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Sample records for alters adult anxiety

  1. Unpredictable neonatal stress enhances adult anxiety and alters amygdala gene expression related to serotonin and GABA.

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    Sarro, E C; Sullivan, R M; Barr, G

    2014-01-31

    Anxiety-related disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, thought to have both genetic and environmental causes. Early-life trauma, such as abuse from a caregiver, can be predictable or unpredictable, each resulting in increased prevalence and severity of a unique set of disorders. In this study, we examined the influence of early unpredictable trauma on both the behavioral expression of adult anxiety and gene expression within the amygdala. Neonatal rats were exposed to unpaired odor-shock conditioning for 5 days, which produces deficits in adult behavior and amygdala dysfunction. In adulthood, we used the Light/Dark box test to measure anxiety-related behaviors, measuring the latency to enter the lit area and quantified urination and defecation. The amygdala was then dissected and a microarray analysis was performed to examine changes in gene expression. Animals that had received early unpredictable trauma displayed significantly longer latencies to enter the lit area and more defecation and urination. The microarray analysis revealed over-represented genes related to learning and memory, synaptic transmission and trans-membrane transport. Gene ontology and pathway analysis identified highly represented disease states related to anxiety phenotypes, including social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder. Addiction-related genes were also overrepresented in this analysis. Unpredictable shock during early development increased anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood with concomitant changes in genes related to neurotransmission, resulting in gene expression patterns similar to anxiety-related psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Altered Baseline Brain Activity in Drug-Naive Adult Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Using Resting-State Functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Changjian; Feng, Yuan; Meng, Yajing; Liao, Wei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lui, Su; Zhu, Chunyan; Chen, Huafu; Gong, Qiyong; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective We hypothesize that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) is involved in the altered regional baseline brain function in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of the study was to analyze the altered baseline brain activity in drug-naive adult patients with SAD. Methods We investigated spontaneous and baseline brain activities by obtaining the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 20 drug-na?ve adult SAD patients and 19 healthy controls. Voxels wer...

  3. Chronic unpredictable mild stress alters an anxiety-related defensive response, Fos immunoreactivity and hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

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    de Andrade, J S; Céspedes, I C; Abrão, R O; Dos Santos, T B; Diniz, L; Britto, L R G; Spadari-Bratfisch, R C; Ortolani, D; Melo-Thomas, L; da Silva, R C B; Viana, M B

    2013-08-01

    Previous results show that elevated T-maze (ETM) avoidance responses are facilitated by acute restraint. Escape, on the other hand, was unaltered. To examine if the magnitude of the stressor is an important factor influencing these results, we investigated the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on ETM avoidance and escape measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to map areas activated by stress exposure in response to ETM avoidance and escape performance. Additionally, the effects of the UCMS protocol on the number of cells expressing the marker of migrating neuroblasts doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus were investigated. Corticosterone serum levels were also measured. Results showed that UCMS facilitates ETM avoidance, not altering escape. In unstressed animals, avoidance performance increases Fos-ir in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus (dentate gyrus) and basomedial amygdala, and escape increases Fos-ir in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. In stressed animals submitted to ETM avoidance, increases in Fos-ir were observed in the cingulate cortex, ventrolateral septum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, dorsal and median raphe nuclei. In stressed animals submitted to ETM escape, increases in Fos-ir were observed in the cingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. Also, UCMS exposure decreased the number of DCX-positive cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and increased corticosterone serum levels. These data suggest that the anxiogenic effects of UCMS are related to the activation of specific neurobiological circuits that modulate anxiety and confirm that this stress protocol activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and decreases hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

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    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  5. Embryonic GABA(B receptor blockade alters cell migration, adult hypothalamic structure, and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors sex specifically in mice.

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    Matthew S Stratton

    Full Text Available Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system. Females lacking functional GABA(B receptors because of a genetic disruption of the R1 subunit have altered cellular characteristics in and around the PVN at birth. The genetic disruption precluded appropriate assessments of physiology or behavior in adulthood. The current study was conducted to test the long term impact of a temporally restricting pharmacological blockade of the GABA(B receptor to a 7-day critical period (E11-E17 during embryonic development. Experiments tested the role of GABA(B receptor signaling in fetal development of the PVN and later adult capacities for adult stress related behaviors and physiology. In organotypic slices containing fetal PVN, there was a female specific, 52% increase in cell movement speeds with GABA(B receptor antagonist treatment that was consistent with a sex-dependent lateral displacement of cells in vivo following 7 days of fetal exposure to GABA(B receptor antagonist. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, open-field activity, and HPA mediated responses to restraint stress were measured in adult offspring of mothers treated with GABA(B receptor antagonist. Embryonic exposure to GABA(B receptor antagonist resulted in reduced HPA axis activation following restraint stress and reduced depression-like behaviors. There was also increased anxiety-like behavior selectively in females and hyperactivity in males. A sex dependent response to disruptions of GABA(B receptor signaling was identified for PVN formation and key aspects of physiology and behavior. These changes correspond to sex specific prevalence in similar human disorders, namely anxiety disorders and hyperactivity.

  6. Ambiguity in the Manifestation of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder Occurring in Complex Anxiety Presentations: Two Clinical Case Reports

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    Dudaee-Faass, Sigal; Marnane, Claire; Wagner, Renate

    2009-01-01

    Two case reports are described in which patients presented for the treatment of multiple comorbid anxiety disorders, all of which appeared to derive from prolonged separation anxiety disorder. In particular, these adults had effectively altered their lifestyles to avoid separation, thereby displaying only ambiguous separation anxiety symptoms that…

  7. The Impact of Smoking in Adolescence on Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms and the Relationship between Infant Vulnerability Factors for Anxiety and Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms: The TOPP Study

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    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N.; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18months to age 18–19years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, panxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85,panxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence. PMID:23696803

  8. Adult attachment style and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rar...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms.......Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...

  9. Perceived Parental Styles and Adult Separation Anxiety.

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    Başbuğ, Sezin; Cesur, Gizem; Durak Batıgün, Ayşegül

    2017-01-01

    The Mediating Role of Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions OBJECTIVE: This study primarily aimed to determine whether perceived parental styles and interpersonal cognitive distortions are predictors of adult separation anxiety. Further, this study aimed to examine the mediating role of interpersonal cognitive distortions in the relationship between perceived over-permissive/boundless parental styles and adult separation anxiety in university students. This study included 444 university students (281 female (63,3%) and 163 male (36,7%) with a mean age of sample 21,02 years (SS = 1,70). The Demographic Information Form, Young Parenting Inventory, Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale, and Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire were used. The regression analyses revealed that the age of the participants and their percieved controlling/shaping father parenting style negatively predicted adult separation anxiety, while percieved over-permissive/boundless mother parenting style, exploitative/abusive and overprotective/anxious father parenting styles and the subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale positively predicted adult separation anxiety. As hypothesized, data from this study reveal that subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale play a full mediating role in the relationship between over-permissive/boundless parenting styles and adult separation anxiety. Results indicate that the perceived over-permissive/boundless parenting style positively predicts adult separation anxiety symptoms by distorting interpersonal cognitions. Furthermore, the over-permissive parenting style and lack of boundaries and/or discipline lead to similar adverse effects as do authoritarian and normative parenting. To our knowledge, there are very few studies investigating adult separation anxiety symptoms in Turkey. Therefore, our current study provides practical information to mental health professionals regarding adult separation anxiety symptoms, which

  10. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Adult Separation Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)—the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain—is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater

  11. Anxiety in older adults often goes undiagnosed.

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    Koychev, Ivan; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorder in the elderly is twice as common as dementia and four to six times more common than major depression. Anxiety is associated with poorer quality of life, significant distress and contributes to the onset of disability. Mortality risks are also increased, through physical causes, especially cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Diagnosing anxiety disorders in older adults remains a challenge because of the significant overlap in symptoms between physical disorders (shortness of breath; abdominal and chest pain; palpitations) and depression (disturbed sleep; poor attention, concentration and memory; restlessness). Good history taking is crucial in elucidating whether the complaint is of new onset or a recurrence of a previous disorder. The presence of comorbid depression should be clarified. If present, its temporal relationship with the anxiety symptoms will indicate whether there is an independent anxiety disorder. A medication review is warranted, as a number of drugs may be causative (calcium channel blockers, alpha- and beta-blockers, digoxin, L-thyroxine, bronchodilators, steroids, theophylline, antihistamines) or may cause anxiety in withdrawal (e.g. benzodiazepines). Substance and alcohol abuse should be excluded, as withdrawal from either may cause anxiety. A new or exacerbated physical illness may be related to anxiety. Medical investigations will help clarify the extent to which a particular somatic symptom is the result of anxiety.

  12. Anxiety disorders and falls among older adults.

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    Holloway, K L; Williams, L J; Brennan-Olsen, S L; Morse, A G; Kotowicz, M A; Nicholson, G C; Pasco, J A

    2016-11-15

    Falls are common among older adults and can lead to serious injuries, including fractures. We aimed to determine associations between anxiety disorders and falls in older adults. Participants were 487 men and 376 women aged ≥60 years enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, Australia. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Non-patient edition (SCID-I/NP), lifetime history of anxiety disorders was determined. Falls were determined by self-report. In men, a falls-risk score (Elderly Falls Screening Test (EFST)) was also calculated. Among fallers, 24 of 299 (8.0%) had a lifetime history of anxiety disorder compared to 36 of 634 (5.7%) non-fallers (p=0.014). Examination of the association between anxiety and falls suggested differential relationships for men and women. In men, following adjustment for psychotropic medications, mobility and blood pressure, lifetime anxiety disorder was associated with falling (OR 2.96; 95%CI 1.07-8.21) and with EFST score (OR 3.46; 95%CI 1.13-10.6). In women, an association between lifetime anxiety disorder and falls was explained by psychotropic medication use, poor mobility and socioeconomic status. Sub-group analyses involving types of anxiety and anxiety disorders over the past 12-months were not performed due to power limitations. Although anxiety disorders were independently associated with a 3-fold increase in likelihood of reported falls and high falls risk among men, an independent association was not detected among women. These results may aid in prevention of falls through specific interventions aimed at reducing anxiety, particularly in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Major depressive and anxiety disorders in visually impaired older adults

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    van der Aa, H.P.A.; Comijs, H.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; van Nispen, R.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. We assessed the prevalence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and general anxiety disorder) in visually impaired older adults and compared these estimates with those of normally sighted

  14. Emotion and anxiety potentiate the way attention alters visual appearance.

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    Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2018-04-12

    The ability to swiftly detect and prioritize the processing of relevant information around us is critical for the way we interact with our environment. Selective attention is a key mechanism that serves this purpose, improving performance in numerous visual tasks. Reflexively attending to sudden information helps detect impeding threat or danger, a possible reason why emotion modulates the way selective attention affects perception. For instance, the sudden appearance of a fearful face potentiates the effects of exogenous (involuntary, stimulus-driven) attention on performance. Internal states such as trait anxiety can also modulate the impact of attention on early visual processing. However, attention does not only improve performance; it also alters the way visual information appears to us, e.g. by enhancing perceived contrast. Here we show that emotion potentiates the effects of exogenous attention on both performance and perceived contrast. Moreover, we found that trait anxiety mediates these effects, with stronger influences of attention and emotion in anxious observers. Finally, changes in performance and appearance correlated with each other, likely reflecting common attentional modulations. Altogether, our findings show that emotion and anxiety interact with selective attention to truly alter how we see.

  15. Adult separation anxiety disorder in the DSM-5

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    Bögels, S.M.; Knappe, S.; Clark, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other DSM-IV anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder (SAD) has been considered a disorder that typically begins in childhood, and could be diagnosed only in adults "if onset is before 18." Moreover, SAD is the only DSM-IV anxiety disorder placed under "Disorders Usually First Diagnosed

  16. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

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    Wagner Renate

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety (the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory and a retrospective diagnosis of childhood separation anxiety disorder. Other self-report measures included the Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21, personality traits measured by the NEO PI-R and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. These measures were included in three models examining for overall differences and then by gender: Model 1 compared the conventional SCID anxiety subtypes (excluding PTSD and OCD because of insufficient numbers; Model 2 divided the sample into those with and without ASAD; Model 3 compared those with ASAD with the individual anxiety subtypes in the residual group. Results Patients with ASAD had elevated early separation anxiety scores but this association was unique in females only. Except for social phobia in relation to some comparisons, those with ASAD recorded more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, higher neuroticism scores, and greater levels of disability. Conclusions Patients with ASAD attending an anxiety clinic are highly symptomatic and disabled. The findings have implications for the classification, clinical identification and treatment of adult anxiety disorders.

  17. Childhood separation anxiety and the pathogenesis and treatment of adult anxiety.

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    Milrod, Barbara; Markowitz, John C; Gerber, Andrew J; Cyranowski, Jill; Altemus, Margaret; Shapiro, Theodore; Hofer, Myron; Glatt, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Clinically significant separation anxiety disorder in childhood leads to adult panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. The prevailing pathophysiological model of anxiety disorders, which emphasizes extinction deficits of fear-conditioned responses, does not fully consider the role of separation anxiety. Pathological early childhood attachments have far-reaching consequences for the later adult ability to experience and internalize positive relationships in order to develop mental capacities for self-soothing, anxiety tolerance, affect modulation, and individuation. Initially identified in attachment research, the phenomenon of separation anxiety is supported by animal model, neuroimaging, and genetic studies. A role of oxytocin is postulated. Adults, inured to their anxiety, often do not identify separation anxiety as problematic, but those who develop anxiety and mood disorders respond more poorly to both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. This poorer response may reflect patients' difficulty in forming and maintaining attachments, including therapeutic relationships. Psychotherapies that focus on relationships and separation anxiety may benefit patients with separation anxiety by using the dyadic therapist-patient relationship to recapture and better understand important elements of earlier pathological parent-child relationships.

  18. Altered functional connectivity of interoception in illness anxiety disorder.

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    Grossi, Dario; Longarzo, Mariachiara; Quarantelli, Mario; Salvatore, Elena; Cavaliere, Carlo; De Luca, Paolofabrizio; Trojano, Luigi; Aiello, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Interoception collects all information coming from the body and is sustained by several brain areas such as insula and cingulate cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional connectivity (FC) of networks implied in interoception in patients with Illness anxiety disorders (IADs). We observed significantly reduced FC between the left extrastriate body area (EBA) and the paracentral lobule compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the correlation analysis between behavioural questionnaires and ROI to ROI FC showed that higher levels of illness anxiety were related to hyper-connectivity between EBA and amygdala and hippocampus. Scores on a questionnaire for interoceptive awareness were significantly correlated with higher FC between right hippocampus and nucleus accumbens bilaterally, and with higher connectivity between left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Last, patients showed increased interoceptive awareness, measured by Self-Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ), and reduced capability in recognizing emotions, indicating inverse correlation between interoception and emotional awareness. Taken together our results suggested that, in absence of structural and micro-structural changes, patients with IADs show functional alteration in the neural network involved in the self-body representation; such functional alteration might be the target of possible treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Morita therapy for anxiety disorders in adults.

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    Wu, Hui; Yu, Dehua; He, Yanling; Wang, Jijun; Xiao, Zeping; Li, Chunbo

    2015-02-19

    Morita therapy, first proposed in 1919, is a systematic psychological therapy for anxiety disorders that is based on eastern philosophy. It is mainly used as an alternative therapy for anxiety disorders in Asian countries such as Japan and China. Varying foci of treatment outcomes have been reported. To date, there has been no systematic review to investigate the strength of evidence for Morita therapy in anxiety disorders. To assess the effects of Morita therapy compared with pharmacological therapy, other psychological therapy, no intervention or wait list for anxiety disorders in adults. We searched The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR, which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date)), Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) and four main Chinese medical databases (Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Database, China Hospital Knowledge Database, China Biology Medicine disc) as described in the protocol of this review to December 2014. Furthermore, we extended our search in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and the Sagace, a web-based search engine for biomedical databases in Japan. We applied no date or language restrictions. We contacted experts in the field for supplemental data. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials comparing Morita therapy with any other treatment in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Two authors independently selected studies and extracted data. For homogenous dichotomous data, we calculated fixed-effect risk ratios (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and, where appropriate, numbers needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated fixed-effect standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% CI

  20. Dim light at night prior to adolescence increases adult anxiety-like behaviors.

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    Cissé, Yasmine M; Peng, Juan; Nelson, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts circadian organization and influences adult behavior. We examined early dLAN exposure on adult affective responses. Beginning 3 (juvenile) or 5 weeks (adolescent) of age, mice were maintained in standard light-dark cycles or exposed to nightly dLAN (5 lx) for 5 weeks, then anxiety-like and fear responses were assessed. Hypothalami were collected around the clock to assess core clock genes. Exposure to dLAN at either age increased anxiety-like responses in adults. Clock and Rev-ERB expression were altered by exposure to dLAN. In contrast to adults, dLAN exposure during early life increases anxiety and fear behavior.

  1. Symptoms Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions. Aims: This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults. Settings and Design: Participants included 426 Korean...

  2. Measuring Social Anxiety in 11 Countries Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballo, V.E.; Salazar, I.C.; Irurtia, M.J.; Arias, B.; Hofmann, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies conducted to develop and validate a new self-report measure of social phobia/anxiety - the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults (SAQ-A) (Cuestionario de ansiedad social para adultos, CASO-A). A diary-item recording procedure was used to generate the initial pool

  3. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  4. Social Anxiety and Loneliness in Adults Who Solicit Minors Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Anja; Bergen, Emilia; Schuhmann, Petya; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the association of social anxiety, loneliness, and problematic Internet use (PIU) with the online solicitation of minors. Within a convenience sample of adult Internet users from Germany, Finland, and Sweden ( N = 2,828), we compared the responses of participants who had not interacted sexually with strangers online ( n = 2,049) with participants who sexually interacted with unknown adults online ( n = 642), and both groups with adults who sexually solicited unknown minors online ( n = 137). Online sexual interaction with adults was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with not sexually interacting with strangers online. Sexually soliciting minors online was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with sexually interacting with adults and not sexually interacting with strangers at all. Interestingly, compared with those with adult contacts, loneliness was specifically pronounced for participants who solicited children, whereas social anxiety and PIU were pronounced for participants soliciting adolescents. These findings suggest that social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU may be among the motivators for using the Internet to solicit individuals of different age groups for sexual purposes. These factors emerged as specifically relevant for adults who sexually solicited minors and who reported greater impairments compared with adults who sexually interacted with adults. These characteristics may thus be important to consider for assessment and treatment procedures for individuals soliciting minors online.

  5. Anxiety and depressive symptoms and medical illness among adults with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Dour, Halina J; Stanton, Annette L; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety is linked to a number of medical conditions, yet few studies have examined how symptom severity relates to medical comorbidity. The current study assessed associations between severity of anxiety and depression and the presence of medical conditions in adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Nine-hundred eighty-nine patients diagnosed with panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders reported on the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and on diagnoses of 11 medical conditions. Severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was strongly associated with having more medical conditions over and above control variables, and the association was as strong as that between BMI and disease. Odds of having asthma, heart disease, back problems, ulcer, migraine headache and eyesight difficulties also increased as anxiety and depressive symptom severity increased. Anxiety symptoms were independently associated with ulcer, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with heart disease, migraine, and eyesight difficulties. These findings add to a growing body of research linking anxiety disorders with physical health problems and indicate that anxiety and depressive symptoms deserve greater attention in their association with disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alexithymia, emotion processing and social anxiety in adults with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Edel, M-A; Rudel, A; Hubert, C; Scheele, D; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Assion, H-J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective Given sparse research on the issue, this study sought to shed light upon the interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing, and social anxiety in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Subjects and methods 73 German adults with ADHD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria participated. We used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) to assess alexithymia, the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) to assess different...

  7. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire among Older Adults

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    Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2012-01-01

    Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…

  8. Alexithymia, emotion processing and social anxiety in adults with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel M-A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Given sparse research on the issue, this study sought to shed light upon the interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing, and social anxiety in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Subjects and methods 73 German adults with ADHD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria participated. We used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to assess alexithymia, the Social Phobia Scale (SPS and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS to assess different features of social anxiety, and we applied the German 'Experience of Emotions Scale' (SEE to measure emotion processing. Results 40% of the sample were found to meet the DSM-IV criteria of social anxiety disorder, and about 22% were highly alexithymic according to a TAS-20 total score ≥ 61; however, the mean TAS-20 total score of 50.94 ± 9.3 was not much higher than in community samples. Alexithymic traits emerged to be closely linked to emotion processing problems, particularly 'difficulty accepting own emotions', and to social anxiety features. Discussion/conclusion Our findings suggest interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing dysfunction, and social anxiety in adults with ADHD, which may entail the therapeutic implication to thoroughly instruct these patients to identify, accept, communicate, and regulate their emotions to aid reducing interaction anxiety.

  9. Alexithymia, emotion processing and social anxiety in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, M-A; Rudel, A; Hubert, C; Scheele, D; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Assion, Hans-Jörg

    2010-09-24

    given sparse research on the issue, this study sought to shed light upon the interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing, and social anxiety in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 73 German adults with ADHD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria participated. We used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) to assess alexithymia, the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) to assess different features of social anxiety, and we applied the German "Experience of Emotions Scalerdquor; (SEE) to measure emotion processing. 40% of the sample were found to meet the DSM-IV criteria of social anxiety disorder, and about 22% were highly alexithymic according to a TAS-20 total score ≥ 61; however, the mean TAS-20 total score of 50.94 ± 9.3 was not much higher than in community samples. Alexithymic traits emerged to be closely linked to emotion processing problems, particularly 'difficulty accepting own emotions', and to social anxiety features. our findings suggest interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing dysfunction, and social anxiety in adults with ADHD, which may entail the therapeutic implication to thoroughly instruct these patients to identify, accept, communicate, and regulate their emotions to aid reducing interaction anxiety.

  10. Social media use and anxiety in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Anna; Flannery, Kaitlin M; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2017-01-01

    Social media use is central to the lives of emerging adults, but the implications of social media use on psychological adjustment are not well understood. The current study aimed to examine the impact of time spent using social media on anxiety symptoms and severity in emerging adults. Using a web-based recruitment technique, we collected survey information on social media use and anxiety symptoms and related impairment in a nationally representative sample of 563 emerging adults from the U.S. (18-22 years-old; 50.2% female; 63.3% Non-Hispanic White). Participants self-reported the amount of time they spent using various social media sites on an average day, and responded to anxiety questionnaires RESULTS: Hierarchical regression revealed that more time spent using social media was significantly associated with greater symptoms of dispositional anxiety (B=0.74, 95% CI=0.59-0.90, psocial media use was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of participants scoring above the anxiety severity clinical cut-off indicating a probable anxiety disorder (AOR=1.032, 95% CI=1.004-1.062, p=0.028). Study limitations include the cross-sectional design and reliance on self-report questionnaires. Given the ubiquity of social media among emerging adults, who are also at high risk for anxiety disorders, the positive association between social media use and anxiety has important implications for clinicians. Gaining a more nuanced understanding of this relationship will help to inform novel approaches to anxiety treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol use, anxiety, and insomnia in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, M. Cristina; Amspoker, Amber B.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Kunik, Mark E.; Cully, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Nancy; Calleo, Jessica; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    relations between worry/anxiety and insomnia for those who reported drinking than for those who reported not drinking. Frequency of drinks per week moderated the association between PSWQ-A and insomnia, such that the positive association between self-reported worry and insomnia was lower with higher frequency of drinking. Conclusions Older adults with GAD appear to use alcohol at an increased rate, but mild-to-moderate drinkers do not appear to experience sleep difficulties. In fact, use of a modest amount of alcohol may be beneficial for minimizing the association between anxiety/worry and insomnia among older adults with GAD. PMID:23973253

  12. Behavioral correlates of anxiety in well-functioning older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Pachana, Nancy A; Wetherell, Julie L; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia; Ruiz-Díaz, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    Research on the behavioral correlates of anxiety in older adults is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the association of anxiety with behavioral patterns defined by health, activity, emotional and social variables. A convenience sample of 395 older adults completed measures of health, activity, emotions, social variables and experiential avoidance. Cross-sectional data were analysed using cluster analysis. Five clusters were identified: active healthy, healthy, active vulnerable, lonely inactive and frail lonely. Participants in the active healthy and healthy clusters showed the highest scores on health variables (vitality and physical function), and adaptive scores on the rest of variables. They also reported the lowest scores on anxiety and included the lowest number of cases with clinically significant anxiety levels. Active vulnerable showed high scores on social support, leisure activities and capitalization on them but low scores in vitality and physical functioning. Participants in the lonely inactive cluster reported the highest mean score in experiential avoidance and high scores on boredom and loneliness, and low scores on social support, leisure activities capitalizing on pleasant activities and health variables. Frail lonely represent a particularly vulnerable profile of participants, similar to that of lonely inactive, but with significantly lower scores on health variables and higher scores on boredom and hours watching TV. Anxiety in older adults is not only linked to poor health, but also to dysfunctional social behavior, loneliness, boredom and experiential avoidance. Maladaptive profiles of older adults with regard to these variables have been identified.

  13. Childhood trauma in adults with social anxiety disorder and panic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The influence of childhood trauma as a specific environmental factor on the development of adult psychopathology is far from being elucidated. As part of a collaborative project between research groups from South Africa (SA) and Sweden focusing on genetic and environmental factors contributing to anxiety ...

  14. Health Anxiety in Young Indonesian Adults: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venie Viktoria Rondang Maulina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In young adulthood most people begin to realize the meaning of health. The amount of costs to be incurred for the treatment of a person when they are suffering from a disease also affects a person's health concern. According to Taylor and Asmundson (2004, most people feel anxious about their health. Anxiety about health can differ from one person to another. Through this study a general overview of health anxiety for young adults in Indonesia, especially in Jakarta, can be seen. Participants in this study consisted of 263 people, aged 20-40 years (M = 27.23 , SD = 5.50. Sociodemographic variables include ages, gender, and marital status, level of education, employment status, and ethnicity. Researcher used Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI; Salkovskis, Rimes, & Warwick, 2002, Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic Symptom Severity Scale (PHQ-15; Kroenke, Spitzer, & William, 2002. For data analysis, researcher used The Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The results showed significant correlation between health anxiety and somatic symptoms.

  15. Altered default mode network activity in patient with anxiety disorders: An fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaohu; Wang Peijun; Li Chunbo; Hu Zhenghui; Xi Qian; Wu Wenyuan; Tang Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Anxiety disorder, a common mental disorder in our clinical practice, is characterized by unprovoked anxiety. Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which closely involved in emotional processing, are critical regions in the default mode network. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether default mode network activity is altered in patients with anxiety disorder. Ten anxiety patients and 10 healthy controls underwent fMRI while listening to emotionally neutral words alternating with rest (Experiment 1) and threat-related words alternating with emotionally neutral words (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, regions of deactivation were observed in patients and controls. In Experiment 2, regions of deactivation were observed only in patients. The observed deactivation patterns in the two experiments, which included MPFC, PCC, and inferior parietal cortex, were similar and consistent with the default model network. Less deactivation in MPFC and greater deactivation in PCC were observed for patients group comparing to controls in Experiment 1. Our observations suggest that the default model network is altered in anxiety patients and dysfunction in MPFC and PCC may play an important role in anxiety psychopathology

  16. Adult Separation Anxiety and TCI-R Personality Dimensions in Patients with Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Gambling: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Pozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD is an established diagnostic category but is little investigated in subjects with addictive behaviours. Objective. To assess the presence of ASAD among patients with addictive disorders in comparison with anxiety patients and measure the personality correlates in all these groups. Methods. 103 outpatients, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for anxiety disorders (38 patients, alcohol dependence (30 patients, or pathological gambling (35 patients, were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS and the Adult Separation Anxiety Checklist (ASA-27 for separation anxiety and by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R for personality characteristics. Results. ASAD is detected in 34.2% of anxiety patients, 13.3% of alcoholics, and 11.4% of gamblers. Separation anxiety scores correlate positively with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness in all groups; further correlations are seen among addictive patients only, that is, self-transcendence for gamblers and cooperativeness for both alcoholics and gamblers. Conclusions. The prevalence of ASAD is lower among addictive patients than in those with anxiety disorders; correlations are found between separation anxiety and specific TCI-R dimensions, with some matching across the three diagnostic groups.

  17. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  18. The Effect of an Educator's Teaching Style on the Math Anxiety of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosch, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Many adults are obstructed from specialized professions based on their anxiety of math. Math anxiety has been extensively researched for over 3 decades. Scholars have attempted to define its origins as well as the means to eliminate its often-debilitating effect on learners. Research indicates that learners with math anxiety often give up career…

  19. Differences among Adult COAs and Adult Non-COAs on Levels of Self-Esteem, Depression, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, David T.; Roberts, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined self-esteem, depression, and anxiety among 60 adult children of alcoholics (COAs) and 143 adult non-COAs. Subjects completed Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, demographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Found no significant differences between COAs and…

  20. Altered brain activation and connectivity during anticipation of uncertain threat in trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Haiyang; Wang, Yi; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia; Xu, Pengfei; Huang, Yuxia; Li, Xuebing

    2018-06-08

    In the research field of anxiety, previous studies generally focus on emotional responses following threat. A recent model of anxiety proposes that altered anticipation prior to uncertain threat is related with the development of anxiety. Behavioral findings have built the relationship between anxiety and distinct anticipatory processes including attention, estimation of threat, and emotional responses. However, few studies have characterized the brain organization underlying anticipation of uncertain threat and its role in anxiety. In the present study, we used an emotional anticipation paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the aforementioned topics by employing brain activation and general psychophysiological interactions (gPPI) analysis. In the activation analysis, we found that high trait anxious individuals showed significantly increased activation in the thalamus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), as well as decreased activation in the precuneus, during anticipation of uncertain threat compared to the certain condition. In the gPPI analysis, the key regions including the amygdala, dmPFC, and precuneus showed altered connections with distributed brain areas including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), inferior parietal sulcus (IPS), insula, para-hippocampus gyrus (PHA), thalamus, and MTG involved in anticipation of uncertain threat in anxious individuals. Taken together, our findings indicate that during the anticipation of uncertain threat, anxious individuals showed altered activations and functional connectivity in widely distributed brain areas, which may be critical for abnormal perception, estimation, and emotion reactions during the anticipation of uncertain threat. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Anxiety and depression in adult patients with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winfried; Huser; Karl-Heinz; Janke; Bodo; Klump; Michael; Gregor; Andreas; Hinz

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare anxiety and depression levels in adult patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) with controls.METHODS: The levels of anxiety, depression and of a probable anxiety or depressive disorder were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in 441 adult patients with CD recruited by the German Celiac Society, in 235 age-and sex-matched patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in remission or with slight disease activity, and in 441 adult persons of a representa...

  2. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa-Friedman, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emoti...

  3. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females)…

  4. Adult Perceptions of In-Class Collaborative Problem Solving as Mitigation for Statistics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, Karl J.; Miller, Heather; Hammett, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Two purposes existed for initiating this qualitative case study involving adults who had completed a college-level business statistics course. The first purpose was to explore adult challenges with stress and anxiety during the course: a phenomenon labeled statistics anxiety in the literature. The second purpose was to gain insight into adult…

  5. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Increases in anxiety-like behavior induced by acute stress are reversed by ethanol in adolescent but not adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2012-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnatal day (P35)] Sprague-Dawley rats differ from their adult counterparts (P70) in the impact of acute restraint stress on social anxiety and in their sensitivity to the social anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Animals were restrained for 90 min, followed by examination of stress- and ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/kg) alterations in social behavior using a modified social interaction test in a familiar environment. Acute restraint stress increased anxiety, as indexed by reduced levels of social investigation at both ages, and decreased social preference among adolescents. These increases in anxiety were dramatically reversed among adolescents by acute ethanol. No anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol emerged following restraint stress in adults. The social suppression seen in response to higher doses of ethanol was reversed by restraint stress in animals of both ages. To the extent that these data are applicable to humans, the results of the present study provide some experimental evidence that stressful life events may increase the attractiveness of alcohol as an anxiolytic agent for adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to dim light at night during early development increases adult anxiety-like responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; McHenry, Zachary D; Abi Salloum, Bachir A; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-06-22

    Early experiences produce effects that may persist throughout life. Therefore, to understand adult phenotype, it is important to investigate the role of early environmental stimuli in adult behavior and health. Artificial light at night (LAN) is an increasingly common phenomenon throughout the world. However, animals, including humans, evolved under dark night conditions. Many studies have revealed affective, immune, and metabolic alterations provoked by aberrant light exposure and subsequent circadian disruption. Pups are receptive to entraining cues from the mother and then light early during development, raising the possibility that the early life light environment may influence subsequent behavior. Thus, to investigate potential influences of early life exposure to LAN on adult phenotype, we exposed mice to dim (~5 lux; full spectrum white light) or dark (~0 lux) nights pre- and/or postnatally. After weaning at 3 weeks of age, all mice were maintained in dark nights until adulthood (9 weeks of age) when behavior was assessed. Mice exposed to dim light in early life increased anxiety-like behavior and fearful responses on the elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. These mice also displayed reduced growth rates, which ultimately normalized during adolescence. mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin previously linked to early life environment and adult phenotype, was not altered in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus by early life LAN exposure. Serum corticosterone concentrations were similar between groups at weaning, suggesting that early life LAN does not elicit a long-term physiologic stress response. Dim light exposure did not influence behavior on the open field, novel object, sucrose anhedonia, or forced swim tests. Our data highlight the potential deleterious consequences of low levels of light during early life to development and subsequent behavior. Whether these changes are due to altered maternal behavior

  8. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F; Foster, Jane A; Macri, Joseph; Potter, Murray; Huang, Xiaxing; Malinowski, Paul; Jackson, Wendy; Blennerhassett, Patricia; Neufeld, Karen A; Lu, Jun; Khan, Waliul I; Corthesy-Theulaz, Irene; Cherbut, Christine; Bergonzelli, Gabriela E; Collins, Stephen M

    2010-12-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have associated gastrointestinal inflammation and infection with altered behavior. We investigated whether chronic gut inflammation alters behavior and brain biochemistry and examined underlying mechanisms. AKR mice were infected with the noninvasive parasite Trichuris muris and given etanercept, budesonide, or specific probiotics. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy was performed in a subgroup of mice before infection. Gastrointestinal inflammation was assessed by histology and quantification of myeloperoxidase activity. Serum proteins were measured by proteomic analysis, circulating cytokines were measured by fluorescence activated cell sorting array, and serum tryptophan and kynurenine were measured by liquid chromatography. Behavior was assessed using light/dark preference and step-down tests. In situ hybridization was used to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the brain. T muris caused mild to moderate colonic inflammation and anxiety-like behavior that was associated with decreased hippocampal BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA). Circulating tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, as well as the kynurenine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, were increased. Proteomic analysis showed altered levels of several proteins related to inflammation and neural function. Administration of etanercept, and to a lesser degree of budesonide, normalized behavior, reduced cytokine and kynurenine levels, but did not influence BDNF expression. The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum normalized behavior and BDNF mRNA but did not affect cytokine or kynurenine levels. Anxiety-like behavior was present in infected mice after vagotomy. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry, which can be normalized by inflammation-dependent and -independent mechanisms, neither of which requires the integrity of the vagus nerve. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc

  9. Neonatal blockade of GABA-A receptors alters behavioral and physiological phenotypes in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Ali-Akbar; Amani, Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays an inhibitory role in the mature brain, and has a complex and bidirectional effect in different parts of the immature brain which affects proliferation, migration and differentiation of neurons during development. There is also increasing evidence suggesting that activation or blockade of the GABA-A receptors during early life can induce brain and behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. We investigated whether neonatal blockade of the GABA-A receptors by bicuculline can alter anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, body weight, food intake, corticosterone and testosterone levels in adult mice (postnatal days 80-95). To this end, neonatal mice were treated with either DMSO or bicuculline (70, 150 and 300μg/kg) during postnatal days 7, 9 and 11. When grown to adulthood, mice were exposed to behavioral tests to measure anxiety- (elevated plus-maze and light-dark box) and depression-like behaviors (tail suspension test and forced swim test). Stress-induced serum corticosterone and testosterone levels, body weight and food intake were also evaluated. Neonatal bicuculline exposure at dose of 300μg/kg decreased anxiety-like behavior, stress-induced corticosterone levels and increased testosterone levels, body weight and food intake, without significantly influencing depression-like behavior in adult male mice. However, no significant changes in these parameters were observed in adult females. These findings suggest that neonatal blockade of GABA-A receptors affects anxiety-like behavior, physiological and hormonal parameters in a sex-dependent manner in mice. Taken together, these data corroborate the concept that GABA-A receptors during early life have an important role in programming neurobehavioral phenotypes in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peri-adolescent asthma symptoms cause adult anxiety-related behavior and neurobiological processes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jasmine I; Caruso, Michael J; Michael, Kerry C; Bourne, Rebecca A; Chirichella, Nicole R; Klein, Laura C; Craig, Timothy; Bonneau, Robert H; August, Avery; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-05-30

    Human and animal studies have shown that physical challenges and stressors during adolescence can have significant influences on behavioral and neurobiological development associated with internalizing disorders such as anxiety and depression. Given the prevalence of asthma during adolescence and increased rates of internalizing disorders in humans with asthma, we used a mouse model to test if and which symptoms of adolescent allergic asthma (airway inflammation or labored breathing) cause adult anxiety- and depression-related behavior and brain function. To mimic symptoms of allergic asthma in young BALB/cJ mice (postnatal days [P] 7-57; N=98), we induced lung inflammation with repeated intranasal administration of house dust mite extract (most common aeroallergen for humans) and bronchoconstriction with aerosolized methacholine (non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist). Three experimental groups, in addition to a control group, included: (1) "Airway inflammation only", allergen exposure 3 times/week, (2) "Labored breathing only", methacholine exposure once/week, and (3) "Airway inflammation+Labored breathing", allergen and methacholine exposure. Compared to controls, mice that experienced methacholine-induced labored breathing during adolescence displayed a ∼20% decrease in time on open arms of the elevated plus maze in early adulthood (P60), a ∼30% decrease in brainstem serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA expression and a ∼50% increase in hippocampal serotonin receptor 1a (5Htr1a) and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (Crhr1) expression in adulthood (P75). This is the first evidence that experimentally-induced clinical symptoms of adolescent asthma alter adult anxiety-related behavior and brain function several weeks after completion of asthma manipulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bad dream frequency in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: prevalence, correlates, and effect of cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC.

  12. Bad Dream Frequency in Older Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Prevalence, Correlates, and Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorff, Michael R.; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety (CBT) to enhanced usual care (EUC), it assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post-treatment (3 months), and 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post-treatment and throughout follow-up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116

  13. Reduced anxiety-like behavior and altered hippocampal morphology in female p75NTR exon IV-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe ePuschban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR in adult basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, precursor cells in the subventricular cell layer and the subgranular cell layer of the hippocampus has been linked to alterations in learning as well as anxiety- and depression- related behaviors. In contrast to previous studies performed in a p75NTR exonIII-/- model still expressing the short isoform of the p75NTR, we focused on locomotor and anxiety–associated behavior in p75NTR exonIV-/- mice lacking both p75NTR isoforms. Comparing p75NTR exonIV-/- and wildtype mice for both male and female animals showed an anxiolytic-like behavior as evidenced by increased central activities in the open field paradigm and flex field activity system as well as higher numbers of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze test in female p75NTR knockout mice.Morphometrical analyses of dorsal and ventral hippocampus revealed a reduction of width of the dentate gyrus and the granular cell layer in the dorsal but not ventral hippocampus in male and female p75NTR exonIV -/- mice. We conclude that germ-line deletion of p75NTR seems to differentially affect morphometry of dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus and that p75NTR may play a role in anxiety-like behavior, specifically in female mice.

  14. Low dose prenatal ethanol exposure induces anxiety-like behaviour and alters dendritic morphology in the basolateral amygdala of rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol is strongly associated with poor cognitive outcomes particularly in relation to learning and memory. It is also becoming more evident that anxiety disorders and anxiety-like behaviour can be associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to a relatively small amount of alcohol would result in anxiety-like behaviour and to determine if this was associated with morphological changes in the basolateral amygdala. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing either no alcohol (Control or 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 months (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Rats were perfusion fixed and brains were collected at the end of behavioural testing for morphological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the basolateral amygdala. EtOH exposed offspring displayed anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze, holeboard and emergence tests. Although sexually dimorphic behaviour was apparent, sex did not impact anxiety-like behaviour induced by prenatal alcohol exposure. This increase in anxiety - like behaviour could not be attributed to a change in pyramidal cell number within the BLA but rather was associated with an increase in dendritic spines along the apical dendrite which is indicative of an increase in synaptic connectivity and activity within these neurons. This study is the first to link increases in anxiety like behaviour to structural changes within the basolateral amygdala in a model of prenatal ethanol exposure. In addition, this study has shown that exposure to even a relatively small amount of alcohol during development leads to long term alterations in anxiety-like behaviour.

  15. Increased anxiety and fear memory in adult mice lacking type 2 deiodinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárez-López, Soledad; Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Bosch-García, Daniel; Venero, César; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2017-10-01

    A euthyroid state in the brain is crucial for its adequate development and function. Impairments in thyroid hormones (THs; T3 or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and T4 or thyroxine) levels and availability in brain can lead to neurological alterations and to psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders. The thyroid gland synthetizes mainly T4, which is secreted to circulating blood, however, most actions of THs are mediated by T3, the transcriptionally active form. In the brain, intracellular concentrations of T3 are modulated by the activity of type 2 (D2) and type 3 (D3) deiodinases. In the present work, we evaluated learning and memory capabilities and anxiety-like behavior at adult stages in mice lacking D2 (D2KO) and we analyzed the impact of D2-deficiency on TH content and on the expression of T3-dependent genes in the amygdala and the hippocampus. We found that D2KO mice do not present impairments in spatial learning and memory, but they display emotional alterations with increased anxiety-like behavior as well as enhanced auditory-cued fear memory and spontaneous recovery of fear memory following extinction. D2KO mice also presented reduced T3 content in the hippocampus and decreased expression of the T3-dependent gene Dio3 in the amygdala suggesting a hypothyroid status in this structure. We propose that the emotional dysfunctions found in D2KO mice can arise from the reduced T3 content in their brain, which consequently leads to alterations in gene expression with functional consequences. We found a downregulation in the gene encoding for the calcium-binding protein calretinin (Calb2) in the amygdala of D2KO mice that could affect the GABAergic transmission. The current findings in D2KO mice can provide insight into emotional disorders present in humans with DIO2 polymorphisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Internet addiction is associated with social anxiety in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Dorani, Dikla; Elhadif, Rotem; Bukovza, Yehely; Yarmulnik, Anastasya; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-02-01

    Problematic Internet use or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding computer use, and Internet access that leads to impairment or distress. Cross-sectional studies on samples of patients reported high comorbidity of Internet addiction with psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders (including depression), anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We have investigated the association between Internet addiction and social anxiety in 2 samples of 120 university students (60 males and 60 females in each sample). We found a correlation between Internet addiction and social anxiety in the 2 samples (r=0.411, Paddiction. Thirdly, we did not find a preference for social networks among participants with high levels of social anxiety. The results of the study support previous evidence for co-occurrence of Internet addiction and social anxiety, but further studies need to clarify this association.

  17. Adult separation anxiety and unsettled infant behavior: Associations with adverse parenting during childhood and insecure adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder (ASAD) and Adult Separation Anxiety (ASA) symptoms in a sample of first-time mothers with an unsettled infant during the first postpartum year. Eighty-three primiparous women admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis and questionnaires assessing ASA symptoms, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. Nurses recorded infant behavior using 24-hour charts. The prevalence of ASAD in this sample was 19.3% and women with ASAD were, on average, more likely to be diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders, report aversive parenting experiences during childhood and show adult attachment style insecurity. Both ASAD and ASA symptoms were predicted by adult attachment anxiety, and ASAD was associated with unsettled infant behavior. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance mediated relations between parental over-control and ASAD diagnosis, and between parental abuse and ASAD diagnosis. Attachment anxiety mediated the relation between parental over-control and ASA symptoms, and attachment avoidance mediated the relations of parental over-control and parental abuse with ASA symptoms. This study highlights the prevalence of ASAD among first time mothers experiencing early parenting difficulties and the roles of childhood parenting experiences and adult attachment style in the development of the disorder. This points to the importance of introducing universal screening for ASAD in postnatal settings, and for the development of targeted interventions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Obesity Alters Anxiety and Stress Coping Behaviors in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsevich, Georgia; Baumann, Valentin; Uribe, Andres; Chen, Alon; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that maternal obesity and prenatal exposure to a high-fat diet program fetal development to regulate the physiology and behavior of the offspring in adulthood. Yet the extent to which the maternal dietary environment contributes to adult disease vulnerability remains unclear. In the current study we tested whether prenatal exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. We used a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity to investigate whether maternal obesity affects the response to adult chronic stress exposure in young adult (3-month-old) and aged adult (12-month-old) offspring. Long-lasting, delayed impairments to anxiety-like behaviors and stress coping strategies resulted on account of prenatal exposure to maternal obesity. Although maternal obesity did not change the offspring's behavioral response to chronic stress per se, we demonstrate that the behavioral outcomes induced by prenatal exposure to maternal obesity parallel the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure in aged male mice. We found that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, Nr3c1) is upregulated in various hypothalamic nuclei on account of maternal obesity. In addition, gene expression of a known regulator of the GR, FKBP51, is increased specifically within the paraventricular nucleus. These findings indicate that maternal obesity parallels the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure, and furthermore identifies GR/FKBP51 signaling as a novel candidate pathway regulated by maternal obesity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni caused by artemether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Xiao

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Progress has been made over the last decade with the development and clinical use of artemether as an agent against major human schistosome parasites. The tegument has been identified as a key target of artemether, implying detailed studies on ultrastructural damage induced by this compound. We performed a temporal examination, employing a transmission electron microscope to assess the pattern and extent of ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni harboured in mice treated with a single dose of 400 mg/kg artemether. Eight hours post-treatment, damage to the tegument and subtegumental structures was seen. Tegumental alterations reached a peak 3 days after treatment and were characterized by swelling, fusion of distal cytoplasma, focal lysis of the tegumental matrix and vacuolisation. Tubercles and sensory organelles frequently degenerated or collapsed. Typical features of subtegumental alterations, including muscle fibres, syncytium and parenchyma tissues, were focal or extensive lysis, vacuolisation and degeneration of mitochondria. Severe alterations were also observed in gut epithelial cells and vitelline cells of female worms. Our findings of artemether-induced ultrastructural alterations in adult S. mansoni confirm previous results obtained with juvenile S. mansoni and S. japonicum of different ages.

  20. Effects of Aging and Adult Development Education and Service Learning on Attitude, Anxiety, and Occupational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…

  1. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  2. Do Reincarnation Beliefs Protect Older Adult Chinese Buddhists against Personal Death Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Victoria Ka-Ying; Coleman, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory survey study was to develop and validate a Buddhist reincarnation beliefs scale and explore the relation between Buddhist reincarnation beliefs and personal death anxiety in 141 older adult Hong Kong Chinese Buddhists. Buddhist reincarnation beliefs were unrelated to personal death anxiety. This suggests that not all…

  3. Herbal medicine use behaviour in Australian adults who experience anxiety: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Wiener, Karl K; Sarris, Jerome

    2016-02-11

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health condition in Australia. In addition, there are many people who experience problematic anxiety symptoms who do not receive an anxiety disorder diagnosis but require treatment. As herbal medicine use is popular in Australia, and little is known about how adults experiencing anxiety are using these medicines, this study aimed to identify how Australian adults who experience anxiety are using herbal medicines. An online cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using purposive convenience sampling to recruit Australian adults who have experienced anxiety symptoms and have used herbal medicines (N = 400). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test of contingency, analysis of variance, and simple logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Eighty two percent of participants experienced anxiety symptoms in the previous 12 months, with 47% reporting having previously been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In addition, 72.8% had used herbal medicines specifically for anxiety symptoms in their lifetime, while 55.3% had used prescribed pharmaceuticals, with 27.5% having used herbal medicines concurrently with prescribed pharmaceuticals. The Internet and family and friends were the most frequently used sources of information about herbal medicines. Forty eight percent of participants did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their doctor. Herbal medicines are being used by adults with anxiety and are commonly self-prescribed for anxiety symptoms. Health practitioners who are experts in herbal medicine prescribing are consulted infrequently. In addition, herbal medicine use is often not disclosed to health practitioners. These behaviours are concerning as people may not be receiving the most suitable treatments, and their use of herbal medicines may even be dangerous. It is critical we develop a better understanding of why people are using these medicines, and how we can develop improved health literacy

  4. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  5. The Association Between Muslim Religiosity and Young Adult College Students' Depression, Anxiety, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Mohammad; Ali, Akhtar; Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub

    2017-08-01

    Depression, anxiety, and stress are among major psychological disorders being predominant in present day. This study proposed to analyze the role of Muslim religiosity in male students showing these mental indications. A sample including 723 Pakistani young adults enrolled at college level was randomly chosen. Muslim Religiosity Measurement Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were utilized to gather information. Discoveries uncover an inverse relationship between conduct and affiliation with the symptoms of mental disorders, anxiety and stress among the respondents. Results bolster the incorporation of religious dimensions in psychological wellness and mental well-being thought of young adults in Pakistan.

  6. HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in relation to panic, social anxiety, and depression symptoms among HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Parent, Justin; Grover, Kristin W; Hickey, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Although past work has documented relations between HIV/AIDS and negative affective symptoms and disorders, empirical work has only just begun to address explanatory processes that may underlie these associations. The current investigation sought to test the main and interactive effects of HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in relation to symptoms of panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SA), and depression among people with HIV/AIDS. Participants were 164 adults with HIV/AIDS (17.1% women; mean age, 48.40) recruited from AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in Vermont/New Hampshire and New York City. The sample identified as 40.9% white/Caucasian, 31.1% black, 22.0% Hispanic, and 6.1% mixed/other; with more than half (56.7%) reporting an annual income less than or equal to $10,000. Both men and women reported unprotected sex with men as the primary route of HIV transmission (64.4% and 50%, respectively). HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity (AS) were significantly positively related to PD, SA, and depression symptoms. As predicted, there was a significant interaction between HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in terms of PD and SA symptoms, but not depressive symptoms. Results suggest that anxiety sensitivity and HIV symptom distress are clinically relevant factors to consider in terms of anxiety and depression among people living with HIV/AIDS. It may be important to evaluate these factors among patients with HIV/AIDS to identify individuals who may be at a particularly high risk for anxiety and depression problems. Limitations included recruitment from ASOs, cross-sectional self-report data, and lack of a clinical diagnostic assessment.

  7. Parental overprotection and heart-focused anxiety in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lephuong; Nolan, Robert P; Irvine, Jane; Kovacs, Adrienne H

    2011-09-01

    The care of adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) is challenging from a mental health perspective, as these patients continue to face a variety of biopsychosocial issues that may impact emotional functioning. Despite these issues, there are limited data on the psychosocial functioning of adults with CHD, and there are no data on the impact of parental overprotection on heart-focused anxiety in this patient population. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between patient recollections of parental overprotection and current heart-focused anxiety in adults with CHD. A cross-sectional sample of 190 adult patients with CHD (51% male; mean age = 32.28, SD = 11.86 years) completed validated measures of perceived parental overprotection (Parental Bonding Instrument) and heart-focused anxiety (Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire). The results indicated that perceived parental overprotection (β = 0.19, p = 0.02) and heart defect complexity (β = 0.17, p = 0.03) were significantly related to heart-focused anxiety. Contrary to hypotheses, perceived parental overprotection did not vary as a function of heart defect complexity (F (2, 169) = 0.02, p = 0.98). Perceived parental overprotection and heart defect complexity are associated with heart-focused anxiety in adults with congenital heart disease. These results can inform the development of clinical interventions aimed at improving the psychosocial adjustment of this patient population.

  8. Alterations of benzodiazepine receptor binding potential in anxiety and somatoform disorders measured by 123I-iomazenil SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Mari; Ida, Ituro; Mikuni, Masahiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko.

