incubated with serum from unimmunized mice. Immunogold staining of bacterial preparations revealed deposition of gold particles on E. coli H10407 fimbria incubated with immune serum but not on fimbria treated with sera from unimmunized mice demonstrating the specificity of antibodies in the immune serum for binding to CFA/I protein containing fimbria. The protection against toxic E. coli binding to Caco-2 cells generated by antisera from mice immunized with plant-synthesized CFA/I antigen demonstrates the feasibility of plant-based multi-component vaccine protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli, rotavirus and cholera, three enteric diseases that together exert the highest levels of child morbidity and mortality in economically emerging countries.

  11. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P

    2015-04-01

    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results.

  12. Bacterial chitinolytic communities respond to chitin and pH alteration in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielak, Anna; Cretoiu, Mariana; Semenov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A genes showed structural changes of the phylogenetically and functionally based bacterial communities following chitin addition and pH alteration. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated (i) that the diversity of chiA gene types in soil is enormous and (i) that different chiA gene types are selected...... by the addition of chitin at different prevailing soil pH values. Interestingly, a major role of Gram-negative bacteria versus a minor one of Actinobacteria in the immediate response to the added chitin (based on 16S rRNA gene abundance and chiA gene types) was indicated. The results of this study enhance our......Chitin amendment is a promising soil management strategy that may enhance the suppressiveness of soil toward plant pathogens. However, we understand very little of the effects of added chitin, including the putative successions that take place in the degradative process. We performed an experiment...

  13. Soil bacterial community composition altered by increased nutrient availability in Arctic tundra soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Akihiro; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Simpson, Rodney T; Moore, John C

    2014-01-01

    The pool of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the Arctic is disproportionally large compared to those in other biomes. This large quantity of SOC accumulated over millennia due to slow rates of decomposition relative to net primary productivity. Decomposition is constrained by low temperatures and nutrient concentrations, which limit soil microbial activity. We investigated how nutrients limit bacterial and fungal biomass and community composition in organic and mineral soils within moist acidic tussock tundra ecosystems. We sampled two experimental arrays of moist acidic tussock tundra that included fertilized and non-fertilized control plots. One array included plots that had been fertilized annually since 1989 and the other since 2006. Fertilization significantly altered overall bacterial community composition and reduced evenness, to a greater degree in organic than mineral soils, and in the 1989 compared to the 2006 site. The relative abundance of copiotrophic α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria was higher in fertilized than control soils, and oligotrophic Acidobacteria were less abundant in fertilized than control soils at the 1989 site. Fungal community composition was less sensitive to increased nutrient availability, and fungal responses to fertilization were not consistent between soil horizons and sites. We detected two ectomycorrhizal genera, Russula and Cortinarius spp., associated with shrubs. Their relative abundance was not affected by fertilization despite increased dominance of their host plants in the fertilized plots. Our results indicate that fertilization, which has been commonly used to simulate warming in Arctic tundra, has limited applicability for investigating fungal dynamics under warming.

  14. Soil bacterial community composition altered by increased nutrient availability in Arctic tundra soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Akihiro; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simpson, Rodney T.; Moore, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The pool of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the Arctic is disproportionally large compared to those in other biomes. This large quantity of SOC accumulated over millennia due to slow rates of decomposition relative to net primary productivity. Decomposition is constrained by low temperatures and nutrient concentrations, which limit soil microbial activity. We investigated how nutrients limit bacterial and fungal biomass and community composition in organic and mineral soils within moist acidic tussock tundra ecosystems. We sampled two experimental arrays of moist acidic tussock tundra that included fertilized and non-fertilized control plots. One array included plots that had been fertilized annually since 1989 and the other since 2006. Fertilization significantly altered overall bacterial community composition and reduced evenness, to a greater degree in organic than mineral soils, and in the 1989 compared to the 2006 site. The relative abundance of copiotrophic α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria was higher in fertilized than control soils, and oligotrophic Acidobacteria were less abundant in fertilized than control soils at the 1989 site. Fungal community composition was less sensitive to increased nutrient availability, and fungal responses to fertilization were not consistent between soil horizons and sites. We detected two ectomycorrhizal genera, Russula and Cortinarius spp., associated with shrubs. Their relative abundance was not affected by fertilization despite increased dominance of their host plants in the fertilized plots. Our results indicate that fertilization, which has been commonly used to simulate warming in Arctic tundra, has limited applicability for investigating fungal dynamics under warming. PMID:25324836

  15. A study on the ability of quaternary ammonium groups attached to a polyurethane foam wound dressing to inhibit bacterial attachment and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phat L; Hamood, Abdul N; de Souza, Anselm; Schultz, Gregory; Liesenfeld, Bernd; Mehta, Dilip; Reid, Ted W

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection of acute and chronic wounds impedes wound healing significantly. Part of this impediment is the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow in wound dressings. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a polyurethane (PU) foam wound dressings coated with poly diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride (pDADMAC-PU) to inhibit the growth and biofilm development by three main wound pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, within the wound dressing. pDADMAC-PU inhibited the growth of all three pathogens. Time-kill curves were conducted both with and without serum to determine the killing kinetic of pDADMAC-PU. pDADMAC-PU killed S. aureus, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa. The effect of pDADMAC-PU on biofilm development was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative analysis, colony-forming unit assay, revealed that pDADMAC-PU dressing produced more than eight log reduction in biofilm formation by each pathogen. Visualization of the biofilms by either confocal laser scanning microscopy or scanning electron microscopy confirmed these findings. In addition, it was found that the pDADMAC-PU-treated foam totally inhibited migration of bacteria through the foam for all three bacterial strains. These results suggest that pDADMAC-PU is an effective wound dressing that inhibits the growth of wound pathogens both within the wound and in the wound dressing. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. Bacterial-like PPP protein phosphatases: novel sequence alterations in pathogenic eukaryotes and peculiar features of bacterial sequence similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerk, David; Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B

    2013-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation is a widespread modification affecting the great majority of eukaryotic cellular proteins, and whose effects influence nearly every cellular function. Protein phosphatases are increasingly recognized as exquisitely regulated contributors to these changes. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family comprises enzymes, which catalyze dephosphorylation at serine and threonine residues. Nearly a decade ago, "bacterial-like" enzymes were recognized with similarity to proteins from various bacterial sources: SLPs (Shewanella-like phosphatases), RLPHs (Rhizobiales-like phosphatases), and ALPHs (ApaH-like phosphatases). A recent article from our laboratory appearing in Plant Physiology characterizes their extensive organismal distribution, abundance in plant species, predicted subcellular localization, motif organization, and sequence evolution. One salient observation is the distinct evolutionary trajectory followed by SLP genes and proteins in photosynthetic eukaryotes vs. animal and plant pathogens derived from photosynthetic ancestors. We present here a closer look at sequence data that emphasizes the distinctiveness of pathogen SLP proteins and that suggests that they might represent novel drug targets. A second observation in our original report was the high degree of similarity between the bacterial-like PPPs of eukaryotes and closely related proteins of the "eukaryotic-like" phyla Myxococcales and Planctomycetes. We here reflect on the possible implications of these observations and their importance for future research.

  17. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  18. High-grain diets altered rumen fermentation and epithelial bacterial community and resulted in rumen epithelial injuries of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyang; Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Mao, Shengyong

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of high-grain diets on the rumen fermentation, epithelial bacterial community, morphology of rumen epithelium, and local inflammation of goats during high-grain feeding. Twelve 8-month-old goats were randomly assigned to two different diets, a hay diet or a high-grain diet (65% grain, HG). At the end of 7 weeks of treatment, samples of rumen content and rumen epithelium were collected. Rumen pH was lower (P diets altered the rumen epithelial bacterial community, with an increase in the proportion of genus Prevotella and a decrease in the relative abundance of the genera Shuttleworthia and Fibrobacteres. PICRUSt analysis suggested that the HG-fed group had a higher (P bacterial community which were induced by HG feeding may result in the damage and local inflammation in the rumen epithelium, warranting further study of rumen microbial-host interactions in the HG feeding model.

  19. Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation on surfaces are reduced by small-diameter nanoscale pores: how small is small enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Guoping; Cheng, Yifan; Wang, Shu-Yi; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana A; Worobo, Randy W; Moraru, Carmen I

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Prevention of biofilm formation by bacteria is of critical importance to areas that directly affect human health and life including medicine, dentistry, food processing and water treatment. This work showcases an effective and affordable solution for reducing attachment and biofilm formation by several pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with foodborne illnesses and medical infections. Methods: Our approach exploits anodisation to create alumina surfaces with cylind...

  20. Mercury alters the bacterial community structure and diversity in soil even at concentrations lower than the guideline values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Subashchandrabose, Suresh Ramraj; Krishnan, Kannan; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of inorganic mercury (Hg) on bacterial community and diversity in different soils. Three soils-neutral, alkaline and acidic-were spiked with six different concentrations of Hg ranging from 0 to 200 mg kg -1 and aged for 90 days. At the end of the ageing period, 18 samples from three different soils were investigated for bacterial community structure and soil physicochemical properties. Illumina MiSeq-based 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing revealed the alteration in the bacterial community between un-spiked control soils and Hg-spiked soils. Among the bacterial groups, Actinobacteria (22.65%) were the most abundant phyla in all samples followed by Proteobacteria (21.95%), Bacteroidetes (4.15%), Firmicutes (2.9%) and Acidobacteria (2.04%). However, the largest group showing increased abundance with higher Hg doses was the unclassified group (45.86%), followed by Proteobacteria. Mercury had a considerable negative impact on key soil functional bacteria such as ammonium oxidizers and nitrifiers. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that among the measured soil properties, Hg had a major influence on bacterial community structure. Furthermore, nonlinear regression analysis confirmed that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial alpha diversity in lower organic carbon containing neutral and alkaline soils, whereas in acidic soil with higher organic carbon there was no significant correlation. EC 20 values obtained by a nonlinear regression analysis indicated that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial diversity in concentrations lower than several guideline values.

  1. Bacterial attachment and viscoelasticity: physicochemical and motility effects analyzed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Jenia; Walker, Sharon L; Freger, Viatcheslav; Herzberg, Moshe

    2013-01-02

    This investigation is focused on the combined effect of bacterial physicochemical characteristics and motility on cell adhesion and deposition using a flow-through quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Three model flagellated strains with different degrees of motility were selected, including a highly motile Escherichia coli K12 MG1655, an environmental strain Sphingomonas wittichii RW1, and a nonmotile (with paralyzed flagella) Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 ΔmotA that is incapable of encoding the motor torque generator for flagellar movement. Of the three strains, S. wittichii RW1 is highly hydrophobic, while E. coli strains are equally hydrophilic. Consideration of the hydrophobicity provides an alternative explanation for the bacterial adhesion behavior. QCM-D results show that motility is a critical factor in determining bacterial adhesion, as long as the aquatic chemical conditions are conducive for motility and the substratum and bacterial surface are similarly hydrophobic or hydrophilic. Once their properties are not similar, the contribution of hydrophobic interactions becomes more pronounced. QCM-D results suggest that during adhesion of the hydrophobic bacterium, S. wittichii RW1, the initial step of adhesion and maturation of bacteria-substratum interaction on hydrophilic surface includes a dynamic change of the viscoelastic properties of the bond bacterium-surface becoming more viscously oriented.

  2. Membrane and core periplasmic Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence Type IV secretion system components localize to multiple sites around the bacterial perimeter during lateral attachment to plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Julieta; Cameron, Todd A; Zupan, John; Zambryski, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) transfer DNA and/or proteins into recipient cells. Here we performed immunofluorescence deconvolution microscopy to localize the assembled T4SS by detection of its native components VirB1, VirB2, VirB4, VirB5, VirB7, VirB8, VirB9, VirB10, and VirB11 in the C58 nopaline strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, following induction of virulence (vir) gene expression. These different proteins represent T4SS components spanning the inner membrane, periplasm, or outer membrane. Native VirB2, VirB5, VirB7, and VirB8 were also localized in the A. tumefaciens octopine strain A348. Quantitative analyses of the localization of all the above Vir proteins in nopaline and octopine strains revealed multiple foci in single optical sections in over 80% and 70% of the bacterial cells, respectively. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-VirB8 expression following vir induction was used to monitor bacterial binding to live host plant cells; bacteria bind predominantly along their lengths, with few bacteria binding via their poles or subpoles. vir-induced attachment-defective bacteria or bacteria without the Ti plasmid do not bind to plant cells. These data support a model where multiple vir-T4SS around the perimeter of the bacterium maximize effective contact with the host to facilitate efficient transfer of DNA and protein substrates. Transfer of DNA and/or proteins to host cells through multiprotein type IV secretion system (T4SS) complexes that span the bacterial cell envelope is critical to bacterial pathogenesis. Early reports suggested that T4SS components localized at the cell poles. Now, higher-resolution deconvolution fluorescence microscopy reveals that all structural components of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir-T4SS, as well as its transported protein substrates, localize to multiple foci around the cell perimeter. These results lead to a new model of A. tumefaciens attachment to a plant cell, where A. tumefaciens takes advantage of the multiple

  3. Backscattered electron imaging and electron backscattered diffraction in the study of bacterial attachment to titanium alloy structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Jones, Ian P; Landini, Gabriel; Mei, Junfa; Tse, Yau Y; Li, Yue X; Ke, Linnan; Huang, Yuanli; Liu, L I; Wang, Chunren; Sammons, Rachel L

    2018-04-01

    The application of secondary electron (SE) imaging, backscattered electron imaging (BSE) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was investigated in this work to study the bacterial adhesion and proliferation on a commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) and a Ti6Al4V alloy (Ti 64) with respect to substrate microstructure and chemical composition. Adherence of Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis 11047 and Streptococcus sanguinis GW2, and Gram-negative Serratia sp. NCIMB 40259 and Escherichia coli 10418 was compared on cp Ti, Ti 64, pure aluminium (Al) and vanadium (V). The substrate microstructure and the bacterial distribution on these metals were characterised using SE, BSE and EBSD imaging. It was observed that titanium alloy-phase structure, grain boundaries and grain orientation did not influence bacterial adherence or proliferation at microscale. Adherence of all four strains was similar on cp Ti and Ti 64 surfaces whilst inhibited on pure Al. This work establishes a nondestructive and straight-forward statistical method to analyse the relationship between microbial distribution and metal alloy structure. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Type III Secretome of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Reveals an Expanded Effector Repertoire for Attaching/Effacing Bacterial Pathogens*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wanyin; Yu, Hong B.; de Hoog, Carmen L.; Stoynov, Nikolay; Li, Yuling; Foster, Leonard J.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2012-01-01

    Type III secretion systems are central to the pathogenesis and virulence of many important Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, and elucidation of the secretion mechanism and identification of the secreted substrates are critical to our understanding of their pathogenic mechanisms and developing potential therapeutics. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-based mass spectrometry is a quantitative and highly sensitive proteomics tool that we have previously used to successfully analyze the type III secretomes of Citrobacter rodentium and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In this report, stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture was used to analyze the type III secretome of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), an important human pathogen, which, together with enterohemorrhagic E. coli and C. rodentium, represents the family of attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens. We not only confirmed all 25 known EPEC type III-secreted proteins and effectors previously identified by conventional molecular and bioinformatical techniques but also identified several new type III-secreted proteins, including two novel effectors, C_0814/NleJ and LifA, that were shown to be translocated into host cells. LifA is a known virulence factor believed to act as a toxin as well as an adhesin, but its mechanism of secretion and function is not understood. With a predicted molecular mass of 366 kDa, LifA is the largest type III effector identified thus far in any pathogen. We further demonstrated that Efa1, ToxB, and Z4332 (homologs of LifA in enterohemorrhagic E. coli) are also type III effectors. This study has comprehensively characterized the type III secretome of EPEC, expanded the repertoire of type III-secreted effectors for the attaching and effacing pathogens, and provided new insights into the mode of function for LifA/Efa1/ToxB/Z4332, an important family of virulence factors. PMID:22661456

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis of type III secretome of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli reveals an expanded effector repertoire for attaching/effacing bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wanyin; Yu, Hong B; de Hoog, Carmen L; Stoynov, Nikolay; Li, Yuling; Foster, Leonard J; Finlay, B Brett

    2012-09-01

    Type III secretion systems are central to the pathogenesis and virulence of many important Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, and elucidation of the secretion mechanism and identification of the secreted substrates are critical to our understanding of their pathogenic mechanisms and developing potential therapeutics. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-based mass spectrometry is a quantitative and highly sensitive proteomics tool that we have previously used to successfully analyze the type III secretomes of Citrobacter rodentium and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In this report, stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture was used to analyze the type III secretome of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), an important human pathogen, which, together with enterohemorrhagic E. coli and C. rodentium, represents the family of attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens. We not only confirmed all 25 known EPEC type III-secreted proteins and effectors previously identified by conventional molecular and bioinformatical techniques but also identified several new type III-secreted proteins, including two novel effectors, C_0814/NleJ and LifA, that were shown to be translocated into host cells. LifA is a known virulence factor believed to act as a toxin as well as an adhesin, but its mechanism of secretion and function is not understood. With a predicted molecular mass of 366 kDa, LifA is the largest type III effector identified thus far in any pathogen. We further demonstrated that Efa1, ToxB, and Z4332 (homologs of LifA in enterohemorrhagic E. coli) are also type III effectors. This study has comprehensively characterized the type III secretome of EPEC, expanded the repertoire of type III-secreted effectors for the attaching and effacing pathogens, and provided new insights into the mode of function for LifA/Efa1/ToxB/Z4332, an important family of virulence factors.

  6. Chronic N-amended soils exhibit an altered bacterial community structure in Harvard Forest, MA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi A. Turlapati; Rakesh Minocha; Premsai S. Bhiravarasa; Louise S. Tisa; William K. Thomas; Subhash C. Minocha

    2013-01-01

    At the Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, the impact of 20 years of annual ammonium nitrate application to the mixed hardwood stand on soil bacterial communities was studied using 16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes was done using DNA extracted from 30 soil samples (three treatments x two horizons x five subplots) collected from untreated (...

  7. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, but Not Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichen Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF, chemical fertilizer (CF, organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF and organic fertilizer (OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen–fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with organic fertilizer application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR versus sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the Alpha- and Beta- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil

  8. Priming Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Hyaluronan Alters Growth Kinetics and Increases Attachment to Articular Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Succar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Biological therapeutics such as adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy are gaining acceptance for knee-osteoarthritis (OA treatment. Reports of OA-patients show reductions in cartilage defects and regeneration of hyaline-like-cartilage with MSC-therapy. Suspending MSCs in hyaluronan commonly occurs in animals and humans, usually without supporting data. Objective. To elucidate the effects of different concentrations of hyaluronan on MSC growth kinetics. Methods. Using a range of hyaluronan concentrations, we measured MSC adherence and proliferation on culture plastic surfaces and a novel cartilage-adhesion assay. We employed time-course and dispersion imaging to assess MSC binding to cartilage. Cytokine profiling was also conducted on the MSC-secretome. Results. Hyaluronan had dose-dependent effects on growth kinetics of MSCs at concentrations of entanglement point (1 mg/mL. At higher concentrations, viscosity effects outweighed benefits of additional hyaluronan. The cartilage-adhesion assay highlighted for the first time that hyaluronan-primed MSCs increased cell attachment to cartilage whilst the presence of hyaluronan did not. Our time-course suggested patients undergoing MSC-therapy for OA could benefit from joint-immobilisation for up to 8 hours. Hyaluronan also greatly affected dispersion of MSCs on cartilage. Conclusion. Our results should be considered in future trials with MSC-therapy using hyaluronan as a vehicle, for the treatment of OA.

  9. Does penile tourniquet application alter bacterial adhesion to rat urethral cells: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boybeyi-Turer, Ozlem; Kacmaz, Birgul; Arat, Esra; Atasoy, Pınar; Kisa, Ucler; Gunal, Yasemin Dere; Aslan, Mustafa Kemal; Soyer, Tutku

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of penile tourniquet (PT) application on bacterial adhesion to urothelium. Fifty-six rats were allocated into control group (CG), sham group (SG), PT group (PTG). No intervention was applied in CG. A 5mm-length urethral repair was performed in SG and PTG. In PTG, a 10-min duration of PT was applied during the procedure and the tissue oxygenation monitor was used to adjust the same degree of ischemia in all subjects. Samples were examined for wound healing parameters and tissue levels of inflammatory markers, eNOS, e-selectin, and ICAM-1antibodies. The adhesion of Escherichia coli to urothelium was investigated with in vitro adhesion assay. Inflammation was higher and wound healing was worse in SG than CG and in PTG in comparison to CG and SG (pcaused endothelial corruption and prevented cell proliferation in cell culture. The PT application does not improve wound healing and increases bacterial adhesion molecules in penile tissue. The in vitro assays showed that PT causes severe endothelial damage and inhibits endothelial cell proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protecting the herd: the remarkable effectiveness of the bacterial meningitis polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in altering transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, David S

    2011-01-01

    Interrupting human-to-human transmission of the agents (Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) of bacterial meningitis by new capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (PPCVs) has proven to be a remarkable (and unanticipated) contributor to vaccine effectiveness. Herd immunity accounts for ∼50% of the protection by meningococcal serogroup C PPCVs, pneumococcal PPCV7, and H. influenzae b PPCVs. Nasopharyngeal carriage can be reduced ≥75% for vaccine serotypes; the decrease in carriage is correlated with disease reduction in unvaccinated individuals, and the impact of herd immunity lasts for years. Based on these data, models for using herd immunity in vaccine-based prevention strategies are underway for control of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the immunologic basis of herd immunity and impact on microbial biology need more study, protecting the unvaccinated by altering pathogen transmission dynamics is a powerful effect of PPCVs and increasingly important in vaccine introduction, implementation, and evaluation strategies.

  12. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-10-14

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host.

  13. Carbon transformations in deep granitic groundwater by attached bacterial populations characterized with 16S-rRNA gene sequencing technique and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, S.; Arlinger, J.; Staahl, F.; Pedersen, K.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents molecular characterization of attached bacterial populations growing in slowly flowing (1-3 mm s -1 ) artesian groundwater from deep crystalline bed-rock of the Stripa research mine, south central Sweden. The assimilation rate of CO 2 and lactate, and the lactate respiration rates were also determined. The bacteria studied grew in anoxic, high pH, 9-10, and low redox artesian groundwater flowing up through tubings from two levels of a borehole designated V2, 812-820 m and 970-1240 m below ground. The major groups of bacteria were found. Signature bases placed them in the appropriate systematic groups. All belonged to the Proteobacterial groups beta and gamma. One group was found only at the 812-820 m level, where it constituted 63% of the sequenced clones, whereas the second group existed almost exclusively and constituted 85% of the sequenced clones at the 970-1240 m level. The third group was equally distributed between the levels. A few other bacteria were also found. None of the 16S-rRNA genes from the dominating bacteria resembled any of the other by more than 90% similarity, and none of them resembled anything in the database by more than 96%. Temperature did not seem to have any effect on species composition at the deeper level. SEM images showed rods appearing in microcolonies. The difference in population diversity between the two levels studied presumably reflect the different environments. The earlier proposed presence of sulphate reducing bacteria could no be confirmed

  14. Aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with normal and altered glycated hemoglobin levels in two regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pimentel Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with regard to the management of diabetes, assessed using glycated hemoglobin levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using conjunctival smears of diabetic patients from both sexes and with different ages, residing in two different Brazilian cities (Sorocaba and Rio Branco. A control group of non-diabetic patients was also included. The diabetic patients were considered to have controlled diabetes when their glycated hemoglobin level was ≤7% and blood glucose level was ≤126 mg/dL. Patients with non-controlled diabetes were those with glycated hemoglobin levels >7% and blood glucose levels >126 mg/dL. The samples obtained were inoculated in Brain-Heart Infusion broth and in culture media for aerobic bacteria (blood and chocolate agars; bacterial growth was evaluated in a microbiology laboratory. Results: A total of 120 eyes of 120 patients were included in the present study. The percentage of cultures in which bacterial growth was observed was greater in diabetic patients, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.103. There was a greater trend toward bacterial growth in the conjunctiva of diabetic patients with altered fasting blood glucose. There was no difference in the frequency of bacterial growth on the conjunctiva between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. In Sorocaba, conjunctival bacterial growth was similar to that observed in Rio Branco. The microorganism most frequently detected in the present study was Staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: There was no difference between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. The microorganisms found were similar to those found in studies investigating the conjunctival bacterial flora of diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

  15. Long-term nickel exposure altered the bacterial community composition but not diversity in two contrasting agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yu-Rong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Nickel pollution imposes deleterious effects on soil ecosystem. The responses of soil microorganisms to long-term nickel pollution under field conditions remain largely unknown. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to elucidate the impacts of long-term nickel pollution on soil bacterial communities in two contrasting agricultural soils. Our results found that the soil microbial biomass carbon consistently decreased along the nickel gradients in both soils. Nickel pollution selectively favored or impeded the prevalence of several dominant bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes displayed sensitivity. Despite the apparent shifts in the bacterial community composition, no clear tendency in the bacterial diversity and abundance was identified along the nickel gradients in either soil. Collectively, we provide evidence that long-term nickel pollution shifted the soil bacterial communities, resulting in the decrease of microbial biomass although the bacterial diversity was not significantly changed.

  16. Exposure to bacterial signals does not alter pea aphids' survival upon a second challenge or investment in production of winged offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas ter Braak

    Full Text Available Pea aphids have an obligate nutritional symbiosis with the bacteria Buchneraaphidicola and frequently also harbor one or more facultative symbionts. Aphids are also susceptible to bacterial pathogen infections, and it has been suggested that aphids have a limited immune response towards such pathogen infections compared to other, more well-studied insects. However, aphids do possess at least some of the genes known to be involved in bacterial immune responses in other insects, and immune-competent hemocytes. One possibility is that immune priming with microbial elicitors could stimulate immune protection against subsequent bacterial infections, as has been observed in several other insect systems. To address this hypothesis we challenged aphids with bacterial immune elicitors twenty-four hours prior to live bacterial pathogen infections and then compared their survival rates to aphids that were not pre-exposed to bacterial signals. Using two aphid genotypes, we found no evidence for immune protection conferred by immune priming during infections with either Serratia marcescens or with Escherichia coli. Immune priming was not altered by the presence of facultative, beneficial symbionts in the aphids. In the absence of inducible immune protection, aphids may allocate energy towards other defense traits, including production of offspring with wings that could escape deteriorating conditions. To test this, we monitored the ratio of winged to unwinged offspring produced by adult mothers of a single clone that had been exposed to bacterial immune elicitors, to live E. coli infections or to no challenge. We found no correlation between immune challenge and winged offspring production, suggesting that this mechanism of defense, which functions upon exposure to fungal pathogens, is not central to aphid responses to bacterial infections.

  17. New lactic acid bacterial strains from traditional Mongolian fermented milk products have altered adhesion to porcine gastric mucin depending on the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Seishi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Moriya, Naoko; Takenaka, Akio; Suzuki, Chise

    2015-03-01

    Attachment of lactic acid bacteria to the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is a major property of probiotics. Here, we examined the ability of 21 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Mongolia to adhere to porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Higher attachment was observed with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains 6-8 and 8-1 than with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (positive control). Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain 7-1 adhered to mucin as effectively as did strain GG. Heat inactivation decreased the adhesive ability of strains 6-8 and 8-1 but did not affect strain 7-1. The adhesion of strains 6-8, 7-1 and 8-1 was significantly inhibited when the cells were pretreated with periodate and trypsin, indicating that proteinaceous and carbohydrate-like cell surface compounds are involved in the adhesion of these strains. The adhesion of strain 7-1 was affected by the type of carbohydrate present in the growth medium, being higher with fructose than with lactose, galactose or xylose as the carbon source. The sugar content of 7-1 cells grown on various carbohydrates was negatively correlated with its adhesive ability. We provide new probiotic candidate strains and new information regarding carbohydrate preference that influences lactic acid bacterial adhesion to mucin. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  19. Antifouling effect of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata and different species of bacterial film on larval attachment of Balanus amphitrite (cirripedia, crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswambaran Ganapiriya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antifouling activity of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata (Dendy and five species of bacterial biofilm were studied. Larvae of Balanus amphitrite (Cyprids and nauplii were used to monitor the settlement inhibition and the extent to which inhibition was due to toxicity. The crude extract and partially purified fractions of A.elongata showed significant inhibition over the settlement individually, and with the interaction of bacterial species. No bacterial film stimulated the barnacle settlement. The high but variable levels of antifouling activity in combination with less amount of toxicity showed the potential of these metabolites in environmentally-friendly antifouling preparations.

  20. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and

  1. Oxytocin receptor antagonist treatments alter levels of attachment to mothers and central dopamine activity in pre-weaning mandarin vole pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhixiong; Hou, Wenjuan; Hao, Xin; Dong, Na; Du, Peirong; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Jinfeng; Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao

    2017-10-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is known to be important in mother-infant bonding. Although the relationship between OT and filial attachment behavior has been studied in a few mammalian species, the effects on infant social behavior have received little attention in monogamous species. The present study examined the effects of OT receptor antagonist (OTA) treatment on attachment behavior and central dopamine (DA) activity in male and female pre-weaning mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Our data showed that OTA treatments decreased the attachment behavior of pups to mothers, measured using preference tests at postnatal day 14, 16, 18 and 20. OTA treatments reduced serum OT concentration in pre-weaning pups and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), indicating a decrease in central DA activity. In male and female pups, OTA reduced DA levels, DA 1-type receptor (D1R) and DA 2-type receptor (D2R) protein expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Our results indicate that OTA treatment inhibits the attachment of pre-weaning pups to mothers. This inhibition is possibly associated with central DA activity and levels of two types of dopamine receptor in the NAcc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increases in mean annual temperature do not alter soil bacterial community structure in tropical montane wet forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Selmants; Karen L. Adair; Creighton M. Litton; Christian P. Giardina; Egbert Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacteria play a key role in regulating terrestrial biogeochemical cycling and greenhouse gas fluxes across the soil-atmosphere continuum. Despite their importance to ecosystem functioning, we lack a general understanding of how bacterial communities respond to climate change, especially in relatively understudied ecosystems like tropical montane wet...

  3. Zinc source and concentration altered physiological responses of beef heifers during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three treatments were evaluated in feedlot heifers to determine the effects of zinc supplementation on the immune response to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (255+/-15 kg) were subjected to a 30d period of Zn depletion, then randomly assigned to one ...

  4. Significant alteration of soil bacterial communities and organic carbon decomposition by different long-term fertilization management conditions of extremely low-productivity arable soil in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Guishan; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-06-01

    Different fertilization managements of red soil, a kind of Ferralic Cambisol, strongly affected the soil properties and associated microbial communities. The association of the soil microbial community and functionality with long-term fertilization management in the unique low-productivity red soil ecosystem is important for both soil microbial ecology and agricultural production. Here, 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid genes and GeoChip4-NimbleGen-based functional gene analysis were used to study the soil bacterial community composition and functional genes involved in soil organic carbon degradation. Long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization-induced soil acidification and fertility decline and significantly altered the soil bacterial community, whereas long-term organic fertilization and fallow management improved the soil quality and maintained the bacterial diversity. Short-term quicklime remediation of the acidified soils did not change the bacterial communities. Organic fertilization and fallow management supported eutrophic ecosystems, in which copiotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. However, long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization treatments supported oligotrophic ecosystems, in which oligotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of recalcitrant-C-degrading genes but a lower intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. Quicklime application increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic taxa and crop production, although these effects were utterly inadequate. This study provides insights into the interaction of soil bacterial communities, soil functionality and long-term fertilization management in the red soil ecosystem; these insights are important for improving the fertility of unique low-productivity red soil. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Protecting the Herd: The Remarkable Effectiveness of the Bacterial Meningitis Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines in Altering Transmission Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Interrupting human-to-human transmission of the agents (Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) of bacterial meningitis by new capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (PPCVs) has proven to be a remarkable (and unanticipated) contributor to vaccine effectiveness. Herd immunity accounts for ∼50% of the protection by meningococcal serogroup C PPCVs, pneumococcal PPCV7, and H. influenzae b PPCVs. Nasopharyngeal carriage can be reduced ≥75% for vacc...

  6. Temperature increases from 55 to 75 C in a two-phase biogas reactor result in fundamental alterations within the bacterial and archaeal community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, Antje [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Bioverfahrenstechnik; Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technischen Umweltschutz; Nolte, Christine; Schoenberg, Mandy; Klocke, Michael [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Bioverfahrenstechnik

    2012-10-15

    Agricultural biogas plants were operated in most cases below their optimal performance. An increase in the fermentation temperature and a spatial separation of hydrolysis/acetogenesis and methanogenesis are known strategies in improving and stabilizing biogas production. In this study, the dynamic variability of the bacterial and archaeal community was monitored within a two-phase leach bed biogas reactor supplied with rye silage and straw during a stepwise temperature increase from 55 to 75 C within the leach bed reactor (LBR), using TRFLP analyses. To identify the terminal restriction fragments that were obtained, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed. Above 65 C, the bacterial community structure changed from being Clostridiales-dominated toward being dominated by members of the Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, and Thermotogales orders. Simultaneously, several changes occurred, including a decrease in the total cell count, degradation rate, and biogas yield along with alterations in the intermediate production. A bioaugmentation with compost at 70 C led to slight improvements in the reactor performance; these did not persist at 75 C. However, the archaeal community within the downstream anaerobic filter reactor (AF), operated constantly at 55 C, altered by the temperature increase in the LBR. At an LBR temperature of 55 C, members of the Methanobacteriales order were prevalent in the AF, whereas at higher LBR temperatures Methanosarcinales prevailed. Altogether, the best performance of this two-phase reactor was achieved at an LBR temperature of below 65 C, which indicates that this temperature range has a favorable effect on the microbial community responsible for the production of biogas. (orig.)

  7. In vitro assessment of attachment pattern and replication efficiency of H5N1 influenza A viruses with altered receptor specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinimitkul, Salin; van Riel, Debby; Munster, Vincent J; van den Brand, Judith M A; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; de Wit, Emmie

    2010-07-01

    The continuous circulation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been a cause of great concern. The possibility of this virus acquiring specificity for the human influenza A virus receptor, alpha2,6-linked sialic acids (SA), and being able to transmit efficiently among humans is a constant threat to human health. Different studies have described amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) of clinical HPAI H5N1 isolates or that were introduced experimentally that resulted in an increased, but not exclusive, binding of these virus strains to alpha2,6-linked SA. We introduced all previously described amino acid substitutions and combinations thereof into a single genetic background, influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 HA, and tested the receptor specificity of these 27 mutant viruses. The attachment pattern to ferret and human tissues of the upper and lower respiratory tract of viruses with alpha2,6-linked SA receptor preference was then determined and compared to the attachment pattern of a human influenza A virus (H3N2). At least three mutant viruses showed an attachment pattern to the human respiratory tract similar to that of the human H3N2 virus. Next, the replication efficiencies of these mutant viruses and the effects of three different neuraminidases on virus replication were determined. These data show that influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 potentially requires only a single amino acid substitution to acquire human receptor specificity, while at the same time remaining replication competent, thus suggesting that the pandemic threat posed by HPAI H5N1 is far from diminished.

  8. In Vitro Assessment of Attachment Pattern and Replication Efficiency of H5N1 Influenza A Viruses with Altered Receptor Specificity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinimitkul, Salin; van Riel, Debby; Munster, Vincent J.; van den Brand, Judith M. A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; de Wit, Emmie

    2010-01-01

    The continuous circulation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been a cause of great concern. The possibility of this virus acquiring specificity for the human influenza A virus receptor, α2,6-linked sialic acids (SA), and being able to transmit efficiently among humans is a constant threat to human health. Different studies have described amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) of clinical HPAI H5N1 isolates or that were introduced experimentally that resulted in an increased, but not exclusive, binding of these virus strains to α2,6-linked SA. We introduced all previously described amino acid substitutions and combinations thereof into a single genetic background, influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 HA, and tested the receptor specificity of these 27 mutant viruses. The attachment pattern to ferret and human tissues of the upper and lower respiratory tract of viruses with α2,6-linked SA receptor preference was then determined and compared to the attachment pattern of a human influenza A virus (H3N2). At least three mutant viruses showed an attachment pattern to the human respiratory tract similar to that of the human H3N2 virus. Next, the replication efficiencies of these mutant viruses and the effects of three different neuraminidases on virus replication were determined. These data show that influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 potentially requires only a single amino acid substitution to acquire human receptor specificity, while at the same time remaining replication competent, thus suggesting that the pandemic threat posed by HPAI H5N1 is far from diminished. PMID:20392847

  9. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0–20 cm soil layer vertically and 0–30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K+, Na+, Mg2+ and particularly Ca2+ were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities. PMID:26852800

  10. Tissue-associated bacterial alterations in rectal carcinoma patients revealed by 16S rRNA community profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Maltez Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic and inflammatory forms of colorectal cancer (CRC account for more than 80% of cases. Recent publications have shown mechanistic evidence for the involvement of gut bacteria in the development of both CRC-forms. Whereas colon and rectal cancer have been routinely studied together as CRC, increasing evidence show these to be distinct diseases. Also, the common use of fecal samples to study microbial communities may reflect disease state but possibly not the tumor microenvironment. We performed this study to evaluate differences in bacterial communities found in tissue samples of 18 rectal-cancer subjects when compared to 18 non-cancer controls. Samples were collected during exploratory colonoscopy (non-cancer group or during surgery for tumor excision (rectal-cancer group. High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V4-V5 region was conducted on the Ion PGM platform, reads were filtered using Qiime and clustered using UPARSE. We observed significant increases in species richness and diversity in rectal cancer samples, evidenced by the total number of OTUs and the Shannon and Simpson indexes. Enterotyping analysis divided our cohort into two groups, with the majority of rectal cancer samples clustering into one enterotype, characterized by a greater abundance of Bacteroides and Dorea. At the phylum level, rectal-cancer samples had increased abundance of candidate phylum OD1 (also known as Parcubacteria whilst non-cancer samples had increased abundance of Planctomycetes. At the genera level, rectal-cancer samples had higher abundances of Bacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides, Desulfovibrio and Odoribacter whereas non-cancer samples had higher abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Lactobacillus and Bacillus. Two Bacteroides fragilis OTUs were more abundant among rectal-cancer patients seen through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, whose presence was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and enrichment verified

  11. Host genetic background influences the response to the opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection altering cell-mediated immunity and bacterial replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Maura; Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Rossi, Giacomo; Cigana, Cristina; De Fino, Ida; Iraqi, Fuad A; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections. The clinical outcome of P. aeruginosa infections may be extremely variable among individuals at risk and patients affected by cystic fibrosis. However, risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection remain largely unknown. To identify and track the host factors influencing P. aeruginosa lung infections, inbred immunocompetent mouse strains were screened in a pneumonia model system. A/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cAnNCrl, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2J, and 129S2/SvPasCRL mice were infected with P. aeruginosa clinical strain and monitored for body weight and mortality up to seven days. The most deviant survival phenotypes were observed for A/J, 129S2/SvPasCRL and DBA/2J showing high susceptibility while BALB/cAnNCrl and C3H/HeOuJ showing more resistance to P. aeruginosa infection. Next, one of the most susceptible and resistant mouse strains were characterized for their deviant clinical and immunological phenotype by scoring bacterial count, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines and chemokines profile and lung pathology in an early time course. Susceptible A/J mice showed significantly higher bacterial burden, higher cytokines and chemokines levels but lower leukocyte recruitment, particularly neutrophils, when compared to C3H/HeOuJ resistant mice. Pathologic scores showed lower inflammatory severity, reduced intraluminal and interstitial inflammation extent, bronchial and parenchymal involvement and diminished alveolar damage in the lungs of A/J when compared to C3H/HeOuJ. Our findings indicate that during an early phase of infection a prompt inflammatory response in the airways set the conditions for a non-permissive environment to P. aeruginosa replication and lock the spread to other organs. Host gene(s) may have a role in the reduction of cell-mediated immunity playing a critical role in the control of P

  12. Bacterial vaginosis, alterations in vaginal flora and HIV genital shedding among HIV-1-infected women in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Kirkcaldy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We investigated whether abnormal vaginal flora, including bacterial vaginosis (BV, are associated with detection of cervical HIV-1 RNA among HIV-infected women in Mozambique. Methods. We obtained clinical data and vaginal specimens from HIV-infected women registering for their first visit at one of two HIV care clinics in Mozambique. We compared women with detectable cervical HIV viral load (≥40 copies/ml with women with undetectable cervical HIV. Results. We enrolled 106 women. Women with abnormal vaginal flora (intermediate Nugent scores, 4 - 6 were more likely to have detectable cervical HIV RNA then women with normal vaginal flora (adjusted odds ratio 7.2 (95% confidence interval 1.8 - 29.1, adjusted for CD4 count. Women with BV had a non-significantly higher likelihood of detectable cervical HIV than women with normal flora. Conclusions. Abnormal vaginal flora were significantly associated with cervical HIV expression. Further research is needed to confirm this relationship.

  13. Water-limiting conditions alter the structure and biofilm-forming ability of bacterial multispecies communities in the alfalfa rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Bogino

    Full Text Available Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect. The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and α- and γ-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices.

  14. High-grain diet feeding altered the composition and functions of the rumen bacterial community and caused the damage to the laminar tissues of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R Y; Jin, W; Feng, P F; Liu, J H; Mao, S Y

    2018-03-19

    In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (Pdiet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (Pbacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.

  15. The Bacterial Second Messenger Cyclic di-GMP Regulates Brucella Pathogenesis and Leads to Altered Host Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mike; Harms, Jerome S; Marim, Fernanda M; Armon, Leah; Hall, Cherisse L; Liu, Yi-Ping; Banai, Menachem; Oliveira, Sergio C; Splitter, Gary A; Smith, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Brucella species are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, a chronic debilitating disease significantly impacting global health and prosperity. Much remains to be learned about how Brucella spp. succeed in sabotaging immune host cells and how Brucella spp. respond to environmental challenges. Multiple types of bacteria employ the prokaryotic second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) to coordinate responses to shifting environments. To determine the role of c-di-GMP in Brucella physiology and in shaping host-Brucella interactions, we utilized c-di-GMP regulatory enzyme deletion mutants. Our results show that a ΔbpdA phosphodiesterase mutant producing excess c-di-GMP displays marked attenuation in vitro and in vivo during later infections. Although c-di-GMP is known to stimulate the innate sensor STING, surprisingly, the ΔbpdA mutant induced a weaker host immune response than did wild-type Brucella or the low-c-di-GMP guanylate cyclase ΔcgsB mutant. Proteomics analysis revealed that c-di-GMP regulates several processes critical for virulence, including cell wall and biofilm formation, nutrient acquisition, and the type IV secretion system. Finally, ΔbpdA mutants exhibited altered morphology and were hypersensitive to nutrient-limiting conditions. In summary, our results indicate a vital role for c-di-GMP in allowing Brucella to successfully navigate stressful and shifting environments to establish intracellular infection. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Role of Gamma Radiation and Some Natural Products in Alteration of Bacterial Outer Membrane Porins Permeability for Uptake of Certain Antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bastawisy, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane permeability is the first step involved in resistance of bacteria to an antibiotic. The bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that constitute porins play role in the definition of intrinsic resistance in Gram negative bacilli that is altered under antibiotic pressure. It has been noted that the response to prolonged exposure to increasing levels of antibiotic cause major changes in the permeability of the bacterium due to down regulation of porins and over expression of efflux pumps. In this study a total of 92 bacterial isolates of different species were isolated from different sites of cancer and non cancer patients; the microorganisms were identified using API system. The susceptibility test was carried out for all the isolates to detect the multidrug resistant isolates; from this test eleven strains were selected for further studies. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the eleven strains against some selected antibiotics acting on the inhibition of cell wall synthesis before and after in vitro gamma irradiation was carried out. The obtained results showed a clear increase in the number of resistant isolates after irradiation as compared to those before irradiation. The efficacy of the citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus paradise, Citrus reticulate and Citrus sinensis) was tested to improve the performance of the tested antibiotics by increasing its permeability through the porin channels. The dried crushed citrus fruits peels were decontaminated by gamma irradiation at 700 Gray; then the aqueous extract of the citrus fruits were prepared to test its antimicrobial activity against the selected bacterial strains. The obtained results revealed that the aqueous extracts of different citrus fruits peels did not show any antibacterial activities against six bacterial isolates (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus 44, Enterbacter cloacae 51, Escherichia coli 52, Pseudomonas fluorescens 64, Klebsiella pneumoniae 78 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 90). Therefore, these six

  17. Qualitative Alterations of Bacterial Metabolome after Exposure to Metal Nanoparticles with Bactericidal Properties: A Comprehensive Workflow Based on (1)H NMR, UHPLC-HRMS, and Metabolic Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimitakos, Theodoros G; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2016-09-02

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have proven to be more toxic than bulk analogues of the same chemical composition due to their unique physical properties. The NPs, lately, have drawn the attention of researchers because of their antibacterial and biocidal properties. In an effort to shed light on the mechanism through which the bacteria elimination is achieved and the metabolic changes they undergo, an untargeted metabolomic fingerprint study was carried out on Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria species. The (1)H NMR spectroscopy, in conjunction with high resolution mass-spectrometry (HRMS) and an unsophisticated data processing workflow were implemented. The combined NMR/HRMS data, supported by an open-access metabolomic database, proved to be efficacious in the process of assigning a putative annotation to a wide range of metabolite signals and is a useful tool to appraise the metabolome alterations, as a consequence of bacterial response to NPs. Interestingly, not all the NPs diminished the intracellular metabolites; bacteria treated with iron NPs produced metabolites not present in the nonexposed bacteria sample, implying the activation of previously inactive metabolic pathways. In contrast, copper and iron-copper NPs reduced the annotated metabolites, alluding to the conclusion that the metabolic pathways (mainly alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, beta-alanine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism) were hindered by the interactions of NPs with the intracellular metabolites.

  18. Clinical Predictors of Malaria, Acute Bacterial Meningitis and Treatment Outcomes among Febrile Children Admitted with Altered Mental Status in Northwestern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumanne, Shakilu; Meda, John; Hokororo, Adolfine; Leshabari, Kelvin

    2017-11-30

    Malaria and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are the leading infectious causes of febrile encephalopathy in malaria endemic settings. The clinical distinction of the two conditions is complicated by overlap in clinical features. To determine the clinical predictors for malaria, ABM and treatment outcome in febrile children aged 2 months to 12 years with altered mentation at two tertiary hospitals in Northwestern Tanzania. Prospective study of 103 children to document demographic data and physical examination findings, such as level of consciousness and meningeal irritations. Laboratory results for cerebrospinal fluid, hemoglobin, malaria and HIV were also evaluated. Age >60 months and hemoglobin ≤5 g/dl were independent predictors of malaria; (p = 0.013 and 0.004, respectively). HIV infection was the only predictor of meningitis, p = 0.037, and mortality was high if the diagnosis was unconfirmed. Children with febrile encephalopathy are more likely to have malaria than ABM if they have severe anemia. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  20. Differences in fungal and bacterial physiology alter soil carbon and nitrogen cycling: synthesizing effects of microbial community structure using the Fungi and Bacteria (FAB) model. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, C.; Hawkes, C. V.; Waring, B. G.

    2013-12-01

    Most biogeochemical models of soil carbon and nitrogen cycling include a simplified representation of the soil microbial community as a single pool, despite good evidence that shifts in the composition or relative abundance of microbial taxa can affect process rates. Incorporating a more realistic depiction of the microbial community in these models may increase their predictive accuracy, but this must be balanced against the feasibility of modeling the enormous diversity present in soil. We propose that explicitly including two major microbial functional groups with distinct physiologies, fungi and bacteria, will improve model predictions. To this end, we created the fungi and bacteria (FAB) model, building off previous enzyme-driven biogeochemical models that explicitly represent microbial physiology. We compared this model to a complementary biogeochemical model that does not include microbial community structure (';single-pool'). We also performed a cross-ecosystem meta-analysis of fungi-to-bacteria ratios to determine if model predictions of community structure matched empirical data. There were large differences in process rates and pool sizes between the single-pool and FAB models. In the FAB model, inorganic N pools were reduced by 5-95% depending on the soil C:N ratio due to bacterial immobilization of fungal mineralization products. This nitrogen subsidy also increased microbial biomass at some C:N ratios. Although there were changes in some components of respiration, particularly overflow respiration, there was no net effect of community structure on total respiration fluxes. The FAB model predicted a breakpoint in the relationship between the ratio of fungi to bacteria and soil C:N, after which the fungi-to-bacteria ratio should begin to increase. Break-point analysis of the meta-analysis data set revealed a consistent pattern and matched the slope of the change in F:B with soil C:N, but not the precise breakpoint. We argue that including microbial

  1. Early Administration of Probiotics Alters Bacterial Colonization and Limits Diet-Induced Gut Dysfunction and Severity of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggers, Richard H.; Siggers, Jayda; Boye, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Following preterm birth, bacterial colonization and interal formula feeding predispose neonates to gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocilitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal inflammatory disease. We hypothesized that administration of probiotics would beneficially influence early bacterial...... colonization, thereby reducing the susceptibility to formula-induced gut atrophy, dysfunction, and NEC. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were provided total parenteral nutrition (1.5 d) followed by enteral feeding (2d) with porcine colosstrum (COLOS; n= 5), formula (FORM; n = 9), or formula with probiotics...

  2. Attachment behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that

  3. Studies on the Use of Plant Extracts for the Prevention of Bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The various extracts and standard drugs reduced bacterial attachment on the catheters in the order: ciprofloxacin > Psidium guajava > Aloe vera > gentamicin > Gongronema latifolium > untreated sections. Carica papaya, Ocimum gratisimum and Vernonia amygdalina potentiated bacterial attachment. Furthermore, the ...

  4. Propulsion of liposomes using bacterial motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenhai; Li Kejie; Li Zhifei; Yu Wei; Xie Zhihong; Shi Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe the utilization of flagellated bacteria as actuators to propel spherical liposomes by attaching bacteria to the liposome surface. Bacteria were stably attached to liposomes using a cross-linking antibody. The effect of the number of attached bacteria on propulsion speed was experimentally determined. The effects of bacterial propulsion on the bacteria–antibody–liposome complex were stochastic. We demonstrated that liposomal mobility increased when bacteria were attached, and the propulsion speed correlated with the number of bacteria. (paper)

  5. Attachment and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; C Karantzas, Gery; Lee, Juwon

    2018-02-21

    The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age). Furthermore, attachment style predicts network characteristics and management, such that insecurity is associated with less closeness, multiplexity, centrality, and poorer management (less maintenance, more dissolution). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attachment and Related Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Morsunbul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Attachment which is defined as strong emotional bond people develop for significant others have been investigated by researchers for long years. Attachment theory proposes that attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life are carried onto next stages of life with internal working models. Additionally it is also proposed that attachment patterns are important to determine individual’s social-emotional competence. This study aims to review how attachment patterns differ according to life stages, continuity/discontiniuty of attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life and evaluate the relations between attachment patterns and social-emotional competence. The basic features of social relations model, relationship between attachment patterns and identity development, and risk taking behavior in adolescence have also been investigated in this review.

  7. Performance comparison of plant root biofilm, gravel attached ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance comparison of plant root biofilm, gravel attached biofilm and planktonic microbial populations, in phenol removal within a constructed wetland ... to lower numbers of root-attached and planktonic bacterial fractions, as isolated using phenol-agar plates which contained phenol as the sole carbon source.

  8. Attachment Without Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2009-12-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, openness, and dependence interact with the caregiving elements of caring, empathy, and responsibility.

  9. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  10. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Christodoulides, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  11. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  12. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  13. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  14. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  15. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  16. Ex vivo proteomics of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 reveal that FabG affects fatty acid composition to alter bacterial growth fitness in the chicken gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Keiko; Murakami, Satoshi; Tachibana, Masato; Kurazono, Hisao; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of foodborne gastrointestinal illness worldwide. Here we performed ex vivo proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 81-176 in chicken, a main reservoir for human infection. At 0, 1 and 4 weeks post-infection (p.i.) with the GFP-expressing 81-176 strain, inocula were recovered from chicken ceca by cell sorting using flow cytometry. iTRAQ-coupled 2D-LC-MS/MS analyses that detected 55 C. jejuni proteins, among which either 3 (FabG, HydB, CJJ81176_0876) or 7 (MscS, CetB, FlhF, PurH, PglJ, LpxC, Icd) proteins exhibited >1.4-fold-increased expression at 1 or 4 week(s) p.i. compared with those at 0 weeks p.i., respectively. Deletion of the fabG gene clearly decreased the proportion of bacterial unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and chicken colonization. The UFA proportion of the parental strain was not altered when grown at 42 °C. These findings suggest that FabG might play a pivotal role in UFA production, linked to bacterial adaptation in the poultry host. To our knowledge, this is the first example of ex vivo C. jejuni proteomics, in which fatty acid metabolism might affect bacterial adaptation to the chicken host. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. ATTACHMENT STUDY OF AGROBACTERIUM TuMEPACIrNs TO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dicot plant cells, but also monocots notably corn and brome grass (Bromus inermis) bind as many bacterial cells as does D. innoxia (Lippincott and. Lippincott, 1975). Monocot cell walls were thought to have fewer bacterial attachment sites than dicots, which would account for the lack of tumour formation in some monocots.

  18. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  19. Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bacterial Keratitis Sections What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Bacterial Keratitis Symptoms ... Lens Care Bacterial Keratitis Treatment What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Bacteriana? ...

  20. An Examination of Attachment Styles and Social Skills of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, Esra; Karakus, Ozlem

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Attachment organization across the lifespan and across generations, long-term predictions from attachment organization to later psychosocial functioning, and the possibility of altering attachment organization with intervention suggest that attachment theory may potentially shed valuable light on adult social development and deviant…

  1. ATTACHMENT AND TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Pasare, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Bowlby's concept of attachment and Freud's concept of transference are two of the most influential theories of how we construct mental representations of human relationships. The attachment’s theory offers one more strategy for the therapeutic approach. Factors that lead to a secure attachment between mother and child may also be applied to the relationship between patient and psychotherapist. Psychotherapy may help a patient create himself new attachment and relationship patterns. Creating a...

  2. Electron attachment in tetrafluoromethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.; Lucas, A.K.; Williams, A.W.; Goodings, A.

    1987-01-01

    A pulsed drift-tube technique has been employed to measure electron attachment coefficients in CF 4 . Previous measurements have been extended from approx. 45 Td to approx. 20 Td [1 Td = 10 -21 Vm 2 ] showing a decrease in the reduced attachment coefficient of approx. 2 orders of magnitude through this range of E/N [electric field/gas number density]. Absolute attachment coefficients as low as 1 x 10 -4 cm -1 have been determined. (author)

  3. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... and pain, as well as the mediation role of attachment between captivity and pain. The results imply that although attachment can be an important resource for coping with pain, it can be severely disrupted by PTSS among trauma survivors....

  4. Myeloid cell sirtuin-1 expression does not alter host immune responses to Gram-negative endotoxemia or Gram-positive bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Crotty Alexander

    Full Text Available The role of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1 in innate immunity, and in particular the influence of SIRT1 on antimicrobial defense against infection, has yet to be reported but is important to define since SIRT1 inhibitors are being investigated as therapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer, Huntington's disease, and autoimmune diseases. Given the therapeutic potential of SIRT1 suppression, we sought to characterize the role of SIRT1 in host defense. Utilizing both pharmacologic methods and a genetic knockout, we demonstrate that SIRT1 expression has little influence on macrophage and neutrophil antimicrobial functions. Myeloid SIRT1 expression does not change mortality in gram-negative toxin-induced shock or gram-positive bacteremia, suggesting that therapeutic suppression of SIRT1 may be done safely without suppression of myeloid cell-specific immune responses to severe bacterial infections.

  5. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  6. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic

  7. Temperament and Attachment Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  8. The Attachment Imperative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navne, Laura Emdal; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl; Gammeltoft, Tine

    2017-01-01

    argue that there are nuances in practices of relationmaking in need of more attention (i.e., the nexus of attachment and detachment). Refraining from touching, holding, and feeding their infants during critical periods, the parents enact detachment as integral to their practices of attachment...

  9. Soil-covered strategy for ecological restoration alters the bacterial community structure and predictive energy metabolic functions in mine tailings profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2017-03-01

    Native soil amendment has been widely used to stabilize mine tailings and speed up the development of soil biogeochemical functions before revegetation; however, it remains poorly understood about the response of microbial communities to ecological restoration of mine tailings with soil-covered strategy. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in mine tailings during ecological restoration of two revegetation strategies (directly revegetation and native soil covered) with different plant species. The mine tailings were covered by native soils as thick as 40 cm for more than 10 years, and the total nitrogen, total organic carbon, water content, and heavy metal (Fe, Cu, and Zn) contents in the 0-40 cm intervals of profiles were changed. In addition, increased microbial diversity and changed microbial community structure were also found in the 10-40 cm intervals of profiles in soil-covered area. Soil-covered strategy rather than plant species and soil depth was the main factor influencing the bacterial community, which explained the largest portion (29.96%) of the observed variation. Compared directly to revegetation, soil-covered strategy exhibited the higher relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria and the lower relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. PICRUSt analysis further demonstrated that soil-covered caused energy metabolic functional changes in carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism. Given all these, the soil-covered strategy may be used to fast-track the establishment of native microbial communities and is conducive to the rehabilitation of biogeochemical processes for establishing native plant species.

  10. Mutations in the control of virulence sensor gene from Streptococcus pyogenes after infection in mice lead to clonal bacterial variants with altered gene regulatory activity and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Mayfield

    Full Text Available The cluster of virulence sensor (CovS/responder (CovR two-component operon (CovRS regulates ∼15% of the genes of the Group A Streptococcal pyogenes (GAS genome. Bacterial clones containing inactivating mutations in the covS gene have been isolated from patients with virulent invasive diseases. We report herein an assessment of the nature and types of covS mutations that can occur in both virulent and nonvirulent GAS strains, and assess whether a nonvirulent GAS can attain enhanced virulence through this mechanism. A group of mice were infected with a globally-disseminated clonal M1T1 GAS (isolate 5448, containing wild-type (WT CovRS (5448/CovR+S+, or less virulent engineered GAS strains, AP53/CovR+S+ and Manfredo M5/CovR+S+. SpeB negative GAS clones from wound sites and/or from bacteria disseminated to the spleen were isolated and the covS gene was subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Numerous examples of inactivating mutations were found in CovS in all regions of the gene. The mutations found included frame-shift insertions and deletions, and in-frame small and large deletions in the gene. Many of the mutations found resulted in early translation termination of CovS. Thus, the covS gene is a genomic mutagenic target that gives GAS enhanced virulence. In cases wherein CovS- was discovered, these clonal variants exhibited high lethality, further suggesting that randomly mutated covS genes occur during the course of infection, and lead to the development of a more invasive infection.

  11. The neurobiology of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, T R; Young, L J

    2001-02-01

    It is difficult to think of any behavioural process that is more intrinsically important to us than attachment. Feeding, sleeping and locomotion are all necessary for survival, but humans are, as Baruch Spinoza famously noted, "a social animal" and it is our social attachments that we live for. Over the past decade, studies in a range of vertebrates, including humans, have begun to address the neural basis of attachment at a molecular, cellular and systems level. This review describes some of the important insights from this work.