    1997-01-01

    123 I-iomazenil (IMZ), a newly developed radioligand which acts on benzodiazepine receptors (BZR) as a partial inverse agonist, made it possible to evaluate the function of central BZR by single photon emission tomography (SPECT). To examine the alterations of the binding potential (BP) in the anxiety state, 123 I-IMZ SPECT was performed in five patients with anxiety and somatoform disorders, and five epileptic patients without anxiety symptoms served as a reference. The BP of BZR was determined by using a table look-up procedure based on a three-compartment, two-parameter model in the bilateral superior frontal, inferior frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, and cerebellar cortex. The mean BP of patients with anxiety and somatoform disorders was significantly decreased in the superior frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex, in comparison with that of epileptic patients. A significant correlation was observed between the anxiety levels scored on the Hamilton anxiety scale and BP in the right temporal cortex and left superior frontal cortex. These changes in BZR revealed by SPECT suggest the usefulness of 123 I-IMZ SPECT to objectively evaluate anxiety levels in patients with anxiety symptoms. (author)

  9. Altered time course of amygdala activation during speech anticipation in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Carolyn D; Young, Katherine; Torre, Jared B; Burklund, Lisa J; Goldin, Philippe R; Brown, Lily A; Niles, Andrea N; Lieberman, Matthew D; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-02-01

    Exaggerated anticipatory anxiety is common in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Neuroimaging studies have revealed altered neural activity in response to social stimuli in SAD, but fewer studies have examined neural activity during anticipation of feared social stimuli in SAD. The current study examined the time course and magnitude of activity in threat processing brain regions during speech anticipation in socially anxious individuals and healthy controls (HC). Participants (SAD n=58; HC n=16) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during which they completed a 90s control anticipation task and 90s speech anticipation task. Repeated measures multi-level modeling analyses were used to examine group differences in time course activity during speech vs. control anticipation for regions of interest, including bilateral amygdala, insula, ventral striatum, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. The time course of amygdala activity was more prolonged and less variable throughout speech anticipation in SAD participants compared to HCs, whereas the overall magnitude of amygdala response did not differ between groups. Magnitude and time course of activity was largely similar between groups across other regions of interest. Analyses were restricted to regions of interest and task order was the same across participants due to the nature of deception instructions. Sustained amygdala time course during anticipation may uniquely reflect heightened detection of threat or deficits in emotion regulation in socially anxious individuals. Findings highlight the importance of examining temporal dynamics of amygdala responding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Childhood trauma in adults with social anxiety disorder and panic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overprotection) have been associated with the risk for anxiety disorders.2. Although ... childhood trauma in patients with PD4, while a German study ... study also investigated the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) of the CTQ subscales.

  11. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.

  12. Neonatal administration of fluoxetine did not alter the anxiety indicators, but decreased the locomotor activity in adult rats in the elevated plus-maze Administração neonatal de fluoxetina não alterou os indicadores de ansiedade, mas diminuiu a atividade locomotora em ratos adultos no labirinto elevado em cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the anxiety and locomotor activity (LA in 52 Wistar adult male rats, being 26 treated with fluoxetine (10 mg/Kg - sc in the neonatal period. These same rats received foot shock (FS (1.6-mA - 2-s in the 90th day. The anxiety and LA were appraised by plus-maze. The time spent in the open arms was used as anxiety index and the LA was measured by number of entries in closed arms (NECA and the total of entries (TE. T-test was used with pO objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ansiedade e a atividade locomotora (AL em 52 ratos Wistar adultos machos, sendo 26 tratados no período neonatal com fluoxetina (10 mg/Kg - sc e no 90º dia, receberam estímulos elétricos nas patas (1,6-mA-2-s. A ansiedade e a AL foram avaliadas por meio do labirinto elevado em cruz. O tempo de permanência dos animais nos braços abertos (BA foi utilizado como índice de ansiedade e a AL medida pelo número de entradas nos braços fechados (NEBF e pelo total de entradas (TE nos BA e BF. O teste t foi utilizado, com (p<0,05 e os dados apresentados em média±erro padrão. Os animais tratados reduziram o NEBF (2,35±0,33 e o TE (3,96±0,61 comparados a seus controles (4,65±0,52 e (6,96±0,94. A administração neonatal de fluoxetina não alterou a ansiedade, mas diminuiu a AL dos animais que receberam EE.

  13. Parental problem drinking and anxiety disorder symptoms in adult offspring: examining the mediating role of anxiety sensitivity components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, P S; Stewart, S H; McWilliams, L A

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary studies have implicated childhood exposure to parental problem drinking as a possible factor in the development of anxiety sensitivity (AS). The present retrospective study was designed to examine the role of exposure to distressing parental problem drinking behaviors, over and above the role of parental alcoholism, in the development of various AS components (psychological, physical, and social concerns) in the offspring. We also examined the possible mediating role of AS components in explaining relations between parental drinking problems and anxiety-related symptoms in the adult offspring. A sample of 213 university students provided retrospective reports of both distress related to parental drinking [Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST)] and parental alcoholism [maternal and paternal forms of the Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST)]. Participants also reported on their own current AS levels [AS Index (ASI)], general anxiety symptoms [State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait subscale (STAI-T)], and lifetime history of uncued panic attacks [Panic Attack Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R)]. Scores on the CAST predicted AS psychological and physical concerns (but not social concerns) over and above participant gender and parental alcoholism measured by the SMASTs. Moreover, AS psychological concerns proved a consistent modest mediator of the relations between parental problem drinking on the CAST and both general anxiety and uncued panic outcomes in the offspring. Thus, exposure to distressing parental problem drinking behavior may be one factor that contributes to elevated AS psychological concerns in the child, which in turn may contribute to the development of anxiety disorder symptoms in the offspring.

  14. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at your home, feeling a bit worried about getting everything done on time can help you focus and finish the job. This kind of anxiety is a normal response to stress. But too much anxiety is another thing. It’s not normal and it’s not helpful. You ...

  15. Alterations in white matter volume and its correlation with clinical characteristics in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chung-Man [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Gwang-Woo [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Only a few morphological studies have focused on changes in white matter (WM) volume in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We evaluated alterations in WM volume and its correlation with symptom severity and duration of illness in adults with GAD. The 44 subjects were comprised of 22 patients with GAD (13 males and nine females) diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 males and nine females). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were processed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm in SPM8. Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced WM volume, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), and midbrain. In addition, DLPFC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score and illness duration. ALIC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score. Female patients had significantly less orbitofrontal cortex volume compared to that in male patients. The findings demonstrate localized changes in WM volume associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction in patients with GAD. The finding will be helpful for understanding the neuropathology in patients with GAD. (orig.)

  16. Alterations in white matter volume and its correlation with clinical characteristics in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Only a few morphological studies have focused on changes in white matter (WM) volume in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We evaluated alterations in WM volume and its correlation with symptom severity and duration of illness in adults with GAD. The 44 subjects were comprised of 22 patients with GAD (13 males and nine females) diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 males and nine females). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were processed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm in SPM8. Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced WM volume, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), and midbrain. In addition, DLPFC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score and illness duration. ALIC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score. Female patients had significantly less orbitofrontal cortex volume compared to that in male patients. The findings demonstrate localized changes in WM volume associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction in patients with GAD. The finding will be helpful for understanding the neuropathology in patients with GAD. (orig.)

  17. Maternal separation decreases adult hippocampal cell proliferation and impairs cognitive performance but has little effect on stress sensitivity and anxiety in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Henriëtte J; Novati, Arianna; Sgoifo, Andrea; Luiten, Paul G M; den Boer, Johan A; Meerlo, Peter

    2011-01-20

    Stressful events during childhood are thought to increase the risk for the development of adult psychopathology. A widely used animal model for early life stress is maternal separation (MS), which is thought to affect development and cause alterations in neuroendocrine stress reactivity and emotionality lasting into adulthood. However, results obtained with this paradigm are inconsistent. Here we investigated whether this variation may be related to the type of stressor or the tests used to assess adult stress sensitivity and behavioral performance. Rat pups were exposed to a 3h daily MS protocol during postnatal weeks 1-2. In adulthood, animals were subjected to a wide variety of stressors and tests to obtain a better view on the effects of MS on adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, anxiety-like behavior, social interaction and cognition. Also, the influence of MS on adult hippocampal neurogenesis was studied because it might underlie changes in neuroendocrine regulation and behavioral performance. The results show that, independent of the nature of the stressor, MS did not affect the neuroendocrine response. MS did not influence anxiety-like behavior, explorative behavior and social interaction, but did affect cognitive function in an object recognition task. The amount of new born cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly decreased in MS animals; yet, cell differentiation and survival were not altered. In conclusion, while interfering with the mother-infant relationship early in life did affect some aspects of adult neuroplasticity and cognitive function, it did not lead to permanent changes in stress sensitivity and emotionality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Melatonin for pre- and postoperative anxiety in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa V; Halladin, Natalie L; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    : Data were extracted independently by two review authors. Data extracted included information about study design, country of origin, number of participants and demographic details, type of surgery, type of anaesthesia, intervention and dosing regimen, preoperative anxiety outcome measures...... Inventory (STAI) when comparing melatonin with placebo (relative effect -5.31, 95% CI -8.78 to -1.84; moderate quality evidence). Two studies comparing melatonin with midazolam using a VAS did not find any evidence of a difference between the two groups in postoperative anxiety (relative effect -2.02, 95...

  20. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [(3)H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anxiety and Related Disorders and Concealment in Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Blasey, Christine; Barr Taylor, C; Weiss, Brandon J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress places sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disorder onset occurs before the age of 24, the current study investigated the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in sexual minority young adults relative to their heterosexual peers. Secondarily, the study investigated sexual orientation concealment as a predictor of anxiety and related disorders. A sample of 157 sexual minority and 157 heterosexual young adults matched on age and gender completed self-report measures of the aforementioned disorders, and indicated their level of sexual orientation concealment. Results revealed that sexual minority young adults reported greater symptoms relative to heterosexuals across all outcome measures. There were no interactions between sexual minority status and gender, however, women had higher symptoms across all disorders. Sexual minority young women appeared to be at the most risk for clinical levels of anxiety and related disorders. In addition, concealment of sexual orientation significantly predicted symptoms of social phobia. Implications are offered for the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety and related disorders in this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Social anxiety in first-episode psychosis: the role of childhood trauma and adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Maria; Birchwood, Max

    2014-07-01

    Social anxiety is among the most prevalent affective disturbances among people with psychosis. The developmental pathways associated with its emergence in psychosis, however, remain unclear. The aim of this study is to identify the developmental risk factors associated with social anxiety disorder in first-episode psychosis and to investigate whether social anxiety in psychosis and non-psychosis is associated with similar or different adult attachment styles. This is a cross-sectional study. A sample of individuals with social anxiety disorder (with or without psychosis) was compared with a sample with psychosis only and healthy controls on childhood trauma, dysfunctional parenting and adult attachment. Childhood trauma and dysfunctional parenting (pchildhood trauma and dysfunctional parenting between socially anxious people with and without psychosis. Higher levels of insecure adult attachment (x(2)1=38.5, pChildhood adversities were not associated with insecure adult attachment in people with social anxiety (with or without psychosis). Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study we cannot infer causal relationships between early risk factors, including childhood trauma and dysfunctional parenting, and social anxiety. Also, the use of self-report measures of attachment could be subject to biases. Shared developmental risk factors are implicated in the emergence of affective disorders in psychosis and non-psychosis. Social anxiety in psychosis is associated with insecurity in adult attachments which does not arise a result of adverse developmental pathways. Understanding the bio-psycho-social risk factors for affective dysregulation in psychosis could inform psychological interventions about the role of developmental anomaly and trauma in the emergence of affective dysregulation in psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Litter size reduction accentuates maternal care and alters behavioral and physiological phenotypes in rat adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes-Marques, Silvia; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2018-01-27

    Maternal behavior has a substantial impact on the behavioral, endocrine, and neural development of the pups. This study investigated the effect of altering the neonatal nutritional environment by modifying the litter size on maternal care and anxiety- and fear-like behaviors in rats during adulthood. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of three pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors were scored daily during lactation (PND2-21). The weight gain, food intake, adiposity, and biochemical landmarks of offspring rats were evaluated. On PND60, performances in the open field, elevated plus-maze (EPM), and fear conditioning test were measured. The reduction of the litter size enhanced maternal care in lactating rats, increasing the arched-back posture and licking pups. SL offspring exhibited accelerated weight gain, hyperphagia, increased visceral fat mass, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia in adulthood. The SL offspring of both sexes showed an increase in the anti-thigmotactic effect in the open field, an intact anxious-phenotype in the EPM, and a decrease in the time spent freezing during the fear-conditioning test, compared to NL. The neonatal environment as determined by litter size plays a crucial role in programming the adult metabolic phenotype as well as behavioral responses to stressful stimuli, with an impact on anxiety-like and fear behaviors. These behavioral changes in offspring may be, at least in part, a result of increased maternal care.

  4. Psychometrics of the screen for adult anxiety related disorders (SCAARED)- A new scale for the assessment of DSM-5 anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Melina; Rooks, Brian T; Gill, MaryKay; Goldstein, Tina; Sakolsky, Dara; Goldstein, Benjamin; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Diler, Rasim S; Hafeman, Danella; Merranko, John; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2017-07-01

    To examine the psychometrics of the Screen for Adult Anxiety Related Disorders (SCAARED). The SCAARED was adapted from the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. Participants (N=336) ages 18-27 years old were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). The SCAARED was completed at or within two-weeks before the SCID. The psychometrics of the SCAARED were analyzed using standard statistical analyses including principal components, and Receiver Operant Curve analyses. A replication was performed in an age/sex matched independent sample (N=158). The SCAARED showed four factors: somatic/panic/agoraphobia, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social anxiety. The total and each factor scores demonstrated good internal consistency (α=0.86-0.97) and good discriminant validity between anxiety and other disorders and within anxiety disorders for generalized and social anxiety. Area Under the Curve for the total and each of the factor scores ranged between 0.72 and 0.84 (ppsychometric properties supporting its use to screen adults for anxiety disorders, longitudinal studies following youth into adulthood and studies comparing child and adult populations. Further replication studies in larger community and clinical samples are indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Death Anxiety and Religiosity among an Older Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wendy; And Others

    One of the most significant factors in accounting for death attitudes is religious beliefs, yet this factor has been little studied or understood. This study examined the relationship between death anxiety, religiosity, and life satisfaction among a sample of retired older individuals. Sixty retired subjects between the ages of 60 and 84 years…

  6. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J.G.F.M.; Wiersma, J.E.; Giltay, E.J.; van Oppen, P.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Zitman, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

  7. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Wiersma, J. E.; Giltay, E. J.; van Oppen, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

  8. A standalone Internet cognitive behavior therapy treatment for social anxiety in adults who stutter: CBTpsych.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgadóttir, Fjóla Dögg; Menzies, Ross G; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue

    2014-09-01

    Social anxiety is common for those who stutter and efficacious cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for them appears viable. However, there are difficulties with provision of CBT services for anxiety among those who stutter. Standalone Internet CBT treatment is a potential solution to those problems. CBTpsych is a fully automated, online social anxiety intervention for those who stutter. This report is a Phase I trial of CBTpsych. Fourteen participants were allowed 5 months to complete seven sections of CBTpsych. Pre-treatment and post-treatment assessments tested for social anxiety, common unhelpful thoughts related to stuttering, quality of life and stuttering frequency. Significant post-treatment improvements in social anxiety, unhelpful thoughts, and quality of life were reported. Five of seven participants diagnosed with social anxiety lost those diagnoses at post-treatment. The two participants who did not lose social anxiety diagnoses did not complete all the CBTpsych modules. CBTpsych did not improve stuttering frequency. Eleven of the fourteen participants who began treatment completed Section 4 or more of the CBTpsych intervention. CBTpsych provides a potential means to provide CBT treatment for social anxiety associated with stuttering, to any client without cost, regardless of location. Further clinical trials are warranted. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (a) describe that social anxiety is common in those who stutter; (b) discuss the origin of social anxiety and the associated link with bullying; (c) summarize the problems in provision of effective evidence based cognitive behavior therapy for adults who stutter; (d) describe a scalable computerized treatment designed to tackle the service provision gap; (e) describe the unhelpful thoughts associated with stuttering that this fully automated computer program was able to tackle; (f) list the positive outcomes for individuals who stuttered that participated in this trial such as the

  9. Perceived history of anaphylaxis and parental overprotection, autonomy, anxiety, and depression in food allergic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults did not differ from healthy peers. However, food allergic young adults who reported having experienced an anaphylactic reaction described their disease as more severe, reported more worry about their disease, and rated their parents as more overprotective than food allergic young adults who reported never having experienced anaphylaxis. The experience of anaphylaxis may be a reliable indicator of food allergic individuals who are at risk for psychological distress.

  10. Anxiety promotes memory for mood-congruent faces but does not alter loss aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Charpentier, C. J.; Hindocha, C.; Roiser, J. P.; Robinson, O. J.

    2016-01-01

    Pathological anxiety is associated with disrupted cognitive processing, including working memory and decision-making. In healthy individuals, experimentally-induced state anxiety or high trait anxiety often results in the deployment of adaptive harm-avoidant behaviours. However, how these processes affect cognition is largely unknown. To investigate this question, we implemented a translational within-subjects anxiety induction, threat of shock, in healthy participants reporting a wide range ...

  11. Activity alterations in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and amygdala during threat anticipation in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buff, Christine; Brinkmann, Leonie; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Becker, Michael P I; Tupak, Sara; Herrmann, Martin J; Straube, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Sustained anticipatory anxiety is central to Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). During anticipatory anxiety, phasic threat responding appears to be mediated by the amygdala, while sustained threat responding seems related to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Although sustained anticipatory anxiety in GAD patients was proposed to be associated with BNST activity alterations, firm evidence is lacking. We aimed to explore temporal characteristics of BNST and amygdala activity during threat anticipation in GAD patients. Nineteen GAD patients and nineteen healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a temporally unpredictable threat anticipation paradigm. We defined phasic and a systematic variation of sustained response models for blood oxygen level-dependent responses during threat anticipation, to disentangle temporally dissociable involvement of the BNST and the amygdala. GAD patients relative to HC responded with increased phasic amygdala activity to onset of threat anticipation and with elevated sustained BNST activity that was delayed relative to the onset of threat anticipation. Both the amygdala and the BNST displayed altered responses during threat anticipation in GAD patients, albeit with different time courses. The results for the BNST activation hint towards its role in sustained threat responding, and contribute to a deeper understanding of pathological sustained anticipatory anxiety in GAD. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Anxiety promotes memory for mood-congruent faces but does not alter loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Hindocha, Chandni; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2016-04-21

    Pathological anxiety is associated with disrupted cognitive processing, including working memory and decision-making. In healthy individuals, experimentally-induced state anxiety or high trait anxiety often results in the deployment of adaptive harm-avoidant behaviours. However, how these processes affect cognition is largely unknown. To investigate this question, we implemented a translational within-subjects anxiety induction, threat of shock, in healthy participants reporting a wide range of trait anxiety scores. Participants completed a gambling task, embedded within an emotional working memory task, with some blocks under unpredictable threat and others safe from shock. Relative to the safe condition, threat of shock improved recall of threat-congruent (fearful) face location, especially in highly trait anxious participants. This suggests that threat boosts working memory for mood-congruent stimuli in vulnerable individuals, mirroring memory biases in clinical anxiety. By contrast, Bayesian analysis indicated that gambling decisions were better explained by models that did not include threat or treat anxiety, suggesting that: (i) higher-level executive functions are robust to these anxiety manipulations; and (ii) decreased risk-taking may be specific to pathological anxiety. These findings provide insight into the complex interactions between trait anxiety, acute state anxiety and cognition, and may help understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying adaptive anxiety.

  13. Distinct subcortical volume alterations in pediatric and adult OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Schmaal, Lianne; Abe, Yoshinari; Ameis, Stephanie H.; Arnold, Paul D.; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C.; Benedetti, Francesco; Beucke, Jan C.; Bollettini, Irene; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Calvo, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Cho, Kang Ik K.; Dallaspezia, Sara; Denys, Damiaan; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Giménez, Mònica; Gruner, Patricia; Hanna, Gregory L.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoexter, Marcelo Q.; Huyser, Chaim; Ikari, Keisuke; Jahanshad, Neda; Kathmann, Norbert; Kaufmann, Christian; Koch, Kathrin; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lazaro, Luisa; Liu, Yanni; Lochner, Christine; Marsh, Rachel; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Mataix-Cols, David; Menchón, José M.; Minuzzii, Luciano; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C.; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Pittenger, Christopher; Reddy, Y.C. Janardhan; Sato, Joao R.; Simpson, H. Blair; Soreni, Noam; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Stevens, Michael C.; Szeszko, Philip R.; Tolin, David F.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Zhen; van Wingen, Guido A.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, Qing; Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Dan J.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Structural brain imaging studies in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have produced inconsistent findings. This may be partially due to limited statistical power from relatively small samples and clinical heterogeneity related to variation in disease profile and developmental stage. Methods To address these limitations, we conducted a meta- and mega-analysis of data from OCD sites worldwide. T1 images from 1,830 OCD patients and 1,759 controls were analyzed, using coordinated and standardized processing, to identify subcortical brain volumes that differ in OCD patients and healthy controls. We additionally examined potential modulating effects of clinical characteristics on morphological differences in OCD patients. Results The meta-analysis indicated that adult patients had significantly smaller hippocampal volumes (Cohen’s d=−0.13; p=5.1x10−3, % difference −2.80) and larger pallidum volumes (d=0.16; p=1.6x10−3, % difference 3.16) compared to adult controls. Both effects were stronger in medicated patients compared to controls (d=−0.29; p=2.4x10−5, % difference −4.18 and d=0.29; p=1.2x10−5, % difference 4.38, respectively). Unmedicated pediatric patients had larger thalamic volumes (d=0.38, p=2.1x10−3) compared to pediatric controls. None of these findings were mediated by sample characteristics such as mean age or field strength. Overall the mega-analysis yielded similar results. Conclusion Our study indicates a different pattern of subcortical abnormalities in pediatric versus adult OCD patients. The pallidum and hippocampus seem to be of importance in adult OCD, whereas the thalamus seems to be key in pediatric OCD. This highlights the potential importance of neurodevelopmental alterations in OCD, and suggests that further research on neuroplasticity in OCD may be useful. PMID:27609241

  14. Effects of methamphetamine exposure on anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, corticosterone, and hippocampal tyrosine hydroxylase in adolescent and adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struntz, Katelyn H; Siegel, Jessica A

    2018-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a psychomotor stimulant drug that can alter behavior, the stress response system, and the dopaminergic system. The effects of MA can be modulated by age, however relatively little research has examined the acute effects of MA in adolescents and how the effects compare to those found in adults. The hippocampal dopamine system is altered by MA exposure and can modulate anxiety-like behavior, but the effects of MA on the hippocampal dopamine system have not been well studied, especially in adolescent animals. In order to assess potential age differences in the effects of MA exposure, this research examined the effects of acute MA exposure on locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, plasma corticosterone levels, and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6 J mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine and was used as a marker of the hippocampal dopaminergic system. Mice were exposed to saline or 4 mg/kg MA and locomotor and anxiety-like behavior were measured in the open field test. Serum and brains were collected immediately after testing and plasma corticosterone and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels measured. MA-exposed mice showed increased locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test compared with saline controls, regardless of age. There was no effect of MA on plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in either adolescent or adult mice. These data suggest that acute MA exposure during adolescence and adulthood increases locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior but does not alter plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels, and that these effects are not modulated by age

  15. INCREASES IN ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY ACUTE STRESS ARE REVERSED BY ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT BUT NOT ADULT RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnata...

  16. [Psychological alterations in patients with adult celiac disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cerezo, Francisco J; Castillejo, Gemma; Guillen, Núria; Morente, Vanessa; Simó, Josep M; Tena, Francisco J; Marsal, Joan; Pascual, Domingo

    2014-04-01

    Patients with recently-diagnosed adult celiac disease were evaluated with the Gastrointestinal Symptom rating Scale (GSRS) and Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) to evaluate their psychological alterations, the association between any alterations and gastrointestinal symptoms, and their outcome after starting a gluten-free diet. The patients underwent nutritional assessment and then started a gluten-free diet; they were reassessed 6 months later. Quantitative variables are expressed as the median and 25th-75th percentiles. We included 21 patients, 17 women and 4 mena, with a mean age of 43 years (31-47). The results of histological analysis were compatible with Marsh I lesions in 6 patients, Marsh IIIa in 6 and Marsh IIIb in 9. At baseline, 8 patients showed severe psychological distress, 4 showed moderate distress and 9 showed no distress. The GSRS score was 34 (17-43) and the PGWBI was 64 (48-87), with a significant correlation between the 2 indexes (rho=-.58, P=.006). At 6 months, 3 patients had severe psychological distress, 5 had moderate distress, 9 showed no distress and 4 showed psychological well-being. The GSRS score at 6 months was 13 (8-17) and the PGWBI was 83 (68-95) (P<.05 compared with baseline data for the 3 indicators). The 6 axes of the PGWBI showed significant improvement. At 6 months, no correlation was found between the GSRS and PGWBI. Patients with celiac disease have psychological alterations whose intensity is related to gastrointestinal symptoms. These symptoms improve after the start of a gluten-free diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender differences in depression and anxiety across the adult lifespan: the role of psychosocial mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Liana S; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Windsor, Timothy D; Butterworth, Peter

    2008-12-01

    There is robust epidemiological and clinical evidence that a greater number of women than men experience depression and anxiety. This study investigated a number of socio-demographic, health and lifestyle, psychological and social factors as possible mediators for the gender difference in depression and anxiety in three cohorts (20-24, 40-44, 60-64). Responses were from a representative, community based survey (n = 7,485) conducted in Canberra and Queanbeyan (NSW), in Australia. Depression and anxiety were measured using the self-report Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scales. The analyses initially identified gender differences in the potential mediators, followed by univariate and multivariate mediation models. The results indicated several shared mediators for depression and anxiety across the three age groups including: childhood adversity, mastery, behavioural inhibition, ruminative style, neuroticism, physical health, physical activity, and perceived interpersonal and employment problems. There was a decrease in the number of social mediators as age increased. The multivariate models accounted for gender differences in both conditions for all age groups, except for anxiety in the 20-24 years old. This suggests further important unmeasured mediators for this age group. These findings add to the literature surrounding gender differences in depression and anxiety, and provide a basis for future research exploring variation in these gender disparities over the adult lifespan.

  18. The relationship among young adult college students' depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.

  19. Clinical issues in the treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachana, Nancy A; Egan, Sarah J; Laidlaw, Ken; Dissanayaka, Nadeeka; Byrne, Gerard J; Brockman, Simone; Marsh, Rodney; Starkstein, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    A significant proportion of persons affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) are over age 65 years. Mental health issues are often less a focus of treatment in this population than physical manifestations of the illness. Anxiety or depression alone, as well as comorbid depression and anxiety, are underrecognized in patients with PD and are associated with deleterious effects on physical and interpersonal functioning, negatively impacting quality of life and well-being. We offer a brief overview of salient clinical points with respect to assessment and treatment approaches to enhance efficacy of the treatment of mental health symptoms in older adults with PD. Cognitive behavior therapy involves the patient learning to overcome behavioral avoidance associated with anxiety and challenge unhelpful negative cognitions. It is suggested that cognitive behavior therapy is an effective approach to treatment of anxiety and depression in PD and should be offered as a treatment to patients. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  20. The impact of dental appearance and anxiety on self-esteem in adult orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Maroto, M; Santos-Puerta, N; González Olmo, M J; Peñacoba-Puente, C

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the relationship between different dimensions of dental appearance impact and self-esteem in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, with special attention to the possible mediating role of anxiety. A quasi-experimental design was used with a matched control group (without orthodontic treatment). In each group (experimental and control), there were 85 patients. The impact of dental appearance was measured using the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ). State anxiety was assessed with the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and self-esteem with Rosenberg's self-esteem scale. In both groups (experimental and control), self-esteem correlates negatively, ranging between 0.26 and 0.43, with all dimensions of dental appearance impact (except for the positive dental self-confidence dimension, where all correlations were positive). Anxiety correlates positively, ranges between 0.35 and 0.44, with social impact, psychological impact and aesthetic concern, although it maintains no significant correlations with dental self-confidence. Nevertheless, in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, anxiety plays a mediating role between dental impact dimensions and self-esteem, whilst for the control group anxiety only plays a mediator role between psychological impact and self-esteem. Anxiety plays a fundamental role in the effect of perceived dental impact on self-esteem in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. These results have important practical implications for the design of bio-psycho-social intervention programs that contemplate cognitive-affective variables as an essential part of orthodontic treatment in adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Herbal medicine use in adults who experience anxiety: A qualitative exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J.; Moran, Carmen C.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners. PMID:26680418

  2. Herbal medicine use in adults who experience anxiety: A qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Moran, Carmen C

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners.

  3. Assessment of depression and anxiety in adult cancer outpatients: a cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadoon, Nauman A; Munir, Waqar; Shahzad, Mohammad A; Choudhry, Zeshan S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in cancer patients and its associated factors in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to help introduce interventions as untreated depression and anxiety can lead to significant morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adult outpatients with and without cancer as well as the effect of various demographic, clinical and behavioral factors on levels of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in outpatient departments of Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and Nishtar Medical College Hospital, Multan. Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) was used to define the presence of depression and anxiety in study participants. The sample consisted of 150 diagnosed cancer patients and 268 participants without cancer (control group). The mean age of cancer patients was 40.85 years (SD = 16.46) and median illness duration was 5.5 months, while the mean age of the control group was 39.58 years (SD = 11.74). Overall, 66.0% of the cancer patients were found to have depression and anxiety using a cutoff score of 20 on AKUADS. Among the control group, 109 subjects (40.7%) had depression and anxiety. Cancer patients were significantly more likely to suffer from distress compared to the control group (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.89-4.25, P = 0.0001). Performing logistic regression analysis showed that age up to 40 years significantly influenced the prevalence of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, marital status, locality, education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, cancer site, illness duration and mode of treatment, surgery related to cancer and presence of depression and anxiety. Cancers highly associated with depression and anxiety were gastrointestinal malignancies, chest tumors and breast cancer. This study

  4. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people ...

  5. Computer related self-efficacy and anxiety in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Katherine V.; Mattek, Nora; Maxwell, Shoshana A.; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Jimison, Holly B.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines differences in computer related self-efficacy and anxiety in subgroups of older adults, and changes in those measures following exposure to a systematic training program and subsequent computer use. Methods Participants were volunteers in the Intelligent Systems for Assessment of Aging Changes Study (ISAAC) carried out by the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology. Participants were administered two questionnaires prior to training and again one year later, related to computer self-efficacy and anxiety. Continuous recording of computer use was also assessed for a subset of participants. Results Baseline comparisons by gender, age, education, living arrangement, and computer proficiency, but not cognitive status, yielded significant differences in confidence and anxiety related to specific aspects of computer use. At one-year follow-up, participants reported less anxiety and greater confidence. However, the benefits of training and exposure varied by group and task. Comparisons based on cognitive status showed that the cognitively intact participants benefited more from training and/or experience with computers than did participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), who after one year continued to report less confidence and more anxiety regarding certain aspects of computer use. Conclusion After one year of consistent computer use, cognitively intact participants in this study reported reduced levels of anxiety and increased self-confidence in their ability to perform specific computer tasks. Participants with MCI at baseline were less likely to demonstrate increased efficacy or confidence than their cognitively intact counterparts. PMID:23102124

  6. [Difficulties in emotion regulation and personal distress in young adults with social anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Tamburello, Stella; Scapellato, Paolo; Penzo, Ilaria; Tamburello, Antonino; Innamorati, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between social anxiety and difficulties in emotion regulation in a sample of Italian young adults. Our convenience sample was composed of 298 Italian young adults (184 women and 114 men) aged 18-34 years. Participants were administered the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS), the Audience Anxiousness Scale (AAS), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). A Two Step cluster analysis was used to group subjects according to their level of social anxiety. The cluster analysis indicated a two-cluster solution. The first cluster included 163 young adults with higher scores on the AAS and the IAS than those included in cluster 2 (n=135). A generalized linear model with groups as dependent variable indicated that people with higher social anxiety (compared to those with lower social anxiety) have higher scores on the dimension personal distress of the IRI (p<0.01), and on the DERS non acceptance of negative emotions (p<0.001) and lack of emotional clarity (p<0.05). The results are consistent with models of psychopathology, which hypothesize that people who cannot deal effectively with their emotions may develop depressive and anxious disorders.

  7. Anxiety and depressed mood decline following smoking abstinence in adult smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Lirio S.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Winhusen, Theresa; Lima, Jennifer; Berlin, Ivan; Nunes, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A preponderance of relevant research has indicated reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following smoking abstinence. This secondary analysis investigated whether the phenomenon extends to smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods The study setting was an 11-Week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) as a cessation aid when added to nicotine patch and counseling. Participants were 255 adult smokers with ADHD. The study outcomes are: anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) and depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI)) measured one Week and six Weeks after a target quit day (TQD). The main predictor is point - prevalence abstinence measured at Weeks 1 and 6 after TQD. Covariates are treatment (OROS-MPH vs placebo), past major depression, past anxiety disorder, number of cigarettes smoked daily, demographics (age, gender, education, marital status) and baseline scores on the BAI, BDI, and the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale. Results Abstinence was significantly associated with lower anxiety ratings throughout the post-quit period (p<0.001). Depressed mood was lower for abstainers than non-abstainers at Week 1 (p<0.05), but no longer at Week 6 (p=0.83). Treatment with OROS-MPH relative to placebo showed significant reductions at Week 6 after TQD for both anxiety (p<0.05) and depressed mood (p<0.001), but not at Week 1. Differential abstinence effects of gender were observed. Anxiety and depression ratings at baseline predicted increased ratings of corresponding measures during the post-quit period. Conclusion Stopping smoking yielded reductions in anxiety and depressed mood in smokers with ADHD treated with nicotine patch and counseling. Treatment with OROS-MPH yielded mood reductions in delayed manner. PMID:26272693

  8. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. What Brings You Here? Exploring Why Young Adults Seek Help for Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeltnes, Aslak; Moltu, Christian; Schanche, Elisabeth; Binder, Per-Einar

    2016-10-01

    Social anxiety disorder typically manifests in young adulthood, but there is an absence of qualitative research on the actual experiences of young adults suffering with this disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate the lived experiences of 29 Norwegian university students who were seeking professional help for symptoms of social anxiety. We conducted in-depth interviews prior to a clinical trial. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a team-based thematic analysis method based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. We identified five themes: (a) from being shy to interpreting anxiety as a mental health problem, (b) experiencing emotions as threatening and uncontrollable, (c) encountering loneliness as relationships fall away, (d) hiding the vulnerable self from others, and (e) deciding to face social fears in the future. We relate our findings to existing theory and research, discuss our process of reflexivity, highlight study limitations, and suggest implications for future research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Attentional Bias for Threat in Older Adults: Moderation of the Positivity Bias by Trait Anxiety and Stimulus Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lewina O.; Knight, Bob G.

    2009-01-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that emotion regulation goals motivate older adults to preferentially allocate attention to positive stimuli and away from negative stimuli. This study examined whether anxiety moderates the effect of the positivity bias on attention for threat. We employed the dot probe task to compare subliminal and supraliminal attention for threat in 103 young and 44 older adults. Regardless of anxiety, older but not younger adults demonstrated a vigilant-avoidant response to angry faces. Anxiety influenced older adults’ attention such that anxious individuals demonstrated a vigilant-avoidant reaction to sad faces, but an avoidant-vigilant reaction to negative words. PMID:19739931

  11. Perceived Parenting Styles Fail to Mediate Between Anxiety and Attachment Styles in Adult Siblings of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Linda P; Murray, Lindsay E

    2016-09-01

    Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found between perceived parenting and attachment styles or anxiety for the siblings but there were robust and expected findings for the control. Adult attachment-related-anxiety was a significant unique predictor of anxiety in the sibling group but there was no mediational role for perceived parenting. Conversely, the majority of parenting styles significantly mediated the relationship between attachment and anxiety in the control. Implications for the atypical findings in the sibling group are discussed.

  12. Adult separation anxiety in treatment nonresponders with anxiety disorders: delineation of the syndrome and exploration of attachment-based psychotherapy and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrod, Barbara; Altemus, Margaret; Gross, Charles; Busch, Fredric; Silver, Gabrielle; Christos, Paul; Stieber, Joshua; Schneier, Franklin

    2016-04-01

    Clinically significant separation anxiety [SA] has been identified as being common among patients who do not respond to psychiatric interventions, regardless of intervention type (pharmacological or psychotherapeutic), across anxiety and mood disorders. An attachment formation and maintenance domain has been proposed as contributing to anxiety disorders. We therefore directly determined prevalence of SA in a population of adult treatment non-responders suffering from primary anxiety. In these separation anxious nonresponders, we pilot-tested an SA-focused, attachment-based psychotherapy for anxiety, Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], and assessed whether hypothesized biomarkers of attachment were engaged. We studied separation anxiety [SA] in 46 adults (ages 23-70 [mean 43.9 (14.9)]) with clinically significant anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]≥15), and reporting a history of past non-response to psychotherapy and/or medication treatments. Thirty-seven (80%) had clinically significant symptoms of separation anxiety (Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms [SCI-SAS] score≥8). Five of these subjects completed an open clinical trial of Panic Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], a 21-24 session, 12-week manualized attachment-focused anxiolytic psychodynamic psychotherapy for anxiety. Patients improved on "adult threshold" SCI-SAS (current separation anxiety) (p=.016), HARS (p=0.002), and global severity, assessed by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (p=.0006), at treatment termination. Salivary oxytocin levels decreased 67% after treatment (p=.12). There was no significant change in high or low frequency HRV after treatment, but change in high frequency HRV inversely correlated with treatment change in oxytocin (ppsychotherapy, potentially supporting the clinical relevance of attachment dysfunction in this sample. The large decrease in oxytocin levels with

  13. Correlations Between Nutrition Habits, Anxiety and Metabolic Parameters in Greek Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinakou, Stavroula; Katsa, Maria Efthymia; Zyga, Sofia; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Sachlas, Athanasios; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios; Pistikou, Anna Maria; Magana, Maria; Kougioumtzi Dimoligianni, Dafni Eleni; Kolovos, Petros; Rojas Gil, Andrea Paola

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety combined with nervousness and apprehension consist a focal response to different life conditions. Lifestyle habits, anxiety and biochemical markers are in a constant interaction. To investigate the prevalence of anxiety in healthy adults and its possible association with biochemical factors-lipid profile, liver markers, thyroid hormones-and lifestyle habits. Quantitative descriptive correlation study. A total of 100 healthy adults participated in the research. A specially designed questionnaire and Hamilton's scale were used. Anthropometric and biochemical analyses were performed. Overall, 61% of the participants presented moderate to very serious anxiety. The average score on the Hamilton scale was 13.82 (±9.000), with men exhibiting less stress than women. For p ≤ 0.05: Stress was positively correlated with impaired thyroid and hepatic function. Hepatic function was affected by both sugar products and water melon, which were positively correlated with total bilirubin and AST/SGOT respectively. Tomato, peppers and legumes were negatively correlated with AST/SGOT. Deep fried food was positively correlated with GGT and triglycerides. Legumes and fish were negatively correlated with CPK. Regarding the lipid metabolism, it was found that food cooked with oil was positively associated with uric acid, but non-cooked olive oil was negatively correlated with the risk for CAD. Thyroid function was negatively correlated with non-homemade food and pasta consumption and positively correlated with consumption of whole grains and green tea. Participants with subclinical hypothyroidism seemed to consume less vitamin B12, folic acid and vegetables. No direct correlation between lifestyle habits and anxiety was found. Nevertheless, eating habits influenced biochemical markers-especially the thyroid hormones-which may be indirectly responsible for anxiety and related moods.

  14. Comorbid anxiety disorders alter the association between cardiovascular diseases and depression: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Baune, Bernhard T

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to examine whether specific anxiety disorder comorbidity alters the purported association between depression and specific cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In 4,181 representative German participants of the general population, 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and CVDs by physician verified diagnosis. Adjusting for conventional risk factors logistic regression analyzed the association between CVDs (peripheral vascular disease (PVD), hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and heart disease) and combinations of comorbidity between depression and anxiety disorder types (panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia and generalized anxiety). There were 770 cases of hypertension (18.4 %), 763 cases of cerebrovascular disease (18.2 %), 748 cases of PVD (17.9 %), and 1,087 cases of CVD (26.0 %). In adjusted analyses phobia comorbid with depression was associated with cerebrovascular disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.61; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.50) as was panic disorder (OR 2.89; 95 % CI 1.47-5.69). PVD was significantly associated with panic disorder (adjusted OR 2.97; 95 % CI 1.55-5.69). Panic disorder was associated with CVDs (adjusted OR 2.28; 95 % CI 1.09-4.77) as was phobia (adjusted OR 1.35; 95 % CI 1.04-1.78). Classification of anxiety and depression according to comorbidity groups showed discrete effects for panic disorder and specific phobia with CVDs, independent from covariates and depression.

  15. Explicit verbal memory impairments associated with brain functional deficits and morphological alterations in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Yang, Jong-Chul; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-11-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with brain function and morphological alterations. This study investigated explicit verbal memory impairment in patients with GAD in terms of brain functional deficits in combination with morphologic changes. Seventeen patients with GAD and 17 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI and fMR imaging at 3 T during explicit verbal memory tasks with emotionally neutral and anxiety-inducing words. In response to the neutral words, the patients showed significantly lower activities in the regions of the hippocampus (Hip), middle cingulate gyrus (MCG), putamen (Pu) and head of the caudate nucleus (HCd) compared with healthy controls. In response to the anxiety-inducing words, the patients showed significantly higher activities in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus. However, they showed lower activities in the Hip, MCG, Pu and HCd. In addition, patients with GAD showed a significant reduction in gray matter volumes, especially in the regions of the Hip, midbrain, thalamus, insula and superior temporal gyrus, compared with healthy controls. This study examined a small sample sizes in each of the groups, and there was no consideration of a medication effect on brain activity and volume changes. This study provides evidence for the association between brain functional deficits and morphometric alterations in an explicit verbal memory task for patients with GAD. This finding is helpful for understanding explicit verbal memory impairment in connection with GAD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI and Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Earlier studies have shown a protective association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders in western nations; however, data in this regard are limited from the understudies region of Middle-East. We aimed to examine the association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines, as measured by AHEI, and prevalence of anxiety and depression in a large sample of Iranian adults. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intakes of 3363 adult participants were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to healthy eating was quantified using AHEI as suggested by earlier publications. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess anxiety and depression in study participants. Data on other covariates were gathered using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, the frequency of anxiety and depression was 15.2% and 30.0%, respectively. After taking potential confounders into account, participants with greater adherence to AHEI had 48% lower odds of depression compared with those in the bottom quartile (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.39-0.70. Those in the highest quartile of AHEI had a 29% lower odds of anxiety, compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.54-0.94; however, adjustment for dietary intakes and body mass index attenuated the association (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.52-1.09. Conclusion Adherence to healthy eating was inversely associated with a lower chance of depression in Iranian adults. Further studies, especially with prospective design, are required to confirm these associations in Middle-Eastern populations.

  17. A systematic review of interventions for anxiety, depression, and PTSD in adult offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Hunt, Nicholas; Perry, Amanda

    2015-06-01

    There is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in offender populations but with no recent systematic review of interventions to identify what is effective. This systematic review was undertaken to identify randomised controlled trials of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in adult offenders in prison or community settings. A search of five databases identified 14 studies meeting inclusion criteria, which considered the impact of psychological interventions, pharmacological agents, or exercise on levels of depression and anxiety. A narrative synthesis was undertaken and Hedges g effect sizes calculated to allow comparison between studies. Effect sizes for depression interventions ranged from 0.17 to 1.41, for anxiety 0.61 to 0.71 and for posttraumatic stress disorder 0 to 1.41. Cognitive behavioural therapy interventions for the reduction of depression and anxiety in adult offenders appear effective in the short term, though a large-scale trial of sufficient duration is needed to confirm this finding. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among young male adults in India: a dimensional and categorical diagnoses-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Saddichha; Khess, Christoday R J

    2010-12-01

    The lifetime prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among adolescents and young adults around the world is currently estimated to range from 5% to 70%, with an Indian study reporting no depression among college going adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine prevalence of current depressive, anxiety, and stress-related symptoms on a Dimensional and Categorical basis among young adults in Ranchi city of India. A stratified sample of 500 students was selected to be representative of the city's college going population (n = 50,000) of which 405 were taken up for final analysis. Data were obtained using Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to assess symptoms on dimensional basis and using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose on categorical basis. Mean age of students was 19.3 years with an average education of 14.7 years. Ranging from mild to extremely severe, depressive symptoms were present in 18.5% of the population, anxiety in 24.4%, and stress in 20%. Clinical depression was present in 12.1% and generalized anxiety disorder in 19.0%. Comorbid anxiety and depression was high, with about 87% of those having depression also suffering from anxiety disorder. Detecting depressive, anxiety, and stress-related symptoms in the college population is a critical preventive strategy, which can help in preventing disruption to the learning process. Health policies must integrate young adults' depression, stress, and anxiety as a disorder of public health significance.

  19. Perceived distress tolerance accounts for the covariance between discrimination experiences and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Nathan Grant; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Forney, Margot; Leventhal, Adam M

    2017-05-01

    Sexual orientation-related discrimination experiences have been implicated in elevated rates of anxiety symptoms within sexual minority groups. Theory suggests that chronic discrimination experiences may dampen the ability to tolerate distress, increasing vulnerability for anxiety. This study examined the role of distress tolerance, or the capacity to withstand negative emotions, as a construct underlying associations between discriminatory experiences and anxiety among sexual minority adults. Participants (N=119;M age =36.4±14.8; 50% cisgender male, 31% cisgender female, 19% transgender; 37% non-Latino white) were recruited from Houston, Texas. Measures administered included the Heterosexist Harassment, Rejection, and Discrimination Scale (discrimination experiences), Distress Tolerance Scale (distress tolerance), and the State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (anxiety). The association of discrimination experiences and anxiety through distress tolerance was assessed using covariate-adjusted mediation modeling. Results indicated that sexual orientation-related discrimination experiences were significantly and positively associated with anxiety and that this association was mediated through lower distress tolerance. Significant indirect effects were specific to cognitive (versus somatic) anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that distress tolerance may be an explanatory mechanism in the association between discriminatory experiences and cognitive symptoms of anxiety and a potentially relevant target within clinical interventions to address anxiety-related health disparities among sexual minority adults. However, more sophisticated designs are needed to delineate causal associations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived Parenting Styles Fail to Mediate between Anxiety and Attachment Styles in Adult Siblings of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Linda P.; Murray, Lindsay E.

    2016-01-01

    Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found…

  1. Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Separation Anxiety Disorder Across Countries in the World Mental Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Caldas de Almeida, Jose Miguel; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    Objective: The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. Method: The sample included 38,993 adults in 18

  2. The Negative Impact of Death Anxiety on Self-Efficacy and Willingness to Donate Organs among Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2009-01-01

    Chinese people are consistently reported to be less likely to commit to posthumous organ donation than the Westerners. This study aims at investigating how death anxiety may hinder them from expressing their willingness to donate organs. Among 290 Hong Kong Chinese adults (age greater than or equal 25 years), a higher level of death anxiety was…

  3. Sucrose or sucrose and caffeine differentially impact memory and anxiety-like behaviours, and alter hippocampal parvalbumin and doublecortin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tanya J; Reichelt, Amy C

    2018-04-11

    Caffeinated sugar-sweetened "energy" drinks are a subset of soft drinks that are popular among young people worldwide. High sucrose diets impair cognition and alter aspects of emotional behaviour in rats, however, little is known about sucrose combined with caffeine. Rats were allocated to 2 h/day 10% sucrose (Suc), 10% sucrose plus 0.04% caffeine (CafSuc) or control (water) conditions. The addition of caffeine to sucrose appeared to increase the rewarding aspect of sucrose, as the CafSuc group consumed more solution than the Suc group. After 14 days of intermittent Suc or CafSuc access, anxiety was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) prior to their daily solution access, whereby CafSuc and Suc rats spent more time in the closed arms, indicative of increased anxiety. Following daily solution access, CafSuc, but not Suc, rats showed reduced anxiety-like behaviour in the open-field. Control and CafSuc rats displayed intact place and long-term object memory, while Suc showed impaired memory performance. Sucrose reduced parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, but no differences were observed between Control and CafSuc conditions. Parvalbumin reactivity in the basolateral amygdala did not differ between conditions. Reduced doublecortin immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus relative to controls was seen in the CafSuc, but not Suc, treatment conditions. These findings indicate that the addition of caffeine to sucrose attenuated cognitive deficits. However, the addition of caffeine to sucrose evoked anxiety-like responses under certain testing conditions, suggesting that frequent consumption of caffeinated energy drinks may promote emotional alterations and brain changes compared to standard soft drinks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) deficiency in brain leads to altered locomotor activity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Sebastian; Auden, Alana; Partridge, Darren D; Daglas, Maria; Medcalf, Robert L; Mantamadiotis, Theo; Georgy, Smitha R; Darido, Charbel; Jane, Stephen M; Ting, Stephen B

    2017-06-01

    The highly conserved Grainyhead-like (Grhl) family of transcription factors, comprising three members in vertebrates (Grhl1-3), play critical regulatory roles during embryonic development, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. Although loss of Grhl function leads to multiple neural abnormalities in numerous animal models, a comprehensive analysis of Grhl expression and function in the mammalian brain has not been reported. Here they show that only Grhl3 expression is detectable in the embryonic mouse brain; particularly within the habenula, an organ known to modulate repressive behaviors. Using both Grhl3-knockout mice (Grhl3 -/- ), and brain-specific conditional deletion of Grhl3 in adult mice (Nestin-Cre/Grhl3 flox/flox ), they performed histological expression analyses and behavioral tests to assess long-term effects of Grhl3 loss on motor co-ordination, spatial memory, anxiety, and stress. They found that complete deletion of Grhl3 did not lead to noticeable structural or cell-intrinsic defects in the embryonic brain; however, aged Grhl3 conditional knockout (cKO) mice showed enlarged lateral ventricles and displayed marked changes in motor function and behaviors suggestive of decreased fear and anxiety. They conclude that loss of Grhl3 in the brain leads to significant alterations in locomotor activity and decreased self-inhibition, and as such, these mice may serve as a novel model of human conditions of impulsive behavior or hyperactivity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 775-788, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with high anxiety sensitivity: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Powers, M.B.; Frierson, G.M.; Otto, M.W.; Hopkins, L.B.; Brown, R.A.; Baird, S.O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: High anxiety sensitivity predicts poor smoking cessation outcomes. Aerobic exercise reduces anxiety sensitivity and aspects of the risk conferred by anxiety sensitivity. In the current study, we examined whether exercise can aid smoking cessation in adults with high anxiety sensitivity.

  6. Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and tests of attention and executive functions. Similar to findings from a previous study with healthy community-based older adults (Nebes, Buysse, Halligan, Houck, & Monk, 2009), participants who reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI endorsed significantly greater scores on MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales related to depression and anxiety (Cohen's d = 0.77-1.05). In addition, PSQI component scores indexing poor sleep quality, duration, and medication use were associated with diminished attention and executive functions, even after controlling for emotional reactivity or demoralization (rs = 0.21-0.27). These results add to the concurrent validity of the PSQI, and provide further evidence for subtle cognitive decrements related to insufficient sleep even in healthy young adults. Future extension of these findings is necessary with larger samples and clinical comparison groups, and using objective indices of sleep dysfunction such as polysomnography.

  7. Assessment of anxiety in older adults: a review of self-report measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michela; Cataldi, Fedele; Carlucci, Leonardo; Fairfield, Beth

    2018-01-01

    With increasing numbers of older adults in the general population, anxiety will become a widespread problem in late life and one of the major causes of health care access contributing to high societal and individual costs. Unfortunately, the detection of anxiety disorders in late life is complicated by a series of factors that make it different from assessment in younger cohorts, such as differential symptom presentation, high comorbidity with medical and mental disorders, the aging process, and newly emergent changes in life circumstances. This review covers commonly and currently used self-report inventories for assessing anxiety in older adults. For each tool, psychometric data is investigated in depth. In particular, information about reliability, validity evidence based on data from clinical and nonclinical samples of older adults, and availability of age-appropriate norms are provided. Finally, guidance for clinical evaluation and future research are proposed in an effort to highlight the importance of clinical assessment in the promotion of clinically relevant therapeutic choices. PMID:29670342

  8. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Gwendolyn C; Huizink, Anja C; Tulen, Joke H M; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Creemers, Hanneke E; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different primary diagnoses of clinical anxiety disorders (AD) from each other, and from a general population reference group (GP). The study sample consisted of 152 AD children (comparing separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and specific phobia), aged 8- to 12-years, and 200 same-aged reference children. HPA-axis functioning was measured by a diurnal cortisol profile. ANS functioning was measured by continuous measures of skin conductance level in rest and during a mental arithmetic task and high frequency heart rate variability in rest. PA was assessed by a questionnaire. The AD sample showed lower high frequency heart rate variability during rest, heightened anticipatory PA, higher basal and reactive skin conductance levels and lower basal HPA-axis functioning compared to the GP sample. The existence of three or more clinical disorders, i.e. a high clinical 'load', was associated with lower basal HPA-axis functioning, higher skin conductance level and lower posttest PA. Specific phobia could be discerned from social phobia and separation anxiety disorder on higher skin conductance level. Our findings indicated that children with AD have specific psychophysiological characteristics, which resemble the psychophysiological characteristics of chronic stress. A high clinical 'load' is associated with an altered ANS and HPA-axis functioning. Overall, ANS and HPA-axis functioning relate to AD in general, accept for specific phobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships between depression and anxiety symptoms scores and blood pressure in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sunil K; Beilin, Lawrence J; Robinson, Monique; Burrows, Sally; Mori, Trevor A

    2017-10-01

    Depression and anxiety are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but their relationship to blood pressure (BP) is less clear. Age-related comorbidity and lifestyle factors may confound these relationships. This study aimed to assess the relationships among BP, depression and anxiety symptom scores and self-reported history of depression in young adults. Data on 1014 participants aged 20 years from the Western Australian Cohort (Raine) Study were analyzed for cross-sectional associations between clinic BP and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale questionnaire scores or a reported history of depression, accounting for relevant confounders. Multivariable adjusted analyses showed an inverse relationship between SBP with depression (coefficient = -0.10; P = 0.012) and anxiety (after excluding two outliers with SBP > 156 mmHg, coefficient = -0.13; P = 0.018) scores, independent of sex, BMI, female hormonal contraceptive use, alcohol consumption, birth weight and maternal hypertension in pregnancy. SBP was 1.6 mmHg lower for 2 SD (16 units) increase in depression score. There was an inverse association between self-reported history of depression (15.8% of participants) and SBP (coefficient = -1.91; P = 0.023), with an interaction with increasing BMI (interaction coefficient = -0.43; P = 0.002) enhancing this difference. Our findings show that SBP in young adults is inversely associated with depression and anxiety scores, independent of a range of lifestyle confounders. Despite a positive association between BMI and BP, adiposity enhanced the inverse association between self-reported history of depression and SBP. These findings contrast with the predisposition of depressed participants to cardiovascular disease in later life when decades of unhealthy lifestyle changes may dominate.