  12. Adult attachment and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms....

  13. High Prevalence of Insecure Attachment in Patients with Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Elisabeth M; Gander, Manuela; Pokorny, Dan; Funk, Alexandra; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is predicted by heightened CV reactivity to stress in healthy individuals. Patients with hypertension also show an altered stress response, while insecure attachment is linked to a heightened stress reactivity as well. This is the first study aiming to assess attachment representations in patients with primary hypertension and to investigate their CV responses when their attachment system is activated. We studied 50 patients (38 men, 12 women) with primary hypertension. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a widely used and validated interview, was performed to measure the patients' attachment representations, and to activate their attachment system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after 10 min at rest prior to and directly after the AAP interview. Mood and state anxiety were assessed using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDBF) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) before and after the experiment. The prevalence of insecure attachment (dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved) in hypertensive patients was predominant (88%), while in non-clinical populations, only about 50% of individuals had insecure attachment patterns. Blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p = 0.016), and rate pressure product (p < 0.001) significantly increased in response to the attachment interview. Secure attached patients showed the highest rise in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and the lowest heart rate compared to the other attachment groups (p = 0.043). However, attachment representation showed no significant group or interaction effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate pressure product. Insecure attachment was highly over-represented in our sample of patients with primary hypertension. Additionally, a robust CV response to the attachment-activating stimulus was observed. Our data suggest that insecure attachment is significantly linked to primary hypertension

  14. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  15. Corrosion, haemocompatibility and bacterial adhesion behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bacterial adhesion, haemocompatibility and corrosion behaviour of TiZrN coating were examined in order to evaluate the coating's compatibility for ideal implant. Results revealed that TiZrN coatings exhibited less bacterial attachment against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria, negligible platelets ...

  16. Attachment and internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Dolejšová, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is concerned with attachment and internet addiction. Therefore it attempts to establish correlation between these two terms through four research questions. These questions focus on presence of both the attachment types and scores for dimension of avoidance and anxiety in terms of extent gravity of internet addiction either by respondents at risk of potential addiction problems or by respondents already showing some symptoms of addiction. Theoretical part deals with definit...

  17. Role of Chitin-Binding Proteins in the Specific Attachment of the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi to Chitin

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Michael T.; Kirchman, David L.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the mechanism of attachment of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi to chitin. Wheat germ agglutinin and chitinase bind to chitin and competitively inhibited the attachment of V. harveyi to chitin, but not to cellulose. Bovine serum albumin and cellulase do not bind to chitin and had no effect on bacterial attachment to chitin. These data suggest that this bacterium recognizes specific attachment sites on the chitin particle. The level of attachment of a chitinase-overproducing mut...

  18. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  19. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  20. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to leaf tissue in response to infiltration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher W; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Nitin, N

    2014-01-01

    Transient expression of recombinant proteins in plant tissues following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a promising technique for rapid protein production. However, transformation rates and transient expression levels can be sub-optimal depending on process conditions. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to plant cells is an early, critical step in the gene transfer pathway. Bacterial attachment levels and patterns may influence transformation and, by extension, transient expression. In this study, attachment of A. tumefaciens to lettuce leaf tissue was investigated in response to varying infiltration conditions, including bacterial density, surfactant concentration, and applied vacuum level. Bacterial density was found to most influence attachment levels for the levels tested (10(8) , 10(9) , and 10(10) CFU/mL), with the relationship between bacterial density and attachment levels following a saturation trend. Surfactant levels tested (Break-Thru S240: 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 µL/L) also had a significant positive effect on bacterial attachment while vacuum level (5, 25, and 45 kPa) did not significantly affect attachment in areas exposed to bacteria. In planta transgene transient expression levels were measured following infiltration with 10(8) , 10(9) , and 10(10) CFU/mL bacterial suspension. Notably, the highest attachment level tested led to a decrease in transient expression, suggesting a potential link between bacterial attachment levels and downstream phenomena that may induce gene silencing. These results illustrate that attachment can be controlled by adjusting infiltration conditions and that attachment levels can impact transgene transient expression in leaf tissue. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare

  2. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  3. Fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two opposing fingers and shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed. In an alternative embodiment, the cap is rigid and the strip is transversely resiliently compressible. (author)

  4. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  5. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  6. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  7. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda JALLOUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  8. Comparison of cell-specific activity between free-living and attached bacteria using isolates and natural assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, H.P.; Tang, K.W.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Marine snow aggregates are microbial hotspots that support high bacterial abundance and activities. We conducted laboratory experiments to compare cell-specific bacterial protein production (BPP) and protease activity between free-living and attached bacteria. Natural bacterial assemblages attached...... bacteria increasing their metabolism upon attachment to surfaces. In subsequent experiments, we used four strains of marine snow bacteria isolates to test the hypothesis that bacteria could up- and down-regulate their metabolism while on and off an aggregate. The protease activity of attached bacteria...

  9. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Alhede

    Full Text Available For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non

  10. [Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić, Slobodanka; Ćirković, Ivana; Arsić, Biljana; Garalejić, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent's scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up-to-date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short-term and long-term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  11. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  12. Quick-attach clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, A. E.

    1968-01-01

    Clamp of the slideable jaw type can be applied to moving lines such as cables or ropes. The clamp has a trigger-operated jaw that can be attached to a redrop parachute on a moving tow cable. The trigger mechanism maintains the jaws retracted in the housing until they are released for clamping.

  13. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  14. Bacterial Proteasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrab, Jordan B; Darwin, K Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology.

  15. Influence of Natural Organic Matter on Attachment Kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, I.; Zorlu, O.; Hill, J. E.; Walker, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most common and virulent bacterial pathogens, usually found in food and water. This waterborne pathogen has been attributed to causing gastroenteritis and typhoid fever, leading to 16 million cases and over half a million deaths worldwide each year. Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in environment and previous work has shown NOM to enhance the stability and transport of bacteria cells; hence NOM will certainly interact with Salmonella and affect its transport in environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of NOM (Suwannee River humic acid standard II, SRHA) on the attachment kinetics of a model Salmonella (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SA5983) to glass. The transport study was conducted in a parallel plate flow chamber using fluorescent microscope to visualize the bacterial cells, which were tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). The solution pH was unadjusted, and the flow rate through parallel plate channel was 0.1 mL/min to simulate groundwater conditions. Parameters varied in this study were NOM presence, ion valence (K+, Ca2+) as well as cell growth phase (mid-exponential and late-exponential growth phases). These parameters were chosen because ion valence may alter the NOM conformation and capacity for bridging, as well growth phase impacts the cellular surface chemistry. Extensive characterization of the bacterial cells was conducted including measurements of electrophoretic mobility, hydrophobicity, acidity, surface charge density and extracellular polymeric substance content. Additionally, electrokintic characterization was conducted for the glass. Preliminary results demonstrated the sensitivity of cell attachment to ionic valence and cell growth phase. Also the addition of NOM reduced the attachment of the Salmonella cells significantly under all of these conditions. Without NOM, attachment efficiencies (α) in KCl were similar at both growth

  16. Attachment of Streptococcus oralis on acrylic substrates of varying roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, K M; Fernandez, P; Loewy, Z; Middleton, A M

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of the surface roughness of denture acrylic on the attachment of Streptococcus oralis. Roughened denture acrylic samples were assessed for bacterial attachment, over time, using microscopy. The area of the image covered by bacteria was calculated and converted into a percentage of the total area sampled. The results showed an increasing bacterial coverage with time of incubation and increasing roughness. Differences were seen between heat cured acrylic and cold cured acrylic. This study successfully demonstrated a system for the assessment of the amount of attached bacteria on denture acrylic varying roughness. The system was able to discern the difference in surface area coverage by attached bacteria over a roughness range relevant to brushing dentures with dentifrices. This study provides strong support for the scratches caused by brushing dentures with dentifrice encouraging bacterial attachment. This is likely to have a significant effect on efficacy of denture cleaning, general hygiene and biofilm re-formation between cleaning regimens and may indicate that alternative low abrasive cleaners, such as antimicrobial denture-cleaning tablets, offer a more appropriate regimen.

  17. Bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosdrecht, van M.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction of this thesis bacterial adhesion has been studied from a variety of (mostly practice oriented) starting points. This has resulted in a range of widely divergent approaches. In order to elucidate general principles in bacterial adhesion phenomena, we felt it

  18. Workspace appropriation and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This literature synthesis presents a short history of the evolution of the concepts of space appropriation and place attachment, highlighting the difficulty of their operationalisation from a cultural point of view. The next subject brought into discussion is the relation between the affective dimension of the connection between a person and the work place and the behaviours which are prone to insure the proper functioning of organizations, such as the organizational civism and the organizational commitment.

  19. Bacterial Cell Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, George K; Weibel, Douglas B

    2017-07-25

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

  20. SAM: The School Attachment Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Dong-Bach; Tayarani, Mohammad; Rooksby, Maki; Huan, Rui; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Minnis, Helen; Brewster, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    Secure Attachment relationships have been shown to minimise social and behavioural problems in children and boosts resilience to risks such as antisocial behaviour, heart pathologies, and suicide later in life. Attachment assessment is an expensive and time-consuming process that is not often performed. The School Attachment Monitor (SAM) automates Attachment assessment to support expert assessors. It uses doll-play activities with the dolls augmented with sensors and the child's play recorde...

  1. SAM: The School Attachment Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Dong-Bach; Rooksby, Maki; Tayarani, Mohammad; Huan, Rui; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Minnis, Helen; Brewster, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    Secure Attachment relationships have been shown to minimise social and behavioural problems in children and boosts resilience to risks later on such as antisocial behaviour, heart pathologies, and suicide. Attachment assessment is an expensive and time-consuming process that is not often performed. The School Attachment Monitor (SAM) automates Attachment assessment to support expert assessors. It uses doll-play activities with the dolls augmented with sensors and the child's play recorded wit...

  2. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…

  3. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  4. Next Steps in Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  5. Introduction: attachment theory and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N

    2013-11-01

    In this introduction to the JCLP: In Session 69(11) issue on attachment theory and psychotherapy, the key points of attachment theory (Bowlby, , , 1981) and its relevance to psychotherapy are briefly described. The aim of this issue is to provide case illustrations of how an attachment theory perspective and principles can expand our understanding of psychotherapy practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Next Steps in Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  7. Clinical attachment: a learning experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... A clinical attachment is an opportunity for doctors from South Sudan to experience the hospital and clinical practice in a setting different from their own. What they learn in the attachment will help them improve their medical practice on their return. I attended a clinical attachment in Oral and Maxillofacial ...

  8. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  9. Abundance of bacterial and diatom fouling on various surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi

    Abundance of bacterial and diatom fouling on aluminium, fibreglass and stainless steel were studied from Dona Paula waters of the Zuari Estuary. Both these forms were reversibly attached in large numbers to surfaces during the initial 24 hr...

  10. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  11. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  12. Gonococcal attachment to eukaryotic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.F.; Lammel, C.J.; Draper, D.L.; Brown, D.A.; Sweet, R.L.; Brooks, G.F.

    The attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture was analyzed by use of light and electron microscopy and by labeling of the bacteria with (/sup 3/H)- and (/sup 14/C)adenine. Isogenic piliated and nonpiliated N. gonorrhoeae from opaque and transparent colonies were studied. The results of light microscopy studies showed that the gonococci attached to cells of human origin, including Flow 2000, HeLa 229, and HEp 2. Studies using radiolabeled gonococci gave comparable results. Piliated N. gonorrhoeae usually attached in larger numbers than nonpiliated organisms, and those from opaque colonies attached more often than isogenic variants from transparent colonies. Day-to-day variation in rate of attachment was observed. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the gonococcal attachment to be specific for microvilli of the host cells. It is concluded that more N. gonorrhoeae from opaque colonies, as compared with isogenic variants from transparent colonies, attach to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture.

  13. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  14. Osteopontin adsorption to Gram-positive cells reduces adhesion forces and attachment to surfaces under flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M F; Zeng, G; Neu, T R

    2017-01-01

    The bovine milk protein osteopontin (OPN) may be an efficient means to prevent bacterial adhesion to dental tissues and control biofilm formation. This study sought to determine to what extent OPN impacts adhesion forces and surface attachment of different bacterial strains involved in dental...

  15. [ADHD and attachment processes: are they related?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, N; Maury, M; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2009-06-01

    severe early deprivon such as institution-rearing, inattention/hyperactivity symptoms were shown to be high, but these findings may not be valid in less severely deprived children. Third, another link could depend on a common vulnerability for ADHD and attachment disorder. Some perinatal factors, such as smoking during pregnancy or prematurity, have been shown to increase the risk of hyperactive symptoms in children. These variables may also be associated with a higher risk of impaired early interactions. Recent animal studies have raised interest in the role of prenatal stress in the emotional and behavioral development of the offspring, particularly as regards vulnerability to stress. Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in durable alterations of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenergic axis. Preliminary findings in humans show that prenatal stress or maternal depression may also influence the development of the child. The understanding of the relationship between attachment and ADHD may help to better target prevention and intervention efforts. As the perinatal period seems to be particularly involved in both ADHD and attachment disorders, early guidance and possibly prenatal interventions should be developed and assessed for mothers and caregivers with risk-factors.

  16. Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Jana Broadhurst

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD is a leading cause of morbidity amongst rhesus monkeys kept in captivity. Here, we show that exposure of affected animals to the whipworm Trichuris trichiura led to clinical improvement in fecal consistency, accompanied by weight gain, in four out of the five treated monkeys. By flow cytometry analysis of pinch biopsies collected during colonoscopies before and after treatment, we found an induction of a mucosal T(H2 response following helminth treatment that was associated with a decrease in activated CD4(+ Ki67+ cells. In parallel, expression profiling with oligonucleotide microarrays and real-time PCR analysis revealed reductions in T(H1-type inflammatory gene expression and increased expression of genes associated with IgE signaling, mast cell activation, eosinophil recruitment, alternative activation of macrophages, and worm expulsion. By quantifying bacterial 16S rRNA in pinch biopsies using real-time PCR analysis, we found reduced bacterial attachment to the intestinal mucosa post-treatment. Finally, deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA revealed changes to the composition of microbial communities attached to the intestinal mucosa following helminth treatment. Thus, the genus Streptophyta of the phylum Cyanobacteria was vastly increased in abundance in three out of five ICD monkeys relative to healthy controls, but was reduced to control levels post-treatment; by contrast, the phylum Tenericutes was expanded post-treatment. These findings suggest that helminth treatment in primates can ameliorate colitis by restoring mucosal barrier functions and reducing overall bacterial attachment, and also by altering the communities of attached bacteria. These results also define ICD in monkeys as a tractable preclinical model for ulcerative colitis in which these effects can be further investigated.

  17. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  18. Electron attachment cross sections obtained from electron attachment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Baumbach, J.I.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Mothes, S.

    1988-01-01

    Electron capture detectors have a high sensitivity for substances with high thermal electron attachment cross sections. The electron attachment spectroscopy makes it possible to change the mean electron energy in such a way that the maximum for dissociative electron attachment is reached. Thus, best operation modes of the detection system as well as significant dependencies of electron attachment coefficients are available. Cross sections for electron attachment as a function of the electron energy are obtained with the knowledge of electron energy distribution functions from Boltzmann equation analysis by a special computer code. A disadvantage of this electron attachment spectroscopy is the superposition of space charge effects due to the decrease of the electron drift velocity with increasing mean electron energy. These influences are discussed. (author)

  19. Alteration of bacteriophage attachment capacity by near-uv irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, P.S.; Eisenstark, A.

    1982-01-01

    Near-uv (NUV) (300 to 400 nm) and far-uv (FUV) (254 nm) radiations damage bacteriophage by different mechanisms. Host cell reactivation, Weigle reactivation, and multiplicity reactivation were observed upon FUV, but not upon NUV irradiation. Also, the number of his + recombinants increased with P22 bacteriophage transduction in Salmonella typhimurium after FUV, but not after NUV irradiation. This loss of reactivation and recombination after NUV irradiation was not necessarily due to host incapability to repair phage damage. Instead, the phage genome failed to enter the host cell after NUV irradiation. In the case of NUV-irradiated T7 phage, this was determined by genetic crosses with amber mutants, which demonstrated that either ''all'' or ''none'' of a T7 genome entered the Escherichia coli cell after NUV treatment. Further studies with radioactively labeled phage indicated that irradiated phage failed to adsorb to host cells. This damage by NUV was compared with the protein-DNA cross-link observed previously, when phage particles were irradiated with NUV in the presence of H 2 O 2 . H 2 O 2 (in nonlethal concentration) acts synergistically with NUV so that equivalent phage inactivation is achieved by much lower irradiation doses

  20. O antigen modulates insect vector acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapicavoli, Jeannette N; Kinsinger, Nichola; Perring, Thomas M; Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Walker, Sharon; Roper, M Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Hemipteran insect vectors transmit the majority of plant pathogens. Acquisition of pathogenic bacteria by these piercing/sucking insects requires intimate associations between the bacterial cells and insect surfaces. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the predominant macromolecule displayed on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria and thus mediates bacterial interactions with the environment and potential hosts. We hypothesized that bacterial cell surface properties mediated by LPS would be important in modulating vector-pathogen interactions required for acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. Utilizing a mutant that produces truncated O antigen (the terminal portion of the LPS molecule), we present results that link this LPS structural alteration to a significant decrease in the attachment of X. fastidiosa to blue-green sharpshooter foreguts. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that this defect in initial attachment compromised subsequent biofilm formation within vector foreguts, thus impairing pathogen acquisition. We also establish a relationship between O antigen truncation and significant changes in the physiochemical properties of the cell, which in turn affect the dynamics of X. fastidiosa adhesion to the vector foregut. Lastly, we couple measurements of the physiochemical properties of the cell with hydrodynamic fluid shear rates to produce a Comsol model that predicts primary areas of bacterial colonization within blue-green sharpshooter foreguts, and we present experimental data that support the model. These results demonstrate that, in addition to reported protein adhesin-ligand interactions, O antigen is crucial for vector-pathogen interactions, specifically in the acquisition of this destructive agricultural pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    OpenAIRE

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented...

  2. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  3. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  4. Dissociative attachment to lithium dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadehra, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The cross sections and the rates of production of negative ions of atomic lithium by the process of dissociative electron attachment to lithium dimers are obtained by using the resonant scattering theory. Both the cross sections as well as the rates of attachment are enhanced if the lithium molecule is initially vibrationally excited. General expressions for approximately obtaining the rates of electron attachment to any vibrational level of Li 2 are presented

  5. Using attachment theory in mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kerri

    Attachment theory is a useful way to understand the bond between children and the people with whom they have emotional ties--usually caregivers. The theory can also help us to understand any adult relationship that provides closeness and a sense of attachment, especially in times of stress or need. Understanding the nature, cause and effect of the role and function of attachment from a training and development perspective, and different styles of attachment, may improve the quality of the mentoring experience for both mentors and mentees.

  6. Systemic therapy and attachment narratives: Attachment Narrative Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  8. Electrochemical characterization of the bacterial cell surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der A.

    1996-01-01


    Bacterial cells are ubiquitous in natural environments and also play important roles in domestic and industrial processes. They are found either suspended in the aqueous phase or attached to solid particles. The adhesion behaviour of bacteria is influenced by the physico-chemical

  9. Helicobacter bilis Infection Alters Mucosal Bacteria and Modulates Colitis Development in Defined Microbiota Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherly, Todd; Mosher, Curtis; Wang, Chong; Hostetter, Jesse; Proctor, Alexandra; Brand, Meghan W; Phillips, Gregory J; Wannemuehler, Michael; Jergens, Albert E

    2016-11-01

    Helicobacter bilis infection of C3H/HeN mice harboring the altered Schaedler flora (ASF) triggers progressive immune responsiveness and the development of colitis. We sought to investigate temporal alterations in community structure of a defined (ASF-colonized) microbiota in normal and inflamed murine intestines and to correlate microbiota changes to histopathologic lesions. The colonic mucosal microbiota of healthy mice and ASF mice colonized with H. bilis for 3, 6, or 12 weeks were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA genes of total bacteria, group-specific organisms, and individual ASF bacterial species. Microbial profiling of ASF and H. bilis abundance was performed on cecal contents. Helicobacter bilis-colonized mice developed colitis associated with temporal changes in composition and spatial distribution of the mucosal microbiota. The number of total bacteria, ASF519, and helicobacter-positive bacteria were increased (P attachment, or by invasion, and this interaction is differentially expressed over time.

  10. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  11. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  12. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  13. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    , the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...

  14. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that coats the walls of the vagina Vaginal discharge with an unpleasant or fishlike odor Vaginal pain or itching Burning during urination Doctors are unsure of the incubation period for bacterial vaginosis. How Is the Diagnosis Made? Your child’s pediatrician can make the diagnosis ...

  15. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  16. Attachment patterns and Reflective Functioning in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    , attachment systems, emotion-regulation, and personality. Attachment research on the consequences of organized violence and forced migration is sparse and research in PTSD-treatment for refugees is lacking behind. Cumulative pre-migration traumatic experiences and ongoing post-migration stressors might lead......Introduction: In recent years, empirical research has documented attachment patterns as a central variable that affects treatment process and outcome in important ways. Refugees are a particular vulnerable group often met with repeated and severe interpersonal trauma that alter basic trust...... to chronically activated fight-flight and attachment systems. Moreover, considering the nature of traumatic events, unresolved loss and trauma would be expected among refugees. The question is to what extend this population is able to enter treatment, reflect on, and modify traumatic experiences? The aim...

  17. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other...... components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated...

  18. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  19. Association of Antibiotic Resistance in Agricultural Escherichia coli Isolates with Attachment to Quartz▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Soupir, Michelle L.; Zwonitzer, Martha; Huss, Bridgette; Jarboe, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Surface water can be contaminated by bacteria from various sources, including manure from agricultural facilities. Attachment of these bacteria to soil and organic particles contributes to their transport through the environment, though the mechanism of attachment is unknown. As bacterial attachment to human tissues is known to be correlated with antibiotic resistance, we have investigated here the relationship between bacterial attachment to environmental particles and antibiotic resistance in agricultural isolates. We evaluated 203 Escherichia coli isolates collected from swine facilities for attachment to quartz, resistance to 13 antibiotics, and the presence of genes encoding 13 attachment factors. The genes encoding type I, EcpA, P pili, and Ag43 were detected, though none was significantly related to attachment. Quartz attachment was positively and significantly (P quartz in agricultural isolates. We propose that this may be due to encoding by the responsible genes on a mobile genetic element. Further exploration of the relationship between antibiotic resistance and attachment to environmental particles will improve the understanding and modeling of environmental transport processes, with the goal of preventing human exposure to antibiotic-resistant or virulent microorganisms. PMID:21821756

  20. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2

  1. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment...

  2. Attachment and Dyadic Regulation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-02-01

    Insecurely attached people have relatively unhappy and unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships depends on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to regulate the emotional and behavioral reactions of insecurely attached individuals, which promotes greater relationship satisfaction and security. We discuss attachment theory and interdependence dilemmas, and then explain how and why certain responses by partners assuage the cardinal concerns of insecure individuals in key interdependent situations. We then review recent studies illustrating how partners can successfully regulate the reactions of anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals, yielding more constructive interactions. We finish by considering how these regulation processes can create a more secure dyadic environment, which helps to improve relationships and attachment security across time.

  3. Bacterial lipases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, meaning a sharp increase in lipase activity observed when the substrate starts to form an emulsion, thereby presenting to the enzyme an interfacial area. As a consequence, the kinetics of a lipase rea...

  4. Electron attachment to excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Pinnaduwage, L.A.; Datskos, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    Studies on electron attachment to molecules rotationally/vibrationally excited thermally or via infrared-laser excitation showed that the effect of internal energy of a molecule on its electron attachment properties depends on the mode--dissociative or nondissociative--of electron attachment. They quantified the effect of the internal energy of the molecule on the rate of destruction (by autodissociation or by autodetachment) of its parent transient anion. Generally, increases in ro-vibrational molecular energy increase the cross section for dissociative electron attachment and decrease the effective cross section for parent anion formation due mainly to increased autodetachment. These findings and their understanding are discussed. A discussion is given, also, of recent investigations of electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, especially photoenhanced dissociative electron attachment to long- and short-lived excited electronic states of molecules produced directly or indirectly by laser irradiation. These studies showed that the cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to electronically excited molecules usually are many orders of magnitude larger than those for the ground-state molecules. The new techniques that have been developed for such studies are briefly described also

  5. From security to attachment: Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment relationship. Ainsworth worked in Toronto with William Blatz (1895-1964) for almost two decades before she moved to London and worked with Bowlby in 1950. Ainsworth was heavily influenced by Blatz and ...

  6. Understanding Polymer-Cell Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturato, Andrea; MacFarlane, Gillian; Geng, Jin; Bradley, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The development of polymeric materials with cell adhesion abilities requires an understanding of cell-surface interactions which vary with cell type. To investigate the correlation between cell attachment and the nature of the polymer, a series of random and block copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate are synthesized through single electron transfer living radical polymerization. The polymers are synthesized with highly defined and controlled monomer compositions and exhibited narrow polydispersity indices. These polymers are examined for their performance in the attachment and growth of HeLa and HEK cells, with attachment successfully modeled on monomer composition and polymer chain length, with both cell lines found to preferentially attach to moderately hydrophobic functional materials. The understanding of the biological-material interactions assessed in this study will underpin further investigations of engineered polymer scaffolds with predictable cell binding performance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction.

  8. Facilitating attachment after international adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Natalie L

    2009-01-01

    Americans have increasingly turned to international adoption (IA) as an alternative way to build a family. Unfortunately, IA families are often being developed under conditions of loss, and sometimes these families struggle to form healthy attachments to each other. Disordered attachment (the failure to form a reciprocal, loving bond between parent and child) can occur, and can have devastating consequences. In some instances, IA children have been relinquished into state foster care systems; other families simply struggle for years caring for a developmentally delayed child who appears to have no emotion for his/her adoptive family. Nurses are likely to have contact with IA families and can use their education about attachment and bonding to help facilitate attachment in these developing families. Swanson's caring theory provides a clinically useful guide to meet this need.

  9. Religious Conflict, Attachment, and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Counted, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The presentation explores an alternative interpretation of religious conflict as an aspect of attachment-psychopathology. Paper was shared at the Religion, Conflict, and Peace Summer School, University of Groningen.

  10. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... movement is powered by insertional polymerization of ParM. Consistently, we find that segregating plasmids are positioned at the ends of extending ParM filaments. Thus, the process of R1 plasmid segregation in E. coli appears to be mechanistically analogous to the actin-based motility operating...

  11. Effect of micro- and nanoscale topography on the adhesion of bacterial cells to solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lillian C; Fang, Jean; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana A; Worobo, Randy W; Moraru, Carmen I

    2013-04-01

    Attachment and biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens on surfaces in natural, industrial, and hospital settings lead to infections and illnesses and even death. Minimizing bacterial attachment to surfaces using controlled topography could reduce the spreading of pathogens and, thus, the incidence of illnesses and subsequent human and financial losses. In this context, the attachment of key microorganisms, including Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, to silica and alumina surfaces with micron and nanoscale topography was investigated. The results suggest that orientation of the attached cells occurs preferentially such as to maximize their contact area with the surface. Moreover, the bacterial cells exhibited different morphologies, including different number and size of cellular appendages, depending on the topographical details of the surface to which they attached. This suggests that bacteria may utilize different mechanisms of attachment in response to surface topography. These results are important for the design of novel microbe-repellant materials.

  12. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  13. How children remember the Strange Situation: The role of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Miranda; Goodman, Gail S; Troxel, Natalie; McWilliams, Kelly; Thompson, Ross A; Shaver, Phillip R; Widaman, Keith F

    2018-02-01

    This study tested predictions from Bowlby's attachment theory about children's memory and suggestibility. Young children (3-5years old, N=88; 76% Caucasians) and their parents took part in the Strange Situation Procedure, a moderately distressing event and "gold standard" for assessing children's attachment quality. The children were then interviewed about what occurred during the event. Children's age and attachment security scores positively predicted correct information in free recall and accuracy in answering specific questions. For children with higher (vs. lower) attachment security scores, greater distress observed during the Strange Situation Procedure predicted increased resistance to misleading suggestions. In addition, for children who displayed relatively low distress during the Strange Situation Procedure, significant age differences in memory and suggestibility emerged as expected. However, for children who displayed greater distress during the Strange Situation Procedure, younger and older children's memory performances were equivalent. Findings suggest that attachment theory provides an important framework for understanding facets of memory development with respect to attachment-related information and that distress may alter assumed age patterns in memory development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Attachment of mycobacteria to fibronectin-coated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, T L; McGarr, J A; Abou-Zeid, C; Rook, G A; Stanford, J L; Aslanzadeh, J; Brown, E J

    1988-05-01

    This report investigates the extent of the expression of fibronectin (FN) binding properties among the mycobacteria and provides preliminary characteristics of the bacterial molecule(s) mediating attachment. Eight BCG substrains, three Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and four other mycobacterial species all expressed FN-binding capacity. Treatment of organisms with detergent prior to the binding assay destroyed the FN-binding capacity of BCG but not that of Staphylococcus aureus. Trypsin pretreatment eliminated the FN-binding capacity of both BCG and S. aureus. [35S]Methionine-labelled material in supernatants from BCG and M. tuberculosis cultures attached to FN-coated surfaces. These culture supernatants inhibited the attachment of BCG but not S. aureus to FN-coated surfaces. This inhibitory activity of the supernatants was removed by affinity chromatography on FN-Sepharose but was not affected by similar passage over a control column (human serum albumin attached to Sepharose). These results demonstrate that the ability to bind FN is present in all mycobacterial species tested and suggest that attachment is mediated by trypsin-sensitive cell-surface component(s).

  15. Neural basis of attachment-caregiving systems interaction: insights from neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Delia; Trentini, Cristina; Tambelli, Renata; Pantano, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional, and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the “attachment-caregiving social bond” (Bowlby, 1969). We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focused on this particular issue, i.e., those which have studied the activation of the careging system in women (using infant stimuli) and have explored how the individual attachment model (through the Adult Attachment Interview) modulates its activity. Studies report altered activation in limbic and prefrontal areas and in basal ganglia and hypothalamus/pituitary regions. These altered activations are thought to be the neural substrate of the attachment-caregiving systems interaction. PMID:26379578

  16. Neural basis of attachment-caregiving systems interaction:insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia eLenzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the attachment-caregiving social bond (Bowlby, 1969. We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focused on this particular issue, i.e. those which have studied the activation of the careging system in women (using infant stimuli and have explored how the individual attachment model (through the Adult Attachment Interview modulates its activity. Studies report altered activation in limbic and prefrontal areas and in basal ganglia and hypothalamus/pituitary regions. These altered activations are thought to be the neural substrate of the attachment-caregiving systems interaction.

  17. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Foord, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  18. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  19. Attachment for mass exchange apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimenko, M.Z.; Maksimenko, M.M.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    An attachment is proposed which contains a cylindrical housing in which the windows are profiled with inward bent windows. In order to improve the effectiveness of the attachment by increasing its surface, and mobility, the ends of the housing are equipped with inner annular partitions with radial cross sections. The sections of the partitions between them are bent inwards towards the forming housing in series, from the side of each section. The inward-bent sections of the partitions and the edges are directed to one side or to different sides.

  20. Inhibition of attachment of oral bacteria to immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) by tea extracts and tea components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chung, Felicia F L; Lee, Sui M; Dykes, Gary A

    2013-04-11

    Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues.

  1. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  2. Bacterial endophytes enhance competition by invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Marnie E; Chrzanowski, Thomas H; Westlie, Tara K; DeLuca, Thomas H; Callaway, Ragan M; Holben, William E

    2013-09-01

    Invasive plants can alter soil microbial communities and profoundly alter ecosystem processes. In the invasive grass Sorghum halepense, these disruptions are consequences of rhizome-associated bacterial endophytes. We describe the effects of N2-fixing bacterial strains from S. halepense (Rout and Chrzanowski, 2009) on plant growth and show that bacteria interact with the plant to alter soil nutrient cycles, enabling persistence of the invasive. • We assessed fluxes in soil nutrients for ∼4 yr across a site invaded by S. halepense. We assayed the N2-fixing bacteria in vitro for phosphate solubilization, iron chelation, and production of the plant-growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We assessed the plant's ability to recruit bacterial partners from substrates and vertically transmit endophytes to seeds and used an antibiotic approach to inhibit bacterial activity in planta and assess microbial contributions to plant growth. • We found persistent alterations to eight biogeochemical cycles (including nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron) in soils invaded by S. halepense. In this context, three bacterial isolates solubilized phosphate, and all produced iron siderophores and IAA in vitro. In growth chamber experiments, bacteria were transmitted vertically, and molecular analysis of bacterial community fingerprints from rhizomes indicated that endophytes are also horizontally recruited. Inhibiting bacterial activity with antibiotics resulted in significant declines in plant growth rate and biomass, with pronounced rhizome reductions. • This work suggests a major role of endophytes on growth and resource allocation of an invasive plant. Indeed, bacterial isolate physiology is correlated with invader effects on biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphate, and iron.

  3. BACTERIAL PLASMIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dinic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

  4. Attachment Theory: Progress and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Fearon, R. M. P.; Roisman, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of ...

  5. Microcoupon Assay Of Adhesion And Growth Of Bacterial Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Koenig, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Microbiological assay technique facilitates determination of some characteristics of sessile bacteria like those that attach to and coat interior walls of water-purification systems. Biofilms cause sickness and interfere with purification process. Technique enables direct measurement of rate of attachment of bacterial cells, their metabolism, and effects of chemicals on them. Used to quantify effects of both bactericides and growth-stimulating agents and in place of older standard plate-count and tube-dilution techniques.

  6. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  7. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult

  8. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  9. Rapid, in situ detection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens attachment to leaf tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher W; Nitin, N; Vandergheynst, Jean S

    2012-01-01

    Attachment of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells is an early and necessary step in plant transformation and agroinfiltration processes. However, bacterial attachment behavior is not well understood in complex plant tissues. Here we developed an imaging-based method to observe and quantify A. tumefaciens attached to leaf tissue in situ. Fluorescent labeling of bacteria with nucleic acid, protein, and vital dyes was investigated as a rapid alternative to generating recombinant strains expressing fluorescent proteins. Syto 16 green fluorescent nucleic acid stain was found to yield the greatest signal intensity in stained bacteria without affecting viability or infectivity. Stained bacteria retained the stain and were detectable over 72 h. To demonstrate in situ detection of attached bacteria, confocal fluorescent microscopy was used to image A. tumefaciens in sections of lettuce leaf tissue following vacuum-infiltration with labeled bacteria. Bacterial signals were associated with plant cell surfaces, suggesting detection of bacteria attached to plant cells. Bacterial attachment to specific leaf tissues was in agreement with known leaf tissue competencies for transformation with Agrobacterium. Levels of bacteria attached to leaf cells were quantified over time post-infiltration. Signals from stained bacteria were stable over the first 24 h following infiltration but decreased in intensity as bacteria multiplied in planta. Nucleic acid staining of A. tumefaciens followed by confocal microscopy of infected leaf tissue offers a rapid, in situ method for evaluating attachment of A. tumefaciens' to plant expression hosts and a tool to facilitate management of transient expression processes via agroinfiltration. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  10. Bacterial biofilm and associated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin Jamal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic entities, microorganisms that drastically affect human health need to be thoroughly investigated. A biofilm is an architectural colony of microorganisms, within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance that they produce. Biofilm contains microbial cells adherent to one-another and to a static surface (living or non-living. Bacterial biofilms are usually pathogenic in nature and can cause nosocomial infections. The National Institutes of Health (NIH revealed that among all microbial and chronic infections, 65% and 80%, respectively, are associated with biofilm formation. The process of biofilm formation consists of many steps, starting with attachment to a living or non-living surface that will lead to formation of micro-colony, giving rise to three-dimensional structures and ending up, after maturation, with detachment. During formation of biofilm several species of bacteria communicate with one another, employing quorum sensing. In general, bacterial biofilms show resistance against human immune system, as well as against antibiotics. Health related concerns speak loud due to the biofilm potential to cause diseases, utilizing both device-related and non-device-related infections. In summary, the understanding of bacterial biofilm is important to manage and/or to eradicate biofilm-related diseases. The current review is, therefore, an effort to encompass the current concepts in biofilm formation and its implications in human health and disease.

  11. Quantification of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 attachment to Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovicheva, Anna; Joyner, Jessica; Muth, Theodore R

    2017-10-02

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the causal agent of crown gall disease and is a vector for DNA transfer in transgenic plants. The transformation process by A. tumefaciens has been widely studied, but the attachment stage has not been well characterized. Most measurements of attachment have used microscopy and colony counting, both of which are labor and time intensive. To reduce the time and effort required to analyze bacteria attaching to plant tissues, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to quantify attached A. tumefaciens using the chvE gene as marker for the presence of the bacteria. The qPCR detection threshold of A. tumefaciens from pure culture was 104 cell equivalents/ml. The A. tumefaciens minimum threshold concentration from root-bound populations was determined to be 105 cell equivalents/ml inoculum to detect attachment above background. The qPCR assay can be used for measuring A. tumefaciens attachment in applications such as testing the effects of mutations on bacterial adhesion molecules or biofilm formation, comparing attachment across various plant species and ecotypes, and detecting mutations in putative attachment receptors expressed in plant roots. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Type Three Secretion System in Attaching and Effacing Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meztlli Ofelia Gaytán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli are diarrheagenic bacterial human pathogens that cause severe gastroenteritis. These enteric pathotypes, together with the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, belong to the family of attaching and effacing pathogens that form a distinctive histological lesion in the intestinal epithelium. The virulence of these bacteria depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS, which mediates the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytosol into the infected cells. The core architecture of the T3SS consists of a multi-ring basal body embedded in the bacterial membranes, a periplasmic inner rod, a transmembrane export apparatus in the inner membrane, and cytosolic components including an ATPase complex and the C-ring. In addition, two distinct hollow appendages are assembled on the extracellular face of the basal body creating a channel for protein secretion: an approximately 23 nm needle, and a filament that extends up to 600 nm. This filamentous structure allows these pathogens to get through the host cells mucus barrier. Upon contact with the target cell, a translocation pore is assembled in the host membrane through which the effector proteins are injected. Assembly of the T3SS is strictly regulated to ensure proper timing of substrate secretion. The different type III substrates coexist in the bacterial cytoplasm, and their hierarchical secretion is determined by specialized chaperones in coordination with two molecular switches and the so-called sorting platform. In this review, we present recent advances in the understanding of the T3SS in attaching and effacing pathogens.

  13. Type Three Secretion System in Attaching and Effacing Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytán, Meztlli O.; Martínez-Santos, Verónica I.; Soto, Eduardo; González-Pedrajo, Bertha

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli are diarrheagenic bacterial human pathogens that cause severe gastroenteritis. These enteric pathotypes, together with the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, belong to the family of attaching and effacing pathogens that form a distinctive histological lesion in the intestinal epithelium. The virulence of these bacteria depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS), which mediates the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytosol into the infected cells. The core architecture of the T3SS consists of a multi-ring basal body embedded in the bacterial membranes, a periplasmic inner rod, a transmembrane export apparatus in the inner membrane, and cytosolic components including an ATPase complex and the C-ring. In addition, two distinct hollow appendages are assembled on the extracellular face of the basal body creating a channel for protein secretion: an approximately 23 nm needle, and a filament that extends up to 600 nm. This filamentous structure allows these pathogens to get through the host cells mucus barrier. Upon contact with the target cell, a translocation pore is assembled in the host membrane through which the effector proteins are injected. Assembly of the T3SS is strictly regulated to ensure proper timing of substrate secretion. The different type III substrates coexist in the bacterial cytoplasm, and their hierarchical secretion is determined by specialized chaperones in coordination with two molecular switches and the so-called sorting platform. In this review, we present recent advances in the understanding of the T3SS in attaching and effacing pathogens. PMID:27818950

  14. Domain Walls with Strings Attached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmakova, Marina

    2001-08-20

    We have constructed a bulk and brane action of IIA theory which describes a pair of BPS domain walls on S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}, with strings attached. The walls are given by two orientifold O8-planes with coincident D8-branes and F1-D0-strings are stretched between the walls. This static configuration satisfies all matching conditions for the string and domain wall sources and has 1/4 of unbroken supersymmetry.

  15. Low childhood subjective social status and telomere length in adulthood: The role of attachment orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; Seiler, Annina; Chirinos, Diana A; Garcini, Luz M; Acebo, Sally L; Cohen, Sheldon; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2018-04-01

    Low subjective social status (SSS) in childhood places one at greater risk of a number of health problems in adulthood. Theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that exposure to supportive parenting may buffer the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health. Given the importance of supportive caregivers and close others for the development of attachment orientations throughout the lifespan, attachment theory may be important for understanding why some individuals are resilient to the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health while others are not. We examined if attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance altered the association between childhood subjective social status (SSS) and length of telomeres in white blood cells in adulthood. Shorter telomere length is associated with increased risk of age-related diseases including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Participants (N = 128) completed self-report measures of childhood SSS and attachment orientations, as well as a blood draw. We found that among those with low childhood SSS, low attachment anxiety was associated with longer telomere length in white blood cells in comparison to high attachment anxiety controlling for participant age, sex, race, body mass index, and adult SSS. Among those with high childhood SSS, low attachment anxiety was associated with a slight decrease in telomere length. Attachment avoidance was unrelated to length of telomeres. Such findings provide further evidence for the role that close relationships may have on buffering SSS related health disparities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Surface wear of resin composites used for Invisalign® attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Graciela J; Dzierewianko, Elizabeth A; Muñoz, Karina A; Piccoli, Gisela I

    2017-08-01

    Orthodontic treatments with Invisalign® require the use of attachments, which are composite resin buttons attached to tooth surfaces. Attachments constitute one of the most powerful tools for improving the efficiency of orthodontic tooth movement. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate surface wear over six months in two resin composites (Filtek Z350 XT, 3MESPE and Amelogen Plus TW, Ultradent Products Inc. ) used for making Invisalign® attachments. These composites were selected for their esthetic and mechanical properties. Forty attachments were bonded to the buccal surface of maxillary teeth. Materials were randomized and assigned in a double blind manner. Impressions were taken of the attachments using a preestablished technique immediately after bonding and following 6 months of clinical use. The impressions were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) at 12-fold magnification to identify changes in surface texture and attachment shape. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's test on the overall ranking of detected changes in those variables. Statistically significant differences (PAttachment shape did not change significantly in either material (P>0. 05). According to the results of this study, the alteration of the attachment surface during the first six months of treatment depends on the composite used, while attachment shape does not appear to be affected, so the clinical performance of the materials evaluated could be considered acceptable. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  17. Differential Attachment of Salmonella enterica and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli to Alfalfa, Fenugreek, Lettuce, and Tomato Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue; Walcott, Ronald; Chen, Jinru

    2017-04-01

    Vegetable seeds have the potential to disseminate and transmit foodborne bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to assess the abilities of selected Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains to attach to fungicide-treated versus untreated, and intact versus mechanically damaged, seeds of alfalfa, fenugreek, lettuce, and tomato. Surface-sanitized seeds (2 g) were exposed to four individual strains of Salmonella or EHEC at 20°C for 5 h. Contaminated seeds were rinsed twice, each with 10 ml of sterilized water, before being soaked overnight in 5 ml of phosphate-buffered saline at 4°C. The seeds were then vortexed vigorously for 1 min, and pathogen populations in seed rinse water and soaking buffer were determined using a standard plate count assay. In general, the Salmonella cells had higher attachment ratios than the EHEC cells. Lettuce seeds by unit weight had the highest numbers of attached Salmonella or EHEC cells, followed by tomato, alfalfa, and fenugreek seeds. In contrast, individual fenugreek seeds had more attached pathogen cells, followed by lettuce, alfalfa, and tomato seeds. Significantly more Salmonella and EHEC cells attached to mechanically damaged seeds than to intact seeds ( P EHEC cells were recovered from untreated than fungicide-treated seeds ( P 0.05), with a few exceptions. This study fills gaps in the current body of literature and helps explain bacterial interactions with vegetable seeds with differing surface characteristics. IMPORTANCE Vegetable seeds, specifically sprout seeds, have the potential to disseminate and transmit foodborne bacterial pathogens. This study investigated the interaction between two important bacterial pathogens, i.e., Salmonella and EHEC, and vegetable seeds with differing surface characteristics. This research helps understand whether seed surface structure, integrity, and fungicide treatment affect the interaction between bacterial cells and vegetable seeds. Copyright © 2017

  18. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  19. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  20. Attachment theory: progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-06-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  2. Ecology and physics of bacterial chemotaxis in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Roman; Seymour, Justin R

    2012-12-01

    Intuitively, it may seem that from the perspective of an individual bacterium the ocean is a vast, dilute, and largely homogeneous environment. Microbial oceanographers have typically considered the ocean from this point of view. In reality, marine bacteria inhabit a chemical seascape that is highly heterogeneous down to the microscale, owing to ubiquitous nutrient patches, plumes, and gradients. Exudation and excretion of dissolved matter by larger organisms, lysis events, particles, animal surfaces, and fluxes from the sediment-water interface all contribute to create strong and pervasive heterogeneity, where chemotaxis may provide a significant fitness advantage to bacteria. The dynamic nature of the ocean imposes strong selective pressures on bacterial foraging strategies, and many marine bacteria indeed display adaptations that characterize their chemotactic motility as "high performance" compared to that of enteric model organisms. Fast swimming speeds, strongly directional responses, and effective turning and steering strategies ensure that marine bacteria can successfully use chemotaxis to very rapidly respond to chemical gradients in the ocean. These fast responses are advantageous in a broad range of ecological processes, including attaching to particles, exploiting particle plumes, retaining position close to phytoplankton cells, colonizing host animals, and hovering at a preferred height above the sediment-water interface. At larger scales, these responses can impact ocean biogeochemistry by increasing the rates of chemical transformation, influencing the flux of sinking material, and potentially altering the balance of biomass incorporation versus respiration. This review highlights the physical and ecological processes underpinning bacterial motility and chemotaxis in the ocean, describes the current state of knowledge of chemotaxis in marine bacteria, and summarizes our understanding of how these microscale dynamics scale up to affect ecosystem

  3. Attachment Representation of Institutionalized Children in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurada, Emiko

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study represents one of the first attachment investigations of Japanese children who have been institutionalized. Mental representation of attachment was assessed using George and Solomon's (1990, 1996, 2000) Attachment Doll Play Classification System of the Bretherton et al. (1990) doll play story stems. Participants were 32…

  4. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  5. Hot-Melt Adhesive Attachment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzell, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St. Clair, T. L.; Gleason, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Adhesive system is as effective on Earth as in space. Fiberglass cloth mounted in head assembly. When adhesive reaches melt temperature head is attached to metals composites, ceramics, and other materials. Once attached, head cooled rapidly for quick stick. Used to tether tools or attach temporary scaffolding to walls, buildings, or beams.

  6. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  7. Bacterial Cell Surface Damage Due to Centrifugal Compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, Brandon W.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Centrifugal damage has been known to alter bacterial cell surface properties and interior structures, including DNA. Very few studies exist on bacterial damage caused by centrifugation because of the difficulty in relating centrifugation speed and container geometry to the damage caused. Here, we

  8. Development of the gastric morphology and fornical bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    area for bacterial attachment thus facilitating a symbiotic relationship between the rodent and the gastric micro- ... stomach weight, expressed as a percentage of body weight, was used as a relative measure of gastric ... from subsequent litters were removed from their mothers at progressively earlier ages and survival was ...

  9. Bacterial strategies of resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hwang-Soo; Fu, Chih-Iung; Otto, Michael

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a key component of the host's innate immune system, targeting invasive and colonizing bacteria. For successful survival and colonization of the host, bacteria have a series of mechanisms to interfere with AMP activity, and AMP resistance is intimately connected with the virulence potential of bacterial pathogens. In particular, because AMPs are considered as potential novel antimicrobial drugs, it is vital to understand bacterial AMP resistance mechanisms. This review gives a comparative overview of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strategies of resistance to various AMPs, such as repulsion or sequestration by bacterial surface structures, alteration of membrane charge or fluidity, degradation and removal by efflux pumps.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Biofilm attachment reduction on bioinspired, dynamic, micro-wrinkling surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Alexander K; Hong, Donggyoon; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Most bacteria live in multicellular communities known as biofilms that are adherent to surfaces in our environment, from sea beds to plumbing systems. Biofilms are often associated with clinical infections, nosocomial deaths and industrial damage such as bio-corrosion and clogging of pipes. As mature biofilms are extremely challenging to eradicate once formed, prevention is advantageous over treatment. However, conventional surface chemistry strategies are either generally transient, due to chemical masking, or toxic, as in the case of leaching marine antifouling paints. Inspired by the nonfouling skins of echinoderms and other marine organisms, which possess highly dynamic surface structures that mechanically frustrate bio-attachment, we have developed and tested a synthetic platform based on both uniaxial mechanical strain and buckling-induced elastomer microtopography. Bacterial biofilm attachment to the dynamic substrates was studied under an array of parameters, including strain amplitude and timescale (1–100 mm s −1 ), surface wrinkle length scale, bacterial species and cell geometry, and growth time. The optimal conditions for achieving up to ∼ 80% Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm reduction after 24 h growth and ∼ 60% reduction after 48 h were combinatorially elucidated to occur at 20% strain amplitude, a timescale of less than ∼ 5 min between strain cycles and a topography length scale corresponding to the cell dimension of ∼ 1 μm. Divergent effects on the attachment of P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms showed that the dynamic substrate also provides a new means of species-specific biofilm inhibition, or inversely, selection for a desired type of bacteria, without reliance on any toxic or transient surface chemical treatments. (paper)

  11. Biofilm attachment reduction on bioinspired, dynamic, micro-wrinkling surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Alexander K.; Hong, Donggyoon; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    Most bacteria live in multicellular communities known as biofilms that are adherent to surfaces in our environment, from sea beds to plumbing systems. Biofilms are often associated with clinical infections, nosocomial deaths and industrial damage such as bio-corrosion and clogging of pipes. As mature biofilms are extremely challenging to eradicate once formed, prevention is advantageous over treatment. However, conventional surface chemistry strategies are either generally transient, due to chemical masking, or toxic, as in the case of leaching marine antifouling paints. Inspired by the nonfouling skins of echinoderms and other marine organisms, which possess highly dynamic surface structures that mechanically frustrate bio-attachment, we have developed and tested a synthetic platform based on both uniaxial mechanical strain and buckling-induced elastomer microtopography. Bacterial biofilm attachment to the dynamic substrates was studied under an array of parameters, including strain amplitude and timescale (1-100 mm s-1), surface wrinkle length scale, bacterial species and cell geometry, and growth time. The optimal conditions for achieving up to ˜ 80% Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm reduction after 24 h growth and ˜ 60% reduction after 48 h were combinatorially elucidated to occur at 20% strain amplitude, a timescale of less than ˜ 5 min between strain cycles and a topography length scale corresponding to the cell dimension of ˜ 1 μm. Divergent effects on the attachment of P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms showed that the dynamic substrate also provides a new means of species-specific biofilm inhibition, or inversely, selection for a desired type of bacteria, without reliance on any toxic or transient surface chemical treatments.

  12. Data for automated, high-throughput microscopy analysis of intracellular bacterial colonies using spot detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Christina L; Login, Frédéric H; Jensen, Helene H

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of intracellular bacterial colonies is useful in strategies directed against bacterial attachment, subsequent cellular invasion and intracellular proliferation. An automated, high-throughput microscopy-method was established to quantify the number and size of intracellular bacterial...... of cell nuclei were automatically quantified using a spot detection-tool. The spot detection-output was exported to Excel, where data analysis was performed. In this article, micrographs and spot detection data are made available to facilitate implementation of the method....

  13. Developed Fungal-Bacterial Biofilms as A Novel Tool for Bioremoval of Hexavelant Chromium from Wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herath, Lasantha; Rajapaksha, R. M. A. U.; Vithanage, M.

    2014-01-01

    Remediation measures for hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] are required for a safe environment. As a recent development in microbiology, bacterial biofilms are being studied as effective bioremediation agents. When bacteria are in fungal surface-attached biofilm mode, they are called fungal-bacterial ......Remediation measures for hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] are required for a safe environment. As a recent development in microbiology, bacterial biofilms are being studied as effective bioremediation agents. When bacteria are in fungal surface-attached biofilm mode, they are called fungal...

  14. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the objective of examining the outer membrane proteins and their involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the response of gram negative bacterial biomembrane alteration was studied using extended ...

  15. Function of Platelet-Induced Epithelial Attachment at Titanium Surfaces Inhibits Microbial Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, M; Lee, C; Kim, D M; Da Silva, J; Nagai, S; Sugawara, S; Nara, Y; Kihara, H; Nagai, M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the barrier function of platelet-induced epithelial sheets on titanium surfaces. The lack of functional peri-implant epithelial sealing with basal lamina (BL) attachment at the interface of the implant and the adjacent epithelium allows for bacterial invasion, which may lead to peri-implantitis. Although various approaches have been reported to combat bacterial infection by surface modifications to titanium, none of these have been successful in a clinical application. In our previous study, surface modification with protease-activated receptor 4-activating peptide (PAR4-AP), which induced platelet activation and aggregation, was successful in demonstrating epithelial attachment via BL and epithelial sheet formation on the titanium surface. We hypothesized that the platelet-induced epithelial sheet on PAR4-AP-modified titanium surfaces would reduce bacterial attachment, penetration, and invasion. Titanium surface was modified with PAR4-AP and incubated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The aggregated platelets released collagen IV, a critical BL component, onto the PAR4-AP-modified titanium surface. Then, human gingival epithelial cells were seeded on the modified titanium surface and formed epithelial sheets. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Escherichia coli was cultured onto PAR4-AP-modified titanium with and without epithelial sheet formation. While Escherichia coli accumulated densely onto the PAR4-AP titanium lacking epithelial sheet, few Escherichia coli were observed on the epithelial sheet on the PAR4-AP surface. No bacterial invasion into the interface of the epithelial sheet and the titanium surface was observed. These in vitro results indicate the efficacy of a platelet-induced epithelial barrier that functions to prevent bacterial attachment, penetration, and invasion on PAR4-AP-modified titanium.

  16. Networked Attached Devices at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, W

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) diagnostic instruments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are based on the Network Attached Device (NAD) concept. Each pickup or sensor has its own resources such as timing, data acquisition and processing. NADs are individually connected to the network, thus reducing the brittleness inherent in tightly coupled systems. This architecture allows an individual device to fail or to be serviced or removed without disrupting other devices. This paper describes our implementation of the nearly 400 NADs to be deployed. The hardware consists of rack-mounted PCs with standard motherboards and PCI data-acquisition boards. The software environment is based on LabVIEW and EPICS. LabVIEW supports the agile development demanded by modern diagnostic systems. EPICS is the control system standard for the entire SNS facility. To achieve high performance, LabVIEW and EPICS communicate through shared memory. SNS diagnostics are developed by a multi-laboratory partnership including ORNL, BNL, LAN...

  17. Study on attachment of agrobacterium tumefanciens with citrus reticulata var. tankan hayata embryogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengbin; Yu Rangcai; Zou Weiquan; Huang Ziran

    2002-01-01

    32 P-NaH 2 PO 4 in LB medium had no negative effect on the growth of Agrobacterium tumefanciens when below the concentration of 1.169 x 10 5 Bq/ml, indicating that Agrobacterium tumefanciens could be radiolabeled with 32 P-NaH 2 PO 4 . The kinetic experiment showed that attachment of agrobacterium tumefanciens to citrus embryogenic cells was a dynamic binding. The number of bacteria attached to embryogenic cells was correlated with bacterial population and was not affected by Aceto-syringone (As) or Tween-20 in the co-cultivation medium

  18. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach...... that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  19. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  20. Place attachment and natural environmental risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Alves, Susana; De Dominicis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about place attachment affecting natural environmental risk perception and coping. A systematic search of social science databases revealed 31 works (1996–2016) directly addressing place attachment in relation to different types of natural hazard risks (e.g., seismic, volcanic, etc.......). Across different contexts, the research shows: (a) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and natural environmental risk perception; (b) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and risk coping; and (c) mediating and moderating relationships. In particular......, results show that: (a) highly attached individuals perceive natural environmental risks but underestimate their potential effects; (b) highly attached individuals are unwilling to relocate when facing natural environmental risks and more likely to return to risky areas after a natural environmental...

  1. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  2. Attachment of Alcanivorax borkumensis to Hexadecane-in-Artificial Sea Water Emulsion Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Akram; Bothun, Geoffrey D; Bose, Arijit

    2018-04-16

    Alcanivorax borkumensis (AB) is a marine bacterium that dominates bacterial communities around many oil spills because it enzymatically degrades the oil while using it as a nutrient source. Several dispersants have been used to produce oil-in-water emulsions following a spill. Compared to surface slicks, the additional oil-water surface area produced by emulsification provides greater access to the oil, and accelerates its degradation. We deliberately cultured AB cells using hexadecane as the only nutrient source. We then examined the first critical step of the biodegradation process, the attachment of these AB cells to hexadecane-water interfaces, using fluorescence microscopy and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. The hexadecane-in-artificial sea water (ASW) emulsions were produced by gentle shaking, and were stabilized either by AB alone, by Corexit 9500, by Tween 20, or by carbon black particles. When no dispersants were used, AB stabilizes the emulsion, and bacterial cells attach to the hexadecane droplets within the first 3 days. When Corexit 9500 was used as the dispersant, AB did not attach to the hexadecane droplets over 3 days, and many AB cells in the aqueous phase appeared dead. Only limited attachment was observed after 7 days. No AB attachment was observed over 3 days when Tween 20 was used as the dispersant. However, the bacteria used Tween 20 in the ASW as a nutrient. Large amounts of AB attached to carbon black stabilized hexadecane droplets within 3 days. An analysis that accounts for van der Waals and electrostatic interactions is unable to predict all of these observations, indicating that the attachment of AB to the hexadecane is a complex phenomenon that goes beyond simple physiochemical effects. While these experiments do not mimic conditions in the open ocean where the large amount of water dilutes any emulsion stabilizer, they provide important insights on bacteria adhesion to oil, a critical step in the oil degradation process

  3. Security for Network Attached Storage Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gobioff, Howard

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a novel cryptographic capability system addressing the security and performance needs of network attached storage systems in which file management functions occur at a different...

  4. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  5. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  6. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  7. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  8. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  9. Cryo-electron tomography of bacterial viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C. [Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Wright, Elizabeth R., E-mail: erwrigh@emory.edu [Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2013-01-05

    Bacteriophage particles contain both simple and complex macromolecular assemblages and machines that enable them to regulate the infection process under diverse environmental conditions with a broad range of bacterial hosts. Recent developments in cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) make it possible to observe the interactions of bacteriophages with their host cells under native-state conditions at unprecedented resolution and in three-dimensions. This review describes the application of cryo-ET to studies of bacteriophage attachment, genome ejection, assembly and egress. Current topics of investigation and future directions in the field are also discussed.

  10. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  11. Attachment theory and reactive attachment disorder: theoretical perspectives and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lyons T

    2007-02-01

    Attachment theory and reactive attachment disorder (RAD). To highlight current perspectives on attachment theory, RAD, and treatment implications using a case study of an 8-year-old patient with RAD. Selected multidisciplinary literature related to attachment theory and RAD. The literature provides a body of work that substantiates the importance of early attachment relationships to human development and highlights gaps in our knowledge related to treatment of children with RAD. The quality of early attachment relationships is correlated with future personality and brain development. Attachment disturbances are associated with psychopathology in childhood and adulthood. Although evidence for the effective treatment of children with attachment disorders is minimal and inconclusive, the two major perspectives, developmental psychology and neuropsychoanalysis, offer guidelines for practice.

  12. Smartphone attachment for stethoscope recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    With the ubiquity of smartphones and the rising technology of 3D printing, novel devices can be developed that leverage the "computer in your pocket" and rapid prototyping technologies toward scientific, medical, engineering, and creative purposes. This paper describes such a device: a simple 3D-printed extension for Apple's iPhone that allows the sound from an off-the-shelf acoustic stethoscope to be recorded using the phone's built-in microphone. The attachment's digital 3D files can be easily shared, modified for similar phones and devices capable of recording audio, and in combination with 3D printing technology allow for fabrication of a durable device without need for an entire factory of expensive and specialized machining tools. It is hoped that by releasing this device as an open source set of printable files that can be downloaded and reproduced cheaply, others can make use of these developments where access to cost-prohibitive, specialized medical instruments are not available. Coupled with specialized smartphone software ("apps"), more sophisticated and automated diagnostics may also be possible on-site.