  10. Music does not alter anxiety in patients with suspected lung cancer undergoing bronchoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Carsten M; Larsen, Klaus R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of music to relieve anxiety has been examined in various studies, but the results are inconclusive. METHODS: From April to October 2015, 160 patients undergoing examination of pulmonary nodules were randomly assigned to MusiCure or no music. MusiCure was administered through e...... earplugs to ensure blinding of the staff and was played from admission to the operating theatre to the end of the bronchoscopy. Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered on admission, immediately before bronchoscopy, and on discharge. Secondary outcomes were p...

  11. Review of the effect of music interventions on symptoms of anxiety and depression in older adults with mild dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Darina; Cacchione, Pamela Z; George, Maureen

    2015-10-01

    Treatment of anxiety and depression, the most common psychiatric symptoms in older adults with mild dementia, requires innovative approaches due to the high cost and significant side effects associated with traditional pharmacological interventions. Alternative non-pharmacological therapies, such as music, when used in conjunction with pharmacological treatment, have the potential to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression in older adults diagnosed with mild dementia. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence of music's efficacy in improving symptoms of anxiety and depression in older adults with mild dementia. Four databases (Medline, CINAHL, PsychInfo, PubMed) were searched using the terms "music," "music therapy," "music intervention," "singing," "dementia," "anxiety," and/or "depression," identifying ten studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The poor methodological rigor of the studies precluded reaching consensus on the efficacy of a music intervention in alleviating symptoms of anxiety and depression in older adults with mild dementia. There was inconclusive evidence as to whether music interventions are effective in alleviating symptoms of anxiety and depression in older adults with mild dementia due to the poor methodological rigor. However, with improved designs guided by a deeper understanding of how music engages the aging brain, music may emerge as an important adjunct therapy to improving the lives of older adults with mild dementia.

  12. Predictors of dental avoidance among Australian adults with different levels of dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Ketting, Manon

    2015-09-01

    It has been proposed that avoidance of dental visits might be the main determinant of poor oral health outcomes in people with high dental anxiety (HDA). This study aimed to determine the predictors of dental avoidance among people with HDA and also whether these predictors differed from those found in people with lower dental anxiety (LDA). Study participants (n = 596; response rate = 41.1%) comprised a random cross-sectional sample of the Australian adult population who completed a mailed self-complete questionnaire containing items relating to the use and accessibility of dental services, trust in dental professionals, dental anxiety, dental experiences, self-perceived oral health, vulnerability-related perceptions of visiting the dentist, and psychological health. Multiple imputation was used to replace missing values and statistically significant variables in bivariate analyses were entered into a multivariable logistic generalized linear model. More than two-thirds of participants with HDA were currently avoiding or delaying a dental visit. Among people with HDA, dental avoidance was independently and significantly predicted by difficulty paying a $300 dental bill, having no or only little trust in the last-visited dentist, perceived treatment need and dental anxiety. Among people with LDA, only perceived treatment need and dental anxiety predicted avoidance. In addition to their high anxiety, a number of additional barriers to dental visiting were found for people with HDA. These barriers, especially cost and communication issues with dentists, need to be addressed to assist people with HDA obtain necessary, regular dental care. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Plasma inflammatory factors are associated with anxiety, depression, and cognitive problems in adults with and without methamphetamine dependence: An exploratory protein array study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn eHuckans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is hypothesized that immune factors influence addictive behaviors and contribute to relapse. The primary study objectives were to: 1 compare neuropsychiatric symptoms across adults with active methamphetamine dependence, in early remission from methamphetamine dependence, and with no history of substance dependence, 2 determine whether active or recent methamphetamine dependence affects the expression of immune factors, and 3 evaluate the association between immune factor levels and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using between group comparisons and regression analyses to investigate associations among variables. Eighty-four adults were recruited into control (n = 31, methamphetamine (MA-active (n = 17, or MA-remission (n = 36 groups. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and memory complaints and objective tests of attention and executive function. Blood samples were collected, and a panel of immune factors was measured using multiplex technology. Results: Relative to controls, MA dependent adults evidenced greater anxiety and depression during active use (p < 0.001 and remission (p < 0.007, and more attention, memory, and executive problems during remission (p < 0.01 but not active dependence. Regression analyses identified 10 immune factors (putatively associated with cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions associated with anxiety, depression, and memory problems. Conclusion: While psychiatric symptoms are present during active methamphetamine dependence and remission, at least some cognitive difficulties emerge only during remission. Altered expression of a network of immune factors contributes to neuropsychiatric symptom severity.

  14. Effects of Home-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Depression on Anxiety Symptoms among Rural, Ethnically Diverse Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Pierpaoli, Christina M; Shah, Avani; Yang, Xin; Scogin, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of home-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression on anxiety symptoms in an ethnically diverse, low resource, and medically frail sample of rural, older adults. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized clincial trial with 134 rural-dwelling adults 65 years and older with decreased quality of life and elevated psychological symptomatology. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the anxiety and phobic anxiety subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Compared to a minimal support control condition, CBT for depression resulted in significantly greater improvements in symptoms of anxiety and phobic anxiety from pre-treatment to post-treatment. Home-delivered CBT for depression can be an effective treatment for anxiety in a hard-to-reach older populations. Additional research should explore integrated anxiety and depression protocols and other treatment modalities, including bibliotherapy or telehealth models of CBT, to reduce costs associated with its in home delivery. Flexibility in administration and adaptations to the CBT protocol may be necessary for use with vulnerable, rural older adults.

  15. Examining Dark Triad traits in relation to sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, Sarah; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Becker, Stephen P; Shamsi, Mahin; Shakouri, Zeinab; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Triad (DT) describes a set of three closely related personality traits, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. A total of 341 adults (M=29years) completed a series of questionnaires related to the DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. A higher DT total score was associated with increased sleep disturbances, and higher scores for anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. In regression analyses Machiavellianism and psychopathy were predictors of sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. Results indicate that specific DT traits, namely Machiavellianism and psychopathy, are associated with sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anxiety sensitivity and racial differences in sleep duration: Results from a national survey of adults with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Giorgio Cosenzo, Luciana Andrea; Fan, Weijia; Doyle, David Matthew; Shaffer, Jonathan A

    2017-05-01

    Although Blacks sleep between 37 and 75min less per night than non-Hispanic Whites, research into what drives racial differences in sleep duration is limited. We examined the association of anxiety sensitivity, a cognitive vulnerability, and race (Blacks vs. White) with short sleep duration (anxiety sensitivity mediated race differences in sleep duration in a nationally representative sample of adults with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 1289 adults (115 Black, 1174 White) with a self-reported physician/health professional diagnosis of ≥1 myocardial infarction completed an online survey. Weighted multivariable logistic regressions and mediation analyses with bootstrapping and case resampling were conducted. Anxiety sensitivity and Black vs. White race were associated with 4%-84% increased odds, respectively, of short sleep duration. Anxiety sensitivity mediated Black-White differences in sleep duration. Each anxiety sensitivity subscale was also a significant mediator. Implications for future intervention science to address sleep disparities are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diet and exercise orthogonally alter the gut microbiome and reveal independent associations with anxiety and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Silvia S; Jeraldo, Patricio R; Kurti, Aishe; Miller, Margret E Berg; Cook, Marc D; Whitlock, Keith; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Woods, Jeffrey A; White, Bryan A; Chia, Nicholas; Fryer, John D

    2014-09-13

    The ingestion of a high-fat diet (HFD) and the resulting obese state can exert a multitude of stressors on the individual including anxiety and cognitive dysfunction. Though many studies have shown that exercise can alleviate the negative consequences of a HFD using metabolic readouts such as insulin and glucose, a paucity of well-controlled rodent studies have been published on HFD and exercise interactions with regard to behavioral outcomes. This is a critical issue since some individuals assume that HFD-induced behavioral problems such as anxiety and cognitive dysfunction can simply be exercised away. To investigate this, we analyzed mice fed a normal diet (ND), ND with exercise, HFD diet, or HFD with exercise. We found that mice on a HFD had robust anxiety phenotypes but this was not rescued by exercise. Conversely, exercise increased cognitive abilities but this was not impacted by the HFD. Given the importance of the gut microbiome in shaping the host state, we used 16S rRNA hypervariable tag sequencing to profile our cohorts and found that HFD massively reshaped the gut microbial community in agreement with numerous published studies. However, exercise alone also caused massive shifts in the gut microbiome at nearly the same magnitude as diet but these changes were surprisingly orthogonal. Additionally, specific bacterial abundances were directly proportional to measures of anxiety or cognition. Thus, behavioral domains and the gut microbiome are both impacted by diet and exercise but in unrelated ways. These data have important implications for obesity research aimed at modifications of the gut microbiome and suggest that specific gut microbes could be used as a biomarker for anxiety or cognition or perhaps even targeted for therapy.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preconception paternal bisphenol A exposure induces sex-specific anxiety and depression behaviors in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fan

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, an environmental endocrine-disrupting compound, has drawn a great attention for its adverse effect on behavioral development. Maternal exposure to this compound has been reported to induce anxiety and depression in offspring, but the effect of its paternal exposure is rarely discussed. This study investigated whether preconception paternal BPA exposure can affect the emotions of male rats and their offspring. Eighteen adult male rats (F0 received either a vehicle or 50 μg/kg/day BPA diet for 21 weeks and were then mated with non-exposed females to produce offspring (F1. The affective behaviors of F0 and F1 rats were evaluated in the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze and the forced swimming test, and their serum corticosterone were then examined. BPA exposure induced increased anxiety behaviors along with increased serum corticosterone in F0 rats. This paternal exposure also led to increased anxiety behaviors in F1 females and aggravated depression behaviors in both sexes of F1 rats. Furthermore, only F1 females exhibited increased serum corticosterone. Overall, these data indicate that preconception paternal exposure to a low dose of BPA may induce transgenerational sex-specific impairments in the affection of adult rats.

  20. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neonatal GLP1R activation limits adult adiposity by durably altering hypothalamic architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Rozo

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: These observations suggest that the acute activation of GLP1R in neonates durably alters hypothalamic architecture to limit adult weight gain and adiposity, identifying GLP1R as a therapeutic target for obesity prevention.

  2. Caffeine alters proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Wentz, Christian T.; Magavi, Sanjay S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Neurogenesis continues through adulthood in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of mammals. Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in learning and memory, and linked with depression. Hippocampal neurogenesis is increased in response to a number of stimuli, including exposure to an enriched environment, increased locomotor activity, and administration of antidepressants. Adult neurogenesis is depressed in response to aging, stress and sleep deprivation. Intriguingly, caffeine modulates a number...

  3. Therapist-supported Internet cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V; Watt, Margo C; Bailey, Kristen; Hayden, Jill A; Stewart, Sherry H

    2016-03-12

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders. Many people have difficulty accessing treatment, due to a variety of obstacles. Researchers have therefore explored the possibility of using the Internet to deliver CBT; it is important to ensure the decision to promote such treatment is grounded in high quality evidence. To assess the effects of therapist-supported Internet CBT (ICBT) on remission of anxiety disorder diagnosis and reduction of anxiety symptoms in adults as compared to waiting list control, unguided CBT, or face-to-face CBT. Effects of treatment on quality of life and patient satisfaction with the intervention were also assessed. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) to 16 March 2015. The CCDANCTR includes relevant randomised controlled trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CENTRAL. We also searched online clinical trial registries and reference lists of included studies. We contacted authors to locate additional trials. Each identified study was independently assessed for inclusion by two authors. To be included, studies had to be randomised controlled trials of therapist-supported ICBT compared to a waiting list, attention, information, or online discussion group; unguided CBT (that is, self-help); or face-to-face CBT. We included studies that treated adults with an anxiety disorder (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and specific phobia) defined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III, III-R, IV, IV-TR or the International Classification of Disesases 9 or 10. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and judged overall study quality. We used data from intention-to-treat analyses wherever possible. We assessed treatment effect for the dichotomous outcome

  4. Anterior Cingulate Volumetric Alterations in Treatment-Naive Adults with ADHD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.; Valera, Eve M.; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Bush, George; Crum, Katherine; Brown, Ariel B.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine preliminary results of brain alterations in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in treatment-naive adults with ADHD. The ACC is a central brain node for the integration of cognitive control and allocation of attention, affect and drive. Thus its anatomical alteration may give rise to impulsivity, hyperactivity and…

  5. The prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A lot of empirical studies have been conducted to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis in order to evaluate the prevalence and odds ratios of depression and anxiety in Chinese adults with cancer compared with those without. Methods The three most comprehensive computerized Chinese academic databases-CNKI, Wangfang and Vip databases-were systematically screened through September 2012. PubMed and Web of Science (SCIE) were also searched from their inception until September 2012 without language restrictions, and an internet search was also used. Case–control studies assessing the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer were analyzed. Study selection and appraisal were conducted independently by three authors. The non-weighted prevalence, pooled random-effects estimates of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were all calculated. Results Seventeen eligible studies with a total of 3497 subjects were included. The prevalence of depression and anxiety were significantly higher in adults with cancer compared with those without (Depression: 54.90% vs. 17.50%, OR = 7.85, 95% CI = 5.56-11.07, P = 0.000; Anxiety: 49.69% vs. 18.37%, OR = 6.46, 95% CI = 4.36-9.55, P = 0.000), the same situation was also observed in subgroup of control groups, assessment methods and cancer types. Although no difference of depression was observed in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis compared with self-report, the OR of anxiety in adults with cancer compared with those without was higher in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis (OR = 8.42, 95% CI = 4.83-14.70) than self-reports (OR = 5.83, 95% CI = 3.64-9.34). The ORs of depression and anxiety in cancer patients compared with disease group (Depression: OR = 6.03, 95% CI = 4.23-8.61; Anxiety: OR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.05-6.36) were lower than in those

  6. Relaxation Therapy and Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Emotional Regulation among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who…

  7. Comparison of Younger and Older Adults' Acceptability of Treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Co-Occurring with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Ament, Patrick A.; Holt, Peter S.; Hunt, Lauren S.

    2013-01-01

    Acceptability ratings of medication or Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT), for general anxiety disorder (GAD) co-occurring with Parkinson's Disease (PD) were obtained from younger ("n" = 79) and older ("n" = 54) adults. Participants read a case description of an older adult with PD and comorbid GAD followed by a description…

  8. Altered Positive Affect in Clinically Anxious Youth: the Role of Social Context and Anxiety Subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, JK; Lee, GE; Wright, AGC; Gilchrist, DE; Forbes, EE; McMakin, DL; Dahl, RE; Ladouceur, CD; Ryan, ND; Silk, JS

    2017-01-01

    © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Anxious youth may experience altered positive affect (PA) relative to healthy youth, perhaps because of greater sensitivity to social experiences. Altered PA may be especially evident during the transition to adolescence, a period in which positive social events increase in salience and value. The current study evaluated whether anxious youth show differences in baseline PA, rate of return to baseline, and variability around baseline PA and te...

  9. Psychometric assessment of anxiety with the Modified Dental Anxiety scale among central Indian adults seeking oral health care to a dental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakant C Deogade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety toward dental treatment can cause people to delay or avoid seeking oral health care despite being in need of treatment. Therefore, recognizing such anxious patients and their appropriate management plays important aspects in clinical practice. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the level of dental anxiety (DA, factors affecting it, and anxiety toward dental extraction among adults seeking dental care to a dental school in Central India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 1360 consecutive patients aged 18–70 years. Participants completed a questionnaire while in the waiting room, which included the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS to assess the level of DA. An additional item was included which asked participants to rate the anxiety felt on having a tooth extracted. Results: Among the study group, 65.1% were men and 34.9% were women. Based on the MDAS score, 41.8% of the participants were identified to be less anxious, 53.2% were moderately or extremely anxious, and 5% were suffering from dental phobia. Female participants and younger patients were more anxious (P = 0.0008. Patients who were anxious had postponed their dental visit (P = 0.0008. Participants who had negative dental experience were more anxious (P = 0.03. Nearly, 83% reported anxiety toward extraction procedure. A significant association was observed between anxiety toward dental extraction and the patients' gender (P = 0.03, age (P = 0.0007, education level (P = 0.03, employment status (P = 0.0006, income (P = 0.0007, self-perceived oral health status (P = 0.03, and their history of visit to dentist (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Majority of patients in this population revealed high levels of DA. Factors such as age, gender, education level, occupation, financial stability, and previous bad dental experience influence DA to various levels. Extraction followed by injection of local anesthetics and drilling of tooth provoked more anxiety.

  10. The influence of attention biases and adult attachment style on treatment outcome for adults with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrow, Yulisha; Peters, Lorna

    2017-08-01

    Attention biases figure prominently in CBT models of social anxiety and are thought to maintain symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Studies have shown that individual differences in pre-treatment attention biases predict cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) outcome. However, these findings have been inconsistent as to whether vigilance towards threat predicts better or poorer treatment outcome. Adult attachment style is an individual characteristic that may influence the relationship between attention bias and SAD. This study investigates the relationship between attention biases and CBT treatment outcome for SAD. Furthermore, we examined the influence of adult attachment style on this relationship. Participants with a primary diagnosis of SAD completed a passive viewing (measuring vigilance towards threat) and a novel difficulty to disengage (measuring difficulty to disengage attention) eye-tracking task prior to attending 12 CBT group sessions targeting SAD. Symptom severity was measured at pre- and post-treatment. Regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 50 participants. Greater vigilance for threat than avoidance of threat at pre-treatment predicted poorer treatment outcomes. Greater difficulty disengaging from happy faces, compared to neutral faces, predicted poorer treatment outcomes. Attachment style did not moderate these relationships. The associations between attention biases and specific components of CBT treatment were not examined. The novel findings regarding difficulty to disengage attention require replication. The findings have implications for the theoretical models of SAD and for the treatment of SAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Replication and Extension of the PEERS® for Young Adults Social Skills Intervention: Examining Effects on Social Skills and Social Anxiety in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Alana J.; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Casnar, Christina L.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth M.; Gordon, Nakia S.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with ASD experience difficulties with social skills, empathy, loneliness, and social anxiety. One intervention, "PEERS® for Young Adults," shows promise in addressing these challenges. The present study replicated and extended the original study by recruiting a larger sample (N = 56), employing a gold standard ASD assessment…

  12. The relationships of coping, negative thinking, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics with anxiety of young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan S R; Staten, Ruth Topsy; Lennie, Terry A; Hall, Lynne A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding young adults' anxiety requires applying a multidimensional approach to assess the psychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive aspects of this phenomenon. A hypothesized model of the relationships among coping style, thinking style, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics and anxiety among college students was tested using path analysis. A total of 257 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed an online survey. The independent variables were measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, the Brief COPE Inventory, the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Cognition Checklist-Anxiety. The outcome, anxiety, was measured using the Anxiety subscale of the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Only negative thinking and maladaptive coping had a direct relationship with anxiety. Negative thinking was the strongest predictor of both maladaptive coping and anxiety. These findings suggest that helping undergraduates manage their anxiety by reducing their negative thinking is critical. Designing and testing interventions to decrease negative thinking in college students is recommended for future research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Altered characteristics of balance control in obese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Itshak; Oddsson, Lars I E

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most significant epidemiological trends of the last decades. Recently it was found that obese individuals show postural instability. Balance control mechanisms in obese older adults were less studied. Therefore we aimed to investigate the effect of obesity on balance control mechanisms in older adults. Parameters from Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis (SDA) and measures from summary statistics of foot centre-of-pressure (COP) displacements along the anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions in eyes open and eyes closed conditions were used to characterize postural control in 22 obese (30-postural control process in obese older adults. A greater sway displacement before closed-loop feedback mechanisms are called into play was seen in the ML direction that may lead to a higher risk of instability and fall events. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Deletion of the Clathrin Adaptor GGA3 Reduces Anxiety and Alters GABAergic Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall R Walker

    Full Text Available Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF binding protein 3 (GGA3 is a monomeric clathrin adaptor that has been shown to regulate the trafficking of the Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1, which is required for production of the Alzheimer's disease (AD-associated amyloid βpeptide. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that depletion of GGA3 results in increased BACE1 levels and activity owing to impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3 null mice. We report here that GGA3 deletion results in novelty-induced hyperactivity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors. Given the pivotal role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors, we performed electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices and found increased phasic and decreased tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGC. Moreover, we found that the number of inhibitory synapses is increased in the dentate gyrus of GGA3 null mice in further support of the electrophysiological data. Thus, the increased GABAergic transmission is a leading candidate mechanism underlying the reduced anxiety-like behaviors observed in GGA3 null mice. All together these findings suggest that GGA3 plays a key role in GABAergic transmission. Since BACE1 levels are elevated in the brain of GGA3 null mice, it is possible that at least some of these phenotypes are a consequence of increased processing of BACE1 substrates.

  15. Genetic Deletion of the Clathrin Adaptor GGA3 Reduces Anxiety and Alters GABAergic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kendall R; Modgil, Amit; Albrecht, David; Lomoio, Selene; Haydon, Philip G; Moss, Stephen J; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF binding protein 3 (GGA3) is a monomeric clathrin adaptor that has been shown to regulate the trafficking of the Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is required for production of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated amyloid βpeptide. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that depletion of GGA3 results in increased BACE1 levels and activity owing to impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3 null mice. We report here that GGA3 deletion results in novelty-induced hyperactivity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors. Given the pivotal role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors, we performed electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices and found increased phasic and decreased tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGC). Moreover, we found that the number of inhibitory synapses is increased in the dentate gyrus of GGA3 null mice in further support of the electrophysiological data. Thus, the increased GABAergic transmission is a leading candidate mechanism underlying the reduced anxiety-like behaviors observed in GGA3 null mice. All together these findings suggest that GGA3 plays a key role in GABAergic transmission. Since BACE1 levels are elevated in the brain of GGA3 null mice, it is possible that at least some of these phenotypes are a consequence of increased processing of BACE1 substrates.

  16. Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Separation Anxiety Disorder Across Countries in the World Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. Method The sample included 38,993 adults in 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess a range of DSM-IV disorders that included an expanded definition of separation anxiety disorder allowing onsets in adulthood. Analyses focused on prevalence, age at onset, comorbidity, predictors of onset and persistence, and separation anxiety-related role impairment. Results Lifetime separation anxiety disorder prevalence averaged 4.8% across countries (interquartile range [25th–75th percentiles]=1.4%–6.4%), with 43.1% of lifetime onsets occurring after age 18. Significant time-lagged associations were found between earlier separation anxiety disorder and subsequent onset of internalizing and externalizing DSM-IV disorders and conversely between these disorders and subsequent onset of separation anxiety disorder. Other consistently significant predictors of lifetime separation anxiety disorder included female gender, retrospectively reported childhood adversities, and lifetime traumatic events. These predictors were largely comparable for separation anxiety disorder onsets in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and across country income groups. Twelve-month separation anxiety disorder prevalence was considerably lower than lifetime prevalence (1.0% of the total sample; interquartile range=0.2%–1.2%). Severe separation anxiety-related 12-month role impairment was significantly more common in the presence (42.4%) than absence (18.3%) of 12-month comorbidity. Conclusions Separation anxiety disorder is a common and highly comorbid disorder that can have onset across the lifespan. Childhood adversity and lifetime trauma are

  17. Udbredelse og opfattelse af angst for tandbehandling blandt voksne danskere.[Prevalence and perceptions of dental anxiety among Danish adults.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Birn, H.; Brødsgaard, I.

    1993-01-01

    anxiety by the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) indicated significant associations between high dental anxiety and gender (women) (Table 2) and low education (Table 3), but not income or age (Table 2). Other significant relationships with high dental fear were fear of specific dental procedures, negative......English summary: This telephone survey showed that 4.2% of Danish adults over 16 years old have extreme dental anxiety and 6% have moderate fear in a sample of 565 adults from Århus (Table 1). Common perceptions as to the causes of dental fear indicated that most believed it to be due to pain......, especially from drilling and thereafter trauma or negative experiences leading to distrust of the dentist (Table 1). It was interesting to note that although up to 40% of the sample expressed some degree of fear for dentistry, 81.1% said that they know of at least two persons who have dental fear (16.2% know...

  18. Psychometric properties of an innovative self-report measure: The Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballo, Vicente E; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-09-01

    This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a nonclinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled as follows: (1) Interactions with strangers, (2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, (3) Interactions with the opposite sex, (4) Criticism and embarrassment, and (5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust, or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Individually tailored internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adolescents, young adults and older adults with anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Silfvernagel, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders share the feature of excessive fear, anxiety and related behavioural disturbances. Fear is defined as the emotional response to a real or a perceived imminent threat and anxiety is the anticipation of a future threat. The anxiety disorders covered in this thesis are panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified. Cognitive behavioural treatment protocols are ...

  20. Altered Brain Excitability and Increased Anxiety in Mice With Experimental Colitis: Consideration of Hyperalgesia and Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D. Nyuyki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are incurable lifelong inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD with a rising worldwide incidence. IBD is characterized by diarrhea, rectal bleeding, severe cramping and weight loss. However, there is a growing evidence that IBD is also associated with anxiety- and depression-related disorders, which further increase the societal burden of these diseases. Given the limited knowledge of central nervous system (CNS changes in IBD, we investigated CNS-related comorbidities in a mouse model of experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS administration in drinking water for 5 days. In male and female C57BL6J mice, DSS treatment caused increased brain excitability, revealed by a decrease in seizure onset times after intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid. Moreover, both sexes showed increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM and open field (OF paradigms. We assessed somatic pain levels, because they may influence behavioral responses. Only male mice were hyperalgesic when tested with calibrated von Frey hairs and on the hotplate for mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity respectively. Administration of diazepam (DZP; ip, 1 mg/kg 30 min before EPM rescued the anxious phenotype and improved locomotion, even though it significantly increased thermal sensitivity in both sexes. This indicates that the altered behavioral response is unlikely attributable to an interference with movement due to somatic pain in females. We show that experimental colitis increases CNS excitability in response to administration of kainic acid, and increases anxiety-related behavior as revealed using the EPM and OF tests.

  1. Current perspectives on Internet delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with anxiety and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton, Jessica Smith, Pieter Rossouw, Gavin Andrews Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The aim of the current review is to provide a summary of research into Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT for anxiety disorders. We include 37 randomized controlled trials that examined the efficacy of iCBT programs in adults (aged over 18 years, as compared with waiting list or active control. The included studies were identified from Medline searches and from reference lists, and only published data were included. Several trials of iCBT for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia were identified. Two trials of iCBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified, whilst one trial each was identified for hypochondriasis, specific phobia (spiders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, there were five trials that focused on transdiagnostic therapy for either a range of comorbid anxiety disorders or comorbid anxiety and depression. Between-group effect sizes were moderate to large for all disorders, and ranged from 0.30 to 2.53. iCBT was found to be commensurate with face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy whether delivered individually or in group format. Guidance may not be necessary for iCBT to be effective for immediate gains, but may be more important in longer-term maintenance of symptom improvement and maximizing patient adherence. The clinical experience of the individual providing guidance does not appear to impact treatment outcomes. Future research needs to focus on the optimal level of guidance required to generate maximum patient benefits, whilst balancing the efficient use of clinician time and resources. Evidence-based contraindications to iCBT should also be developed so that the choice of treatment modality accurately reflects patients’ needs. Further research should be conducted into the effective elements of

  2. Prediction of childhood ADHD symptoms to quality of life in young adults: adult ADHD and anxiety/depression as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Nien; Tai, Yueh-Ming; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-10-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may persist, co-occur with anxiety and depression (ANX/DEP), and influence quality of life (QoL) in later life. However, the information about whether these persistent ADHD and ANX/DEP mediate the influence of childhood ADHD on adverse QoL in adulthood is lacking. This study aimed to determine whether adult ADHD symptoms and/or ANX/DEP mediated the association between childhood ADHD and QoL. We assessed 1382 young men aged 19-30 years in Taiwan using self-administered questionnaires for retrospective recall of ADHD symptoms at ages 6-12, and assessment of current ADHD and ANX/DEP symptoms, and QoL. We conducted mediation analyses and compared the values of mediation ratio (PM) by adding mediators (adult ADHD and ANX/DEP), individually and simultaneously into a regression model with childhood ADHD as an independent variable and QoL as a dependent variable. Our results showed that both adult ADHD and ANX/DEP symptoms significantly mediated the association between childhood ADHD and QoL (PM=0.71 for ANX/DEP, PM=0.78 for adult ADHD symptoms, and PM=0.91 for both). The significance of negative correlations between childhood ADHD and four domains of adult QoL disappeared after adding these two mediators in the model. Our findings suggested that the strong relationship between childhood ADHD and adult life quality can be explained by the presence of persistent ADHD symptoms and co-occurring ANX/DEP. These two mediators are recommended to be included in the assessment and intervention for ADHD to offset the potential adverse life quality outcome in ADHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analgesia for early-life pain prevents deficits in adult anxiety and stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Nicole C; Karom, Mary C; Murphy, Anne Z

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in rats have established that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth (P0) decreases sensitivity to acute noxious, anxiety- and stress-provoking stimuli. However, to date, the impact of early-life pain on adult responses to chronic stress is not known. Further, the ability of morphine, administered at the time of injury, to mitigate changes in adult behavioral and hormonal responses to acute or chronic stressors has not been examined. P0 male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were given an intraplantar injection of 1% carrageenan or handled in an identical manner in the presence or absence of morphine. As adults, rats that experienced early-life pain displayed decreased sensitivity to acute stressors, as indicated by increased time in the inner area of the Open Field, and increased latency to immobility and decreased time immobile in the Forced Swim Test (FST). An accelerated return of corticosterone to baseline was also observed. Morphine administration at the time of injury completely reversed this 'hyporesponsive' phenotype. By contrast, following 7 days of chronic variable stress, injured animals displayed a 'hyperresponsive' phenotype in that they initiated immobility and spent significantly more time immobile in the FST than controls. Responses to chronic stress were also rescued in animals that received morphine at the time of injury. These data suggest that analgesia for early-life pain prevents adult hyposensitivity to acute anxiety- and stress-provoking stimuli and increased vulnerability to chronic stress, and have important clinical implications for the management of pain in infants. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. [The Relationships among Perceived Parental Bonding, Illness Perception, and Anxiety in Adult Patients with Congenital Heart Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Nayeon; Jang, Youha; Kang, Younhee

    2017-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the relationships among perceived parental bonding, illness perception, and anxiety and to determine the influences of perceived parental bonding and illness perception on anxiety in adult patients with congenital heart diseases. In this study a descriptive correlational design with survey method was utilized. The participants were 143 adult patients with congenital heart disease being cared for in the cardiology out-patient clinic of A medical center. Data were collected using the Parental Bonding Instrument, Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised Scale, and Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchial regression analyses. There showed significant positive relationships of anxiety with maternal overprotection, consequences, and personal control respectively. Among predictors, maternal overprotection (β=.45), consequence (β=.26), and personal control (β=-.03) had statistically significant influence on anxiety. Nursing interventions to decrease maternal overprotection and negative consequence, and to enhance personal control are essential to decrease the anxiety of adult patients with congenital heart diseases. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  5. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597

  6. MDMA-assisted therapy: A new treatment model for social anxiety in autistic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Alicia L; Struble, Christopher M; Yazar-Klosinski, Berra; Grob, Charles S

    2016-01-04

    The first study of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted therapy for the treatment of social anxiety in autistic adults commenced in the spring of 2014. The search for psychotherapeutic options for autistic individuals is imperative considering the lack of effective conventional treatments for mental health diagnoses that are common in this population. Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) involving the administration of MDMA in clinical trials have been rare and non-life threatening. To date, MDMA has been administered to over 1133 individuals for research purposes without the occurrence of unexpected drug-related SAEs that require expedited reporting per FDA regulations. Now that safety parameters for limited use of MDMA in clinical settings have been established, a case can be made to further develop MDMA-assisted therapeutic interventions that could support autistic adults in increasing social adaptability among the typically developing population. As in the case with classic hallucinogens and other psychedelic drugs, MDMA catalyzes shifts toward openness and introspection that do not require ongoing administration to achieve lasting benefits. This infrequent dosing mitigates adverse event frequency and improves the risk/benefit ratio of MDMA, which may provide a significant advantage over medications that require daily dosing. Consequently, clinicians could employ new treatment models for social anxiety or similar types of distress administering MDMA on one to several occasions within the context of a supportive and integrative psychotherapy protocol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  8. Pain and anxiety experiences of South African adult burn injury patients during physiotherapy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Morris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A dequate management of procedural pain during physiotherapy management plays an important role in building a trusting relationship betweenthe burn victim and the physiotherapist, and in ensuring desirable functional outcomes. However, the burn pain management regimens currently utilized inburn units, primarily consist of traditional pharmacologic analgesics which areassociated with numerous side-effects and alone are often reported as inadequateto alleviate procedural pain, warranting safer and effective adjunct therapies.Prior to the introduction and implementation of adjunct therapies into a developing world, it is imperative that the current situation in a burn unit, in terms of whether or not the pain management regimens in place are adequate, is first assessed, due to cost concerns. The following short report exemplifies the pain and anxiety experiences of a small number of burn injury patients during physiotherapy at the Tygerberg Hospital adult burn unit, South A frica.  It was hypothesized that the results of this study would underpin whether adult burn injury patients in a developing countryrequire adjunct therapies during physiotherapy management to supplement traditional pharmacologic analgesics inmanaging their procedural pain and subsequent anxiety.

  9. Altered Amygdala Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Hemispheric Asymmetry in Patients With Social Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ha Jung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The amygdala plays a key role in emotional hyperreactivity in response to social threat in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FCN of the left and right amygdala with various brain regions and functional lateralization in patients with SAD.Methods: A total of 36 patients with SAD and 42 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at rest. Using the left and right amygdala as seed regions, we compared the strength of the rs-FCN in the patient and control groups. Furthermore, we investigated group differences in the hemispheric asymmetry of the functional connectivity maps of the left and right amygdala.Results: Compared with healthy controls, the rs-FCN between the left amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was reduced in patients with SAD, whereas left amygdala connectivity with the fusiform gyrus, anterior insula, supramarginal gyrus, and precuneus was increased or positively deflected in the patient group. Additionally, the strength rs-FCN between the left amygdala and anterior insula was positively associated with the severity of the fear of negative evaluation in patients with SAD (r = 0.338, p = 0.044. The rs-FCN between the right amygdala and medial frontal gyrus was decreased in patients with SAD compared with healthy controls, whereas connectivity with the parahippocampal gyrus was greater in the patient group than in the control group. The hemispheric asymmetry patterns in the anterior insula, intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and inferior frontal gyrus of the patient group were opposite those of the control group, and functional lateralization of the connectivity between the amygdala and the IPS was associated with the severity of social anxiety symptoms (r = 0.365, p = 0.037.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in addition to impaired fronto-amygdala communication, the functional lateralization of amygdala function

  10. The hippocampi of children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have localized anterior alterations that predict severity of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Julia A; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi; Kalish, Kristopher; Lee, Aaron; Hunsaker, Michael R; Schumann, Cynthia M; Carmichael, Owen T; Simon, Tony J

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have an elevated risk for schizophrenia, which increases with history of childhood anxiety. Altered hippocampal morphology is a common neuroanatomical feature of 22q11.2DS and idiopathic schizophrenia. Relating hippocampal structure in children with 22q11.2DS to anxiety and impaired cognitive ability could lead to hippocampus-based characterization of psychosis-proneness in this at-risk population. We measured hippocampal volume using a semiautomated approach on MRIs collected from typically developing children and children with 22q11.2DS. We then analyzed hippocampal morphology with Localized Components Analysis. We tested the modulating roles of diagnostic group, hippocampal volume, sex and age on local hippocampal shape components. Lastly, volume and shape components were tested as covariates of IQ and anxiety. We included 48 typically developing children and 69 children with 22q11.2DS in our study. Hippocampal volume was reduced bilaterally in children with 22q11.2DS, and these children showed greater variation in the shape of the anterior hippocampus than typically developing children. Children with 22q11.2DS had greater inward deformation of the anterior hippocampus than typically developing children. Greater inward deformation of the anterior hippocampus was associated with greater severity of anxiety, specifically fear of physical injury, within the 22q11.2DS group. Shape alterations are not specific to hippocampal subfields. Alterations in the structure of the anterior hippocampus likely affect function and may impact limbic circuitry. We suggest these alterations potentially contribute to anxiety symptoms in individuals with 22q11.2DS through modulatory pathways. Altered hippocampal morphology may be uniquely linked to anxiety risk factors for schizophrenia, which could be a powerful neuroanatomical marker of schizophrenia risk and hence protection.

  11. Prediction of adaptive self-regulatory responses to arthritis pain anxiety in exercising adults: does pain acceptance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Miranda Ashley; Gyurcsik, Nancy C; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2015-01-01

    Exercising for ≥ 150 min/week is a recommended strategy for self-managing arthritis. However, exercise nonadherence is a problem. Arthritis pain anxiety may interfere with regular exercise. According to the fear-avoidance model, individuals may confront their pain anxiety by using adaptive self-regulatory responses (eg, changing exercise type or duration). Furthermore, the anxiety-self-regulatory responses relationship may vary as a function of individuals' pain acceptance levels. To investigate pain acceptance as a moderator of the pain anxiety-adaptive self-regulatory responses relationship. The secondary objective was to examine whether groups of patients who differed in meeting exercise recommendations also differed in pain-related and self-regulatory responses. Adults (mean [± SD] age 49.75 ± 13.88 years) with medically diagnosed arthritis completed online measures of arthritis pain-related variables and self-regulatory responses at baseline, and exercise participation two weeks later. Individuals meeting (n=87) and not meeting (n=49) exercise recommendations were identified. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that pain acceptance moderated the anxiety-adaptive self-regulatory responses relationship. When pain anxiety was lower, greater pain acceptance was associated with less frequent use of adaptive responses. When anxiety was higher, adaptive responses were used regardless of pain acceptance level. MANOVA findings revealed that participants meeting the recommended exercise dose reported significantly lower pain and pain anxiety, and greater pain acceptance (Pself-regulatory capacity to cope with additional challenges to exercise adherence (eg, busy schedule).

  12. Early Stress History Alters Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Impairs Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Banerjee, K K; Vaidya, V A; Kolthur-Seetharam, U

    2016-09-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with an enhanced risk for adult psychopathology. Psychiatric disorders such as depression exhibit comorbidity for metabolic dysfunction, including obesity and diabetes. However, it is poorly understood whether, besides altering anxiety and depression-like behaviour, early stress also evokes dysregulation of metabolic pathways and enhances vulnerability for metabolic disorders. We used the rodent model of the early stress of maternal separation (ES) to examine the effects of early stress on serum metabolites, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signalling, and muscle mitochondrial content. Adult ES animals exhibited dyslipidaemia, decreased serum IGF1 levels, increased expression of liver IGF binding proteins, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, including Pck1, Lpl, Pdk4 and Hmox1. These changes occurred in the absence of alterations in body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance or insulin levels. ES animals also exhibited a decline in markers of muscle mitochondrial content, such as mitochondrial DNA levels and expression of TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial). Furthermore, the expression of several genes involved in mitochondrial function, such as Ppargc1a, Nrf1, Tfam, Cat, Sesn3 and Ucp3, was reduced in skeletal muscle. Adult-onset chronic unpredictable stress resulted in overlapping and distinct consequences from ES, including increased circulating triglyceride levels, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, with no change in the expression of genes involved in muscle mitochondrial function. Taken together, our results indicate that a history of early adversity can evoke persistent changes in circulating IGF-1 and muscle mitochondrial function and content, which could serve to enhance predisposition for metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  13. Effectiveness of neurofeedback therapy for anxiety and stress in adults living with a chronic illness: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaskovits, Farriss; Tyerman, Jane; Luctkar-Flude, Marian

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this review is to systematically examine the effectiveness of neurofeedback therapy for managing anxiety and stress in adults living with a chronic illness.The specific objectives are to identify which neurofeedback systems and/or protocols demonstrate effectiveness and determine the level of supporting evidence.The review question is as follows: What is the effectiveness of neurofeedback therapy for managing anxiety and stress in an adult population aged 18 years of age or older living with a chronic illness?

  14. Exposure to bisphenol A in young adult mice does not alter ovulation but does alter the fertilization ability of oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore-Ambriz, Teresita Rocio; Acuña-Hernández, Deyanira Guadalupe; Ramos-Robles, Brenda [Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. 07360, México (Mexico); Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel [Área Académica de Medicina, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42000, México (Mexico); Santacruz-Márquez, Ramsés; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo [Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. 07360, México (Mexico); Piña-Guzmán, Belem [Instituto Politécnico Nacional-UPIBI, México D.F. 07738, México (Mexico); and others

    2015-12-15

    Follicle growth culminates in ovulation, which allows for the expulsion of fertilizable oocytes and the formation of corpora lutea. Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in many consumer products, and it has been suggested that BPA impairs ovulation; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, this study first evaluated whether BPA alters ovulation by affecting folliculogenesis, the number of corpora lutea or eggs shed to the oviduct, ovarian gonadotropin responsiveness, hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity. Because it has been suggested (but not directly confirmed) that BPA exerts toxic effects on the fertilization ability of oocytes, a second aim was to evaluate whether BPA impacts the oocyte fertilization rate using an in vitro fertilization assay and mating. The possible effects on early zygote development were also examined. Young adult female C57BL/6J mice (39 days old) were orally dosed with corn oil (vehicle) or 50 μg/kg bw/day BPA for a period encompassing the first three reproductive cycles (12–15 days). BPA exposure did not alter any parameters related to ovulation. Moreover, BPA exposure reduced the percentage of fertilized oocytes after either in vitro fertilization or mating, but it did not alter the zygotic stages. The data indicate that exposure to the reference dose of BPA does not impact ovulation but that it does influence the oocyte quality in terms of its fertilization ability. - Highlights: • Bisphenol A targets the fertilization ability of oocytes. • Bisphenol A does not alter ovulation. • Young adult females may be susceptible to the effects of bisphenol A on fertilization.

  15. Exposure to bisphenol A in young adult mice does not alter ovulation but does alter the fertilization ability of oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore-Ambriz, Teresita Rocio; Acuña-Hernández, Deyanira Guadalupe; Ramos-Robles, Brenda; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Santacruz-Márquez, Ramsés; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Piña-Guzmán, Belem

    2015-01-01

    Follicle growth culminates in ovulation, which allows for the expulsion of fertilizable oocytes and the formation of corpora lutea. Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in many consumer products, and it has been suggested that BPA impairs ovulation; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, this study first evaluated whether BPA alters ovulation by affecting folliculogenesis, the number of corpora lutea or eggs shed to the oviduct, ovarian gonadotropin responsiveness, hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity. Because it has been suggested (but not directly confirmed) that BPA exerts toxic effects on the fertilization ability of oocytes, a second aim was to evaluate whether BPA impacts the oocyte fertilization rate using an in vitro fertilization assay and mating. The possible effects on early zygote development were also examined. Young adult female C57BL/6J mice (39 days old) were orally dosed with corn oil (vehicle) or 50 μg/kg bw/day BPA for a period encompassing the first three reproductive cycles (12–15 days). BPA exposure did not alter any parameters related to ovulation. Moreover, BPA exposure reduced the percentage of fertilized oocytes after either in vitro fertilization or mating, but it did not alter the zygotic stages. The data indicate that exposure to the reference dose of BPA does not impact ovulation but that it does influence the oocyte quality in terms of its fertilization ability. - Highlights: • Bisphenol A targets the fertilization ability of oocytes. • Bisphenol A does not alter ovulation. • Young adult females may be susceptible to the effects of bisphenol A on fertilization.

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Obesity Alters Anxiety and Stress Coping Behaviors in Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Balsevich, G.; Baumann, V.; Uribe, A.; Chen, A.; Schmidt, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that maternal obesity and prenatal exposure to a high-fat diet program fetal development to regulate the physiology and behavior of the offspring in adulthood. Yet the extent to which the maternal dietary environment contributes to adult disease vulnerability remains unclear. In the current study we tested whether prenatal exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. Methods: We used a mouse...

  17. Relating shape/weight based self-esteem, depression, and anxiety with weight and perceived physical health among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamody, Rebecca C; Thurston, Idia B; Decker, Kristina M; Kaufman, Caroline C; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-06-01

    Simultaneous contributions of self-esteem, depression, and anxiety to weight and perceived physical health in young adults is understudied. A diverse sample of 424 young adults completed measures of shape/weight based self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and perceived physical health. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Latent profile analysis was conducted to derive patterns of depression, anxiety, and shape/weight based self-esteem. Then, we examined the association of the profiles with weight status and perceived physical health. Three profiles emerged: (1) High Shape/Weight Influence (HSWI); (2) Low Shape/Weight, Depression, & Anxiety Influence (LSWDAI); and (3) High Depression & Anxiety Influence (HDAI). The HSWI profile had significantly higher BMI than the LSWDAI and HDAI profiles, and significantly lower perceived physical health than the LSWDAI profile. Over emphasis on shape/weight, regardless of depression and anxiety, is associated with elevated weight and negative internalized health views. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Longitudinal Investigation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptomatology and Exercise Behaviour Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena; Burns, Rachel J; Deschênes, Sonya S; Knäuper, Bärbel; Schmitz, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that symptoms of depression and anxiety predict lower exercise behaviour and, inversely, that less exercise predicts higher symptomatology. The present longitudinal study examined this reciprocal association in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We predicted that symptoms of anxiety or depression would intensify over time as a consequence of lower exercise frequency and, similarly, that exercise frequency would decrease as a consequence of greater symptoms of anxiety or depression. We studied 1691 adults with type 2 diabetes who provided baseline measures in 2011 and 2 subsequent annual assessments (Follow-up 1 and Follow-up 2). Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, respectively. A single item assessed exercise frequency in the past month (in days). Separate 3-wave cross-lagged path models for symptoms of anxiety and depression tested the reciprocal associations. Contrary to our hypotheses, the reciprocal associations were not supported and, by extension, the predicted secondary associations were not tested. In sum, only depressive symptoms negatively predicted subsequent exercise frequency (Follow-up 1 and Follow-up 2). Symptoms of depression were prospectively associated with lower exercise frequency, which is consistent with evidence from population-based studies that identify depressive symptoms as a barrier to exercise participation. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction of Zinc Chloride with an Aromatase Inhibitor (Letrozole on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Charghan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Aromatase is an enzyme converts androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol, respectively. According to the role of testosterone and zinc in reducing anxiety and the relation between androgenic system function and zinc supplementations, in this research, the effect of zinc chloride injection was analysed in rats which aromatase enzyme was inhibited by aromatase inhibitor (letrozole. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (weighing 225±25 g were used. Animals were divided into 12 groups and based on their weight, aromatase inhibitor (letrozole was injected (subcutaneously, and 30 minutes later, ZnCl2 or its solvent (saline was injected intra-peritoneal. Control group was received both solvents (DMSO and saline respectively. Anxiety levels were tested in the elevated plus maze 30 minutes after the last injection, and thereafter, open field was used for measurement of the locomotors activity of animals. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the percentage of time spent in open arms in letrozole (1.25 mg/kg treated group as compared to that of solvent group. The locomotors activity significantly decreased between letrozole (1.25 mg/kg with the control group. The combined groups received letrozole (2.5 mg/kg and different amounts of zinc chloride (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, significantly reduced (p<0.05 the percentage of time spent in the open arm, comparing to the control group. Groups that received the combination of zinc chloride (2.5 mg/kg and different amounts of letrozole (1.25, 5, 10 mg/kg, showed no significant difference in the percentage of entry and time spent in the open arms. Conclusion: Totally, the present study suggests that letrozole alone increased anxiety and decreased locomotors activity and could interfere with anxiolytic effect of ZnCl2 as well.

  20. Anxiety among adults with a history of childhood adversity: Psychological resilience moderates the indirect effect of emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julia C; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis

    2017-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been widely identified as risk factors for increased symptoms of anxiety across the lifespan. Little is known, however, about the processes by which ACEs set the stage for increased symptoms of anxiety in adulthood. The current study evaluated whether emotion dysregulation and psychological resilience influence the association between ACEs and symptoms of anxiety. A sample of adult primary care patients (N=4006) completed self-report measures related to ACEs, symptoms of anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience. A moderated mediation analysis showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the association between ACEs and anxiety symptoms, and that the strength of this effect varied as a function of psychological resilience. Specifically, the influence of ACEs on emotional dysregulation was stronger among individuals with low levels of psychological resilience than among those with high levels of psychological resilience. These findings remained significant when controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables in the model. Cross-sectional designs preclude inferences about causality and self-report data may be susceptible to reporting biases. Other psychological variables that may be relevant to the current results, such as protective factors in childhood, were not assessed. These results have implications for the conceptualization of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience in etiological models of anxiety. They also highlight the relevance of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience to the detection, treatment, and prevention of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ieraci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice.

  2. The protective properties of Act-Belong-Commit indicators against incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos

    2017-01-01

    -Belong-Commit and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment at two-year follow-up. The adjusted model showed that each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted the onset of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. The same was the case for social network...... integration (Belong); that is, being well integrated into social networks was a significant protective factor against all mental health outcomes. Finally, frequency of participation in social/recreational activities (Commit) significantly and inversely predicted the onset of depression and anxiety, while...... two consecutive waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The analytical sample consisted of 6098 adults aged ≥ 50 years. Validated scales for depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment were used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used...

  3. Awake intranasal insulin delivery modifies protein complexes and alters memory, anxiety, and olfactory behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David R; Tucker, Kristal; Cavallin, Melissa A; Mast, Thomas G; Fadool, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    The role of insulin pathways in olfaction is of significant interest with the widespread pathology of diabetes mellitus and its associated metabolic and neuronal comorbidities. The insulin receptor (IR) kinase is expressed at high levels in the olfactory bulb, in which it suppresses a dominant Shaker ion channel (Kv1.3) via tyrosine phosphorylation of critical N- and C-terminal residues. We optimized a 7 d intranasal insulin delivery (IND) in awake mice to ascertain the biochemical and behavioral effects of insulin to this brain region, given that nasal sprays for insulin have been marketed notwithstanding our knowledge of the role of Kv1.3 in olfaction, metabolism, and axon targeting. IND evoked robust phosphorylation of Kv1.3, as well as increased channel protein-protein interactions with IR and postsynaptic density 95. IND-treated mice had an increased short- and long-term object memory recognition, increased anxiolytic behavior, and an increased odor discrimination using an odor habituation protocol but only moderate change in odor threshold using a two-choice paradigm. Unlike Kv1.3 gene-targeted deletion that alters metabolism, adiposity, and axonal targeting to defined olfactory glomeruli, suppression of Kv1.3 via IND had no effect on body weight nor the size and number of M72 glomeruli or the route of its sensory axon projections. There was no evidence of altered expression of sensory neurons in the epithelium. In mice made prediabetic via diet-induced obesity, IND was no longer effective in increasing long-term object memory recognition nor increasing anxiolytic behavior, suggesting state dependency or a degree of insulin resistance related to these behaviors.

  4. Measurement error in the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale: results from a general adult population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Koki; Takahashi, Kana; Hirao, Kazuki

    2018-01-17

    Although the self-report version of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is frequently used to measure social anxiety, data is lacking on the smallest detectable change (SDC), an important index of measurement error. We therefore aimed to determine the SDC of LSAS. Japanese adults aged 20-69 years were invited from a panel managed by a nationwide internet research agency. We then conducted a test-retest internet survey with a two-week interval to estimate the SDC at the individual (SDC ind ) and group (SDC group ) levels. The analysis included 1300 participants. The SDC ind and SDC group for the total fear subscale (scoring range: 0-72) were 23.52 points (32.7%) and 0.65 points (0.9%), respectively. The SDC ind and SDC group for the total avoidance subscale (scoring range: 0-72) were 32.43 points (45.0%) and 0.90 points (1.2%), respectively. The SDC ind and SDC group for the overall total score (scoring range: 0-144) were 45.90 points (31.9%) and 1.27 points (0.9%), respectively. Measurement error is large and indicate the potential for major problems when attempting to use the LSAS to detect changes at the individual level. These results should be considered when using the LSAS as measures of treatment change.

  5. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Tracheostomy Placement on Anxiety in Mechanically Ventilated Adult ICU Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, Stephanie J.; Chlan, Linda; Savik, Kay

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if self-reported anxiety levels decreased after tracheostomy placement in a sample of mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients. BACKGROUND There is limited research regarding the impact of a tracheostomy on patients’ anxiety. Elevated anxiety delays healing and contributes to long-term mental health complications. METHODS This was a secondary analysis of data from a large clinical trial conducted in urban Minnesota. Fifty-one of 116 patients received a tracheostomy. Anxiety scores were obtained daily using the Visual Analog Scale-Anxiety. Mixed model analysis was used to compare anxiety ratings pre- and post-tracheostomy. RESULTS There was no significant decrease in anxiety following tracheostomy after controlling for time and gender (all p>.16). Age was the only variable to impact anxiety levels: anxiety scores increased as age increased (p=.02). CONCLUSIONS Prospective studies are needed to more accurately assess the impact of tracheostomy placement on patient anxiety and salient outcomes. PMID:24559754

  7. Family poverty over the early life course and recurrent adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R; Clavarino, Alexandra; Bor, William; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Williams, Gail M

    2010-09-01

    We determined whether exposure to family poverty over a child's early life course predicts adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression. We used a birth cohort study of a sample of women in Brisbane, Australia, who were recruited in early pregnancy and whose children were followed up on at ages 14 and 21 years. Some 2609 mothers and adolescents provided usable data at the 14- and 21-year follow-ups. After adjustment for poverty at other phases, poverty at the 14-year follow-up was the strongest predictor of adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression. The more frequently the child was exposed to poverty, the greater was the risk of that individual being anxious and depressed at both the 14- and 21-year follow-ups. Family poverty predicts higher rates of adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression. Increased frequency of child exposure to poverty is a consistent predictor of adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression. Repeated experiences of poverty over a child's early life course are associated with increased levels of poor mental health.

  8. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a moderator of exercise enhancement of smoking cessation treatment in anxiety vulnerable adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Powers, M.B.; Rosenfield, D.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Jacquart, J.; Davis, M.L.; Beevers, C.G.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Otto, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exercise interventions facilitate the odds of quit success among high-anxiety sensitive adults smokers. We examined the dependency of these benefits on the genetic BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism; individuals who are Met carriers have lower BDNF responses and reduced associated

  9. The comorbidity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in older adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.; Comijs, H.C.; Semeijn, E.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and depression and anxiety disorders in children and young to middle-aged adults has been well documented in the literature. Yet, it is still unknown whether this comorbidity persists into later life. The aim of this

  10. A Replication and Extension of the PEERS® for Young Adults Social Skills Intervention: Examining Effects on Social Skills and Social Anxiety in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Alana J; Dolan, Bridget K; Willar, Kirsten S; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S; Casnar, Christina L; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth M; Gordon, Nakia S; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2016-12-01

    Young adults with ASD experience difficulties with social skills, empathy, loneliness, and social anxiety. One intervention, PEERS® for Young Adults, shows promise in addressing these challenges. The present study replicated and extended the original study by recruiting a larger sample (N = 56), employing a gold standard ASD assessment tool, and examining changes in social anxiety utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. Results indicated improvements in social responsiveness (SSIS-RS SS, p = .006 and CPB, p = .005; SRS, p = .004), PEERS® knowledge (TYASSK, p = .001), empathy (EQ, p = .044), direct interactions (QSQ-YA, p = .059), and social anxiety (LSAS-SR, p = .019). Findings demonstrate further empirical support for the intervention for individuals with ASD.

  11. Endosulfan affects health variables in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and induces alterations in larvae development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.; Handy, R. D.; Sloman, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    to controls. Both concentrations of endosulfan caused a 4.0 fold increase in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity compared to controls (ANOVA, p ANOVA, p ... alterations in the progeny of fish exposed to endosulfan were observed. Heart beat frequency was significantly lower in larvae from exposed adults to 0.16 mu g/L compared to the control (ANOVA, p

  12. The tree-species-specific effect of forest bathing on perceived anxiety alleviation of young-adults in urban forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoming Guan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest bathing, i.e. spending time in a forest to walk, view and breathe in a forest, can alleviate the mental depression of visitors, but the tree-species-specific effect of this function by the urban forest is unknown. In this study, sixty-nine university students (aged 19-22, male ratio: 38% were recruited as participants to visit urban forests dominated by birch (Betula platyphylla Suk., maple (Acer triflorum Komarov and oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb trees in a park at the center of Changchun City, Northeast China. In the maple forest only the anxiety from study interest was decreased, while the anxiety from employment pressure was alleviated to the most extent in the birch forest. Participants perceived more anxiety from lesson declined in the oak forest than in the birch forest. Body parameters of weight and age were correlated with the anti-anxiety scores. In the oak forest, female participants can perceive more anxiety alleviation than male participants. For university students, forest bathing in our study can promote their study interest. Forest bathing can be more effective to alleviate the anxiety of young adults with greater weight. The birch forest was recommended to be visited by students to alleviate the pressure of employment worry, and the oak forest was recommended to be visited by girls.

  13. The impact of life stress on adult depression and anxiety is dependent on gender and timing of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Carly E; Allen, Karina; Robinson, Monique; Newnham, John; Pennell, Craig

    2017-10-01

    There is debate about the relative importance of timing of stressful events prenatally and over the life course and risk for subsequent depressive/anxious illness. The aim of this study was to examine the relative roles of prenatal stress and postnatal stress trajectories in predicting depression and anxiety in early adulthood in males and females. Exposure to life stress events was examined in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study during pregnancy and ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 years. At age 20, offspring completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Prenatal stress and trajectories of stress events from age 1 to 17 were analyzed in linear regression analyses. Five postnatal stress trajectories were identified. In females, medium to high chronic stress exposure or exposure during puberty/adolescence predicted depression and anxiety symptoms while low or reduced stress exposure over the life course did not, after adjustment for relevant confounders. High stress early in pregnancy contributed to male depression/anxiety symptoms independent of postnatal stress trajectory. In females, postnatal stress trajectory was more important than prenatal stress in predicting depression/anxiety symptoms. Interventions focused on reducing and managing stress events around conception/pregnancy and exposure to chronic stress are likely to have beneficial outcomes on rates of depression and anxiety in adults.

  14. The relationships among ADHD, self-esteem, and test anxiety in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Orrie; Raz, Sivan

    2015-03-01

    The comorbidity of adult ADHD with test anxiety (TA) has not been previously reported. This comorbidity can potentially affect clinical and academic interventions among individuals with ADHD. The present study investigated the relationships among ADHD, self-esteem, and three subscales of TA among young adults: Cognitive Obstruction, Social Derogation, and Tenseness. A total of 25 female participants diagnosed with ADHD and 30 female controls without ADHD of comparable age and education completed an Online Continuous Performance Test, an ADHD questionnaire, a self-esteem inventory, and a TA questionnaire. Participants with ADHD exhibited significantly higher levels of TA on all three subscales and lower levels of self-esteem compared with controls. Self-esteem served as a partial mediator between ADHD and cognitive obstruction TA and as a full mediator between ADHD and social derogation TA, but had no mediation effect in the relationships between ADHD and tenseness TA. The findings of this study suggest that TA, well known to affect success on tests, is correlated with ADHD. Therefore, interventions for ADHD should include components aimed at reducing TA. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  15. The nature of self-esteem and its relationship to anxiety and depression in adult acquired brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Longworth, Catherine; Deakins, Joseph; Rose, David; Gracey, Fergus

    2016-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) has a negative impact on self-esteem, which is in turn associated with mood disorders, maladaptive coping and reduced community participation. The aim of the current research was to explore self-esteem as a multi-dimensional construct and identify which factors are associated with symptoms of anxiety or depression. Eighty adults with ABI aged 17–56 years completed the Robson Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), of whom 65 also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Sca...

  16. The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grimsrud

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests high levels of comorbidity between hypertension and mental illness but there are few data from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between hypertension and depression and anxiety in South Africa.Data come from a nationally-representative survey of adults (n = 4351. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to measure DSM-IV mental disorders during the previous 12-months. The relationships between self-reported hypertension and anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and comorbid anxiety-depression were assessed after adjustment for participant characteristics including experience of trauma and other chronic physical conditions.Overall 16.7% reported a previous medical diagnosis of hypertension, and 8.1% and 4.9% were found to have a 12-month anxiety or depressive disorder, respectively. In adjusted analyses, hypertension diagnosis was associated with 12-month anxiety disorders [Odds ratio (OR = 1.55, 95% Confidence interval (CI = 1.10-2.18] but not 12-month depressive disorders or 12-month comorbid anxiety-depression. Hypertension in the absence of other chronic physical conditions was not associated with any of the 12-month mental health outcomes (p-values all <0.05, while being diagnosed with both hypertension and another chronic physical condition were associated with 12-month anxiety disorders (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.46-3.45, but not 12-month depressive disorders or comorbid anxiety-depression.These are the first population-based estimates to demonstrate an association between hypertension and mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Further investigation is needed into role of traumatic life events in the aetiology of hypertension as well as the temporality of the association between hypertension and mental disorders.

  17. Methylation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter in adults: associations with early adversity and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrka, A R; Parade, S H; Welch, E S; Ridout, K K; Price, L H; Marsit, C; Philip, N S; Carpenter, L L

    2016-07-05

    Early adversity increases risk for developing psychopathology. Epigenetic modification of stress reactivity genes is a likely mechanism contributing to this risk. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene is of particular interest because of the regulatory role of the GR in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Mounting evidence suggests that early adversity is associated with GR promoter methylation and gene expression. Few studies have examined links between GR promoter methylation and psychopathology, and findings to date have been mixed. Healthy adult participants (N=340) who were free of psychotropic medications reported on their childhood experiences of maltreatment and parental death and desertion. Lifetime depressive and anxiety disorders and past substance-use disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Methylation of exon 1F of the GR gene (NR3C1) was examined in leukocyte DNA via pyrosequencing. On a separate day, a subset of the participants (n=231) completed the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Childhood adversity and a history of past substance-use disorder and current or past depressive or anxiety disorders were associated with lower levels of NR3C1 promoter methylation across the region as a whole and at individual CpG sites (Pdisorder. GR promoter methylation was linked to altered cortisol responses to the Dex/CRH test (Pdepressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders in adults. This finding stands in contrast to our prior work, but is consistent with emerging findings, suggesting complexity in the regulation of this gene.

  18. Intrauterine ethanol exposure results in hypothalamic oxidative stress and neuroendocrine alterations in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Korami; Yao, Xing-Hai; Chen, Li; Nyomba, B L Grégoire

    2006-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure is associated with low birth weight, followed by increased appetite, catch-up growth, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance in the rat offspring. Because EtOH can induce oxidative stress, which is a putative mechanism of insulin resistance, and because of the central role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin action, we investigated whether prenatal EtOH exposure causes oxidative damage to the hypothalamus, which may alter its function. Female rats were given EtOH by gavage throughout pregnancy. At birth, their offspring were smaller than those of non-EtOH rats. Markers of oxidative stress and expression of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were determined in hypothalami of postnatal day 7 (PD7) and 3-mo-old (adult) rat offspring. In both PD7 and adult rats, prenatal EtOH exposure was associated with decreased levels of glutathione and increased expression of MnSOD. The concentrations of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls were normal in PD7 EtOH-exposed offspring, but were increased in adult EtOH-exposed offspring. Both PD7 and adult EtOH-exposed offspring had normal neuropeptide Y and POMC mRNA levels, but the adult offspring had reduced POMC protein concentration. Thus only adult offspring preexposed to EtOH had increased hypothalamic tissue damage and decreased levels of POMC, which could impair melanocortin signaling. We conclude that prenatal EtOH exposure causes hypothalamic oxidative stress, which persists into adult life and alters melanocortin action during adulthood. These neuroendocrine alterations may explain weight gain and insulin resistance in rats exposed to EtOH early in life.

  19. Group cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty: a randomized trial for older Chinese adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chen; Zhihui, Yang

    2017-12-01

    China has entered the aging society, but the social support systems for the elderly are underdeveloped, which may make the elderly feel anxiety about their health and life quality. Given the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the elderly, it is very important to pay more attention to the treatment for old adults. Although cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty (CBT-IU) has been applied to different groups of patients with GAD, few studies have been performed to date. In addition, the effects of CBT-IU are not well understood, especially when applied to older adults with GAD. Sixty-three Chinese older adults with a principal diagnosis of GAD were enrolled. Of these, 32 were randomized to receive group CBT-IU (intervention group) and 31 were untreated (control group). GAD and related symptoms were assessed using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Chinese Version, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Why Worry-II scale, Cognitive Avoidance Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale across the intervention. The changes between pre and after the intervention were collected, as well as the six-month follow-up. F test and repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted to analyze the data. Compared to control group, the measures' scores of experimental group decreased significantly after the intervention and six-month follow-up. Besides the main effects for time and group were significant, the interaction effect for group × time was also significant. These results indicated the improvement of the CBT-IU group and the persistence of effect after six months. Group CBT-IU is effective in Chinese older adults with GAD. The effects of CBT-IU on GAD symptoms persist for at least six months after treatment.

  20. Social Anxiety Mediates the Effect of Autism Spectrum Disorder Characteristics on Hostility in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan Williams; Kreiser, Nicole L.; Pugliese, Cara; Scarpa, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Problems with social anxiety are frequently reported in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is possible that social anxiety, when present, exacerbates the experience of hostility and other forms of aggression in relation to ASD symptoms. This study sought to determine if social anxiety symptoms mediate the relationship between features…

  1. Adolescent Social Stress Increases Anxiety-like Behavior and Alters Synaptic Transmission, Without Influencing Nicotine Responses, in a Sex-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michael J; Crowley, Nicole A; Reiss, Dana E; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Luscher, Bernhard; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Kamens, Helen M

    2018-03-01

    Early-life stress is a risk factor for comorbid anxiety and nicotine use. Because little is known about the factors underlying this comorbidity, we investigated the effects of adolescent stress on anxiety-like behavior and nicotine responses within individual animals. Adolescent male and female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to chronic variable social stress (CVSS; repeated cycles of social isolation + social reorganization) or control conditions from postnatal days (PND) 25-59. Anxiety-like behavior and social avoidance were measured in the elevated plus-maze (PND 61-65) and social approach-avoidance test (Experiment 1: PND 140-144; Experiment 2: 95-97), respectively. Acute nicotine-induced locomotor, hypothermic, corticosterone responses, (Experiment 1: PND 56-59; Experiment 2: PND 65-70) and voluntary oral nicotine consumption (Experiment 1: PND 116-135; Experiment 2: 73-92) were also examined. Finally, we assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAC) synaptic transmission (PND 64-80); brain regions that are implicated in anxiety and addiction. Mice exposed to adolescent CVSS displayed increased anxiety-like behavior relative to controls. Further, CVSS altered synaptic excitability in PFC and NAC neurons in a sex-specific manner. For males, CVSS decreased the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in the PFC and NAC, respectively. In females, CVSS decreased the amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the NAC. Adolescent CVSS did not affect social avoidance or nicotine responses and anxiety-like behavior was not reliably associated with nicotine responses within individual animals. Taken together, complex interactions between PFC and NAC function may contribute to adolescent stress-induced anxiety-like behavior without influencing nicotine responses. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of tai chi chuan on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults: lessons from a randomized controlled feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldwell KL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Karen L Caldwell,1 Shawn M Bergman,2 Scott R Collier,3 N Travis Triplett,3 Rebecca Quin,4 John Bergquist,5 Carl F Pieper6 1Department of Human Development and Psychological Counseling, 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, 4Department of Theatre and Dance, 5Department of Psychology, Appalachian State University, Boone, 6Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Objective: To determine feasibility and estimate the effect of a 10-week tai chi chuan (TCC intervention on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults. Participants: Seventy-five adults (18–40 years from a predominately undergraduate mid-sized university. Methods: This was an assessor blinded, randomized feasibility trial, and participants were randomized into one of three groups: 10 weeks of TCC meeting 2 times per week, 10 weeks of TCC with a DVD of the curriculum, and control group receiving a handout on anxiety management. Anxiety and sleep quality were assessed 4 times: baseline, 4 weeks, 10 weeks (immediate post-intervention, and 2 months post-intervention. Retention was defined as a participant attending the baseline assessment and at least one other assessment. Adherence to the intervention was set a priori as attendance at 80% of the TCC classes. Results: Eighty-five percent of participants were retained during the intervention and 70% completed the 2 month follow-up assessments. To increase statistical power, the two TCC groups were combined in the analyses of anxiety and sleep quality measures. No significant changes in anxiety were found in the control group, while levels of anxiety decreased significantly over time in the two TCC groups. Sleep quality scores improved across time for all three groups, but adherent TCC participants reported greater improvement than control participants. Conclusion: TCC may be an effective nonpharmaceutical means of improving anxiety and poor sleep quality

  3. Enteral Tube Feeding Alters the Oral Indigenous Microbiota in Elderly Adults ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshita, Toru; Yasui, Masaki; Tomioka, Mikiko; Nakano, Yoshio; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Enteral tube feeding is widely used to maintain nutrition for elderly adults with eating difficulties, but its long-term use alters the environment of the oral ecosystem. This study characterized the tongue microbiota of tube-fed elderly adults by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of 44 tube-fed subjects were compared with those of 54 subjects fed orally (average age, 86.4 ± 6.9 years). Bar-coded pyrosequencing data were also ...

  4. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulle, F.; Pawluski, J.L.; Homberg, J.R.; Machiels, B.; Kroeze, Y.; Kumar, N.; Steinbusch, H.W.; Kenis, G.; Hove, D.L. van den

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has

  5. Anxiety, depression and psychological well-being in a cohort of South African adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ramkisson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM has increased at alarming rates globally. South Africa has the second highest number of people in Africa living with DM, with prevalence rates being among the top five countries in Africa. Accordingly, psychological issues associated with DM have been a growing focus of attention. Studies have found that patients with DM have elevated levels of anxiety and depression, and decreased levels of well-being. In South Africa, there is a paucity of studies on the psychological issues associated with DM. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to explore the prevalence and association of anxiety, depressive features and psychological well-being in patients with Type 2 DM. Method: In a cross-sectional survey, patients with Type 2 DM were recruited from public and private facilities. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and WHO-5 Well-being Index (WHO-5 were administered. Results: Four hundred and one participants completed the questionnaires. On the WHO-5, 277 (69% reported good well-being, while 124 (31% indicated poor well-being and were considered at risk for depressive features. On the HADS, 186 (46% had mild-to-severe depressive features and 128 (32% had mild-to-severe anxiety. There was a strong negative correlation between the WHO-5, HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ scales, which indicated that an increase in anxiety and depressive features decreased psychological well-being. Conclusion: Health-care providers should identify and treat anxiety and depression as a standard part of diabetes care. Patients should also be referred to the appropriate mental health professional as part of the management of diabetes. Keywords: type 2 diabetes; anxiety;depression;psychological well-being; adults

  6. Individually tailored internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for young adults with anxiety disorders: A pilot effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Silfvernagel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mental health of young people is decreasing. It is therefore important to develop early interventions for young people with mental health problems. One previous randomized controlled trial on tailored Internet-based treatment for young adults with minimal therapist guidance has shown promising results for anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tailored internet-administered CBT for young adults (16–25 years old with anxiety, depression and possible comorbidity in regular care. Participants were recruited from a youth health care centre (n = 15. Screening consisted of online questionnaires followed by a semi-structured interview. A total of 10 participants completed pre and post measurement. The treatment consisted of individually prescribed CBT text modules with online therapist guidance. All dependent measures improved significantly immediately following treatment and the within-group effect based on pre- to post measurement on the primary outcome measure, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, was d = 1.50, the within-group effect on the secondary outcome measures, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-Rated, Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation and Quality of Life Inventory showed large improvement. Tailored internet-based treatment can be an approach in the treatment of anxiety symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in youth care.

  7. Relaxation therapy and anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation among adults with intellectual disabilities: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who completed 10 sessions of relaxation therapy, and a control group (CG, 15 subjects), who were on a waiting list. The method used is the pretest and posttest. Variables were assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. We found that in the RG, relaxation significantly reduced state anxiety, t(14, 15) = 17.8***, d = -0.72, and improved self-esteem, t(14, 15) = -7.7***, d = 1.03, and cognitive reappraisal, t(14, 15) = -6.3***, d = 1.3, while the CG showed no change for these variables. We conclude that relaxation seems to be an interesting therapeutic option for reducing anxiety in people with ID in a supported employment setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Evaluation of Altered Drug Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Adults Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Sieg, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-support modality used in patients with refractory cardiac and/or respiratory failure. A significant resurgence in the use ECMO has been seen in recent years as a result of substantial improvements in technology and survival benefit. With expanding ECMO use, a better understanding of how ECMO affects drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is necessary. The vast majority of PK studies in patients receiving ECMO have been conducted within neonatal or pediatric populations or within a controlled environment (e.g., in vitro or ex vivo). Because of significant differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, it may be inappropriate to extrapolate these PK data to adults. Thus, the aims of this review are to evaluate the changes in drug PK during ECMO and to summarize the available PK data for common drugs used in the adult critically ill patients during ECMO support. A search of the PubMed (1965-July 2016), EMBASE (1965-July 2016), and Cochrane Controlled Trial Register databases was performed. All relevant studies describing PK alterations during ECMO in ex vivo experiments and in adults were included. Evaluation of the data indicated that drug PK in adults receiving ECMO support may be significantly altered. Factors influencing these alterations are numerous and have intricate relationships with each other but can generally be classified as ECMO circuit factors, drug factors, and patient factors. Commonly used drugs in these patients include antimicrobials, sedatives, and analgesics. PK data for most of these drugs are generally lacking; however, recent research efforts in this patient population have provided some limited guidance in drug dosing. With an improved understanding of altered drug PK secondary to ECMO therapy, optimization of pharmacotherapy within this critically ill population continues to move forward. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  9. Childhood separation anxiety disorder and adult onset panic attacks share a common genetic diathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Eaves, Lindon J; Hettema, John M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Silberg, Judy L

    2012-04-01

    Childhood separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is hypothesized to share etiologic roots with panic disorder. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental sources of covariance between childhood SAD and adult onset panic attacks (AOPA), with the primary goal to determine whether these two phenotypes share a common genetic diathesis. Participants included parents and their monozygotic or dizygotic twins (n = 1,437 twin pairs) participating in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development and those twins who later completed the Young Adult Follow-Up (YAFU). The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment was completed at three waves during childhood/adolescence followed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R at the YAFU. Two separate, bivariate Cholesky models were fit to childhood diagnoses of SAD and overanxious disorder (OAD), respectively, and their relation with AOPA; a trivariate Cholesky model also examined the collective influence of childhood SAD and OAD on AOPA. In the best-fitting bivariate model, the covariation between SAD and AOPA was accounted for by genetic and unique environmental factors only, with the genetic factor associated with childhood SAD explaining significant variance in AOPA. Environmental risk factors were not significantly shared between SAD and AOPA. By contrast, the genetic factor associated with childhood OAD did not contribute significantly to AOPA. Results of the trivariate Cholesky reaffirmed outcomes of bivariate models. These data indicate that childhood SAD and AOPA share a common genetic diathesis that is not observed for childhood OAD, strongly supporting the hypothesis of a specific genetic etiologic link between the two phenotypes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Anxiety Sensitivity Uniquely Predicts Exercise Behaviors in Young Adults Seeking to Increase Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshier, Samantha J; Szuhany, Kristin L; Hearon, Bridget A; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS) may be motivated to avoid aversive emotional or physical states, and therefore may have greater difficulty achieving healthy behavioral change. This may be particularly true for exercise, which produces many of the somatic sensations within the domain of AS concerns. Cross-sectional studies show a negative association between AS and exercise. However, little is known about how AS may prospectively affect attempts at behavior change in individuals who are motivated to increase their exercise. We recruited 145 young adults who self-identified as having a desire to increase their exercise behavior. Participants completed a web survey assessing AS and additional variables identified as important for behavior change-impulsivity, grit, perceived behavioral control, and action planning-and set a specific goal for exercising in the next week. One week later, a second survey assessed participants' success in meeting their exercise goals. We hypothesized that individuals with higher AS would choose lower exercise goals and would complete less exercise at the second survey. AS was not significantly associated with exercise goal level, but significantly and negatively predicted exercise at Time 2 and was the only variable to offer significant prediction beyond consideration of baseline exercise levels. These results underscore the importance of considering AS in relation to health behavior intentions. This is particularly apt given the absence of prediction offered by other traditional predictors of behavior change. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Aniracetam Does Not Alter Cognitive and Affective Behavior in Adult C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Thomas W.; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Gregory D.; Holley, Andrew J.; Gao, Nanjing; Lugo, Joaquin N.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs. PMID:25099639

  12. Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Elston

    Full Text Available There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs.

  13. Individually tailored internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults with anxiety and depression: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfvernagel, Kristin; Westlinder, Anna; Andersson, Stina; Bergman, Kajsa; Diaz Hernandez, Rosario; Fallhagen, Line; Lundqvist, Ida; Masri, Nicole; Viberg, Linda; Forsberg, Marie-Louise; Lind, Maria; Berger, Thomas; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard

    2018-07-01

    Mixed anxiety and depression is common among older adults. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of an eight-week-long tailored internet-supported cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) programme and to compare against the provision of weekly general support. A second aim was to investigate if pre-treatment cognitive flexibility and self-reported cognitive problems would predict outcome. We included 66 older adults (aged over 60 years) with mixed anxiety/depression following media recruitment and randomised them into treatment and control groups. We also included a one-year follow-up. As a measure of executive function, we used the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (perseverative errors) and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire during the pre-treatment phase. Results showed a moderate between-group effect on the main outcome measure, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) (d= .50), favouring the treatment group. Nearly half (45.5%) of that group were classified as responders. One person (3%) in the treatment group deteriorated. There were significant correlations between perseverative errors and outcome (on the BAI r = -.45), but not among self-reported cognitive function. We conclude that guided, tailored ICBT may be effective for some older adults and that the role of cognitive function needs to be investigated further.

  14. Sex and Exercise Interact to Alter the Expression of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid-Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakomaiya, Marie M.; Porter, Donna M.; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that voluntary exercise accentuates these sex-specific differences. We also show that levels of the anxiogenic peptide corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) are significantly greater in males, but that AAS selectively increase CRF levels in females, thus abrogating this sex-specific difference. Exercise did not ameliorate AAS-induced anxiety or alter CRF levels in females. Exercise was anxiolytic in males, but this behavioral outcome did not correlate with CRF levels. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has also been implicated in the expression of anxiety. As with CRF, levels of hippocampal BDNF mRNA were significantly greater in males than females. AAS and exercise were without effect on BDNF mRNA in females. In males, anxiolytic effects of exercise correlated with increased BDNF mRNA, however AAS-induced changes in BDNF mRNA and anxiety did not. In sum, we find that AAS elicit sex-specific differences in anxiety and that voluntary exercise accentuates these differences. In addition, our data suggest that these behavioral outcomes may reflect convergent actions of AAS and exercise on a sexually differentiated CRF signaling system within the extended amygdala. PMID:24768711

  15. A systematic review of anxiety prevalence in adults within primary care and community settings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin Hoong; Sultan Shah, Zia U Bakt; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Lin, Tzi Quen; Majeed, Zainab Abdul; Chan, Chun Wai

    2016-12-01

    Anxiety disorders are common mental health disorders with significant impact on the individual as well as burden on the country as a whole. A systematic review of databases, reference lists, internet sources, and input from content experts revealed 42 studies that documented the prevalence of anxiety symptoms or disorders. 12 of these studies specifically evaluated anxiety disorders. 4 studies looked at the prevalence of anxiety disorders in the general population, whilst the remainder focused on selected population groups: university students (4 studies); substance abuse (3 studies); and victims of abuse (1 study). Studies in the general population showed that the prevalence of generalised anxiety disorder was 0.4-5.6%, mixed anxiety and depression were 3-5%, panic without agoraphobia 0.4%, phobia unspecified 0.5-%, and anxiety not-otherwise-specified 0.3-6.5%. We found significant variability in anxiety disorders in the studies in selected population groups. The variability could also have been affected by methodological factors within each study. This study provides a broad overview of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in Malaysia. More research is required to develop diagnostic instruments that are validated for local use and comparable with international standards. Reliable prevalence estimates are lacking within certain groups, e.g. those in rural, indigenous, migrant population groups and those exposed to natural disasters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Instruments to measure anxiety in children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazor, Tanya; Tigelaar, Leonie; Pole, Jason D; De Souza, Claire; Tomlinson, Deborah; Sung, Lillian

    2017-09-01

    The primary objective was to describe anxiety measurement instruments used in children and adolescents with cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and summarize their content and psychometric properties. We conducted searches of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, HAPI, and CINAHL. We included studies that used at least one instrument to measure anxiety quantitatively in children or adolescents with cancer or undergoing HSCT. Two authors independently identified studies and abstracted study demographics and instrument characteristics. Twenty-seven instruments, 14 multi-item and 13 single-item, were used between 78 studies. The most commonly used instrument was the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in 46 studies. Three multi-item instruments (Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Mandarin version, PROMIS Pediatric Anxiety Short Form, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and two single-item instruments (Faces Pain Scale-Revised and 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale, both adapted for anxiety) were found to be reliable and valid in children with cancer. We identified 14 different multi-item and 13 different single-item anxiety measurement instruments that have been used in pediatric cancer or HSCT. Only three multi-item and two single-item instruments were identified as being reliable and valid among pediatric cancer or HSCT patients and would therefore be appropriate to measure anxiety in this population.

  17. The Mediating Role of Romantic Desolation and Dating Anxiety in the Association Between Interpersonal Competence and Life Satisfaction Among Polish Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Segrin, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of romantic desolation on life satisfaction in young adulthood. Using data from a Polish sample of 330 (205 females and 125 males) young adults aged 20?30, who completed Polish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Dating Anxiety Scale, Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire-Revised, and Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults-Short Form, romantic desolation (romantic loneliness and lack of a romantic partner) and dating anxiety were tested as...

  18. Maternal Separation during Breastfeeding Induces Gender-Dependent Changes in Anxiety and the GABA-A Receptor Alpha-Subunit in Adult Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Armando León Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Different models of rodent maternal separation (MS have been used to investigate long-term neurobiological and behavioral changes, associated with early stress. However, few studies have involved the analysis of sex-related differences in central anxiety modulation. This study investigated whether MS during breastfeeding affected adult males and females in terms of anxiety and brain GABA-A receptor-alpha-subunit immunoreactivity. The brain areas analyzed were the amygdale (AM, hippocampus (HP, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, medial preoptic area (POA and paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Rats were housed under a reversed light/dark cycle (lights off at 7∶00 h with access to water and food ad libitum. Animals underwent MS twice daily during the dark cycle from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 21. Behavior was tested when rats were 65-70 days old using the elevated plus maze and after brains were treated for immunohistochemistry. We found that separated females spent more time in the open arms and showed more head dipping behavior compared with controls. The separated males spent more time in the center of the maze and engaged in more stretching behavior than the controls. Immunohistochemistry showed that separated females had less immunostained cells in the HP, mPFC, PVN and POA, while separated males had fewer immunolabeled cells in the PFC, PVN and AM. These results could indicate that MS has gender-specific effects on anxiety behaviors and that these effects are likely related to developmental alterations involving GABA-A neurotransmission.

  19. Effects of neonatal paternal deprivation or early deprivation on anxiety and social behaviors of the adults in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao; An, Shucheng; Zhang, Xia; Broders, Hugh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined whether neonatal paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed and pups were raised just by mother) or early deprivation (ED: pups were raised by both parents except separated from not only the dam but also the peers for three hours a day from PND 0 to 13) has long-term effects on anxiety and social behaviors of adult mandarin voles. Newborn mandarin voles of F2 generation were randomly assigned to one of three groups: bi-parental care (PC: pups were raised by both parents), PD and ED. The parental care behaviors of F1 generation were observed at the age of 0, 13 and 21 days (PND 0, 13, 21) of F2 generation of PC and PD groups. Moreover, each mandarin vole of F2 generation received an open field test and a social interaction test on PND 70 and PND 75, respectively. No significant differences of parental behavior were observed between mothers and fathers from PC families, showing typical parental behavior of socially monogamous rodents. In addition, no significant differences of maternal behaviors were found between mothers from PC and PD families, indicating no maternal compensation towards pups for the absence of the paternal care. In the open field test, mandarin voles from both PD and ED families displayed higher levels of anxiety and lower locomotor activity, relative to offspring of PC family. In the social interaction test, both PD and ED mandarin voles also showed lower levels of social behavior and higher levels of anxiety. Thus, both PD and ED significantly increase anxiety and reduce social behavior of adult mandarin voles, suggesting that variation in parental investment may lead to variation in anxiety and social behaviors in rodents with different mating systems.

  20. Differential patterns of lifetime multiple anxiety disorder comorbidity between Latino adults with bipolar I and major depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilsaver, Steven C; Benazzi, Franco; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2008-01-01

    To determine the lifetime rates of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult Latino patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD), and whether there are dose-response relationships between loading for comorbid anxiety disorders, the probability of having BPD, and attributes of severity of illness. In a public sector clinic for the indigent located in a semiclosed rural community, 187 consecutively presenting affectively ill Latino patients were evaluated by use of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Polarity and the lifetime prevalence of panic disorder, OCD, social phobia, and PTSD were determined. Logistic regression was used to test associations. Trends in positive predictive values (PPVs) and likelihood ratios were assessed to determine whether dose-response relationships existed between loading for comorbid anxiety disorders and the likelihood of having BPD as opposed to MDD, psychosis, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Of 187 subjects, 118 (63.1%) had MDD and 69 (36.9%) had BPD. The odds ratio of a patient with BPD, relative to MDD, of having panic disorder was 4.6 (panxiety disorders. There was a dose-response relationship between loading for comorbid anxiety disorders and the likelihood of having had a suicide attempt (but not suicidal ideation). As previously reported by us for juvenile patients, Latino adults with BPD had a remarkably high risk of having each anxiety disorder relative to patients with MDD. The results indicate that the risk of having BPD, having a psychosis, and making a suicide attempt becomes increasingly great as the number of comorbid anxiety disorders increases. These data, which are consistent with the notion of anxious bipolarity, provide further support for a possible anxious diathesis in bipolar disorder.

  1. Associations between religiosity and anxiety, depressive symptoms, and well-being in Korean adults living with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ahm; Ryu, Han Uk; Choi, Eun-Ju; Ko, Myung-Ah; Jeon, Ji-Ye; Han, Su-Hyun; Lee, Gha-Hyun; Lee, Moon Kyu; Jo, Kwang-Deog

    2017-10-01

    Religiosity can be important in the everyday life of persons with epilepsy (PWE). How PWE live with religiosity can be influenced by their cultural background. We determined whether religiosity is associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and well-being in Korean adults with epilepsy. This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient clinics of five university hospitals in Korea. Religiosity was assessed using the five-item Duke University Religion Index (DUREL). The WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale were used. The participants were categorized into three subgroups bounded by the 33rd and 66th percentiles of their DUREL scores. Of a total of 226 participants, 61.1% declared that they had religious affiliation. The median DUREL score was 11 (interquartile ranges 6, 18). All three subscales of the DUREL were significantly related to WHO-5 (p<0.01). Non-organizational religious activities such as prayer and meditation were also inversely related to anxiety (p<0.05) and depressive symptoms (p<0.01). After controlling for confounding variables, anxiety and depressive symptoms were more extensive in the low religiosity subgroup than in the high or no religiosity subgroup (p<0.01) and well-being was higher in the high or low religiosity subgroup than in the no religiosity subgroup (p<0.05). Religiosity is significantly associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and well-being in Korean adults with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of developing major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among adolescents and adults with atopic dermatitis: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Yang, Albert C; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested a comorbid association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and depressive disorder as well as anxiety disorders, but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 8208 AD patients aged 12 and older without psychiatric history and age-/sex-matched (1:1) controls between 1998 and 2008 were enrolled in our study and followed to the end of 2011. Subjects who developed major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders during the follow-up were identified. The Cox regression analysis after adjusting for demographic data and atopic comorbidities demonstrated that patients with AD had an elevated risk of developing major depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.64-11.84), any depressive disorder (HR: 5.44, 95% CI: 3.99-7.44), and anxiety disorders (HR: 3.57, 95% CI: 2.55-4.98). Stratified by age group, both adolescents and adults with AD were prone to developing major depression (HR: 4.26, 95% CI: 1.39-13.13; HR: 7.56, 95% CI: 3.75-15.23), any depressive disorder (HR: 4.38, 95% CI: 2.09-9.18; HR: 5.66, 95% CI: 4.01-7.99), and anxiety disorders (HR: 5.40, 95% CI: 2.02-14.39; HR: 3.36, 95% CI: 2.38-4.80). AD in both adolescence and adulthood increased the risk of developing major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders in later life. Further studies would be required to clarify the possible underlying mechanism between AD and depression as well as anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Anxiety among Young Adult Drinkers: The Role of Perceived Norms and Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ashley N.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the separate and combined influence of perceived norms, negative reinforcement drinking motives, and social anxiety on alcohol outcomes. Participants (N = 250) completed measures of injunctive norms, social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data collection occurred in 2010.…

  4. Stepped care for depression and anxiety in visually impaired older adults: multicentre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, H.P.A.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; Comijs, H.C.; Margrain, T.H.; Galindo Garre, F.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Nispen, R.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is stepped care compared with usual care effective in preventing the onset of major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders in older people with visual impairment (caused mainly by age related eye disease) and subthreshold depression and/or anxiety? Methods 265 people aged ?50

  5. Adult Dental Anxiety: Recent Assessment Approaches and Psychological Management in a Dental Practice Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Gerry; Spyt, James; Herbison, Alice G; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2016-05-01

    Dental anxiety of patients is a common feature of the everyday experience of dental practice. This article advocates the use of regular assessment of this psychological construct to assist in patient management. Various tools, such as the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), are available to monitor dental anxiety that are quick to complete and easy to interpret. Patient burden is low. A new mobile phone assessment system (DENTANX) is being developed for distribution. This application and other psychological interventions are being investigated to assist patients to receive dental care routinely. Clinical relevance: This article provides evidence and expert opinion on the worth of regular dental anxiety assessment in dental practice using structured tools, such as the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, and consideration of psychological intervention development.

  6. [Copy number alterations in adult patients with mature B acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with specific immunochemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Jordi; Zamora, Lurdes; García, Olga; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús-María; Genescà, Eulàlia; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2016-12-02

    Unlike Burkitt lymphoma, molecular abnormalities other than C-MYC rearrangements have scarcely been studied in patients with mature B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and prognostic significance of copy number alterations (CNA) in genes involved in lymphoid differentiation, cell cycle and tumor suppression in adult patients with B-ALL. We have analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification the genetic material from bone marrow at diagnosis from 25 adult B-ALL patients treated with rituximab and specific chemotherapy. The most frequent CNA were alterations in the 14q32.33 region (11 cases, 44%) followed by alterations in the cell cycle regulator genes CDKN2A/B and RB1 (16%). No correlation between the presence of specific CNA and the clinical-biologic features or the response to therapy was found. The high frequency of CNA in the 14q32.33 region, CDKN2A/B and RB1 found in our study could contribute to the aggressiveness and invasiveness of mature B-ALL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Gamma-interferon alters globin gene expression in neonatal and adult erythroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.A.; Perrine, S.P.; Antognetti, G.; Perlmutter, D.H.; Emerson, S.G.; Sieff, C.; Faller, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of gamma-interferon on fetal hemoglobin synthesis by purified cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors was studied with a radioligand assay to measure hemoglobin production by BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Coculture with recombinant gamma-interferon resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decrease in fetal hemoglobin production by neonatal and adult, but not fetal, BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Accumulation of fetal hemoglobin by cord blood BFU-E-derived erythroblasts decreased up to 38.1% of control cultures (erythropoietin only). Synthesis of both G gamma/A gamma globin was decreased, since the G gamma/A gamma ratio was unchanged. Picograms fetal hemoglobin per cell was decreased by gamma-interferon addition, but picograms total hemoglobin was unchanged, demonstrating that a reciprocal increase in beta-globin production occurred in cultures treated with gamma-interferon. No toxic effect of gamma-interferon on colony growth was noted. The addition of gamma-interferon to cultures resulted in a decrease in the percentage of HbF produced by adult BFU-E-derived cells to 45.6% of control. Fetal hemoglobin production by cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors, was not significantly affected by the addition of recombinant GM-CSF, recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1), recombinant IL-2, or recombinant alpha-interferon. Although fetal progenitor cells appear unable to alter their fetal hemoglobin program in response to any of the growth factors added here, the interaction of neonatal and adult erythroid progenitors with gamma-interferon results in an altered expression of globin genes

  8. Anxiety Sensitivity and Age: Roles in Understanding Subjective Social Status among Low Income Adult Latinos in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Manning, Kara; Lemaire, Chad; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Lia J; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa

    2018-06-01

    One social determinant of health construct that is reliably related to health disparities among the Latino population is subjective social status, reflecting subjective ratings of social standing. Yet, little research has explored factors that may undergird variability in subjective social status among this population or in general. Accordingly, the present investigation examined one possible etiological model wherein age moderates the relation between individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) and subjective social status among a Latino primary care sample. Participants included Spanish-speaking Latino adults (n = 394; 86.5% female; average age = 39.0 years). Results demonstrated an interaction between the anxiety sensitivity and age for subjective social status among the Latino sample. Inspection of the form of the significant interaction indicated that the association between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was evident among older, but not younger, persons. The current findings suggest that decreasing anxiety sensitivity, especially among older Latinos, may be one possible viable therapeutic approach to change subjective social status in order to help offset health disparities among this group.

  9. Elevated salivary IgA, decreased anxiety, and an altered oral microbiota are associated with active participation on an undergraduate athletic team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Ashley L; Hess, Debra E; Edenborn, Sherie; Ubinger, Elizabeth; Carrillo, Andres E; Appasamy, Pierette M

    2017-02-01

    Previous reports indicate that regular, but not excessive, exercise can moderate the response to anxiety and alter the immune response, therefore we hypothesized that college student athletes who were actively participating on an NCAA Division III athletics team ("in-season") would have lower levels of anxiety and higher salivary IgA levels than similar college athletes who were in their "off-season". NCAA Division III athletes participate in athletics at a level of intensity that is more moderate compared to other NCAA divisions. Alterations in the microbiome have been associated with alterations in psychosocial well-being and with exercise. Therefore, we also proposed that the oral microbiota would be different in "in-season" versus "off-season" athletes. In this pilot study, nineteen female students participating on a NCAA Division III athletic team (hockey="in-season"; soccer="off-season") were compared for level of fitness (modified Balke test of VO 2 max), salivary IgA levels by immunoassay, anxiety (using a GAD-7 survey), salivary cortisol levels by immunoassay, and numbers of culturable bacteria by growth of CFU/ml on blood agar, mitis salivarius agar and Staphylococcus 110 agar. The proportion of subjects reporting "severe anxiety" on an anxiety scale (GAD-7) were significantly greater in the "off-season" group compared to the "in-season" group (p=0.047, Chi-squared test). "In-season" athletes had significantly higher salivary IgA/total protein levels than "off-season" athletes (one-sided Student's t-test; p=0.03). Cortisol levels were not significantly different in the two groups. The total culturable bacteria counts were higher among "in-season" athletes (p=0.0455, Wilcoxon Rank Sum test), as measured by CFUs on blood agar plates, an estimate of total culturable bacteria, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. In contrast, there was a decrease in the growth of bacteria from the oral cavity of the "in-season" athletes, when the growth of

  10. The outcomes of anxiety, confidence, and self-efficacy with Internet health information retrieval in older adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Adeline; Mastel-Smith, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Technology has a great impact on nursing practice. With the increasing numbers of older Americans using computers and the Internet in recent years, nurses have the capability to deliver effective and efficient health education to their patients and the community. Based on the theoretical framework of Bandura's self-efficacy theory, the pilot project reported findings from a 5-week computer course on Internet health searches in older adults, 65 years or older, at a senior activity learning center. Twelve participants were recruited and randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Measures of computer anxiety, computer confidence, and computer self-efficacy scores were analyzed at baseline, at the end of the program, and 6 weeks after the completion of the program. Analysis was conducted with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Findings showed participants who attended a structured computer course on Internet health information retrieval reported lowered anxiety and increased confidence and self-efficacy at the end of the 5-week program and 6 weeks after the completion of the program as compared with participants who were not in the program. The study demonstrated that a computer course can help reduce anxiety and increase confidence and self-efficacy in online health searches in older adults.

  11. Social anxiety and parental overprotection in young adults with and without intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemm, Cahley; Dagnan, Dave; Meyer, Thomas D

    2018-05-01

    Developmental literature highlights peer relationships and parental overprotection as factors implicated in the development of social anxiety. These factors are highly prevalent in the lives of people with intellectual disabilities; however research has not examined whether these factors are associated with social anxiety for this population. Twenty-one individuals without intellectual disabilities and 21 individuals with intellectual disabilities (aged 16-24 years) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents with follow-up questions, the Glasgow Anxiety Scale-Intellectual disabilities and the parental overprotection subscale of the Parental Bonding Instrument with follow-up questions. Aspects of general and social anxiety were significantly greater in the intellectual disabilities group. There were no significant differences in parental overprotection between groups, however, qualitative analyses revealed differences in experiences of social anxiety and parental overprotection. Further research into factors associated with social anxiety in people with intellectual disabilities may inform adaptations to therapies and early intervention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. When an adult female seeks ritual genital alteration: ethics, law, and the parameters of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Julie D

    2006-04-01

    Ritual genital cutting for women, a common practice in Africa and elsewhere around the world, remains dangerous and controversial. In recent years, a 14-year-old girl living in Sierra Leone exsanguinated and died following a ritualistic genital cutting. Hoping to avoid that fate, women with backgrounds that accept ritual genital cutting may, when they reach majority age, ask plastic surgeons to perform genital alterations for cultural reasons. Although plastic surgeons routinely perform cosmetic procedures, unique ethical and legal concerns arise when an adult female patient asks a surgeon to spare her the tribal elder's knife and alter her genitalia according to tradition and custom. Misinformation and confusion about this issue exist. This article explores the ethical and legal issues relevant to this situation and explains how the thoughtful surgeon should proceed.

  13. Anxiety and Depression Among Adult Patients With Diabetic Foot: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ali; Abujbara, Mousa; Jaddou, Hashem; Younes, Nidal A; Ajlouni, Kamel

    2018-05-01

    Diabetic foot is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus with subsequent disturbances in the daily life of the patients. The co-existence of depression and anxiety among diabetic foot patients is a common phenomenon and the role of each of them in perpetuating the other is highlighted in the literature. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence rates of anxiety and depression, and to examine the associated risk factors among diabetic foot patients. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 260 diabetic foot patients in the Diabetic Foot Clinic at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG), Amman, Jordan, participated in the study. Sociodemographic and health data were gathered through review of medical charts and a structured questionnaire. Depression and anxiety status were also assessed. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) was used to screen for anxiety and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to screen for depression. A cutoff of ≥ 10 was used for each scale to identify those who tested positive for anxiety and depression. Prevalence rate of anxiety was 37.7% and that of depression was 39.6%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that anxiety is positively associated with duration of diabetes of 7% (P = 0.03). Multiple logistic regression analysis also showed that depression is positively associated with patients of foot ulcer duration ≥ 7 months (P = 0.00), with ≥ three comorbid diseases (P = 0.00) than their counterparts. Anxiety and depression are widely prevalent among diabetic foot patients. Mental health status of those patients gets even worse among those suffering other comorbid diseases, which was a finding that requires special attention in the management of patients with diabetic foot.

  14. The Long-term Impact of Early Life Pain On Adult Responses to Anxiety and Stress: Historical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Nicole C.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10–18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. PMID:26210872

  15. Mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders and later cause-specific sick leave in young adult employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fartein Ask Torvik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders strongly influence work capability in young adults, but it is not clear which disorders that are most strongly associated with sick leave, and which diagnoses that are stated on the sick leave certificates. Better knowledge of the impairments associated with different mental disorders is needed for optimal planning of interventions and prioritization of health services. In the current study, we investigate the prospective associations between eight mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders, and later sick leave granted for mental, somatic, or any disorder. Methods Lifetime mental disorders were assessed by structured diagnostic interviews in 2,178 young adults followed for eight years with registry data on sick leave. Relative risk ratios were estimated for the associations between each mental disorder and the different forms of sick leave. Results All included diagnoses were associated with later sick leave. In adjusted analyses, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas social anxiety disorder and specific phobia were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for somatic disorders. Specific phobia and major depressive disorder had the highest attributable fractions for all-cause sick leave. Conclusions Mood and anxiety disorders constituted independent risk factors for all cause sick leave, whereas alcohol use disorders seemed to be of less importance in young adulthood. Disorders characterised by distress were most strongly associated with sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas disorders characterised by fear primarily predicted sick leave granted for somatic conditions. A large part of all sick leave is related to specific phobia, due to the high prevalence of this disorder. The impairment associated with this common disorder may be under-acknowledged, and it could decrease work capacity among

  16. Mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders and later cause-specific sick leave in young adult employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvik, Fartein Ask; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Gjerde, Line C; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind; Tambs, Kristian; Røysamb, Espen; Østby, Kristian; Ørstavik, Ragnhild

    2016-08-03

    Mental disorders strongly influence work capability in young adults, but it is not clear which disorders that are most strongly associated with sick leave, and which diagnoses that are stated on the sick leave certificates. Better knowledge of the impairments associated with different mental disorders is needed for optimal planning of interventions and prioritization of health services. In the current study, we investigate the prospective associations between eight mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders, and later sick leave granted for mental, somatic, or any disorder. Lifetime mental disorders were assessed by structured diagnostic interviews in 2,178 young adults followed for eight years with registry data on sick leave. Relative risk ratios were estimated for the associations between each mental disorder and the different forms of sick leave. All included diagnoses were associated with later sick leave. In adjusted analyses, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas social anxiety disorder and specific phobia were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for somatic disorders. Specific phobia and major depressive disorder had the highest attributable fractions for all-cause sick leave. Mood and anxiety disorders constituted independent risk factors for all cause sick leave, whereas alcohol use disorders seemed to be of less importance in young adulthood. Disorders characterised by distress were most strongly associated with sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas disorders characterised by fear primarily predicted sick leave granted for somatic conditions. A large part of all sick leave is related to specific phobia, due to the high prevalence of this disorder. The impairment associated with this common disorder may be under-acknowledged, and it could decrease work capacity among individuals with somatic disorders. This disorder has good treatment

  17. Are Indigenous Determinants of Health Associated with Self-Reported Health Professional-Diagnosed Anxiety Disorders Among Canadian First Nations Adults?: Findings from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Sharifa; Brar, Ramanpreet; Brar, Samanpreet; Maltby, Alana; Wilk, Piotr

    2018-05-01

    We estimated the prevalence of self-reported health professional-diagnosed anxiety disorders among Canadian First Nations adults living off-reserve, and assessed the relationship between anxiety disorders and Indigenous determinants of health (Status Indian, residential school attendance, knowledge of Indigenous language, and participation in traditional activities) using the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed using bootstrap weights. The prevalence of anxiety disorders was 14.5% among off-reserve First Nations adults. There was an increased odds of anxiety disorders among those participating in traditional activities compared to their counterparts (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.12-1.90). No association was found between anxiety disorders and other Indigenous determinants of health. There is a high prevalence of self-reported anxiety among First Nations adults living off-reserve. However, further studies are warranted to identify and assess the role of Indigenous determinants of health for anxiety disorders and other prevalent mental health conditions in this population.

  18. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for anxiety symptoms in older adults in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, Edward; Ward, Bradley G

    2017-03-01

    Anxiety in older people is under-diagnosed and poorly treated despite significant impairments that arise from anxiety. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to be a promising treatment for anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an MBCT program on anxiety symptoms in older people living in residential care. Fifty-two participants (34 females) were randomly allocated into therapy and control groups using a 2 × 3 mixed design. The average age of participants was 83 years. The group effect showed significant improvements on all measures at the end of the seven-week program in the therapy group, while the control group did not show significant changes. This study represents one of the first studies of the effectiveness of an MBCT program on anxiety symptoms for older people using a randomized controlled trial. The study has implications for future research that include the effectiveness of MBCT for the treatment of anxiety symptoms in older people, the utility of group therapy programs in residential care and the benefits of using specialized instruments for older populations.

  19. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, G.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Creemers, H.E.; van der Ende, J.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different

  20. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Gwendolyn C.; Huizink, Anja C.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Creemers, Hanneke E.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different primary

  1. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of the frontal-striatal reward system in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Joshua; Reynolds, Gretchen; Saygin, Zeynep M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Pollack, Mark; Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated differences in the intrinsic functional brain organization (functional connectivity) of the human reward system between healthy control participants and patients with social anxiety disorder. Functional connectivity was measured in the resting-state via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 53 patients with social anxiety disorder and 33 healthy control participants underwent a 6-minute resting-state fMRI scan. Functional connectivity of the reward system was analyzed by calculating whole-brain temporal correlations with a bilateral nucleus accumbens seed and a ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed. Patients with social anxiety disorder, relative to the control group, had (1) decreased functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens seed and other regions associated with reward, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex; (2) decreased functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed and lateral prefrontal regions, including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices; and (3) increased functional connectivity between both the nucleus accumbens seed and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed with more posterior brain regions, including anterior cingulate cortex. Social anxiety disorder appears to be associated with widespread differences in the functional connectivity of the reward system, including markedly decreased functional connectivity between reward regions and between reward regions and lateral prefrontal cortices, and markedly increased functional connectivity between reward regions and posterior brain regions.