  13. Parent attachment, childrearing behaviour, and child attachment: Mediated effect that predict externalizing behaviour in preschoolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6 clinically referred for EB and their parents from a middle-high income population. Child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-set; parent's rememb...

  14. A Molecular Genetic Basis Explaining Altered Bacterial Behavior in Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Zea

    Full Text Available Bacteria behave differently in space, as indicated by reports of reduced lag phase, higher final cell counts, enhanced biofilm formation, increased virulence, and reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. These phenomena are theorized, at least in part, to result from reduced mass transport in the local extracellular environment, where movement of molecules consumed and excreted by the cell is limited to diffusion in the absence of gravity-dependent convection. However, to date neither empirical nor computational approaches have been able to provide sufficient evidence to confirm this explanation. Molecular genetic analysis findings, conducted as part of a recent spaceflight investigation, support the proposed model. This investigation indicated an overexpression of genes associated with starvation, the search for alternative energy sources, increased metabolism, enhanced acetate production, and other systematic responses to acidity-all of which can be associated with reduced extracellular mass transport.

  15. A Molecular Genetic Basis Explaining Altered Bacterial Behavior in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn E.; Stodieck, Louis; Jones, Angela; Shrestha, Shristi; Klaus, David

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria behave differently in space, as indicated by reports of reduced lag phase, higher final cell counts, enhanced biofilm formation, increased virulence, and reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. These phenomena are theorized, at least in part, to result from reduced mass transport in the local extracellular environment, where movement of molecules consumed and excreted by the cell is limited to diffusion in the absence of gravity-dependent convection. However, to date neither empirical nor computational approaches have been able to provide sufficient evidence to confirm this explanation. Molecular genetic analysis findings, conducted as part of a recent spaceflight investigation, support the proposed model. This investigation indicated an overexpression of genes associated with starvation, the search for alternative energy sources, increased metabolism, enhanced acetate production, and other systematic responses to acidity—all of which can be associated with reduced extracellular mass transport. PMID:27806055

  16. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  17. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  18. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  19. Mother-Infant Attachment in Adoptive Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Leslie M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    No differences were found in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Suggests that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships…

  20. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…

  1. Separation-individuation theory and attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Harold P

    2004-01-01

    Separation-individuation and attachment theories are compared and assessed in the context of psychoanalytic developmental theory and their application to clinical work. As introduced by Margaret Mahler and John Bowlby, respectively, both theories were initially regarded as diverging from traditional views. Separation-individuation theory, though it has had to be corrected in important respects, and attachment theory, despite certain limitations, have nonetheless enriched psychoanalytic thought. Without attachment an infant would die, and with severely insecure attachment is at greater risk for serious disorders. Development depends on continued attachment to a responsive and responsible caregiver. Continued attachment to the primary object was regarded by Mahler as as intrinsic to the process of separation-individuation. Attachment theory does not account for the essential development of separateness, and separation-individuation is important for the promotion of autonomy, independence, and identity. Salient historical and theoretical issues are addressed, including the renewed interest in attachment theory and the related decline of interest in separation-individuation theory.

  2. Study on thermocouple attachment in reflood experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun

    1977-03-01

    The method of thermocouple attachment to a heater rods has been studied for surface temperature measurement in reflood experiments. The method used as far in JAERI's reflood experiments had some possibilities of not estimating exactly the quench times. Various attachment method have been tested and some proved to be effective in the respect. (auth.)

  3. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  4. Attachment Parenting: A Style That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of attachment parenting, which emphasizes parental commitment, a low-stress pregnancy, childbirth preparation, breast-feeding with child-led weaning, prompt response to the baby's crying, flexible sleeping arrangements, close-knit father-mother-baby functioning, and the avoidance of detachment parenting. Attachment parenting…

  5. Attachment style, family and romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, P G; Salter, K; Purves, D G

    2001-06-01

    In 1987 Hazan and Shaver showed that patterns of romantic love reflected attachment styles. In an extension of that study with 39 men and 33 women in college (ages 18-36 years), this research shows that family relationships may also affect romantic relationships indirectly through their association with attachment styles.

  6. Attachment Theory and Neuroscience for Care Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas J; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a model for care managers that is based on attachment theory supplemented by knowledge from neuroscience. Together, attachment theory and basic knowledge from neuroscience provide for both an organizing conceptual framework and a scientific, measureable approach to assessment and planning interventions in a care plan.

  7. Electron attachment to Van der Waals clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatovic, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with attachment of thermal electrons to Van der Waals clusters at zero energy. The underlying theory is treated briefly. Three different major types of experiments for studying thermal electron attachment to molecules and clusters: swarm experiments, beam experiments and collisions with Rydberg atoms, are described and some results are reviewed. 42 refs.; 5 figs

  8. An Attachment Model of University Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steffen; Gore, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Students with high levels of connectedness to the university have been found to be more likely to complete their college degree than are students with low levels of university connectedness. This study examined the role of parental and peer attachment as distal predictors of school connectedness. As predicted, it was found that attachment style to…

  9. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  10. Variations in Early Attachment Mechanisms Contribute to Attachment Quality: Case Studies Including Babies Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, Andrea; Ruiz, Nina; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2016-01-01

    Three boys (an extremely preterm, a moderate preterm twin and a full-term toddler; all 12 to 15 months old) were selected from a large sample to investigate mechanisms of parent-child attachments, specifically of babies born preterm. Attachments were observed at home with the Attachment-Q-Sort (AQS) as well as in the lab with the Strange Situation…

  11. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  12. Studying bacterial multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-01-01

    , but the identity and significance of interspecies bacterial interactions is neglected in these analyses. There is therefore an urgent need for bridging the gap between metagenomic analysis and in vitro models suitable for studies of bacterial interactions.Bacterial interactions and coadaptation are important......The high prevalence and significance of multispecies biofilms have now been demonstrated in various bacterial habitats with medical, industrial, and ecological relevance. It is highly evident that several species of bacteria coexist and interact in biofilms, which highlights the need for evaluating...

  13. Attachment and eating disorders: a research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2018-03-16

    Prominent models of eating disorders tend to focus on cognitive and behavioral features, but tend not to consider important developmental issues related to affect regulation, interpersonal style, self concept, and mentalization-all of which are well conceptualized within attachment theory. Higher levels of attachment insecurity across diagnoses are related to greater eating disorder symptoms. Low parental care and early trauma may lead to attachment insecurity that then might lead to greater eating disorder symptoms. The association between insecure attachment and eating disorder severity is likely mediated by affect dysregulation and perfectionism. Recent research using the Adult Attachment Interview highlights the importance of reflective functioning in predicting treatment response and therapeutic processes, and on the utility of therapies that increase mentalization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  15. Probing bacterial adhesion at the single-cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Müller, Torsten; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    Bacteria initiate attachment to surfaces with the aid of different extracellular proteins and polymeric adhesins. To quantitatively analyse the cell-cell and cell-surface interactions provided by bacterial adhesins, it is essential to go down to single cell level where cell-to-cell variation can...... be considered. We have developed a simple and versatile method to make single-cell bacterial probes for measuring single cell adhesion by force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A single-cell probe was readily made by picking up a bacterial cell from a glass surface by approaching a tipless AFM...... cantilever coated with the commercial cell adhesive CellTakTM. We applied the method to study adhesion of living cells to abiotic surfaces at the single-cell level. Immobilisation of single bacterial cells to the cantilever was stable for several hours, and viability was confirmed by Live/Dead staining...

  16. The attachment system in fledgling relationships: an activating role for attachment anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2008-09-01

    Is it sensible to study attachment dynamics between potential romantic partners before they share a full-fledged attachment bond? The present data indicate that such an approach may reveal novel insights about initial attraction processes. Four studies suggest that the state-like experience of attachment anxiety has functional implications within fledgling (i.e., desired or undeveloped) romantic relationships, well before the formation of an attachment bond. Studies 1 and 3 reveal that attachment anxiety directed toward a particular romantic interest is elevated before (in comparison with after) participants report being in an established relationship. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that such partner-specific attachment anxiety predicts attachment-relevant outcomes in fledgling relationships, including proximity seeking, safe haven, secure base, passionate love, and other approach behaviors. These associations were reliable above and beyond (and were typically as strong as or stronger than) the effect of sexual desire. Finally, Study 4 presents evidence that partner-specific attachment anxiety may cause several of these attachment-relevant outcomes. Attachment anxiety seems to be a normative experience and may signal the activation of the attachment system during the earliest stages of romantic relationships.

  17. The Adult Attachment Interview and self-reports of attachment style: an empirical rapprochement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Fraley, R Chris; Clausell, Eric; Clarke, Alexis

    2007-04-01

    Although 10 studies have been published on the empirical overlap of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and measures of self-reported attachment style, results in this literature have been inconsistently interpreted in narrative reviews. This report was designed as a rapprochement of the AAI and attachment style literatures and includes 3 studies. Study 1 (combined N = 961) is a meta-analytic review showing that by J. Cohen's (1992) criteria (mean r = .09), the association between AAI security and attachment style dimensions is trivial to small. Study 2 (N = 160) confirms meta-analytic results with state-of-the-art assessments of attachment security and also examines attachment dimensions in relation to the Big 5 personality traits. Finally, Study 3 is an investigation of 50 engaged couples that shows that developmental and social psychological measures of attachment security predict somewhat distinct--though theoretically anticipated--aspects of functioning in adult relationships.

  18. Evaluating the effects of variable water chemistry on bacterial transport during infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Nordin, Nahjan Amer; Olson, Mira S

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial infiltration through the subsurface has been studied experimentally under different conditions of interest and is dependent on a variety of physical, chemical and biological factors. However, most bacterial transport studies fail to adequately represent the complex processes occurring in natural systems. Bacteria are frequently detected in stormwater runoff, and may present risk of microbial contamination during stormwater recharge into groundwater. Mixing of stormwater runoff with groundwater during infiltration results in changes in local solution chemistry, which may lead to changes in both bacterial and collector surface properties and subsequent bacterial attachment rates. This study focuses on quantifying changes in bacterial transport behavior under variable solution chemistry, and on comparing the influences of chemical variability and physical variability on bacterial attachment rates. Bacterial attachment rate at the soil-water interface was predicted analytically using a combined rate equation, which varies temporally and spatially with respect to changes in solution chemistry. Two-phase Monte Carlo analysis was conducted and an overall input-output correlation coefficient was calculated to quantitatively describe the importance of physiochemical variation on the estimates of attachment rate. Among physical variables, soil particle size has the highest correlation coefficient, followed by porosity of the soil media, bacterial size and flow velocity. Among chemical variables, ionic strength has the highest correlation coefficient. A semi-reactive microbial transport model was developed within HP1 (HYDRUS1D-PHREEQC) and applied to column transport experiments with constant and variable solution chemistries. Bacterial attachment rates varied from 9.10×10(-3)min(-1) to 3.71×10(-3)min(-1) due to mixing of synthetic stormwater (SSW) with artificial groundwater (AGW), while bacterial attachment remained constant at 9.10×10(-3)min(-1) in a constant

  19. Evaluating the effects of variable water chemistry on bacterial transport during infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Nordin, Nahjan Amer; Olson, Mira S.

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial infiltration through the subsurface has been studied experimentally under different conditions of interest and is dependent on a variety of physical, chemical and biological factors. However, most bacterial transport studies fail to adequately represent the complex processes occurring in natural systems. Bacteria are frequently detected in stormwater runoff, and may present risk of microbial contamination during stormwater recharge into groundwater. Mixing of stormwater runoff with groundwater during infiltration results in changes in local solution chemistry, which may lead to changes in both bacterial and collector surface properties and subsequent bacterial attachment rates. This study focuses on quantifying changes in bacterial transport behavior under variable solution chemistry, and on comparing the influences of chemical variability and physical variability on bacterial attachment rates. Bacterial attachment rate at the soil-water interface was predicted analytically using a combined rate equation, which varies temporally and spatially with respect to changes in solution chemistry. Two-phase Monte Carlo analysis was conducted and an overall input-output correlation coefficient was calculated to quantitatively describe the importance of physiochemical variation on the estimates of attachment rate. Among physical variables, soil particle size has the highest correlation coefficient, followed by porosity of the soil media, bacterial size and flow velocity. Among chemical variables, ionic strength has the highest correlation coefficient. A semi-reactive microbial transport model was developed within HP1 (HYDRUS1D-PHREEQC) and applied to column transport experiments with constant and variable solution chemistries. Bacterial attachment rates varied from 9.10 × 10- 3 min- 1 to 3.71 × 10- 3 min- 1 due to mixing of synthetic stormwater (SSW) with artificial groundwater (AGW), while bacterial attachment remained constant at 9.10 × 10- 3 min- 1 in a

  20. Environmental and genetic influences on early attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervai Judit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attachment theory predicts and subsequent empirical research has amply demonstrated that individual variations in patterns of early attachment behaviour are primarily influenced by differences in sensitive responsiveness of caregivers. However, meta-analyses have shown that parenting behaviour accounts for about one third of the variance in attachment security or disorganisation. The exclusively environmental explanation has been challenged by results demonstrating some, albeit inconclusive, evidence of the effect of infant temperament. In this paper, after reviewing briefly the well-demonstrated familial and wider environmental influences, the evidence is reviewed for genetic and gene-environment interaction effects on developing early attachment relationships. Studies investigating the interaction of genes of monoamine neurotransmission with parenting environment in the course of early relationship development suggest that children's differential susceptibility to the rearing environment depends partly on genetic differences. In addition to the overview of environmental and genetic contributions to infant attachment, and especially to disorganised attachment relevant to mental health issues, the few existing studies of gene-attachment interaction effects on development of childhood behavioural problems are also reviewed. A short account of the most important methodological problems to be overcome in molecular genetic studies of psychological and psychiatric phenotypes is also given. Finally, animal research focusing on brain-structural aspects related to early care and the new, conceptually important direction of studying environmental programming of early development through epigenetic modification of gene functioning is examined in brief.

  1. Attachment representations, patterns of emotion regulation, and social exclusion in patients with chronic and episodic depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauriedl-Schmidt, C; Jobst, A; Gander, M; Seidl, E; Sabaß, L; Sarubin, N; Mauer, C; Padberg, F; Buchheim, A

    2017-03-01

    The experience of social exclusion (ostracism) is linked to the etiology and maintenance of depression. Most individuals experience emotional stress in states of social exclusion. Insecurely attached individuals, especially with an unresolved trauma, show maladaptive coping in response to social stress. The present study examines (a) the differences with regards to attachment representations in episodic (ED) and chronic depressive (CD) inpatients and (b) how ostracism affects their emotional reactions. Patients with CD (n=29) and ED (n=23) and healthy control subjects (n=29) were interviewed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a valid measure to assess attachment representation; and played a virtual ball tossing game simulating social exclusion (Cyberball). Multiple depression-related risk and protective factors were considered. We hypothesized that CD patients show the most severe attachment disorganization and are emotionally most affected by the social exclusion situation. Moreover, we explored the interaction between ostracism and attachment. Contradicting our hypotheses, ED and CD individuals were almost akin with regards to their attachment insecurity/disorganization and reactions to Cyberball. An emotionally altered reaction to social exclusion was identified in the insecure-disorganized depressive subgroup. Small sample size hampering further subgroup analyses. The ED sample may include single CD subjects with recent manifestation. The pattern of emotion regulation in the depressive groups matches with findings from clinical studies, including attachment research. The relationship between attachment representations and ostracism should be further investigated in larger samples of depressive individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Slides with no attached paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, Dominique; Wallenius, Janne; Ouzounian, Gerald; Wikberg, Peter; Todd, Terry A.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhael V.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Mayorshin, A.A.; McLachlan, Fiona; Nash, Ken L.; Nilsson, M.; Grimes, T.; Braley, J.C.; TAKESHITA, Kenji; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Spendlikova, I.; Distler, P.; John, J.; Sebesta, F.; VU, Trong-Hung; SIMONIN, Jean-Pierre; PAULENOVA, Alena; PRECEK, Martin; HARTIG, Kyle; KNAPP, Nathan; Vidick, Geoffrey; Bouslimani, Nouri; Desreux, Jean F.; Lewis, F.W.; Hudson, M.J.; Harwood, L.M.; Nunez, Ana; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Raj, Baldev; Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Pouchon, Manuel A.; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora; Nordlund, Anders; John, Jan; Maershin, Alexander; Zakirov, R.; Panov, A.; Toropov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at the workshop but with no attached paper. These slides refer to the following presentations: - Presentation of ITN (Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear); - Minor Actinide Partitioning (Dominique Warin); - Transmutation (Janne Wallenius); - Radioactive Waste Management, IGD-TP (Gerald Ouzounian); - Present status of the Swedish nuclear waste management programme (Peter Wikberg); - The U.S. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program - Separations Research and Development (Terry Todd); - Strategies and national programs of closed fuel cycles - Russian Expert Vision (Mikhael Kormilitsyn) - Extraction Studies Of Potential Solvent Formulations For The GANEX Process (Fiona MacLachlan); - Investigations of The Fundamental Chemistry of the TALSPEAK Process (Ken Nash); - Extraction Separation of Trivalent Minor Actinides and Lanthanides by Hexa-dentate Nitrogen-donor Extractant, TPEN, and its Analogs (Kenji Takeshita); - Fluorinated Diluents for HLW Processing - technological point of view (Vasiliy Babain); - Extraction properties of some new pyridine molecules and search for better diluents (Irena Spendlikova); - Kinetics of extraction of Eu 3+ ion by TODGA and CyMe 4 -BTBP studied using the RMC technique (Trong Hung Vu); - Redox Chemistry of Neptunium in Solutions of Nitric Acid (Alena Paulenova); - NMR applied to actinide ions and their complexes. In search of covalency effects (Geoffrey Vidick); - Towards 'Stability Rules' for Radiolysis of bis-DGA compounds (Ana Nunez); - Pyroprocess Research Activities at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India (K. Nagarajan); - Critical issues of nuclear energy systems employing molten salt fluorides: from ISTC No. 1606 to No. 3749 (1. year of project activity) and MARS/EVOL cooperation (Victor Ignatiev); - Conversion processes: Internal Gelation and the Sphere-pac concept (Manuel Pouchon); - A Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry Master. A Unique

  3. Mycoplasma genitalium attaches to human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Helle Friis; Fedder, Jens; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    , M.genitalium was seen at the head but not at the tail. By X-ray microscopy, it was possible to observe the diffentiated structure of M.genitalium, and the attachment seemed to be mediated by the tip. CONCLUSIONS: Mycoplasma genitalium can bind to human spermatozoa and thus could be carried by motile...... to adhere to the head, midpiece and tail of the spermatozoa. The spermatozoa became immotile when many M.genitalium were attached. However, the motile spermatozoa were demonstrated to carry M.genitalium and in this case the mycoplasmas were seen to attach mostly to the midpiece or neck region. Occasionally...

  4. Bacterial interference with host epithelial junctional complexes: Probiotic bacteria vs. A/E lesion-forming Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANIA TOPOUZOVA-HRISTOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During colonization, enteropathogenic (EPEC and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC Escherichia coli are capable to manipulate host cytoskeleton and colonize gut epithelia by a specific mode of attachment known as the attaching and effacing lesion (A/E lesion. While actin rearrangements during A/E lesion formation have been extensively investigated, the possible alterations of other cytoskeletal elements like those comprising the intercellular junctional complexes (JC of polarized cells during infection have only lately attracted attention. The present mini-review addresses the opposite effects of two groups of bacteria, A/E lesion-forming pathogenic E. coli and probiotic bacterial strains, on JC. JC are important in maintaining gut barrier functions. EPEC and EHEC can disrupt JC which as a consequence leads to reduction in the transepitelial electrical resistance (TER and an increase of the permeability to macromolecules. Probiotic bacteria on the other hand stabilize JC thus increasing TER and reducing permeability to macromolecular markers. Probiotic strains can protect JC integrity of polarized cells from the damage caused by EPEC or EHEC. Together with the promise of these results, of concern is the fact that the outcome of the studies can differ dependent on experimental protocols. Studies with living bacteria and different strain combinations have also put forward strain specific effects. Therefore, an important practical item for future studies is the identification of the molecules synthesized by probiotic bacteria that may be active on JC stability.

  5. Clinical evaluation of mandibular implant overdentures via Locator implant attachment and Locator bar attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong-Ho; Bae, Eun-Bin; Kim, Jung-Woo; Lee, So-Hyoun; Yun, Mi-Jung; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and patient satisfaction on implant overdenture designed with Locator implant attachment or Locator bar attachment in mandibular edentulous patients. Implant survival rate, marginal bone loss, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, complications, and satisfaction were evaluated on sixteen patients who were treated with mandibular overdenture and have used it for at least 1 year (Locator implant attachment: n=8, Locator bar attachment: n=8). Marginal bone loss, probing depth, plaque index of the Locator bar attachment group were significantly lower than the Locator implant attachment group (Pimplant inflammation, and patient satisfaction between the two denture types (P>.05). The replacement of the attachment components was the most common complication in both groups. Although there was no correlation between marginal bone loss and plaque index, a significant correlation was found between marginal bone loss and probing depth. The Locator bar attachment group indicates lesser marginal bone loss and need for maintenance, as compared with the Locator implant attachment group. This may be due to the splinting effect among implants rather than the types of Locator attachment.

  6. [The interpretation of attachment in the Szondi test and in the questionnaire processes of attachment theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török I, András; Vincze, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    [corrected] The Szondi-test is widely applied in clinical diagnostics in Hungary too, and the evidence resulting from the theory is that we can get information about attachment during its interpreting. Its validity is proven by empirical research and clinical experiences. By analyzing the modern attachment theory more thoroughly, it becomes clear in what ways the Szondi-test constellations regarding attachment are different from the classificationbased on questionnaires, allowing the discrete measurement of the attachment style. With the Szondi-test the classification to attachment style is more insecure, but if it is completed with exploration, it is more informative in vector C (vector of relation, attachment information), while short questionnaires make the classification to attachment style possible. In our empirical analysis we represent the integration of the above mentioned clinical and theoretical experiences. In the present analysis we compare the vector C and S constellation of the two-profile Szondi-test of 80 persons with the dimensions of ECR-R questionnaire and with Collins and Read's questionnaire classification regarding attachment style. The statistical results refer to the fact that there is a legitimacy to compare questionnaire processes allowing the discrete classification of attachment and the Szondi-test's information content regarding attachment. With applying the methods together, we get a unique, complementary section of the information relating to attachment. Comparing the two methods (projective and questionnaire) establishes the need of theoretical integration as well. We also make an attempt to explain Fraley's evolutionary non-adaptivity of avoidant attachment, in the case of whose presence adaptivity of early attachment, counterbalancing the exploration and security need, and providing closeness--farness loses its balance.

  7. Preferential attachment in evolutionary earthquake networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Soghra; Moghaddasi, Hanieh; Darooneh, Amir Hossein

    2018-04-01

    Earthquakes as spatio-temporal complex systems have been recently studied using complex network theory. Seismic networks are dynamical networks due to addition of new seismic events over time leading to establishing new nodes and links to the network. Here we have constructed Iran and Italy seismic networks based on Hybrid Model and testified the preferential attachment hypothesis for the connection of new nodes which states that it is more probable for newly added nodes to join the highly connected nodes comparing to the less connected ones. We showed that the preferential attachment is present in the case of earthquakes network and the attachment rate has a linear relationship with node degree. We have also found the seismic passive points, the most probable points to be influenced by other seismic places, using their preferential attachment values.

  8. Topological systems versus attachment relations | Guido ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... localification procedure introduced by S. Vickers for topological systems. Keywords: Adjoint functor, algebra, attachment relation, embedding functor, localification of topological systems, spatialization of topological systems, topological system, topological theory, variety of algebras. Quaestiones Mathematicae 37(2014), ...

  9. Mobile electrons in electron-attaching liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyikos, L.

    1981-01-01

    Based on recent observations of mobile electrons in electron-attaching liquids some ideas are presented concerning the nature of the fas carrier. To explain the observed phenomena quantum chemical calculations and modified percolation theory are applied. (author)

  10. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may ...

  11. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment

  12. Structural correlations in bacterial metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizana Ludvig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of metabolism occurs through the acquisition and loss of genes whose products acts as enzymes in metabolic reactions, and from a presumably simple primordial metabolism the organisms living today have evolved complex and highly variable metabolisms. We have studied this phenomenon by comparing the metabolic networks of 134 bacterial species with known phylogenetic relationships, and by studying a neutral model of metabolic network evolution. Results We consider the 'union-network' of 134 bacterial metabolisms, and also the union of two smaller subsets of closely related species. Each reaction-node is tagged with the number of organisms it belongs to, which we denote organism degree (OD, a key concept in our study. Network analysis shows that common reactions are found at the centre of the network and that the average OD decreases as we move to the periphery. Nodes of the same OD are also more likely to be connected to each other compared to a random OD relabelling based on their occurrence in the real data. This trend persists up to a distance of around five reactions. A simple growth model of metabolic networks is used to investigate the biochemical constraints put on metabolic-network evolution. Despite this seemingly drastic simplification, a 'union-network' of a collection of unrelated model networks, free of any selective pressure, still exhibit similar structural features as their bacterial counterpart. Conclusions The OD distribution quantifies topological properties of the evolutionary history of bacterial metabolic networks, and lends additional support to the importance of horizontal gene transfer during bacterial metabolic evolution where new reactions are attached at the periphery of the network. The neutral model of metabolic network growth can reproduce the main features of real networks, but we observe that the real networks contain a smaller common core, while they are more similar at the periphery

  13. Structural correlations in bacterial metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Gerlee, Philip; Lizana, Ludvig

    2011-01-20

    Evolution of metabolism occurs through the acquisition and loss of genes whose products acts as enzymes in metabolic reactions, and from a presumably simple primordial metabolism the organisms living today have evolved complex and highly variable metabolisms. We have studied this phenomenon by comparing the metabolic networks of 134 bacterial species with known phylogenetic relationships, and by studying a neutral model of metabolic network evolution. We consider the 'union-network' of 134 bacterial metabolisms, and also the union of two smaller subsets of closely related species. Each reaction-node is tagged with the number of organisms it belongs to, which we denote organism degree (OD), a key concept in our study. Network analysis shows that common reactions are found at the centre of the network and that the average OD decreases as we move to the periphery. Nodes of the same OD are also more likely to be connected to each other compared to a random OD relabelling based on their occurrence in the real data. This trend persists up to a distance of around five reactions. A simple growth model of metabolic networks is used to investigate the biochemical constraints put on metabolic-network evolution. Despite this seemingly drastic simplification, a 'union-network' of a collection of unrelated model networks, free of any selective pressure, still exhibit similar structural features as their bacterial counterpart. The OD distribution quantifies topological properties of the evolutionary history of bacterial metabolic networks, and lends additional support to the importance of horizontal gene transfer during bacterial metabolic evolution where new reactions are attached at the periphery of the network. The neutral model of metabolic network growth can reproduce the main features of real networks, but we observe that the real networks contain a smaller common core, while they are more similar at the periphery of the network. This suggests that natural selection and

  14. Adult Attachment Style, Hardiness, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Maddi, S. R. (2004). Hardiness: An operationalization of existential cour- age. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 44, 279–298. doi: 10.1177...but not challenge, predict positive mood. These results suggest that more secure attachment style and psychological hardiness serve as resilience...S. (1978). Pat- terns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hill- sdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A

  15. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charlotte E Kvennefors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral-associated bacteria are increasingly considered to be important in coral health, and altered bacterial community structures have been linked to both coral disease and bleaching. Despite this, assessments of bacterial communities on corals rarely apply sufficient replication to adequately describe the natural variability. Replicated data such as these are crucial in determining potential roles of bacteria on coral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used in a highly replicated approach to analyse bacterial communities on both healthy and diseased corals. Although site-specific variations in the bacterial communities of healthy corals were present, host species-specific bacterial associates within a distinct cluster of gamma-proteobacteria could be identified, which are potentially linked to coral health. Corals affected by "White Syndrome" (WS underwent pronounced changes in their bacterial communities in comparison to healthy colonies. However, the community structure and bacterial ribotypes identified in diseased corals did not support the previously suggested theory of a bacterial pathogen as the causative agent of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to employ large numbers of replicated samples to assess the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased corals, and the first culture-independent assessment of bacterial communities on WS affected Acroporid corals on the GBR. Results indicate that a minimum of 6 replicate samples are required in order to draw inferences on species, spatial or health-related changes in community composition, as a set of clearly distinct bacterial community profiles exist in healthy corals. Coral bacterial communities may be both site and species specific. Furthermore, a cluster of gamma-proteobacterial ribotypes may represent a group of specific common coral and marine

  16. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvennefors, E Charlotte E; Sampayo, Eugenia; Ridgway, Tyrone; Barnes, Andrew C; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2010-04-29

    Coral-associated bacteria are increasingly considered to be important in coral health, and altered bacterial community structures have been linked to both coral disease and bleaching. Despite this, assessments of bacterial communities on corals rarely apply sufficient replication to adequately describe the natural variability. Replicated data such as these are crucial in determining potential roles of bacteria on coral. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used in a highly replicated approach to analyse bacterial communities on both healthy and diseased corals. Although site-specific variations in the bacterial communities of healthy corals were present, host species-specific bacterial associates within a distinct cluster of gamma-proteobacteria could be identified, which are potentially linked to coral health. Corals affected by "White Syndrome" (WS) underwent pronounced changes in their bacterial communities in comparison to healthy colonies. However, the community structure and bacterial ribotypes identified in diseased corals did not support the previously suggested theory of a bacterial pathogen as the causative agent of the syndrome. This is the first study to employ large numbers of replicated samples to assess the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased corals, and the first culture-independent assessment of bacterial communities on WS affected Acroporid corals on the GBR. Results indicate that a minimum of 6 replicate samples are required in order to draw inferences on species, spatial or health-related changes in community composition, as a set of clearly distinct bacterial community profiles exist in healthy corals. Coral bacterial communities may be both site and species specific. Furthermore, a cluster of gamma-proteobacterial ribotypes may represent a group of specific common coral and marine invertebrate associates. Finally, the results did not support the contention that a single

  17. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation......, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria....