  2. Altered cortical-amygdala coupling in social anxiety disorder during the anticipation of giving a public speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, H.R.; Veer, I.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Yarkoni, T.; Wager, T.D.; Roelofs, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Severe stress in social situations is a core symptom of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Connectivity between the amygdala and cortical regions is thought to be important for emotion regulation, a function that is compromised in SAD. However, it has never been tested if and how this

  3. Switching adolescent high-fat diet to adult control diet restores neurocognitive alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Boitard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al., 2014; Boitard et al., 2012; Boitard et al., 2015. Here, we assessed whether the effects of adolescent HF consumption on brain function are permanent or reversible. After adolescent exposure to HF, switching to a standard chow diet restored levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and normalized enhanced HPA axis reactivity, amygdala activity and avoidance memory. Therefore, while the adolescent period is highly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity, adult exposure to a standard diet appears sufficient to reverse alterations of brain function.

  4. Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Kangas, M; Perini, S

    2016-03-01

    Co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes and poorer response to psychological and pharmacological treatments in older adults. However, there is a paucity of research focused on testing the efficacy of the co-morbid treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults using psychological interventions. Accordingly, the primary objective of the current study was to test the effects of a group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program in treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in a sample of older age adults. A total of 133 community-dwelling participants aged ⩾60 years (mean age = 67.35, s.d. = 5.44, male = 59) with both an anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder, as assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS), were randomly allocated to an 11-week CBT group or discussion group. Participants with Mini-Mental State Examination scores <26 were excluded. Participants were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 6 months follow-up on the ADIS, a brief measure of well-being, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Both conditions resulted in significant improvements over time on all diagnostic, symptom and wellbeing measures. Significant group × time interaction effects emerged at post-treatment only for diagnostic severity of the primary disorder, mean severity of all anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and all disorders, and recovery rates on primary disorder. Group CBT produced faster and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression on diagnostic severity and recovery rates compared to an active control in older adults.

  5. Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness based stress reduction may be equally effective in reducing anxiety and depression in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B; Kuiper, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety and depression co-occur in 50-70% of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but treatment methods for these comorbid problems have not been systematically studied. Recently, two ASD-tailored protocols were published: mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). We wanted to investigate if both methods are equally effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms among adults with ASD. 59 adults with ASD and anxiety or depression scores above 7 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, gave informed consent to participate; 27 followed the CBT protocol, and 32 the MBSR treatment protocol. Anxiety and depression scores, autism symptoms, rumination, and global mood were registered at the start, at the end of the 13-week treatment period, and at 3-months follow-up. Irrational beliefs and mindful attention awareness were used as process measures during treatment and at follow-up. Results indicate that both MBSR and CBT are associated with a reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms among adults with ASD, with a sustained effect at follow-up, but without a main effect for treatment group. A similar pattern was seen for the reduction of autistic symptoms, rumination and the improvement in global mood. There are some indications that MBSR may be preferred over CBT with respect to the treatment effect on anxiety when the scores on measures of irrational beliefs or positive global mood at baseline are high. Mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies are both promising treatment methods for reducing comorbid anxiety and depression in adults with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on anxiety and depression in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vert, Cristina; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Martínez, David; Gotsens, Xavier; Gramunt, Nina; Cirach, Marta; Molinuevo, José Luis; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Crous-Bou, Marta; Gascon, Mireia

    2017-08-01

    The association between exposure to air pollutants and mental disorders among adults has been suggested, although results are not consistent. To analyze the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and history of anxiety and depression disorders and of medication use (benzodiazepines and antidepressants) in adults living in Barcelona. A total of 958 adults (45-74 years old) residents in Barcelona, most of them having at least one of their parents diagnosed with dementia (86%), and participating in the ALFA (Alzheimer and Families) study, were included. We used Land Use Regression (LUR) models to estimate long-term residential exposure (period 2009-2014) to PM 2.5 , PM 2.5 absorbance (PM 2.5 abs), PM 10 , PM coarse, NO 2 and NO x . Between 2013 and 2014 participants self-reported their history of anxiety and depression disorders and related medication use. The analysis was focused on those participants reporting outcome occurrence from 2009 onwards (until 2014). We observed an increased odds of history of depression disorders with increasing concentrations of all air pollutants [e.g. an increased odds of depression of 2.00 (95% CI; 1.37, 2.93) for each 10μg/m 3 NO 2 increase]. Such associations were consistent with an increased odds of medication use in relation to higher concentrations of air pollutants [e.g. an increased odds of antidepressants use of 1.23 (1.04, 1.44) for each 20μg/m 3 NO x increase]. Associations regarding anxiety disorders did not reach statistical significance. Our study shows that increasing long-term exposure to air pollution may increase the odds of depression and the use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines. Further studies are needed to replicate our results and confirm this association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Pain Catastrophizing and Anxiety are Associated With Heat Pain Perception in a Community Sample of Adults With Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Marisa J; Moeschler, Susan M; Hoelzer, Bryan C; Hooten, W Michael

    2016-10-01

    The principle aim of this study was to investigate the associations between heat pain (HP) perception, pain catastrophizing, and pain-related anxiety in a heterogenous cohort of community-dwelling adults with chronic pain admitted to a 3-week outpatient pain rehabilitation program. All adults consecutively admitted to an outpatient pain rehabilitation program from July 2009 through January 2011 were eligible for study recruitment (n=574). Upon admission, patients completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20), and HP perception was assessed using a standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) method of levels. Greater PCS scores were significantly correlated with lower standardized values of HP threshold (HP 0.5) (P=0.006) and tolerance (HP 5) (P=0.003). In a multiple variable model adjusted for demographic and clinical factors known to influence HP perception, every 10-point increase in the PCS was associated with a -0.124 point change in HP 0.5 (P=0.014) and a -0.142 change in HP 5 (P=0.014) indicating that participants with higher PCS scores had lower HP thresholds and tolerances, respectively. Similarly, greater PASS-20 scores significantly correlated with lower standardized values of HP 0.5 and HP 5. In a multiple variable model, every 10-point increase in the PASS-20 was associated with a -0.084 point change in HP 0.5 (P=0.005) and a -0.116 point change in HP 5 (P=0.001) indicating that participants with higher PASS-20 scores had lower HP thresholds and tolerances, respectively. The findings of this study extend the use of a standardized method for assessing HP in a heterogenous sample of adults with chronic pain. Although pain catastrophizing shares significant variance with pain-related anxiety, our findings suggest that either measure would be appropriate for use in future studies that incorporate the QST method of levels.

  8. Anxiety-like behaviour and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in male pups exposed to prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloux, Charlotte; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Giovine, Angela; Branchi, Igor; Bouret, Sebastien; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Bergonzelli, Gabriela; Malagodi, Marithé; Gradini, Roberto; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Maccari, Stefania

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress ("PRS rats") represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was assessed in pups under different behavioural paradigms. After weaning, anxiety was measured by conventional tests. Expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors was assessed by immunoblotting. Plasma leptin levels were measured using a LINCOplex bead assay kit. The offspring of stressed dams emitted more USVs in response to isolation from their mothers and showed a later suppression of USV production when exposed to an unfamiliar male odour, indicating a pronounced anxiety-like profile. Anxiety like behaviour in PRS pups persisted one day after weaning. PRS pups did not show the plasma peak in leptin levels that is otherwise seen at PND14. In addition, PRS pups showed a reduced expression of the γ2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdala at PND14 and PND22, an increased expression of mGlu5 receptors in the amygdala at PND22, a reduced expression of mGlu5 receptors in the hippocampus at PND14 and PND22, and a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the hippocampus at PND22. These data offer a clear-cut demonstration that the early programming triggered by PRS could be already translated into anxiety-like behaviour during early postnatal life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Altered activity and functional connectivity of superior temporal gyri in anxiety disorders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

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    Zhao, Xiaohu; Xi, Qian; Wang, Peijun; Li, Chunbo [Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai (China); He, Hongjian [Bio-X lab, Dept. of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-08-15

    The prior functional MRI studies have demonstrated significantly abnormal activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) of anxiety patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the abnormal activity in these regions was related to a loss of functional connectivity between these regions. Ten healthy controls and 10 anxiety patients underwent noninvasive fMRI while actively listening to emotionally neutral words alternated by silence (Task 1) or threat-related words (Task 2). The participants were instructed to silently make a judgment of each word's valence (i.e., unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral). A coherence analysis was applied to the functional MRI data to examine the functional connectivity between the left and the right STG, which was selected as the primary region of interest on the basis of our prior results. The data demonstrated that the anxiety patients exhibited significantly increased activation in the bilateral STG than the normal controls. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that the patient group showed significantly decreased degree of connectivity between the bilateral STG during processing Task 2 compared to Task 1 (t = 2.588, p = 0.029). In addition, a significantly decreased connectivity was also observed in the patient group compared to the control group during processing Task 2 (t = 2.810, p = 0.012). Anxiety patients may exhibit increased activity of the STG but decreased functional connectivity between the left and right STG, which may reflect the underlying neural abnormality of anxiety disorder, and this will provide new insights into this disease.

  10. Altered activity and functional connectivity of superior temporal gyri in anxiety disorders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaohu; Xi, Qian; Wang, Peijun; Li, Chunbo; He, Hongjian

    2014-01-01

    The prior functional MRI studies have demonstrated significantly abnormal activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) of anxiety patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the abnormal activity in these regions was related to a loss of functional connectivity between these regions. Ten healthy controls and 10 anxiety patients underwent noninvasive fMRI while actively listening to emotionally neutral words alternated by silence (Task 1) or threat-related words (Task 2). The participants were instructed to silently make a judgment of each word's valence (i.e., unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral). A coherence analysis was applied to the functional MRI data to examine the functional connectivity between the left and the right STG, which was selected as the primary region of interest on the basis of our prior results. The data demonstrated that the anxiety patients exhibited significantly increased activation in the bilateral STG than the normal controls. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that the patient group showed significantly decreased degree of connectivity between the bilateral STG during processing Task 2 compared to Task 1 (t = 2.588, p = 0.029). In addition, a significantly decreased connectivity was also observed in the patient group compared to the control group during processing Task 2 (t = 2.810, p = 0.012). Anxiety patients may exhibit increased activity of the STG but decreased functional connectivity between the left and right STG, which may reflect the underlying neural abnormality of anxiety disorder, and this will provide new insights into this disease.

  11. Moderate perinatal thyroid hormone insufficiency alters visual system function in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, William K; Degn, Laura; George, Barbara Jane; Gilbert, Mary E

    2018-04-21

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for many aspects of neurodevelopment and can be disrupted by a variety of environmental contaminants. Sensory systems, including audition and vision are vulnerable to TH insufficiencies, but little data are available on visual system development at less than severe levels of TH deprivation. The goal of the current experiments was to explore dose-response relations between graded levels of TH insufficiency during development and the visual function of adult offspring. Pregnant Long Evans rats received 0 or 3 ppm (Experiment 1), or 0, 1, 2, or 3 ppm (Experiment 2) of propylthiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, in drinking water from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PN) 21. Treatment with PTU caused dose-related reductions of serum T4, with recovery on termination of exposure, and euthyroidism by the time of visual function testing. Tests of retinal (electroretinograms; ERGs) and visual cortex (visual evoked potentials; VEPs) function were assessed in adult offspring. Dark-adapted ERG a-waves, reflecting rod photoreceptors, were increased in amplitude by PTU. Light-adapted green flicker ERGs, reflecting M-cone photoreceptors, were reduced by PTU exposure. UV-flicker ERGs, reflecting S-cones, were not altered. Pattern-elicited VEPs were significantly reduced by 2 and 3 ppm PTU across a range of stimulus contrast values. The slope of VEP amplitude-log contrast functions was reduced by PTU, suggesting impaired visual contrast gain. Visual contrast gain primarily reflects function of visual cortex, and is responsible for adjusting sensitivity of perceptual mechanisms in response to changing visual scenes. The results indicate that moderate levels of pre-and post-natal TH insufficiency led to alterations in visual function of adult rats, including both retinal and visual cortex sites of dysfunction. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Disentangling depression and anxiety in relation to neuroticism, extraversion, suicide, and self-harm among adult psychiatric inpatients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Allen, Jon G; Frueh, B Christopher; Elhai, Jon D; Fowler, J Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about depression-anxiety comorbidity and its association with personality traits and suicide/self-harm in adult psychiatric inpatients with serious mental illness (SMI), impacting clinical assessment and treatment. This study sought to determine the symptom structure of depression-anxiety comorbidity and its relation to neuroticism, extraversion, and suicide/self-harm behaviour in this high-risk population. Nine hundred and sixty-two adults receiving inpatient care at a private psychiatric hospital completed questionnaires at admission. Confirmatory factor analyses compared a bifactor solution specifying a general distress factor and two specific depression and anxiety factors against unidimensional and correlated factors solutions. The bifactor solutions' factors were subsequently correlated with neuroticism and extraversion subscales and pre-hospitalization suicide/self-harm behaviours. The bifactor model rendered superior fit to sample data and a robust general factor - accounting for 77.61% of common item variance - providing the first evidence for a tripartite structure of depression and anxiety among adult inpatients. The bifactor solution-outputted independent general distress, depression, and anxiety factors positively correlated with neuroticism, the personality dimension corresponding to trait negative affectivity. The general distress and depression factors associated with recent self-harm, but factors showed no associations with prior suicidal behaviour. In adult psychiatric inpatients, general distress substantially underlies comorbid depression and anxiety symptom variation and may contribute to recent incidence of self-harm. Transdiagnostic assessments and interventions targeting general distress may temper depression, anxiety, and self-harm in adult inpatients. Clinical implications Depression-anxiety comorbidity symptomology in adult psychiatric inpatients is primarily composed of general distress. General distress and specific

  13. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta alters anxiety-, depression-, and addiction-related behaviors and neuronal activity in the nucleus accumbens shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Nenov, Miroslav N.; Zhang, Yafang; Scala, Federico; Page, Sean A.; McCue, David L.; Li, Dingge; Hommel, Jonathan D.; Laezza, Fernanda; Green, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and addiction are often comorbid brain pathologies thought to share common mechanistic biology. As part of the cortico-limbic circuit, the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) plays a fundamental role in integrating information in the circuit, such that modulation of NAcSh circuitry alters anxiety, depression, and addiction-related behaviors. Intracellular kinase cascades in the NAcSh have proven important mediators of behavior. To investigate glycogen-synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) beta signaling in the NAcSh in vivo we knocked down GSK3beta expression with a novel adeno-associated viral vector (AAV2) and assessed changes in anxiety- and depression-like behavior and cocaine self-administration in GSK3beta knockdown rats. GSK3beta knockdown reduced anxiety-like behavior while increasing depression-like behavior and cocaine self-administration. Correlative electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices were used to assess the effect of AAV-shGSK3beta on spontaneous firing and intrinsic excitability of tonically active interneurons (TANs), cells required for input and output signal integration in the NAcSh and for processing reward-related behaviors. Loose-patch recordings showed that TANs transduced by AAV-shGSK3beta exhibited reduction in tonic firing and increased spike half width. When assessed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings these changes were mirrored by reduction in action potential firing and accompanied by decreased hyperpolarization-induced depolarizing sag potentials, increased action potential current threshold, and decreased maximum rise time. These results suggest that silencing of GSK3beta in the NAcSh increases depression- and addiction-related behavior, possibly by decreasing intrinsic excitability of TANs. However, this study does not rule out contributions from other neuronal sub-types. PMID:28126496

  14. GABAERGIC ALTERATIONS IN NEOCORTEX OF PATIENTS WITH PHARMACORESISTANT TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY CAN EXPLAIN THE COMORBIDITY OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION: THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLINICAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Lilia Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Temporal neocortex contributes to either seizure propagation or generation in TLE, a situation that has been associated with alterations of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA system. On the other hand, an impaired neurotransmission mediated by GABA in temporal neocortex has also been involved with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. In spite of these situations, the role of the necortical GABA system in the comorbidity of TLE and mood disorders has not been investigated. The present study was designed to identify alterations in the GABA system such as: binding to GABAA and GABAB receptors and benzodiazepine site, the tissue content of GABA and the expression of the mRNA encoding the α1-6, β1-3 and γ GABAA subunits, in the temporal neocortex of surgically treated patients with TLE with and without anxiety and/or depression. Neocortex of patients with TLE and comorbid anxiety and/or depression showed increased expression of the mRNA encoding the γ2-subunit, reduced GABAB-induced G protein activation in spite of elevated GABAB binding, and lower tissue content of GABA when compared to autopsy controls. Some of these changes significantly correlated with seizure frequency and duration of epilepsy. The results obtained suggest a dysfunction of the GABAergic neurotransmission in temporal neocortex of patients with TLE and comorbid anxiety and/or depression that could be also influenced by clinical factors such as seizure frequency and duration of illness.

  15. "I love you more than I can stand!" - romantic love, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and sleep complaints are related among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoghli, Hafez; Keshavarzi, Zahra; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Schmidt, Norman B; Norton, Peter J; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-08-01

    Falling in love is a universal human behavior. Studies indicate that both adolescents and adults experience romantic love (RL) and emotional states of joy and happiness. However, there is evidence that among adolescents RL is also associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, but no data on these associations are available for adults. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore the associations between RL, symptoms of depression, anxiety, hypomania, and sleep among a sample of Iranian adults. One hundred adults (mean age: 26 years; 53% males) took part in the study. They completed a series of questionnaires related to RL, symptoms of depression, anxiety, hypomania, and sleep. An increased state of RL was associated with the bright side of hypomania, stronger symptoms of depression and state anxiety, and better sleep quality. There was no relation to sleep duration. Unlike psychobiological studies assessing highly selected samples of adults happily in love, the present pattern of results shows that in adults, RL is not entirely a joyful and happy period of life. Rather, data suggest that for young adults, falling in love might be a critical life event also associated with uncertainty and unpleasant feelings.

  16. The nature of self-esteem and its relationship to anxiety and depression in adult acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Catherine; Deakins, Joseph; Rose, David; Gracey, Fergus

    2016-08-31

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) has a negative impact on self-esteem, which is in turn associated with mood disorders, maladaptive coping and reduced community participation. The aim of the current research was to explore self-esteem as a multi-dimensional construct and identify which factors are associated with symptoms of anxiety or depression. Eighty adults with ABI aged 17-56 years completed the Robson Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), of whom 65 also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; 57.5% of the sample had clinically low self-esteem. The RSES had good internal consistency (α =   .89), and factor analysis identified four factors, which differed from those found previously in other populations. Multiple regression analysis revealed anxiety was differentially predicted by "Self-Worth" and "Self-Efficacy", R 2  =   .44, F(4, 58) =   9, p Self-Regard", R 2  =   .38, F(4, 58) =   9, p self-esteem after ABI. Self-esteem after ABI is multidimensional and differs in structure from self-esteem in the general population. A multidimensional model of self-esteem may be helpful in development of transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural accounts of adjustment.

  17. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  18. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  19. Anxiety and depression in adults in their eighties: do gender differences remain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachana, Nancy A; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Leung, Janni; Byrne, Gerard; Dobson, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Women report higher rates of depression and anxiety than men; however, it is uncertain whether this gender difference continues into advanced old age. 78 men and 111 women aged 82-87 years from the Men, Women and Ageing Project completed measures of anxiety (Geriatric Anxiety Inventory), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ9), general psychological well-being (Mental Health subscale of SF-36), general health (general health item of SF-36) and cognitive status (Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status; TICS). Results revealed no significant gender differences on any of the psychological measures, after controlling for cognitive status, general health and education. These results support the proposition that the female predominance in psychological distress diminishes with increasing age. The congruence between men and women may reflect changes in identity associated with age or the effect of decreased emotional valence of some social roles.

  20. Association of neighborhood greenness with self-perceived stress, depression and anxiety symptoms in older U.S adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Vivian C; Manjourides, Justin; Suh, Helen H

    2018-04-16

    Neighborhood environment, such as green vegetation, has been shown to play a role in coping with stress and mental ill health. Yet, epidemiological evidence of the association between greenness and mental health is inconsistent. We examined whether living in green space is associated with self-perceived stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms in a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 4118; aged 57-85 years) in the United States. We evaluated perceived stress, depression and anxiety symptoms using the Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - anxiety subscale, respectively. Greenness was assessed for each participant using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index at 250-m resolution, as well as a buffer of 1000-m. We conducted longitudinal analyses to assess the associations between greenness and mental health upon adjusting for confounders (e.g., education), and to examine potential mediation and effect modification. An interquartile range (0.25 point) increase in contemporaneous greenness was significantly associated with 0.238 unit (95% CI: - 0.346, - 0.130) and 0.162 unit (95% CI: - 0.271, - 0.054) decrease in the perceived stress in base and multivariable models, respectively. The magnitude of the association was similar or even stronger when examining summer (- 0.161; 95% CI: - 0.295, - 0.027) and annual average of greenness (- 0.188; 95% CI: - 0.337, - 0.038), as well as greenness buffer of 1000-m. The greenness-stress association was partially mediated by physical activity (15.1% mediated), where increased greenness led to increased physical activity and less stress, and by history of respiratory diseases (- 3.8% mediated), where increased greenness led to increased respiratory disease and more stress. The association was also significantly modified by race, social support, physical function

  1. Sex-dependent alterations in motor and anxiety-like behavior of aged bacterial peptidoglycan sensing molecule 2 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentsen, Tim; Khalid, Roksana; Qian, Yu; Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys

    2018-01-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are key sensing-molecules of the innate immune system that specifically detect bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and its derivates. PGRPs have recently emerged as potential key regulators of normal brain development and behavior. To test the hypothesis that PGRPs play a role in motor control and anxiety-like behavior in later life, we used 15-month old male and female peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 (Pglyrp2) knockout (KO) mice. Pglyrp2 is an N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase that hydrolyzes PGN between the sugar backbone and the peptide chain (which is unique among the mammalian PGRPs). Using a battery of behavioral tests, we demonstrate that Pglyrp2 KO male mice display decreased levels of anxiety-like behavior compared with wild type (WT) males. In contrast, Pglyrp2 KO female mice show reduced rearing activity and increased anxiety-like behavior compared to WT females. In the accelerated rotarod test, however, Pglyrp2 KO female mice performed better compared to WT females (i.e., they had longer latency to fall off the rotarod). Further, Pglyrp2 KO male mice exhibited decreased expression levels of synaptophysin, gephyrin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the frontal cortex, but not in the amygdala. Pglyrp2 KO female mice exhibited increased expression levels of spinophilin and alpha-synuclein in the frontal cortex, while exhibiting decreased expression levels of synaptophysin, gephyrin and spinophilin in the amygdala. Our findings suggest a novel role for Pglyrp2asa key regulator of motor and anxiety-like behavior in late life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Effect of Yoga on Stress, Anxiety and Depression among Turkish Adults: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrtash, Shabnam; Koçak, Settar; Hürmeriç Altunsöz, Irmak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it is investigated the psychological effects of yoga on adult’s mood such as stress, anxiety and depression. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) with 42 items (Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995) was used for collecting data in two times: Pre-test and Post-test. This scale administered in 95 subjects in Middle East Technical University in Ankara/Turkey.  For data analysis, SPSS version 21 and a paired sample T-test were used. The results indicated that there was a significant ...

  3. Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojnacka Katarzyna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43 and androgen receptor (AR expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80 and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90. Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p p p p Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43

  4. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  5. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Cristianne R M; Mason, Peggy; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Beeler, Jeff A

    2008-09-17

    The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  6. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration during neonatal brain development affects cognitive function and alters its analgesic and anxiolytic response in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Per; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders

    2014-03-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of pain and fever in children, both at home and in the clinic, and is now also found in the environment. Paracetamol is known to act on the endocannabinoid system, involved in normal development of the brain. We examined if neonatal paracetamol exposure could affect the development of the brain, manifested as adult behavior and cognitive deficits, as well as changes in the response to paracetamol. Ten-day-old mice were administered a single dose of paracetamol (30 mg/kg body weight) or repeated doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg/kg body weight, 4h apart). Concentrations of paracetamol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured in the neonatal brain, and behavioral testing was done when animals reached adulthood. This study shows that acute neonatal exposure to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) results in altered locomotor activity on exposure to a novel home cage arena and a failure to acquire spatial learning in adulthood, without affecting thermal nociceptive responding or anxiety-related behavior. However, mice neonatally exposed to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) fail to exhibit paracetamol-induced antinociceptive and anxiogenic-like behavior in adulthood. Behavioral alterations in adulthood may, in part, be due to paracetamol-induced changes in BDNF levels in key brain regions at a critical time during development. This indicates that exposure to and presence of paracetamol during a critical period of brain development can induce long-lasting effects on cognitive function and alter the adult response to paracetamol in mice.

  7. The Mediating Role of Romantic Desolation and Dating Anxiety in the Association Between Interpersonal Competence and Life Satisfaction Among Polish Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Segrin, Chris

    This study investigates the role of romantic desolation on life satisfaction in young adulthood. Using data from a Polish sample of 330 (205 females and 125 males) young adults aged 20-30, who completed Polish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Dating Anxiety Scale, Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire-Revised, and Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults-Short Form, romantic desolation (romantic loneliness and lack of a romantic partner) and dating anxiety were tested as mediators of the association between interpersonal competence and life satisfaction. Results revealed that single individuals reported lower life satisfaction and higher romantic loneliness than did partnered individuals. At the same time, no differences emerged between single and partnered individuals in dating anxiety or interpersonal competence. Structural equation modeling results showed that low interpersonal competence has an indirect effect on romantic desolation through higher levels of dating anxiety. Also, dating anxiety had an indirect effect on lower life satisfaction through increased romantic desolation. These results highlight the important role of dating anxiety and romantic desolation for explaining why low interpersonal competence is associated with diminished life satisfaction in young adults.

  8. A group music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music to reduce anxiety and agitation of institutionalized older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Huei-chuan; Lee, Wen-li; Li, Tzai-li; Watson, Roger

    2012-06-01

    This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of a group music intervention on anxiety and agitation of institutionalized older adults with dementia. A total of 60 participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. The experimental group received a 30-min music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music in a group setting in mid afternoon twice weekly for 6 weeks, whereas the control group received usual care with no music intervention. The Rating of Anxiety in Dementia scale was used to assess anxiety, and Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory was used to assess agitation at baseline, week 4 and week 6. Repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated that older adults who received a group music intervention had a significantly lower anxiety score than those in the control group while controlling for pre-test score and cognitive level (F = 8.98, p = 0.004). However, the reduction of agitation between two groups was not significantly different. Anxiety and agitation are common in older adults with dementia and have been reported by caregivers as challenging care problems. An innovative group music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music as a cost-effective approach has the potential to reduce anxiety and improve psychological well-being of those with dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [Diabetes type 1 in young adults: The relationship between psycho-social variables, glycemic control, depression and anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsdottir, Fjola Katrin; Halldorsdottir, Hildur; Gudmundsdottir, Arna; Arnardottir, Steinunn; Smari, Jakop; Arnarson, Eirikur Orn

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether psycho-social variables, for example social support and task- and emotion-oriented coping would predict psychological and physical well being among young adults with diabetes. Participants were 56 individuals in their twenties suffering from type 1 diabetes. Response rate was 78%. The participants came from the whole of Iceland, 64.3% from the Greater Reykjavík area and 33.9% from rural areas. One participant did not indicate his place of residence. Self-assessment scales were used to assess depression, anxiety, task-, avoidance- and emotion-oriented coping, social support and problems relating to diabetes. Additional information was obtained from patients' records concerning the results of blood glucose measurements (HbA1c). Good social support was related to less anxiety and depression and to less self-reported problems related to having diabetes. Emotion-oriented coping was related to not feeling well and task- oriented coping to feeling better. No relationship was found between psychosocial variables and blood glucose measurements and a limited relationship between self-reported problems related to having diabetes and these measurements. Social support and coping are strongly related to measurements of depression, anxiety and problems related to having diabetes in the present age group. The results indicate that it is very important to teach and strengthen usage, as possible, of task-oriented coping instead of emotion-oriented coping. The results also indicate that social support is highly important for young adults with diabetes type 1. It is clear that friends and family have to be more involved in the treatment and also more educated about the disease and the importance of giving the right kind of support.

  10. Effects of Early-Life Stress on Social and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Adult Mice: Sex-Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Bondar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful events in an early postnatal period have critical implications for the individual’s life and can increase later risk for psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of early-life stress on the social behavior of adult male and female mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to maternal separation (MS, 3 h once a day or handling (HD, 15 min once a day on postnatal day 2 through 14. Adult male and female mice were tested for social behavior in the social interaction test and for individual behavior in the plus-maze and open-field tests. Female mice exposed to maternal separation had increased social behavior and increased anxiety. MS male mice had no changes in social behavior but had significantly disrupted individual behavior, including locomotor and exploratory activity. Handling had positive effects on social behavior in males and females and decreased anxiety in males. Our results support the hypothesis that brief separation of pups from their mothers (handling, which can be considered as moderate stress, may result in future positive changes in behavior. Maternal separation has deleterious effects on individual behavior and significant sex-specific effects on social behavior.

  11. Adult dental anxiety and related dentist beliefs in Danish private practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.

    1997-01-01

    anxiety problem to be primarily the fault of the patients' own personality, 40% blamed the problem on previous dentists and 10% pointed to a relationship problem between dentists and patients. The dentists expressed confidence about treating anxious patients, but also a need for more education about...

  12. Concurrent associations between anxiety sensitivity and perceived health and health disability among young adult daily smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLeish, A.C.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity (fear of arousal-related physical and psychological sensations) relative to health factors (smoking variables, alcohol use and exercise level), in predicting perceived health and disability among a sample

  13. Effects of Comorbid ADHD with Learning Disabilities on Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Baker, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and learning disabilities (LD) frequently coexist and there are indications that comorbidity may increase the risk of psychopathology. Method: The current study examined the gender distribution and frequency of comorbidity and its impact on the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and aggression in a clinic sample of 80…

  14. A Study of Perceptions of Math Mindset, Math Anxiety, and View of Math by Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocker, Tami

    2017-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine whether instruction in growth math mindset led to change in perceptions of 18-22-year-old at-risk students in math mindset, math anxiety, and view of math. The experimental curriculum was created by the researcher with the guidance of experts in mathematics and education and focused on the impact of brain…

  15. Predictors of dental avoidance among Australian adults with different levels of dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armfield, J.M.; Ketting, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It has been proposed that avoidance of dental visits might be the main determinant of poor oral health outcomes in people with high dental anxiety (HDA). This study aimed to determine the predictors of dental avoidance among people with HDA and also whether these predictors differed from

  16. Interhemispheric Interaction and ADHD, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Non-clinical Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh; Borger, Norbert; Geuze, Reint; van der Meere, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that ADHD, depression, anxiety and stress are related to impaired interhemispheric communication and anomalies in the right hemisphere functioning. The current study aimed to investigate whether interhemispheric interaction (IHI) is related to ADHD and mood disorders in a

  17. Anxiety sensitivity uniquely predicts exercise behaviors in young adults seeking to increase physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshier, S.J.; Szuhany, K.L.; Hearon, B.A.; Smits, J.A.J.; Otto, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS) may be motivated to avoid aversive emotional or physical states, and therefore may have greater difficulty achieving healthy behavioral change. This may be particularly true for exercise, which produces many of the somatic sensations

  18. Long-term Consequences of Childhood Bullying in Adults who Stutter: Social Anxiety, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Self-esteem, and Satisfaction with Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W; Blood, Ingrid M

    2016-12-01

    Psychosocial disorders have been reported in adults who stutter, especially social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety has been linked to childhood victimization. It is possible that recalled childhood victimization could be linked to psychosocial problems reported in some adults who stutter. Participants were 36 adults who stutter and 36 adults who do not stutter (mean age=21.9 years). The Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire was completed for primary school, secondary school and university environments for physical, verbal, relational and cyber bullying. Participants were categorized into one of five groups (bully, victim, bully-victim, bystander and uninvolved) based ontheir responses. Participants completed four psychosocial scales: social interaction anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, self-esteem and satisfaction with life scales. The two groups differed with adults who stutter having higher social interaction anxiety, fear of negative evaluation and satisfaction with life. Analyses of variance revealed that victims had the highest scores among both groups on all four scales. Adults who recalled being victimized during childhood were more likely, regardless of whether they stutter or did not stutter, to have poorer psychosocial scale scores. These results show the lingering effects of childhood victimization, common in some children who stutter, may contribute to the reported psychosocial problems in adulthood. The need for early intervention for children who are bullied and future research with larger samples is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationships of Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Performance of Adult Basic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Beverly Kinsey

    2011-01-01

    Competent mathematical skills are needed in the workplace as well as in the college setting. Adults in Adult Basic Education classes and programs generally perform below high school level competency, but very few studies have been performed investigating the predictors of mathematical success for adults. The current study contributes to the…

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Suicide Ideation: Moderating Roles of Anxiety Symptoms and Ethnic Identity among Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheref, Soumia; Talavera, David; Walker, Rheeda L

    2018-05-03

    Suicide is a leading cause of death for vulnerable ethnic minority emerging adults in the United States (Web-based injury statistics query and reporting system [WISQARS], 2015). Perceived discrimination (Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 2011, 1465) and anxiety symptoms (Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1, 2010, 18) are two predictors that are theoretically and conceptually related, but have yet to be examined in a simultaneous model for suicide ideation. Existing theory and research suggest that these variables activate similar pathways (American Behavioral Scientist, 51, 2007, 551). This study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the simultaneous relationship between perceived discrimination and anxiety symptoms as predictors of suicide ideation. The moderating effect of anxiety symptoms on the relationship between perceived discrimination and suicide ideation was examined in a multiethnic sample of emerging adults. Results indicated that anxiety symptoms moderated the perceived discrimination-suicide ideation relationship for Hispanic emerging adults, but not for their Asian American and African American counterparts. Furthermore, ethnic identity has been shown to mitigate suicide risk in the face of other stressors (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 2008, 75). Ethnic identity emerged as a protective factor for Hispanic emerging adults by further interacting with perceived discrimination and anxiety symptoms to negatively predict suicide ideation. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  1. MEK Inhibitors Reverse cAMP-Mediated Anxiety in Zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Pia R.; Anastasaki, Corina; Grant, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    Altered phosphodiesterase (PDE)-cyclic AMP (cAMP) activity is frequently associated with anxiety disorders, but current therapies act by reducing neuronal excitability rather than targeting PDE-cAMP-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we report the novel repositioning of anti-cancer MEK inhibitors...... as anxiolytics in a zebrafish model of anxiety-like behaviors. PDE inhibitors or activators of adenylate cyclase cause behaviors consistent with anxiety in larvae and adult zebrafish. Small-molecule screening identifies MEK inhibitors as potent suppressors of cAMP anxiety behaviors in both larvae and adult...... zebrafish, while causing no anxiolytic behavioral effects on their own. The mechanism underlying cAMP-induced anxiety is via crosstalk to activation of the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. We propose that targeting crosstalk signaling pathways can be an effective strategy for mental health disorders, and advance...

  2. Adults with initial metabolic syndrome have altered muscle deoxygenation during incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alessandro da Costa; Barbosa, Thales Coelho; Kluser Sales, Allan Robson; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Silva, Bruno Moreira

    2017-02-01

    Reduced aerobic power is independently associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) incidence and prevalence in adults. This study investigated whether muscle deoxygenation (proxy of microvascular O 2 extraction) during incremental exercise is altered in MetS and associated with reduced oxygen consumption ( V˙O 2peak ). Twelve men with initial MetS (no overt diseases and medication-naive; mean ± SD, age 38 ± 7 years) and 12 healthy controls (HCs) (34 ± 7 years) completed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion, in which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange (metabolic analyzer), as well as vastus lateralis deoxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy), were measured. Subjects with MetS, in contrast to HCs, showed lower V˙O 2peak normalized to total lean mass, similar V˙O 2 response to exercise, and earlier break point (BP) in muscle deoxygenation. Consequently, deoxygenation slope from BP to peak exercise was greater. Furthermore, absolute V˙O 2peak was positively associated with BP in correlations adjusted for total lean mass. MetS, without overt diseases, altered kinetics of muscle deoxygenation during incremental exercise, particularly at high-intensity exercise. Therefore, the balance between utilization and delivery of O 2 within skeletal muscle is impaired early in MetS natural history, which may contribute to the reduction in aerobic power. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  3. Enteral tube feeding alters the oral indigenous microbiota in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Toru; Yasui, Masaki; Tomioka, Mikiko; Nakano, Yoshio; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2011-10-01

    Enteral tube feeding is widely used to maintain nutrition for elderly adults with eating difficulties, but its long-term use alters the environment of the oral ecosystem. This study characterized the tongue microbiota of tube-fed elderly adults by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of 44 tube-fed subjects were compared with those of 54 subjects fed orally (average age, 86.4 ± 6.9 years). Bar-coded pyrosequencing data were also obtained for a subset of the subjects from each group (15 tube-fed subjects and 16 subjects fed orally). The T-RFLP profiles demonstrated that the microbiota of the tube-fed subjects was distinct from that of the subjects fed orally (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [perMANOVA], P < 0.001). The pyrosequencing data revealed that 22 bacterial genera, including Corynebacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Fusobacterium, were significantly more predominant in tube-fed subjects, whereas the dominant genera in the subjects fed orally, such as Streptococcus and Veillonella, were present in much lower proportions. Opportunistic pathogens rarely detected in the normal oral microbiota, such as Corynebacterium striatum and Streptococcus agalactiae, were often found in high proportions in tube-fed subjects. The oral indigenous microbiota is disrupted by the use of enteral feeding, allowing health-threatening bacteria to thrive.

  4. Effect of altered thyroid state on the in situ mechanical properties of adult cat soleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Hodgson, J. A.; Grossman, E. J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the responsiveness of cat hindlimb muscles to thyroid manipulation, adult female cats were made hypothyroid (thyroidectomy plus tapazole treatment), hyperthyroid (synthroid pellets), or maintained euthyroid. After 4 months, the hypothyroid soleus had slower time-to-peak (TPT, 80%) and half-relaxation (HRT) times, whereas the hyperthyroid soleus had faster TPT (20%) and HRT than euthyroid cats. The tension at low stimulation frequencies (5-15 Hz) was higher in hypothyroid and lower in hyperthyroid cats compared to euthyroid cats. Muscle weight, maximum twitch and tetanic (Po) tensions, and maximum rates of shortening (Vmax) were similar across groups. The soleus of hypothyroid cats was more fatigable than normal. The myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition, based on gel electrophoresis, was unaffected by thyroid hormone manipulation. Based on the reaction of monoclonal antibodies for specific MHCs, some fast fibers in the hypothyroid cats coexpressed developmental MHC. These data indicate that 4 months of an altered thyroid state result in changes in the isometric twitch speed properties of the cat soleus, but not the tension-related or isotonic properties. Further, a chronic decrease in thyroid hormone had a greater impact than a chronic increase in thyroid hormone on the mechanical properties of the adult cat soleus. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Neuropeptide s alters anxiety but not depression-like behaviors in the flinders sensitive line rats, a genetic animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, A.; Wegener, Gregers; Finger, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) have been implicated in the mediation of anxiolytic-like behavior in rodents. However, little knowledge is available to what extent the NPS system is involved in depression-related behaviors. The aim of the present work was to characterize...... the effects of centrally administered NPS on depression- and anxiety-related behaviors, using a well validated animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats and their controls the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). Methods: Male and female were tested. Seven days following insertion....... In selected animals effect of NPS on home cage activity was explored. Finally, brains from separate groups of naive animals were harvested; hippocampi, amygdalae and PVN punched out, and mRNA transcripts measured with the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (rt-qPCR). Results: The most salient...

  6. Monosodium glutamate-associated alterations in open field, anxiety-related and conditioned place preference behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Aremu, Olaleye Samuel; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in behaviour associated with oral monosodium glutamate (a flavouring agent), using the open field, elevated plus maze and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms, respectively. Mice were assigned to two groups for CPP [monosodium glutamate (MSG)-naïve (n = 40) and MSG-pretreated (n = 40)] and two groups for open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests [n = 40 each], respectively. Animals in respective groups were then divided into four subgroups (n = 10) (vehicle or MSG (80, 160 and 320 mg/kg)). MSG-naïve mice were observed in the CPP box in three phases (pre-conditioning, conditioning and post-conditioning). Mice were conditioned to MSG or an equivalent volume of saline. The MSG pretreatment group received vehicle or respective doses of MSG daily for 21 days, prior to conditioning. Mice in the OF or EPM groups received vehicle or doses of MSG (orally) for 21 days, at 10 ml/kg. Open field or EPM behaviours were assessed on days 1 and 21. At the end of the experiments, mice in the OF groups were sacrificed and brain homogenates used to assay glutamate and glutamine. Results showed that administration of MSG was associated with a decrease in rearing, dose-related mixed horizontal locomotor, grooming and anxiety-related response and an increase in brain glutamate/glutamine levels. Following exposure to the CPP paradigm, MSG-naïve and MSG-pretreated mice both showed 'drug-paired' chamber preference. The study concluded that MSG (at the administered doses) was associated with changes in open field activities, anxiety-related behaviours and brain glutamate/glutamine levels; its ingestion also probably leads to a stimulation of the brain reward system.

  7. The long-term impact of early life pain on adult responses to anxiety and stress: Historical perspectives and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Nicole C; Murphy, Anne Z

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10-18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of anxiety sensitivity in the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and negative outcomes in trauma-exposed adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Brittany B; Phares, Vicky; Salloum, Alison; Storch, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    The development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSs) following a trauma is related to impairment, diminished quality of life, and physical health issues. Yet it is not clear why some trauma-exposed individuals experience negative outcomes while others do not. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of several influential factors related to PTS severity and negative outcomes. One hundred and twenty-two trauma-exposed adults were administered the following self-report measures: the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, the Trauma History Questionnaire-Short, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale 21, Sheehan Disability Scale, World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF, and an abbreviated Patient Health Questionnaire. PTS severity was positively correlated with depressive symptom severity (r = 0.54, p effects were found for PTS severity (β = -0.38, p life. No interaction was found between PTS severity and AS with any negative outcome. PTS severity mediated the relationship between AS and physical health issues (0.05; 95% CI: 0.02-0.08). This study helps clarify the role of various factors in the relationship between trauma and negative outcomes. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  9. Pathways involving traumatic losses, worry about family, adult separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms amongst refugees from West Papua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-10-01

    There is some evidence that adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) symptoms are closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst refugees exposed to traumatic events (TEs), but the pathways involved remain to be elucidated. A recent study suggests that separation anxiety disorder precedes and predicts onset of PTSD. We examined a path model testing whether ASAD symptoms and worry about family mediated the path from traumatic losses to PTSD symptoms amongst 230 refugees from West Papua. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess TE exposure and symptoms of ASAD and PTSD. A structural equation model indicated that ASAD symptoms played an important role in mediating the effects of traumatic losses and worry about family in the pathway to PTSD symptoms. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings suggest that ASAD symptoms may play a role in the path from traumatic losses to PTSD amongst refugees. We propose an evolutionary model in which the ASAD and PTSD reactions represent complementary survival responses designed to protect the individual and close attachments from external threats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hericium erinaceus Extract Reduces Anxiety and Depressive Behaviors by Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun; Kim, Hyoun Geun; Kim, Joo Youn; Kim, Seong Yun; Cho, Kyung-Ok

    2018-02-01

    Versatile biological activities of Hericium erinaceus (HE) have been reported in many brain diseases. However, roles of HE in major psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety remain to be investigated. Therefore, we evaluated whether HE could reduce anxiety and depressive behaviors in the adult mouse and its underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered HE (20 or 60 mg/kg, p.o.) or saline once a day for 4 weeks. Open field and tail suspension tests were performed 30 min after the last administration of HE, followed by forced swim test 2 days later. We found that chronic administration of HE showed anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. To elucidate possible mechanisms, proliferative activity of the hippocampal progenitor cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67. Moreover, to evaluate neuronal survival in the dentate gyrus, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (120 mg/kg, i.p.) was given at the first day of HE administration, followed by isolation of the brains 4 weeks later. HE (60 mg/kg) increased the number of PCNA- and Ki67-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, indicating increased proliferation of hippocampal progenitors. In addition, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly increased when treated with HE (60 mg/kg) compared with the saline-treated group, demonstrating enhanced neurogenesis by HE treatment. Taken together, the results indicate that chronic HE administration can exert anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects, possibly by enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  11. Sixteen-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Confirmatory factor analytic evidence, internal consistency, and construct validity in a young adult sample from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420)from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively

  12. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Therapy on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Adult Cancer Patients and Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet, Jacob; Wurtzen, Hanne; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) in oncology settings has become increasingly popular, and research in the field has rapidly expanded. The objective was by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the current evidence for the effect of MBT on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and…

  13. Economic evaluation of stepped-care versus usual care for depression and anxiety in older adults with vision impairment : randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Hilde P A; van Rens, Ger H M B; Bosmans, Judith E; Comijs, Hannie C; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A stepped-care program was found effective in preventing depressive and anxiety disorders in older adults with vision impairment. However, before a decision can be made about implementation, the cost-effectiveness of this program should be investigated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the

  14. Anxiety and Depression during Transition from Hospital to Community in Older Adults: Concepts of a Study to Explain Late Age Onset Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn F. Lalor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition between extended hospitalization and discharge home to community-living contexts for older adults is a critical time period. This transition can have an impact on the health outcomes of older adults such as increasing the risk for health outcomes like falls, functional decline and depression and anxiety. The aim of this work is to identify and understand why older adults experience symptoms of depression and anxiety post-discharge and what factors are associated with this. This is a mixed methods study of adults aged 65 years and over who experienced a period of hospitalization longer than two weeks and return to community-living post-discharge. Participants will complete a questionnaire at baseline and additional monthly follow-up questionnaires for six months. Anxiety and depression and their resulting behaviors are major public health concerns and are significant determinants of health and wellbeing among the ageing population. There is a critical need for research into the impact of an extended period of hospitalization on the health status of older adults post-discharge from hospital. This research will provide evidence that will inform interventions and services provided for older adults after they have been discharged home from hospital care.

  15. Running wheel training does not change neurogenesis levels or alter working memory tasks in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. Acevedo-Triana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Exercise can change cellular structure and connectivity (neurogenesis or synaptogenesis, causing alterations in both behavior and working memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male Wistar rats using a T-maze test. Methods An experimental design with two groups was developed: the experimental group (n = 12 was subject to a forced exercise program for five days, whereas the control group (n = 9 stayed in the home cage. Six to eight weeks after training, the rats’ working memory was evaluated in a T-maze test and four choice days were analyzed, taking into account alternation as a working memory indicator. Hippocampal neurogenesis was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry of BrdU positive cells. Results No differences between groups were found in the behavioral variables (alternation, preference index, time of response, time of trial or feeding, or in the levels of BrdU positive cells. Discussion Results suggest that although exercise may have effects on brain structure, a construct such as working memory may require more complex changes in networks or connections to demonstrate a change at behavioral level.

  16. Environmental estrogen(s) induced swimming behavioural alterations in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goundadkar, Basavaraj B; Katti, Pancharatna

    2017-09-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of long-term (75days) exposure to environmental estrogens (EE) on the swimming behaviour of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Adult zebrafish were exposed semi-statically to media containing commonly detected estrogenic water contaminants (EE2, DES and BPA) at a concentration (5ng/L) much lower than environmentally recorded levels. Time spent in swimming, surface preference, patterns and path of swimming were recorded (6mins) for each fish using two video cameras on day 15, 30 60 and 75. Video clips were analysed using a software program. Results indicate that chronic exposure to EE leads to increased body weight and size of females, reduced (Pswimming time, delay in latency, increased (P<0.05) immobility, erratic movements and freezing episodes. We conclude that estrogenic contamination of natural aquatic systems induces alterations in locomotor behaviour and associated physiological disturbances in inhabitant fish fauna. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal high fat diet alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial catalytic activity in adult male rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Anne Pileggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A maternal high-fat (HF diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS respiratory complex subunits were supressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%, which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%. Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.

  18. Phencyclidine administration during neurodevelopment alters network activity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Hovelsø, Nanna; Dalby, Nils Ole; Sotty, Florence

    2017-08-01

    Symptoms of schizophrenia have been linked to insults during neurodevelopment such as NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist exposure. In animal models, this leads to schizophrenia-like behavioral symptoms as well as molecular and functional changes within hippocampal and prefrontal regions. The aim of this study was to determine how administration of the NMDAR antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) during neurodevelopment affects functional network activity within the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We recorded field potentials in vivo after electrical brain stem stimulation and observed a suppression of evoked theta power in ventral hippocampus, while evoked gamma power in mPFC was enhanced in rats administered with PCP neonatally. In addition, increased gamma synchrony elicited by acute administration of the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 was exaggerated in neonatal PCP animals. These data suggest that NMDAR antagonist exposure during brain development alters functional networks within hippocampus and mPFC possibly contributing to the reported behavioral symptoms of this animal model of schizophrenia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that insults with a NMDA receptor antagonist during neurodevelopment lead to suppressed evoked theta oscillations in ventral hippocampus in adult rats, while evoked gamma oscillations are enhanced and hypersensitive to an acute challenge with a NMDA receptor antagonist in prefrontal cortex. These observations reveal the significance of neurodevelopmental disturbances in the evolvement of schizophrenia-like symptoms and contribute to the understanding of the functional deficits underlying aberrant behavior in this disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Impact of low-dose chronic exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on adult male zebrafish adaption to the environmental complexity: Disturbing the color preference patterns and reliving the anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Li, Xu; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Dai, Liang-Ti; Liu, Xing-Yu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2017-11-01

    The extensive usage of xenobiotic endocrine disrupting chemicals (XEDCs), such as Bisphenol A (BPA), has created obvious threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Although a comprehensive understanding of the adverse effect of BPA on behaviors and physiology have been proven, the potential impact of low-dose BPA on altering the basic ability of aquatic organism in adapting to the surrounded complex environment still remains elusive. In this research, we report that treatment of adult male zebrafish with chronic (7 weeks) low-dose (0.22 nM-2.2 nM) BPA, altered the ability in adapting the complex environment by disturbing the natural color preference patterns. In addition, chronic 50 ng/L (0.22 nM) BPA exposure alleviated the anxiety behavior of male zebrafish confronted with the novel environment by enhancing the preference towards light in the light/dark preference test. This phenotype was associated with less expression of serotonin (5-TH) in the hypothalamus and the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in brain tissues. As such, our results show that low-dose BPA remnant in surface waters altered zebrafish behavior that are known to have ecological and evolutionary consequences. Here we reported that the impact of chronic low-dose BPA exposure on the basic capability of zebrafish to adapt to the environmental complexity. Specifically, BPA at low concentration, under the environmental safety level and 3000-fold lower than the accepted human daily exposure, interfered with the ability to discriminate color and alleviate anxiety induced by the novel environment, which finally altered the capability of male zebrafish to adapt to the environmental complexity. These findings revealed the ecological effect of low-dose BPA and regular BPA concentration standard are not necessarily safe. The result also provided the consideration of retuning the hazard concentration level of BPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Is CBT equally efficacious in adults of working age and older adults?

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    Kishita, Naoko; Laidlaw, Ken

    2017-03-01

    The current meta-analysis compared the efficacy of CBT for GAD between adults of working age and older people. In addition, we conducted a qualitative content analysis of treatment protocols used in studies with older clients to explore potential factors that may enhance treatment outcomes with this particular client group. Applying the inclusion criteria resulted in the identification of 15 studies with 22 comparisons between CBT and control groups (770 patients). When examining overall effect sizes for CBT for GAD between older people and adults of working age there were no statistically significant differences in outcome. However, overall effect size of CBT for GAD was moderate for older people (g=0.55, 95% CI 0.22-0.88) and large for adults of working age (g=0.94, 95% CI 0.52-1.36), suggesting that there is still room for improvement in CBT with older people. The main difference in outcome between CBT for GAD between the two age groups was related to methodological quality in that no older people studies used an intention-to-treat design. The content analysis demonstrated that studies with older clients were conducted according to robust CBT protocols but did not take account of gerontological evidence to make them more age-appropriate. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening instruments for a population of older adults: The 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Chudzinski, Veronica; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Préville, Michel

    2015-07-30

    Screening tools that appropriately detect older adults' mental disorders are of great public health importance. The present study aimed to establish cutoff scores for the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scales when screening for depression and anxiety. We used data from participants (n = 1811) in the Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés-Service study. Depression and anxiety were measured using DSM-V and DSM-IV criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis provided an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.767 and 0.833 for minor and for major depression when using K10. A cutoff of 19 was found to balance sensitivity (0.794) and specificity (0.664) for minor depression, whereas a cutoff of 23 was found to balance sensitivity (0.692) and specificity (0.811) for major depression. When screening for an anxiety with GAD-7, ROC analysis yielded an AUC of 0.695; a cutoff of 5 was found to balance sensitivity (0.709) and specificity (0.568). No significant differences were found between subgroups of age and gender. Both K10 and GAD-7 were able to discriminate between cases and non-cases when screening for depression and anxiety in an older adult population of primary care service users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flourishing or floundering? Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression among a population-based sample of adult cancer survivors 6months after diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Allison W; Girgis, Afaf; D'Este, Catherine; Zucca, Alison C

    2011-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of anxiety, depression and comorbid anxiety-depression among adult cancer survivors six months following diagnosis, and identify the individual, disease, health behaviour, psychological and social factors associated with psychological morbidity. A population-based sample of adult cancer survivors was recruited from two state-based cancer registries in Australia. Data for 1323 survivors were obtained by self-report questionnaire and linkage with registry data. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 28% (95% CI: 23%-33%). Specifically, 24% (95% CI: 19%-29%) of survivors were identified as cases on anxiety (irrespective of depression), 14% (95% CI: 9%-19%) as cases on depression (irrespective of anxiety) and 10% (95% CI: 5%-15%) as cases on comorbid anxiety-depression. In addition to mental health history prior to cancer, modifiable health behaviours (physical activity, smoking status), psychological (helplessness-hopelessness, anxious preoccupation coping) and social (low positive social interaction) characteristics were stronger indicators of psychological morbidity than survivors' individual or disease characteristics. Psychological morbidity was assessed by self-report screening instrument rather than clinical interview. The extent to which psychological morbidity is age-related versus cancer-related cannot be determined without a gender- and age-matched control group. Although lower than previously reported, psychological morbidity is prevalent six months after a cancer diagnosis and emphasises the need for routine psychosocial assessment throughout the cancer trajectory to identify those at increased risk or in need of immediate intervention. Physical activity, smoking cessation and coping skills training interventions warrant further exploration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Depression or anxiety and all-cause mortality in adults with atrial fibrillation--A cohort study in Swedish primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C; Gasevic, Danijela; Wahlström, Lars; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study depression and anxiety in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients as risk factors for all-cause mortality in a primary care setting. The study population included adults (n = 12 283) of 45 years and older diagnosed with AF in 75 primary care centres in Sweden. The association between depression or anxiety and all-cause mortality was explored using Cox regression analysis, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Analyses were conducted in men and women, adjusted for age, educational level, marital status, neighborhood socio-economic status (SES), change of neighborhood status and anxiety or depression, respectively, and cardiovascular co-morbidities. As a secondary analysis, background factors and their association with depression or anxiety were explored. The risk of all-cause mortality was higher among men with depression compared to their counterparts without depression even after full adjustment (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.53). For anxiety among men and anxiety or depression among women with AF, no associations were found. Cerebrovascular disease was more common among depressed AF patients. Increased awareness of the higher mortality among men with AF and subsequent depression is called for. We suggest a tight follow-up and treatment of both ailments in clinical practice.

  4. GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence alters adult ethanol intake and preference in rats.

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    Hulin, Mary W; Amato, Russell J; Winsauer, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    To address the hypothesis that GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence may alter the abuse liability of ethanol during adulthood, the effects of adolescent administration of both a positive and negative GABA(A) receptor modulator on adult alcohol intake and preference were assessed. Three groups of adolescent male rats received 12 injections of lorazepam (3.2 mg/kg), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 56 mg/kg), or vehicle on alternate days starting on postnatal day (PD) 35. After this time, the doses were increased to 5.6 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 more injections on alternate days. Subjects had access to 25 to 30 g of food daily, during the period of the first 6 injections, and 18 to 20 g thereafter. Food intake of each group was measured 60 minutes after food presentation, which occurred immediately after drug administration on injection days or at the same time of day on noninjection days. When subjects reached adulthood (PD 88), ethanol preference was determined on 2 separate occasions, an initial 3-day period and a 12-day period, in which increasing concentrations of ethanol were presented. During each preference test, intake of water, saccharin, and an ethanol/saccharin solution was measured after each 23-hour access period. During adolescence, lorazepam increased 60-minute food intake, and this effect was enhanced under the more restrictive feeding schedule. DHEA had the opposite effect on injection days, decreasing food intake compared with noninjection days. In adulthood, the lorazepam-treated group preferred the 2 lowest concentrations of ethanol/saccharin more than saccharin alone compared with vehicle-treated subjects, which showed no preference for any concentration of ethanol/saccharin over saccharin. DHEA-treated subjects showed no preference among the 3 solutions. These data demonstrate that GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence can alter intake and preference for ethanol in adulthood and highlights the importance of drug history

  5. Treating anxiety and depression in young adults: A randomised controlled trial comparing clinician-guided versus self-guided Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Blake F; Fogliati, Vincent J; Fogliati, Rhiannon; Johnson, Bareena; Boyle, Olivia; Karin, Eyal; Gandy, Milena; Kayrouz, Rony; Staples, Lauren G; Titov, Nickolai

    2017-10-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy may increase access by young adults to evidence-based treatments for anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of an Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy intervention designed for adults aged 18-24 years, when delivered in clinician-guided versus self-guided formats. The intervention, the Mood Mechanic Course, is a transdiagnostic treatment that simultaneously targets symptoms of anxiety and depression using cognitive and behavioural skills. The brief intervention comprised four lessons, delivered over 5 weeks. Following a brief telephone interview, young adults ( n = 191) with symptoms of anxiety and depression were randomly allocated to either (1) clinician-guided treatment ( n = 96) or (2) self-guided treatment ( n = 95). At post treatment, large reductions (average improvement; clinician guided vs self-guided) were observed in symptoms of anxiety (44% vs 35%) and depression (40% vs 31%) in both groups. Significant improvements were also observed in general psychological distress (33% vs 29%), satisfaction with life (18% vs 15%) and disability (36% vs 29%). No marked or consistent differences in clinical outcomes emerged between conditions at post-treatment, at 3-month or 12-month follow-up. Satisfaction was high with both treatment formats, but slightly higher for clinician-guided treatment. These results indicate the potential of carefully developed Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy interventions for young adults with anxiety and depression provided in either self or therapist-guided format. Further large-scale research is required to determine the short- and long-term advantages and disadvantages of different models of support.

  6. Neonatal Whisker Trimming Impairs Fear/Anxiety-Related Emotional Systems of the Amygdala and Social Behaviors in Adult Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Soumiya

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation.

  7. Obese adults have visual attention bias for food cue images: evidence for altered reward system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, E H; Charboneau, E; Dietrich, M S; Park, S; Bradley, B P; Mogg, K; Cowan, R L

    2009-09-01

    The major aim of this study was to investigate whether the motivational salience of food cues (as reflected by their attention-grabbing properties) differs between obese and normal-weight subjects in a manner consistent with altered reward system function in obesity. A total of 18 obese and 18 normal-weight, otherwise healthy, adult women between the ages of 18 and 35 participated in an eye-tracking paradigm in combination with a visual probe task. Eye movements and reaction time to food and non-food images were recorded during both fasted and fed conditions in a counterbalanced design. Eating behavior and hunger level were assessed by self-report measures. Obese individuals had higher scores than normal-weight individuals on self-report measures of responsiveness to external food cues and vulnerability to disruptions in control of eating behavior. Both obese and normal-weight individuals demonstrated increased gaze duration for food compared to non-food images in the fasted condition. In the fed condition, however, despite reduced hunger in both groups, obese individuals maintained the increased attention to food images, whereas normal-weight individuals had similar gaze duration for food and non-food images. Additionally, obese individuals had preferential orienting toward food images at the onset of each image. Obese and normal-weight individuals did not differ in reaction time measures in the fasted or fed condition. Food cue incentive salience is elevated equally in normal-weight and obese individuals during fasting. Obese individuals retain incentive salience for food cues despite feeding and decreased self-report of hunger. Sensitization to food cues in the environment and their dysregulation in obese individuals may play a role in the development and/or maintenance of obesity.

  8. Increased Arctic sea ice drift alters adult female polar bear movements and energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M; Douglas, David C; Albeke, Shannon E; Whiteman, John P; Amstrup, Steven C; Richardson, Evan; Wilson, Ryan R; Ben-David, Merav

    2017-09-01

    Recent reductions in thickness and extent have increased drift rates of Arctic sea ice. Increased ice drift could significantly affect the movements and the energy balance of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) which forage, nearly exclusively, on this substrate. We used radio-tracking and ice drift data to quantify the influence of increased drift on bear movements, and we modeled the consequences for energy demands of adult females in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas during two periods with different sea ice characteristics. Westward and northward drift of the sea ice used by polar bears in both regions increased between 1987-1998 and 1999-2013. To remain within their home ranges, polar bears responded to the higher westward ice drift with greater eastward movements, while their movements north in the spring and south in fall were frequently aided by ice motion. To compensate for more rapid westward ice drift in recent years, polar bears covered greater daily distances either by increasing their time spent active (7.6%-9.6%) or by increasing their travel speed (8.5%-8.9%). This increased their calculated annual energy expenditure by 1.8%-3.6% (depending on region and reproductive status), a cost that could be met by capturing an additional 1-3 seals/year. Polar bears selected similar habitats in both periods, indicating that faster drift did not alter habitat preferences. Compounding reduced foraging opportunities that result from habitat loss; changes in ice drift, and associated activity increases, likely exacerbate the physiological stress experienced by polar bears in a warming Arctic. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Does Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Treatment in Adolescence Alter Adult Quality of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Cieśliński, Igor; Kowalski, Paweł; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Nowobilski, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women) aged 30.10 (25–39) years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women) able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38) years, who 16.5 (12–26) years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS) were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood. PMID:25436225

  10. Does Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Treatment in Adolescence Alter Adult Quality of Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płaszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women aged 30.10 (25–39 years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38 years, who 16.5 (12–26 years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood.

  11. Altered frontocingulate activation during aversive interoceptive processing in young adults transitioning to problem stimulant use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lorraine Stewart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems associated with stimulant use have been linked to frontocingulate, insular, and thalamic dysfunction during decision-making and alterations in interoceptive processing. However, little is known about how interoception and decision-making interact and contribute to dysfunctions that promote the transition from recreational drug use to abuse or dependence. Here, we investigate brain activation in response to reward, punishment, and uncertainty during an aversive interoceptive challenge in current and former stimulant (cocaine and amphetamine users using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young adults previously identified as recreational users (n=184 were followed up three years later. Of these, 18 individuals progressed to problem stimulant use (PSU, whereas 15 desisted stimulant use (DSU. PSU, DSU, and 14 healthy comparison subjects (CTL performed a two-choice prediction task at three fixed error rates (20%=reward, 50%=uncertainty, 80%=punishment during which they anticipated and experienced episodes of inspiratory breathing load. Although groups did not differ in insula activation or subjective breathing load ratings, PSU exhibited lower right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and bilateral anterior cingulate (ACC activation than DSU and CTL during aversive interoceptive processing as well as lower right IFG in response to decision making involving uncertainty. However, PSU exhibited greater bilateral IFG activation than DSU and CTL while making choices within the context of punishing feedback, and both PSU and DSU showed lower thalamic activation during breathing load than CTL. Findings suggest that frontocingulate attenuation, reflecting reduced resources devoted to goal maintenance and action selection in the presence of uncertainty and interoceptive perturbations, may be a biomarker for susceptibility to problem stimulant use.

  12. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy N Cheung

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux. Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group. All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and area under the curve (AUC for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism.

  13. [Depression and Anxiety Disorders and Associated Factors in the Adult Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Bohórquez, Adriana; Rondón, Martín; Medina Rico, Mauricio; Rengifo, Hernet; Bautisa, Nubia

    2016-12-01

    Mental disorders are the first causes of disability adjusted life years (DALY), contributing with the 7.4%. This value increases as the DALYs of the transmittable diseases decrease. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of the major depressive and anxious disorders. Data obtained from the IV Mental Health Survey with representation from 5 regions. A computerised interview was conducted, focusing on the most frequent anxiety and depressive disorders, using the CIDI CAPI 3.0. A sample of 10,870 adults over 18 years old was obtained. The lifetime prevalence of any of these disorders is 10.1% (95% CI: 8.8-11.5) in the population between 18 and 44 years, and of 7.7% (95% CI: 6.5-9.1) in those older than 45 years. The prevalence in the last 12 months was 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-6.0) in the younger group, and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8-3.0) in the older group. Of the people with evaluated mental disorders, 17.6% (95% CI: 13.1-23.4) had 2 or more disorders, a comorbidity that is more common in the female population (20.4%, 95% CI: 14.2-28.3) than in males (13.5%, 95% CI: 7.9-22.0). Major depressive disorder is the most prevalent of the disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 4.3% (95% CI: 3.7-5.0). After adjusting in a multivariate model, being divorced or widowed (OR=1.3), previous suicide attempt (OR=3.3), and having 6 or more features of border-line personality, were associated with an increased risk of presenting with any of the studied disorders. Anxiety and depressive mental disorders are an important health burden in Colombia. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  14. Differentiating emotions across contexts: comparing adults with and without social anxiety disorder using random, social interaction, and daily experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Farmer, Antonina S

    2014-06-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning.

  15. Differentiating Emotions Across Contexts: Comparing Adults with and without Social Anxiety Disorder Using Random, Social Interaction, and Daily Experience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Farmer, Antonina S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning. PMID:24512246

  16. Social anxiety and autism spectrum traits among adult FMR1 premutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mourelo, O; Mur, E; Madrigal, I; Alvarez-Mora, M I; Gómez-Ansón, B; Pagonabarraga, J; Rodriguez-Revenga, L; Milà, M

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral symptoms and traits have been proposed as early markers in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate social anxiety and autism in FMR1 premutation carriers using the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaires. Fifty-nine premutation carriers were compared with 50 controls. The SPIN test showed statistically significant differences between female but not male carriers. The AQ questionnaire found statistically significant differences between premutation carriers and controls in the total AQ as well as in the social skills and attention switching subdomains. A gender effect was only observed for the social skills subdomain. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a moderately positive correlation with the total AQ scores as well as the social skills and communication subdomains. Our results show that fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) patients have higher AQ scores. Moreover, this is the first study to find statistically significant differences between FXTAS and no-FXTAS premutation carriers in the communication and the imagination subdomains, suggesting that FXTAS patients present a broader autistic phenotype than premutation carriers without FXTAS. Based on our results, a wide range of behavioral/psychiatric traits should be included within the broader phenotypic presentation of individuals with the FMR1 premutation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Attachment anxiety and avoidance as mediators of the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Ardalan, Firouz; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor; Von Wyl, Agnes; Hengartner, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction is at least partially attributable to insecure attachment, that is that attachment style mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction. Associations between childhood trauma, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), anxious and avoidant attachment in romantic relationships, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and five personality domains, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), were examined in a sample of 72 psychiatric inpatients. The SIPP-118 domains included relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, responsibility, and social concordance. The direct effect of childhood trauma on all SIPP-118 domains was not significant after controlling for the indirect effect of attachment. In regression modeling, a significant indirect effect of childhood trauma via adult attachment style was found for SIPP-118 relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, and social concordance. Specifically, anxious attachment was a significant mediator of the effect of childhood trauma on self-control, identity integration, and relational domains. These results suggest that childhood trauma impacts a broad range of personality domains and does so in large part through the pathway of anxious romantic attachment style.

  18. The opposite effects of nandrolone decanoate and exercise on anxiety levels in rats may involve alterations in hippocampal parvalbumin-positive interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Selakovic

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of chronic (six weeks nandrolone decanoate (ND, 20 mg/kg, s.c., weekly in single dose administration (in order to mimic heavy human abuse, and exercise (swimming protocol of 60 minutes a day, five days in a row/two days break, applied alone and simultaneously with ND, in male rats (n = 40. Also, we evaluated the effects of those protocols on hippocampal parvalbumin (PV content and the possible connection between the alterations in certain parts of hippocampal GABAergic system and behavioral patterns. Both ND and exercise protocols induced increase in testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol blood levels. Our results confirmed anxiogenic effects of ND observed in open field (OF test (decrease in the locomotor activity, as well as in frequency and cumulative duration in the centre zone and in elevated plus maze (EPM test (decrease in frequency and cumulative duration in open arms, and total exploratory activity, that were accompanied with a mild decrease in the number of PV interneurons in hippocampus. Chronic exercise protocol induced significant increase in hippocampal PV neurons (dentate gyrus and CA1 region, followed by anxiolytic-like behavioral changes, observed in both OF and EPM (increase in all estimated parameters, and in evoked beam-walking test (increase in time to cross the beam, compared to ND treated animals. The applied dose of ND was sufficient to attenuate beneficial effects of exercise in rats by means of decreased exercise-induced anxiolytic effect, as well as to reverse exercise-induced augmentation in number of PV immunoreactive neurons in hippocampus. Our results implicate the possibility that alterations in hippocampal PV interneurons (i.e. GABAergic system may be involved in modulation of anxiety level induced by ND abuse and/or extended exercise protocols.

  19. The opposite effects of nandrolone decanoate and exercise on anxiety levels in rats may involve alterations in hippocampal parvalbumin-positive interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selakovic, Dragica; Joksimovic, Jovana; Zaletel, Ivan; Puskas, Nela; Matovic, Milovan; Rosic, Gvozden

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of chronic (six weeks) nandrolone decanoate (ND, 20 mg/kg, s.c., weekly in single dose) administration (in order to mimic heavy human abuse), and exercise (swimming protocol of 60 minutes a day, five days in a row/two days break), applied alone and simultaneously with ND, in male rats (n = 40). Also, we evaluated the effects of those protocols on hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) content and the possible connection between the alterations in certain parts of hippocampal GABAergic system and behavioral patterns. Both ND and exercise protocols induced increase in testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol blood levels. Our results confirmed anxiogenic effects of ND observed in open field (OF) test (decrease in the locomotor activity, as well as in frequency and cumulative duration in the centre zone) and in elevated plus maze (EPM) test (decrease in frequency and cumulative duration in open arms, and total exploratory activity), that were accompanied with a mild decrease in the number of PV interneurons in hippocampus. Chronic exercise protocol induced significant increase in hippocampal PV neurons (dentate gyrus and CA1 region), followed by anxiolytic-like behavioral changes, observed in both OF and EPM (increase in all estimated parameters), and in evoked beam-walking test (increase in time to cross the beam), compared to ND treated animals. The applied dose of ND was sufficient to attenuate beneficial effects of exercise in rats by means of decreased exercise-induced anxiolytic effect, as well as to reverse exercise-induced augmentation in number of PV immunoreactive neurons in hippocampus. Our results implicate the possibility that alterations in hippocampal PV interneurons (i.e. GABAergic system) may be involved in modulation of anxiety level induced by ND abuse and/or extended exercise protocols.

  20. Time does not heal all wounds: older adults who experienced childhood adversities have higher odds of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Sarah M; Mackenzie, Corey S; Henriksen, Christine A; Afifi, Tracie O

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to examine the prevalence of several types of childhood adversity across adult cohorts, whether age moderates the effect of childhood adversity on mental health, the relationship between childhood adversity and psychopathology among older adults, the dose-response relationship between number of types of childhood adversities and mental disorders in later life, and whether lifetime mental health treatment reduces the odds of psychopathology among older survivors of childhood adversity. In a population-based, cross-sectional study on a nationally representative U.S. sample, we studied 34,653 community-dwelling Americans 20 years and older, including 7,080 adults 65 years and older from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Trained lay interviewers assessed past-year mood and anxiety disorders and lifetime personality disorders. Participants self-reported childhood adversity based on questions from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Childhood adversity was prevalent across five age cohorts. In our adjusted models, age did not moderate the effect of childhood adversity on mental disorders. Older adults who experienced childhood adversity had higher odds of having mood (odds ratio: 1.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.28), anxiety (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.83), and personality disorders (odds ratio: 2.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.75-2.54) after adjusting for covariates. An increasing number of types of childhood adversities was associated with higher odds of personality disorders and somewhat higher odds of anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking was associated with a reduced likelihood of anxiety and, especially, mood disorders in older adult childhood adversity survivors. These results emphasize the importance of preventing childhood adversity and intervening once it occurs to avoid the negative mental health effects that can last into old age. Copyright © 2014 American Association for

  1. Examining self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of anxiety and depression: Two feasibility open trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake F. Dear

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT has considerable public health potential for treating anxiety and depression. However, no research has examined the use of self-guided iCBT, that is, treatment without contact with a clinician, specifically for older adults. The aim of the present study was to undertake a preliminary examination of the acceptability, efficacy and health economic impact of two entirely self-guided iCBT programs for adults over 60 years of age with anxiety and depression. Two separate single-group feasibility open trials of self-guided iCBT were conducted, the Anxiety Trial (n = 27 and the Depression Trial (n = 20, using the control groups of two randomized controlled trials. The online treatment packages consisted of five online educational lessons, which were delivered over 8 weeks without clinical contact. Participants rated the interventions as acceptable with more than 90% reporting the course was worth their time and more than 70% of participants completing at least 3 of the 5 lessons within the eight weeks. Significant reductions on measures of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item; GAD-7 and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item; PHQ-9 were observed from pre-treatment to post-treatment in both the Anxiety Trial (GAD-7 Cohen's d = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.75 and the Depression Trial (PHQ-9 Cohen's d = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.33 to 1.73. The economic analyses indicated that there was statistically significant improvement in health-related quality of life compared to baseline and marginally higher costs associated with treatment for both the Anxiety Trial ($69.84; 95% CI: $4.24 to $135.45 and the Depression Trial ($54.98; 95% CI: $3.84 to $106.12. The results provide preliminary support for the potential of entirely self-guided iCBT for older adults with anxiety and depression and indicate larger scale and controlled research trials are warranted.

  2. Online versus paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adults with cystic fibrosis in Ireland: a cross-sectional exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronly, Jennifer; Duff, Alistair J; Riekert, Kristin A; Perry, Ivan J; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Horgan, Aine; Lehane, Elaine; Howe, Barbara; Ni Chroinin, Muireann; Savage, Eileen

    2018-01-21

    To compare online and paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Cross-sectional study in CF clinics in Ireland and through the Cystic Fibrosis Ireland online community. 160 adult patients aged 18 or above were recruited. Of these, 147 were included in the analysis; 83 online and 64 paper-based. The remaining 13 were excluded because of incomplete data. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data on pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s %) and body mass index were self-reported based on clinical assessments. Sociodemographic data were collected. Compared with the paper-based participants, the online participants were more likely to be female (61.7% vs 48.4%), older (mean 32.2 vs 28.2 years) and were more likely to be married (32.5% vs 15.6%), living with their spouse or partner (42.5% vs 22.6%) and working either full time (33.7% vs 15.9%) or part time (30.1%vs 17.5%). The prevalence rates of elevated anxiety and depression were not significantly different (P=0.71 and P=0.56). HADS anxiety and depression scores were not statistically different between online (P=0.83) and paper-based (P=0.92) participants based on Mann-Whitney U test. A significant negative correlation was found between depression and pulmonary function (r=-0.39, P=0.01) and anxiety and pulmonary function (r=-0.36, P=0.02). Based on Cronbach's alpha, there were no statistically significant differences between the online and paper-based participants on the internal consistency of the HADS anxiety (P=0.073) and depression (P=0.378) scales. Our findings suggest that online and paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adult patients with CF yield comparable findings on prevalence rates and scores, associations with health and internal consistency of subscales. This study highlights that online screening offers an alternative method to paper-based screening. Further research with a

  3. A Web-Based Psychoeducational Intervention Program for Depression and Anxiety in an Adult Community in Selangor, Malaysia: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Ibrahim, Normala; Phang, Cheng-Kar; Tan, Kit-Aun; Ahmad, Rozali

    2016-06-21

    controlled trial of a Web-based psychoeducational intervention program for depression and anxiety in an adult community in Malaysia. The results from this study will determine the effectiveness of a psychoeducational intervention program in the management of depression and anxiety among adults in the community. If proven to be effective, the intervention can serve as a new modality to manage and reduce the burden of these disorders in the community. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 39656144; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN39656144 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6hSVhV71K).

  4. Omega 3 Consumption and Anxiety Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natacci, Lara; M Marchioni, Dirce; C Goulart, Alessandra; Nunes, Maria Angélica; B Moreno, Arlinda; O Cardoso, Letícia; Giatti, Luana; B Molina, Maria Del Carmen; S Santos, Itamar; R Brunoni, André; A Lotufo, Paulo; M Bensenor, Isabela

    2018-05-24

    Few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mental disorders, and it has been established that ω-3 ( n -3) fatty acids may have a beneficial effect for sufferers of anxiety disorders. This study is part of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)—a population-based cohort study on diet and mental health—and searched for associations between anxiety disorders and consumption of n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The study had a cross-sectional design, with a total sample of 12,268 adults. Dietary exposure was measured by a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and mental diagnoses were assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule—Revised Version and diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Logistic regression models were built using quintiles of n -3, ω 6 ( n -6), n -6/ n -3 ratio, and PUFA, using the 1st quintile as reference. Anxiety disorders were identified in 15.4% of the sample. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, cardiovascular risk factors, diet variables, and depression, intakes in the 5th quintile were inversely associated with anxiety disorders for EPA (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69⁻0.98), DHA (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69⁻0.98), and DPA (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69⁻0.98). Participants in the fifth quintile of n -6/ n -3 ratio had a positive association with anxiety disorders. Although results suggest a possible protective effect of n -3 fatty acids against anxiety, all associations lost significance after adjustment for multiple comparisons.

  5. The effects of aerobic exercise on depression-like, anxiety-like, and cognition-like behaviours over the healthy adult lifespan of C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Julie A; Singhal, Gaurav; Corrigan, Frances; Jaehne, Emily J; Jawahar, Magdalene C; Baune, Bernhard T

    2018-01-30

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated exercise improves various types of behaviours such as anxiety-like, depression-like, and cognition-like behaviours. However, these findings were largely conducted in studies utilising short-term exercise protocols, and the effects of lifetime exercise on these behaviours remain unknown. This study investigates the behavioural effects of lifetime exercise in normal healthy ageing C57BL/6 mice over the adult lifespan. 12 week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel running or non-exercise (control) groups. Exercise commenced at aged 3 months and behaviours were assessed in young adult (Y), early middle age (M), and old (O) mice (n=11-17/group). The open field and elevated zero maze examined anxiety-like behaviours, depression-like behaviours were quantified with the forced swim test, and the Y maze and Barnes maze investigated cognition-like behaviours. The effects of lifetime exercise were not simply an extension of the effects of chronic exercise on anxiety-like, depression-like, and cognition-like behaviours. Exercise tended to reduce overt anxiety-like behaviours with ageing, and improved recognition memory and spatial learning in M mice as was expected. However, exercise also increased anxiety behaviours including greater freezing behaviour that extended spatial learning latencies in Y female mice in particular, while reduced distances travelled contributed to longer spatial memory and cognitive flexibility latencies in Y and O mice. Lifetime exercise may increase neurogenesis-associated anxiety. This could be an evolutionary conserved adaptation that nevertheless has adverse impacts on cognition-like function, with particularly pronounced effects in Y female mice with intact sex hormones. These issues require careful investigation in future rodent studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Knocking down amygdalar PTP1B in diet-induced obese rats improves insulin signaling/action, decreases adiposity and may alter anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natalia Ferreira; Castro, Gisele; Guadagnini, Dioze; Tobar, Natalia; Cognuck, Susana Quiros; Elias, Lucila Leico Kagohara; Boer, Patricia Aline; Prada, Patricia Oliveira

    2017-05-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been extensively implicated in the regulation of body weight, food intake, and energy expenditure. The role of PTP1B appears to be cell and brain region dependent. Herein, we demonstrated that chronic high-fat feeding enhanced PTP1B expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) of rats compared to rats on chow. Knocking down PTP1B with oligonucleotide antisense (ASO) decreased its expression and was sufficient to improve the anorexigenic effect of insulin through IR/Akt signaling in the CeA. ASO treatment reduces body weight, fat mass, serum leptin levels, and food intake and also increases energy expenditure, without altering ambulatory activity. These changes were explained, at least in part, by the improvement of insulin sensitivity in the CeA, decreasing NPY and enhancing oxytocin expression. There was a slight decline in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels possibly due to leanness in rats treated with ASO. Surprisingly, the elevated plus maze test revealed an anxiolytic behavior after reduction of PTP1B in the CeA. Thus, the present study highlights the deleterious role that the amygdalar PTP1B has on energy homeostasis in obesity states. The reduction of PTP1B in the CeA may be a strategy for the treatment of obesity, insulin resistance and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample : Psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, E.L.; Bögels, S.M.

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure

  8. Effect of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in adults: an in-depth literature review of randomized trials with effect size calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Susan; Cohen, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the effect of Reiki therapy for pain and anxiety in randomized clinical trials. A systematic search of PubMed, ProQuest, Cochrane, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, Global Health, and Medline databases was conducted using the search terms pain, anxiety, and Reiki. The Center for Reiki Research also was examined for articles. Studies that used randomization and a control or usual care group, used Reiki therapy in one arm of the study, were published in 2000 or later in peer-reviewed journals in English, and measured pain or anxiety were included. After removing duplicates, 49 articles were examined and 12 articles received full review. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria: four articles studied cancer patients, one examined post-surgical patients, and two analyzed community dwelling older adults. Effect sizes were calculated for all studies using Cohen's d statistic. Effect sizes for within group differences ranged from d = 0.24 for decrease in anxiety in women undergoing breast biopsy to d = 2.08 for decreased pain in community dwelling adults. The between group differences ranged from d = 0.32 for decrease of pain in a Reiki versus rest intervention for cancer patients to d = 4.5 for decrease in pain in community dwelling adults. Although the number of studies is limited, based on the size Cohen's d statistics calculated in this review, there is evidence to suggest that Reiki therapy may be effective for pain and anxiety. Continued research using Reiki therapy with larger sample sizes, consistently randomized groups, and standardized treatment protocols is recommended. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of social isolation on anxiety-related behaviors, cortisol, and monoamines in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Soaleha; Seguin, Diane; Facciol, Amanda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Social isolation can be used to study behavioral, neural, and hormonal mechanisms that regulate interactions in social animals. Although isolation effects have been reported in social mammals and various fish species, systematic studies with isolated zebrafish are rare. Here, the authors examined behavior (social and nonsocial), physiological stress (whole-body cortisol levels), and neurochemicals (serotonin, dopamine, and their metabolites), following acute and chronic social isolation in adult zebrafish. To observe how isolated fish respond behaviorally to social stimuli, they exposed zebrafish to live conspecifics or animated images after acute (24 hr) or chronic (6 months) social isolation. The authors observed that isolation did not affect locomotor activity, but acute isolation had weak nonsignificant anxiogenic effects in adult zebrafish. They also found that all isolated fish responded to both live and animated social stimuli, and the stress hormone, cortisol was lower in chronically isolated fish. Finally, neurochemical analyses showed that serotonin levels increased when fish were exposed to social stimulus after acute isolation, but its metabolite 5HIAA decreased in response to social stimulus following both acute and chronic isolation. Levels of both dopamine and its metabolite DOPAC were also reduced in fish exposed to social stimulus after acute and chronic isolation. Overall, these results show that isolation in zebrafish is an effective tool to study fundamental mechanisms controlling social interaction at behavioral and physiological levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Feasibility and potential effect of a low-cost virtual reality system on reducing pain and anxiety in adult burn injury patients during physiotherapy in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Linzette Deidré; Louw, Quinette Abegail; Crous, Lynette Christine

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the feasibility and potential effect of a low-cost VR system (eMagin Z800 3DVisor), used in conjunction with pharmacological analgesia, on reducing pain and anxiety in adult burn patients undergoing physiotherapy treatment, compared to pharmacologic analgesia alone at a South African hospital. Single-blind, within-subject study design. Pain and anxiety outcome measures were measured by a blinded assessor using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Burn Specific Pain and Anxiety Scale. Box-and-whisker plot method, Chi-square tests as well as the Student's paired t-test were used to analyze data. Eleven eligible adult burn patients consented to participate in this study (3 female, 8 male; median age 33 years: range 23-54 years). A marginal (p=0.06) to insignificant (p=0.13) difference between the two sessions (analgesia with VR and analgesia without VR) in reducing pain was found. No significant difference (p=0.58) was found between the two sessions (analgesia with VR and analgesia without VR) for anxiety. There seems to be a trend that the low-cost VR system, when added to routine pharmacological analgesics, is a safe technique and could be of considerable benefit if implemented into the pain management regime of burn units at a South African hospital.

  11. [Violence due to Armed Conflict and Prevalence of Mood Disorders, Anxiety and Mental Problems in the Colombian Adult Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Tamayo-Martínez, Nathalie; Buitrago, Giancarlo; Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol Cristina; Garzón-Orjuela, Nathaly; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; de Vries, Esther; Rengifo, Herney; Rodríguez, Andrea; Rincón, Carlos Javier

    2016-12-01

    Violence in Colombia has a history of over 50 years. Between 1985 and 2012 an estimated of 220,000 Colombians have died and about 6,000,000 have been displaced by violence. To describe and compare the prevalence of some problems and mental disorders in the adult population in Colombia, taking into account the characteristics of the municipality, as regards its history of violence or armed conflict. The results for adults (over 18 years) of some problems and mental disorders were taken from the ENSM-2015. The municipalities were classified according to the presence and intensity of the conflict using the classification proposed by the CERAC. Disorders were measured using CIDI-CAPI, and problems with AUDIT, modified PCL (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist). An estimate was also made of psychoactive substances consumption. A total of 10,870 people were interviewed, of whom 5,429 had not changed residence. There was had permanent conflict in 21.8% of the municipalities, 65.5% had a discontinued conflict, and only 12.7% had been pacified or had no conflict. The intensity of the conflict was reported as high by 31.8% of the people. Violent municipalities have a higher prevalence of anxiety disorders, depression, possible Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and smoking. Alcohol consumption was more common in municipalities with less intense conflict. The municipalities classified as having high levels of violence have a higher prevalence of mental disorders and the majority of the mental problems. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  12. Effect of a Family-Oriented Communication Skills Training Program on Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Zahra; Feshangchi, Simin; Alavi, Mousa; Keshvari, Mahrokh

    2016-03-01

    Older adults face several physical and psychological problems such as hearing loss, vision loss, and memory loss, which diminish the quality of their communication. Poor communication in turn affects their psychological wellbeing and induces substantial depression, anxiety, and stress. The family has an important role in the mental health of older adults. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a family-oriented communication skills training program on depression, anxiety, and stress in older adults. For this randomized controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 64 older adults from two healthcare centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were randomly allocated to an experimental group (n = 32) and a control group (n = 32). In the experimental group, older adults along with their primary caregiver participated in six sessions of communication skill education. The control group participated in two training sessions on nutrition and exercise. All participants answered the DASS21 questionnaire three times-at the start of the study, at the end of the sixth week, and a month after the last educational session of the experimental group. Data were analyzed using chi-square, Fisher's exact and t tests and by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). In the experimental group, the mean depression score significantly reduced from 10.56 ± 3.34 before intervention to 7.46 ± 2.80 and 6.30 ± 2.75 after intervention and at follow-up, respectively; the mean anxiety score significantly reduced from 8.46 ± 1.88 before intervention to 5.83 ± 1.93 and 5.80 ± 2.12 after intervention and at follow-up, respectively; and the mean stress score significantly decreased from 11.40 ± 4.53 before intervention to 8.90 ± 3.81 and 8.43 ± 3.31 after intervention and at follow-up, respectively (P communication skills could reduce depression, anxiety, and stress in the elderly. Therefore, such programs should be adopted as a non

  13. Genistein exposure inhibits growth and alters steroidogenesis in adult mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Shreya, E-mail: Shreya.patel214@gmail.com [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Peretz, Jackye, E-mail: Jackye.peretz@gmail.com [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Pan, Yuan-Xiang, E-mail: yxpan@illinois.edu [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 905 S. Goodwin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Helferich, William G., E-mail: helferic@illinois.edu [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 905 S. Goodwin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Genistein is a naturally occurring isoflavone phytoestrogen commonly found in plant products such as soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas. Genistein, like other phytoestrogens, has the potential to mimic, enhance, or impair the estradiol biosynthesis pathway, thereby potentially altering ovarian follicle growth. Previous studies have inconsistently indicated that genistein exposure may alter granulosa cell proliferation and hormone production, but no studies have examined the effects of genistein on intact antral follicles. Thus, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that genistein exposure inhibits follicle growth and steroidogenesis in intact antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) for 18–96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to assess growth. At the end of each culture period, the media were pooled to measure hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were collected to measure expression of cell cycle regulators and steroidogenic enzymes. The results indicate that genistein (36 μM) inhibits growth of mouse antral follicles. Additionally, genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) increases progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, but decreases estrone and estradiol levels. The results also indicate that genistein alters the expression of steroidogenic enzymes at 24, 72 and 96 h, and the expression of cell cycle regulators at 18 h. These data indicate that genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth by inhibiting the cell cycle, alters sex steroid hormone levels, and dysregulates steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles. - Highlights: • Genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth. • Genistein exposure alters expression of cell cycle regulators. • Genistein exposure alters sex steroid hormones. • Genistein exposure alters expression of steroidogenic enzymes.

  14. Genistein exposure inhibits growth and alters steroidogenesis in adult mouse antral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shreya; Peretz, Jackye; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Helferich, William G.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2016-01-01

    Genistein is a naturally occurring isoflavone phytoestrogen commonly found in plant products such as soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas. Genistein, like other phytoestrogens, has the potential to mimic, enhance, or impair the estradiol biosynthesis pathway, thereby potentially altering ovarian follicle growth. Previous studies have inconsistently indicated that genistein exposure may alter granulosa cell proliferation and hormone production, but no studies have examined the effects of genistein on intact antral follicles. Thus, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that genistein exposure inhibits follicle growth and steroidogenesis in intact antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) for 18–96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to assess growth. At the end of each culture period, the media were pooled to measure hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were collected to measure expression of cell cycle regulators and steroidogenic enzymes. The results indicate that genistein (36 μM) inhibits growth of mouse antral follicles. Additionally, genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) increases progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, but decreases estrone and estradiol levels. The results also indicate that genistein alters the expression of steroidogenic enzymes at 24, 72 and 96 h, and the expression of cell cycle regulators at 18 h. These data indicate that genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth by inhibiting the cell cycle, alters sex steroid hormone levels, and dysregulates steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles. - Highlights: • Genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth. • Genistein exposure alters expression of cell cycle regulators. • Genistein exposure alters sex steroid hormones. • Genistein exposure alters expression of steroidogenic enzymes.

  15. Beneficial Effects of Coenzyme Q10 in Reduction of Testicular Tissue Alteration Following Induction of Diabetes in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianifard Davoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Various types of infertility are associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and diabetes. Development of oxidative stress is one the most important factors in the alteration of spermatogenesis in diabetic conditions. Consequently, the reduction of oxidative stress with antioxidant compounds can be effective in the reduction of tissue alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in improvement of spermatogenesis in adult diabetic rats. Material and Methods: 32 adult rats were divided into four groups of control and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg body weight - b.w. was administrated to one control and one diabetic (intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of Streptozotocin groups. Blood concentrations of FSH, LH and Testosterone were measured. Histology of testicular tissue and sperm analysis were considered for evaluation of spermatogenesis. Results: Administration of Coenzyme Q10 led to increase of pituitary gonadotropins levels in diabetic rats. Testosterone levels were not changed significantly. Testicular morphology, spermatogenic indices and sperm analysis were improved in treated diabetic rats. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the use of Coenzyme Q10 has positive effects in reduction of spermatogenic alterations following induction of experimental diabetes in rats.

  16. Cerebral vascular structure in the motor cortex of adult mice is stable and is not altered by voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Robert H; Dougherty, Sarah E; Linden, David J

    2017-12-01

    The cerebral vasculature provides blood flow throughout the brain, and local changes in blood flow are regulated to match the metabolic demands of the active brain regions. This neurovascular coupling is mediated by real-time changes in vessel diameter and depends on the underlying vascular network structure. Neurovascular structure is configured during development by genetic and activity-dependent factors. In adulthood, it can be altered by experiences such as prolonged hypoxia, sensory deprivation and seizure. Here, we have sought to determine whether exercise could alter cerebral vascular structure in the adult mouse. We performed repeated in vivo two-photon imaging in the motor cortex of adult transgenic mice expressing membrane-anchored green fluorescent protein in endothelial cells (tyrosine endothelial kinase 2 receptor (Tie2)-Cre:mTmG). This strategy allows for high-resolution imaging of the vessel walls throughout the lifespan. Vascular structure, as measured by capillary branch point number and position, segment diameter and length remained stable over a time scale of months as did pericyte number and position. Furthermore, we compared the vascular structure before, during, and after periods of voluntary wheel running and found no alterations in these same parameters. In both running and control mice, we observed a low rate of capillary segment subtraction. Interestingly, these rare subtraction events preferentially remove short vascular loops.

  17. Sustained anxiety increases amygdala–dorsomedial prefrontal coupling: a mechanism for maintaining an anxious state in healthy adults

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    Vytal, Katherine E.; Overstreet, Cassie; Charney, Danielle R.; Robinson, Oliver J.; Grillon, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging research has traditionally explored fear and anxiety in response to discrete threat cues (e.g., during fear conditioning). However, anxiety is a sustained aversive state that can persist in the absence of discrete threats. Little is known about mechanisms that maintain anxiety states over a prolonged period. Here, we used a robust translational paradigm (threat of shock) to induce sustained anxiety. Recent translational work has implicated an amygdala–prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuit in the maintenance of anxiety in rodents. To explore the functional homologues of this circuitry in humans, we used a novel paradigm to examine the impact of sustained anticipatory anxiety on amygdala–PFC intrinsic connectivity. Methods Task-independent fMRI data were collected in healthy participants during long-duration periods of shock anticipation and safety. We examined intrinsic functional connectivity. Results Our study involved 20 healthy participants. During sustained anxiety, amygdala activity was positively coupled with dorsomedial PFC (DMPFC) activity. High trait anxiety was associated with increased amygdala–DMPFC coupling. In addition, induced anxiety was associated with positive coupling between regions involved in defensive responding, and decreased coupling between regions involved in emotional control and the default mode network. Limitations Inferences regarding anxious pathology should be made with caution because this study was conducted in healthy participants. Conclusion Findings suggest that anticipatory anxiety increases intrinsic amygdala–DMPFC coupling and that the DMPFC may serve as a functional homologue for the rodent prefrontal regions by sustaining anxiety. Future research may use this defensive neural context to identify bio-markers of risk for anxious pathology and target these circuits for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24886788

  18. Estrogen receptor β and oxytocin interact to modulate anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine stress reactivity in adult male and female rats.

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    Kudwa, Andrea E; McGivern, Robert F; Handa, Robert J

    2014-04-22

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated in response to stressors and is controlled by neurons residing in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Although gonadal steroid hormones can influence HPA reactivity to stressors, the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is known, however, that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) inhibits HPA reactivity and decreases anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Since ERβ is co-expressed with oxytocin (OT) in neurons of the PVN, an ERβ-selective agonist was utilized to test the whether ERβ decreases stress-induced HPA reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors via an OTergic pathway. Adult gonadectomized male and female rats were administered diarylpropionitrile, or vehicle, peripherally for 5days. When tested for anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM), diarylpropionitrile-treated males and females significantly increased time on the open arm of the EPM compared to vehicle controls indicating that ERβ reduces anxiety-like behaviors. One week after behavioral evaluation, rats were subjected to a 20minute restraint stress. Treatment with diarylpropionitrile reduced CORT and ACTH responses in both males and females. Subsequently, another group of animals was implanted with cannulae directed at the lateral ventricle. One week later, rats underwent the same protocol as above but with the additional treatment of intracerebroventricular infusion with an OT antagonist (des Gly-NH2 d(CH2)5 [Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4)] OVT) or VEH, 20min prior to behavioral evaluation. OT antagonist treatment blocked the effects of diarylpropionitrile on the display of anxiety-like behaviors and plasma CORT levels. These data indicate that ERβ and OT interact to modulate the HPA reactivity and the display of anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trim9 Deletion Alters the Morphogenesis of Developing and Adult-Born Hippocampal Neurons and Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory.

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    Winkle, Cortney C; Olsen, Reid H J; Kim, Hyojin; Moy, Sheryl S; Song, Juan; Gupton, Stephanie L

    2016-05-04

    During hippocampal development, newly born neurons migrate to appropriate destinations, extend axons, and ramify dendritic arbors to establish functional circuitry. These developmental stages are recapitulated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus, where neurons are continuously generated and subsequently incorporate into existing, local circuitry. Here we demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM9 regulates these developmental stages in embryonic and adult-born mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo Embryonic hippocampal and adult-born dentate granule neurons lacking Trim9 exhibit several morphological defects, including excessive dendritic arborization. Although gross anatomy of the hippocampus was not detectably altered by Trim9 deletion, a significant number of Trim9(-/-) adult-born dentate neurons localized inappropriately. These morphological and localization defects of hippocampal neurons in Trim9(-/-) mice were associated with extreme deficits in spatial learning and memory, suggesting that TRIM9-directed neuronal morphogenesis may be involved in hippocampal-dependent behaviors. Appropriate generation and incorporation of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus are critical for spatial learning and memory and other hippocampal functions. Here we identify the brain-enriched E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM9 as a novel regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neuron shape acquisition and hippocampal-dependent behaviors. Genetic deletion of Trim9 elevated dendritic arborization of hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo Adult-born dentate granule cells lacking Trim9 similarly exhibited excessive dendritic arborization and mislocalization of cell bodies in vivo These cellular defects were associated with severe deficits in spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364940-19$15.00/0.

  20. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison of Symptom Change in Adults Receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Applied Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Eleanor; Dugas, Michel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and somatic symptoms of anxiety (e.g., restlessness, muscle tension). Several psychological treatments lead to significant reductions in GAD symptoms by posttreatment. However, little is known about how GAD symptoms change over time. Our main goal was to examine how…

  1. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for adults with intellectual disabilities: an evaluation of the effectiveness of mindfulness in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idusohan-Moizer, H; Sawicka, A; Dendle, J; Albany, M

    2015-02-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a range of health and psychological disorders in adults and young people without intellectual disabilities (ID). Clinical studies are emerging reporting on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions as a stand-alone treatment for common clinical disorders in adults with ID. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy of an innovative structured mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) group programme adapted for adults with ID with a diagnosis of either recurrent depression, anxiety or both clinical conditions and a history of deliberate self-harm behaviour. Two groups ran consecutively consisting of a total of fifteen participants and seven carers. All participants were recorded as having either a borderline, mild, or moderate ID. The group programme ran over a period of 9 weeks with a follow-up session at 6 weeks post group intervention. Outcome measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and two sub-scales from the Self-Compassion Scale administered at baseline, post therapy and at 6-week follow-up. The evaluation showed that participants reported an improvement in their experience of depression, anxiety, self-compassion and compassion for others. The most significant impact was in the reduced levels of anxiety reported. Improvements across all outcomes were maintained at 6-week follow-up. The results of the evaluation suggest that people with intellectual disabilities benefit from a structured MBCT group intervention and the results are maintained at 6-week follow-up. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ethnicity modifies the additive effects of anxiety and drug use disorders on suicidal ideation among black adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to test if ethnicity moderates the additive effects of lifetime psychiatric disorders on serious suicidal thoughts among a nationally representative sample of Black adults in the United States. Methods: For this study, we used data of 5,181 Black adults (3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks who participated in the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. Five lifetime psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, and drug abuse were considered as the independent variables. Lifetime serious suicidal ideation was considered as the dependent variable. Logistic regressions were used to determine if ethnicity modifies the effects of each psychiatric disorder on serious suicide ideation. Ethnicity was conceptualized as the possible moderator and socio-demographics (i.e., age, gender, education level, employment, marital status and country region were control variables. Results: Among African Americans, major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. Among Caribbean Blacks, major depressive disorder and drug abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. In the pooled sample, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and anxiety disorder and a marginally significant interaction between ethnicity and drug abuse. Conclusions: Based on our study, suicidality due to psychiatric disorders among Black adults in the United States may depend on ethnicity. General anxiety disorder seems to be a more important risk factor for suicidal ideation among African Americans while drug abuse may contribute more to the risk of suicidal thoughts among Caribbean Blacks.

  3. Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) alters learning and memory, but not anxiety-like behavior, in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopheide, Marsha M; Morgan, Russell E

    2008-12-01

    Isotretinoin (ISO, 13-cis-retinoic acid) is commonly prescribed as Accutane for the treatment of acne. ISO is a known teratogen and the physical side effects of the drug have been well documented. However, possible psychological risks associated with the drug have yet to be determined. Retinoid receptors are abundant in the striatum and hippocampus, brain structures involved in implicit and explicit memory processes, respectively. The current study examined whether ISO influenced implicit or explicit memory processes using a two-stage radial-arm maze (RAM) task. The two stages were identical, except for the method of presenting arm choices to the rats: one at a time (Stage 1) or in pairs (Stage 2). Male rats (n=12/group) were tested on both stages of the RAM during chronic oral treatment with ISO (0, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg/day). Performance indicated that ISO impaired explicit memory in Stage 2, but retention tests one month after ISO exposure ended, indicated recovery from this explicit memory impairment and evidence of enhanced implicit memory in the 10 mg and 15 mg ISO rats. These data indicate extensive, enduring memory effects from oral ISO treatment at doses likely to produce serum levels within the range typically used to treat acne in humans.

  4. Acute Exposure to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Alters Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio Swimming Performance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Wilges Kist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, primarily Microcystis aeruginosa, forming water blooms worldwide. When an organism is exposed to environmental perturbations, alterations in normal behavioral patterns occur. Behavioral repertoire represents the consequence of a diversity of physiological and biochemical alterations. In this study, we assessed behavioral patterns and whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio exposed to cell culture of the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa (MC-LR, strain RST9501. MC-LR exposure (100 μg/L decreased by 63% the distance traveled and increased threefold the immobility time when compared to the control group. Interestingly, no significant alterations in the number of line crossings were found at the same MC-LR concentration and time of exposure. When animals were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/L, MC-LR promoted a significant increase (around 93% in the time spent in the bottom portion of the tank, suggesting an anxiogenic effect. The results also showed that none of the MC-LR concentrations tested promoted significant alterations in absolute turn angle, path efficiency, social behavior, or whole-body cortisol level. These findings indicate that behavior is susceptible to MC-LR exposure and provide evidence for a better understanding of the ecological consequences of toxic algal blooms.