  18. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  19. Personality and Attachment in Transsexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.

  20. Attachment of gaseous fission products to aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, G.

    1985-01-01

    Accidents may occur in which the integrity of fuel cladding is breached and volatile fission products are released to the containment atmosphere. In order to assess the magnitude of the subsequent radiological hazard it is necessary to know the transport behaviour of such fission products. It is frequently assumed that the fission products remain in the gaseous phase. There is a possibility, however, that they may attach themselves to particles and hence substantially modify their transport properties. This paper provides a theoretical assessment of the conditions under which gaseous fission products may be attached to aerosol particles. Specific topics discussed are: the mass transfer of a gaseous fission product to an isolated aerosol particle in an infinite medium; the rate at which the concentration of fission products in the gas phase diminishes within a container as a result of deposition on a population of particles; and the distribution of deposited fission product between different particle sizes in a log-normal distribution. It is shown that, for a given mass, small particles are more efficient for fission product attachment, and that only small concentrations of such particles may be necessary to achieve rapid attachment. Conditions under which gaseous fission products are not attached to particles are also considered, viz, the competing processes of deposition onto the containment walls and onto aerosol particles, and the possibility of the removal of aerosols from the containment by various deposition processes, or agglomeration, before attachment takes place. (author)

  1. The relationship between attachment and cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and cognitive development of personality have mostly been explored independently in the history of psychology. However, in the last decades, there have been more and more frequent arguments in favour of the idea that the emotional relationship between the mother and the child in early childhood, through forming a secure or insecure attachment style, is to a certain extent linked to the cognitive development. For example, securely attached children, compared to the insecurely attached, have more frequent and longer episodes of symbolic play and are more advanced in the domain of language in early childhood. Securely attached children are also more efficient and persistent in solving problems. Before starting school, securely attached children understand better the feelings and beliefs of others, as well as the fact that these determine people’s behaviour, thus having an opportunity to understand and predict this behaviour better. In this paper, we will attempt to point out some of the mechanisms that are assumed to be mediators between the emotional and cognitive development. Namely, since it enables a more independent exploration of the surroundings, more quality social relations among children, higher self-esteem, better focus and more developed communicative skills, secure attachment might potentially be linked to the cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  2. Attachment and hikikomori: a psychosocial developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Alexander; Dickie, Jane R

    2013-02-01

    Hikikomori (acute social withdrawal) is a social issue in Japan that affects both the society and the lives of the individual sufferers. This study aims to connect attachment theory and hikikomori by using a culturally sensitive psychosocial developmental model that outlines the various stages of attachment throughout the developmental years. Twenty-four hikikomori sufferers and 60 comparison group participants were given questionnaires assessing parent and peer relationships, temperament and school experiences. We found the hikikomori participants had a higher incidence of ambivalent attachment, reported more parental and peer rejection and bullying, and expressed greater temperamental shyness. Path analysis supported our developmental model. We found that shy temperament and parental rejection predicted ambivalent attachment, which when coupled with peer rejection predicted hikikomori. Our model implies that treatment and prevention may require attention to attachment insecurities in early childhood, peer rejection in middle childhood and/or early adolescence. We believe it is helpful in understanding hikikomori to first understand how the attachment system balances security with exploration and the anxiety associated with novelty and challenge. Finally, we examine implications of the model for intervention, treatment and future research.

  3. Wait Up!: Attachment and Sovereign Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschinsky, Robbie; Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Sociologists and feminist scholars have, over many decades, characterised attachment as a social construction that functions to support political and gender conservatism. We accept that attachment theory has seen use to these ends and consider recent deployments of attachment theory as justification for a minimal State within conservative political discourse in the UK since 2009. However, we contest that attachment is reducible to its discursive construction. We consider Judith Butler’s depiction of the infant attached to an abusive caregiver as a foundation and parallel to the position of the adult citizen subjected to punitive cultural norms and political institutions. We develop and qualify Butler’s account, drawing on the insights offered by the work of Lauren Berlant. We also return to Foucault’s Psychiatric Power lectures, in which familial relations are situated as an island of sovereign power within the sea of modern disciplinary institutions. These reflections help advance analysis of three important issues: the social and political implications of attachment research; the relationship between disciplinary and sovereign power in the affective dynamic of subjection; and the political and ethical status of professional activity within the psy disciplines. PMID:28904425

  4. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-01-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. - Highlights: ► Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS) was developed to study electron attachment reaction. ► The rate constants of electron attachment to CCl 4 and CHCl 3 were determined. ► The present experimental results are in good agreement with the previously reported data.

  5. God as the ultimate attachment figure for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2004-12-01

    Attachment to God among older adults is an area of research that has been neglected thus far. The existence of such an attachment was explored in a study of 109 elders aged 70-97. A modest proportion of elders displayed a strong attachment to God, assessed by coding interview data for indicators of attachment. Strength of attachment to God was related (p God than those with other affiliations. Findings are interpreted in relation to existing literature on attachment to God.

  6. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: the influence of attachment primes on the content of state attachment representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David P.; Dewitte, Marieke; De Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  7. Probing living bacterial adhesion by single cell force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    Bacteria initiate attachment to the surfaces with the aid of different extracellular polymers. To quantitatively study how these polymers mediate bacterial adhesion and possibly their interactions, it is essential to go down to single cell level, with in mind that cell-to-cell variation should...... with a commercial cell adhesive CellTakTM. The method was applied to four different bacterial strains, and single-cell adhesion was measured on three surfaces (fresh glass, hydrophilic glass, mica). Attachment to the cantilever was stable during the 2 h of AFM force measurements, and viability was confirmed by Live...

  8. Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Julliette M

    2012-02-03

    LPS tolerance has been the focus of extensive scientific and clinical research over the last several decades in an attempt to elucidate the sequence of changes that occur at a molecular level in tolerized cells. Tolerance to components of gram-positive bacterial cell walls such as bacterial lipoprotein and lipoteichoic acid is a much lesser studied, although equally important, phenomenon. This review will focus on cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components and examines the alterations in cell surface receptor expression, changes in intracellular signaling, gene expression and cytokine production, and the phenomenon of cross-tolerance.

  9. Bacterial infection increases risk of carcinogenesis by targeting mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A.B.; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2017-01-01

    pathways, and compares the impact of the bacterial alteration of mitochondrial function to that of cancer. Bacterial virulence factors have been demonstrated to induce mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and to modulate DNA repair pathways of the mitochondria. Furthermore, virulence factors can induce...... or impair the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The effect of bacterial targeting of mitochondria is analogous to behavior of mitochondria in a wide array of tumours, and this strongly suggests that mitochondrial targeting of bacteria is a risk factor for carcinogenesis....

  10. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  11. Bacterial Meningitis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 80 infantile patients (ages 30-365 days; 47 male, 33 female with culture-proven bacterial meningitis seen over a 16 year period (1986-2001 is reported from Taiwan.

  12. Factitious Bacterial Meningitis Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, E.; Thrupp, L.; Uchiyama, N.; Hawkins, B.; Wolvin, B.; Greene, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nonviable gram-negative bacilli were seen in smears of cerebrospinal fluid from eight infants in whom bacterial meningitis was ruled out. Tubes from commercial kits were the source of the factitious organisms. PMID:7153328

  13. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria......-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial...

  14. 'Adoption and attachment theory' the attachment models of adoptive mothers and the revision of attachment patterns of their late-adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, C S; Zavattini, G C

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the attachment patterns of late-adopted children (aged 4-7) and their adoptive mothers during the first 7- to 8-month period after adoption and aimed to evaluate the effect of adoptive mothers' attachment security on the revision of the attachment patterns of their late-adopted children. We assessed attachment patterns in 20 adoptive dyads and 12 genetically related dyads at two different times: T1 (time 1) within 2 months of adoption and T2 (time 2) 6 months after T1. The children's behavioural attachment patterns were assessed using the Separation-Reunion Procedure and the children's representational (verbal) attachment patterns using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task. The attachment models of the adoptive mothers were classified using the Adult Attachment Interview. We found that there was a significant enhancement of the late-adopted children's attachment security across the time period considered (P= 0.008). Moreover, all the late-adopted children who showed a change from insecurity to security had adoptive mothers with secure attachment models (P= 0.044). However, the matching between maternal attachment models and late-adopted children's attachment patterns (behaviours and representations) was not significant. Our data suggest that revision of the attachment patterns in the late-adopted children is possible but gradual, and that the adoptive mothers' attachment security makes it more likely to occur. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M; Scottish Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Animals Scottish Spca

    2017-05-06

    Attachment to pets has an important role in children's social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life) and pets (such as humane treatment). This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  16. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  17. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life) and pets (such as humane treatment). This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood. PMID:28481256

  18. Cross-structural priming: prepositional phrase attachment primes relative clause attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, Maaike; Van Laere, Sébastien M J; Desmet, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that attachment height (high vs. low attachment) of a modifier to a complex noun phrase (CNP; e.g., "the servant of the actress"), can be primed between dissimilar syntactic structures. In a sentence completion experiment, we found that the attachment height of a prepositional phrase (PP) in the prime sentence primed the attachment height of a relative clause (RC) in the target sentence. This cross-structural priming effect cannot be explained in terms of the priming of specific phrase-structure rules or even sequences of specific phrase-structure rules (Scheepers, 2003), because the attachment of a PP to a CNP is generated by a different phrase-structure rule than the attachment of an RC. However, the present data suggest that the location at which the RC is attached to the CNP is mentally represented, independent of the specific phrase-structure rule that is attached, or by extension, that the abstract hierarchical configuration of the full CNP and the attached RC is represented (Desmet & Declercq, 2006). This is the first demonstration of a cross-structural priming effect that cannot be captured by phrase-structure rules.

  19. Concordance of attachment representations in preschool siblings assessed by the attachment story completion task

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Helene; Zahn, Salome; Titze, Karl; Walitza, Susanne; Zulauf Logoz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated only a modest concordance of attachment security in siblings in infancy. Until now, very little was known about the concordance of siblings’ attachment security beyond infancy, as assessed by the attachment story completion task. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the concordance of attachment representations of 38 first-born (4–7 years) and 38 second-born (3–5 years) siblings living in middle-class two-parent families. Personality factors and the level ...

  20. Enteric Helminths Promote Salmonella Coinfection by Altering the Intestinal Metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Redpath, Stephen A; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Gill, Navkiran; Brown, Eric M; van der Heijden, Joris; Brosschot, Tara P; Han, Jun; Marshall, Natalie C; Woodward, Sarah E; Valdez, Yanet; Borchers, Christoph H; Perona-Wright, Georgia; Finlay, B Brett

    2017-04-15

    Intestinal helminth infections occur predominantly in regions where exposure to enteric bacterial pathogens is also common. Helminth infections inhibit host immunity against microbial pathogens, which has largely been attributed to the induction of regulatory or type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Here we demonstrate an additional 3-way interaction in which helminth infection alters the metabolic environment of the host intestine to enhance bacterial pathogenicity. We show that an ongoing helminth infection increased colonization by Salmonella independently of T regulatory or Th2 cells. Instead, helminth infection altered the metabolic profile of the intestine, which directly enhanced bacterial expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) genes and increased intracellular invasion. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which a helminth-modified metabolome promotes susceptibility to bacterial coinfection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Carbon nanotubes as in vivo bacterial probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Ghosh, Debadyuti; Belcher, Angela M.

    2014-09-01

    With the rise in antibiotic-resistant infections, non-invasive sensing of infectious diseases is increasingly important. Optical imaging, although safer and simpler, is less developed than other modalities such as radioimaging, due to low availability of target-specific molecular probes. Here we report carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as bacterial probes for fluorescence imaging of pathogenic infections. We demonstrate that SWNTs functionalized using M13 bacteriophage (M13-SWNT) can distinguish between F‧-positive and F‧-negative bacterial strains. Moreover, through one-step modification, we attach an anti-bacterial antibody on M13-SWNT, making it easily tunable for sensing specific F‧-negative bacteria. We illustrate detection of Staphylococcus aureus intramuscular infections, with ~3.4 × enhancement in fluorescence intensity over background. SWNT imaging presents lower signal spread ~0.08 × and higher signal amplification ~1.4 × , compared with conventional dyes. We show the probe offers greater ~5.7 × enhancement in imaging of S. aureus infective endocarditis. These biologically functionalized, aqueous-dispersed, actively targeted, modularly tunable SWNT probes offer new avenues for exploration of deeply buried infections.

  2. Bacterial adherence to polymethylmethacrylate posterior chamber IOLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Shalini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bacterial adherence to intraocular lenses (IOLs has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common organism isolated. We studied the in-vitro adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA IOLs and the effect of duration of exposure to adherence. Methods: Two groups of 10 IOLs each were incubated in Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension for 2 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. Adhesion of bacterial cells was determined by counting the number of viable bacteria attached to IOLs. Results: The mean bacterial adherence with 2 minutes incubation was 12,889 ± 7,150 bacteria / IOL and with 20 minutes incubation was 84,226 ± 35,024 bacteria/IOL (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Our results show that Staphylococcus epidermidis adheres to PMMA IOLs in vitro and the degree of adherence is less for shorter duration of exposure. We conclude that viable bacteria irreversibly adherent to IOLs may play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Shorter duration of operative manipulation and exposure to contaminating sources may decrease the chances of postoperative endophthalmitis.

  3. Initial Inoculation Concentration Does Not Affect Final Bacterial Colonization of In vitro Vascular Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Thomas A; Lewis, Clayton; Baluh, Graham; Clemens, Michael; Propper, Brandon; Arthurs, Zachary M

    2018-02-21

    Despite improved peri-operative care, prosthetic graft infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Contemporary graft infection models have tested a conduit's infectability using varying concentrations without standardization. Using a static assay in vitro model, we sought to evaluate the impact of inoculation concentration on vascular conduit attachment. The 2-hour and 24-hour attachment of Staphylococcus aureus TCH1516 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01-UW were determined on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Dacron ® , nitinol, cobalt chromium, and Viabahn ® (W.L. Gore and Associates, Newark, DE) endoprotheses. Individually and in combination, concentrations at 10 4 , 10 5 , 10 6 , 10 7 , and 10 8 were tested on 2-mm sections of each graft. After each time interval, the prosthetics were rinsed to remove non-attached bacteria, sonicated to release the attached bacteria, spiral plated, and then analyzed for the attached concentration. After two hours, the higher initial inoculation concentration translated into a higher attachment percentage, but the mean attachment percentage was only 14.8% in the 10 8 group. Pseudomonas aeruginosa had the greatest mean attachment across all material and concentration groups. The sequence of attachment on the conduits followed a constant order: Dacron, PTFE, cobalt, nitinol, and Viabahn with no difference between Dacron and PTFE. Although there were still differences at the 24-hour mark, the median attachment at each concentration was greater than the highest initial concentration (10 8 ). Initial attachment percentage is poor consistently regardless of inoculation concentration, however, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are still able to achieve full attachment after 24 hours. A concentration of less than 10 7 should be used in vascular graft infection models to ensure adequate bacterial attachment.

  4. Altered gut microbiota in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Albanese, Davide; De Felice, Claudio; Donati, Claudio; Hayek, Joussef; Jousson, Olivier; Leoncini, Silvia; Pindo, Massimo; Renzi, Daniela; Rizzetto, Lisa; Stefanini, Irene; Calabrò, Antonio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-07-30

    The human gut microbiota directly affects human health, and its alteration can lead to gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammation. Rett syndrome (RTT), a progressive neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene, is commonly associated with gastrointestinal dysfunctions and constipation, suggesting a link between RTT's gastrointestinal abnormalities and the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of RTT subjects integrating clinical, metabolomics and metagenomics data to understand if changes in the gut microbiota of RTT subjects could be associated with gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammatory status. Our findings revealed the occurrence of an intestinal sub-inflammatory status in RTT subjects as measured by the elevated values of faecal calprotectin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. We showed that, overall, RTT subjects harbour bacterial and fungal microbiota altered in terms of relative abundances from those of healthy controls, with a reduced microbial richness and dominated by microbial taxa belonging to Bifidobacterium, several Clostridia (among which Anaerostipes, Clostridium XIVa, Clostridium XIVb) as well as Erysipelotrichaceae, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Eggerthella, Escherichia/Shigella and the fungal genus Candida. We further observed that alterations of the gut microbiota do not depend on the constipation status of RTT subjects and that this dysbiotic microbiota produced altered short chain fatty acids profiles. We demonstrated for the first time that RTT is associated with a dysbiosis of both the bacterial and fungal component of the gut microbiota, suggesting that impairments of MeCP2 functioning favour the establishment of a microbial community adapted to the costive gastrointestinal niche of RTT subjects. The altered production of short chain fatty acids associated with this microbiota might reinforce the constipation status of RTT

  5. Method for construction of bacterial strains with increased succinic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia; Chatterjee, Ranjini

    2000-01-01

    A fermentation process for producing succinic acid is provided comprising selecting a bacterial strain that does not produce succinic acid in high yield, disrupting the normal regulation of sugar metabolism of said bacterial strain, and combining the mutant bacterial strain and selected sugar in anaerobic conditions to facilitate production of succinic acid. Also provided is a method for changing low yield succinic acid producing bacteria to high yield succinic acid producing bacteria comprising selecting a bacterial strain having a phosphotransferase system and altering the phosphotransferase system so as to allow the bacterial strain to simultaneously metabolize different sugars.

  6. Attachment, intellectual disabilities and mental health: research, assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuengel, Carlo; de Schipper, Johanna Clasien; Sterkenburg, Paula S; Kef, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Attachment theory is highly influential in child and adult mental health research and practice. Research and practice have started now to explore the potential value of an attachment perspective for understanding and alleviating the challenges that persons with intellectual disabilities face in mental health and social participation. Research on attachment and intellectual disabilities is reviewed on its importance for knowledge, assessment and intervention. Progress was found in understanding and distinguishing attachment behaviours, attachment relationships, attachment representations, attachment styles and attachment disorders and their respective implications for assessment and intervention. Of the various attachment-related concepts, insights into attachment behaviours and relationships showed the most promise for practical applications in the field of intellectual disabilities. Findings on representations, styles and disorders were inconclusive or preliminary. Attachment-informed research and practice can be part of emerging developmental understanding of functioning with intellectual disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  8. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  9. Growing networks with mixed attachment mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Zhigang; Zou Xianwu; Tan Zhijie; Jin Zhunzhi

    2006-01-01

    Networks grow and evolve when new nodes and links are added in. There are two methods to add the links: uniform attachment and preferential attachment. We take account of the addition of links with mixed attachment between uniform attachment and preferential attachment in proportion. By using numerical simulations and analysis based on a continuum theory, we obtain that the degree distribution P(k) has an extended power-law form P(k) ∼ (k + k 0 ) -γ . When the number of edges k of a node is much larger than a certain value k 0 , the degree distribution reduces to the power-law form P(k) ∼ k -γ ; and when k is much smaller than k 0 , the degree distribution degenerates into the exponential form P(k)∼exp(-yk/k 0 ). It has been found that degree distribution possesses this extended power-law form for many real networks, such as the movie actor network, the citation network of scientific papers and diverse protein interaction networks

  10. Covalently Attached Monolayers on Crystalline Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon: Extremely Mild Attachment by Visible Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Q.Y.; Smet, de L.C.P.M.; Lagen, van B.; Giesbers, M.; Thüne, P.C.; Engelenburg, van J.; Wolf, de F.A.; Zuilhof, H.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    A very mild method was developed for the attachment of high-quality organic monolayers on crystalline silicon surfaces. By using visible light sources, from 447 to 658 nm, a variety of 1-alkenes and 1-alkynes were attached to hydrogen-terminated Si(100) and Si(111) surfaces at room temperature. The

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  12. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  13. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on oxytocin and cortisol blood levels in mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Krause

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the hormone of affiliation and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004 and cortisol decreased by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004. Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol, consistent with our hypotheses. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should

  14. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  15. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  16. Attachment at (not to) work: applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A; Schat, Aaron C H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of 2 studies that were conducted to investigate whether adult attachment theory explains employee behavior at work. In the first study, we examined the structure of a measure of adult attachment and its relations with measures of trait affectivity and the Big Five. In the second study, we examined the relations between dimensions of attachment and emotion regulation behaviors, turnover intentions, and supervisory reports of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Results showed that anxiety and avoidance represent 2 higher order dimensions of attachment that predicted these criteria (except for counterproductive work behavior) after controlling for individual difference variables and organizational commitment. The implications of these results for the study of attachment at work are discussed.

  17. Interpretation bias in middle childhood attachment: Causal effects on attachment memories and scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, Simon; Salemink, Elske; Bosmans, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Attachment theory implies the causal influence of interpretation bias on the attachment-related expectations. Previous research demonstrated that training children to interpret maternal behavior as more supportive increased their trust in maternal support. The current study explored possible training effects on two attachment script-related processes: recollection of attachment-related memories and secure base script knowledge. Children (9-12 years old; N = 84) were assigned to either a secure training condition, training children to interpret mother's behavior as supportive, or a neutral placebo condition, where interpretations about maternal behavior were unrelated to support. Findings replicated the training effect on interpretation bias and trust. Furthermore, children's recollection of attachment-related memories became more positive. No training effect was found for secure base script knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  19. Bacterial leaching of pyritic gold ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, F.M.; Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Jay, W.H. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Chemical Engineering Department

    1996-12-31

    The bacterial oxidation process is well known in nature but has only recently come under investigation as a viable and relatively clean method of gold recovery from ores. However there is currently little information about the process at an atomic scale. It is known that the bacterial attack progresses preferentially along grain boundaries which is precisely where the gold has been deposited from aqueous infiltration. Samples have been obtained from the Wiluna mine in Western Australia consisting of the original ore, 2 pre-treatments, and from six successive bacterial reactors. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra taken at room temperature show only two quadrupole split doublets which can be ascribed to pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, and arsenopyrite, FeAsS. However, the presence of any superparamagnetic oxide or oxyhydroxide species would be expected to give a spectrum very similar to that of pyrite and would be undetectable in small quantities. At a temperature of 5K, a broad magnetically split sextet is observable with a mean hyperfine field of approximately 50T. This field is characteristic of magnetically ordered ferric iron surrounded by an octahedron of oxygens. The intensity and characteristics of this subspectrum alters through the series and interpretations will be given on the oxidation products of the bacterial leaching

  20. Bacterial leaching of pyritic gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, F.M.; Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J.; Jay, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The bacterial oxidation process is well known in nature but has only recently come under investigation as a viable and relatively clean method of gold recovery from ores. However there is currently little information about the process at an atomic scale. It is known that the bacterial attack progresses preferentially along grain boundaries which is precisely where the gold has been deposited from aqueous infiltration. Samples have been obtained from the Wiluna mine in Western Australia consisting of the original ore, 2 pre-treatments, and from six successive bacterial reactors. 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra taken at room temperature show only two quadrupole split doublets which can be ascribed to pyrite, FeS 2 , and arsenopyrite, FeAsS. However, the presence of any superparamagnetic oxide or oxyhydroxide species would be expected to give a spectrum very similar to that of pyrite and would be undetectable in small quantities. At a temperature of 5K, a broad magnetically split sextet is observable with a mean hyperfine field of approximately 50T. This field is characteristic of magnetically ordered ferric iron surrounded by an octahedron of oxygens. The intensity and characteristics of this subspectrum alters through the series and interpretations will be given on the oxidation products of the bacterial leaching

  1. Attachment in Institutionalized and Community Children in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Smyke, Anna T.; Koga, Sebastian F.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This study examined attachment in institutionalized and community children 12-31 months of age in Bucharest, Romania. Attachment was assessed using ratings of attachment behaviors and ratings of caregiver descriptions in a structured interview. As predicted, children raised in institutions exhibited serious disturbances of attachment as assessed…

  2. Preschool Teacher Attachment, School Readiness and Risk of Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodari, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Attachment is the emotional bond between children and their caregivers (parents or otherwise). Infants and young children usually have more than one selective attachment, and all of these attachment relationships, including those between children and teachers, have important effects on cognitive and social development. Secure attachment to a…

  3. Clinical decision - making review on magnetic attachments versus mechanical attachments in dental prosthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fabiano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Conventional dentures in edentulous patients show some limitations due to the lack of retention, support and stability thus resulting in difficulty to chew. The modern implantology allows to use different implant overdentures and different attachment systems. The selection of the attachment by practitioners is mainly influenced by the clinical experience or technical preferences. Aims The aim of the present review is to provide an adequate background to the clinicians, in order to select the prosthetic attachments according to the current literature. The mechanical attachments have been compared to the magnetic devices, with the aim to guide the decision of the practitioners. Methods Articles topics selection was based on the use of magnetic attachments in dentistry and the comparison between them and mechanical connectors. The databases used were PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science. A critical evaluation of the selected paper has been made to choose the ones that matched the inclusion criteria. Results Nowadays, few studies have compared different attachments in a manner useful for clinical decision-making. The main problem limiting long-term durability of magnetic attachments in the oral fluid is the poor corrosion resistance of permanent magnets and the consequent leaching of cytotoxic ions. Conclusion Magnetic attachments in comparison with other attaching systems can be useful in patients with special needs, in patients with limited interocclusal space, or in patients with neuromuscular limitations, thanks to the automatic reseating properties. However, it’s important to highlight that the mechanical attachments still represent the best choice in common conditions requiring dental prostheses.

  4. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of lightning flashes connecting lightning rods that

  5. Understanding Members’ Attachment to Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2014-01-01

    , socializing with others and much more. This study therefore endeavors to shed light on this growing trend by decomposing members’ motives for participating within SNSs into identity-based, bondbased and comparison-based attachments. Each of these forms of attachment in turn affects members’ cooperative......Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences...

  6. Attachments to the common-place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2015-01-01

    on Thévenot's notion of ‘commonality in the plural’, the article shows how a range of personal affinities to the architectural form of the kyō-machiya, positioned as an urban ‘common-place’, serves to coordinate across otherwise divergent interests. By taking seriously the role of attachments to common-places...... change. To understand the dynamic interplay of architecture and community-building in this case, the article stages a theoretical debate on the politics of shared attachments between three proponents of French pragmatic sociology: Bruno Latour, Antoine Hennion, and Laurent Thévenot. Drawing in particular...

  7. Giant gravitons-with strings attached (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Smolic, Jelena; Smolic, Milena

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the free field theory limit of operators dual to giant gravitons with open strings attached, are studied. We introduce a graphical notation, which employs Young diagrams, for these operators. The computation of two point correlation functions is reduced to the application of three simple rules, written as graphical operations performed on the Young diagram labels of the operators. Using this technology, we have studied gravitational radiation by giant gravitons and bound states of giant gravitons, transitions between excited giant graviton states and joining of open strings attached to the giant

  8. Electron attachment to Van der Waals molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of recent experimental studies of low-energy electron attachment to O 2 , N 2 O and other molecules in dense gases and in sonic nozzle beams with emphasis on the important role of pre-existing van der Waals molecules in the attachment mechanism. The experimental results particularly for O 2 are compared with recent theories. A survey is also given briefly of recent studies on electron solvation and localization in the condensed phase from the viewpoint of the studies on electron interaction with van der Waals molecules. (Auth.)

  9. Effect of Extracellular Polymeric Substances on Surface Properties and Attachment Behavior of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contact leaching of ores is more effective than non-contact leaching. Adhesion is the first step for leaching bacteria to form a biofilm on a mineral surface. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS are pivotal for mediating bacterial adhesion to a substratum. In order to clarify the role of EPS, we measured the adhesion forces between chalcopyrite-, sulfur- or FeSO4·7H2O-grown cells of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and chalcopyrite by an atomic force microscope (AFM before and after EPS removal. Surface properties of these cells were assessed by measurements of the contact angle, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and acid-base titration. Bacterial attachment to chalcopyrite was monitored for 140 min. The results indicate that the EPS control the surface properties of the cells. In addition, the surface properties are decisive for adhesion. The adhesion forces and the amounts of attached cells decreased dramatically after removing EPS, which was not dependent on the preculture.

  10. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marji, S.

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  11. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm resilience poses major challenges to the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Biofilm bacteria can be considered small groups of “Special Forces” capable of infiltrating the host and destroying important components of the cellular defense system with the aim of crippling the host...... defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  12. Influence of partial meniscectomy on attachment forces, superficial strain and contact mechanics in porcine knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freutel, Maren; Seitz, Andreas M; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies investigated the reasons for premature osteoarthritis due to partial meniscectomy (PM). However, the influence of meniscectomy on attachment forces and superficial strain of the tibial meniscus is unclear. It is hypothesised that these parameters depend on the degree of PM. Six porcine medial menisci were placed in a custom made apparatus, and each meniscal attachment was connected to a force sensor. After printing markers onto the tibial meniscal surfaces, the menisci were positioned on a glass plate enabling optical superficial strain measurement. Additionally, contact area and pressure were investigated. Each meniscus was axially loaded up to 650 N using its respective femoral condyle. Testing was conducted intact and after 50 and 75% PM of the posterior horn and extending 75% PM to the anterior horn. With increasing meniscectomy, the attachment forces decreased anteriorly by up to 17% (n.s.) and posteriorly by up to 55% (p = 0.003). The circumferential strain in the peripheral meniscal zones was not affected by the meniscectomy, while in some meniscal zones the radial strain changed from compression to tension. Contact area decreased by up to 23% (p = 0.01), resulting in an increase in 40% (p = 0.02) for the maximum contact pressure. Partial meniscectomy significantly alters the loading situation of the meniscus and its attachments. Specifically, the attachment forces decreased with increasing amount of meniscal tissue loss, which reflects the impaired ability of the meniscus to transform axial joint load into meniscal hoop stress.

  13. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...