  5. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jasper A J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Marcus, Bess H; Church, Timothy S; Frierson, Georita M; Powers, Mark B; Otto, Michael W; Davis, Michelle L; DeBoer, Lindsey B; Briceno, Nicole F

    2012-11-13

    Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US), over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal), negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse) group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety), and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP). STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST) for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX) or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL). Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization) per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after the baseline visit, and smoking

  6. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Jasper A J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US, over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal, negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety, and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP. Methods STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL. Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after

  7. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C.; Ravitz, Paula; Rosenbluth, Michael; Pavlova, Barbara; Grigoriadis, Sophie; Velyvis, Vytas; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Lam, Raymond W.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Milev, Roumen V.; Ravindran, Arun V.; Uher, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) has revised its 2009 guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults by updating the evidence and recommendations. The target audiences for these 2016 guidelines are psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. “Psychological Treatments” is the second of six sections of the 2016 guidelines. Results: Evidence-informed responses were developed for 25 questions under 5 broad categories: 1) patient characteristics relevant to using psychological interventions; 2) therapist and health system characteristics associated with optimizing outcomes; 3) descriptions of major psychotherapies and their efficacy; 4) additional psychological interventions, such as peer interventions and computer- and technology-delivered interventions; and 5) combining and/or sequencing psychological and pharmacological interventions. Conclusions: First-line psychological treatment recommendations for acute MDD include cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), and behavioural activation (BA). Second-line recommendations include computer-based and telephone-delivered psychotherapy. Where feasible, combining psychological treatment (CBT or IPT) with antidepressant treatment is recommended because combined treatment is superior to either treatment alone. First-line psychological treatments for maintenance include CBT and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Patient preference, in combination with evidence-based treatments and clinician/system capacity, will yield the optimal treatment strategies for improving individual outcomes in MDD. PMID

  8. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Diane; Wang, JianLi; Enns, Murray W.; Kolivakis, Theo; Michalak, Erin E.; Sareen, Jitender; Song, Wei-Yi; Kennedy, Sidney H.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Milev, Roumen V.; Parikh, Sagar V.; Ravindran, Arun V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. This section is the first of six guidelines articles. Results: In Canada, the annual and lifetime prevalence of MDD was 4.7% and 11.3%, respectively. MDD represents the second leading cause of global disability, with high occupational and economic impact mainly attributable to indirect costs. DSM-5 criteria for depressive disorders remain relatively unchanged, but other clinical dimensions (sleep, cognition, physical symptoms) may have implications for depression management. e-Mental health is increasingly used to support clinical and self-management of MDD. In the 2-phase (acute and maintenance) treatment model, specific goals address symptom remission, functional recovery, improved quality of life, and prevention of recurrence. Conclusions: The burden attributed to MDD remains high, whether from individual distress, functional and relationship impairment, reduced quality of life, or societal economic cost. Applying core principles of care, including comprehensive assessment, therapeutic alliance, support of self-management, evidence-informed treatment, and measurement-based care, will optimize clinical, quality of life, and functional outcomes in MDD. PMID:27486151

  9. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor ligands WIN 55,212-2 and AM 251 alter anxiety-like behaviors of marmoset monkeys in an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Barros, Marilia

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1r) are an important modulatory site for emotional behavior. However, little is known on the effects of CB1r ligands on emotionality aspects of primates, even with their highly similar behavioral response and receptor density/distribution as humans. Thus, we analyzed the effects of the CB1r agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 1mg/kg) and the antagonist AM 251 (AM; 2mg/kg), systemically administered prior to a single brief (15 min) exposure to a novel open-field (OF) environment, on the behavior of individually tested adult black tufted-ear marmosets. Both WIN- and AM-treated subjects, compared to vehicle controls, had significantly lower rates of long (contact) calls and exploration, while higher levels of vigilance-related behaviors (scan/glance); these are indicators of anxiolysis in this setup. Changes in locomotion were not detected. However, in the vehicle and AM-groups, sojourn in the peripheral zone of the OF was significantly higher than in its central region. WIN-treated marmosets spent an equivalent amount of time in both zones. Therefore, activation or blockade CB1r function prior to a short and individual exposure to an unfamiliar environment exerted a significant and complex influence on different behavioral indicators of anxiety in these monkeys (i.e., a partially overlapping anxiolytic-like profile). AM 251, however, has no anxiolytic effect when the time spent in the center of the OF is considered. This is a major difference when compared to the WIN-treated group. Data were compared to the response profile reported in other pre-clinical (rodent) and clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Patterns of receptive and creative cultural activities and their association with perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life among adults: the HUNT study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Koenraad; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn; Bygren, Lars Olov; Holmen, Jostein

    2012-08-01

    Cultural participation has been used both in governmental health policies and as medical therapy, based on the assumption that cultural activities will improve health. Previous population studies and a human intervention study have shown that religious, social and cultural activities predict increased survival rate. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between cultural activity and perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life in both genders. The study is based on the third population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (2006-2008), including 50,797 adult participants from Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. Data on cultural activities, both receptive and creative, perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life were collected by comprehensive questionnaires. The logistic regression models, adjusted for relevant cofactors, show that participation in receptive and creative cultural activities was significantly associated with good health, good satisfaction with life, low anxiety and depression scores in both genders. Especially in men, attending receptive, rather than creative, cultural activities was more strongly associated with all health-related outcomes. Statistically significant associations between several single receptive, creative cultural activities and the health-related outcome variables were revealed. This population-based study suggests gender-dependent associations between cultural participation and perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life. The results support hypotheses on the effect of cultural activities in health promotion and healthcare, but further longitudinal and experimental studies are warranted to establish a reliable cause-effect relationship.

  11. Further development and validation of the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS) scales: relationship to anxiety and social phobia among adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Lisa; Menzies, Ross; Jones, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In an initial validation study, the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS I) scale, demonstrated excellent psychometric properties as a self-report measure of the frequency of unhelpful cognitions associated with social anxiety for adults who stutter. The aim was to further validate the original UTBAS I scale, and to develop two additional scales to assess beliefs (UTBAS II) and anxiety (UTBAS III) associated with negative thoughts. A total of 140 adults seeking speech-restructuring treatment for stuttering completed the original UTBAS I scale, the newly developed UTBAS II and III scales, and self-report measures of psychological functioning. Participants also completed a first-stage screener for the presence of anxious personality disorder, and a diagnostic assessment to evaluate the presence of social phobia, according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The mean UTBAS I score for the present sample did not differ significantly from the mean score reported in the original UTBAS I validation study. Convergent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between the UTBAS Total score and all anxiety-related measures. Discriminant validity was established by the absence of strong correlations between the UTBAS Total score and some of the self-report measures of unrelated constructs, although it was found to tap into the negative cognitions associated with depression and life problems. Approximately one-quarter of participants met criteria for a diagnosis of DSM-IV or ICD-10 social phobia (23.5% and 27.2% respectively), and nearly one-third met first-stage screening criteria for anxious personality disorder (30%). The mean UTBAS scores for participants who met criteria for these disorders were significantly higher than scores for participants who did not, confirming known-groups validity. The present study demonstrates the validity and

  12. Kindergarteners' self-reported social inhibition and observed social reticence: moderation by adult-reported social inhibition and social anxiety disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A; Molitor, Joseph G

    2015-04-01

    Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children's perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children's self-reports remains unclear. The current study examined whether children deemed more extreme on social inhibition or social anxiety by adult report provided self-report of social inhibition that related to observed social reticence in the laboratory. Participants included 85 kindergarten children (36 female, 49 male), their parents, and their teachers. Moderation analyses revealed that children's self-reported social inhibition related significantly to observed social reticence under the conditions of high parent-reported social inhibition, high teacher-reported social inhibition, and high SAD symptoms. These results suggest that the most inhibited children are aware of their behavior and can report it in a meaningfully way as young as kindergarten age.

  13. Kindergarteners’ Self-Reported Social Inhibition and Observed Social Reticence: Moderation by Adult-Reported Social Inhibition and Social Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Molitor, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children’s perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children’s self-reports remains unclear. The current study examined whether children deemed more extreme on social inhibition or social anxiety by adult report provided self-report of social inhibition that related to observed social reticence in the laboratory. Participants included 85 kindergarten children (36 female, 49 male), their parents, and their teachers. Moderation analyses revealed that children’s self-reported social inhibition related significantly to observed social reticence under the conditions of high parent-reported social inhibition, high teacher-reported social inhibition, and high SAD symptoms. These results suggest that the most inhibited children are aware of their behavior and can report it in a meaningfully way as young as kindergarten age. PMID:25113397

  14. Alteration of Diastereoisomeric and Enantiomeric Profiles of Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in Adult Chicken Tissues, Eggs, and Hatchling Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Qiao, Lin; Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Zheng, Jing; Xie, Qilai; Sun, Yuxin; Mai, Bixian

    2017-05-16

    The concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were measured in chicken diet sources (soil and chicken feed), home-raised adult chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues, eggs during incubation, and hatchling chicken tissues. HBCD concentrations were not detected-0.69 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 25.6-48.4 ng/g dw in chicken feed and soil, respectively. HBCDs were detected in all adult chicken tissues, except the brain, at median levels of 13.1-44.0 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The proportions of α-HBCD in total HBCDs increased from 51% in soil to more than 87% in adult chicken tissues. The accumulation ratios (ARs) of α-HBCD from diet to adult chicken tissues were 4.27 for liver, 11.2 for fat, and 7.64-12.9 for other tissues, respectively. The AR and carry-over rate (COR) of α-HBCD from diet to eggs were 22.4 and 0.226, respectively. The concentrations of α-HBCD in hatchling chicken liver (median: 35.4 ng/g lw) were significantly lower than those in hatchling chicken pectoral muscle (median: 130 ng/g lw). The EFs of α-HBCD decreased from soil to adult chicken tissues and from eggs to hatchling chicken liver. Meanwhile, the EFs of γ-HBCD increased from soil to adult chicken tissues. These results indicate the preferential enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD in chickens. The alteration of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric patterns of HBCDs might be influenced by the different absorption and elimination rates of the six HBCD enantiomers as well as variations in HBCD metabolism in chickens.

  15. Altered center of mass control during sit-to-walk in elderly adults with and without history of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzurei; Chou, Li-Shan

    2013-09-01

    Sit-to-walk (STW) is a commonly performed activity of daily living that requires a precise coordination between momentum generation and balance control. However, there is a lack of biomechanical data demonstrating how the center of mass (COM) momentum and balance control interact. This study examines COM kinetic energy distribution in three movement directions and COM-Ankle inclination angles during STW among 15 healthy young adults, 15 elderly non-fallers, and 15 elderly fallers. We found that elderly adults, especially elderly fallers, chose a COM control strategy that provided more stability than mobility to perform STW. A smaller forward COM velocity, a more upward COM momentum distribution, and a smaller anterior-posterior COM-Ankle angle characterize this strategy. Healthy elderly adults modified their STW movement around seat-off so that they achieved a more upright position before walking. Elderly fallers not only altered COM control around seat-off but also showed limitation in COM control during gait initiation. Furthermore, their COM control in the medial-lateral direction might be perturbed at swing-off due to an increased distribution of kinetic energy. Examining COM momentum distribution in different movement directions and the relationship between positions of the COM and supporting foot during STW could enhance our ability to identify elderly adults who are at risk of falling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  17. Preliminary evidence of altered neural response during intertemporal choice of losses in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Saori C; Yahata, Noriaki; Todokoro, Ayako; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kano, Yukiko; Nishimura, Yukika; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Ohtake, Fumio; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2018-04-30

    Impulsive behaviours are common symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although previous studies have suggested functional models of impulsive behaviour, a full explanation of impulsivity in ADHD remains elusive. To investigate the detailed mechanisms behind impulsive behaviour in ADHD, we applied an economic intertemporal choice task involving gains and losses to adults with ADHD and healthy controls and measured brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the intertemporal choice of future gains, we observed no behavioural or neural difference between the two groups. In the intertemporal choice of future losses, adults with ADHD exhibited higher discount rates than the control participants. Furthermore, a comparison of brain activity representing the sensitivity of future loss in the two groups revealed significantly lower activity in the striatum and higher activity in the amygdala in adults with ADHD than in controls. Our preliminary findings suggest that an altered size sensitivity to future loss is involved in apparent impulsive choice behaviour in adults with ADHD and shed light on the multifaceted impulsivity underlying ADHD.

  18. Feasibility study of a peer-facilitated low intensity cognitive-behavioral intervention for mild to moderate depression and anxiety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, John R; Manitsas, Tara; Gau, Jeff M

    2017-09-01

    The majority of older adults experiencing depression and/or anxiety do not receive adequate treatment due to limited access to evidence-based practices. Low intensity cognitive-behavioral intervention has been established as an evidence-based practice with the potential to increase the reach to older adults. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a low intensity, peer-supported, cognitive-behavioral intervention for mild to moderate depression and/or anxiety delivered by a local intergovernmental agency serving older adults. Sixty-two older adults (81% female) between 55 and 96 years of age were randomly assigned to either a peer-facilitated cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy condition (n = 31) or a wait-list control condition (n = 31). The 10-week feasibility trial data indicated that (1) a majority of the participants were highly engaged in the intervention with an average number of 7.3 peer sessions attended and 2.1 workbooks completed, (2) the participants were quite satisfied with the peer mentoring sessions and moderately satisfied with the workbooks, and (3) there were clinically meaningful reductions in depressive symptoms for those assigned to the treatment condition compared to those that were wait-listed (d = .43), though the effect was non-significant (p = .099) due to the small sample size. The evidence for the impact on reducing anxiety symptoms was more equivocal with a non-significant, small effect size favoring the treatment condition. The pilot study provided preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of the peer-facilitated low intensity cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention approach.

  19. Anxiety Sensitivity Physical and Cognitive Concerns in Relation to Smoking-oriented Cognition: An Examination Among Treatment-seeking Adults Who Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Lopez, Alicia; Tavakoli, Niloofar; Garey, Lorra; Raines, Amanda M; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    Elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety and internal sensations) is highly common among adults who smoke, and contributes to several maladaptive smoking beliefs and behaviors. AS is comprised of 3 empirically established factors, relating to fears of social concerns, fears of physical symptoms, and fears of cognitive dyscontrol. Relatively few studies have examined how these 3 subscales pertain to smoking processes. The aim of the present investigation was to examine, among treatment-seeking adults who smoke, the interactive effects of AS-physical and cognitive concerns in relation to: perceived barriers to smoking cessation; smoking-related negative reinforcement expectancies; and smoking-related avoidance and inflexibility. Participants included 470 adults who smoke (47.8% female; mean age 37.2, SD 13.5), who were recruited to participate in a smoking-cessation treatment study. At the baseline assessment, participants completed self-report measures, including the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, Barriers to Cessation Scale, Smoking Consequences Questionnaire, and Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale. Results indicated that after controlling for the effects of sex, cigarette dependence, alcohol problems, tobacco-related medical illness, current axis 1 disorder, and AS-social concerns, a significant interaction emerged, such that the association between AS-cognitive concerns and the studied smoking-based cognitions were stronger among lower levels of AS-physical concerns (but not higher physical concerns). The current findings suggest that it may be beneficial to provide specialized smoking-cessation interventions for certain subgroups of adults who smoke, such as those with different AS profiles, to promote healthier beliefs about quitting.

  20. AAV-mediated overexpression of the CB1 receptor in the mPFC of adult rats alters cognitive flexibility, social behavior and emotional reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eKlugmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid (ECB system is strongly involved in the regulation of cognitive processing and emotional behavior and evidence indicates that ECB signaling might affect these behavioral abilities by modulations of prefrontal cortical functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the CB1 receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC on cognitive flexibility and emotional behavior. Therefore, the CB1 receptor was overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene transfer specifically in the mPFC of adult Wistar rats. Animals were then tested in different anxiety-related paradigms for emotional reactivity (e.g. elevated plus maze (EPM, light/dark emergence test (EMT, social interaction and the attentional set shift task (ASST - an adaptation of the human Wisconsin card sorting test - for cognitive abilities and behavioral flexibility. A subtle increase in exploratory behavior was found in CB1 receptor overexpressing animals (CB1-R compared to empty vector injected controls (Empty in the EMT and EPM, although general locomotor activity did not differ between the groups. During social interaction testing, social contact behavior towards the unknown conspecific was found to be decreased, whereas social withdrawal was increased in CB1-R animals and they showed an inadequate increase in exploratory behavior compared to control animals. In the ASST, impaired reversal learning abilities were detected in CB1-R animals compared to controls, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. In conclusion, upregulation of the CB1 receptor specifically in the rat mPFC induces alterations in emotional reactivity, leads to inadequate social behavior and impairs cognitive flexibility. These findings might be relevant for neuropsychiatric disorders, since higher cortical CB1 receptor expression levels as well as similar behavioral impairments as observed in the present study have been described in schizophrenic patients.

  1. Altered spatiotemporal characteristics of gait in older adults with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Gregory E; Sions, J Megan; Coyle, Peter C; Pohlig, Ryan T

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies in older adults have identified that chronic low back pain (CLBP) is associated with slower gait speed. Given that slower gait speed is a predictor of greater morbidity and mortality among older adults, it is important to understand the underlying spatiotemporal characteristics of gait among older adults with CLBP. The purposes of this study were to determine (1) if there are differences in spatiotemporal parameters of gait between older adults with and without CLBP during self-selected and fast walking and (2) whether any of these gait characteristics are correlated with performance of a challenging walking task, e.g. stair negotiation. Spatiotemporal characteristics of gait were evaluated using a computerized walkway in 54 community-dwelling older adults with CLBP and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Older adults with CLBP walked slower than their pain-free peers during self-selected and fast walking. After controlling for body mass index and gait speed, step width was significantly greater in the CLBP group during the fast walking condition. Within the CLBP group, step width and double limb support time are significantly correlated with stair ascent/descent times. From a clinical perspective, these gait characteristics, which may be indicative of balance performance, may need to be addressed to improve overall gait speed, as well as stair-climbing performance. Future longitudinal studies confirming our findings are needed, as well as investigations focused on developing interventions to improve gait speed and decrease subsequent risk of mobility decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of depression, anxiety and stress on cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults living in rural Ecuador: results of the Atahualpa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Del Brutto, Victor J; Maestre, Gladys E; Gardener, Hannah; Zambrano, Mauricio; Wright, Clinton B

    2015-04-01

    To assess the relationship between cognitive status and self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress of older adults living in an underserved rural South American population. Community-dwelling Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door census, and evaluated with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). We explored whether positivity in each of the DASS-21 axes was related to total and domain-specific MoCA performance after adjustment for age, sex and education. A total of 280 persons (59% women; mean age, mean age 70 ± 8 years) were included. Based on established cut-offs for the DASS-21, 12% persons had depression, 15% had anxiety and 5% had stress. Mean total MoCA scores were significantly lower for depressed than for not depressed individuals (15.9 ± 5.5 vs 18.9 ± 4.4, P Depressed participants had significantly lower total and domain-specific MoCA scores for abstraction, short-term memory and orientation. Anxiety was related to significantly lower total MoCA scores (17 ± 4.7 vs 18.8 ± 4.5, P = 0.02), but not to differences in domain-specific MoCA scores. Stress was not associated with significant differences in MoCA scores. The present study suggests that depression and anxiety are associated with poorer cognitive performance in elderly residents living in rural areas of developing countries. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H

    2016-01-01

    as assessed by high-throughput molecular approaches in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of healthy adults. METHODS: The survey of peer-reviewed papers was performed on 17 August 2015 by a literature search through PubMed, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science. Additional papers were identified by checking...

  5. Performance Monitoring Is Altered in Adult ADHD: A Familial Event-Related Potential Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Grainne; Albrecht, Bjoern; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert; Brandeis, Daniel; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. Electrophysiological studies in children with ADHD provide evidence for abnormal performance monitoring processes and familial association of these processes with ADHD. It is not yet known…

  6. Dental anxiety among adult patients and its correlation with self-assessed dental status and treatment needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, S.; Bilal, S.; Dawani, N.; Rizvi, K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the dental anxiety levels and to assess its correlation with self-assessed dental status and treatment needs of patients. Methods: The study was conducted at the Out Patient Department of Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Karachi. Using non-probability quota sampling, the study included the first 32 patients between 18 and 35 years of age, visiting the facility. Over a period of one month (22 working days) 704 patients comprised the study population. They were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to self-assess their dental anxiety levels, oral health status and treatment needs. The data was analysed using SPSS 17.0 with descriptive frequencies and chi-square test. Results: Of the total participants, 650 (92.32%) patients provided consent. Average dental anxiety scale score was 12.46, representing high anxiety score. There were 174 (26.8%) smokers; only 234 (36%) had visited a dentist less than a year ago; 385 (59.2%) considered their dental health to be satisfactory; 306 (47.1%) thought of their treatment needs to be little'; 222 (34.2%) brushed their teeth twice daily. Dental anxiety was statistically significant with treatment needs and dental status. Relation of tooth-brushing with last dental visit and treatment needs was also found to be significant. Conclusion: A high level of dental anxiety was observed among the study population. The dental professionals should seek ways to help dentally anxious individuals. (author)

  7. Oxidative stress in major depressive and anxiety disorders, and the association with antidepressant use; results from a large adult cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, C N; Bot, M; Scheffer, P G; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders and may be influenced by antidepressant use. This study investigated the association of oxidative stress, measured by plasma levels of F2-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) reflecting oxidative lipid and DNA damage respectively, with MDD, anxiety disorders and antidepressant use in a large cohort. Data was derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety including patients with current (N = 1619) or remitted (N = 610) MDD and/or anxiety disorder(s) (of which N = 704 antidepressant users) and 612 controls. Diagnoses were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Plasma 8-OHdG and F2-isoprostanes were measured using LC-MS/MS. ANCOVA was performed adjusted for sampling, sociodemographic, health and lifestyle variables. F2-isoprostanes did not differ between controls and patients, or by antidepressant use. Patients with current disorders had lower 8-OHdG (mean 42.1 pmol/l, 95% CI 40.4-43.8) compared to controls (45.0 pmol/l, 95% CI 42.9-47.2; p anxiety disorders), and all antidepressant types (SSRIs, TCAs, other antidepressants). Contrary to previous findings this large-scale study found no increased oxidative stress in MDD and anxiety disorders. Antidepressant use was associated with lower oxidative DNA damage, suggesting antidepressants may have antioxidant effects.

  8. Depression, anxiety and self-care behaviours of young adults with Type 2 diabetes : Results from the International Diabetes Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success (MILES) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, J. L.; Nefs, G.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Young adults with Type 2 diabetes have higher physical morbidity and mortality than other diabetes sub-groups, but differences in psychosocial outcomes have not yet been investigated. We sought to compare depression and anxiety symptoms and self-care behaviours of young adults with Type 2

  9. Electroconvulsive Stimulation, but not Chronic Restraint Stress, Causes Structural Alterations in Adult Rat Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel V.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible...... changes in an animal model. Thus, in this study we applied methods that are state of the art in regard to stereological cell counting methods. Using a validated rat model of depression in combination with a clinically relevant schedule of electroconvulsive stimulation, we estimated the total number...... of newly formed neurons in the hippocampal subgranular zone. Also estimated were the total number of neurons and the volume of the granule cell layer in adult rats subjected to chronic restraint stress and electroconvulsive stimulation either alone or in combination. We found that chronic restraint stress...

  10. ALTERED HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND AMYGDALAR NEURONAL ACTIVITY IN ADULT MICE WITH REPEATED EXPERIENCE OF AGGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy eSmagin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The repeated experience of winning in a social conflict setting elevates levels of aggression and may lead to violent behavioral patterns. Here we use a paradigm of repeated aggression and fighting deprivation to examine changes in behavior, neurogenesis, and neuronal activity in mice with positive fighting experience. We show that for males, repeated positive fighting experience induces persistent demonstration of aggression and stereotypic behaviors in daily agonistic interactions, enhances aggressive motivation, and elevates levels of anxiety. When winning males are deprived of opportunities to engage in further fights, they demonstrate increased levels of aggressiveness. Positive fighting experience results in increased levels of progenitor cell proliferation and production of young neurons in the hippocampus. This increase is not diminished after a fighting deprivation period. Furthermore, repeated winning experience decreases the number of activated (c-fos positive cells in the basolateral amygdala and increases the number of activated cells in the hippocampus; a subsequent no-fight period restores the number of c-fos-positive cells. Our results indicate that extended positive fighting experience in a social conflict heightens aggression, increases proliferation of neuronal progenitors and production of young neurons in the hippocampus, and decreases neuronal activity in the amygdala; these changes can be modified by depriving the winners of the opportunity for further fights.

  11. Altered Topology in Information Processing of a Narrated Story in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Oren, Noga; Ash, Elissa L; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Lerner, Yulia

    2016-05-03

    The ability to store, integrate, and manipulate information declines with aging. These changes occur earlier, faster, and to a greater degree as a result of neurodegeneration. One of the most common and early characteristics of cognitive decline is difficulty with comprehension of information. The neural mechanisms underlying this breakdown of information processing are poorly understood. Using functional MRI and natural stimuli (e.g., stories), we mapped the neural mechanisms by which the human brain accumulates and processes information with increasing duration and complexity in participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy older adults. To explore the mechanisms of information processing, we measured the reliability of brain responses elicited by listening to different versions of a narrated story created by segmenting the story into words, sentences, and paragraphs and then scrambling the segments. Comparing healthy older adults and participants with aMCI revealed that in both groups, all types of stimuli similarly recruited primary auditory areas. However, prominent differences between groups were found at the level of processing long and complex stimuli. In healthy older adults, parietal and frontal regions demonstrated highly synchronized responses in both the paragraph and full story conditions, as has been previously reported in young adults. Participants with aMCI, however, exhibited a robust functional shift of long time scale processing to the pre- and post-central sulci. Our results suggest that participants with aMCI experienced a functional shift of higher order auditory information processing, possibly reflecting a functional response to concurrent or impending neuronal or synaptic loss. This observation might assist in understanding mechanisms of cognitive decline in aMCI.

  12. Gray Matter Alterations in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Identified by Voxel Based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J.; Biederman, Joseph; Liang, Lichen; Valera, Eve M.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Brown, Ariel; Kaiser, Jonathan; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Makris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Background Gray and white matter volume deficits have been reported in many structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, there is a paucity of structural MRI studies of adults with ADHD. This study used voxel based morphometry and applied an a priori region of interest approach based on our previous work, as well as from well-developed neuroanatomical theories of ADHD. Methods Seventy-four adults with DSM-IV ADHD and 54 healthy control subjects comparable on age, sex, race, handedness, IQ, reading achievement, frequency of learning disabilities, and whole brain volume had an MRI on a 1.5T Siemens scanner. A priori region of interest hypotheses focused on reduced volumes in ADHD in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, putamen, inferior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. Analyses were carried out by FSL-VBM 1.1. Results Relative to control subjects, ADHD adults had significantly smaller gray matter volumes in parts of six of these regions at p ≤ .01, whereas parts of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule were significantly larger in ADHD at this threshold. However, a number of other regions were smaller and larger in ADHD (especially fronto-orbital cortex) at this threshold. Only the caudate remained significantly smaller at the family-wise error rate. Conclusions Adults with ADHD have subtle volume reductions in the caudate and possibly other brain regions involved in attention and executive control supporting frontostriatal models of ADHD. Modest group brain volume differences are discussed in the context of the nature of the samples studied and voxel based morphometry methodology. PMID:21183160

  13. Parental effects alter the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, Rebecca M; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Henshaw, Jonathan M; Jarrett, Benjamin J M; De Gasperin, Ornela; Attisano, Alfredo; Kokko, Hanna

    2015-09-22

    The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet, virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care. We manipulated the early-life environment and measured the fitness payoffs associated with the supply of parental care when larvae reached maturity. We found that (1) adults that received low levels of care as larvae were less successful at raising larger broods and suffered greater mortality as a result: they were low-quality parents. Furthermore, (2) high-quality males that raised offspring with low-quality females subsequently suffered greater mortality than brothers of equivalent quality, which reared larvae with higher quality females. Our analyses identify three general ways in which parental effects can change the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait: by influencing the associated fitness benefits and costs; by consequently changing the evolutionary outcome of social interactions; and by modifying the evolutionarily stable expression of behavioural traits that are themselves parental effects.

  14. Possible Contribution of PTSD to Altered Cortisol Activity in Young Adult Obese African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.

  15. Prenatal and lactational exposure to low-doses of bisphenol A alters adult mice behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiko; Itoh, Kyoko; Dai, Hongmei; Han, Longzhe; Wang, Xiaohang; Kato, Shingo; Sugimoto, Tohru; Fushiki, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical, widely used in dentistry and various industries. We previously reported that BPA affected murine neocortical development by accelerating neuronal differentiation/migration, resulting in abnormal neocortical architecture as well as aberrant thalamocortical connections in the brains of adult mice. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prenatal and lactational BPA exposure affected behavior in adult mice. Pregnant mice were injected subcutaneously with 20μg/kg of BPA daily from embryonic day 0 (E0) until postnatal day 21 (P21). Control animals received a vehicle alone. Behavioral tests (n=15-20) were conducted at postnatal 3weeks (P3W) and P10-15W. After an open-field test, an elevated plus maze and Morris water maze tests were performed. The total distance in the elevated plus maze test at P3W and in the open-field test at P10W was significantly decreased in the BPA-exposed group, compared with the control group. Significant sex differences were observed in the time spent in the central area in the open-field test at P3W and in the total distance in the elevated plus maze test at P11W. These results indicated that prenatal and lactational BPA exposure disturbed the murine behavior in the postnatal development period and the adult mice. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  17. Plasticity Induced by Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Bilateral Motor Cortices Is Not Altered in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daina S. E. Dickins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported that plasticity induced in the motor cortex by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is attenuated in older adults. Those investigations, however, have focused solely on the stimulated hemisphere. Compared to young adults, older adults exhibit more widespread activity across bilateral motor cortices during the performance of unilateral motor tasks, suggesting that the manifestation of plasticity might also be altered. To address this question, twenty young (65 years underwent intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS whilst attending to the hand targeted by the plasticity-inducing procedure. The amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by single pulse TMS was used to quantify cortical excitability before and after iTBS. Individual responses to iTBS were highly variable, with half the participants showing an unexpected decrease in cortical excitability. Contrary to predictions, however, there were no age-related differences in the magnitude or manifestation of plasticity across bilateral motor cortices. The findings suggest that advancing age does not influence the capacity for, or manifestation of, plasticity induced by iTBS.

  18. Plasticity Induced by Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Bilateral Motor Cortices Is Not Altered in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickins, Daina S. E.; Sale, Martin V.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that plasticity induced in the motor cortex by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is attenuated in older adults. Those investigations, however, have focused solely on the stimulated hemisphere. Compared to young adults, older adults exhibit more widespread activity across bilateral motor cortices during the performance of unilateral motor tasks, suggesting that the manifestation of plasticity might also be altered. To address this question, twenty young (65 years) underwent intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) whilst attending to the hand targeted by the plasticity-inducing procedure. The amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by single pulse TMS was used to quantify cortical excitability before and after iTBS. Individual responses to iTBS were highly variable, with half the participants showing an unexpected decrease in cortical excitability. Contrary to predictions, however, there were no age-related differences in the magnitude or manifestation of plasticity across bilateral motor cortices. The findings suggest that advancing age does not influence the capacity for, or manifestation of, plasticity induced by iTBS. PMID:26064691

  19. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xunheng; Jiao, Yun; Tang, Tianyu; Wang, Hui; Lu, Zuhong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification

  20. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xunheng [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Jiao, Yun, E-mail: yunjiao@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Tianyu; Wang, Hui; Lu, Zuhong [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification.

  1. Electrocardiographic and Blood Pressure Alterations During Electroconvulsive Therapy in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Demetrio Ortega

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To study cardiovascular alterations in young patients with no apparent organic disease who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. METHODS - The study comprised 47 healthy patients (22 males and 25 females with a mean age of 30.3 years, who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous electrocardiographic monitoring (Holter monitor were performed during 24 hours. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed 4 hours prior to electric shock administration, during electric shock administration, and 3 hours after electric shock administration. Arrhythmias and alterations in the ST segment in 24 hours were recorded. RESULTS - On electroconvulsive therapy, a significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate was observed and the measurements returned to basal values after 25 minutes. Three females had tracings with depression of the ST segment suggesting myocardial ischemia prior to and after electroconvulsive therapy. Coronary angiography was normal. No severe cardiac arrhythmias were diagnosed. CONCLUSION - 1 Electroconvulsive therapy is a safe therapeutic modality in psychiatry; 2 it causes a significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate; 3 it may be associated with myocardial ischemia in the absence of coronary obstructive disease; 4 electroconvulsive therapy was not associated with the occurrence of severe cardiac arrhythmias.

  2. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Rami, E-mail: rami.haddad@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Kasneci, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.kasneci@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Mepham, Kathryn, E-mail: katherine.mepham@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Sebag, Igal A., E-mail: igal.sebag@mcgill.ca [Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); and others

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  3. Altered cerebellar functional connectivity with intrinsic connectivity networks in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated the higher-order functions of the cerebellum, including emotion regulation and cognitive processing, and have indicated that the cerebellum should therefore be included in the pathophysiological models of major depressive disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the resting-state functional connectivity of the cerebellum in adults with major depression and healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty adults with major depression and 20 gender-, age-, and education-matched controls were investigated using seed-based resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, depressed patients showed significantly increased functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the temporal poles. However, significantly reduced cerebellar functional connectivity was observed in the patient group in relation to both the default-mode network, mainly including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, and the executive control network, mainly including the superior frontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score was negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the bilateral Lobule VIIb and the right superior frontal gyrus in depressed patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated increased cerebellar coupling with the temporal poles and reduced coupling with the regions in the default-mode and executive control networks in adults with major depression. These differences between patients and controls could be associated with the emotional disturbances and cognitive control function deficits that accompany major depression. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity during major depression may also imply a substantial role for the cerebellum in the pathophysiological models of depression.

  4. Acupoint Massage for Managing Cognitive Alterations in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Shen, Cuiling; Yao, Liqun; Li, Zhuangmiao

    2018-06-01

    Cognitive disorders pose a major problem in the aging population across the globe. Acupoint massage has been used to improve cognitive functions in older adults. In this study, the authors performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the usefulness of acupoint massage in preventing cognitive declines in older adults. The authors searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the effectiveness of acupoint massage on cognition in older adults in the following literature databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Foreign Medical Journal Service, Cochrane Library, VIP Information, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG, and Chinese Biomedical. Two reviewers independently extracted the data related to the study and participants' characteristics and the cognitive impairment outcomes. Only RCTs meeting the inclusion criteria were used in the present meta-analysis. Eight RCTs with 657 participants in total (age ≥60 years) were included. It is actually 8 for synthetic and 6 in the meta-analysis. The authors calculated the pooled estimates of the random effects of changes in the Mini-Mental State Examination to compare the groups with and without acupoint massage. The merged mean difference (MD) was 1.94 (95% confidence interval, C.I., [1.41-2.47], p < 0.00001) after 3 months of acupoint massage treatment and 3.04 (95% C.I. [2.43-3.64], p < 0.00001) after 6 months of treatment. They also calculated the merged MD of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Chinese version after 6 months of acupoint massage. Visual Reproduction was 2.95 (95% C.I. [1.30-4.60], p = 0.0005), Associate Learning was 1.89 (95% C.I. [1.41-2.37], p < 0.00001), Logical Memory was 2.85 (95% C.I. [2.06-3.63], p < 0.00001), and Digit Span was 3.16 (95% C.I. [2.59-3.73], p < 0.00001). The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used to rate the quality of the studies, which was moderate overall. The findings suggested that

  5. Psychometric evaluation and normative data for the depression, anxiety, and stress scales-21 (DASS-21) in a nonclinical sample of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Siefert, Caleb J; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle M; Stein, Michelle B; Renna, Megan; Blais, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Health care professionals are coming under increased pressure to empirically monitor patient outcomes across settings as a means of improving clinical practice. Within the psychiatric and primary care communities, many have begun utilizing brief psychometric measures of psychological functioning to accomplish these goals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21-item version (DASS-21), and contribute normative data to facilitate interpretation using a sample of U.S. adults (N = 503). Item-scale convergence was generally supported, although assumptions of item-scale divergence were not met. Only 86%, 50%, and 43% of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress items, respectively, correlated significantly greater with their hypothesized scales than other scales. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable for all scales and comparable to existing research (αs = .91, .80, and .84 for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, respectively). Scale-level correlations were greater than what has been reported elsewhere (range of rs = .68 to .73), and principal components analysis supported the extraction of only one component accounting for 47% of the item-level variance. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) favored a three-factor structure when compared to a one-factor model. The implications for the health care professions are discussed.

  6. Use of folic acid and vitamin supplementation among adults with depression and anxiety: a cross-sectional, population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croft Janet B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that folate deficiency may be causatively linked to depressive symptoms. However, little is known on the status of use of folic acid and vitamin supplements among people with mental disorders. This study examined the prevalence and the likelihood of use of folic acid or vitamin supplements among adults with depression and anxiety in comparison to those without these conditions. Methods Using data from 46, 119 participants (aged ≥ 18 years in the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, we estimated the adjusted prevalence and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for taking folic acid and vitamin supplements among those with ever diagnosed depression (n = 8, 019, ever diagnosed anxiety (n = 5, 546 or elevated depressive symptoms (n = 3, 978, defined as having a depression severity score of ≥ 10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 diagnostic algorithm. Results Overall, women were more likely than men to take folic acid supplements 1-4 times/day (50.2% versus 38.7%, P Conclusion The prevalence and the likelihood of taking folic acid and vitamin supplements varied substantially by a history of diagnosed depression among both men and women and by a history of diagnosed anxiety among men, but not by presence of elevated depressive symptoms in either sex.

  7. Salivary chromogranin A levels correlate with disease severity but do not reflect anxiety or personality of adult patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Sakae; Liu, Lijuan; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Minami-Hori, Masako; Morita, Eishin

    2017-08-01

    Stress-induced scratching is an issue in patients with adult atopic dermatitis (AD). Although itching and stress are believed to be intimately related, no objective index is available; therefore, most evaluations are subjective. Using saliva, which is easily collected, we investigated the degree to which AD severity and patient stress levels are reflected in stress proteins in the saliva. Here, we evaluated the severity (Scoring Atopic Dermatitis [SCORAD] score), stress (State-Trait Anxiety Index [STAI] score), personality (Tokyo University Egogram [TEG] II score) and quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI] score) of 51 patients with AD who were examined in the Department of Dermatology of Shimane University between April and December 2015. We collected saliva and measured salivary chromogranin A (CgA), amylase and cortisol. The amount of salivary CgA per protein in patients with AD was correlated with their SCORAD score (r = 0.458, P < 0.001). There was no correlation between cortisol or amylase levels and SCORAD score. SCORAD score was correlated with DLQI (r = 0.390, P = 0.006). CgA per protein was correlated with DLQI (r = 0.393, P = 0.004). There was no correlation between scores for the anxiety component of the STAI, TEG II or DLQI. Our results suggested that patients with more severe AD may have high stress levels. The personalities of these patients with AD tended to involve elevated anxiety levels. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Alteration of maxillary and mandibular growth of adult patients with unoperated isolated cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunqiang; Wu, Yeke; Gu, Yifei; Yang, Qijian; Shi, Bing; Zheng, Qian; Wang, Yan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cleft palate itself on the growth of maxilla and mandible. Fifty-two adult female patients with unoperated isolated cleft palate and 52 adult female individuals with normal occlusion were included in our study. Computer software was used for lateral cephalometry measurement. Manual measurement was performed for dental cast measurements, and sample t test analysis was applied to analyze the differences between the 2 groups using SPSS 17.0. The sella-nasion-subspinale point angle, subspinale-nasion-supramentale point angle, and maxillary arch length of the cleft group were significantly smaller than those of the control group (P cleft group were significantly larger compared with the control group (P palate height, and palate shelf inclination did not differ between the 2 groups. The measurements did not differ between the submucosal cleft and the overt cleft patients. Cleft palate itself has adverse effects on the maxilla growth with shorter maxillary arch length and wider posterior dental arch width.

  9. Phencyclidine administration during neurodevelopment alters network activity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Hovelsø, Nanna; Dalby, Nils Ole

    2017-01-01

    Symptoms of schizophrenia have been linked to insults during neurodevelopment such as NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist exposure. In animal models, this leads to schizophrenia-like behavioral symptoms as well as molecular and functional changes within hippocampal and prefrontal regions. The aim of...... in the evolvement of schizophrenia-like symptoms and contribute to the understanding of the functional deficits underlying aberrant behavior in this disease.......Symptoms of schizophrenia have been linked to insults during neurodevelopment such as NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist exposure. In animal models, this leads to schizophrenia-like behavioral symptoms as well as molecular and functional changes within hippocampal and prefrontal regions. The aim...... that NMDAR antagonist exposure during brain development alters functional networks within hippocampus and mPFC possibly contributing to the reported behavioral symptoms of this animal model of schizophrenia.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that insults with a NMDA receptor antagonist during neurodevelopment lead...

  10. Altered cardiorespiratory coupling in young male adults with excessive online gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae Seung; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Dooyoung; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kim, Yeni; Roh, Myoung-Sun; Ahn, Yong Min; Hahm, Bong-Jin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate changes in heart rate variability and cardiorespiratory coupling in male college students with problematic Internet use (PIU) excessive gaming type during action video game play to assess the relationship between PIU tendency and central autonomic regulation. Electrocardiograms and respiration were simultaneously recorded from 22 male participants with excessive online gaming and 22 controls during action video game play. Sample entropy (SampEn) was computed to assess autonomic regularity, and cross-SampEn was calculated to quantify autonomic coordination. During video game play, reduced cardiorespiratory coupling (CRC) was observed in individuals with PIU excessive gaming type compared with controls, implicating central autonomic dysregulation. The PIU tendency was associated with the severity of autonomic dysregulation. These findings indicate impaired CRC in PIU excessive gaming type, which may reflect alterations of central inhibitory control over autonomic responses to pleasurable online stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CDKL5 knockout leads to altered inhibitory transmission in the cerebellum of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivilia, S; Mangano, C; Beggiato, S; Giuliani, A; Torricella, R; Baldassarro, V A; Fernandez, M; Lorenzini, L; Giardino, L; Borelli, A C; Ferraro, L; Calzà, L

    2016-06-01

    Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) are associated to severe neurodevelopmental alterations including motor symptoms. In order to elucidate the neurobiological substrate of motor symptoms in CDKL5 syndrome, we investigated the motor function, GABA and glutamate pathways in the cerebellum of CDKL5 knockout female mice. Behavioural data indicate that CDKL5-KO mice displayed impaired motor coordination on the Rotarod test, and altered steps, as measured by the gait analysis using the CatWalk test. A higher reduction in spontaneous GABA efflux, than that in glutamate, was observed in CDKL5-KO mouse cerebellar synaptosomes, leading to a significant increase of spontaneous glutamate/GABA efflux ratio in these animals. On the contrary, there were no differences between groups in K(+) -evoked GABA and glutamate efflux. The anatomical analysis of cerebellar excitatory and inhibitory pathways showed a selective defect of the GABA-related marker GAD67 in the molecular layer in CDKL5-KO mice, while the glutamatergic marker VGLUT1 was unchanged in the same area. Fine cerebellar structural abnormalities such as a reduction of the inhibitory basket 'net' estimated volume and an increase of the pinceau estimated volume were also observed in CDKL5-KO mice. Finally, the BDNF mRNA expression level in the cerebellum, but not in the hippocampus, was reduced compared with WT animals. These data suggest that CDKL5 deletion during development more markedly impairs the establishment of a correct GABAergic cerebellar network than that of glutamatergic one, leading to the behavioural symptoms associated with CDKL5 mutation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. Prevalence of alterations in the characteristics of smile symmetry in an adult population from southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Orozco-Varo, Ana; Arroyo-Cruz, Gema; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Deviation from the facial midline and inclination of the dental midline or occlusal plane has been described as extremely influential in the layperson's perceptions of the overall esthetics of the smile. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of deviation from the facial midline and inclination of the dental midline or occlusal plane in a selected sample. White participants from a European population (N=158; 93 women, 65 men) who met specific inclusion criteria were selected for the present study. Standardized 1:1 scale frontal photographs were made, and 3 variables of all participants were measured: midline deviation, midline inclination, and inclination of the occlusal plane. Software was used to measure midline deviation and inclination, taking the bipupillary line and the facial midline as references. Tests for normality of the sample were explored and descriptive statistics (means ±SD) were calculated. The chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in midline deviation, midline inclination, and occlusion plane (α=.05) RESULTS: Frequencies of midline deviation (>2 mm), midline inclination (>3.5 degrees), and occlusal plane inclination (>2 degrees) were 31.64% (mean 2.7±1.23 mm), 10.75% (mean 7.9 degrees ±3.57), and 25.9% (mean 9.07 degrees ±3.16), respectively. No statistically significant differences (P>.05) were found between sex and any of the esthetic smile values. The incidence of alterations with at least 1 altered parameter that affected smile esthetics was 51.9% in a population from southern Europe. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing a clinical pathway for the identification and management of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients: an online Delphi consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joanne M; Price, Melanie A; Clayton, Josephine M; Grimison, Peter; Shaw, Tim; Rankin, Nicole; Butow, Phyllis N

    2016-01-01

    People with cancer and their families experience high levels of psychological morbidity. However, many cancer services do not routinely screen patients for anxiety and depression, and there are no standardized clinical referral pathways. This study aimed to establish consensus on elements of a draft clinical pathway tailored to the Australian context. A two-round Delphi study was conducted to gain consensus among Australian oncology and psycho-oncology clinicians about the validity of 39 items that form the basis of a clinical pathway that includes screening, assessment, referral and stepped care management of anxiety and depression in the context of cancer. The expert panel comprised 87 multidisciplinary clinician members of the Australian Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research Group (PoCoG). Respondents rated their level of agreement with each statement on a 5-point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as >80% of respondents scoring within 2 points on the Likert scale. Consensus was reached for 21 of 39 items, and a further 15 items approached consensus except for specific contextual factors, after two Delphi rounds. Formal screening for anxiety and depression, a stepped care model of management and recommendations for inclusion of length of treatment and time to review were endorsed. Consensus was not reached on items related to roles and responsibilities, particularly those not applicable across cancer settings. This study identified a core set of evidence- and consensus-based principles considered essential to a stepped care model of care incorporating identification, referral and management of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients.

  14. Electrophysiological evidence of altered visual processing in adults who experienced visual deprivation during infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Sidney J; Sternin, Avital; Lewis, Terri L; Dywan, Jane; Maurer, Daphne

    2017-04-01

    We examined the role of early visual input in visual system development by testing adults who had been born with dense bilateral cataracts that blocked all patterned visual input during infancy until the cataractous lenses were removed surgically and the eyes fitted with compensatory contact lenses. Patients viewed checkerboards and textures to explore early processing regions (V1, V2), Glass patterns to examine global form processing (V4), and moving stimuli to explore global motion processing (V5). Patients' ERPs differed from those of controls in that (1) the V1 component was much smaller for all but the simplest stimuli and (2) extrastriate components did not differentiate amongst texture stimuli, Glass patterns, or motion stimuli. The results indicate that early visual deprivation contributes to permanent abnormalities at early and mid levels of visual processing, consistent with enduring behavioral deficits in the ability to process complex textures, global form, and global motion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie L McKnight

    Full Text Available Mannoheptulose (MH, a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y. The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW, in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42. The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43-47. A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49 and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56 to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02 and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02. Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05 during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity.

  16. The impact of childhood traumas, depressive and anxiety symptoms on the relationship between borderline personality features and symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that there is a significant association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of borderline personality features (BPF) and ADHD symptoms while controlling the effect of childhood traumas, symptoms of depression and anxiety in adulthood on this relationship in Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Turkish version of the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Correlation analyses have revealed that severity of BPF is related with adult ADHD symptoms, emotional, physical abuse and depression scores. Hierarchical regression analysis has indicated that depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse and the severity of ADHD symptoms are the predictors for severity of BPF. Findings of the present study suggests that clinicians must carefully evaluate these variables and the relationship between them to understand BPF and ADHD symptoms in university students better. Together with depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse may play a mediator role on this relationship. Further studies are needed to evaluate causal relationship between these variables in both clinical and non-clinical populations.

  17. Fetal brain 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 selectively determines programming of adult depressive-like behaviors and cognitive function, but not anxiety behaviors in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwoll, Caitlin; Keith, Marianne; Noble, June; Stevenson, Paula L; Bombail, Vincent; Crombie, Sandra; Evans, Louise C; Bailey, Matthew A; Wood, Emma; Seckl, Jonathan R; Holmes, Megan C

    2015-09-01

    Stress or elevated glucocorticoids during sensitive windows of fetal development increase the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders in adult rodents and humans, a phenomenon known as glucocorticoid programming. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which catalyses rapid inactivation of glucocorticoids in the placenta, controls access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetal compartment, placing it in a key position to modulate glucocorticoid programming of behavior. However, the importance of the high expression of 11β-HSD2 within the midgestational fetal brain is unknown. To examine this, a brain-specific knockout of 11β-HSD2 (HSD2BKO) was generated and compared to wild-type littermates. HSD2BKO have markedly diminished fetal brain 11β-HSD2, but intact fetal body and placental 11β-HSD2 and normal fetal and placental growth. Despite normal fetal plasma corticosterone, HSD2BKO exhibit elevated fetal brain corticosterone levels at midgestation. As adults, HSD2BKO show depressive-like behavior and have cognitive impairments. However, unlike complete feto-placental deficiency, HSD2BKO show no anxiety-like behavioral deficits. The clear mechanistic separation of the programmed components of depression and cognition from anxiety implies distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis, affording potential opportunities for stratified interventions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered Stress-Induced Regulation of Genes in Monocytes in Adults with a History of Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Marion; Grinberg, Marianna; Moser, Dirk; Zang, Johannes C S; Heinrichs, Markus; Hengstler, Jan G; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Cole, Steve; Kumsta, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to serious or traumatic events early in life can lead to persistent alterations in physiological stress response systems, including enhanced cross talk between the neuroendocrine and immune system. These programming effects may be mechanistically involved in mediating the effects of adverse childhood experience on disease risk in adulthood. We investigated hormonal and genome-wide mRNA expression responses in monocytes to acute stress exposure, in a sample of healthy adults (n=30) with a history of early childhood adversity, and a control group (n=30) without trauma experience. The early adversity group showed altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress, evidenced by lower ACTH and cortisol responses. Analyses of gene expression patterns showed that stress-responsive transcripts were enriched for genes involved in cytokine activity, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine activity, and G-protein coupled receptor binding. Differences between groups in stress-induced regulation of gene transcription were observed for genes involved in steroid binding, hormone activity, and G-protein coupled receptor binding. Transcription factor binding motif analysis showed an increased activity of pro-inflammatory upstream signaling in the early adversity group. We also identified transcripts that were differentially correlated with stress-induced cortisol increases between the groups, enriched for genes involved in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and glutamate receptor signaling. We suggest that childhood adversity leads to persistent alterations in transcriptional control of stress-responsive pathways, which-when chronically or repeatedly activated-might predispose individuals to stress-related psychopathology.

  19. Depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: which symptoms are associated with increased risk in community dwelling older adults?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2012-12-15

    Depression is a risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). It has been reported that somatic symptoms of depression and not cognitive symptoms are associated with increased risk although findings have been inconsistent. Few studies have examined whether co-morbid anxiety confers additive risk.

  20. Caffeic acid treatment alters the extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in platelets and lymphocytes of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Javed; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Pimentel, Victor Camera; Gutierres, Jessié; Thomé, Gustavo; Cardoso, Andreia; Zanini, Daniela; Martins, Caroline; Palma, Heloisa Einloft; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Schmatz, Roberta; Leal, Cláudio Alberto Martins; da Costa, Pauline; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of caffeic acid on ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase), Ecto-NPP (nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in platelets and lymphocytes of rats, as well as in the profile of platelet aggregation. Animals were divided into five groups: I (control); II (oil); III (caffeic acid 10 mg/kg); IV (caffeic acid 50 mg/kg); and V (caffeic acid 100 mg/kg). Animals were treated with caffeic acid diluted in oil for 30 days. In platelets, caffeic acid decreased the ATP hydrolysis and increased ADP hydrolysis in groups III, IV and V when compared to control (P<0.05). The 5'-nucleotidase activity was decreased, while E-NPP and ADA activities were increased in platelets of rats of groups III, IV and V (P<0.05). Caffeic acid reduced significantly the platelet aggregation in the animals of groups III, IV and V in relation to group I (P<0.05). In lymphocytes, the NTPDase and ADA activities were increased in all groups treated with caffeic acid when compared to control (P<0.05). These findings demonstrated that the enzymes were altered in tissues by caffeic acid and this compound decreased the platelet aggregation suggesting that caffeic acid should be considered a potentially therapeutic agent in disorders related to the purinergic system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Age-dependent alterations of monocyte subsets and monocyte-related chemokine pathways in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautwein Christian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental approaches have unraveled essential migratory and functional differences of monocyte subpopulations in mice. In order to possibly translate these findings into human physiology and pathophysiology, human monocyte subsets need to be carefully revisited in health and disease. In analogy to murine studies, we hypothesized that human monocyte subsets dynamically change during ageing, potentially influencing their functionality and contributing to immunosenescence. Results Circulating monocyte subsets, surface marker and chemokine receptor expression were analyzed in 181 healthy volunteers (median age 42, range 18-88. Unlike the unaffected total leukocyte or total monocyte counts, non-classical CD14+CD16+ monocytes significantly increased with age, but displayed reduced HLA-DR and CX3CR1 surface expression in the elderly. Classical CD14++CD16- monocyte counts did not vary dependent on age. Serum MCP-1 (CCL2, but not MIP1α (CCL3, MIP1β (CCL4 or fractalkine (CX3CL1 concentrations increased with age. Monocyte-derived macrophages from old or young individuals did not differ with respect to cytokine release in vitro at steady state or upon LPS stimulation. Conclusions Our study demonstrates dynamic changes of circulating monocytes during ageing in humans. The expansion of the non-classical CD14+CD16+ subtype, alterations of surface protein and chemokine receptor expression as well as circulating monocyte-related chemokines possibly contribute to the preserved functionality of the monocyte pool throughout adulthood.