  14. Bacterial meningitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lawrence C; Boggess, Kim A; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal bacterial meningitis is uncommon but devastating. Morbidity among survivors remains high. The types and distribution of pathogens are related to gestational age, postnatal age, and geographic region. Confirming the diagnosis is difficult. Clinical signs are often subtle, lumbar punctures are frequently deferred, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures can be compromised by prior antibiotic exposure. Infants with bacterial meningitis can have negative blood cultures and normal CSF parameters. Promising tests such as the polymerase chain reaction require further study. Prompt treatment with antibiotics is essential. Clinical trials investigating a vaccine for preventing neonatal Group B Streptococcus infections are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular and Physical Factors That Influence Attachment of Vibrio vulnificus to Chitin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tiffany C.; Ayrapetyan, Mesrop

    2015-01-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of seafood-related deaths in the United States. Strains are genotyped on the basis of alleles that correlate with isolation source, with clinical (C)-genotype strains being more often implicated in disease and environmental (E)-genotype strains being more frequently isolated from oysters and estuarine waters. Previously, we have shown that the ecologically distinct C- and E-genotype strains of V. vulnificus display different degrees of chitin attachment, with C-genotype strains exhibiting reduced attachment relative to their E-genotype strain counterparts. We identified type IV pili to be part of the molecular basis for this observed genotypic variance, as E-genotype strains exhibit higher levels of expression of these genes than C-genotype strains. Here, we used a C-genotype quorum-sensing (QS) mutant to demonstrate that quorum sensing is a negative regulator of type IV pilus expression, which results in decreased chitin attachment. Furthermore, calcium depletion reduced E-genotype strain attachment to chitin, which suggests that calcium is necessary for proper functioning of the type IV pili in E-genotype strains. We also found that starvation or dormancy can alter the efficiency of chitin attachment, which has significant implications for the environmental persistence of V. vulnificus. With the increasing incidence of wound infections caused by V. vulnificus, we investigated a subset of E-genotype strains isolated from human wound infections and discovered that they attached to chitin in a manner more similar to that of C-genotype strains. This study enhances our understanding of the molecular and physical factors that mediate chitin attachment in V. vulnificus, providing insight into the mechanisms that facilitate the persistence of this pathogen in its native environment. PMID:26116670

  16. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms contribute to the viral-bacterial synergy which results in fatal secondary bacterial respiratory infections. Epidemiological investigations have implicated physical and psychological stressors as factors contributing to the incidence and severity of respiratory infections and psychological stress alters host responses to experimental viral respiratory infections. The effect of stress on secondary bacterial respiratory infections has not, however, been investigated. A natural model of secondary bacterial respiratory infection in naive calves was used to determine if weaning and maternal separation (WMS) significantly altered mortality when compared to calves pre-adapted (PA) to this psychological stressor. Following weaning, calves were challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica four days after a primary bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) respiratory infection. Mortality doubled in WMS calves when compared to calves pre-adapted to weaning for two weeks prior to the viral respiratory infection. Similar results were observed in two independent experiments and fatal viral-bacterial synergy did not extend beyond the time of viral shedding. Virus shedding did not differ significantly between treatment groups but innate immune responses during viral infection, including IFN-γ secretion, the acute-phase inflammatory response, CD14 expression, and LPS-induced TNFα production, were significantly greater in WMS versus PA calves. These observations demonstrate that weaning and maternal separation at the time of a primary BHV-1 respiratory infection increased innate immune responses that correlated significantly with mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection. PMID:22435642

  17. Responses of soil bacterial community after seventh yearly applications of composted tannery sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, Ana Roberta Lima; Mendes, Lucas William; Rocha, Sandra Mara Barbosa; Brink, Van den Paul J.; Bezerra, Walderly Melgaço; Melo, Vania Maria Maciel; Antunes, Jadson Emanuel Lopes; Araujo, Ademir Sergio Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    Composted tannery sludge (CTS) contains organic compounds and inorganic elements, mainly chromium (Cr), and its long-term application in soil can alter the bacterial structure and diversity. Thus, we used the next-generation sequencing to assess the structure and diversity of bacterial communities

  18. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  19. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  1. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore, the effect of cutting parameters, such as, cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate on the cutting forces, machining power and specific cutting energy have ...

  2. Clinical Perspective Attachment, parenting styles and bullying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent–adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents.

  3. Dissociative electron attachment to ozone: rate constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalny, J.D.; Cicman, P.; Maerk, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    The rate constant for dissociative electron attachment to ozone has been derived over the energy range of 0-10 eV by using previously measured cross section data revisited here in regards to discrimination effect occurring during the extraction of ions. The obtained data for both possible channels exhibit the maximum at mean electron energies close to 1 eV. (author)

  4. Attachment at School Age and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; St-Laurent, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinally the association between attachment at age 6 and school-related cognitive functioning 2 years later in a French Canadian sample. Found that secure children had higher scores than insecure peers on communication, cognitive engagement, and mastery motivation. Controlling children were at greatest risk for school…

  5. Parental Attachment as Predictor of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaik, Lee Phaik; Abdullah, Maria Chong; Elias, Habibah; Uli, Jegak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between adolescents' parental attachment and delinquent behaviour in the aspects of trust, communication and alienation. In this study, delinquent behaviour refers to the set of behaviours which is against any mainstream established rules or norms. It is believed that delinquent…

  6. No Strings Attached: Open Source Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Imagine downloading a new software application and not having to worry about licensing, finding dollars in the budget, or incurring additional maintenance costs. Imagine finding a Web design tool in the public domain--free for use. Imagine major universities that provide online courses with no strings attached. Imagine online textbooks without a…

  7. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  8. Attachment Contexts of Adolescent Friendship and Romance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judi Beinstein; Hoicowitz, Tova

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare memories of attachments to parents, friends, and romantic partners in relation to the maintenance of high school friendships and romantic relationships. College students recorded the length of their friendships and romantic relationships during high school and rated the quality of each. They also rated…

  9. Attachment Theory: Implications for School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Janice H.; Kennedy, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    The effective practice of school psychology requires a strong research and theoretical base, a framework that encompasses developmental processes and outcomes, both adaptive and maladaptive, which facilitates assessment and intervention and offers insight into classroom and family dynamics. Attachment theory provides the school psychologist with…

  10. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  11. Selective Attachment of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans for Separation of Chalcopyrite and Pyrite through Bio-Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Bleeze

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of depressants used in sulfide mineral beneficiation, with bacteria and their metabolites, promises to reduce the environmental impact left by the mining industry. In this study, the attachment of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, L.f, to chalcopyrite and pyrite was investigated through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The impact of selective attachment, bacterial growth conditions, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS was investigated through bio-flotation. L.f exhibits selective attachment to pyrite between 0 h and 168 h exposure via an indirect contact mechanism. Separation of chalcopyrite from pyrite was achieved through exposing the minerals for 72 h with an L.f culture grown on either HH media, chalcopyrite, or pyrite. The results produced 80.4, 43.4, and 47.4% recovery of chalcopyrite, respectively. However, EPS supernatant extracted from L.f grown on chalcopyrite, conditioned for 48 h, provided the best separation efficiency by the selective depression of pyrite resulting in 95.8% Cu recovery. Polysaccharide-rich EPS selectively attaches to pyrite within 48 h, depressing its floatability and ensuring successful separation with a PIPX collector.

  12. The influence of nanoscopically thin silver films on bacterial viability and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Hasan, Jafar; Truong, Vi Khanh; Wang, James Y; Raveggi, Massimo; Fluke, Christopher; Crawford, Russell J

    2011-08-01

    The physicochemical and bactericidal properties of thin silver films have been analysed. Silver films of 3 and 150 nm thicknesses were fabricated using a magnetron sputtering thin-film deposition system. X-ray photoelectron and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses confirmed that the resulting surfaces were homogeneous, and that silver was the most abundant element present on both surfaces, being 45 and 53 at.% on the 3- and 150-nm films, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectroscopy (ICP-TOF-MS) was used to measure the concentration of silver ions released from these films. Concentrations of 0.9 and 5.2 ppb were detected for the 3- and 150-nm films, respectively. The surface wettability of the films remained nearly identical for both film thicknesses, displaying a static water contact angle of 95°, while the surface free energy of the 150-nm film was found to be slightly greater than that of the 3-nm film, being 28.8 and 23.9 mN m(-1), respectively. The two silver film thicknesses exhibited statistically significant differences in surface topographic profiles on the nanoscopic scale, with R (a), R (q) and R (max) values of 1.4, 1.8 and 15.4 nm for the 3-nm film and 0.8, 1.2 and 10.7 nm for the 150-nm film over a 5 × 5 μm scanning area. Confocal scanning laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bactericidal activity of the 3-nm silver film was not significant, whereas the nanoscopically smoother 150-nm silver film exhibited appreciable bactericidal activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 cells and Staphylococcus aureus CIP 65.8 cells, obtaining up to 75% and 27% sterilisation effect, respectively.

  13. Methods for dynamic investigations of surface-attached in vitro bacterial and fungal biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Claus; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Shirtliff, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Three dynamic models for the investigation of in vitro biofilm formation are described in this chapter. In the 6-well plate assay presented here, the placing of the plate on a rotating platform provides shear, thereby making the system dynamic with respect to the static microtiter assay.The second...... reported model, especially suitable for harvesting high amounts of cells for transcriptomic or proteomic investigations, is based on numerous glass beads placed in a flask incubated with shaking on a rotating platform, thus increasing the surface area for biofilm formation. Finally, the flow-cell system...

  14. Enhancement of Cell Attachment to a Substrate Coated with Oral Bacterial Endotoxin by Plasma Fibronectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Cefl cuL- ture dishes. and the assuallption that each Because there asa slgnifiealt dilterelice ill cell attachnctlit (romn the conitrol atl 12.5...coated Culture dishes "~ henl the\\ groups t reated ssit h 5ff to f100 ng ml of "erFe incubated with plasmia li bronccli n tor fi bronec tin were F not sig

  15. In Azospirillum brasilense, mutations in flmA or flmB genes affect polar flagellum assembly, surface polysaccharides, and attachment to maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fernando Ariel; Medeot, Daniela Beatriz; Liaudat, Juan Pablo; Pistorio, Mariano; Jofré, Edgardo

    2016-09-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a soil bacterium capable of promoting plant growth. Several surface components were previously reported to be involved in the attachment of A. brasilense to root plants. Among these components are the exopolysaccharide (EPS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the polar flagellum. Flagellin from polar flagellum is glycosylated and it was suggested that genes involved in such a posttranslational modification are the same ones involved in the biosynthesis of sugars present in the O-antigen of the LPS. In this work, we report on the characterization of two homologs present in A. brasilense Cd, to the well characterized flagellin modification genes, flmA and flmB, from Aeromonas caviae. We show that mutations in either flmA or flmB genes of A. brasilense resulted in non-motile cells due to alterations in the polar flagellum assembly. Moreover, these mutations also affected the capability of A. brasilense cells to adsorb to maize roots and to produce LPS and EPS. By generating a mutant containing the polar flagellum affected in their rotation, we show the importance of the bacterial motility for the early colonization of maize roots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The statistical behaviour of attached eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, J. D.; Marusic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis forms the basis of an established model of the logarithmic layer in wall-bounded turbulent flows in which this inertially dominated region is characterised by a hierarchy of geometrically self-similar eddying motions that scale with their distance to the wall. The hypothesis has gained considerable support from high Reynolds number measurements of the second-order moments of the fluctuating velocities. Recently, Meneveau and Marusic ["Generalized logarithmic law for high-order moments in turbulent boundary layers," J. Fluid Mech. 719, R1 (2013)] presented experimental evidence that all even-ordered moments of the streamwise velocity will exhibit a logarithmic dependence on the distance from the wall. They demonstrated that this was consistent with the attached eddy hypothesis, so long as the velocity distribution is assumed to be Gaussian (which allows the use of the central limit theorem). In this paper, we derive this result from the attached eddy model without assuming a Gaussian velocity distribution, and find that such logarithmic behaviours are valid in the large Reynolds number limit. We also revisit the physical and mathematical basis of the attached eddy hypothesis, in order to increase rigour and minimise the assumptions required to apply the hypothesis. To this end, we have extended the proof of Campbell's theorem to apply to the velocity field corresponding to a forest of variously sized eddies that are randomly placed on the wall. This enables us to derive all moments of the velocity in the logarithmic region, including cross-correlations between different components of the velocity. By contrast, previous studies of the attached eddy hypothesis have considered only the mean velocity and its second order moments. From this, we obtain qualitatively correct skewnesses and flatnesses for the spanwise and wall-normal fluctuations. The issue of the Reynolds number dependence of von Kármán's constant is also addressed.

  17. Sulfur isotope separation by dissociative electron attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A new method is proposed for isotope separation in polyatomic molecules. In this method a laser is tuned to selectively excite a vibration mode of the molecules which contain the isotope to be removed. Before deactivation can occur, an electron is attached, resulting in an excited negative ion. Under the proper conditions this ion may dissociate, producing fragments which can be removed chemically. This technique is particularly suited to isotope separation in SF 6 . Potential energy curves are developed for this molecule to aid in explaining the mechanism of dissociative electron attachment. These curves incorporate much of the information known about attachment of electrons to SF 6 and represent an improvement over previously published curves. A rough estimate of the effectiveness of this method is made, based upon the temperature-dependent branching ratio for SF 5 - and SF 6 - . The calculations indicate that the fractional 34 S content in a sample of processed SF 6 may increase 4760 times the content in a natural sample. A kinetics model is presented to describe the attachment of electrons to SF 6 . Numerical solutions of the appropriate rate equations indicate that application of the proposed technique to SF 6 will require a low pressure environment and a large number of zero energy electrons. A simple theory is developed to determine threshold intensities for laser-induced dissociation on the basis of experimentally measurable quantities, the total laser power and the reaction volume. Using the focused beam method, a series of experiments performed to separate isotopes in SF 6 establishes a value of 6.0 MW/cm 2 for the threshold intensity. This eliminates dissociative electron attachment as an explanation of isotope separation by the focused beam method, but does not exclude it as a viable technique for separating isotopes

  18. Understanding the Relationships between Attachment Styles, Locus of Control, School Maladaptation, and Depression Symptoms among Students in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Anna M.; Lewandowska-Walter, A.; Chalupa, A. A.; Jonak, Jolanta; Duszynski, Ramzia; Mazurkiewicz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Altered family experiences place children in foster care at risk for school adjustment difficulties. This study focuses on exploring the differences in school adaptation, locus of control, depression symptoms, and attachment styles among children in foster care and children raised by their biological parents. Sixty children completed self-report…

  19. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-12-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature.

  20. Significant relationship between soil bacterial community structure and incidence of bacterial wilt disease under continuous cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Siyuan; Niu, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Chao; Xiao, Yunhua; Chen, Wu; Dai, Linjian; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2017-03-01

    Soil bacteria are very important in biogeochemical cycles and play significant role in soil-borne disease suppression. Although continuous cropping is responsible for soil-borne disease enrichment, its effect on tobacco plant health and how soil bacterial communities change are yet to be elucidated. In this study, soil bacterial communities across tobacco continuous cropping time-series fields were investigated through high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that long-term continuous cropping could significantly alter soil microbial communities. Bacterial diversity indices and evenness indices decreased over the monoculture span and obvious variations for community structures across the three time-scale tobacco fields were detected. Compared with the first year, the abundances of Arthrobacter and Lysobacter showed a significant decrease. Besides, the abundance of the pathogen Ralstonia spp. accumulated over the monoculture span and was significantly correlated with tobacco bacterial wilt disease rate. Moreover, Pearson's correlation demonstrated that the abundance of Arthrobacter and Lysobacter, which are considered to be beneficial bacteria had significant negative correlation with tobacco bacterial wilt disease. Therefore, after long-term continuous cropping, tobacco bacterial wilt disease could be ascribed to the alteration of the composition as well as the structure of the soil microbial community.

  1. Lambda Red-mediated Recombineering in the Attaching and Effacing Pathogen Escherichia albertii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Marisa; Ramirez, Jasmine; Xander, Christian; Upreti, Chirag; Bhatt, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    The ability to introduce site-specific mutations in bacterial pathogens is essential towards understanding their molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity. This has been greatly facilitated by the genetic engineering technique of recombineering. In recombineering, linear double- or single-stranded DNA molecules with two terminal homology arms are electroporated into hyperrecombinogenic bacteria that express a phage-encoded recombinase. The recombinase catalyzes the replacement of the endogenous allele with the exogenous allele to generate selectable or screenable recombinants. In particular, lambda red recombinase has been instrumental in engineering mutations to characterize the virulence arsenal of the attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and Citrobacter rodentium. Escherichia albertii is another member of this taxon; however, the virulence of E. albertii remains cryptic despite accumulating evidence that E. albertii is an emerging pathogen. Multiple retrospective studies have reported that a substantial number of EPEC and EHEC isolates (~15 %) that were previously incriminated in human outbreaks actually belong to the E. albertii lineage. Thus, there is increased urgency to reliably identify and rapidly engineer mutations in E. albertii to systematically characterize its virulence determinants. To the best of our knowledge not a single chromosomal gene has been altered by targeted mutagenesis in E. albertii since it was first isolated almost 25 years ago. This is disconcerting because an E. albertii outbreak could cause significant morbidity and mortality owing to our inadequate understanding of its virulence program. In this report we describe a modified lambda red recombineering protocol to mutagenize E. albertii. As proof of principle, we successfully deleted three distinct virulence-associated genetic loci - ler, grlRA, and hfq - and replaced each wild type allele by a mutant allele

  2. The Bacterial Growth Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulton, Richard J. L.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure that allows students to view an entire bacterial growth curve during a two- to three-hour student laboratory period is described. Observations of the lag phase, logarithmic phase, maximum stationary phase, and phase of decline are possible. A nonpathogenic, marine bacterium is used in the investigation. (KR)

  3. Bacterial fingerprints across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), impose major threats to human health worldwide. Both have a ‘Jekyll & Hyde’ character, since they can be present as human commensals, but can also become harmful invasive pathogens especially

  4. [Bacterial biofilms and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  5. EDITORIAL SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  6. Bacterial membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Ansgar; Wolters, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    About one quarter to one third of all bacterial genes encode proteins of the inner or outer bacterial membrane. These proteins perform essential physiological functions, such as the import or export of metabolites, the homeostasis of metal ions, the extrusion of toxic substances or antibiotics, and the generation or conversion of energy. The last years have witnessed completion of a plethora of whole-genome sequences of bacteria important for biotechnology or medicine, which is the foundation for proteome and other functional genome analyses. In this review, we discuss the challenges in membrane proteome analysis, starting from sample preparation and leading to MS-data analysis and quantification. The current state of available proteomics technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be described with a focus on shotgun proteomics. Then, we will briefly introduce the most abundant proteins and protein families present in bacterial membranes before bacterial membrane proteomics studies of the last years will be presented. It will be shown how these works enlarged our knowledge about the physiological adaptations that take place in bacteria during fine chemical production, bioremediation, protein overexpression, and during infections. Furthermore, several examples from literature demonstrate the suitability of membrane proteomics for the identification of antigens and different pathogenic strains, as well as the elucidation of membrane protein structure and function.

  7. Seizures Complicating Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical data of 116 patients, 1 month to <5 years of age, admitted for bacterial meningitis, and grouped according to those with and without seizures during hospitalization, were compared in a study at Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and other centers in Taiwan.

  8. Diagnosis of bacterial infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rapid and easy-to-use test for bacterial infections. Clearly, this is a very ... detect antigens or specific antibodies, e.g. group A streptococcal antigen testing can be employed to reduce antibiotic use. Culture-based tests are often ... White blood cell count 12 000 cells/mm³; or the presence of >10% ...

  9. Bacterial Meningitis Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1995-01-01

    The neurologic, psychological, and educational outcomes of bacterial meningitis in 130 children evaluated at a mean age of 8 years, and 6 years after their meningitis, are reported from the Department of Paediatrics and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, University of Melbourne, and the Royal Children’s Hospital, Victoria, Australia.

  10. Extracellular polysaccharides are involved in the attachment of Azospirillum brasilense and Rhizobium leguminosarum to arbuscular mycorrhizal structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Bianciotto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi, one of the most important component of the soil microbial community, establish physical interactions with naturally occurring and genetically modified bacterial biofertilizers and biopesticides, commonly referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. We have used a genetic approach to investigate the bacterial components possibly involved in the attachment of two PGPR (Azospirillum and Rhizobium to AM roots and AM fungal structures. Mutants affected in extracellular polysaccharides (EPS have been tested in in vitro adhesion assays and shown to be strongly impaired in the attachment to both types of surfaces as well as to quartz fibers. Anchoring of rhizobacteria to AM fungal structures may have special ecological and biotechnological significance because it may facilitate colonisation of new rhizospheres by the bacteria, and may be an essential trait for the development of mixed inocula.

  11. Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.

  12. Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides involved in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Barbara; Chen, Miao; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2009-07-13

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.

  13. Corticosteroids for Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is a benefit in clinical outcomes with the use of topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial comparing prednisolone sodium phosphate, 1.0%, to placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and received topical moxifloxacin for at least 48 hours before randomization. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 months from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included infiltrate/scar size, reepithelialization, and corneal perforation. Results Between September 1, 2006, and February 22, 2010, 1769 patients were screened for the trial and 500 patients were enrolled. No significant difference was observed in the 3-month BSCVA (−0.009 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]; 95% CI, −0.085 to 0.068; P = .82), infiltrate/scar size (P = .40), time to reepithelialization (P = .44), or corneal perforation (P > .99). A significant effect of corticosteroids was observed in subgroups of baseline BSCVA (P = .03) and ulcer location (P = .04). At 3 months, patients with vision of counting fingers or worse at baseline had 0.17 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (95% CI, −0.31 to −0.02; P = .03) compared with placebo, and patients with ulcers that were completely central at baseline had 0.20 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (−0.37 to −0.04; P = .02). Conclusions We found no overall difference in 3-month BSCVA and no safety concerns with adjunctive corticosteroid therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Application to Clinical Practice Adjunctive topical corticosteroid use does not improve 3-month vision in patients with bacterial corneal ulcers. PMID:21987582

  14. Activating attachment representations during memory retrieval modulates intrusive traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Chan, Iris

    2017-10-01

    Although priming mental representations of attachment security reduces arousal, research has not examined the effect of attachment on the retrieval of emotionally arousing memories. This study investigated the effect of priming attachment security on the retrieval of emotional memories. Seventy-five participants viewed negative and neutral images, and two days later received either an attachment prime or a control prime immediately prior to free recall of the images. Two days later, participants reported how frequently they experienced intrusions of the negative images. The attachment group had less distress, and reported fewer subsequent intrusions than the control group. Attachment style moderated these effects such that individuals with an avoidant attachment style were not impacted by the attachment prime. These findings suggest that priming attachment security decreases distress during memory reactivation, and this may reduce subsequent intrusive memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attachment within life history theory: an evolutionary perspective on individual differences in attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepsenwol, Ohad; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2018-03-15

    In this article, we discuss theory and research on how individual differences in adult attachment mediate the adaptive calibration of reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation. We first present an integration of attachment theory and life history theory. Then, we discuss how early harsh and/or unpredictable environments may promote insecure attachment by hampering parents' ability to provide sensitive and reliable care to their children. Finally, we discuss how, in the context of harsh and/or unpredictable environments, different types of insecure attachment (i.e. anxiety and avoidance) may promote evolutionary adaptive reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Insecure attachment behavior and partner violence: incorporating couple perceptions of insecure attachment and relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Megan; Sandberg, Jonathan G; Bradford, Angela B; Brown, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Intimate partner violence and insecure attachment are therapeutically relevant concepts when working with couples. The link between attachment and intimate partner violence has been examined in the literature, but an area of aggression that often goes unexamined is relational aggression, or using third parties as a means of being aggressive toward a partner. We asked how participants' attachment behaviors were related to their own and partners' relational and physical aggression. We used structural equation modeling to estimate actor-partner interdependence among these relationships in 644 heterosexual couples. Results indicated significant partner paths from attachment to relational aggression, as well as significant actor paths between relational aggression and physical aggression. Implications were discussed. Data for this study were collected from the RELATE assessment. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  17. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  18. Clinical evaluation of mandibular implant overdentures via Locator implant attachment and Locator bar attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Yong-Ho; Bae, Eun-Bin; Kim, Jung-Woo; Lee, So-Hyoun; Yun, Mi-Jung; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and patient satisfaction on implant overdenture designed with Locator implant attachment or Locator bar attachment in mandibular edentulous patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implant survival rate, marginal bone loss, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, complications, and satisfaction were evaluated on sixteen patients who were treated with mandibular overdenture and have used it for at least 1 ...

  19. Phenotypic Heterogeneity and the Evolution of Bacterial Life Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-02-01

    Most bacteria live in colonies, where they often express different cell types. The ecological significance of these cell types and their evolutionary origin are often unknown. Here, we study the evolution of cell differentiation in the context of surface colonization. We particularly focus on the evolution of a 'sticky' cell type that is required for surface attachment, but is costly to express. The sticky cells not only facilitate their own attachment, but also that of non-sticky cells. Using individual-based simulations, we show that surface colonization rapidly evolves and in most cases leads to phenotypic heterogeneity, in which sticky and non-sticky cells occur side by side on the surface. In the presence of regulation, cell differentiation leads to a remarkable set of bacterial life cycles, in which cells alternate between living in the liquid and living on the surface. The dominant life stage is formed by the surface-attached colony that shows many complex features: colonies reproduce via fission and by producing migratory propagules; cells inside the colony divide labour; and colonies can produce filaments to facilitate expansion. Overall, our model illustrates how the evolution of an adhesive cell type goes hand in hand with the evolution of complex bacterial life cycles.

  20. Seasonal to hour variation scales in abundance and production of total and particle-attached bacteria in the open NW Mediterranean Sea (0–1000 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mével

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the vertical and temporal dynamics of total vs. particle-attached bacterial abundance and activity over a 5 week period under summer to autumn transition in NW Mediterranean Sea. At a weekly time scale, total bacterial biomass and production in the euphotic layers was significantly correlated with phytoplanktonic biomass. At an hourly time scale, total bacterial biomass responded very rapidly to chlorophyll a fluctuations, suggesting a tight coupling between phytoplankton and bacteria for resource partitioning during the summer-autumn transition. In contrast, no influence of diel changes on bacterial parameters was detected. Episodic events such as coastal water intrusions had a significant positive effect on total bacterial abundance and production, whereas we could not detect any influence of short wind events whatever the magnitude. Finally, we show that particle-attached bacteria can represent a large proportion (up to 49% of the total bacterial activity in the euphotic layer but display rapid and sporadic changes at hourly time scales. In the mesopelagic layers, bacterial abundance and production linearly decreased with depth, except some production peaks at 400–750 m. This study underlines the value of large datasets covering different temporal scales to clarify the biogeochemical role of bacteria in the cycling of organic matter in open seawater.

  1. Bacterial lipoproteins; biogenesis, sorting and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are a subset of membrane proteins localized on either leaflet of the lipid bilayer. These proteins are anchored to membranes through their N-terminal lipid moiety attached to a conserved Cys. Since the protein moiety of most lipoproteins is hydrophilic, they are expected to play various roles in a hydrophilic environment outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli possess an outer membrane, to which most lipoproteins are sorted. The Lol pathway plays a central role in the sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane after lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature forms in the cytoplasmic membrane. Most lipoproteins are anchored to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane with their protein moiety in the periplasm. However, recent studies indicated that some lipoproteins further undergo topology change in the outer membrane, and play critical roles in the biogenesis and quality control of the outer membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Alters the Number of Attachment Sites between Ezrin and Actin Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunger, Julia A.; Brückner, Bastian R.; Nehls, Stefan; Pietuch, Anna; Gerke, Volker; Mey, Ingo; Janshoff, Andreas; Steinem, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Direct linkage between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton is controlled by the protein ezrin, a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin protein family. To function as a membrane-cytoskeleton linker, ezrin needs to be activated in a process that involves binding of ezrin to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue. Here, we used colloidal probe microscopy to quantitatively analyze the interaction between ezrin and F-actin as a function of these activating factors. We show that the measured individual unbinding forces between ezrin and F-actin are independent of the activating parameters, in the range of approximately 50 piconewtons. However, the cumulative adhesion energy greatly increases in the presence of PIP2 demonstrating that a larger number of bonds between ezrin and F-actin has formed. In contrast, the phosphorylation state, represented by phosphor-mimetic mutants of ezrin, only plays a minor role in the activation process. These results are in line with in vivo experiments demonstrating that an increase in PIP2 concentration recruits more ezrin to the apical plasma membrane of polarized cells and significantly increases the membrane tension serving as a measure of the adhesion sites between the plasma membrane and the F-actin network. PMID:24500715

  3. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Schjørring, S.; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from...

  4. Listeria monocytogenes transiently alters mitochondrial dynamics during infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stavru, Fabrizia; Bouillaud, Frederic; Sartori, Anna; Ricquier, Daniel; Cossart, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential and highly dynamic organelles, constantly undergoing fusion and fission. We analyzed mitochondrial dynamics during infection with the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and show that this infection profoundly alters mitochondrial dynamics by causing transient mitochondrial network fragmentation. Mitochondrial fragmentation is specific to pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes, and it is not observed with the nonpathogenic Listeria innocua species or several ...

  5. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli translocate Tir and form an intimin-Tir intimate attachment to red blood cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert K; Daniell, Sarah; Frankel, Gad; Knutton, Stuart

    2002-05-01

    Type III secretion allows bacteria to inject effector proteins into host cells. In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) the type III secreted protein, Tir, is translocated to the host-cell plasma membrane where it functions as a receptor for the bacterial adhesin intimin, leading to intimate bacterial attachment and "attaching and effacing" (A/E) lesion formation. To study EPEC type III secretion the interaction of EPEC with monolayers of red blood cells (RBCs) has been exploited and in a recent study [Shaw, R. K., Daniell, S., Ebel, F., Frankel, G. & Knutton, S. (2001 ). Cell Microbiol 3, 213-222] it was shown that EPEC induced haemolysis of RBCs and translocation of EspD, a putative pore-forming type III secreted protein in the RBC membrane. Here it is demonstrated that EPEC are able to translocate and correctly insert Tir into the RBC membrane and produce an intimin-Tir intimate bacterial attachment, identical to that seen in A/E lesions. Following translocation Tir did not undergo any change in apparent molecular mass or become tyrosine-phosphorylated and there was no focusing of RBC cytoskeletal actin beneath intimately adherent bacteria, and no pedestal formation. This study, employing an RBC model of infection, has demonstrated that Tir translocation can be separated from host-cell-mediated Tir modifications; the data show that the EPEC type III protein translocation apparatus is sufficient to deliver and correctly insert Tir into host-cell membranes independent of eukaryotic cell functions.

  6. The Multimodal Assessment of Adult Attachment Security: Developing the Biometric Attachment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Federico; Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Persiaux, Gwenaelle; Morales, Michelle; Scherer, Stefan

    2017-04-06

    Attachment theory has been proven essential for mental health, including psychopathology, development, and interpersonal relationships. Validated psychometric instruments to measure attachment abound but suffer from shortcomings common to traditional psychometrics. Recent developments in multimodal fusion and machine learning pave the way for new automated and objective psychometric instruments for adult attachment that combine psychophysiological, linguistic, and behavioral analyses in the assessment of the construct. The aim of this study was to present a new exposure-based, automatic, and objective adult-attachment assessment, the Biometric Attachment Test (BAT), which exposes participants to a short standardized set of visual and music stimuli, whereas their immediate reactions and verbal responses, captured by several computer sense modalities, are automatically analyzed for scoring and classification. We also aimed to empirically validate two of its assumptions: its capacity to measure attachment security and the viability of using themes as placeholders for rotating stimuli. A total of 59 French participants from the general population were assessed using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ), the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), and the Attachment Multiple Model Interview (AMMI) as ground truth for attachment security. They were then exposed to three different BAT stimuli sets, whereas their faces, voices, heart rate (HR), and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded. Psychophysiological features, such as skin-conductance response (SCR) and Bayevsky stress index; behavioral features, such as gaze and facial expressions; as well as linguistic and paralinguistic features, were automatically extracted. An exploratory analysis was conducted using correlation matrices to uncover the features that are most associated with attachment security. A confirmatory analysis was conducted by creating a single composite effects index and by testing it

  7. Radiometric detection of bacterial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Wagner Junior, H.N.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of 14 CO 2 produced by the bacterial oxidation of labelled compounds is discussed as a means of evaluating the bacterial metabolism. The following items are discussed:automated radiometric detection, types of graphs, clinical applications of the radiometric system and influential factors. Complementary studies on bacterial assimilation of substances are presented. (M.A.) [pt

  8. Effect of attachment strategies on bipartite networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganguly, N.; Saha, S.; Maiti, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bipartite systems show remarkable variations in their topological asymptotic properties, e. g., in their degree distribution. Such variations depend on the underlying growth dynamics. A scenario of particular importance is when the two partitions of the bipartite structure do not grow at an equal...... rate. Here, we focus on the case where one of the partitions can be assumed to be fixed while the other partition grows in time as observed in the codon-gene or alphabet-word network. We show that subtle changes in growth dynamics, particularly in the attachment kernel, can lead to drastic changes...... of the emergent topological properties. We present a detail analysis of various growth strategies, including sequential and parallel addition of nodes, as well as with and without replacement attachment kernels. Analytical results have been compared with stochastic simulations as well as with real systems showing...

  9. Smartphone Magnification Attachment: Microscope or Magnifying Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergemöller, Timo; Laumann, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Today smartphones and tablets do not merely pervade our daily life, but also play a major role in STEM education in general, and in experimental investigations in particular. Enabling teachers and students to make use of these new techniques in physics lessons requires supplying capable and affordable applications. Our article presents the improvement of a low-cost technique turning smartphones into powerful magnifying glasses or microscopes. Adding only a 3D-printed clip attached to the smartphone's camera and inserting a small glass bead in this clip enables smartphones to take pictures with up to 780x magnification (see Fig. 1). In addition, the construction of the smartphone attachments helps to explain and examine the differences between magnifying glasses and microscopes, and shows that the widespread term "smartphone microscope" for this technique is inaccurate from a physics educational perspective.

  10. Vegetation attached to the elephant trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Okada, Kenji; Okita, Yutaka

    2013-09-01

    The elephant trunk technique is used as a standard method in the approach to staged repair of extensive thoracic aneurysms. Here, we present a rare case of a graft infection, in which vegetation was attached to the distal end of the elephant trunk. A 36-year old male who had undergone total arch replacement with elephant trunk installation for type A aortic dissection was readmitted for high-grade fever. At the time of admission, Osler's nodules were present and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple small emboli and haemorrhages. Transoesophageal echocardiography could not locate any sign of infection within the cardiac chambers, but disclosed vegetation attached to the elephant trunk. He underwent successful emergent graft replacement of the lesion, and no recurrence of the infection has been observed.

  11. Attachment theory and John Bowlby: some reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan

    2007-12-01

    The 100th anniversary of Edward John Mostyn Bowlby's birth (February 26th, 1907) was celebrated at the Tavistock Clinic in London by his family and colleagues, with presentations of ongoing research as well as reflections on both the person and his theory. My own reflections include the influence of ethological thinking on the development of attachment theory, Bowlby's focus on observations followed by explanation, his appreciation of emotional communication as well as behavior, and his recognition of the role of the family as well as the child/caregiver dyad. While always remaining open to new avenues of research, John Bowlby was firmly insistent on the precise use of attachment terminology, and quite rightly too!

  12. Attachment to the physical dimension of places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, M Carmen; Hernández, Bernardo

    2002-12-01

    Social relationships had been important in explanation and prediction of attachment to places. Although some have asserted the importance of physical aspects of the environment in the formation of attachment ties to a place, the social environment is required for the formation of bonds to a place, although strong emphasis on the social aspect has been questioned and the importance of the physical environment noted. The present objective in two studies was to test whether college students (ns = 30 and 27) show a preference for a place they know, independently of the social interactions developed in them. Results confirmed the hypothesis, i.e., after a very brief stay in a certain place with nobody else there, these college students preferred that place to another with which they had not had previous contact.

  13. Lethal fish hook attachment - An unusual occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-02-01

    A 39-year-old fisherman is reported who was dragged into the water from a boat after he became entangled in fishing line. His death was attributed to salt water drowning. At autopsy the cause of death was confirmed and the mechanism of the lethal event elucidated. Specifically, a large fish hook attached to line was embedded in his right wrist. The hook had passed beneath flexor tendons and had firmly attached him to fishing line that was being dropped from the vessel. There were no other significant injuries or underlying diseases present. This case demonstrates another rare situation in the commercial fishing industry that may result in a victim being dragged from a boat and drowned. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant D Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered gastrointestinal (GI motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO.

  15. Subgingival bacteria in Ghanaian adolescents with or without progression of attachment loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Dahlén

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes subgingival bacterial profiles associated with clinical periodontal status in Ghanaian adolescents with or without progression of attachment loss. Materials and methods: Among 500 adolescents included in a cohort study, 397 returned 2 years later for a periodontal re-examination, including full-mouth CAL measurements. At follow-up, a subgroup of 98 adolescents was also subjected to bacterial sampling with paper points at four periodontal sites (mesial aspect of 11, 26, 31, and 46 and analyzed with the checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization technique against DNA-probes from nine periodontitis-associated bacterial species. Results: The 98 Ghanaian adolescents examined in the present study were similar to the entire group examined at the 2-year follow-up with respect to age, gender, and CAL ≥3 mm. A high detection frequency of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia (>99% using checkerboard analysis was found, while for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the detection frequency was <50%. A strong correlation was found at the individual level between the presence of P. intermedia and the total CAL change, and P. intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis were strongly correlated with a change in CAL and probing pocket depth (PPD at the sampled sites. In a linear regression model, a significant discriminating factor for the total CAL change in the dentition during the 2-year follow-up period was obtained for P. intermedia and public school. Conclusion: This study indicates that subgingival bacterial species other than A. actinomycetemcomitans, for example, P. intermedia, have a significant association with periodontal breakdown (change in CAL in Ghanaian adolescents with progression of periodontal attachment loss.

  16. Regulation of Initial Attachment of P. aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    planktonic- and attachment-specific phosphorylation events. Two procedures were used to do so, a combination of 2D/PAGE and immunoblot analysis and...modification. According to the results of this study, most if not all major effects of BfiSR can be ascribed to the combined action of rsmY and rsmZ...treatment with norfloxacin (Fig. 14). Moreover, no difference in susceptibility was noted for P. aeruginosa wild type biofilms and bfiS mutant biofilms

  17. Cesarean Births and Attachment Behaviors of Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    1984 Thesis and Abstract Approved: 7 • < l ,’/’ M. Virginia Ruth, R.N., Dr.P.H. Associate Professor and Chairman Community Health Nursing Maternal and...culture and current psychological literature. Child Development, 36, 261-297. Newton, L . D. (1975). Description of maternal backgrounds, maternal ...knowledge about breastfeeding and maternal breastfeeding and attachment behaviors of a group of primiparous mothers on the first post- partum day

  18. Attachment and conduct disorder: The Response Programme.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, R.; Moretti, M. M.; Verlaan, V.; Peterson, S.

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of youths are being identified as suffering from behavioral problems that cause difficulties in their family and peer relations, which in turn reduce their chances of academic and vocational success. The common diagnosis given to these disaffiliated youths is conduct disorder. A community-oriented program designed to ensure long-term care for these youths is described. The program is designed to focus members of the youth's environment on the attachment and affiliation is...

  19. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  20. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  1. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  2. Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a well-studied topic in several branches of psychology. Still, it has received little attention from a developmental perspective. Previous retrospective studies linked Machiavellianism to poor parental care, but actual reports of adolescents who live in their family of origin have been ignored so far. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and parental attachment in adolescence and possible sex differences based on life history theory. An adolescent sample (N = 376; 17.27 ± .77 years of age completed the Mach-IV and the maternal and paternal versions of revised Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R. According to our results, significant sex differences emerged in the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment to parents. For girls, maternal alienation proved to be the only significant predictor of Machiavellianism, whereas for boys, low intensity and quality of verbal communication with father predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism. Results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of socialization and from the perspective of emotion regulation.

  3. Infant-parent attachment: Definition, types, antecedents, measurement and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Diane

    2004-10-01

    Attachment theory is one of the most popular and empirically grounded theories relating to parenting. The purpose of the present article is to review some pertinent aspects of attachment theory and findings from attachment research. Attachment is one specific aspect of the relationship between a child and a parent with its purpose being to make a child safe, secure and protected. Attachment is distinguished from other aspects of parenting, such as disciplining, entertaining and teaching. Common misconceptions about what attachment is and what it is not are discussed. The distinction between attachment and bonding is provided. The recognized method to assess infant-parent attachment, the Strange Situation procedure, is described. In addition, a description is provided for the four major types of infant-parent attachment, ie, secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant and insecure-disorganized. The antecedents and consequences of each of the four types of infant-parent attachment are discussed. A special emphasis is placed on the description of disorganized attachment because of its association with significant emotional and behavioural problems, and poor social and emotional outcomes in high-risk groups and in the majority of children who have disorganized attachment with their primary caregiver. Practical applications of attachment theory and research are presented.

  4. Bacterial meningitis in Nottingham.

    OpenAIRE

    Ispahani, P.

    1983-01-01

    Records of 171 cases of bacterial meningitis admitted to Nottingham hospitals from January 1974 to June 1980 were reviewed. The distribution of organisms producing meningitis and the factors influencing mortality in different age groups were assessed. Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 69% of all proven cases. The overall mortality was 26% being lowest in patients with meningococcal meningitis (0%) and highest in those with pneumococcal m...

  5. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial growth kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Kirchner, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of bacterial growth may be made using a radioassay technique. This method measures, by scintillation counting, the 14 CO 2 derived from the bacterial metabolism of a 14 C-labeled substrate. Mathematical growth models may serve as reliable tools for estimation of the generation rate constant (or slope of the growth curve) and provide a basis for evaluating assay performance. Two models, i.e., exponential and logistic, are proposed. Both models yielded an accurate fit to the data from radioactive measurement of bacterial growth. The exponential model yielded high precision values of the generation rate constant, with an average relative standard deviation of 1.2%. Under most conditions the assay demonstrated no changes in the slopes of growth curves when the number of bacteria per inoculation was changed. However, the radiometric assay by scintillation method had a growth-inhibiting effect on a few strains of bacteria. The source of this problem was thought to be hypersensitivity to trace amounts of toluene remaining on the detector

  7. Preparation of Silver- and Zinc-Doped Mullite-Based Ceramics Showing Anti-Bacterial Biofilm Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhair Saleh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc- and silver-doped mullite ceramic discs were prepared and tested as potentially resistant materials against bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction studies showed that zinc ions were incorporated in the structural framework of the mullite, while silver ions remained outside the mullite crystal lattice, which allowed their slow (0.02 ppm/24 hours leaching into the surrounding aqueous environment. In agreement with this behavior, silver-doped mullite showed potent resistance against surface attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while on the other hand, zinc-doped mullite failed to stop bacterial attachment.

  8. Attachment Insecurity Predicts Punishment Sensitivity in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Charlotte; Castle, David J; Newton, Richard; Huang, Chia; Rossell, Susan L

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) experience insecure attachment. We investigated whether insecure attachment is associated with punishment and reward sensitivity in women with AN. Women with AN (n = 24) and comparison women (n = 26) (CW) completed The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, The Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire. Participants with AN returned higher ratings for insecure attachment (anxious and avoidant) experiences and greater sensitivity to punishment (p = 0.001) than CW. In AN, sensitivity to punishment was positively correlated with anxious attachment and negative emotionality but not eating disorder symptoms. Regression analysis revealed that anxious attachment independently predicted punishment sensitivity in AN. Anxious attachment experiences are related to punishment sensitivity in AN, independent of negative emotionality and eating disorder symptoms. Results support ongoing investigation of the contribution of attachment experiences in treatment and recovery.

  9. Active Disks - Remote Execution for Network-Attached Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riedel, Erik

    1997-01-01

    .... One development in this direction is Network Attached Secure Disks (NASD) which attaches storage devices directly to the network and raises the storage interface above the simple (fixed size block...

  10. Androgyny and Attachment Security: Two Related Models of Optimal Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Phillip R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Three studies explore similarities between attachment style typologies and sex role typologies. Both are defined by pairs of dimensions: self model and other model (attachment styles); masculinity, or agency, and femininity, or communion (sex role orientations). Discusses results. (KW)

  11. The use and limitations of attachment theory in child psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Karen

    2014-03-01

    Attachment theory and research has proliferated in recent years, spawning new ideas and applications to child therapy. Some of those interventions are creative and useful and rest on solid theory and research, whereas others derive from tenuous assumptions. As an important developmental construct, attachment plays a role in every therapy, but defining that role can be difficult. Therapists must recognize the significance of attachment in treatment but not at the expense of recognizing and treating other issues. This article provides an overview of attachment theory and attachment-based interventions and discusses how to apply those constructs to therapeutic work with children. It reviews attachment theory, assessment, and treatments, and discusses how attachment-focused interventions can be combined with other therapeutic needs and methods. It also considers limitations in the current clinical application of attachment and makes recommendations for further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Gender moderates the relationship between attachment insecurities and emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velotti, P.; D’Aguanno, M.; de Campora, G.; di Francescantonio, S.; Garofalo, C.; Giromini, L.; Petrocchi, C.; Terrasi, M.; Zavattini, G.C.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between attachment styles and emotion regulation is well documented, and emotion dysregulation is considered characteristic of individuals with insecure attachment styles. Although gender differences in emotion regulation have often been reported, it is not clear whether the association

  13. Attachment and autonomy problems in adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, R.G.; van Vroenhoven, S.; Karreman, A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attachment security and autonomy were examined in adults with ADHD. Insecure attachment and autonomy problems were expected to be negatively associated with general psychological functioning. Method: Questionnaires were administered (Relationship Questionnaire, Autonomy-Connectedness

  14. The Association between State Attachment Security and State Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Pepping, Christopher A.; Davis, Penelope J.; O?Donovan, Analise

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of exper...

  15. Attachment and the Development of Personality and Social Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Mari

    2014-01-01

    According to attachment theory, the establishment of an attachment bond to a caregiver not only provides the infant with protection from danger, but also many other resources presumably beneficial to the child’s general psychological development. Although there is substantial empirical support for a link between attachment security and social functioning in childhood and adolescence, less is known about whether childhood attachment contributes to social functioning beyond adolescence. Similar...

  16. Precision Attachments for Aesthetics and Function: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Nitin Bhaskar; Shetty, Sanyuktha; E, Nagaraj; Shetty, Omkar; D’souza, Raina

    2014-01-01

    Successful restoration of the dentition requires plenty of contemporary and conventional treatment techniques and planning and attachment retained partial dentures are one such kind of treatment modality in prosthodontics. Limited space for extracoronal attachments is a serious gap in the design and the fabrication of a precision attachment Removable Partial Denture (RPD). A custom semi-precision attachment with a partial denture offers strength and improved aesthetics in cases with minimal s...

  17. The application of attachment theory to a psychotherapy case

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the psychotherapeutic use of Attachment Theory. Attachment Theory is an interpersonal theory which refers to the way an individual internalises an emotional-cognitive model of his relationships with his various attachment figures. These models of ways of relating are reflected in the way an individual speaks. The methodology of the study entailed conducting the semi-structured Adult Attachment Interview to elicit a psychotherapy client's narr...

  18. Bacterial community affects toxin production by Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Albinsson

    Full Text Available The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum grows in association with a complex marine bacterial community that is both essential for growth and can alter culture growth dynamics. Using a bacterial community replacement approach, we examined the intracellular PST content, production rate, and profile of G. catenatum cultures grown with bacterial communities of differing complexity and composition. Clonal offspring were established from surface-sterilized resting cysts (produced by sexual crosses of strain GCDE06 and strain GCLV01 and grown with: 1 complex bacterial communities derived from each of the two parent cultures; 2 simplified bacterial communities composed of the G. catenatum-associated bacteria Marinobacter sp. strain DG879 or Alcanivorax sp. strain DG881; 3 a complex bacterial community associated with an untreated, unsterilized sexual cross of the parents. Toxin content (STX-equivalent per cell of clonal offspring (134-197 fmol STX cell(-1 was similar to the parent cultures (169-206 fmol STX cell(-1, however cultures grown with single bacterial types contained less toxin (134-146 fmol STX cell(-1 than offspring or parent cultures grown with more complex mixed bacterial communities (152-176 fmol STX cell(-1. Specific toxin production rate (fmol STX day(-1 was strongly correlated with culture growth rate. Net toxin production rate (fmol STX cell(-1 day(-1 did not differ among treatments, however, mean net toxin production rate of offspring was 8-fold lower than the parent cultures, suggesting that completion of the sexual lifecycle in laboratory cultures leads to reduced toxin production. The PST profiles of offspring cultures were most similar to parent GCDE06 with the exception of cultures grown with Marinobacter sp. DG879 which produced higher proportions of dcGTX2+3 and GC1+2, and lower proportions of C1+2 and C3+4. Our data demonstrate that the bacterial community can alter intracellular STX

  19. Bacterial community affects toxin production by Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinsson, Maria E; Negri, Andrew P; Blackburn, Susan I; Bolch, Christopher J S

    2014-01-01

    The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum grows in association with a complex marine bacterial community that is both essential for growth and can alter culture growth dynamics. Using a bacterial community replacement approach, we examined the intracellular PST content, production rate, and profile of G. catenatum cultures grown with bacterial communities of differing complexity and composition. Clonal offspring were established from surface-sterilized resting cysts (produced by sexual crosses of strain GCDE06 and strain GCLV01) and grown with: 1) complex bacterial communities derived from each of the two parent cultures; 2) simplified bacterial communities composed of the G. catenatum-associated bacteria Marinobacter sp. strain DG879 or Alcanivorax sp. strain DG881; 3) a complex bacterial community associated with an untreated, unsterilized sexual cross of the parents. Toxin content (STX-equivalent per cell) of clonal offspring (134-197 fmol STX cell(-1)) was similar to the parent cultures (169-206 fmol STX cell(-1)), however cultures grown with single bacterial types contained less toxin (134-146 fmol STX cell(-1)) than offspring or parent cultures grown with more complex mixed bacterial communities (152-176 fmol STX cell(-1)). Specific toxin production rate (fmol STX day(-1)) was strongly correlated with culture growth rate. Net toxin production rate (fmol STX cell(-1) day(-1)) did not differ among treatments, however, mean net toxin production rate of offspring was 8-fold lower than the parent cultures, suggesting that completion of the sexual lifecycle in laboratory cultures leads to reduced toxin production. The PST profiles of offspring cultures were most similar to parent GCDE06 with the exception of cultures grown with Marinobacter sp. DG879 which produced higher proportions of dcGTX2+3 and GC1+2, and lower proportions of C1+2 and C3+4. Our data demonstrate that the bacterial community can alter intracellular STX

  20. Attachment representation in institutionalized children: a preliminary study using the child attachment interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagnino, Maria; Cussino, Martina; Preziosa, Alessandra; Veglia, Fabio; Carassa, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The experience of being removed from one's home and the transition to a residential care system pose enormous challenges for a child. Substantial evidence has been found regarding severe developmental effects due to early exposition to extreme psychosocial and affective deprivation. The research on Bowlby's theoretical proposals has highlighted the link between insecure, disorganized and atypical attachment patterns and children both living in foster care facilities and adopted out of those institutions. The goal of this pilot study is to investigate the attachment representation in an Italian sample of children in middle childhood (9-13 years old) who have been removed from their homes. Two compared groups of children participated in this study. The first group was composed of 24 Italian children who had been removed from their homes. The second group, considered as the control group, was composed of 35 Italian children who had never been in foster care placement. The quality of children's attachment to their primary caregivers was assessed by the Child Attachment Interview, an innovative semi-structured interview that seeks to bridge the measurement gap identified in middle childhood The children in foster care placement show a higher percentage of insecure and disorganized attachment representations and lower scores on the Child Reflective Functioning Scale. The clinical implications and enhancements to effective intervention for foster children's caretaking are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. From secure dependency to attachment: Mary Ainsworth's integration of Blatz's security theory into Bowlby's attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosmalen, Lenny; van der Horst, Frank C P; van der Veer, René

    2016-02-01

    John Bowlby is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, with the help of Mary Ainsworth. Through her Uganda and Baltimore studies Ainsworth provided empirical evidence for attachment theory, and she contributed the notion of the secure base and exploratory behavior, the Strange Situation Procedure and its classification system, and the notion of maternal sensitivity. On closer scrutiny, many of these contributions appear to be heavily influenced by William Blatz and his security theory. Even though Blatz's influence on Ainsworth has been generally acknowledged, this article, partly based on understudied correspondence from several personal archives, is the first to show which specific parts of attachment theory can be traced back directly to Blatz and his security theory. When Ainsworth started working with Bowlby in the 1950s, around the time he turned to evolutionary theory for an explanation of his findings, she integrated much of Blatzian security theory into Bowlby's theory in the making and used her theoretical and practical experience to enrich attachment theory. Even though Blatz is hardly mentioned nowadays, several of his ideas live on in attachment theory. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Separation-Individuation, Adult Attachment Style, and College Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Edgerton, Jason

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationship between separation- individuation, adult attachment styles, and college adjustment. Results reveal that college adjustment was positively associated with secure adult attachment and counterindicated by fearful and preoccupied attachments. Implications for counseling practice and directions for future research are…

  3. 30 CFR 75.1438 - End attachment replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false End attachment replacement. 75.1438 Section 75.1438 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... attachment replacement. Wire rope attachments shall be replaced when cracked, deformed, or excessively worn. ...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19028 - End attachment replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false End attachment replacement. 57.19028 Section 57.19028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 57.19028 End attachment replacement. Wire rope attachments shall be replaced when...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19028 - End attachment replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false End attachment replacement. 56.19028 Section 56.19028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Wire Ropes § 56.19028 End attachment replacement. Wire rope attachments shall be replaced when cracked...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1438 - End attachment replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false End attachment replacement. 77.1438 Section 77.1438 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1438 End attachment replacement. Wire rope attachments shall be replaced...

  7. The Development of an Assessment Protocol for Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheperis, Carl J.; Doggett, R. Anthony; Hoda, Nicholas E.; Blanchard, Tracy; Renfro-Michel, Edina L.; Holdiness, Sacky H.; Schlagheck, Robyn

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a battery of semi-structured interviews, global assessment scales, attachment-specific scales, and behavioral observations to help mental health counselors identify Reactive Attachment Disorder, a syndrome associated with extreme attachment problems. (Contains 25 references and 2 tables.) (GCP)

  8. Attachment systems for mandibular implant overdentures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Young; Lee, Jeong-Yol; Shin, Sang-Wan; Bryant, S Ross

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to address treatment outcome according to attachment systems for mandibular implant overdentures in terms of implant survival rate, prosthetic maintenance and complications, and patient satisfaction. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and hand searching of relevant journals considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical trial studies on mandibular implant overdentures until August, 2010 were selected if more than one type of overdenture attachment was reported. Twenty four studies from 1098 studies were finally included and the data on implant survival rate, prosthetic maintenance and complications, patient satisfaction were analyzed relative to attachment systems. Four studies presented implant survival rates (95.8 - 97.5% for bar, 96.2 - 100% for ball, 91.7% for magnet) according to attachment system. Ten other studies presented an implant survival rate ranging from 93.3% to 100% without respect to the attachment groups. Common prosthetic maintenance and complications were replacement of an assay for magnet attachments, and activation of a matrix or clip for ball or bar attachments. Prosthetic maintenance and complications most commonly occurred in the magnet groups. Conflicting findings were found on the rate of prosthetic maintenance and complications comparing ball and bar attachments. Most studies showed no significant differences in patient satisfaction depending upon attachment systems. The implant survival rate of mandibular overdentures seemed to be high regardless attachment systems. The prosthetic maintenance and complications may be influenced by attachment systems. However patient satisfaction may be independent of the attachment system.

  9. Preferential Attachment in Online Networks: Measurement and Explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunegis, J; Blattner, M; Moser, C.

    2013-01-01

    We perform an empirical study of the preferential attachment phenomenon in temporal networks and show that on the Web, networks follow a nonlinear preferential attachment model in which the exponent depends on the type of network considered. The classical preferential attachment model for networks

  10. Stability and Transmission of Attachment across Three Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Diane; Parker, Kevin C. H.

    1994-01-01

    The stability of adult attachment and transmission of attachment across 3 generations were examined in a longitudinal study of 96 infants, their mothers, and maternal grandmothers. The study found that mothers' Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications were stable over 12 months in 90% of mothers and 73% of grandmothers, using the AAI's…

  11. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  12. Attachment and eating disorders: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Attachment insecurity may confer risk for developing an eating disorder. We describe domains of attachment functioning that are relevant to eating disorders including: affect regulation, interpersonal style, coherence of mind, and reflective functioning. Research since 2000 on attachment and eating disorders related to these domains is reviewed. We searched MedLine/Pubmed and PsycINFO from January 2000 to February 2014 and kept articles that: were empirical, included adults with a diagnosed eating disorder, and used a standard attachment measure. We retained 50 relevant studies. Compared to controls, those with eating disorders had higher levels of attachment insecurity and disorganized mental states. Lower reflective functioning was specifically associated with anorexia nervosa. Attachment anxiety was associated with eating disorder symptom severity, and this relationship may be mediated by perfectionism and affect regulation strategies. Type of attachment insecurity had specific negative impacts on psychotherapy processes and outcomes, such that higher attachment avoidance may lead to dropping out and higher attachment anxiety may lead to poorer treatment outcomes. Research to date suggests a possible relationship between attachment insecurity and risk for an eating disorder. More research is needed that uses attachment interviews, and longitudinal and case control designs. Clinicians can assess attachment insecurity to help inform therapeutic stances and interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  14. Dimensions of attachment among fans within the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attachment to the level of sport in general appeared to be the most highly correlated form of attachment with attendance. Fans appear to attach greater importance to the sport, the level of soccer and the team as opposed to specific players or the coach. The study proposes a framework reflecting both its practical application ...

  15. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  16. Attachment Theory in Supervision: A Critical Incident Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole; Fitch, Jenelle C.

    2008-01-01

    Critical incident experiences are a powerful source of counselor development (T. M. Skovholt & P. R. McCarthy, 1988a, 1988b) and are relevant to attachment issues. An attachment theory perspective of supervision is presented and applied to a critical incident case scenario. By focusing on the behavioral systems (i.e., attachment, caregiving, and…

  17. Attachment and group psychotherapy: introduction to a special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2014-03-01

    The application of attachment theory to adult psychotherapy represents a growing area of research and practice. Despite the conceptual overlap between group therapeutic factors, attachment theory, and therapeutic tasks as outlined by Bowlby (1988), there is little research on attachment functioning in group therapy. Hence, there remain substantial questions about the role of attachment theory in understanding group therapy processes and outcomes. The three studies in this special section advance the research in some of these important areas, including showing that positive changes in self-reported attachment insecurity among clients persist long after group therapy ends; attachment anxiety affects the level and rate of interpersonal learning in groups; and change in attachment to the therapy group has an impact on longer term change in individual group members' attachment. Each article also examines the impact of these attachment concepts on treatment outcomes. Numerous areas remain to be explored when it comes to the implications of attachment theory for understanding and conducting group therapy, including the conceptual and practical overlap between attachment concepts such as security and exploration with group therapeutic factors such as cohesion and interpersonal learning. The articles in this special section begin to address some of these issues related to attachment theory and its implications for group therapists. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. The difficult patient: an attachment perspective | Panzer | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stressors such as illness, injury and hospitalisation are likely to activate attachment behaviours. The way people react to these stressors (i.e. their illness behaviour) varies widely and is strongly correlated with their attachment style. In this paper we briefly review attachment theory, with reference to difficult patient ...

  19. Early Attachment Relationships and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…

  20. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…