  2. Sleep disorders, depression, anxiety and satisfaction with life among young adults: a survey of university students in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Chinthaka B; Arroll, Bruce; Fernando, Antonio T

    2014-08-01

    Sleep symptoms, depression and anxiety often coexist and tertiary students are a population group that are increasingly recognised to be at risk. However the rates of these conditions in the New Zealand population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of sleep disorders, depression and anxiety, and identify correlations between satisfactions with life among university students in Auckland. Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ) was administered to undergraduate students from six schools of The University of Auckland. The different types of sleep disorders were calculated for the students who reported a significant sleep problem lasting more than 1 month. The rate of depression, anxiety and substance use as well as the satisfaction with life scale scores were also calculated for the whole cohort. A total of 1933 students were invited to participate and 66.8% completed the questionnaire. The median age was 20 years (range 16-38) and women represented 63.9% of the total group. A total of 39.4% of the students surveyed reported having significant sleep symptoms lasting longer than 1 month. The most prevalent causes for sleep symptoms were depression and anxiety. Delayed sleep phase disorder was found in 24.9% of students and parasomnias were reported by 12.4%. Depression and anxiety were present in 17.3% and 19.7% of the total group respectively, and 7.3% of students had thoughts of "being better off dead" or self-harm. A total of 15.5% students were found to have a CAGE score greater than or equal to 2 and 9.3% reported using recreational drugs in the last 3 months. Moderate negative correlations between SWLS scores and depression and anxiety were found (r=-0.45 and r=-0.37 respectively). A large number of university students are suffering from significant sleep symptoms. Mood disorders, substance use, and circadian rhythm disorders can greatly contribute to sleep difficulties in this population group. The study also showed that harmful

  3. Anxiety and depression in adult patients with familial Mediterranean fever: a study comparing patients living in Germany and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Arnd; Örnek, Ahmet; Kilic, Levent; Kurucay, Mustafa; Şendur, Süleyman N; Lainka, Elke; Henning, Bernhard F

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression among patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) living in Germany or Turkey a prospective study was conducted. Forty FMF patients living in Turkey (T), 40 FMF patients living in Germany (G) and 40 healthy controls living in Germany (C) were included. Patients and controls were of Turkish ancestry. G were compared to T and C. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used with a cut-off of ≥ 8 for each subdomain score (HADS-A, HADS-D). Baseline characteristics of G were comparable to T and C except for age (T: 30.5 years, G: 35.2 years, C: 34.6 years; T vs. G P = 0.045), duration of disease (T: 14.4 years, G: 24; P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (T: 0.78 mg/dL, G: 0.78 mg/dL, C: 0.35 mg/dL; G vs. C P = 0.03). Prevalence of anxiety was higher in G compared to C (T: 65%, G: 52.5%, C: 22.5%: G vs. C P < 0.05). No difference was found for the prevalence of depression (T: 30%, G: 35%, C: 20%). The association between FMF and anxiety in subjects living in Germany persisted after adjusting for age and gender in a regression analysis and was robust to an adjustment for coexisting depression. Anxiety and depression did not correlate with FMF disease severity assessed with the Pras score. Anxiety, but not depression is more common among FMF patients living in Germany compared to healthy controls. No significant difference could be found between FMF patients living in Germany or Turkey concerning the prevalence of anxiety or depression. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Altered Appetite-Mediating Hormone Concentrations Precede Compensatory Overeating After Severe, Short-Term Energy Deprivation in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kristie L; Scisco, Jenna L; Smith, Tracey J; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Price, Lori Lyn; Lieberman, Harris R; Karl, J Philip

    2016-02-01

    Adaptive responses of appetite-mediating hormones to negative energy balance are thought to contribute to a counterregulatory response that drives weight regain, but they have not been studied while controlling for reduced diet volume. In this secondary analysis, we aimed to determine the effects of short-term, severe energy deprivation (ED) on appetite and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations. Twenty-one adults with a mean ± SD age of 21 ± 3 y and body mass index of 25 ± 3 kg/m(2) consumed isovolumetric diets provided over separate 48-h periods while increasing habitual energy expenditure by 1683 ± 329 kcal/d through light- and moderate-intensity exercise. Energy intake was matched to energy expenditure to maintain energy balance (EB) (-44 ± 92 kcal/d) or was overeating, suggesting that in adults without obesity, altered sensitivity to appetite-mediating hormones may contribute to an adaptive counterregulatory response during the initial stages of negative EB. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01603550. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK 801-induced hyperlocomotion in the adult rat: An animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Burne, Thomas H J; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2006-09-15

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for schizophrenia. The behavioral phenotype of adult rats subjected to transient low prenatal vitamin D is characterized by spontaneous hyperlocomotion but normal prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of selected psychotropic agents and one well-known antipsychotic agent on the behavioral phenotype of DVD deplete rats. Control versus DVD deplete adult rats were assessed on holeboard, open field and PPI. In the open field, animals were given MK-801 and/or haloperidol. For PPI, the animals were given apomorphine or MK-801. DVD deplete rats had increased baseline locomotion on the holeboard task and increased locomotion in response to MK-801 compared to control rats. At low doses, haloperidol antagonized the MK-801 hyperactivity of DVD deplete rats preferentially and, at a high dose, resulted in a more pronounced reduction in spontaneous locomotion in DVD deplete rats. DVD depletion did not affect either baseline or drug-mediated PPI response. These results suggest that DVD deficiency is associated with a persistent alteration in neuronal systems associated with motor function but not those associated with sensory motor gating. In light of the putative association between low prenatal vitamin D and schizophrenia, the discrete behavioral differences associated with the DVD model may help elucidate the neurobiological correlates of schizophrenia.

  6. Math Anxiety, Math Self-Concept, and Math Self-Efficacy in Adult Learners Compared to Traditional Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Molly M.; Fusco, Brooke R.

    2014-01-01

    Adult learners comprise a significant portion of current undergraduate populations, and projections indicate steady or growing numbers of adult learners in the future. Previous research has suggested that adult learners possess lower self-confidence than and face barriers not experienced by traditional undergraduate students. These constructs have…

  7. Neuropeptide S alters anxiety, but not depression-like behaviour in Flinders Sensitive Line rats: a genetic animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Gregers; Finger, Beate C; Elfving, Betina; Keller, Kirsten; Liebenberg, Nico; Fischer, Christina W; Singewald, Nicolas; Slattery, David A; Neumann, Inga D; Mathé, Aleksander A

    2012-04-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) have been implicated in the mediation of anxiolytic-like behaviour in rodents. However, little knowledge is available regarding the NPS system in depression-related behaviours, and whether NPS also exerts anxiolytic effects in an animal model of psychopathology. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize the effects of NPS on depression- and anxiety-related parameters, using male and female rats in a well-validated animal model of depression: the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We found that FSL showed greater immobility in the forced swim test (FST) than FRL, confirming their phenotype. However, NPS did not affect depression-related behaviour in any rat line. No significant differences in baseline anxiety levels between the FSL and FRL strains were observed, but FSL and FRL rats displayed less anxiety-like behaviour compared to SD rats. NPS decreased anxiety-like behaviour on the elevated plus-maze in all strains. The expression of the NPSR in the amygdala, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and hippocampus was equal in all male strains, although a trend towards reduced expression within the amygdala was observed in FSL rats compared to SD rats. In conclusion, NPS had a marked anxiolytic effect in FSL, FRL and SD rats, but did not modify the depression-related behaviour in any strain, in spite of the significant differences in innate level between the strains. These findings suggest that NPS specifically modifies anxiety behaviour but cannot overcome/reverse a genetically mediated depression phenotype.

  8. Perinatal low-protein diet alters brainstem antioxidant metabolism in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Liu, Yuri; Fernandes, Mariana Pinheiro; Lagranha, Claudia Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Studies in humans and animal models have established a close relationship between early environment insult and subsequent risk of development of non-communicable diseases, including the cardiovascular. Whereas experimental evidences highlight the early undernutrition and the late cardiovascular disease relation, the central mechanisms linking the two remain unknown. Owing to the oxidative balance influence in several pathologies, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal undernutrition (i.e. a low-protein (LP) diet) on oxidative balance in the brainstem. Male rats from mothers fed with an LP diet (8% casein) throughout the perinatal period (i.e. gestation and lactation) showed 10× higher lipid peroxidation levels than animals treated with normoprotein (17% casein) at 100 days of age. In addition, we observed the following reductions in enzymatic activities: superoxide dismutase, 16%; catalase, 30%; glutathione peroxidase, 34%; glutathione-S-transferase, 51%; glutathione reductase, 23%; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 31%; and in non-enzymatic glutathione system, 46%. This study is the first to focus on the role of maternal LP nutrition in oxidative balance in a central nervous system structure responsible for cardiovascular control in adult rats. Our data observed changes in oxidative balance in the offspring, therefore, bring a new concept related to early undernutrition and can help in the development of a new clinical strategy to combat the effects of nutritional insult. Wherein the central oxidative imbalance is a feasible mechanism underlying the hypertension risk in adulthood triggered by maternal LP diet.

  9. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK-801-induced behaviours in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; O'Loan, Jonathan C; Alexander, Suzanne; Deng, Chao; Huang, Xu-Feng; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W; Burne, Thomas H J

    2012-04-01

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a candidate risk factor for developing schizophrenia in humans. In rodents DVD deficiency induces subtle changes in the way the brain develops. This early developmental insult leads to select behavioural changes in the adult, such as an enhanced response to amphetamine-induced locomotion in female DVD-deficient rats but not in male DVD-deficient rats and an enhanced locomotor response to the N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801, in male DVD-deficient rats. However, the response to MK-801-induced locomotion in female DVD-deficient rats is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to further examine this behavioural finding in male and female rats and assess NMDA receptor density. DVD-deficient Sprague Dawley rats were assessed for locomotion, ataxia, acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ASR to multiple doses of MK-801. The NMDA receptor density in relevant brain regions was assessed in a drug-naive cohort. DVD deficiency increased locomotion in response to MK-801 in both sexes. DVD-deficient rats also showed an enhanced ASR compared with control rats, but PPI was normal. Moreover, DVD deficiency decreased NMDA receptor density in the caudate putamen of both sexes. These results suggest that a transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency has a long-lasting effect on NMDA-mediated signalling in the rodent brain and may be a plausible candidate risk factor for schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Young Adults' Experience of Appearance-Altering Orthognathic Surgery: A Longitudinal Interpretative Phenomenologic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Morna J; Baker, Sarah R; Smith, Keith G; Thompson, Andrew R

    2018-02-01

    To gain an experiential account of the processes of change associated specifically with orthognathic surgery. A qualitative design was used. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 7 participants approximately 1 week before and 6-8 weeks after surgery. The data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenologic analysis (IPA). Participants were recruited from a NHS Dental Hospital. Patients aged 16 to 25 years scheduled to undergo orthognathic surgery on both the upper and lower jaws were purposively sought to participate. Seven participants aged between 18 and 25 years and who had undergone a bimaxillary osteotomy completed interviews (5 females and 2 males). Themes were identified in connection with the overall journey of treatment being a rite of passage; the treatment's role in raising awareness about the anomalies in appearance; the initial shock at the changes that followed surgery; the uncertainty about treatment; the impact of actual negative reactions of others; and the role of significant others in the decision-making process. Participants described undergoing a much more complex process of adjustment to change in appearance than has been identified elsewhere within the literature, and the study highlights the nuanced fashion in which both medical and parental communication influence patient expectation and experience of surgery. There is a need to improve communication between clinicians, families, and young adults seeking orthognathic surgery. Further studies are needed to investigate the processes associated with seeking to change facial appearance resulting from other forms of dentofacial condition.

  11. Adult onset global loss of the fto gene alters body composition and metabolism in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona McMurray

    Full Text Available The strongest BMI-associated GWAS locus in humans is the FTO gene. Rodent studies demonstrate a role for FTO in energy homeostasis and body composition. The phenotypes observed in loss of expression studies are complex with perinatal lethality, stunted growth from weaning, and significant alterations in body composition. Thus understanding how and where Fto regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition is a challenge. To address this we generated a series of mice with distinct temporal and spatial loss of Fto expression. Global germline loss of Fto resulted in high perinatal lethality and a reduction in body length, fat mass, and lean mass. When ratio corrected for lean mass, mice had a significant increase in energy expenditure, but more appropriate multiple linear regression normalisation showed no difference in energy expenditure. Global deletion of Fto after the in utero and perinatal period, at 6 weeks of age, removed the high lethality of germline loss. However, there was a reduction in weight by 9 weeks, primarily as loss of lean mass. Over the subsequent 10 weeks, weight converged, driven by an increase in fat mass. There was a switch to a lower RER with no overall change in food intake or energy expenditure. To test if the phenotype can be explained by loss of Fto in the mediobasal hypothalamus, we sterotactically injected adeno-associated viral vectors encoding Cre recombinase to cause regional deletion. We observed a small reduction in food intake and weight gain with no effect on energy expenditure or body composition. Thus, although hypothalamic Fto can impact feeding, the effect of loss of Fto on body composition is brought about by its actions at sites elsewhere. Our data suggest that Fto may have a critical role in the control of lean mass, independent of its effect on food intake.

  12. Relationship between adult social phobia and childhood anxiety Relação entre fobia social na vida adulta e ansiedade na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Gus Manfro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of traumas and the presence of childhood anxiety disorders in adult patients with social phobia and investigate their influence on the presentation of the disorder. METHODS: Twenty-four adult patients with social phobia were asked about the presence of trauma before the age of 16. The K-SADS-E and the DICA-P interviews were used to assess these patients regarding childhood anxiety disorders. RESULTS: Twelve (50% patients reported a history of trauma before the age of 16. The presence of trauma did not influence the presentation of the disorder. Seventy-five percent of patients had a history of anxiety disorders in childhood. Patients with a history of at least 2 childhood anxiety disorders had an increased lifetime prevalence of major depression (10 vs. 3; p=.04 and family history of psychiatric disorders (13 vs. 6; p=.02. CONCLUSION: Anxiety disorder in childhood is associated with family history of psychiatric disorders. The presence of more than one diagnosis of anxiety disorder in childhood can be considered a risk factor for the development of depression in adult patients with social phobia.OBJETIVO: A meta desse estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de traumas e a presença de transtornos de ansiedade na infância em pacientes adultos com fobia social e investigar sua influência na apresentação do transtorno. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro pacientes adultos com fobia social foram questionados sobre a presença de trauma antes dos 16 anos. A presença de transtornos de ansiedade na infância foi avaliada por meio do K-SADS-E e DICA-P. RESULTADOS: Doze (50% pacientes relataram história de trauma antes dos 16 anos. A presença de trauma não influenciou a apresentação do transtorno de ansiedade social. Três quartos dos pacientes apresentavam história de transtorno de ansiedade na infância. Pacientes com história de dois ou mais transtornos de ansiedade na infância tinham uma

  13. Sensorimotor oscillations prior to speech onset reflect altered motor networks in adults who stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Mersov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adults who stutter (AWS have demonstrated atypical coordination of motor and sensory regions during speech production. Yet little is known of the speech-motor network in AWS in the brief time window preceding audible speech onset. The purpose of the current study was to characterize neural oscillations in the speech-motor network during preparation for and execution of overt speech production in AWS using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Twelve AWS and twelve age-matched controls were presented with 220 words, each word embedded in a carrier phrase. Controls were presented with the same word list as their matched AWS participant. Neural oscillatory activity was localized using minimum-variance beamforming during two time periods of interest: speech preparation (prior to speech onset and speech execution (following speech onset. Compared to controls, AWS showed stronger beta (15-25Hz suppression in the speech preparation stage, followed by stronger beta synchronization in the bilateral mouth motor cortex. AWS also recruited the right mouth motor cortex significantly earlier in the speech preparation stage compared to controls. Exaggerated motor preparation is discussed in the context of reduced coordination in the speech-motor network of AWS. It is further proposed that exaggerated beta synchronization may reflect a more strongly inhibited motor system that requires a stronger beta suppression to disengage prior to speech initiation. These novel findings highlight critical differences in the speech-motor network of AWS that occur prior to speech onset and emphasize the need to investigate further the speech-motor assembly in the stuttering population.

  14. Long-term hydrocephalus alters the cytoarchitecture of the adult subventricular zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Ordoñez, Tania; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Chaichana, Kaisorn L.; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Rigamonti, Daniele; García-Verdugo, Jose M.; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocephalus can develop secondarily to a disturbance in production, flow and/or absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Experimental models of hydrocephalus, especially subacute and chronic hydrocephalus, are few and limited, and the effects of hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of long-term obstructive hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone, which is the neurogenic niche lining the lateral ventricles. We developed a new method to induce hydrocephalus by obstructing the aqueduct of Sylvius in the mouse brain, thus simulating aqueductal stenosis in humans. In 120-day-old rodents (n = 18 per group), the degree of ventricular dilatation and cellular composition of the subventricular zone were studied by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. In adult patients (age > 18 years), the sizes of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule were analyzed by magnetic resonance images obtained from patients with and without aqueductal stenosis (n=25 per group). Mice with 60-day hydrocephalus had a reduced number of Ki67+ and doublecortin+ cells on immunofluorescence, as well as decreased number of neural progenitors and neuroblasts in the subventricular zone on electron microscopy analysis as compared to non-hydrocephalic mice. Remarkably, a number of extracellular matrix structures (fractones) contacting the ventricular lumen and blood vessels were also observed around the subventricular zone in mice with hydrocephalus. In humans, the widths of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule in patients with aqueductal stenosis were significantly smaller than age and gender-matched patients without aqueductal stenosis. In summary, supratentorial hydrocephalus reduces the proliferation rate of neural progenitors and modifies the cytoarchitecture and extracellular matrix compounds of the subventricular zone. In humans, this similar process reduces the

  15. Psychometric properties of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and its relationship with life-stress, anxiety and depression in a Hispanic Latin-American community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Resilience is a multi-dimensional construct associated with health and well-being. At present, we do not yet have a valid, scientific instrument that is designed to evaluate adult resilience in Spanish-speaking countries and that accounts for family, social and individual components. This study aimed at investigating the construct and cross-cultural validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) by combining Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Hierarchical Regression models in a Hispanic Latin-American group. A community sample of 805 adults answered the RSA, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). First-order CFA verified the six factors structure for the RSA (RMSEA = .037, SRMR = .047, CFI = .91, TLI = .90). Five RSA scales and total score have good internal consistency (scales α > .70; total score α = .90). Two second-order CFA verified the intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of the protector factors of resilience, as well as their commonality and uniqueness with affective symptoms (anxiety and depression). An exploratory MDS reproduced the relations of RSA items and factors at first and second-order levels against random simulated data, thereby providing initial evidence of its cross-cultural validity in a Spanish-speaking group. The Four-steps hierarchical model showed that the RSA scales are the strongest predictors of anxiety and depression-greater than gender, age, education and stressful life-events. Three RSA scales are significant unique predictors of affective symptoms. In addition, similar to findings in diverse cultural settings, resilience is positively associated with age but not with education. Women report higher scores of Social Resources and Social Competence and lower scores of Perception of the Self. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the construct and criterion-related validity of the RSA in broad, diverse and Spanish speaking

  16. Hemorheological alterations in adults with prediabetes identified by hemoglobin A1c levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, M A; Fiorentino, T V; Andreozzi, F; Mannino, G C; Succurro, E; Sciacqua, A; Perticone, F; Sesti, G

    2017-07-01

    A link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes has been previously reported. Herein, we investigated the association of blood viscosity with prediabetes, identified by glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) according to the new American Diabetes Association criteria, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The study cohort includes 1136 non-diabetic adults submitted to anthropometrical evaluation, an oral glucose tolerance test and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Whole blood viscosity was estimated using a validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins. After adjusting for age, and gender, individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4% [39-47 mmol/mol]) exhibited significantly higher values of hematocrit, and predicted blood viscosity as compared with controls. Increased levels of IMT were observed in subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes in comparison to controls. Predicted blood viscosity was positively correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting insulin, IMT and inversely correlated with HDL and Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity. Of the three glycemic parameters, i.e. HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose, only HbA1c showed a significant correlation with predicted blood viscosity (β = 0.054, P = 0.04) in a multivariate regression analysis model including multiple atherosclerosis risk factors. The study shows that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes have increased predicted blood viscosity and IMT. The HbA1c criterion may be helpful to capture individuals with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease who may benefit from an intensive lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical

  17. The Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest): Validation in a Sample of Adults with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, SC; Morrison, AS; Goldin, PR; Olino, TM; Heimberg, RG; Gross, JJ

    2017-01-01

    © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Cognitive distortions are thought to be central to the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders and are a widely acknowledged treatment target in cognitive-behavioral interventions. However, little research has focused on the measurement of cognitive distortions. The Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest; de Oliveira, Trial-based cognitive therapy: A manual for clinicians, Routledge, New York, 2015), a brief, 15-item questionna...

  18. "Tell me, how bright your hypomania is, and I tell you, if you are happily in love!"--among young adults in love, bright side hypomania is related to reduced depression and anxiety, and better sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Foell, Stephan; Bajoghli, Hafez; Keshavarzi, Zahra; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Schmidt, Norman B; Norton, Peter J; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2015-03-01

    Studies on adolescents and adults show that romantic love (RL) is associated with favorable emotional states. However, data on these associations are scarce for adults. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore the associations between RL, symptoms of depression, anxiety, hypomania (bright side and dark side), and sleep in a sample of adults. A total of 844 participants currently in love (M = 24.79 years, 75.8% females) took part in the study. They completed a series of questionnaires related to RL, symptoms of depression, anxiety, hypomania (bright side and dark side), and sleep. An increased state of RL was associated both with the bright and the dark side of hypomania (BRHYP and DAHYP). Relative to participants with BRHYP, participants with DAHYP reported stronger symptoms of depression and state anxiety, and poor sleep quality. The pattern of results adds to our knowledge that in adults RL is not entirely a joyful and happy period of life. Rather, data suggest that for young adults in love, bright versus dark side of hypomania was associated with a different quality of psychological functioning and sleep. We conclude that experiencing RL might be a critical life event associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and poor sleep.

  19. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with higher anticipatory cortisol stress response, anxiety, and alcohol consumption in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Van der Does, A J Willem; Kouwenhoven, Coen; Elzinga, Bernet M; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-11-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key protein in maintaining neuronal integrity. The BDNF gene is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time in a single study, the association between BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism, anxiety, alcohol consumption, and cortisol stress response. 98 healthy university students (54 females and 44 males), genotyped for the Val(66)Met polymorphism, participated in a physical-stress procedure (cold pressure test, CPT) after having been informed that they would undergo a painful experience. Indices of anxiety and of stress were collected from repeated measurement of salivary cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate. BDNF Met carriers, were more anxious during the CPT (pBDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism with HPA axis reactivity to stress was not modulated by gender. These results suggest that Met carriers are particularly sensitive in anticipating stressful events, which extends previous findings on the moderating role of the BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism in the face of stressful life events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Unconventional Oil and Gas Operation Chemical Mixtures Altered Mammary Gland Development in Adult Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapouckey, Sarah A; Kassotis, Christopher D; Nagel, Susan C; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2018-03-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) operations, which combine hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and directional drilling, involve the use of hundreds of chemicals, including many with endocrine-disrupting properties. Two previous studies examined mice exposed during early development to a 23-chemical mixture of UOG compounds (UOG-MIX) commonly used or produced in the process. Both male and female offspring exposed prenatally to one or more doses of UOG-MIX displayed alterations to endocrine organ function and serum hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that prenatal UOG-MIX exposure would similarly disrupt development of the mouse mammary gland. Female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to ~3, ~30, ~ 300, or ~3000 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX from gestational day 11 to birth. Although no effects were observed on the mammary glands of these females before puberty, in early adulthood, females exposed to 300 or 3000 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX developed more dense mammary epithelial ducts; females exposed to 3 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX had an altered ratio of apoptosis to proliferation in the mammary epithelium. Furthermore, adult females from all UOG-MIX-treated groups developed intraductal hyperplasia that resembled terminal end buds (i.e., highly proliferative structures typically seen at puberty). These results suggest that the mammary gland is sensitive to mixtures of chemicals used in UOG production at exposure levels that are environmentally relevant. The effect of these findings on the long-term health of the mammary gland, including its lactational capacity and its risk of cancer, should be evaluated in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  1. Alterations in Brain Inflammation, Synaptic Proteins, and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis during Epileptogenesis in Mice Lacking Synapsin2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Chugh

    Full Text Available Synapsins are pre-synaptic vesicle-associated proteins linked to the pathogenesis of epilepsy through genetic association studies in humans. Deletion of synapsins causes an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance, exemplified by the epileptic phenotype of synapsin knockout mice. These mice develop handling-induced tonic-clonic seizures starting at the age of about 3 months. Hence, they provide an opportunity to study epileptogenic alterations in a temporally controlled manner. Here, we evaluated brain inflammation, synaptic protein expression, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the epileptogenic (1 and 2 months of age and tonic-clonic (3.5-4 months phase of synapsin 2 knockout mice using immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. In the epileptogenic phase, region-specific microglial activation was evident, accompanied by an increase in the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a decrease in chemokine keratinocyte chemoattractant/ growth-related oncogene. Both post-synaptic density-95 and gephyrin, scaffolding proteins at excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, showed a significant up-regulation primarily in the cortex. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the inhibitory adhesion molecules neuroligin-2 and neurofascin and potassium chloride co-transporter KCC2. Decreased expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-δ subunit and cholecystokinin was also evident. Surprisingly, hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced in the epileptogenic phase. Taken together, we report molecular alterations in brain inflammation and excitatory/inhibitory balance that could serve as potential targets for therapeutics and diagnostic biomarkers. In addition, the regional differences in brain inflammation and synaptic protein expression indicate an epileptogenic zone from where the generalized seizures in synapsin 2 knockout mice may be initiated or spread.

  2. Sleep apnea predicts distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarkers in obese adults with normal and impaired glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Nathan R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notwithstanding previous studies supporting independent associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and prevalence of diabetes, the underlying pathogenesis of impaired glucose regulation in OSA remains unclear. We explored mechanisms linking OSA with prediabetes/diabetes and associated biomarker profiles. We hypothesized that OSA is associated with distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarker profiles in subjects with normal (NGM and impaired glucose metabolism (IGM. Methods Forty-five severely obese adults (36 women without certain comorbidities/medications underwent anthropometric measurements, polysomnography, and blood tests. We measured fasting serum glucose, insulin, selected cytokines, and calculated homeostasis model assessment estimates of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS and pancreatic beta-cell function (HOMA-B. Results Both increases in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI and the presence of prediabetes/diabetes were associated with reductions in HOMA-IS in the entire cohort even after adjustment for sex, race, age, and BMI (P = 0.003. In subjects with NGM (n = 30, OSA severity was associated with significantly increased HOMA-B (a trend towards decreased HOMA-IS independent of sex and adiposity. OSA-related oxyhemoglobin desaturations correlated with TNF-α (r=-0.76; P = 0.001 in women with NGM and with IL-6 (rho=-0.55; P = 0.035 in women with IGM (n = 15 matched individually for age, adiposity, and AHI. Conclusions OSA is independently associated with altered glucose homeostasis and increased basal beta-cell function in severely obese adults with NGM. The findings suggest that moderate to severe OSA imposes an excessive functional demand on pancreatic beta-cells, which may lead to their exhaustion and impaired secretory capacity over time. The two distinct biomarker profiles linking sleep apnea with NGM and IGM via TNF-α and IL-6 have been discerned in our study to suggest that sleep apnea and particularly

  3. Is there a relationship between psychological stress or anxiety and chronic nonspecific neck-arm pain in adults? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortego, Gorka; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Doménech-García, Victor; Berjano, Pedro; Bertozzi, Lucia; Herrero, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    To systematically review and analyze the research evidence linking stress or anxiety to chronic nonspecific neck-arm pain (NSNAP) in adults. Data were obtained from Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and The Cochrane library database from their inception to July 2015. Two authors independently conducted the searches, extracted data, and completed methodological quality assessments. The methodological quality of the cohort and case-control studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, whilst the quality of the Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Twenty-eight studies involving 39,166 participants met the inclusion criteria. Four studies, including 5 pair-wise comparisons, were included in the meta-analysis: Three were cohort studies and 1 was a cross-sectional study. The meta-analysis outcome demonstrated a relationship between chronic NSNAP and psychological stress. The estimate odds ratio for all studies combined was 2.33 (95% CI, 1.04-5.18; p=0.039). A high heterogeneity of the findings appeared (Q=28.94, I 2 =86% p=0.00). This study shows that there is a strong relationship between stress and chronic NSNAP. Despite this finding, we cannot support that stress is a risk factor for chronic NSNAP due to the low quality of the results according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). It was not possible to make a quantitative analysis comparing the relationship between anxiety and chronic NSNAP. However, according to the qualitative analysis there is a strong relationship between anxiety and chronic NSNAP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 17α-ethinylestradiol affects non-reproductive behavior and fertility as adults, and increases anxiety in unexposed progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Porseryd, Tove; Hallgren, Stefan; Dinnétz, Patrik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) during development affects fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. These effects can also be transferred to coming generations. In fish, the effects of developmental EDC exposure on non-reproductive behavior are less well studied. Here, we analyze the effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on anxiety, shoaling behavior and fertility in zebrafish after developmental treatment and remediation in clean water until adulthood. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from day 1 to day 80 post fertilization to actual concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2. After remediation for 82days non-reproductive behavior and fertilization success were analyzed in both sexes. Males and females from the 1.2ng/L group, as well as control males and females, were bred, and behavior of the untreated F1 offspring was tested as adults. Developmental treatment with 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2 significantly increased anxiety in the novel tank test and increased shoaling intensity in both sexes. Fertilization success was significantly reduced by EE2 in both sexes when mated with untreated fish of opposite sex. Progeny of fish treated with 1.2ng/L EE2 showed increased anxiety in the novel tank test and increased light avoidance in the scototaxis test compared to control offspring. In conclusion, developmental exposure of zebrafish to low doses of EE2 resulted in persistent changes in behavior and fertility. The behavior of unexposed progeny was affected by their parents' exposure, which might suggest transgenerational effects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Modulation of synaptic plasticity by stress hormone associates with plastic alteration of synaptic NMDA receptor in the adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Chung Tse

    Full Text Available Stress exerts a profound impact on learning and memory, in part, through the actions of adrenal corticosterone (CORT on synaptic plasticity, a cellular model of learning and memory. Increasing findings suggest that CORT exerts its impact on synaptic plasticity by altering the functional properties of glutamate receptors, which include changes in the motility and function of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype of glutamate receptor (AMPAR that are responsible for the expression of synaptic plasticity. Here we provide evidence that CORT could also regulate synaptic plasticity by modulating the function of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs, which mediate the induction of synaptic plasticity. We found that stress level CORT applied to adult rat hippocampal slices potentiated evoked NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses within 30 min. Surprisingly, following this fast-onset change, we observed a slow-onset (>1 hour after termination of CORT exposure increase in synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs. To investigate the consequences of the distinct fast- and slow-onset modulation of NMDARs for synaptic plasticity, we examined the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD within relevant time windows. Paralleling the increased NMDAR function, both LTP and LTD were facilitated during CORT treatment. However, 1-2 hours after CORT treatment when synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs is increased, bidirectional plasticity was no longer facilitated. Our findings reveal the remarkable plasticity of NMDARs in the adult hippocampus in response to CORT. CORT-mediated slow-onset increase in GluN2A in hippocampal synapses could be a homeostatic mechanism to normalize synaptic plasticity following fast-onset stress-induced facilitation.

  6. Developmental post-natal stress can alter the effects of pre-natal stress on the adult redox balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Valeria; Spencer, Karen A; Robinson, Jane; Herzyk, Pawel; Costantini, David

    2013-09-15

    Across diverse vertebrate taxa, stressful environmental conditions during development can shape phenotypic trajectories of developing individuals, which, while adaptive in the short-term, may impair health and survival in adulthood. Regardless, the long-lasting benefits or costs of early life stress are likely to depend on the conditions experienced across differing stages of development. Here, we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to experimentally manipulate exposure to stress hormones in developing individuals. We tested the hypothesis that interactions occurring between pre- and post-natal developmental periods can induce long-term shifts on the adult oxidant phenotype in non-breeding sexually mature individuals. We showed that early life stress can induce long-term alterations in the basal antioxidant defences. The magnitude of these effects depended upon the timing of glucocorticoid exposure and upon interactions between the pre- and post-natal stressful stimuli. We also found differences among tissues with stronger effects in the erythrocytes than in the brain in which the long-term effects of glucocorticoids on antioxidant biomarkers appeared to be region-specific. Recent experimental work has demonstrated that early life exposure to stress hormones can markedly reduce adult survival (Monaghan et al., 2012). Our results suggest that long-term shifts in basal antioxidant defences might be one of the potential mechanisms driving such accelerated ageing processes and that post-natal interventions during development may be a potential tool to shape the effects induced by pre-natally glucococorticoid-exposed phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. White matter alterations and their associations with motor function in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Marie Husby Hollund

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤1500 g individuals have an increased risk of white matter alterations and neurodevelopmental problems, including fine and gross motor problems. In this hospital-based follow-up study, the main aim was to examine white matter microstructure and its relationship to fine and gross motor function in 31 VLBW young adults without cerebral palsy compared with 31 term-born controls, at mean age 22.6 ± 0.7 years. The participants were examined with tests of fine and gross motor function (Trail Making Test-5: TMT-5, Grooved Pegboard, Triangle from Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2: MABC-2 and High-level Mobility Assessment Tool: HiMAT and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Probabilistic tractography of motor pathways of the corticospinal tract (CST and corpus callosum (CC was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA was calculated in non-crossing (capsula interna in CST, body of CC and crossing (centrum semiovale fibre regions along the tracts and examined for group differences. Associations between motor test scores and FA in the CST and CC were investigated with linear regression. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used to examine group differences in DTI metrics in all major white matter tracts. The VLBW group had lower scores on all motor tests compared with controls, however, only statistically significant for TMT-5. Based on tractography, FA in the VLBW group was lower in non-crossing fibre regions and higher in crossing fibre regions of the CST compared with controls. Within the VLBW group, poorer fine motor function was associated with higher FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST, and poorer bimanual coordination was additionally associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CC. Poorer gross motor function was associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC. There were no associations between motor function and FA in non-crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC within

  8. White matter alterations and their associations with motor function in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollund, Ingrid Marie Husby; Olsen, Alexander; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Håberg, Asta K; Eikenes, Live; Evensen, Kari Anne I

    2018-01-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤ 1500 g) individuals have an increased risk of white matter alterations and neurodevelopmental problems, including fine and gross motor problems. In this hospital-based follow-up study, the main aim was to examine white matter microstructure and its relationship to fine and gross motor function in 31 VLBW young adults without cerebral palsy compared with 31 term-born controls, at mean age 22.6 ± 0.7 years. The participants were examined with tests of fine and gross motor function (Trail Making Test-5: TMT-5, Grooved Pegboard, Triangle from Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2: MABC-2 and High-level Mobility Assessment Tool: HiMAT) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Probabilistic tractography of motor pathways of the corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum (CC) was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated in non-crossing (capsula interna in CST, body of CC) and crossing (centrum semiovale) fibre regions along the tracts and examined for group differences. Associations between motor test scores and FA in the CST and CC were investigated with linear regression. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to examine group differences in DTI metrics in all major white matter tracts. The VLBW group had lower scores on all motor tests compared with controls, however, only statistically significant for TMT-5. Based on tractography, FA in the VLBW group was lower in non-crossing fibre regions and higher in crossing fibre regions of the CST compared with controls. Within the VLBW group, poorer fine motor function was associated with higher FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST, and poorer bimanual coordination was additionally associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CC. Poorer gross motor function was associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC. There were no associations between motor function and FA in non-crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC within the VLBW

  9. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs from fish oil enhance resting state brain glucose utilization and reduce anxiety in an adult nonhuman primate, the grey mouse lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Fabien; Dorieux, Olène; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Croteau, Etienne; Masson, Marie; Guillermier, Martine; Van Camp, Nadja; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Cunnane, Stephen; Dhenain, Marc; Aujard, Fabienne

    2015-08-01

    Decreased brain content of DHA, the most abundant long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) in the brain, is accompanied by severe neurosensorial impairments linked to impaired neurotransmission and impaired brain glucose utilization. In the present study, we hypothesized that increasing n-3 LCPUFA intake at an early age may help to prevent or correct the glucose hypometabolism observed during aging and age-related cognitive decline. The effects of 12 months' supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA on brain glucose utilization assessed by positron emission tomography was tested in young adult mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Cognitive function was tested in parallel in the same animals. Lemurs supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA had higher brain glucose uptake and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose compared with controls in all brain regions. The n-3 LCPUFA-supplemented animals also had higher exploratory activity in an open-field task and lower evidence of anxiety in the Barnes maze. Our results demonstrate for the first time in a nonhuman primate that n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increases brain glucose uptake and metabolism and concomitantly reduces anxiety. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programmes for anxiety or depression in adults with intellectual disabilities: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Gemma; Tsimopoulou, Ioanna; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Azmi, Sabiha

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the application of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This review sought to synthesise available evidence on the effectiveness of CBT for anxiety or depression to assess the current level of evidence and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted to identify qualitative and quantitative studies. Robust criteria were applied to select papers that were relevant to the review. Included papers were subject to quality appraisal. Eleven out of the 223 studies considered met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review in which CBT was used with participants with ID and anxiety (n=3), depression (n=4) or a mixed clinical presentation (n=4). There remains a paucity of evidence of effectiveness, however, the studies indicate that CBT is feasible and well-tolerated and may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression among adults with mild ID. Qualitative data reflect a positive perception of CBT amongst clients and carers. Further research is required to investigate the components of CBT, suitability for CBT, and requisite skills for CBT, which uses valid, sensitive and more holistic outcome measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intrauterine Exposure to Maternal Stress Alters Bdnf IV DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Brain of Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, Arun; Borrelli, Kristyn; Tulbert, Christine; Bollinger, Justin; Ronca Finco, April E.; Roth, Tania L.

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could contribute to the long-term effects of intrauterine exposure to maternal stress on offspring behavioral outcomes. Here, we measured methylation of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult rat male and female offspring whose mothers were exposed to unpredictable and variable stressors throughout gestation. Males exposed to prenatal stress had greater methylation (Bdnf IV) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-stressed controls. Further, prenatally-stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. This study provides the first evidence in a rodent model of an association between prenatal stress exposure and subsequent shorter brain telomere length. Together findings indicate a long-term impact of prenatal stress on DNA methylation and telomere biology with relevance for behavioral and health outcomes, and contribute to a growing literature linking stress to intergenerational epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length.

  12. Internet-based self-help therapy with FearFighter™ versus no intervention for anxiety disorders in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internet-based self-help psychotherapy (IBT) could be an important alternative or supplement to ordinary face-to-face therapy. The findings of randomised controlled trials indicate that the effects of various IBT programmes for anxiety disorders seem better than no intervention...... and in some instances are equivalent to usual therapy. In Denmark, IBT is part of future treatment plans in mental health care services, but the verification level of the current clinical scientific knowledge is insufficient. The objective of this trial is feasibility assessment of benefits and harms...

  13. Linear and non-linear analyses of Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II discriminate adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from patients with mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Mjeldheim, Kristin; Førland, Wenche; Hansen, Anita L; Syrstad, Vigdis Elin Giæver; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Berle, Jan Øystein

    2016-08-11

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder. Therefore it is important to look for factors that can contribute to better diagnosis and classification of these patients. The aims of the study were to characterize adult psychiatric out-patients with a mixture of mood, anxiety and attentional problems using an objective neuropsychological test of attention combined with an assessment of mood instability. Newly referred patients (n = 99; aged 18-65 years) requiring diagnostic evaluation of ADHD, mood or anxiety disorders were recruited, and were given a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation including the self-report form of the cyclothymic temperament scale and Conner's Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II). In addition to the traditional measures from this test we have extracted raw data and analysed time series using linear and non-linear mathematical methods. Fifty patients fulfilled criteria for ADHD, while 49 did not, and were given other psychiatric diagnoses (clinical controls). When compared to the clinical controls the ADHD patients had more omission and commission errors, and higher reaction time variability. Analyses of response times showed higher values for skewness in the ADHD patients, and lower values for sample entropy and symbolic dynamics. Among the ADHD patients 59 % fulfilled criteria for a cyclothymic temperament, and this group had higher reaction time variability and lower scores on complexity than the group without this temperament. The CPT-II is a useful instrument in the assessment of ADHD in adult patients. Additional information from this test was obtained by analyzing response times using linear and non-linear methods, and this showed that ADHD patients with a cyclothymic temperament were different from those without this temperament.

  14. Asotin Creek instream habitat alteration projects : habitat evaluation, adult and juvenile habitat utilization and water temperature monitoring : 2001 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    projects to improve fish habitat. In 1998, the ACCD identified the need for a more detailed analysis of these instream projects to fully evaluate their effectiveness at improving fish habitat. Therefore, ACCD contracted with WDFW's Snake River Lab (SRL) to take pre- and post-construction measurements of the habitat (i.e., pools, LOD, width, depth) at each site, and to evaluate fish use within some of the altered sites. These results have been published annually as progress reports to the ACCD (Bumgarner et al. 1999, Wargo et al. 2000, and Bumgarner and Schuck 2001). The ACCD also contracted with the WDFW SRL to conduct other evaluation and monitoring in the stream such as: (1) conduct snorkel surveys at habitat alteration sites to document fish usage following construction, (2) deploy temperature monitors throughout the basin to document summer water temperatures, and (3) attempt to document adult fish utilization by documenting the number of steelhead redds associated with habitat altered areas. This report provides a summary of pre-construction measurements taken on three proposed Charley Creek habitat sites during 2001, two sites in main Asotin Creek, and one site in George Creek, a tributary that enters in the lower Asotin Creek basin. Further, it provides a comparison of measurements taken pre- and post-construction on three 1999 habitat sites taken two years later, but at similar river flows. It also presents data collected from snorkel surveys, redd counts, and temperature monitoring

  15. The influence of chronic stress on anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function in different human GFAP-ApoE transgenic adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Tao; Zhao, Jun; Fang, Hui; Liu, Ya-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 allele (ApoE4) is an important genetic risk factor for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors such as stress may play a critical role in AD pathogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the anxiety-like behavioral and cognitive changes in different human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-ApoE transgenic adult male mice under chronic stress conditions. On the open field test, anxiety-like behavior was increased in the non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice relative to the corresponding GFAP-ApoE3 (ApoE ɛ3 allele) mice. Anxiety-like behavior was increased in the stressed GFAP-ApoE3 mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE3 mice, but was unexpectedly decreased in the stressed GFAP-ApoE4 mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 mice. On the novel object recognition task, both GFAP-ApoE4 and GFAP-ApoE3 mice exhibited long-term non-spatial memory impairment after chronic stress. Interestingly, short-term non-spatial memory impairment (based on the novel object recognition task) was observed only in the stressed GFAP-ApoE4 male mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice. In addition, short-term spatial memory impairment was observed in the stressed GFAP-ApoE3 transgenic male mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE3 transgenic male mice; however, short-term spatial memory performance of GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic male mice was not reduced compared to non-stressed control mice based on the Y-maze task. In conclusion, our findings suggested that chronic stress affects anxiety-like behavior and spatial and non-spatial memory in GFAP-ApoE transgenic mice in an ApoE isoform-dependent manner.

  16. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, R H; Exposto, F G; O'Buckley, S C; Westlund, K N; Nackley, A G

    2015-04-02

    Reduced catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity resulting from genetic variation or pharmacological depletion results in enhanced pain perception in humans and nociceptive behaviors in animals. Using phasic mechanical and thermal reflex tests (e.g. von Frey, Hargreaves), recent studies show that acute COMT-dependent pain in rats is mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). In order to more closely mimic the characteristics of human chronic pain conditions associated with prolonged reductions in COMT, the present study sought to determine volitional pain-related and anxiety-like behavioral responses following sustained as well as acute COMT inhibition using an operant 10-45°C thermal place preference task and a light/dark preference test. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effects of sustained COMT inhibition on generalized body pain by measuring tactile sensory thresholds of the abdominal region. Results demonstrated that acute and sustained administration of the COMT inhibitor OR486 increased pain behavior in response to thermal heat. Further, sustained administration of OR486 increased anxiety behavior in response to bright light, as well as abdominal mechanosensation. Finally, all pain-related behaviors were blocked by the non-selective βAR antagonist propranolol. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of βARs following acute or chronic COMT inhibition drives cognitive-affective behaviors associated with heightened pain that affects multiple body sites. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Catechol-O-methlytransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, R. H.; Exposto, F. G.; O’Buckley, S. C.; Westlund, K. N.; Nackley, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity resulting from genetic variation or pharmacological depletion results in enhanced pain perception in humans and nociceptive behaviors in animals. Using phasic mechanical and thermal reflex tests (e.g. von Frey, Hargreaves), recent studies show that acute COMT-dependent pain in rats is mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). In order to more closely mimic the characteristics of human chronic pain conditions associated with prolonged reductions in COMT, the present study sought to determine volitional pain-related and anxiety-like behavioral responses following sustained as well as acute COMT inhibition using an operant 10–45°C thermal place preference task and a light/dark preference test. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effects of sustained COMT inhibition on generalized body pain by measuring tactile sensory thresholds of the abdominal region. Results demonstrated that acute and sustained administration of the COMT inhibitor OR486 increased pain behavior in response to thermal heat. Further, sustained administration of OR486 increased anxiety behavior in response to bright light, as well as abdominal mechanosensation. Finally, all pain-related behaviors were blocked by the non-selective βAR antagonist propranolol. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of ARs following acute or chronic COMT inhibition drives cognitive-affective behaviors associated with heightened pain that affects multiple body sites. PMID:25659347

  18. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the death of a loved one or parents' divorce) and major life transitions (like moving to a ... Ways to Deal With Anxiety Dealing With Difficult Emotions Anxiety Disorders Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Fears and Phobias ...

  19. Anabolic/androgenic steroid administration during adolescence and adulthood differentially modulates aggression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2015-03-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their underlying neural substrates between adults and adolescents and thus the current study investigated whether exposure to AAS during adulthood affects the relationship between aggression and anxiety in a manner similar to that previously observed in adolescents. Male hamsters were administered a moderate dose of AAS (5.0mg/kg/day×30days) during adolescence (P27-56) or young adulthood (P65-P94) and then tested for aggression and anxiety during AAS exposure (i.e., on P57 or P95) and during AAS withdrawal (i.e., 30days later on P77 or P115). Adolescent exposure to AAS increased aggressive responding during the AAS exposure period and anxiety-like responding during AAS withdrawal. Neither behavior was similarly influenced by adult exposure to AAS. Adult AAS exposure produced no difference in aggressive responding during AAS exposure (P95) or AAS withdrawal (P115); however, while AAS exposure during adulthood produced no difference in anxiety-like responding during AAS exposure, adult hamsters administered AAS were less anxious than vehicle control animals following AAS withdrawal. Together these data suggest that the aggression and anxiety provoking influence of AAS are likely a developmental phenomenon and that adult exposure to AAS may be anxiolytic over the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A predictive model of the effects of depression, anxiety, stress, 6-minute-walk distance, and social support on health-related quality of life in an adult pulmonary hypertension population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartavoulle, Todd Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-limiting chronic disease that presents as an elevated blood pressure in the pulmonary artery. The uncertainty of the disease has a profound effect on relationships, cognitive ability, spirituality, emotions, and exercise ability and can negatively impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purposes of this cross-sectional, predictive, correlational study were (a) to identify relationships among the psychological factors (depression, anxiety, stress), physiological factor (6-Minute Walk Test), situational factor (social support), and HRQOL and (b) to test a structural equation model in which depression, anxiety, stress, social support, and 6-minute walk distance predict HRQOL in adults with PH. A convenience sample of 166 adults between the ages of 21 and 80 years were recruited from the Pulmonary Hypertension Association's 10th International Pulmonary Hypertension Conference and Scientific Sessions in Orlando, Florida, and a PH clinic in southeast Louisiana. Each subject completed 2 questionnaires: the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the Dartmouth Cooperative Functional Assessment Charts. The findings indicated a relationship between depression, stress, anxiety, 6-Minute Walk Test, social support, and HRQOL. The data collected from the adult PH population fit the proposed predictive model for adults with PH HRQOL. However, the researcher was unable to determine the best predictor of HRQOL in adults with PH. The findings indicate depression, anxiety, stress, 6-minute walk distance, and social support play important roles in HRQOL among patients with PH. Advanced practice nursing strategies to increase HRQOL include counseling, psychiatric referrals, psychotherapy, guided imagery, leading support groups, and low-grade resistance training.

  1. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence: The Influence of Anxiety Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Capron, Daniel W.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity...

  2. Drinker prototype alteration and cue reminders as strategies in a tailored web-based intervention reducing adults' alcohol consumption: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lettow, Britt; de Vries, Hein; Burdorf, Alex; Boon, Brigitte; van Empelen, Pepijn

    2015-02-04

    Excessive alcohol use is a prevalent and worldwide problem. Excessive drinking causes a significant burden of disease and is associated with both morbidity and excess mortality. Prototype alteration and provision of a cue reminder could be useful strategies to enhance the effectiveness of online tailored interventions for excessive drinking. Through a Web-based randomized controlled trial, 2 strategies (ie, prototype alteration and cue reminders) within an existing online personalized feedback intervention (Drinktest) aimed to reduce adults' excessive drinking. It was expected that both strategies would add to Drinktest and would result in reductions in alcohol consumption by intrinsic motivation and the seizure of opportunities to act. Participants were recruited online and through printed materials. Excessive drinking adults (N=2634) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions: original Drinktest, Drinktest plus prototype alteration, Drinktest plus cue reminder, and Drinktest plus prototype alteration and cue reminder. Evaluation took place at 1-month posttest and 6-month follow-up. Differences in drinking behavior, intentions, and behavioral willingness (ie, primary outcomes) were assessed by means of longitudinal multilevel analyses using a last observation carried forward method. Measures were based on self-reports. All conditions showed reductions in drinking behavior and willingness to drink, and increased intentions to reduce drinking. Prototype alteration (B=-0.15, Pprototypes. Thus, prototype alteration and cue reminder usage may be feasible and simple intervention strategies to promote reductions in alcohol consumption among adults, with an effect up to 6 months. Nederlands Trial Register (NTR): 4169; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4169 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VD2jnxmB).

  3. Working alliance and competence as predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety and panic disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Thomas; Nordgreen, Tine; Öst, Lars-Göran; Tangen, Tone; Kvale, Gerd; Hovland, Ole Johan; Heiervang, Einar R; Havik, Odd E

    2016-02-01

    The research on the association between the working alliance and therapist competence/adherence and outcome from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is limited and characterized by inconclusive findings. This study investigates the working alliance and competence/adherence as predictors of outcome of CBT for social anxiety disorder (SAD) and panic disorder (PD). Eighty-two clinically referred patients (58.5% female; age: M = 33.6 years, SD = 10.3) with PD (n = 31) or SAD (n = 51) were treated with 12 sessions of manualized CBT by 22 clinicians with limited CBT experience in a randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Independent assessors rated the CBT competence/adherence of the therapists using a revised version of the Cognitive Therapy Adherence and Competence Scale, and the patients rated the quality of the working alliance using the Working Alliance Inventory-short form in therapy sessions 3 and 8. The outcome was assessed by independent assessors as well as by patients self-report. A total of 20.7% of the patients (27.5% SAD, 9.7% PD) dropped out during treatment. The association between the alliance, competence/adherence, outcome and dropout was investigated using multiple regression analyses. Higher therapist' competence/adherence early in the therapy was associated with a better outcome among PD patients, lower competence/adherence was associated with dropout among SAD patients. Higher rating of the alliance late in the therapy was associated with a better outcome, whereas lower alliance rating late in the therapy was associated with dropout. The findings indicate that the therapist competence/adherence and the working alliance have independent contributions to the outcome from CBT for anxiety disorders, but in different phases of the treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced hippocampal IL-10 expression, altered monoaminergic activity and anxiety and depressive-like behavior in female mice subjected to chronic social instability stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaka, Ainitze; Gómez-Lázaro, Eneritz; Vegas, Oscar; Pérez-Tejada, Joana; Arregi, Amaia; Garmendia, Larraitz

    2017-09-29

    Evidence indicates that release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by social stress contributes to affective disorders. Additionally, there are known sex differences in both the stress response and the stressors that can elicit this response. In this regard, the chronic social instability (CSI) rodent model of stress appears to be the best fit for the social nature of females. This study analyzed the effects of CSI on female mouse behavior, hippocampal cytokine expression, tryptophan metabolism and monoaminergic activity. The activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes were also measured. Results showed a decrease in sucrose consumption in stressed subjects, indicative of anhedonic behavior and an increase in climbing activity in the forced swimming test (FST) and in whisking behavior, which have been associated with anxiety. Decreased interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression was found in the hippocampus of the stressed mice, while no differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and tryptophan (TRYP), kynurenine (KYN) or 3-hydroxy kynurenine (3-HK) levels were found. Increased hippocampal serotoninergic and noradrenergic activity was observed in stressed mice. The higher plasma corticosterone and lower hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression levels showed an increase in HPA activity after CSI. No differences were found in the plasma estradiol levels or the central estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) expression levels. These data indicate that the CSI stress-induced behavioral and physiological changes associated with anxiety and depressive disorders. Although additional studies are warranted, the results suggest an involvement of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the biobehavioral effects of social stress in female mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  6. Moderate long-term modulation of neuropeptide Y in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces energy balance alterations in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Sousa-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY produced by arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons has a strong orexigenic effect on target neurons. Hypothalamic NPY levels undergo wide-ranging oscillations during the circadian cycle and in response to fasting and peripheral hormones (from 0.25 to 10-fold change. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a moderate long-term modulation of NPY within the ARC neurons on food consumption, body weight gain and hypothalamic neuropeptides. We achieved a physiological overexpression (3.6-fold increase and down-regulation (0.5-fold decrease of NPY in the rat ARC by injection of AAV vectors expressing NPY and synthetic microRNA that target the NPY, respectively. Our work shows that a moderate overexpression of NPY was sufficient to induce diurnal over-feeding, sustained body weight gain and severe obesity in adult rats. Additionally, the circulating levels of leptin were elevated but the immunoreactivity (ir of ARC neuropeptides was not in accordance (POMC-ir was unchanged and AGRP-ir increased, suggesting a disruption in the ability of ARC neurons to response to peripheral metabolic alterations. Furthermore, a dysfunction in adipocytes phenotype was obs